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Sample records for urinary calculi

  1. Neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi

    Urinary calculi resulting from disorders in the urinary system are mostly composed of uric acid, urates, calcium oxalate, alkaline earth phosphates (Ca and Mg), triple phosphate (magnesium ammonium phosphate), calcium carbonate, cystine, xanthine, and traces of proteins. The determination of these macro-constituents has been carried out by different analytical procedures. No attempts however, have been reported regarding the determination of trace elements in urinary stones, apart from that of Herring et al., who investigated the consumption of strontium by urolithiasis patients. The present work is a non-destructive neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi, to search the variation in concentration of certain trace elements with the chemical composition of the calculus

  2. CT findings of melamine caused urinary calculi

    Objective: To analyze the CT findings of melamine induced urinary calculi. Methods: Nineteen children with a history of ingestion of melamine contaminated infant formula milk were studied, including 12 males and 7 females, age ranged from 50 days to 5 years. Results: CT demonstrated renal pelvic and ureteral stones in 13 cases, with urinary obstruction in 9 of them. The size of the stones ranged from 0.3 cm x 0.3 cm to stag-horn calculus. Tine density of the stones measured from a low of 40-70 HU up to a high of 410 HU with an average density of 160 HU. Conclusion: CT scan is an excellent modality in demonstrating urinary tract calculi caused by melamine. It is the method of choice when ultrasound examinations are equivocal. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of Urinary Calculi by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Abdolrasool Mehrsai

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Purpose: To analyze urinary calculi composition and its relationship with gender, age, calculus weight, color, and location.

    Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty one patients with urinary calculus, who had undergone open lithotomy from June 1999 to April 2001, were enrolled in this prospective study which was performed by Tehran and Oroomieh Medical Sciences Universities. The calculi compositions were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy in Bonn University. Statistical analyses were made by paired t test

    Results: One hundred and forty five males with a mean age of 40.4 years and 96 females with a mean age of 42.5 years were enrolled in this study. Mean calculus weight was 4.28 gr. Mean calculus number was 4.33. Thirty four (14.1% calculi were pure (carbonate apatite: 2, brushite: 1, uric acid: 19, cystine: 3, weddellite: 6, mono-NH4-urate: 2, struvite: 1, 207(85.6% were mixed and none of them contained octa-ca-phosphate, apatite, newberyte, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, mono-Na-urate, or xanthine. Weddellite was found in 77% of calculi. It comprised more than 50% of them in 26% of cases. Whewellite crystals were found in 78% of calculi. It comprised more than 50% of them in 46% of cases. The most common pure calculus was uric acid and the most common component of calculi was whewellite followed by weddellite.

    Conclusion: Although there is no comprehensive study on urolithiasis incidence and prevalence in Iran, it can be concluded that whewellite and weddellite may be the most common components of urolithiasis in Iran and uric acid calculi are the most common pure calculi. There was no significant difference in calculi composition in our study.

  4. Percutaneous retrieval of upper urinary tract foreign bodies and calculi

    To determine, when extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is contraindicated, the usefulness and safety of percutaneous management in the removal from the upper urinary tract of foreign bodies and calculi, or small remnants of these, retained after percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Between January 1996 and May 2001, We attempted to retrieve foreign bodies or calculi from the upper urinary tract of 20 patients, using various percutaneous technique. There were eleven foreign bodies, namely fragmented nephrostomy catheters (n=2), migrated ureteric stents inaccessible to retrograde ureteroscopic management (n=8), and one metallic radiopaque marker which was separated from the pusher of the internal ureteral stent. Nine urinary tract calculi were present. These ranged in radiographically measured size from 4 to 8 mm in their largest diameter, and were found in the renal pelvis or calyx (n=5) and ureter (n=4). After percutaneous nephrostomy, all procedures involved the use of a 7-F to 14-F sheath, inserted under fluoroscopic guidance. Devices used for the retrieval of these objects include a stone basket retriever, loop snare, grasping forceps, and balloon catheter. In all cases except one, it was possible to retrieve calculi or other items from the upper urinary tract. No surgical procedure was required and no significant complications were encountered in any of the cases during or after the procedures. The percutaneous technique can be useful and safe in the management of foreign bodies or calculi present in the upper urinary tract

  5. Raman spectroscopic investigation of urinary calculi and salivary stones

    Full text: The capabilities and limitations of determining the composition of urinary calculi (34 patients) and salivary stones (27 patients) by Raman spectroscopy have been investigated by analysing Raman spectra obtained with 1064 nm laser excitation, and comparing them with Raman spectra both from specific reference substances and from a commercial Raman database. The composition results were also compared with those obtained by other analytical methods e.g. powder diffraction. Raman spectroscopy proves to be an analytical method which provides reliable results on the composition of urinary calculi and salivary stones quickly, non-destructively and without any need of sample preparation. (author)

  6. Dietary dissolution of urinary calculi in cats

    A young adult, castrated male DSH cat was admitted for pollakiuria, hematuria and dysuria. The cat was being fed a commercial dry grocery brand cat food. Radiographs demonstrated multiple radiodense cystic calculi and urinalysis showed hematuria but no crystalluria. A tentative diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis was made. The cat was fed s/d® Feline food exclusively. Clinical signs disappeared within a week and no calculi were visible radiographically within three weeks. s/d® Feline food was continued an additional two weeks. This case study shows that s/d® Feline therapeutic food can be used to successfully manage struvite urolithiasis in cats

  7. Prevalence of Symptomatic Urinary Calculi in Kerman, Iran

    Gholam Abbas Aziziolahi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the prevalence of symptomatic urinary calculi in Kerman, Iran.

    Materials and Methods: A total of 2431 citizens of Kerman were surveyed from September of 2005 to April 2006. The study population was selected by cluster method from 5 different areas, and 100 houses in each area were randomly approached. Questions on the urinary symptoms consisted of flank pain, urogenital pain, dysuria or any difficulty in urination, and alterations in urine color. Individuals with a suspicion of urinary calculi based on their symptoms were evaluated by physical examination, laboratory investigations, and plain abdominal radiography. Ultrasonography and intravenous urography were done if required to confirm the diagnoses.

    Results: Of 2431 individuals, 196 (8.1% had symptoms in favor of urinary calculus diagnosis, of whom 47 (24.0% had urinary calculi (prevalence of symptomatic urolithiasis was 1.9%. Of the patients, 35 (74.5% were underweight. Compared to the other participants, the patients with urinary calculus were younger (P = .001 and a larger proportion of them had a positive family history of urinary calculi (14.9% versus 6.5%; P = .02 and were rug weavers and office employees. Dependency on opium and its derivative was significantly more frequent in patients with urinary calculi (25.5% versus 0.2%; P = .001.

    Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of symptomatic urinary calculi in this hot and dry area is relatively high. According to our findings, the other factors including specific occupations, malnutrition, and substance use may also have influence on the rate of urinary calculus formation. Therefore, to prevention and early treatment of urinary calculi, evaluation of potential predisposing conditions should be considered with special attention to regional factors.

  8. In vitro characterization of urinary calculi: Dual-energy technique

    Using a dual-energy program implemented on a Siemens Somatom DR3 CT unit, the authors attempted to discriminate between urinary calculi of different chemical compositions by means of selective image reconstruction based on their high kVp(125 keV), low kVp (85 keV), 65 keV, and electron density values. Simultaneous dual-energy images were obtained using a technique of rapid kVp switching (85 and 125 keV) and advanced evaluation algorithms. Representative stones of pure and mixed composition were scanned in a water bath. Computer printouts of electron density and CT attenuation values at each kVp setting were obtained. Preliminary observations indicate readily feasible discrimination between uric acid and all other calculi and between struvite stones and brushite or calcium oxalate stones

  9. Chemical Composition of Urinary Calculi in North Jordan

    Alsheyab

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to report the type and composition of urinary stones in North Jordan. Four hundred and eighty six urinary calculi (398 renal, 88 ureteric from Jordanian patients 364 male (74.9% and 122 female (25.1% from different ages were chemically analyzed. The study takes place in the Collage of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology during the period 2002-2006. The most common type of upper urinary tract stones among patients in North Jordan was a calcium oxalate stone represent (64.8%. Next common stones were calcium phosphate stones (17.7%. While uric acid, triple phosphate and cystine stones occurred in 13.0, 3.3 and 1.2%, respectively. The incidence of calcium oxalate containing stones was predominant in both male and female patients (66.2 and 60.6%, followed by calcium phosphate and uric acid stones (17.0 and 19.7%, (12.6 and 13.9%, respectively. The relationship between age, sex and stone formation illustrates that urinary stones are most common in male than female (ratio 3:1 and regard the age it`s most common within the age 30-40 years for female (39.3% and within the age 20-30 for male`s patients (26.6%. Renal calculi in Jordanian population were found to be within the range of the world population since renal calculi is a worldwide problem, sparing no geographical, cultural, or racial groups.

  10. Urinary calculi secondary to glafenine. The current role of radiology in diagnosis

    A case of urinary calculi secondary to glafenine which posed a difficult problem in the radiological diagnosis is reported. The literature of iatrogenic urinary calculi is reviewed and the place of radiology (Excretory Urography, Ultrasound and Computed Tomography) in the diagnosis, is discussed

  11. Nondestructive analysis of urinary calculi using micro computed tomography

    Lingeman James E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro computed tomography (micro CT has been shown to provide exceptionally high quality imaging of the fine structural detail within urinary calculi. We tested the idea that micro CT might also be used to identify the mineral composition of urinary stones non-destructively. Methods Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were measured for mineral that was positively identified by infrared microspectroscopy (FT-IR. To do this, human urinary stones were sectioned with a diamond wire saw. The cut surface was explored by FT-IR and regions of pure mineral were evaluated by micro CT to correlate x-ray attenuation values with mineral content. Additionally, intact stones were imaged with micro CT to visualize internal morphology and map the distribution of specific mineral components in 3-D. Results Micro CT images taken just beneath the cut surface of urinary stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail that could be correlated with structure visible in the optical image mode of FT-IR. Regions of pure mineral were not difficult to find by FT-IR for most stones and such regions could be localized on micro CT images of the cut surface. This was not true, however, for two brushite stones tested; in these, brushite was closely intermixed with calcium oxalate. Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were collected for six minerals that could be found in regions that appeared to be pure, including uric acid (3515 – 4995 micro CT attenuation units, AU, struvite (7242 – 7969 AU, cystine (8619 – 9921 AU, calcium oxalate dihydrate (13815 – 15797 AU, calcium oxalate monohydrate (16297 – 18449 AU, and hydroxyapatite (21144 – 23121 AU. These AU values did not overlap. Analysis of intact stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail and could discriminate multiple mineral types within heterogeneous stones. Conclusions Micro CT gives excellent structural detail of urinary stones, and these results demonstrate the feasibility of identifying and localizing most of the common mineral types found in urinary calculi using laboratory CT.

  12. Cystine-containing urinary calculi in dogs: 102 cases (1981-1989).

    Case, L C; Ling, G V; Franti, C E; Ruby, A L; Stevens, F; Johnson, D L

    1992-07-01

    One hundred and seven cystine-containing urinary calculi from 1 female and 101 male dogs were analyzed. Cystine-containing calculi accounted for 2% (107 of 5,375) of all canine urinary calculi submitted to the urinary stone analysis laboratory from July 1981 through December 1989. Male dogs that formed cystine calculi were compared with 3 other canine populations to determine whether certain breeds were apparently at increased or decreased risk for cystine calculus formation. In one or more of 3 population comparisons, significantly increased risk of cystine calculus formation was found in Mastiffs, Australian Cattle Dogs, English Bulldogs, Chihuahuas, Bullmastiffs, Newfoundlands, Dachshunds, Basenjis, Australian Shepherd Dogs, Scottish Deerhounds, Staffordshire Terriers, Miniature Pinschers, pitbull terriers, Welsh Corgis, Silky Terriers, and Bichon Frises. Significantly low risk of cystine calculus formation was found in German Shepherd Dogs, Poodles, Schnauzers, and mixed-breed dogs. PMID:1644636

  13. Non-contrast thin-section helical CT of urinary tract calculi in children

    Background: Non-contrast thin-section helical CT has gained acceptance for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in adults, but experience with the technique in children is limited. Purpose: To evaluate the utility of non-contrast thin section helical CT for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in children. Materials and methods: Radiology databases at three pediatric institutions were searched to identify all pediatric patients evaluated by ''renal stone'' protocol CT scans (no oral or intravenous contrast, scans covering the entire urinary tract obtained in helical mode with narrow collimation (< 5 mm)). CT scans were reviewed for the primary finding of urinary tract calculi, for secondary signs of acute urinary tract obstruction and for evidence of alternative diagnoses. Medical records were reviewed to determine clinical presentation and to confirm the eventual diagnosis. Results: One hundred thirty-seven scans of 113 children (mean age: 11.2 years) were studied. Thirty-eight of 94 examinations (40%) performed on 82 children for acute pain and/or hematuria showed ureteral calculi. Alternative diagnoses were suggested by CT on 16 scans (17%). Twenty-eight scans were performed on 10 asymptomatic children with known calculus disease confirming renal stone burden on 21 scans (75%) and persistent ureteral calculi on 6 scans (21%). Upper tract calculi were demonstrated on 10 of 15 scans (67%) performed to evaluate for calculi in patients with known non-calculus genitourinary tract abnormalities. Conclusions: Non-contrast thin section helical CT is a useful method to diagnose urinary tract calculi in children. Radiation dose in this retrospective study may exceed the lowest possible radiation dose for diagnostic accuracy. Further research is needed to optimize CT imaging parameters, while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and minimizing radiation dose. (orig.)

  14. Current status of minimally invasive management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi

    Kolla Surendra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The surgical management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi has evolved from open surgery to minimally invasive techniques. With advancement in instrumentation, endourological procedures are being performed more commonly in children. However, the endourological management of renal and ureteral stones in the pediatric population is considered challenging, owing to the smaller size of the urinary tract. Various minimally invasive techniques that are being applied in the management of pediatric urolithiasis, include shock wave lithitripsy (SWL, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL, ureterorenoscopy and a combination of these procedures. The role of SWL is well established and is considered the first line of treatment in the management of urinary calculi in pediatric patients. Recent reports have confirmed the safety of PCNL and ureteroscopy in children, although they are not as widely practiced in children as in adults. This article reviews literature published till October 2005, pertaining to the minimally invasive management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi.

  15. Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients

    Ciudin, Alexandru; Luque Galvez, Maria Pilar; Franco de Castro, Agustin; Garcia-Cruz, Eduardo; Alcover Garcia, Juan; Alvarez-Vijande Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Alcaraz Asensio, Antonio [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Urology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Salvador Izquierdo, Rafael; Nicolau, Carlos [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm{sup 2} and 0.1 cm{sup 2} over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

  16. Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients

    To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm2 and 0.1 cm2 over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

  17. "THE ROLE OF HARDNESS OF POTABLE WATER IN THE FORMATION OF URINARY CALCULI IN UROMIEH, Iran"

    K.Imandel

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of renal and urinary calculi is not due to a single cause but occurs as a multifactor entity, by which some of them still are unknown. Three theories of Stones formation including nucleation, stone matrix and inhibition of crystallization do not accuse water hardness as a main cause of the formation of urinary calculi 120 patients suffering from renal and urinary calculi and the same number of control persons were studied in the city of Uromieh. The analysis of uroliths and water samples fulfilled the laboratory Standard methods Chi-square test was done on the results obtained The results of water analyses showed that the total hardness of Calcium and Magnesium were 300, 69, 32 mg/I as CaCo3 , TDS , 410 mg/I, electrical conductivity 600 us/cm and water classified as very hard. The abundance of uroliths were, oxalate, cystjne, uric acid infectious respectively, There was no statistical significant association between water hardness and urinary calculi of patients under study with respect to age and sex. The abundance blood groups in patients were A , 0 , AB and B respectively and the occurrence of 3 renal calculi mentioned above were more in men than Women The formation of renal stones were most occurred in summer season. The most abundant was calcium oxalate, the incidence was between the ages 30 to 50 years old and calcium stones were 2.7 times more in men than woman.

  18. Current status of minimally invasive management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi

    Kolla Surendra; Wadhwa Pankaj; Aron Monish

    2006-01-01

    The surgical management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi has evolved from open surgery to minimally invasive techniques. With advancement in instrumentation, endourological procedures are being performed more commonly in children. However, the endourological management of renal and ureteral stones in the pediatric population is considered challenging, owing to the smaller size of the urinary tract. Various minimally invasive techniques that are being applied in the management of pedia...

  19. Dual-energy CT for the evaluation of urinary calculi: Image interpretation, pitfalls and stone mimics

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with a reported prevalence between 4% and 20% in developed countries. Determination of urinary calculi composition is a key factor in preoperative evaluation, treatment, and stone recurrence prevention. Prior to the introduction of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), available methods for determining urinary stone composition were only available after stone extraction, and thereby unable to aid in optimized stone management prior to intervention. DECT utilizes the attenuation difference produced by two different x-ray energy spectra to quantify urinary calculi composition as uric acid or non-uric acid (with likely further classification in the future) while still providing the information attained with a conventional CT. Knowledge of DECT imaging pitfalls and stone mimics is important, as the added benefit of dual-energy analysis is the determination of stone composition, which in turn affects all aspects of stone management. This review briefly describes DECT principles, scanner types and acquisition protocols for the evaluation of urinary calculi as they relate to imaging pitfalls (inconsistent characterization of small stones, small dual-energy field of view, and mischaracterization from surrounding material) and stone mimics (drainage devices) that may adversely impact clinical decisions. We utilize our clinical experience from scanning over 1200 patients with this new imaging technique to present clinically relevant examples of imaging pitfalls and possible mechanisms for resolution

  20. Medullary Sponge Kidney and Urinary Calculi Aeromedical Concerns

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Cherian, Sebastian F.; Barr, Yael R.; Stocco, Amber

    2008-01-01

    Medullary Sponge Kidney (MSK) is a benign disorder associated with renal stones in 60% of patients. Patients frequently have episodic painless hematuria but are otherwise asymptomatic unless renal calculi or infections complicate the disease. Nephrolithiasis is a relative, but frequently enforced, contraindication to space or other high performance flight. Two case reports of asymptomatic NASA flight crew with MSK and three cases of military aviators diagnosed with MSK are reviewed, all cases resulted in waiver and return to flight status after treatment and a vigorous follow up and prophylaxis protocol. MSK in aviation and space flight necessitates a highly case-by-case dependent evaluation and treatment process to rule out other potential confounding factors that might also contribute to stone formation and in order to re-qualify the aviator for flight duties.

  1. Percutaneous Imaging-Guided Access for the Treatment of Calculi in Continent Urinary Reservoirs

    Purpose: To describe our long-term experience with percutaneous access to continent urinary reservoirs for calculus removal. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of 13 procedures in 10 patients was performed. In 2 of the 13 procedures, access and calculus removal was performed in a single session. In the other 11 procedures, initial access was obtained using ultrasonography,fluoroscopy, and/or computed tomography. The patients then returned ata later date for a second step where the access was dilated and the calculi were removed. Results: Access was achieved successfully in all cases with no complications. At mean follow-up time of 13.6 months (range 1-94 months) one patient had died of complications unrelated to her continent urinary reservoir. Another patient had been placed on suppressive antibiotics for recurrent calculi. The remaining patients were stone free and without late complication. Conclusions: Percutaneous removal of reservoir calculi can be performed safely, avoiding potential injury to the continence valve mechanism by a direct cystoscopic approach. We propose a two-stage procedure using CT guidance for initial access as the preferred technique

  2. Outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper urinary tract calculi

    Marcello Cocuzza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative and financial outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper tract calculi in 44 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2004 and September 2006, 44 patients treated for upper tract stone with flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy were evaluated. Renal stones were associated with collecting system obstruction in 15 (34% patients, failed extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL occurred in 14 (32% patients, unilateral multiple stones in 18 (41% patients, and multiple bilateral stones in 3 (7%. In 29 (66% patients, the stone was located in the inferior calyx. Perioperative and financial outcomes were also evaluated. RESULTS: 50 procedures were performed in 44 patients. The mean stone burden on preoperative CT scan was 11.5 ± 5.8 mm. The mean operative time was 61.3 ± 29.4 min. The stone free rate was 93.1% after one procedure and 97.7% after a second procedure, with overall complication rate of 8%. Therapeutic success occurred in 92% and 93% of patients with lower pole stones and SWL failure, respectively. Treatment failure of a single session was associated with presence of a stone size larger than 15 mm (p = 0.007, but not associated with inferior calyx location (p = 0.09. Surgical disposables were responsible for 78% of overall costs. CONCLUSION: Flexible ureteroscopy using holmium laser is a safe and effective option for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi. In addition, it can be considered an attractive option as salvage therapy after SWL failure or kidney calculi associated with ureteral stones. Stone size larger than 15 mm is associated with single session treatment failure.

  3. Emergency unenhanced multi-slice computed tomography in suspected urinary calculiwith dose reduction method (care dose 4D)

    Syed Nabir; Vajjala Ravi Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess urinary calculi and the secondary signs of obstruction, in patients referred from the accident and emergency department, by unenhanced computed tomography examination and to review the radiation dose the patients received with the use of automatic dose modulation technique, care dose 4D. Material and methods: Medical records of unenhanced multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) examinations for 114 patients referred to the emergency department for analysis of suspected u...

  4. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that Urtica dioica has strong antiurolithiatic activity and may have potential as a natural therapeutic agent for various urological disorders. PMID:25310585

  5. Unique ability of the Proteus mirabilis capsule to enhance mineral growth in infectious urinary calculi.

    Dumanski, A J; Hedelin, H; Edin-Liljegren, A; Beauchemin, D; McLean, R J

    1994-07-01

    Struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O) calculi are a common complication of Proteus mirabilis urinary tract infections. Although urease is a major virulence factor in calculus formation, the polysaccharide capsule (CPS) of this organism also enhances struvite crystallization and growth in vitro (L. Clapham, R. J. C. McLean, J. C. Nickel, J. Downey, and J. W. Costerton, J. Crystal Growth 104:475-484, 1990). We obtained purified CPS, of known structure and varying anionic character, from P. mirabilis ATCC 49565 and several other organisms. Artificial urine was added to CPS, and the pH was elevated from 5.8 to 8.5 by the addition of urease or titration with 0.25 M NH4OH to induce struvite crystallization. Crystallization was measured by particle counting (Coulter counter), and the morphology (crystal habit) was examined by phase-contrast microscopy. In the presence of partially anionic P. mirabilis CPS, struvite formation occurred at a lower pH than in the absence of CPS or in the presence of other neutral, partially anionic, or anionic CPS. At pH 7.5 to 8.0, significantly more struvite crystals formed in the presence of P. mirabilis CPS than under other experimental conditions. With the exception of one polymer (curdlan) which did not bind Mg2+, enhancement of struvite formation by CPS polymers was inversely proportional to their Mg2+ binding ability. We speculate that the structure and partial anionic nature of P. mirabilis CPS enable it to enhance struvite formation by weakly concentrating Mg2+ ions during struvite crystal formation. This illustrates a new virulence aspect of bacterial CPS during infection. PMID:8005688

  6. Helical CT evaluation of the chemical composition of urinary tract calculi with a discriminant analysis of CT-attenuation values and density

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of helical CT using a combination of CT-attenuation values and visual assessment of stone density as well as discriminant linear analysis to predict the chemical composition of urinary calculi. One hundred human urinary calculi were obtained from a stone-analysis laboratory and placed in 20 excised pig kidneys. They were scanned at 80, 120 and 140 kV with 3-mm collimation. Average, highest and lowest CT-attenuation values and CT variability were recorded. The internal calculus structure was assessed using a wide window setting, and visual assessment of stone density was recorded. A stepwise discriminant linear analysis was performed. The following three variables were discriminant: highest CT-attenuation value, visual density, and highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio, all at 80 kV. The probability of correctly classifying stone composition with these three variables was 0.64, ranging from 0.54 for mixed calculi to 0.69 for pure calculi. The probabilities of correctly classifying calculus composition were: 0.91 for calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite, 0.89 for cystine, 0.85 for uric acid, 0.11 for calcium oxalate dihydrate, 0.10 for hydroxyapatite, and 0.07 for struvite calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, 81% of the calculi were correctly classified. Assessment at 80 kV of the highest CT-attenuation value, visual density and the highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio accurately predicts the chemical composition of 64-81% of urinary calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, all cystine, calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite calculi were correctly classified. (orig.)

  7. Helical CT evaluation of the chemical composition of urinary tract calculi with a discriminant analysis of CT-attenuation values and density

    Bellin, Marie-France; Meric, Jean-Baptiste [AP-HP, Department of Radiology, Hopital Paul-Brousse, Villejuif Cedex (France); Renard-Penna, Raphaelle; Grenier, Philippe [AP-HP, Department of Radiology, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Conort, Pierre; Richard, Francois [AP-HP, Department of Urology, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Bissery, Anne; Mallet, Alain [AP-HP, Department of Biostatistics, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Daudon, Michel [AP-HP, Department of Biochemistry, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of helical CT using a combination of CT-attenuation values and visual assessment of stone density as well as discriminant linear analysis to predict the chemical composition of urinary calculi. One hundred human urinary calculi were obtained from a stone-analysis laboratory and placed in 20 excised pig kidneys. They were scanned at 80, 120 and 140 kV with 3-mm collimation. Average, highest and lowest CT-attenuation values and CT variability were recorded. The internal calculus structure was assessed using a wide window setting, and visual assessment of stone density was recorded. A stepwise discriminant linear analysis was performed. The following three variables were discriminant: highest CT-attenuation value, visual density, and highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio, all at 80 kV. The probability of correctly classifying stone composition with these three variables was 0.64, ranging from 0.54 for mixed calculi to 0.69 for pure calculi. The probabilities of correctly classifying calculus composition were: 0.91 for calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite, 0.89 for cystine, 0.85 for uric acid, 0.11 for calcium oxalate dihydrate, 0.10 for hydroxyapatite, and 0.07 for struvite calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, 81% of the calculi were correctly classified. Assessment at 80 kV of the highest CT-attenuation value, visual density and the highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio accurately predicts the chemical composition of 64-81% of urinary calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, all cystine, calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite calculi were correctly classified. (orig.)

  8. Emergency unenhanced multi-slice computed tomography in suspected urinary calculiwith dose reduction method (care dose 4D

    Syed Nabir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess urinary calculi and the secondary signs of obstruction, in patients referred from the accident and emergency department, by unenhanced computed tomography examination and to review the radiation dose the patients received with the use of automatic dose modulation technique, care dose 4D. Material and methods: Medical records of unenhanced multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT examinations for 114 patients referred to the emergency department for analysis of suspected urinary calculi were reviewed retrospectively. Their treatment involved automatic tube current modulation, a dose reduction method (care dose 4D, in Hamad General Hospital. The cases were analyzed for the presence of stones, size, site, density and the secondary signs of obstruction, namely hydronephrosis, hydroureter, perinephric fat stranding, peri-ureteric fat stranding and renal enlargement. A search for alternate diagnosis was made if no stone was found. The final diagnosis was noted from the discharge summary in medical records. The radiation dose, Computed Tomographic Dose Index volume (CTDI and Dose Length Product (DLP in each patient was recorded from patient protocol. Results: Of 114 patients referred to CT scan for suspected urinary calculi, between March and June 2008, urinary calculi were noted in 75.4 %. An alternate diagnosis was offered to 5.3 % and a diagnosis of normal was given to 19.3 %. The size of stones detected varied from 2mm-35mm. Density of stones varied from 110-1250 hounsfield units (HU. Solitary stones were seen in 54.4 % of cases observed and multiple stones in 22 %. Renal stones were observed in 6.1 % of cases, urteric stones in 26.3%, vesico-uretric junction stones in 18.4%, multiple sites in 23.7%. Hydronephrosis was seen in 68% of cases, hydroureter in 63%, perinephric fat stranding in 51%, periureteral fat stranding in 34%, ureteric rim sign in 28% and renomegaly in 24%. Time interval between onset of symptoms to imaging varied from 4 to 12 hours. The radiation dose, CTDI, ranged from 6.5-15.8 mGy and DLP from 257 to 918 mGy/cm with the use of automatic tube current modulation, care dose 4D. Final diagnosis and MSCT diagnosis were in concordance in 86 (75% of patients of renal calculi and alternate diagnosis in 6 (5.3% of patients and normal in rest of the patients. Conclusion: In clinically-suspected urinary calculi, unenhanced MSCT of abdomen with the use of care dose 4D, an automatic tube current modulation technique, is a fast and reliable investigation in an emergency setting to detect stones and secondary signs of obstruction. It offers alternate diagnosis with substantial reduction in radiation doseboth the computed tomography dose index (CTDI and dose length product (DLP.

  9. Analyses of 99Tcm-DTPA dynamic kidney imaging on 346 patients of upper urinary tract calculi

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of 99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging in evaluating renal function of the patients with upper urinary tract calculi. Methods: The results of 99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), intravenous pyelography (IVP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) in 346 patients with upper urinary tract calculi diseases were analyzed retrospectively. These 346 patients were divided into four groups according to their total GFR value. Results: (1) The renal dynamic imaging in 346 patients could accurately reflect the function of the two kidneys. GFR was negatively related to the serum BUN and SCr levels (r=-0.458, P=0.000 and r=-0.542, P=0.000). (2) The BUN and SCr levels showed significant difference among the four groups (F=49.23, P=0.000 and F=80.66, P=0.000). There were no significant difference of the BUN and SCr levels found between group 1 and group 2 (P=0.119, P=0.088, respectively), while significant difference of the BUN and SCr levels found among the other groups (P99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging, the mean GFR was (21.89±12.81)ml/min. Conclusion: 99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging is valuable to early evaluate the renal function, especially for the sick renal function in IVP detection failed patients. (authors)

  10. Investigation of the microstructure and mineralogical composition of urinary calculi fragments by synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography: a feasibility study

    Kaiser, J.; Holá, M.; Galiová, M.; Novotný, K.; Kanický, V.; Martinec, Petr; Ščučka, Jiří; Brun, F.; Sodini, N.; Tromba, G.; Mancini, L.; Kořistková, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 4 (2011), s. 259-267. ISSN 0300-5623 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/1394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : computed microtomography * synchrotron radiation * urinary calculi Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.233, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/y244643574072rk3/fulltext.pdf

  11. In vitro studies of epithelium-associated crystallization caused by uropathogens during urinary calculi development.

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Budzyńska, Aleksandra; Białczak-Kokot, Magdalena; Różalski, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Infectious urinary stones account for about 10% of all urinary stones. In 50% of cases urolithiasis is a recurrent illness, which can lead to the loss of a kidney if not properly treated. One of the reasons for recurrence of the disease may be the ability of bacteria to invade urothelial cells, persist in the host cells and serve as potential reservoirs for infection. Various uropathogens are associated with the formation of bacteria-induced urinary stones but Proteus mirabilis is the most commonly isolated (70%). An in vitro model was used in this study to analyze intracellular growth and crystallization in the presence of P. mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Human ureter (Hu 609) and bladder (HCV 29) epithelial cell lines were infected with bacteria and incubated (3-72 h) in the presence of synthetic urine and amikacin to prevent extracellular bacterial growth. During the incubation the number of bacteria (CFU/ml) inside epithelial cells and the intensity of crystallization were established. Crystallization was determined as an amount of a calcium radioisotope. The chosen strains of uropathogens were able to invade both types of epithelial cells but the Hu 609 cells were invaded to a higher extent. However, crystallization occurred only in the presence of P. mirabilis strains which were invasive and urease-positive. The highest intensity of cell-associated crystallization was observed when the number of bacteria within the urothelium remained stable during the time of incubation. These results show that P. mirabilis has an ability to form crystals inside the host cells. Under these conditions bacteria are protected from antibiotic killing, which leads to persistent and recurrent infections. We also suspect that this phenomenon may be an important stage of kidney stones formation. PMID:24803200

  12. Successful Management of Repetitive Urinary Obstruction and Anuria Caused by Double J Stent Calculi Formation after Renal Transplantation

    Zongyao Hao; Li Zhang; Jun Zhou; Xiansheng Zhang; Haoqiang Shi; Yifei Zhang; Pengfei Wei; Chaozhao Liang

    2014-01-01

    This report firstly describes an extremely rare case of repetitive double J stent calculi formation after renal transplantation caused by the antihyperparathyroidism (HPT) drug calcitriol. In 2012, a woman initially presented to our hospital for anuria with lower abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with allograft hydronephrosis and double J stents obstruction by calculi formation after transplantation and treated with triplicate stents replacements in another hospital without clinical manifesta...

  13. [Hormonal and metabolic disorders as systemic factor for the formation of urinary calculi].

    Aliaev, Iu G; Egshatian, L V; Rapoport, L M; Lartsova, E V

    2014-01-01

    In patients suffering from urolithiasis, metabolic diagnostics often reveals abnormalities contributing to the formation of stones: hypocitraturia, hyper- and hypocalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypomagnesemia/hypomagnesuria, hyperoxalaturia, etc. Before surgery, complex biochemical examination of blood and 24-hourcollection urine in 82 patients with urolithiasis was performed. The analysis of the main laboratory parameters of carbohydrate, lipid, calcium and phosphorus and purine metabolism found the prevalence of violations of calcium and phosphorus metabolism in these patients. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 31 (37.8%) patients. There was a significant positive correlation between serum total cholesterol and serum total calcium (rs = 0.3315, P = 0.0103). Low serum calcium levels were associated with hyperoxalaturia (rs = -0.4270, P = 0.0295). There was a significant effect of natriuria on urinary excretion of oxalate (rs = 0.6107, P = 0.0001), Mg (rs = 0.4156, P = 0.0096) and K (rs = 0.5234, P = 0.00005). The study shows the role of magnesium in the prevention of recurrence and manifestation of urolithiasis. The combination of two or more types of hormonal and metabolic disorders increases the incidence of recurrent stones. Timely correction of hormonal-metabolic status allows to reduce the risk of stone formation, and hospitalization attributable to the complications associated. PMID:25807757

  14. Impact of obesity on ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of urinary tract calculi

    Ricardo Natalin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The treatment of urinary tract stones in obese patients may differ from the treatment of non-obese patients and their success rate varies. Our objective was to compare ureteroscopic treatment outcomes of ureteral and renal stones, stratified for stone size and location, between overweight, obese and non-obese patients. Materials and Methods: Charts were reviewed for 500 consecutive patients presenting at our institution for renal and ureteral stones. A total of 107 patients underwent flexible or semi-rigid ureteroscopy with Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy and met criteria for review and analysis. Results: Overall, initial stone-free rates were 91%, 97%, and 94% in normal, overweight and obese individuals respectively. When compared to non-obese patients, there were no significant differences (p value = 0.26; 0.50. For renal and proximal ureteral stones, the stone-free rate in overweight and obese individuals was 94% in both groups; and a stone-free rate of 100% was found for distal stones, also in both groups. Conclusions: Ureteroscopic treatment of stones in obese and overweight patients is an acceptable treatment modality, with success rates similar to non-obese patients.

  15. Intrahepatic calculi

    The magnetic resonance (MR) examinations of six patients with intrahepatic calculi were reviewed retrospectively to 1) determine the ability of MR to demonstrate intrahepatic calculi and 2) assess the MR appearance of the stones. In five out of six cases, MRI demonstrated intrahepatic calculi. In three cases, stones exhibited a low intensity signal on the different spin echo (SE) sequences, as previously described by in vitro and in vivo studies. However in two other cases, a significant signal with short T1 and relatively long T2 relaxation times was noticed. These different features are discussed in relation to chemical and physical differences in intrahepatic calculi and compared with variable CT attenuation values of stones. MRI seems to provide complementary information concerning intrahepatic calculi. (author)

  16. Functional calculi

    Swartz, Charles

    2013-01-01

    A functional calculus is a construction which associates with an operator or a family of operators a homomorphism from a function space into a subspace of continuous linear operators, i.e. a method for defining "functions of an operator". Perhaps the most familiar example is based on the spectral theorem for bounded self-adjoint operators on a complex Hilbert space.This book contains an exposition of several such functional calculi. In particular, there is an exposition based on the spectral theorem for bounded, self-adjoint operators, an extension to the case of several commuting self-adjoint

  17. Internalization of Calcium Oxalate Calculi Developed in Narrow Cavities

    Fèlix Grases

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient with calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi occluded in cavities. All those calculi were located inside narrow cavities covered with a thin epithelium that permits their visualization. Urinary biochemical analysis showed high calciuria, not hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and a ratio [calcium]/[citrate] >0.33. The existence of cavities of very low urodynamic efficacy was decisive in the formation of such calculi. It is important to emphasize that we observed a thin epithelium covering such cavities, demonstrating that this epithelium may be formed after the development of the calculi through a re-epithelialization process.

  18. Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy of symptomatic renal calculi in children

    Papanicolaou, N.; Pfister, R.C.; Yoder, I.C.; Young, H.H. II; Herrin, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy of upper urinary tract lithiasis is a well-established procedure in adults. We successfully applied this technique to completely remove symptomatic renal calculi in two children with idiopathic hypercalciuria. The procedure was well tolerated and no complications occurred. Both patients were discharged within 4 days of the lithotripsy. This method is an alternative to surgery for the removal of large or impacted calculi from the upper urinary tracts of pediatric patients. (orig.).

  19. The management of the congenital anterior urethral diverticula with calculi which is the cause of acute urinary retention (Globe vesicale): A case report

    Pirinççi, Necip; Geçit, İlhan; Güneş, Mustafa; Taken, Kerem; Tanık, Serhat; Ceylan, Kadir

    2013-01-01

      Abstract. Congenital urethral diverticula with calculi has a low incidence as reported in the literature. Congenital diverticula have been seen % 10-20 in all urethral diverticula. The etiology of urethral stones are urethra and bladder stones, urethral diverticula, foreign matters, urethral stenosis and urethral trauma. Management of treatment urethral stones is surgery and endoscopy. Our case was a three years old boy who referred to our clinic due to globe vesicale. Diagnosis was perform...

  20. Segmentation of Ureteric and Bladder Calculi in Ultrasound Images

    S. Sridhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The framework for segmenting calculi in ureter and bladder using ultrasound images is proposed in this study. Calculi are due to abnormal collection of certain chemicals like oxalate, phosphate and uric acid. These calculi can be present in kidney, urethra or in urinary bladder. The extraction of calculi in medical images is a difficult task as no standard algorithms are available. This poses a serious a problem for successful diagnosis of calculi disease. The proposed technique is specific for the extraction of calculi in ureter and bladder. This constitutes the first stage in the successful treatment of calculi disease. Approach: An algorithm is proposed to detect calculus based on the shadow it casts in ultrasound image. Calculi are present in ultrasound images as bright spots. But noise in the image also can be bright spots. So it is easy to misinterpret the presence of noise as calculi. The proposed framework thus has two phases. In phase one, five standard algorithms are modified and are used to segment the bright spots present in the ultrasound images using the intensity profile. Calculi are having intensity in the range of 10-40. So all the potential calculi as well as the noise that appear as bright spots are segmented in phase one. In phase two,a validation procedure is used to validate the presence of calculi using its acoustic shadow property in the ultrasound images. Results: Ultrasound images of twenty-seven ureteric and bladder calculi patients are used for testing the framework. The detected calculi by the proposed framework are validated against a group of experts. The Performance of the proposed method is thoroughly investigated and the accuracy of the framework is determined. The framework incorporating automated seed selected region growing algorithm is able to detect the calculi with the efficiency of 78.57%. Conclusion: The extracted calculi can further be analyzed for taking decision about the treatment procedures. The proposed system is helpful for taking decision about the treatment procedures. The proposed system is helpful for clinicians as a decision support tool. This system can also be useful as educational aid for assisting or decision making in the treatment of calculus disease.

  1. Use of Calcurosin™ In Renal Calculi Management: A Case Report

    Chintan R. Maniar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of renal calculi may prove to be a daunting task for physicians in certain clinical conditions such as bleeding complications, uncontrolled Blood Pressure, urinary infection, age factor, etc., these conditions also requires careful consideration. Most of the Indian patient prefers to give it a try to alternative medicine before undergoing painful surgery. Following case study shows an 83 year old male patient with three calculi in kidneys was treated with Calcurosin™ (Proprietary Ayurvedic Medicine to avoid surgery, patient has shown promising result in subsequent investigations and at the end patient got free from renal calculi without surgical procedure.

  2. Factores predictivos de xito tras una sesin nica de litotricia extracorprea de clculos urinarios a las tres semanas de seguimiento: Factors Predicting Success after Three Weeks of Follow-Up / Single-Session Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Urinary Calculi

    B., Vivaldi; M.I., Fernndez; J.F., Lpez; F., Fuentes; C., Urza; A., Krebs; A., Domenech; P.A., Figueroa; P., Pizzi; M., Westendarp; N., Zambrano; M., Castro; L.F., Coz.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar factores predictivos de xito despus de una sesin nica de litotricia extracorprea por ondas de choque (LEOC) a las tres semanas de seguimiento. Material y mtodos: Se revisaron los registros clnicos de 116 pacientes con clculos urinarios nicos sometidos a LEOC entre octu [...] bre 2007 y agosto 2009. Las tomografas axiales computarizadas preoperatorias de todos los pacientes fueron revisadas por dos radilogos en desconocimiento del desenlace clnico. El xito fue definido como la desaparicin completa del clculo o la persistencia de fragmentos Abstract in english Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors of success following a single-session of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) at 3 weeks of follow-up in our center. Material and methods: The medical records of 116 patients with solitary urinary calculi who underwent single-session SWL [...] in our department between October 2007 and August 2009 were reviewed. All preoperative unenhanced computed axial tomographies were reviewed by two radiologists blinded to clinical outcome. Success was defined as complete clearance or the persistence of fragments

  3. The incidence and location of prostatic calculi on noncontrast computed tomography images in patients with renal calculi.

    Balasar, Mehmet; Poyraz, Necdet; Göğer, Yunus Emre; Unal, Yunus; Pişkin, Mehmet Mesut

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the incidence and location of prostatic calculi on noncontrast abdominal computed tomography (NCACT) images of patients with and without renal stones were investigated. Between 2006 and 2013, NCACT images were taken of 133 patients treated for renal stones (Group I) and of 100 age-matched control patients with putative urinary stone disease (Group II) in our clinic. The incidence and location of prostatic calculi on these images were determined. The location of prostatic calculus was classified as type A if they were located in the main prostatic ducts, and type B if they were located outside the ducts. Prostatic calculi were present in 44.4% of patients in Group I and 21.0% of patients in Group II. The incidence of prostatic calculi was significantly higher in patients with urinary stones compared with those without (Pincidence of prostatic calculi is more prevalent in patients with renal stones. On NCACT images, prostatic calculi were mostly detected in the main prostatic ducts, which were defined as type A. PMID:25991494

  4. Association with meteo-climatological factors and daily emergency visits for renal colic and urinary calculi in Cuneo, Italy. A retrospective observational study, 2007-2010

    Condemi, Vincenzo; Gestro, Massimo; Dozio, Elena; Tartaglino, Bruno; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Meco, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Incidence and prevalence of kidney stones are affected by genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between various meteorological factors (independent variables) and the daily number of visits to the Emergency Department (ED of the S. Croce and Carle Hospital of Cuneo for renal colic (RC) and urinary stones (UC) as the dependent variable over the years 2007-2010. The Poisson generalized regression models (PGAMs) have been used in different progressive ways. The results of PGAMs (stage 1) adjusted for seasonal and calendar factors confirmed a significant correlation ( p 1), with a first peak after 5 days (lag ranges 0-1, 0-3, and 0-5) and a second weak peak observed along the 5-15 lag range days. The estimated RR for females was significant, mainly in the second and fourth age group considered (19-44 and >65 years): RR for total ED visits 1.27, confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.46 (lag 0-5 days); RR 1.42, CI 1.01-2.01 (lag 0-10 days); and RR 1.35, CI 1.09-1.68 (lag 0-15 days). The research also indicated a moderate involvement of the thermal factor in the onset of RC caused by UC, exclusively in the female sex. Further studies will be necessary to confirm these results.

  5. Posterior urethral calculi in patients without anatomical abnormalities: Case report

    Ömer Faruk Karataş

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urethral calculi are uncommon problem in urological practice. The incidence of these stones is reported to be lower than 0.3% in the literature. The majority of urethral calculi originates from upper urinary tract or bladder and migrates into the urethra. Native forms are generally associated with postsurgical changes or anatomic abnormalities such as strictures and urethral diverticula. In this paper, we discussed posterior urethral stones in three patients without any urethral anatomic abnormality who were admitted to our clinic over a period of 5 years.

  6. Endourological management of staghorn calculi: Experience in 120 cases

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy has become a well-established, standardized procedure in the management of upper urinary tract calculi. One hundred twenty consecutive patients, aged 19-95 years (mean age, 63 years); with staghorn calculi have been managed by percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy at our hospital. The overall success rate in achieving a stone-free renal unit was 86%. Multiple nephrostomy tracts were established in more than 60% of patients. Total operative time averaged 161 minutes per patient, despite multistaged nephrolithotripsy in 24% of patients. The most common complications encountered were bleeding requiring transfusion (57%), retained fragments (14%), urinary extravasation (12%), hydrothorax or pneumothorax (5%), and urinary stricture (1.6%). Average duration of hospitalization was 12.6 days

  7. Recurrent bilateral renal calculi in a tetraplegic patient

    Vaidyanathan, S; Soni, B M; Biering-Sorensen, F; Bagi, P; Wallberg, A H; Vidal, J; Borau, A; Singh, G; Sett, P; Krishnan, K R

    1998-01-01

    , Providencia, and Pseudomonas species, and he was treated with antibiotics. In 1980, intravenous urography (IVU) showed two large stones in the left kidney with marked caliectasis. The IVU performed in 1984 showed an increase in the size of the calculi in the left kidney which was grossly hydronephrotic. There...... were clusters of small calculi in the right kidney. The left renal calculi were treated by percutaneous lithotripsy in two sessions. In 1988, an X-ray of the abdomen revealed staghorn calculus in the right kidney and recurrence of stones in the left kidney. The staghorn calculus in the right kidney was...... treated by percutaneous nephrostolithotomy in two sessions. In 1991, he was admitted with acute urinary infection. IVU showed a stone in the pelviureteric junction with no excretion of contrast in the left kidney. Percutaneous nephrostomy drainage was established followed by left percutaneous...

  8. Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi

    Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J. C.

    2000-05-01

    Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

  9. Observational Calculi and Association Rules

    Rauch, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Observational calculi were introduced in the 1960’s as a tool of logic of discovery. Formulas of observational calculi correspond to assertions on analysed data. Truthfulness of suitable assertions can lead to acceptance of new scientific hypotheses. The general goal was to automate the process of discovery of scientific knowledge using mathematical logic and statistics. The GUHA method for producing true formulas of observational calculi relevant to the given problem of scientific discovery was developed. Theoretically interesting and practically important results on observational calculi were achieved. Special attention was paid to formulas - couples of Boolean attributes derived from columns of the analysed data matrix. Association rules introduced in the 1990’s can be seen as a special case of such formulas. New results on logical calculi and association rules were achieved. They can be seen as a logic of association rules. This can contribute to solving contemporary challenging problems of data minin...

  10. Urinary Tract Imaging

    Rowley, V. Allen

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the current imaging investigations usually required in the work-up of common urinary tract problems such as urinary tract infection, colic, trauma, hematuria and renal failure. Radiological therapeutic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy for drainage of obstructed systems and percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of renal calculi are briefly mentioned. The virtual elimination of percutaneous or open surgery for renal and upper urinary tract stones, resulting ...

  11. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF MUSA PARADISICA LINN AGAINST ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED RENAL CALCULI

    Jha U

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ethanol extract of dried roots of Musa paradisica Linn against ethylene glycol induced renal calculi in albino wistar rats are studied in this research. A renal calculus was induced in rats by ingesting 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days and was manifested by high urinary calcium, oxalate, and low urinary magnesium contents. Simultaneous administration of 1ml (1 in 10 Musa paradisica Linn orally for 28 days along with ethylene glycol (0.75% v/v reduced urinary calcium, oxalate and elevated urinary magnesium level. It also increased urinary volume thereby reducing the tendency for crystallization. The histopathological studies confirmed the induction as degenerated glomeruli, necrotic tubule and inflammatory cells was observed in section of kidney from animals treated with ethylene glycol. This was reduced; however after treatment with Musa paradisica Linn. These observations enable to conclude that Musa paradisica Linn is effective against ethylene glycol induced renal calculi.

  12. How accurate is unenhanced multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for localization of renal calculi?

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between unenhanced MDCT and intraoperative findings with regard to the exact anatomical location of renal calculi. Design, setting, and participants: Fifty-nine patients who underwent unenhanced MDCT for suspected urinary stone disease, and who underwent subsequent flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) as treatment of nephrolithiasis were included in this retrospective study. All MDCT data sets were independently reviewed by three observers with different degrees of experience in reading CT. Each observer was asked to indicate presence and exact anatomical location of any calcification within pyelocaliceal system, renal papilla or renal cortex. Results were compared to intraoperative findings which have been defined as standard of reference. Calculi not described at surgery, but present on MDCT data were counted as renal cortex calcifications. Results: Overall 166 calculi in 59 kidneys have been detected on MDCT, 100 (60.2%) were located in the pyelocaliceal system and 66 (39.8%) in the renal parenchyma. Of the 100 pyelocaliceal calculi, 84 (84%) were correctly located on CT data sets by observer 1, 62 (62%) by observer 2, and 71 (71%) by observer 3. Sensitivity/specificity was 90–94% and 50–100% if only pyelocaliceal calculi measuring >4 mm in size were considered. For pyelocaliceal calculi ≤4 mm in size diagnostic performance of MDCT was inferior. Conclusion: Compared to flexible URS, unenhanced MDCT is accurate for distinction between pyelocaliceal calculi and renal parenchyma calcifications if renal calculi are >4 mm in size. For smaller renal calculi, unenhanced MDCT is less accurate and distinction between a pyelocaliceal calculus and renal parenchyma calcification is difficult.

  13. How accurate is unenhanced multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for localization of renal calculi?

    Goetschi, Stefan, E-mail: goetschi@gmx.net [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Umbehr, Martin, E-mail: martin.umbehr@triemli.ch [Urology Clinic, Department of Surgery, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Ullrich, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.ullrich@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Glenck, Michael, E-mail: michael.glenck@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Suter, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.suter@triemli.ch [Urology Clinic, Department of Surgery, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Weishaupt, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.weishaupt@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between unenhanced MDCT and intraoperative findings with regard to the exact anatomical location of renal calculi. Design, setting, and participants: Fifty-nine patients who underwent unenhanced MDCT for suspected urinary stone disease, and who underwent subsequent flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) as treatment of nephrolithiasis were included in this retrospective study. All MDCT data sets were independently reviewed by three observers with different degrees of experience in reading CT. Each observer was asked to indicate presence and exact anatomical location of any calcification within pyelocaliceal system, renal papilla or renal cortex. Results were compared to intraoperative findings which have been defined as standard of reference. Calculi not described at surgery, but present on MDCT data were counted as renal cortex calcifications. Results: Overall 166 calculi in 59 kidneys have been detected on MDCT, 100 (60.2%) were located in the pyelocaliceal system and 66 (39.8%) in the renal parenchyma. Of the 100 pyelocaliceal calculi, 84 (84%) were correctly located on CT data sets by observer 1, 62 (62%) by observer 2, and 71 (71%) by observer 3. Sensitivity/specificity was 90-94% and 50-100% if only pyelocaliceal calculi measuring >4 mm in size were considered. For pyelocaliceal calculi {<=}4 mm in size diagnostic performance of MDCT was inferior. Conclusion: Compared to flexible URS, unenhanced MDCT is accurate for distinction between pyelocaliceal calculi and renal parenchyma calcifications if renal calculi are >4 mm in size. For smaller renal calculi, unenhanced MDCT is less accurate and distinction between a pyelocaliceal calculus and renal parenchyma calcification is difficult.

  14. Use of computed tomography scout film and Hounsfield unit of computed tomography scan in predicting the radio-opacity of urinary calculi in plain kidney, ureter and bladder radiographs

    Chua, Michael E.; Gomez, Odina R.; Sapno, Lorelei D.; Lim, Steve L.; Morales, Marcelino L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the diagnostic utility of computed tomography (CT)- scout film with an optimal non-contrast helical CT scan Hounsfield unit (HU) in predicting the appearance of urinary calculus in the plain kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder (KUB)-radiograph. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was executed and data were collected from June 2007 to June 2012 at a tertiary hospital. The included subjects were diagnosed to have

  15. Management of Ureteric Calculi in Dhule City of North-western Maharashtra

    Lokesh Patni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urolithiasis, usually affecting people in the prime of life, causes significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Uretericstones account for 2/3rd of all urinary calculi brought to attention of doctors. The damaging effects of the calculi may result in obstruction with dilatation of the urinary tract, leading to stasis and severe infection. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate patients with urinary stones with regards to the incidence, age, sex,clinical presentation, site, size, side, management and their complications. Material and Methods:It was a prospective study carried out by Department of Surgery at Annasaheb Chudaman Patil Memorial Medical College, and Hospital Dhule for a period of two years. Patients were selected after they were diagnosed as having ureteric calculi. The patients were treated by conservative or surgical methods, and the outcome was monitored. Statistical analysis of the data was done for obtaining results.Result: The majority of the patients were males with peak age group in the second and third decade. Pain in abdomen or loin tenderness was the most common presenting symptom. Most of the patients were treated by conservative medical management. Endourological procedures were the most commonly performed surgical intervention. Conclusion: Most of the patients with ureteric calculi present with painin abdomen and majority can be treated by medical management. With the availability of better facilities the requirement for open surgery is decreasing and endourological procedures are becoming the means of surgical intervention.Complications are minimal with surgical expertise for endourological procedures.

  16. In situ lithotripsy of ureteral calculi

    Over 7,000 kidneys and ureters have been treated with lithotripsy at the authors institution. Included among this group were 541 ureters containing single calculi that were treated in situ after retrograde manipulations had failed. One hundred thirty-five (25%) of these calculi were located in the distal ureter, below the superior border of the SI joint. The remainder were located in the middle or upper ureter. All but one of these calculi were successfully treated with lithotripsy and combined radiologic and urologic interventions. The number and type of interventions have been examined. In situ lithotripsy of ureteral calculi after unsuccessful retrograde manipulation has been shown to be feasible

  17. A STUDY ON THE ROLE OF DJ STENTING IN URETERIC CALCULI PATIENTS AFTER INTRACORPOREAL LITHOTRIPSY

    Pitchai Balashanmugam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A ureteric stent is a tube that is placed using cystoscopy or ureteroscopy inside the ureter to treat and also to prevent urinary obstruction. DJ stents are the most common stents used, which is available in various lengths. The stent that remains in situ usually causes the symptoms of urinary tract infection, pain in the suprapubic region and flank due to urinary reflux, frequency, urgency, dysuria and hematuria. An attempt has been made in this study to evaluate the stent related symptoms after semi rigid ureteroscopy and intracorporeal lithotripsy for mid, lower and distal vesicoureteric junction calculi and a comparison has been made between stented and non-stented patients.

  18. Herbal medicines for urinary stone treatment. A systematic review

    Elena Monti; Alberto Trinchieri; Vittorio Magri; Anne Cleves; Gianpaolo Perletti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical evidence on the efficacy of phytotherapy in the treatment of calculi in the urinary tract. Methods: To be eligible, full-length articles should include the results of randomized controlled trials enrolling patients affected by urolithiasis, reporting any comparison between an experimental herbal agent versus placebo or any active comparator, aimed at preventing the formation or facilitating the dissolution of calculi in any portion of the urinary tract. Fift...

  19. The feasibility of using microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography for detection and evaluation of renal calculi

    Cao, Caijun; Nie, Liming; Lou, Cunguang; Xing, Da

    2010-09-01

    Imaging of renal calculi is important for patients who suffered a urinary calculus prior to treatment. The available imaging techniques include plain x-ray, ultrasound scan, intravenous urogram, computed tomography, etc. However, the visualization of a uric acid calculus (radiolucent calculi) is difficult and often impossible by the above imaging methods. In this paper, a new detection method based on microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography was developed to detect the renal calculi. Thermoacoustic images of calcium oxalate and uric acid calculus were compared with their x-ray images. The microwave absorption differences among the calcium oxalate calculus, uric acid calculus and normal kidney tissue could be evaluated by the amplitude of the thermoacoustic signals. The calculi hidden in the swine kidney were clearly imaged with excellent contrast and resolution in the three orthogonal thermoacoustic images. The results indicate that thermoacoustic imaging may be developed as a complementary method for detecting renal calculi, and its low cost and effective feature shows high potential for clinical applications.

  20. Verification of Stochastic Process Calculi

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya

    support of this claim we have developed analysis methods that belong to a particular type of Static Analysis { Data Flow / Pathway Analysis. These methods have previously been applied to a number of non-stochastic process calculi. In this thesis we are lifting them to the stochastic calculus of...... Interactive Markov Chains (IMC). We have devised the Pathway Analysis of IMC that is not only correct in the sense of overapproximating all possible behaviour scenarios, as is usual for Static Analysis methods, but is also precise. This gives us the possibility to explicitly decide on the trade-o between...

  1. Differential calculi and linear connections

    A method is proposed for defining an arbitrary number of differential calculi over a given noncommutative associative algebra. As an example the generalized quantum plane is studied. It is found that there is a strong correlation, but not a one-to-one correspondence, between the module structure of the 1-forms and the metric torsion-free connections on it. In the commutative limit the connection remains as a shadow of the algebraic structure of the 1-forms. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Remarks on differential calculi on Manin's plane

    This paper reports on all scale-invariant differential calculi on quantum plane that are found. Their operator realization is constructed and problem of defining derivatives is analyzed in some detail

  3. Covariant Functional Calculi from the Affine Groups

    Gong, Yafang

    2009-01-01

    Invoking the Clifford-Hermite Wavelets from Clifford analysis, we use the covariances of affine groups to construct a kind of functional calculi for several non-commuting bounded operators. Functional calculi are the intertwining transforms between the representations of affine groups in the space $L^2(\\mathbb R^m)$ and in the space of bounded operators. It turns out that the Weyl calculus is the value of this new functional calculus at the identity of affine groups. Our app...

  4. A criterion for separating process calculi

    Banti, Federico; Tiezzi, Francesco; 10.4204/EPTCS.41.2

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new criterion, replacement freeness, to discern the relative expressiveness of process calculi. Intuitively, a calculus is strongly replacement free if replacing, within an enclosing context, a process that cannot perform any visible action by an arbitrary process never inhibits the capability of the resulting process to perform a visible action. We prove that there exists no compositional and interaction sensitive encoding of a not strongly replacement free calculus into any strongly replacement free one. We then define a weaker version of replacement freeness, by only considering replacement of closed processes, and prove that, if we additionally require the encoding to preserve name independence, it is not even possible to encode a non replacement free calculus into a weakly replacement free one. As a consequence of our encodability results, we get that many calculi equipped with priority are not replacement free and hence are not encodable into mainstream calculi like CCS and pi-calculus, t...

  5. Mobility in process calculi and natural computing

    Aman, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    The design of formal calculi in which fundamental concepts underlying interactive systems can be described and studied has been a central theme of theoretical computer science in recent decades, while membrane computing, a rule-based formalism inspired by biological cells, is a more recent field that belongs to the general area of natural computing. This is the first book to establish a link between these two research directions while treating mobility as the central topic. In the first chapter the authors offer a formal description of mobility in process calculi, noting the entities that move

  6. Pathophysiological aspects of ureterorenoscopic management of upper urinary tract calculi

    Osther, Palle J S; Pedersen, Katja V; Lildal, Søren K; Pless, Maria S; Andreassen, Kim H; Osther, Susanne S; Jung, Helene U

    2016-01-01

    ureterorenoscopy, potentially translating into harmful effects, and how such pathophysiological processes may be minimized. RECENT FINDINGS: Complications to ureterorenoscopy and postoperative pain seem to be related to intrarenal pressure and/or access. Mean intrarenal pressures in the range of 60-100 mmHg during...... ureterorenoscopy without access sheaths have been measured, thus by far exceeding the threshold for intrarenal backflow, potentially resulting in septic complications. Intrarenal pressure may be reduced by use of ureteral access sheaths, which, however, may cause ureteral damage due to the limited size of the...... ureterorenoscopy: access and irrigation. Pharmacological ureteral relaxation during ureterorenoscopy deserves further attention with regard to reducing complications and postoperative pain....

  7. Stochastic Simulation of Process Calculi for Biology

    Andrew Phillips

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems typically involve large numbers of components with complex, highly parallel interactions and intrinsic stochasticity. To model this complexity, numerous programming languages based on process calculi have been developed, many of which are expressive enough to generate unbounded numbers of molecular species and reactions. As a result of this expressiveness, such calculi cannot rely on standard reaction-based simulation methods, which require fixed numbers of species and reactions. Rather than implementing custom stochastic simulation algorithms for each process calculus, we propose to use a generic abstract machine that can be instantiated to a range of process calculi and a range of reaction-based simulation algorithms. The abstract machine functions as a just-in-time compiler, which dynamically updates the set of possible reactions and chooses the next reaction in an iterative cycle. In this short paper we give a brief summary of the generic abstract machine, and show how it can be instantiated with the stochastic simulation algorithm known as Gillespie's Direct Method. We also discuss the wider implications of such an abstract machine, and outline how it can be used to simulate multiple calculi simultaneously within a common framework.

  8. Urinary stone detection and characterisation with dual-energy CT urography after furosemide intravenous injection: preliminary results

    To investigate the added advantage of IV furosemide injection and the subsequent urine dilution in the detection of urinary calculi in the excretory phase of dual-source dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) urography, and to investigate the feasibility of characterising the calculi through diluted urine. Twenty-three urinary calculi were detected in 116 patients who underwent DECT urography for macroscopic haematuria with a split bolus two- or three-acquisition protocol, including a true unenhanced series and at least a mixed nephrographic excretory phase. Virtual unenhanced images were reconstructed from contrast-enhanced DE data. Calculi were recorded on all series and characterised based on their X-ray absorption characteristics at 100 kVp and 140 kVp in both true unenhanced and nephrographic excretory phase series. All calculi with a diameter more than 2 mm were detected in the virtual unenhanced phase and in the nephrographic excretory phase. Thirteen of these calculi could be characterised in the true unenhanced phase and in the mixed nephrographic excretory phase. The results were strictly identical for both phases, six of them being recognised as non-uric acid calculi and seven as uric acid calculi. Mixed nephrographic excretory phase DECT after furosemide administration allows both detection and characterisation of clinically significant calculi, through the diluted urine. (orig.)

  9. Vesical calculi formation on the slit valves of a migrated distal end of ventriculoperitoneal shunt

    Rahul Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various complications of distal end of the ventriculoperitoneal (VP shunt have been described in the literature. We present, here, an extremely rare and potentially severe complication of vesical calculi formation on the slit valves of distal end of VP shunt which erosively migrated into the urinary bladder. Suprapubic cystolithotomy performed, peritoneal end of the tube found to be eroding and entering into the bladder with two calculi firmly stuck to slit valves in the distal end of the tubing were removed. Shunt was functional, therefore, it was pulled out and repositioned on the superior aspect of the liver; the urinary bladder was repaired. Patient did well postoperatively. This complication was revealed 1.5 years after the shunt was implanted. Although there were symptoms of dysuria and dribbling of urine of short duration, the patient did not show obvious peritoneal signs; suggesting that, penetration of a VP shunt into the urinary bladder can remain asymptomatic for a long period of time, disclosed late and can lead to considerable morbidity. Careful follow-up is important and management should be individualized.

  10. Rhazes, a Genius Physician in Diagnosis and Treatment of Kidney Calculi in Medical History

    Saeed Changizi Ashtiyani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya Razi, known in the west as Rhazes (865 to 925 AD, was born in the ancient city of Rayy, near Tehran, Iran. He was a renowned physician in medical history and not only followed Hippocrates and Galen, but also greatly extended the analytical approach of his predecessors. Based on the existing documents, he was known as the most distinguished character in the world of medicine up to the 17th century. A great number of innovations and pioneering works in the medical science have been recorded in the name of Rhazes. His fundamental works in urology as part of his research in the realm of medicine have remained unknown. Pathophysiology of the urinary tract, venereal diseases, and kidney and bladder calculi are among his main interests in this field. He also purposed and developed methods for diagnosis and treatment of kidney calculi for the first time in medical history. He also presented a very exact and precise description of neuropathic bladder followed by vertebral fracture. He advanced urine analysis and studied function and diseases of the kidneys. Rhazes recommendations for the prevention of calculi are quite scientific and practical and in accordance with current recommendations to avoid hypercalciuria and increased saturation of urine. Rhazes was not only one of the most important Persian physician-philosophers of his era, but for centuries, his writings became fundamental teaching texts in European medical schools. Some important aspects of his contributions to medicine are reviewed.

  11. AN UNASCENDED RIGHT KIDNEY WITH LEFT SIDED URETERIC CALCULI: A CADAVERIC CASE REPORT

    Meril Ann Soman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies of the urinary system constitute approximately 30% of all the congenital malformations. There are various associated anomalies involving number, size, shape, position and vascularity of the kidneys. Unascended kidneys refers to a halt in the migration of the kidneys during their normal embryological development. Defect in the ascent of the kidneys are closely related with variations in the branching pattern of aorta. Here we report a case of an unilateral unascended right kidney in a male cadaver encountered during routine medical dissection. A left sided ureteric calculi was also seen as an incidental finding in the same cadaver. Ureterolithiasis occurs worldwide in all sets of population with 80% of the stones found in the male sex in the age group of 30- 60 years. There are various factors which favour the formation of ureteric calculi which includes geographical, socio-economical as well as the mineral content of water consumed and some general medical causes. An attempt has been made to document the causes for this variation and the preventive measures that can be adopted to prevent the formation of ureteric calculi.

  12. Relationship between the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi and surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi

    The relationship between the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi and the surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi was examined. Thirty-seven staghorn calculi in 35 cases, which were treated with percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) between 1995 and 2007 in Saga University Hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. The number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi was counted based on the radiographic findings of kidney ureter bladder (KUB), intravenous pyelography (IVP) and CT. The surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi were evaluated according to the number of PCNL sessions, the total number of surgical treatments including transurethral ureterolithotripsy (TUL) and shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), the hospitalization period, the stone-free rate and the residual stone rate. The average stone size was 45.1 mm (21-99 mm). The average number of PCNL sessions was 2.5 times. TUL and SWL were conducted in combination with PCNL in 4 and 25 cases, retrospectively. According to the increase in the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi, the number of PCNL sessions, the total number of surgical treatments and the hospitalization period all increased. In cases where staghorn calculi occupied 3 or more calyces, a lower stone-free rate and a higher residual stone rate were observed, compared with those cases where calculi occupied only 2 calyces. Evaluating the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi seems to be one of the useful indicators for a preoperative assessment of surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi. (author)

  13. Bladder calculi complicating intermittent clean catheterization.

    Amendola, M A; Sonda, L P; Diokno, A C; Vidyasagar, M

    1983-10-01

    Eight male patients on clean intermittent catheterization programs for neurogenic bladder dysfunction developed vesical calculi around pubic hairs inadvertently introduced into the bladder, acting as a nidus for incrustation. In three patients, the radiographic appearance of serpentine calcifications in the pelvis was highly consistent with calcareous deposits on strands of hair. Familiarity with this radiologic appearance should suggest the diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting and help avoid misinterpretation of these calcifications, atypical of usual bladder stones. PMID:6604429

  14. More on differential calculi on bicrossproducts

    We extend a previous classification of differentials and Cartan calculus on the bicrossproduct quantum group k(M)-blacktriangleright triangleleft-kG to its dual Hopf algebra H = kM-triangleright blacktriangleleft-k(G). It turns out that the usual bicovariant differential calculi on kM and on k(G) extend naturally to H. We explicitly work out the examples of kZ2-triangleright blacktriangleleft (Z3) and kZ6-triangleright 3). (author)

  15. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Domenico Prezioso; Pasquale Strazzullo; Tullio Lotti; Giampaolo Bianchi; Loris Borghi; Paolo Caione; Marco Carini; Renata Caudarella; Giovanni Gambaro; Marco Gelosa; Andrea Guttilla; Ester Illiano; Marangella Martino; Tiziana Meschi; Piergiorgio Messa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A s...

  16. The Dual Action of Varunadi Kwath in Renal Calculi as well as Uterine Fibroid- A Case Study

    Padavi D. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutrashmari (Renal Calculi is very common disorder. This distressing urinary disorder affects around 5-7 million people in India [11]. The chances of recurrence are always high and the surgery having disadvantage of high cost. The available treatment in modern science is only conservative and surgical in this present study an effort was made to evaluate the role of Varunadi Kwath in Mutrashmari. The main aim of this particular study was inclined towards the disintegration, dissolution, dislodgement and expulsion of renal calculi. The contents of Varunadi Kwath are easily available, economical and are easy to administer, which are having Anti-inflammatory, Diuretic and Antilithic properties. A case of renal calculi with uterine fibroid was diagnosed and the treatment was given for a period of 9 months. The size of the calculus was studied by periodic ultrasonography; the symptoms Mutrakruchrata (Dysuria, Shula (Pain in abdomen, Sadaha Mutrata (Burning micturition are significantly reduced within less than 45 days and total expulsion of calculi in less than 180 days.

  17. A standardisation proof for algebraic pattern calculi

    Kesner, Delia; Ros, Alejandro; 10.4204/EPTCS.49.5

    2011-01-01

    This work gives some insights and results on standardisation for call-by-name pattern calculi. More precisely, we define standard reductions for a pattern calculus with constructor-based data terms and patterns. This notion is based on reduction steps that are needed to match an argument with respect to a given pattern. We prove the Standardisation Theorem by using the technique developed by Takahashi and Crary for lambda-calculus. The proof is based on the fact that any development can be specified as a sequence of head steps followed by internal reductions, i.e. reductions in which no head steps are involved.

  18. SEM and X-ray microanalysis of human prostatic calculi

    Vilches, J.; Lopez, A.; De Palacio, L.; Munoz, C.; Gomez, J.

    1982-02-01

    Calculi removed from human prostates affected with nodular hyperplasia were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and EDAX system. The general spectrum was made up of Na, Al, Mg, S, P, Ca and Zn. Two types of stone were identified morphostructurally and microanalytically: calculi type I of nodular surface with high peaks of S, and calculi type II polyfaceted with high peaks of P and Ca. Their formation from corpora amylacea and/or exogenous constituents is discussed. The superficial deposit of Zn suggests its incorporation from the prostatic liquid and does not seem to play an important role in the genesis.

  19. Concave Urinary Crystallines: Direct Evidence of Calcium Oxalate Crystals Dissolution by Citrate In Vivo

    Yun-Feng Shang; Meng Xu; Guang-Na Zhang; Jian-Ming Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    The changes in urinary crystal properties in patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) calculi after oral administration of potassium citrate (K3cit) were investigated via atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), and zeta potential analyzer. The AFM and SEM results showed that the surface of urinary crystals became concave, the edges and corners of crystals became blunt, the average size of urinary crystallines decreased significantly, a...

  20. Shockwave lithotripsy in patients with renal calculi

    Objective was to demonstrate the efficacy of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in the primary treatment of 1647 patients with renal calculi using a Dornier Doli U/50 lithotripter. One thousand six hundred forty-seven patients underwent SWL as day-cases at King Abdulaziz Hospital, Saudi Arabia between October 2001 and July 2007, using intravenous sedation (Pethidine 1mg/kg and Midazolam 5-10mg) for analgesia in 85.5% of the patients. The treatment outcome of 2241 renal calculi was analyzed and stratified according to the size and site of the stones. Recorded data included shock waves intensity, number of shocks, treatment time, analgesia stone related factors such as size, site, number, nature, composition and any related complications. The stones were grouped into 5 groups, according to the largest stone size in the kidney. Patients were followed up for 6-18 months, mean of 13 months. Complete clearance of the stones occurred in 2154 kidneys (89.5%). At 3-months follow-up, the overall treatment rate was 57.2% and for each group it was 132 (23.5%) for Group I, 254 (36.1%) for Group II, 473 (85.5%) for Group III, 278 (100%) for Group IV and 147 (100%) for Group V. Treatment failed in 87 patients with stone size of 30-39 mm. Fifty-six were solitary pelvic stones treated with ureteroscopy, while 31 were calyceal stoned treated by other modalities such as per-cutaneousnephro-lithotomy. The most common complication was pyelonephritis with or without obstruction. Shock wave lithotripsy treatment was a successful primary management of renal stones of variable sizes in 89.5% of the treated kidneys. (author)

  1. Ample Water, Avoiding Dehydration Can Prevent Renal Calculi

    ... next story A Summer Menace Ample Water, Avoiding Dehydration Can Prevent Renal Calculi By Jan Ehrman On ... often during the humid, oppressive summer months, when dehydration can most frequently occur and there is increased ...

  2. Sonographic and computed tomographic evaluation of intrahepatic calculi

    Menu, Y.; Lorphelin, J.M.; Scherrer, A.; Grenier, P.; Nahum, H.

    1985-09-01

    Intrahepatic calculi in non-Asian patients were studied by sonography and computed tomography (CT). Three patients were studied by CT cholangiography also. In two cases, the calculi were consecutive to Caroli disease, and in two others, the biliary stones were formed proximal to a stenosis of a previous surgical anastomosis. Five patients spontaneously developed intrahepatic calculi. All sonograms were abnormal. Image specificity was good, even when bile ducts were not dilated, if appropriate technique allowed identification of a double-arc-shadow pattern. Sonography strongly suggested the diagnosis in eight patients and was nonspecific in only one. On CT, calculi had various densities, and they were not visible in two patients. CT cholangiography was not particularly helpful. Both examinations strongly underestimate the number of stones, and direct cholangiography remains indicated if surgery is planned.

  3. Sonographic and computed tomographic evaluation of intrahepatic calculi

    Intrahepatic calculi in non-Asian patients were studied by sonography and computed tomography (CT). Three patients were studied by CT cholangiography also. In two cases, the calculi were consecutive to Caroli disease, and in two others, the biliary stones were formed proximal to a stenosis of a previous surgical anastomosis. Five patients spontaneously developed intrahepatic calculi. All sonograms were abnormal. Image specificity was good, even when bile ducts were not dilated, if appropriate technique allowed identification of a double-arc-shadow pattern. Sonography strongly suggested the diagnosis in eight patients and was nonspecific in only one. On CT, calculi had various densities, and they were not visible in two patients. CT cholangiography was not particularly helpful. Both examinations strongly underestimate the number of stones, and direct cholangiography remains indicated if surgery is planned

  4. Diagnosis of ureteral calculi using ultrasonography, intravenous urography and unenhanced Helical Computed Tomography

    Govorčin Mira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography Ultrasonography is an efficient tool in the detection of calculi in the pyelocalyx system, but it may not be sufficient for the area of renal pelvis and ureter, as well as for the ureter and the ureterovesical junction. Intravenous urography Radiolucent stones, dilatation of the ureter and of the pyelocalyx system were identified on the urogram, which are common signs of ureter calctilosis. Defects in the contrast can be caused by blood clots and papillary or malignant tumors of the ureter, thus causing a differential diagnosis problem. Unenhanced Helical Computed Tomography Noncontrast spiral CT is useful for detection for calculi as small as 3mm. It can identify their localization and size without enlargements. The primary and secondary CT signs also confirm the established diagnosis. Conclusion The noncontrast spiral CT is a highly precise method for assessment of kidney pain. It is a reliable and rapid diagnostic modality for the detection of urinary stones which differentiates them from blood clots, tumors, air and other factors which create a differential diagnosis problem.

  5. Classification of bicovariant differential calculi over free orthogonal Hopf algebras

    Thibault De Chanvalon, Manon

    2014-01-01

    We show that if two Hopf algebras are monoidally equivalent, then their categories of bicovariant differential calculi are equivalent. We then classify, for $q \\in \\mathbb{C}^*$ not a root of unity, the finite dimensional bicovariant differential calculi over the Hopf algebra $\\mathcal{O}_q(SL_2)$. Using a monoidal equivalence between free orthogonal Hopf algebras and $\\mathcal{O}_q(SL_2)$ for a given $q$, this leads us to the classification of finite dimensional bicovariant differential calc...

  6. Large bilateral star-shaped calculi in the seminal vesicles.

    Namjoshi S

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Calculi in the seminal vesicles (SV are extremely rare. A patient having large bilateral star-shaped calculi in the SV is reported. They were seen on plain x-ray and confirmed by computed tomography. On the reconstructed CT scans the large stone on the right side measured about 35 X 35 X 50 mm and the one on the left, 30 X 20 X 45 mm. They were not felt on rectal examination, as they were situated laterally.

  7. Existence families, functional calculi and evolution equations

    deLaubenfels, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This book presents an operator-theoretic approach to ill-posed evolution equations. It presents the basic theory, and the more surprising examples, of generalizations of strongly continuous semigroups known as 'existent families' and 'regularized semigroups'. These families of operators may be used either to produce all initial data for which a solution in the original space exists, or to construct a maximal subspace on which the problem is well-posed. Regularized semigroups are also used to construct functional, or operational, calculi for unbounded operators. The book takes an intuitive and constructive approach by emphasizing the interaction between functional calculus constructions and evolution equations. One thinks of a semigroup generated by A as etA and thinks of a regularized semigroup generated by A as etA g(A), producing solutions of the abstract Cauchy problem for initial data in the image of g(A). Material that is scattered throughout numerous papers is brought together and presented in a fresh, ...

  8. On the Expressiveness of Markovian Process Calculi with Durational and Durationless Actions

    Marco Bernardo

    2010-01-01

    Several Markovian process calculi have been proposed in the literature, which differ from each other for various aspects. With regard to the action representation, we distinguish between integrated-time Markovian process calculi, in which every action has an exponentially distributed duration associated with it, and orthogonal-time Markovian process calculi, in which action execution is separated from time passing. Similar to deterministically timed process calculi, we show that these two opt...

  9. Unenhanced helical CT in the evaluation of the urinary tract in children and young adults following urinary tract reconstruction: comparison with sonography

    Purpose. To compare the accuracy of unenhanced, helical CT with sonography for the detection of complications of urinary tract reconstruction. Materials and methods. Forty-six kidneys in 24 patients were examined with CT and sonography. All scans were assessed for ease of renal visualization, presence of renal, ureteral, and bladder calculi, renal scars, hydronephrosis, and abdominal wall hernia. The results of both imaging modalities were independently reported. Results. CT provided excellent visualization of all 46 kidneys, while sonography provided poor visualization of 8 kidneys (17 %) (P < 0.001). CT detected calculi in 10 kidneys, 1 ureter, and 7 bladders. Sonography detected calculi in only 2 kidneys, and 2 bladders. Overall, CT detected significantly more calculi than US (18 vs 4, P = 0.01). CT detected scarring in 15 kidneys, while sonography detected scarring in 10. Hydronephrosis was detected in 6 kidneys by CT and in 8 kidneys by sonography. Three abdominal wall hernias were seen at CT that were not seen at sonography. Conclusion. CT is superior to sonography for the detection of urinary tract calculi and renal scarring. CT will demonstrate abdominal wall hernias that are unsuspected. (orig.)

  10. Intracorporeal Lithotripsy for Ureteral Calculi Using Swiss Lithoclast : SKIMS Experience

    Arif Hamid, M. Saleem Wani, B. S. Wazir

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available At present the techniques available for performing intracorporeal lithotripsy include electrohydraulic,ultrasonic, laser, and ballistic lithotripsy. We present our experience with a unique technology forperforming intracorporeal lithotripsy, namely the Swiss lithoclast, which is a form of ballistic lithotripsy.This simple and inexpensive device uses compressed air to activate a solid probe in a manner similarto that of a jackhammer. We report the use of this lithoclast in 92 patients involving a total of 95ureteral calculi. The lithoclast successfully fragmented 81 of the 95 calculi, a success rate of 85.26%.There were no major complications directly related to the use of this device. The Swiss lithoclastseems to be a safe, effective and an inexpensive means of performing intracorporeal lithotripsy forureteral calculi

  11. Percutaneous Removal of Retained Calculi from the Abdomen

    With rising pressure placed on health service resources minimally invasive techniques requiring only short hospital admissions are increasing in importance. We describe the techniques used to remove calculi from the peritoneal cavity which had been retained after surgery and continued to cause clinical problems. In both cases described the calculi lay within abscess cavities associated with fistulous tracks to the skin. The fistulae were dilated to allow passage of therapeutic radiologic and endoscopic equipment enabling manipulation and subsequent extraction of the stones. In both cases removal of the calculi allowed complete resolution of the fistulae and the patients made a full clinical recovery. Removal of gallstones which have escaped into the peritoneum at laparoscopic cholecystectomy leading to sepsis has been described; we describe the novel management of a patient in whom extraction had already been attempted, at another hospital, without success. Removal of an appendicolith, described herein another patient, does not appear to have been reported previously

  12. Treatment of giant ureterocele calculi by Holmium Laser Lithotripsy

    Haluk Söylemez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Most ureteral stones pass spontaneously. But patients who have a calculi in an ureterocele could not pass their stone, because of narrow ureteral orifice. These stones may remain asymptomatic until hematuria or obstruction occurs.Materials and Methods: Holmium laser has many uses in urology, including soft tissue incision and calculus fragmentation. These properties are ideal for endoscopic management of the ureterocele calculusResults: We present a young patient who has no spesific and severe symptoms with a hypofunctional left kidney because of giant calculi in an ureterocele Conclusion: Its imaging characteristics on intravenous pyelography and endoscopic treatment were emphasized.

  13. Labelled Lambda-calculi with Explicit Copy and Erase

    Maribel Fernández

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present two rewriting systems that define labelled explicit substitution lambda-calculi. Our work is motivated by the close correspondence between Levy's labelled lambda-calculus and paths in proof-nets, which played an important role in the understanding of the Geometry of Interaction. The structure of the labels in Levy's labelled lambda-calculus relates to the multiplicative information of paths; the novelty of our work is that we design labelled explicit substitution calculi that also keep track of exponential information present in call-by-value and call-by-name translations of the lambda-calculus into linear logic proof-nets.

  14. Differential calculi on quantum spaces determined by automorphisms

    If the bimodule of 1-forms of a differential calculus over an associative algebra A is the direct sum of 1-dimensional bimodules, a relation with automorphisms of A shows up. This happens for some familiar quantum-space calculi. (author)

  15. Native and contrast-radiographic examination of the urinary tract

    Govor?in Mira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Plain x-rays and contrast urography are important for diagnosing urinary tract diseases. The first plain film of the urinary tract was made in 1896, and the first tests using contrasts started in 1904. Excretory urography has been used since 1930. Plain film of the urinary tract Plain films of the urinary tract are used in the kidney area, the area of the ureter and urinary bladder. They also show structures (lumbar and sacral spine and pelvis, muscles (m. iliopsoas as well as calculi. Excretory urography X-ray visualization of the urinary tract with contrast substances is intravenous urography. It is used for diagnosing diseases of the upper urinary system with symptoms such as: pain, colic, hydronephrosis, as well as acute cortical infections, urinary bladder tumors, etc. Retrograde urography Retrograde urography is a procedure recommended when either the pyelocalyx system or the ureter are not seen unilaterally or bilaterally. Cystography and urethrocystography Cystography is used to visualize the bladder. It is recommended in case of intravesical obstruction. Urethrocystography is a technique for investigation of the anterior and prostatic urethra as well as the neck of the urinary bladder. Conclusion Plain film of the urinary tract, excretory urography, retrograde pyelography, cystography and urethrocystography, used along with ultrasonography, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance, are useful diagnostic procedures which provide accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.

  16. Major Constituents, Free Amino Acids and Metal Levels in Renal Calculi from Multan Region

    Muhammad Aslam Shad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal calculi collected from adult male/female patients of Multan, Pakistan were analyzed for major constituents, free amino acids and metallic contents. Composition of calculi (whole powder was determined by chemical method using stone analysis kit. Thirteen distinct types of renal calculi were identified. Most of the calculi were compound in nature, however, some simple calculi containing calcium oxalate only were also found. Two dimensional descending paper chromatography was used to identify free amino acids in some prominent classes of renal calculi. Arginine, aspartinine, glycine, leucine, isoleucine and tryptophan were found in nearly all the calculi whereas glutamic acid, histidine, hydroxyproline, phenylalanine, threonine and tryosine occurred randomly. Analysis of major (Na, K, Ca and Mg and trace (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Mn elements in the calculi was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Elements such as Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn have shown their presence in nearly all the calculi however Pb, Ni, Mn and Cu levels were below the limit of detection. This study has revealed useful information about the chemical nature of renal calculi from Multan region. It will be helpful in adopting preventive strategies to minimize stone formation and their reoccurrence.

  17. Bacterial spectrum of urine in staghorn calculi nephrolithiasis

    Kogan ?.I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the role of the bacterial spectrum of urine in the development and clinical course of staghorn calculi nephrolithiasis. Patients and Methods. From 2008 to 2010 in the urological department of Rostov State Medical University urine culture was assessed in 86 patients with staghorn calculi. Mean age was 50,45,9 (25-73 years. Results: Most of the patients with staghorn calculus (89,5% have microbial contamination of urine, which has a high correlation with leucocituria, and the spectrum of microorganisms often has the various bacterial associations, which caused more infection complications during treatment. Conclusion: In the urine urease-producing bacteria, E. Coli, gram-positive organisms, nonclostridial anaerobic bacteria were predominated

  18. Percutaneous intervention of large bladder calculi in neuropathic voiding dysfunction

    Chad P. Hubsher; Joseph Costa

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report our results and rationale for treating large bladder calculi in patients with neuropathic voiding dysfunction (NVD) using percutaneous cystolithalopaxy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with a previously diagnosed NVD presenting with a large stone burden were identified from our department database and a retrospective review of case notes and imaging was performed. RESULTS: Percutaneous access to remove bladder stones (range 8x7 to 3x2 cm) had a mean surgery length of 15...

  19. Tutorial on separation results in process calculi via leader election problems

    Vigliotti, Maria Grazia; Phillips, Iain; Palamidessi, Catuscia

    2007-01-01

    We compare the expressive power of process calculi by studying the problem of electing a leader in a symmetric network of processes. We consider the \\pi-calculus with mixed choice, separate choice and internal mobility, value-passing CCS and Mobile Ambients, together with other ambient calculi (Safe Ambients, the Push and Pull Ambient Calculus and Boxed Ambients). We provide a unified approach for all these calculi using reduction semantics.

  20. The efficacy of tamsulosin in lower ureteral calculi

    Griwan M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There has been a paradigm shift in the management of ureteral calculi in the last decade with the introduction of new less invasive methods, such as ureterorenoscopy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. Aims: Recent studies have reported excellent results with medical expulsive therapy (MET for distal ureteral calculi, both in terms of stone expulsion and control of ureteral colic pain. Settings and Design: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting and MET with tamsulosin. Materials and Methods: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting (Group I and MET with tamsulosin (Group II in 60 patients, with a follow up of 28 days. Statistical Analysis: Independent ′t′ test and chi-square test. Results: Group II showed a statistically significant advantage in terms of the stone expulsion rate. The mean number of episodes of pain, mean days to stone expulsion and mean amount of analgesic dosage used were statistically significantly lower in Group II (P value is 0.007, 0.01 and 0.007, respectively as compared to Group I. Conclusions: It is concluded that MET should be considered for uncomplicated distal ureteral calculi before ureteroscopy or extracorporeal lithotripsy. Tamsulosin has been found to increase and hasten stone expulsion rates, decrease acute attacks by acting as a spasmolytic, reduces mean days to stone expulsion and decreases analgesic dose usage.

  1. Diagnosis and surgical management of obstructive ureteral calculi in cats: 11 cases (1993-1996)

    To evaluate diagnostic methods, surgical treatment, perioperative management, and renal function of cats with obstructive calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Retrospective case series. 11 cats that underwent surgery for removal of calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Medical records were reviewed, and the following information was recorded: signalment; results of physical examination, clinicopathologic analyses, and abdominal imaging; surgical procedure; postoperative management; and results of ureterolith quantitative analysis. Ureteroliths in the proximal portion of the ureter were removed from 5 cats (pyelotomy, 1 cat; unilateral ureterotomy, 2 cats; bilateral ureterotomies, 2 cats). Calculi in the middle and distal part of the ureter were removed by partial ureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy (6 cats). Ten cats recovered from surgery and were discharged from the hospital. One cat died from unknown causes 4 months after surgery, and 1 cat had a nephrectomy elsewhere 5 weeks after ureterolith removal. Eight cats were evaluated 12 to 20 months after surgery. Of these, 2 cats that were markedly azotemic before surgery improved after surgery, and 2 cats developed nephroliths after surgery. Also, of 5 cats that had nephroliths that were not removed at the time of surgery, 4 still had visible nephroliths. One cat had recurrent ureteral obstruction from a ureterolith and persistent urinary tract infection. Ureteroliths or ultrasonographic evidence of ureteral obstruction were not detected in other cats. A combination of microsurgical techniques and intensive postoperative care is necessary to minimize morbidity of cats after removal of a ureterolith. Renal function may improve or stabilize after removal of the ureteral obstruction

  2. Safety and efficacy of transurethral pneumatic lithotripsy for bladder calculi in children

    Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of transurethral pneumatic lithotripsy for bladder calculi in children. Method: The study included 100 children up to 15 years of age undergoing pneumatic cystolithoclast for bladder stones. The descriptive study was conducted from September 2006 to February 2007 at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi. The inclusion criteria was children up to 15 years of age with a bladder stone of up to 3 cm, pre-operative negative urine culture, no coagulopathy and fit for general anaesthesia. An X-ray and ultrasound of Kidney and Urinary Bladder (KUB) was mandatory. The procedure was done under general anaesthesia with a single dose of pre-operative antibiotic. A mini-scope of 4 FR or a semi-rigid ureteroscope of 7/8.5 FR with pneumatic wolf lithoclast was used for the fragmentation of stones. Duration of procedure, any per-operative and post-operative complications and the duration of hospital stay were recorded. Post-operatively, the patient underwent ultrasound Kidney and Urinary Bladder at the first follow-up to assess stone clearance after one week. Result: Mean patients age was 4.95+-3.3 years. The male-to-female ratio was 11.5: 1 The mean hospital stay was 9.2 +- 2.5 hours. The mean operating time was 25 (10 -65) minutes. Ten (10%) patients developed minor complications out of which 5 (5%) developed haematuria and 4 (4%) developed difficulty in passing urine. One (1%) of the patients developed post-operative retention of urine. All the patients were stone free after the procedure. Conclusion: The transurethral pneumatic lithoclast is very effective and safe in children with bladder stones up to 3 cm. (author)

  3. Classification of bicovariant differential calculi on quantum groups of type A, B, C and D

    Under the assumptions that q is not a root of unity and that the differentials duij of the matrix entries span the left module of first order forms, we classify bicovariant differential calculi on quantum groups An-1, Bn, Cn and Dn. We prove that apart one dimensional differential calculi and from finitely many values of q, there are precisely 2n such calculi on the quantum group An-1 = SLq(n) for n ≥ 3. All these calculi have the dimension n2. For the quantum groups Bn, Cn and Dn we show that except for finitely many q there exist precisely two N2-dimensional bicovariant calculi for N ≥ 3, where N = 2n + 1 for Bn and N = 2n for Cn, Dn. The structure of these calculi is explicitly described and the corresponding ad-invariant right ideals of ker ε are determined. In the limit q → 1 two of the 2n calculi for An-1 and one of the two calculi for Bn, Cn and Dn contain the ordinary classical differential calculus on the corresponding Lie group as a quotient. (orig.)

  4. A Syntactic Correspondence between Context-Sensitive Calculi and Abstract Machines

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    -mu-calculus, delimited continuations, stack inspection, proper tail-recursion, and lazy evaluation. Most of the machines already exist but have been obtained independently and are only indirectly related to the corresponding calculi. All of the calculi are new and they make it possible to directly reason about the...

  5. A Syntactic Correspondence between Context-Sensitive Calculi and Abstract Machines

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    -mu-calculus, delimited continuations, stack inspection, proper tail-recursion, and lazy evaluation. Most of the machines already exist but they have been obtained independently and are only indirectly related to the corresponding calculi. All of the calculi are new and they make it possible directly to reason about the...

  6. Approximating Propositional Calculi by Finite-valued Logics

    Baaz, M; Baaz, Matthias; Zach, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Bernays introduced a method for proving underivability results in propositional calculi by truth tables. In general, this motivates an investigations of how to find, given a propositional logic, a finite-valued logic which has as few tautologies as possible, but which has all the valid formulas of the given logic as tautologies. It is investigated how far this method can be carried using (1) one or (2) an infinite sequence of finite-valued logics. It is shown that the best candidate matrices for (1) can be computed from a calculus, and how sequences for (2) can be found for certain classes of logics (including, in particular, logics characterized by Kripke semantics).

  7. Approximating Propositional Calculi by Finite-valued Logics

    Baaz, Matthias; Zach, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Bernays introduced a method for proving underivability results in propositional calculi by truth tables. In general, this motivates an investigations of how to find, given a propositional logic, a finite-valued logic which has as few tautologies as possible, but which has all the valid formulas of the given logic as tautologies. It is investigated how far this method can be carried using (1) one or (2) an infinite sequence of finite-valued logics. It is shown that the best candidate matrices ...

  8. Detection of urinary stones at reduced radiation exposure: a phantom study comparing computed radiography and a low-dose digital radiography linear slit scanning system

    Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Chakraborty, D. P.; Thoeny, Harriet C.; Loupatatzis, Christos; Vock, Peter; Harald, Bonel

    2010-01-01

    Objective In this experimental study we assessed the diagnostic performance of linear slit scanning radiography (LSSR) compared to conventional computed radiography (CR) in the detection of urinary calculi in an anthropomorphic phantom imitating patients weighing approximately 58 to 88 kg. Conclusion Compared to computed radiography, LSSR is superior in the detection of urinary stones and may be used for pretreatment localization and follow-up at a lower patient exposure. PMID:19457787

  9. Comparison of standard-dose and low-dose scanning with 16-MDCT for urinary calculi

    Objective: To explore the feasibility to diagnose ureterolithiasis by 16-multidetector spiral computed tomography (16-MDCT) at different low doses based on body mass index (BMI). Methods: A total of one hundred patients from 2009 Sep to 2010 Feb suspected of ureterolithiasis were randomly divided into 2 equal groups undergoing 16-MDCT at standard-dose (120 kV, 240 mA) or low dose (120, 80, and 50 mA, respectively) based on the body mass index (BMI). Taking the clinical diagnosis as the standard, the sensitivity level, specificity level, and positive predictive value of these groups were compared. Results: The dose length product (DLP) of the low-dose CT group and the standard dose group were (726±45.67) and (251±73.87) mGy·cm, respectively. There was significant average CT dose index (CTDIvol ) were 18.95 and 6.65 mGy, respectively. There was significant difference between the two groups (t=31.78, P<0.01). The sensitivity level, specificity level, and positive predictive value of the low-dose group were 97.1% , 94.0%, and 94.3%, respectively, all not significantly different from those of the standard-dose groups (97.3%, 96.0%, and 97.3%, respectively, P>0.05). Conclusions: It is feasible to diagnose ureterolithiasis by low-dose 16-MDCT based on BMI with the obtained image quality meeting the clinical diagnostic requirements. (authors)

  10. What is important to patients receiving extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy for urinary tract calculi?

    Kouriefs, C.; Quatan, N.; Larking, A.; Watkin, N. A.; Boyd, P. J. R.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients' experience and expectations are paramount in the current era of clinical governance. However, there is lack of published information on patients' expectations from extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment for renal stone disease. We conducted a survey to quantify what aspects of ESWL are important purely from the patients' prospective. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Postal questionnaires were sent out to all patients who attended our unit for ESWL treatment for re...

  11. The role of computed tomography and densitometry in pre-operative investigation of urinary calculi

    The study involved 96 patients with urolithiasis. Considerable variations in the density (120-1800 HU) were observed. Interrelation of the stone density determined by CT-densitometry, their chemical composition, degree and character of the stone destruction were revealed

  12. Vaginal Calculus in a Woman With Mixed Urinary Incontinence and Vaginal Mesh Exposure.

    Winkelman, William D; Rabban, Joseph T; Korn, Abner P

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal calculi are extremely rare and are most commonly encountered in the setting of an urethrovaginal or vesicovaginal fistula. We present a case of a 72-year-old woman with mixed urinary incontinence and vaginal mesh exposure incidentally found to have a large vaginal calculus. We removed the calculus surgically and analyzed the components. Results demonstrated the presence of ammonium-magnesium phosphate hexahydrate and carbonate apatite. PMID:26825410

  13. Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review

    Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone...

  14. The composition of urinary stones in central sindh

    To determine chemical analysis of urinary stones of central sindh. Study design: Prospective and randomized study. Setting: Department of Surgery and Pathology of Peoples University of Medical and Health Sciences Nawabshah. Duration of study: Three years from May 2008 to May 2011. Material and Methods: Total 106 urolith patients who underwent open stone surgery were included in the study. EDTA Titration used for determination of calcium ions and determination of oxalate, phosphate, magnesium, ammonia, uric acid and cystine stones was carried out using spectrophotometer. These patients were asked to fill out a proforma with parameters of age, sex, radiological location of stone and chemical composition of surgically recovered stones. The stone analysis findings were reviewed and compared with other reported series Results: In this study 75(70.75%) patients were male and 31 (29.25%) female. Male to female ratio was of 2.41:1. The age ranged from 1 to 70 years with the mean of 22.69 years. The peak incidence of upper urinary tract stone in 20-30 years and lower urinary tract stones in both sexes was under 10 years. Anatomical location of stone showed 48(45.29%) renal, 13(12.26%) ureteric and 45(42.45%) bladder calculi. Chemical analysis revealed 56(52.8%) calcium oxalate, 7(6.6%) calcium phosphate, 11(10.3%) ammonium urate, 18(16.9%) uric acid, 13(12.2%) Sturvite and 1(0.9%) cystine calculi. Conclusion: It was concluded that urolithiasis is predominantly male disease. No age group was spared to stone disease. Calcium oxalate, uric acid, ammonium urate and mixed calculi are the main types in our study due to poor nutritional status, poverty and inadequate health facilities. Considering that knowledge of stone composition is of utmost importance to modify the incidence of urolithiasis. (author)

  15. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for lower pole calculi smaller than one centimeter

    Chaussy, Christian; Bergsdorf, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has revolutionized the treatment of urinary calculi and became the accepted standard therapy for the majority of stone patients. Only for stones located in the lower calix, ESWL displayed a limited efficacy. Since the stone-free rate seemed to be preferential, endoscopic maneuvers like percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) have been proposed as the primary approach for this stone localization. Stone size seems to be the most important parameter in regard to the stone-free rate, whereas anatomical characteristics of the lower pole collecting system are discussed controversial. Various studies show a good stone clearance between 70-84% for stones up to 1 cm in diameter. Additional physical and medical measures are suitable to improve treatment results. Stone remnants after ESWL, defined as clinical insignificant residual fragments (CIRF) will not cause problems in every case and will pass until up to 24 months after treatment; in total 80-90% of all patients will become stone-free or at least symptom-free. When complete stone-free status is the primary goal, follow-up examinations with new radiological technologies like spiral CT show that the stone-free rate of ESWL and endoscopically treated patients (RIRS) does not differ significantly. However, in comparison to endoscopic stone removal, shockwave therapy is noninvasive, anesthesia-free and can be performed in an outpatient setup. Therefore, ESWL remains the first choice option for the treatment of lower caliceal stones up to 1 cm. The patient will definitely favour this procedure. PMID:19468510

  16. Arithmetical proofs of strong normalization results for symmetric lambda calculi

    David, René

    2009-01-01

    We give arithmetical proofs of the strong normalization of two symmetric $\\lambda$-calculi corresponding to classical logic. The first one is the $\\bar{\\lambda}\\mu\\tilde{\\mu}$-calculus introduced by Curien & Herbelin. It is derived via the Curry-Howard correspondence from Gentzen's classical sequent calculus LK in order to have a symmetry on one side between "program" and "context" and on other side between "call-by-name" and "call-by-value". The second one is the symmetric $\\lambda \\mu$-calculus. It is the $\\lambda \\mu$-calculus introduced by Parigot in which the reduction rule $\\mu'$, which is the symmetric of $\\mu$, is added. These results were already known but the previous proofs use candidates of reducibility where the interpretation of a type is defined as the fix point of some increasing operator and thus, are highly non arithmetical.

  17. A survey of computational calculi used in musical applications

    Gerardo M., Sarria M..

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En las ltimas dcadas muchos modelos formales han sido propuestos para formalizar aplicaciones musicales, para resolver problemas musicales y de improvisacin, y para probar propiedades en la msica. En este artculo describiremos brevemente algunos de estos modelos formales (los clculos computaci [...] onales); proveeremos una descripcin de algunas aplicaciones de dichos formalismos; finalmente discutiremos algunas consideraciones sobre cada clculo mencionado aqu, resaltando fortalezas y debilidades Abstract in english During the last decades, several formal models have been proposed to formalize musical applications, to solve musical and improvisation problems, and to prove properties in music. In this paper, we briefly describe some of those formal models (computational calculi). We provide a description of some [...] applications of these formalisms, and discuss some considerations about each calculus mentioned here remarking strengths and weaknesses

  18. Percutaneous intervention of large bladder calculi in neuropathic voiding dysfunction

    Chad P. Hubsher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report our results and rationale for treating large bladder calculi in patients with neuropathic voiding dysfunction (NVD using percutaneous cystolithalopaxy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with a previously diagnosed NVD presenting with a large stone burden were identified from our department database and a retrospective review of case notes and imaging was performed. RESULTS: Percutaneous access to remove bladder stones (range 8x7 to 3x2 cm had a mean surgery length of 150 min and blood loss of 23 mL. Six of the seven patients treated percutaneously were discharged on the day of surgery and suffered no complications, while one patient experienced poor suprapubic tube drainage and required overnight admission with discharge the following day. Transurethral removal of stone burden (range 4x4 to 4x3 cm had a mean surgery length of 111 min and blood loss of 8 mL. Each of these three patients were under our care for less than 23 hours, and one patient required a second attempt to remove 1x0.5 cm of stone fragments. There was no statistical difference between mean operative times and estimated blood loss, p = 0.5064 and p = 0.0944 respectively, for the two treatment methods. CONCLUSION: In this small series, percutaneous cystolithalopaxy was a safe, effective, and often preferred minimally invasive option for removal of large calculi in patients with NVD. We suggest possible guidelines for best endoscopic approach in this population, although a larger and prospectively randomized series will be ideal for definitive conclusions.

  19. Porfirinas en Clculos Renales (Revisin) / Porphyrins in renal calculi (Review)

    ML., Traba Villameytide.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Hemos realizado una revisin del contenido de porfirinas en una clase peculiar de clculos renales. Estos son negros como el carbn y presentan un espectro infrarrojo (EIR) similar al conocido como "materia orgnica", el cual no indica la clase de sustancia a la que corresponde. Otros tipos de clcu [...] los renales, principalmente de pequeo tamao y eliminados espontneamente, pueden tener un compuesto oscuro o negro de forma difusa o aislada y presentan un espectro de IR similar al de "materia orgnica". Despus de observar que la hemoglobina presentaba un espectro de IR de "materia orgnica", estudiamos, por cromatografa en capa fina, un mtodo sensible para la determinacin de porfirinas, la presencia de porfirinas en diversos tipos de clculos renales negros y oscuros, ya que las porfirinas son los precursores del grupo hemo. Este trabajo ha puesto de manifiesto dos tipos de porfirinas: la coproporfirina, en pacientes que padecen hepatopatas, y la uroporfirina y heptacarboxilporfirina en pacientes con algn tipo de porfiria o bien con fracaso renal crnico. Abstract in english We performed a review of the porphyrines content in a type of black, charcoal-like, renal calculi exhibiting infrarred spectra (IRS) similar to those characteristic of "organic material" which has not yet been fully elucidate. Several other types of renal calculi, mainly those of small size, spontan [...] eous passage renal stone, may also have diffuse or isolated dark charcoal components showing "organic material" IRS. After observing that haemoglobin has an "organic material" IRS, we studied, by a sensitive thin layer chromatography method, the presence of porphyrines in several types of dark or charcoal renal stones, since porphyrines are the physiological precursors of haemo group biosynthesis. We found two types of porphyrine content: coproporphyrin, in patients suffering from hepatopathy, and uroporphyrin and heptacarboxil-porphyrin in patients with some types of porphyria or with chronic renal failure.

  20. Evaluation of the Raphanus sativus effect on urinary pH

    Hamid Mazdak; Mohammad Masoud Nikkar; Linda Ghanea

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to urology texts, urinary calculi are the third most common affliction of the urinary tract and they pose great expenses on health services. The use of oral herbal medication is one of the cheapest ways of treating this disease (in some societies black radish plant is used as a treatment). The scientific term for black radish is Raph...

  1. Radiologic contribution to the extracorporeal lithotripsy treatment of calyceal diverticular calculi

    The authors reviewed the radiologic studies in 19 patients with calyceal diverticular calculi treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy (EL) in order to establish criteria predicting successful outcome. Pre-EL imaging was performed to evaluate the size of calculus in relation to the diverticular cavity, and the width of the connection of the diverticulum to the adjacent calyx. Post-EL studies were performed to assess fragmentation and passage of fragments. EL fragmented calculi in 15 diverticula with cavities larger than stone volume. Complete passage of fragments was shown in five patients and partial passage in two, all with wide diverticular necks. No passage was seen in eight diverticular with fragmented calculi, five of which had narrow or nondemonstrable necks. The radiologic demonstration of large diverticular correlates well with effective EL fragmentation, and a wide neck results in satisfactory fragment passage. Calculi in tight, narrowly communicating diverticula are unlikely to respond to EL

  2. Bladder calculi formed over a hair nidus in spinal injury cases

    Joshi, Mrinal; Mittal, Nimish

    2014-01-01

    Clean intermittent catheterization has been demonstrated to be a safe and effective method of bladder drainage in patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. However, breakdowns in technique may allow the introduction of foreign matter into the bladder and thereby result in bladder calculi. The three cases reported herein demonstrate this potential problem in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) with hair nidus as the source of bladder calculi causing neurogenic bladder. In each situation,...

  3. Percutaneous Endoscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Management of Complicated Biliary Calculi

    Healy, Kelly; Chamsuddin, Abbas; Spivey, James; Martin, Louis; Nieh, Peter; Ogan, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Advances in endoscopic techniques have transformed the management of urolithiasis. We sought to evaluate the role of such urological interventions for the treatment of complex biliary calculi. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients (n=9) undergoing percutaneous holmium laser lithotripsy for complicated biliary calculi over a 4-year period (12/2003 to 12/2007). All previously failed standard techniques include ERCP with sphincterotomy (n=6), PTH...

  4. Definitive ureteroscopy and intracorporeal lithotripsy in treatment of ureteral calculi during pregnancy

    Teleb, Mohamed; Ragab, Ahmed; Dawod, Tamer; Elgalaly, Hazem; Elsayed, Ehab; Sakr, Ahmed; Abdelhameed, Ahmed; Maarouf, Arif; Khalil, Salem

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the outcome of using semi-rigid ureteroscopy with or without intracorporeal pneumatic lithotripsy vs. temporary ureteric JJ stenting in the management of obstructing ureteric calculi in pregnant women. Patients and methods This prospective comparative study comprised 43 pregnant women with obstructing ureteric calculi. The diagnosis was based on the acute flank pain as the main symptom, microscopic haematuria, and unilateral hydronephrosis on abdominal ultrasonography (U...

  5. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation. PMID:25433503

  6. Urinary Diversion

    ... diversions and begin growing in number. At times, bacterial overgrowth causes a symptomatic urinary tract infection. Symptoms of infection may include fever milky urine or urine containing extra ... out bacteria and keeping bacterial counts low. Patients should talk with their health ...

  7. Anti-Urolithiatic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Pedalium Murex Linn. Fruits on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Calculi

    Divyesh R. Mandavia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate effect of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits on experimentalmodel of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided in 6 groups.Normal controls received distilled water for 28 days. Other five groups received ethylene glycol(1% v/v in distilled water for 28 days. Pedalium murex ethanolic extract was given 200 mg/kgand 400 mg/kg orally in distilled water for 28 days in prophylactic groups (III and IV and from15th to 28th days in treatment groups (V and VI. The urea, creatinine, random blood sugar, aspartateaminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and calcium weremeasured on 28th day. 24 hr urinary oxalate and volume were measured on day 0 and 28. On day28, kidneys were removed, weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. Calcium oxalatecrystallization was evaluated by renal histopathology and in-vitro method of mineralization.All parameters were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis or one-way ANOVA with post-hoc test.Results: Pedalium murex showed significant improvement in renal function and kidney weight inprophylactic groups as compared to ethylene glycol controls. It did not show any effect on urinaryoxalate, urine volume and any other serological parameters. Calcium oxalate crystallization wassignificantly reduced in all the Pedalium murex treated groups (P < .05. Calcium oxalate and phosphatemineralization were also inhibited by 33% and 57%.Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex fruits possess significant activity for preventionof renal calculi.

  8. Ultrastructure and elemental composition of human pancreatic calculi.

    Pitchumoni, C S; Viswanathan, K V; Gee Varghese, P J; Banks, P A

    1987-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) have been used in this study to investigate the morphology, nature, and arrangement of major, minor, and trace elements in human pancreatic calculi (PC) obtained from patients with alcoholic and tropical pancreatitis. The present study has confirmed previous observations that PC are rich in CaCO3 (as calcite) and many other elements. Further, we have shown for the first time that the amorphous nidus contained only iron, chromium, and nickel, whereas the outer shell contained calcium and 17 other elements. Based on our studies, we postulate the formation of PC to be taking place in multilayers and multistages. Formation of inner protein nidus in the form of a cobweb is the first stage, then calcite is deposited on this fibrous network as tiny crystals. Because of their high surface area and high surface activity, other metallic ions are incorporated onto it through co-precipitation, adsorption, and/or lattice substitution. This study has further shown that irrespective of the etiology for chronic pancreatitis, the structure and composition of PC are the same suggesting a common pathway for lithogenesis in the pancreatic duct. PMID:3628220

  9. MEDICAL EXPULSIVE THERAPY OF URETERIC CALCULI - OUR EXPERIENCE

    Ramesh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Uretric stones can be treated with multiple modalities including medical therapy, uretroscopy, shockwave lithotripsy (SWS, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, open/laparoscopic stone removal, and/or combinations of these modalities. The aim is to study the effectivene ss of medical management of uretric stones and to compare the effectiveness of Tamsulosin and Tamsulosin with steroid . MATERIALS & METHODS: 120 Patients who came with acute uretric colic were categorized into III categories of less than 5mm, 5mm to 7mm and more than 7mm based on NCCT. They were consecutively allotted to one of the three groups, the group I patients received Anti - Biotics with NSAIDs group II received Tamsulosin in addition Anti - Biotics and NSAIDs and III rd group received Anti - Biotics, Tamsu losin, NSAIDs in addition Deflazacart 30mg for a period of 10 days. The results were evaluated at the end of 10 days medical treatment. RESULTS : 90 out of 120 patients were re - evaluated at the end of 10 days. The calculi of 7mm should be removed as the chances of passage is <20%. The medical treatment with Tamsulosin or Tamsulosin with Deflazacart does not offer significant benefit.

  10. On the Expressiveness of Markovian Process Calculi with Durational and Durationless Actions

    Marco Bernardo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Several Markovian process calculi have been proposed in the literature, which differ from each other for various aspects. With regard to the action representation, we distinguish between integrated-time Markovian process calculi, in which every action has an exponentially distributed duration associated with it, and orthogonal-time Markovian process calculi, in which action execution is separated from time passing. Similar to deterministically timed process calculi, we show that these two options are not irreconcilable by exhibiting three mappings from an integrated-time Markovian process calculus to an orthogonal-time Markovian process calculus that preserve the behavioral equivalence of process terms under different interpretations of action execution: eagerness, laziness, and maximal progress. The mappings are limited to classes of process terms of the integrated-time Markovian process calculus with restrictions on parallel composition and do not involve the full capability of the orthogonal-time Markovian process calculus of expressing nondeterministic choices, thus elucidating the only two important differences between the two calculi: their synchronization disciplines and their ways of solving choices.

  11. Computer-aided detection of renal calculi from noncontrast CT images using TV-flow and MSER features

    Liu, Jianfei; Wang, Shijun; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M., E-mail: rms@nih.gov [Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1182 (United States); Linguraru, Marius George [Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children’s National Health System Center, Washington, DC 20010 and School of Medicine and Health Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20010 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Renal calculi are common extracolonic incidental findings on computed tomographic colonography (CTC). This work aims to develop a fully automated computer-aided diagnosis system to accurately detect renal calculi on CTC images. Methods: The authors developed a total variation (TV) flow method to reduce image noise within the kidneys while maintaining the characteristic appearance of renal calculi. Maximally stable extremal region (MSER) features were then calculated to robustly identify calculi candidates. Finally, the authors computed texture and shape features that were imported to support vector machines for calculus classification. The method was validated on a dataset of 192 patients and compared to a baseline approach that detects calculi by thresholding. The authors also compared their method with the detection approaches using anisotropic diffusion and nonsmoothing. Results: At a false positive rate of 8 per patient, the sensitivities of the new method and the baseline thresholding approach were 69% and 35% (p < 1e − 3) on all calculi from 1 to 433 mm{sup 3} in the testing dataset. The sensitivities of the detection methods using anisotropic diffusion and nonsmoothing were 36% and 0%, respectively. The sensitivity of the new method increased to 90% if only larger and more clinically relevant calculi were considered. Conclusions: Experimental results demonstrated that TV-flow and MSER features are efficient means to robustly and accurately detect renal calculi on low-dose, high noise CTC images. Thus, the proposed method can potentially improve diagnosis.

  12. Computer-aided detection of renal calculi from noncontrast CT images using TV-flow and MSER features

    Purpose: Renal calculi are common extracolonic incidental findings on computed tomographic colonography (CTC). This work aims to develop a fully automated computer-aided diagnosis system to accurately detect renal calculi on CTC images. Methods: The authors developed a total variation (TV) flow method to reduce image noise within the kidneys while maintaining the characteristic appearance of renal calculi. Maximally stable extremal region (MSER) features were then calculated to robustly identify calculi candidates. Finally, the authors computed texture and shape features that were imported to support vector machines for calculus classification. The method was validated on a dataset of 192 patients and compared to a baseline approach that detects calculi by thresholding. The authors also compared their method with the detection approaches using anisotropic diffusion and nonsmoothing. Results: At a false positive rate of 8 per patient, the sensitivities of the new method and the baseline thresholding approach were 69% and 35% (p < 1e − 3) on all calculi from 1 to 433 mm3 in the testing dataset. The sensitivities of the detection methods using anisotropic diffusion and nonsmoothing were 36% and 0%, respectively. The sensitivity of the new method increased to 90% if only larger and more clinically relevant calculi were considered. Conclusions: Experimental results demonstrated that TV-flow and MSER features are efficient means to robustly and accurately detect renal calculi on low-dose, high noise CTC images. Thus, the proposed method can potentially improve diagnosis

  13. Acute urinary retention as a late complication of subcutaneous liquid silicone injection: a case report

    Leandro Luongo de Matos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute urinary retention is characterized by a sudden interruption of urinary output; urine is retained in the bladder due to either functional or obstructive anatomic factors, and cannot be voided. The main causes of acute urinary obstruction are benign prostatic hyperplasia, constipation, prostate adenocarcinoma, urethral stenosis, clot retention, neurological disorders, following surgery, calculi, drugs, or urinary tract infections. A transvestite patient, aged 55 years, described having had liquid silicone subcutaneously injected in various parts of the body, the last one four years ago. He complained of absent urinary output during the last 14 hours. The physical examination revealed skin deformation due to migration of implants; a hard nodule (characterized as a foreign body was present in the preputium and a diagnosis of acute urinary retention was made; an unsuccessful attempt to exteriorize the glans for urinary catheterization, was followed by therapeutic cystostomy. Acute urinary retention has not been mentioned in the medical literature as a complication of liquid silicone subcutaneous injection.

  14. Flexible Ureteroscopic Management of Horseshoe Kidney Renal Calculi

    Jie Ding

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the clinical efficacy of flexible ureteroscope (F-URS combined with holmium laser lithotripter in treating renal calculi in horseshoe kidney.Materials and Methods:From November 2010 to December 2013, the medical history and charts of sixteen patients (mean age 42.9±11.6 years, range 26-66 years, including 13 males and 3 females were analyzed retrospectively. Mean stone burden was 29±8 mm (range 17-42 mm2. Mean stone digitized surface area (DSA was 321±94 mm2 (range 180-538 mm2. Under spinal anesthesia in a modified lithotomy position with the head down, rigid ureteroscope was placed firstly into the ureter to reach the level of the pelvis, a zebra guide wire was inserted and following the removal of the rigid ureteroscope, an ureteral access sheath was positioned along the guide wire, then passed the URF P-5 flexible ureteroscope into the renal cavities over the guidewire. After locating the stones, holmium laser lithotripsy was performed.Results:The average operative time was 92±16 minutes (range 74-127 min.. No major complications were encountered. Ten patients obtained stone-free status with one session, four obtained stone-free status after two sessions. Single session stone-free rate was 62.5%, overall stone-free rate was 87.5%. Two patients have small residual stones in the lower pole.Conclusions:F-URS combined with holmium laser lithotripter and nitinol basket, is safe and effective in dealing with moderate stone diameter (<30 mm in HSKs with high clearance rates and low complication rates.

  15. Proceedings Fourth Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi 2010

    Ciobanu, Gabriel; 10.4204/EPTCS.40

    2010-01-01

    The 4th Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi (MeCBIC 2010) is organized in Jena as a satellite event of the Eleventh International Conference on Membrane Computing (CMC11). Biological membranes play a fundamental role in the complex reactions which take place in cells of living organisms. The importance of this role has been considered in two different types of formalisms introduced recently. Membrane systems were introduced as a class of distributed parallel computing devices inspired by the observation that any biological system is a complex hierarchical structure, with a flow of biochemical substances and information that underlies their functioning. The modeling and analysis of biological systems has also attracted considerable interest of the process algebra research community. Thus the notions of membranes and compartments have been explicitly represented in a family of calculi, such as ambients and brane calculi. A cross fertilization of these two research areas has ...

  16. Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population.

    Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

  17. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    ... Our ePublications > Urinary tract infection fact sheet ePublications Urinary tract infection fact sheet Print this fact sheet Urinary tract ... a doctor find out if I have a urinary tract infection (UTI)? To find out if you have a ...

  18. Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Migrated into the Urinary Bladder and a Review of the Literature

    Orhan Zorba

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine contraceptive devices are being used in clinical practice since 1962. Due to their efficiency and low cost, intrauterine contraceptive devices are the most popular method of reversible contraception in developing countries. The incidence of migration of an intrauterine contraceptive device, and related uterine perforation ranges from 0.003% to 0.87%. Intrauterine contraceptive device may migrate into urinary bladder, appendix, rectum, colon, peritoneum, anterior abdominal wall or ovary. Foreign bodies like sutures, stents, and needles in the urinary bladder act as niduses for calculi formation. Intrauterine contraceptive device migrated into the bladder can also become a nidus for a stone formation.Herein we report about a case whose intrauterine contraceptive devices had migrated into the bladder, and presented with lower urinary tract symptoms and suprapubic discomfort 6 years after its insertion.

  19. Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic effect of aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. leaves using ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi

    Apexa Bhanuprasad Shukla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anti-urolithiatic effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (B. pinnatum on ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six Wistar male rats were randomly divided into six equal groups. group A animals received distilled water for 28 days. Group B to group F animals received 1% v/v ethylene glycol in distilled water for 28 days and group B served as ethylene glycol control. Groups C and D (preventive groups received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively for 28 days. Groups E and F (treatment groups received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively from 15th to 28th day. On days 0 and 28, 24 hrs urine samples were collected for urinary volume and urinary oxalate measurement. On day 28, blood was collected for serum creatinine and blood urea level monitoring. All animals were sacrificed and kidneys were removed, weighed, and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate crystals deposition. Results: Administration of aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum reduced urine oxalate level significantly, as compared with Group B (p

  20. Ureteropyeloscopy and homium: YAG laser lithotripsy for treatment of ureteral calculi (report of 356 cases)

    Wu, Zhong; Din, Qiang; Jiang, Hao-wen; Zen, Jing-cun; Yu, Jiang; Zhang, Yuanfang

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of holmium YAG laser lithotripsy for the treatment of ureteral calculi. Methods: A total of 356 patients underwent ureteropyeloscopic lithotripsy using holmium YAG laser with a semirigid uretesopyeloscope, 93 upper, 135 middle, and 128 lower ureteral stones were treated. Results: The overall successful fragmentation rate for all ureteral stones in a single session achieved 98% (349/356). The successful fragmentation rate stratified by stone location was 95% 88/93 in the upper ureter, 99% (134/135) in the mid ureter , and 99%(127/128) in the distal ureter. 12 cases with bilateral ureteral stones which caused acute renal failure and anuria were treated rapidly and effectively by the holmium YAG laser lithotripsy. No complications such as perforation and severe trauma were encountered during the operations. 2 weeks 17months (with an average of 6.8 month ) follow up postoperatively revealed that the overall stone-free rate was 98%(343/349) and no ureteral stenosis was found. Conclusions Holmium YAG laser lithotripsy is a highly effective, minimally invasive and safe therapy for ureteral calculi. It is indicated as a first choice of treatment for patients with ureteral calculi, especially for the ones with mid- lower levels of ureteral calculi.

  1. Comparative evaluation of upper versus lower calyceal approach in percutaneous nephrolithotomy for managing complex renal calculi

    Rohit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study for the management of complex renal calculi, we conclude that in a previously unoperated kidney, upper calyceal puncture through subcostal or supra 12 th rib is a feasible option minimizing lung/pleural rupture and gives a better clearance rate. We suggest that with due precautions, there should not be any hesitation for upper calyceal puncture in indicated patients.

  2. Feline porphyria associated with anemia, severe hepatic disease, and renal calculi

    Schnier, Jonathan J.; Hanna, Paul

    2010-01-01

    A 13-year-old, neutered male domestic cat presented with signs of weight loss, anemia, and hepatomegaly. Pathognomonic signs of porphyria were identified. Charcoal-like renal calculi and severe liver changes were observed, neither of which has been previously reported in association with feline porphyria.

  3. Urinary stones as a novel matrix for human biomonitoring of toxic and essential elements.

    Kuta, J; Smetanová, S; Benová, D; Kořistková, T; Machát, J

    2016-02-01

    Monitoring of body burden of toxic elements is usually based on analysis of concentration of particular elements in blood, urine and/or hair. Analysis of these matrices, however, predominantly reflects short- or medium-term exposure to trace elements or pollutants. In this work, urinary stones were investigated as a matrix for monitoring long-term exposure to toxic and essential elements. A total of 431 samples of urinary calculi were subjected to mineralogical and elemental analysis by infrared spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The effect of mineralogical composition of the stones and other parameters such as sex, age and geographical location on contents of trace and minor elements is presented. Our results demonstrate the applicability of such approach and confirm that the analysis of urinary calculi can be helpful in providing complementary information on human exposure to trace metals and their excretion. Analysis of whewellite stones (calcium oxalate monohydrate) with content of phosphorus <0.6 % has been proved to be a promising tool for biomonitoring of trace and minor elements. PMID:25736734

  4. Aphallia with urethrorectal fistula, bladder and urethral calculi

    M Movarrekh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aphallia is a very rare urogenital anomaly with incidence rate of 1 in 30,000,000. It usually coexists with other anomalies such as cardiovascular anomalies which are incompatible with normal life, and therefore infants are delivered stillbirth or live for a very short period of time. Methods: We present an 18 months old boy with aphallia associated with congenital urethrorectal fistula, bladder and urethral stones. All stones were removed endourologically, recto-urethral fistula was repaired and perincal urethrostomy was performed. Results: The stones were composed of calcium phosphate colonized by klebiella pneumonia and proteus mirabilis. Urethrorectal fistula repairment was confirmed by cystography. Patient was discharged without a urinary catheter. Conclusion: In developed countries, management of such patients is to raise them as females. However, we must consider socio-cultural conditions, parents preference and patients tendency in management of aphallia.

  5. POTENTIAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN KIDNEY, GALL AND URINARY STONES

    Choubey Ankur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity.

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting ... of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... A A A Text Size What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  8. Urinary tract infection - adults

    A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary tract. The infection can occur at different points in ... al. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catheter-associated ... in adults: 2009 International Clinical Practice Guidelines from ...

  9. Duodenal diverticula demonstrated by endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) - their relationship to biliary calculi and gastrooesophageal reflux

    In 24 patients with duodenal diverticula, demonstrated by ERCP, food-stimulated gastrooesophageal reflux was demonstrated in 33% of the patients and biliary tract calculi in 81%. This is in contrast to a previous study (3) in patients with duodenal diverticula demonstrated by barium examination where gastrooesophageal reflux occurred in 81% and biliary tract calculi in 38% of the patients. Differences in clinical selection are believed to be the underlying cause to these varying results. (orig.)

  10. O que h de novo no diagnstico e tratamento da litase urinria? What's new in the diagnosis and management of urinary lithiasis?

    Eduardo Mazzucchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Atualizar aspectos do diagnstico e do tratamento da litase urinria. MTODOS. Uma reviso dos principais artigos publicados sobre o tema em revistas indexadas no "Medline" entre 1979 e 2009. RESULTADOS. A ocorrncia de clculos maior em pacientes com IMC > 30. A TC sem contraste promove o diagnstico correto em at 98% dos casos. O uso de bloqueadores alfa-adrenrgicos aumenta a eliminao de clculos ureterais menores que 8 mm em 29%. O ndice de pacientes livres de clculo aps LEOC varia entre 35% e 91%, conforme seu tamanho e localizao. Clculos renais maiores que 2 cm so eliminados pela NLPC entre 60% e 100% dos casos. Clculos de ureter distal so tratados com sucesso em at 94% dos casos pela ureteroscopia semirrgida contra 74% da LEOC. J para clculos de ureter superior as taxas de sucesso situam-se entre 77% e 91% para ureteroscopia e 41% e 82% para a LEOC. CONCLUSO. A associao da calculose urinria com obesidade e Diabetes mellitus est bem estabelecida. A TC sem contraste atualmente o padro-ouro no diagnstico da litase urinria. A LEOC o mtodo de eleio em nosso meio para tratamento de clculos renais menores que 2 cm e com densidade tomogrfica OBJECTIVE. To review developments in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary lithiasis. METHODS. A review of the most important articles on the subject published in Medline indexed periodicals between 1979 and 2009.RESULTS. Stones occur with greater frequency among people with BMI > 30. Computerized tomography without contrast provides the correct diagnosis in up to 98% of cases. Alpha-adrenergic blockers increase elimination of ureteral calculi smaller than 8 mm by 29%. The proportion of patients free from calculi after ESWL varies from 35% to 91%, depending on size and location. In between 60% and 100% of cases, renal calculi larger than 2 cm are eliminated with PCNL. Calculi of the distal ureter are successfully treated in up to 94% of cases using semi-rigid ureteroscopy, compared to 74% using ESWL. For calculi of the upper ureter success rates are around 77% and 91% for ureteroscopy and 41% and 82% for ESWL. CONCLUSION. The association between urinary lithiasis and Diabetes mellitus, is well-established. Computerized tomography without contrast is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of urinary lithiasis. In Brazil, ESWL is the method of choice for treating renal calculi smaller than 2 cm and with tomographic density < 1000 HU, except those of the lower pole, where the ideal limit for treatment is 1 cm. Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy is the best method of treating renal calculi larger than 2 cm and semi-rigid ureteroscopy is the best treatment for calculi of the distal ureter. Flexible ureteroscopy is an option for calculi of the upper ureter and renal calculi smaller than 1.5 cm that do not respond to ESWL or where PCNL is contraindicated.

  11. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalyses of the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi

    A review of the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalyses in the study of dental calculus showed that such studies provided confirmatory and supplementary data on the morphological features of human dental calculi but gave only limited information on the identity of the crystalline or inorganic components. This study aimed to explore the potential of combined SEM and microanalyses in the identification of the crystalline components of the human and animal dental calculi. Human and animal calculi were analyzed. Identification of the crystalline components were made based on the combined information of the morphology (SEM) and Ca/P molar ratios of the crystals with the morphology and Ca/P molar ratio of synthetic calcium phosphates (brushite or DCPD; octacalcium phosphate, OCP; Mg-substituted whitlockite, beta-TCMP; CO3-substituted apatite, (CHA); and calcite. SEM showed similarities in morphological features of human and animal dental calculi but differences in the forms of crystals present. Microanalyses and crystal morphology data suggested the presence of CaCO3 (calcite) and CHA in the animal (cat, dog, tiger) and of OCP, beta-TCMP and CHA in human dental calculi. X-ray diffraction and infrared (IR) absorption analyses confirmed these results. This exploratory study demonstrated that by taking into consideration what is known about the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi, combined SEM and microanalyses can provide qualitative identification

  12. Cystic calculi removal in African spurred Tortoise (Geochelone sulcata using transplstron coeliotomy

    Azlan Che' Amat

    Full Text Available The present report was carried out to manage a case of calculi in the bladder of African spurred tortoise. A 6 year old African spurred tortoise presented with history of anorexia and whitish discharged from the vent. Upon physical examination, the tortoise were 10% dehydrated, hindlegs muscle wasting and whitish materials came out from the vent. Plain radiograph revealed increased radiopacity in the bladder and also both right and left kidney. Contrast gastrointestinal radiograph showed less possibility of foreign body. Inconclusive radiological findings required the decision to proceed with exploratory transplastron coeliotomy by using dental burr. About 4 cm solid, hard whitish mass was removed from the bladder and both kidney was congested with whitish material. The findings were suggestive for urates crystal calculi based on histology result. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 489-492

  13. Internal Structure of Kidney Calculi as a Predictor for Shockwave Lithotripsy Success

    Christiansen, Frederikke Eichner; Andreassen, Kim Hovgaard; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Osther, Palle Joern Sloth

    with patients with homogeneous stones (odds ratio 0.43 [95% confidence interval 0.20, 0.92; p < 0.05]). However, when adjusting for stone size by multiple logistic regression, including stone size (area) as a covariate, this difference became insignificant. CONCLUSION: The internal structure of kidney......INTRODUCTION: The internal structure of renal calculi can be determined on CT using bone windows and may be classified as homogeneous or inhomogeneous with void regions. In vitro studies have shown homogeneous stones to be less responsive to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL). The objective...... collected retrospectively. All patients had noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) performed before SWL and at 3-month follow-up. The stones were categorized as homogeneous or inhomogeneous. At follow-up, the patient's stone status was registered. Stone-free status was defined as no evidence of calculi on...

  14. Swapping: a natural bridge between named and indexed explicit substitution calculi

    Mendelzon, Ariel; Ziliani, Beta; 10.4204/EPTCS.49.1

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to the presentation of lambda_rex, an explicit substitution calculus with de Bruijn indexes and a simple notation. By being isomorphic to lambda_ex - a recent formalism with variable names -, lambda_rex accomplishes simulation of beta-reduction (Sim), preservation of beta-strong normalization (PSN) and meta-confluence (MC), among other desirable properties. Our calculus is based on a novel presentation of lambda_dB, using a swap notion that was originally devised by de Bruijn. Besides lambda_rex, two other indexed calculi isomorphic to lambda_x and lambda_xgc are presented, demonstrating the potential of our technique when applied to the design of indexed versions of known named calculi.

  15. Proceedings Fourth Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi 2010

    Ciobanu, Gabriel; Koutny, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    The 4th Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi (MeCBIC 2010) is organized in Jena as a satellite event of the Eleventh International Conference on Membrane Computing (CMC11). Biological membranes play a fundamental role in the complex reactions which take place in cells of living organisms. The importance of this role has been considered in two different types of formalisms introduced recently. Membrane systems were introduced as a class of distributed parall...

  16. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi, experience of first 100 cases at Jinnah Hospital, Lahore

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), where available, has become the preferred treatment modality for majority of renal calculi. Nevertheless because of low morbidity and strong patient endorsement there is a natural tendency of over using it. We report the experience of first 100 patients of renal calculi treated at Lithotripsy Center, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore between November 1993 and October 1995.. All patients were treated on an out patients basis. In this prospective study patients were divided into three groups depending upon the initial stone size (Group 1 2.1 to 3 cm). Twenty-eight patients were lost to follow-up. Analysis of data revealed a success rate of 89.5%, 65.8% and 33.3% in Group-I, II and III respectively at the end of 3 months follow-up. Morbidity was directly procedures to stone burden, while success was inversely related to stone burden. Complications requiring auxiliary procedures were seen in none of the patients of Group-I while in 17.1% and 25% of the patients of Group-II and III respectively. Failure of the procedure demanding for an open intervention was seen in none of the patients of Group II and III respectively. We concluded that selection of patients is key to successful management of the renal calculi with ESWL. (author)

  17. Urinary lithiasis in civil construction workers as a management indicator for health and improvement in personnel

    Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Empirical information provided by health care professionals acting in the first line of care report a constant increase in the number of civil construction workers that present painful acute conditions, in most cases associated with the existence of urinary tract calculi. Aims: Evaluating the prevalence of urinary lithiasis in civil construction workers, as a means to identify indicators for the management of health and personnel. Methods: Observational study based on directed questionnaire. Results: From the 94 participants, 18 (19% were lithiasic, mostly due to overweight and reduced fluid intake. Conclusion: The observed prevalence appeared to be two times greater than that of the general population. Thus, prevention for such condition gains relevance, in order to avoid discomfort for the worker, and also reduce costs due to absenteeism, improving productivity, benefiting the workers by performance and creating the perspective of an improved quality of life.

  18. Development of a urinary lithiasis localizer mechanism to couple ultrasound and extracorporeal lithotripsy equipment in canine model

    Enrico Andrade

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Due to the evolution of extracorporeal lithotripsy equipment (ESWL and presently, the fact that most part of the equipment does not present ultrasound to localize urinary calculi, a system that allows adapting ultrasound equipment to ESWL equipment was developed, disposing only of fluoroscopy. Thus, this equipment was developed and was tested in urinary stones in canine models, to check its precision in relation to fluoroscopy. METHOD: Seven male dogs were utilized with the introduction, in the bladder through the ureteral route, of chalkstones, with initial localization by fluoroscopy, with a further ultrasound coincidence check localization of the vesical stones, being submitted to ESWL with a 3-hour, 21 days and 60 days follow-up after the procedure. RESULTS: Success of localization in all animals was verified presenting elimination of stones in the first micturitions, after ESWL. No complications were verified in those animals for 60 days. CONCLUSION: We verified that this equipment can lead to an update of the equipment that use only fluoroscopy, increasing in this way, their technical capacity in the treatment of urinary calculi, mainly in cases of non-radiopaque stones.

  19. [Urinary incontinence in men].

    Bauer, R M; Oelke, M; Hbner, W; Grabbert, M; Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Anding, R

    2015-06-01

    Stress urinary incontinence in men is predominantly iatrogenic whereby radical prostatectomy is the most common cause with persistent stress urinary incontinence rates varying between 10?% and 25?%. The first line therapy for postoperative male stress urinary incontinence is physiotherapy, especially pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation. If conservative treatment fails to show sufficient improvement, surgical therapy is recommended. Several treatment options are currently available for the surgical treatment of male stress urinary incontinence including artificial sphincters, adjustable and functional sling systems, bulking agents and implantable balloon systems. PMID:26081822

  20. RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF TAMSULOSIN AND SILODOSIN IN MEDICAL EXPULSIVE THERAPY FOR DISTAL THIRD URETERIC CALCULI

    Rajanna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Urolithiasis is a common condition that affects approximately 5% to 10% of the population and the incidence of Urolithiasis is rising. Ureteric stones account for 20% of urinary tract stones and about 70% of them are found in the lower third of the ureter at presentation. Recent literatures show the efficacy of various drugs and minimally invasive procedures for the management of lower third ureteral stones. We performed a randomized, prospective study to assess and compare the efficacy of tamsulosin and silodosin as medical expulsive therapy for lower third ureteral stones. SETTING AND DURATION: Department of Surgery, Hassan Institute of Medical Sciences/ Teaching Hospital, Hassan. from August 2013 to August 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prospective data of 60 symptomatic patients with unilateral, lower third ureteral calculi of less than ≤10 mm were randomly allocated for out- patient treatment with tamsulosin and silodosin groups Patients aged ≥ 18 years with a single, unilateral, symptomatic, radio-opaque ureteric stone of 10 mm or smaller in the largest dimension located between the lower border of the sacroiliac joint and vesico-ureteric junction were included. For Group I tamsulosin a daily single dose of 0.4 mg for 28days and for Group II a daily single dose of silodosin 8mg was given. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were used on demand for both the groups. All the patients were told to observe passage of stone by filtering urine stream. The primary end point was the expulsion of the stone and the secondary end points were expulsion time, analgesic use, socioeconomic status, need for hospitalization, endoscopic treatment and drug side effects were documented. RESULTS: The stone expulsion rates in patients treated with tamsulosin and silodosin were 83.3% and 86.6% respectively. Mean stone expulsion times in tamsulosin group and silodosin group were 6.8 and 6.2 days respectively. Mean number of pain episodes were 1.5 and 1.4 in the tamsulosin and silodosin group respectively. The mean number of analgesic requirement was 1.0 and 0.8 for the tamsulosin and silodosin group, respectively with no significant difference. Overall, incidence of side effects was similar in both groups. Patients taking silodosin experienced a higher incidence of retrograde ejaculation but a lower incidence of side effects related to peripheral vasodilation when compared to patients taking tamsulosin. Sub-group analysis shows, higher expulsion rates but lower mean expulsion time and pain episodes for stones ≤ 5 mm with both tamsulosin and silodosin groups.

  1. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Home For Patients Search ... Stress Urinary Incontinence FAQ166, July 2014 PDF Format Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Special Procedures What is ...

  2. Treatment of ureteral calculi by ureteroscopy: experience of 100 cases at the Faculdade de Medicina do ABC (FMABC Medical School

    Antonio Corra Lopes Neto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the experience of treating ureteral calculi byureteroscopy at the Faculdade de Medicina do ABC SP, with anemphasis on the efficacy and safety of the method. Methods: Aretrospective analysis of 100 ureteroscopies performed fromJanuary 2001 to August 2003 in 98 patients with ureteral calculi.Results: A 91% success rate was observed with a single procedureusing this technique. Intracorporeal lithotripsy was necessary in61% of cases before removing the stone; in the remaining cases, itwas extracted with no disintegration. Endoscopic approach wasimpossible in only one patient who required conversion toconventional open surgery. The double-J stent was inserted in73.7% of procedures. Complications were observed in 8% of cases.Conclusion: The present study demonstrated results comparablewith those reported in large series in the literature. The high successrates, low morbidity, rapid convalescence and lack of estheticconsequences corroborate the role of ureteroscopy as an attractivealternative for treating ureteral calculi.

  3. Comparison of pyelolithotomy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with pelvis renalis calculi

    Volkan Tu?cu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare, retrospectively, results of cases undergoing pyelolithotomy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL for pelvis renalis (PR calculi in our clinic. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients had undergone PNL between December 2004-June 2006 and 46 patients undergone pyelolithotomy between January 2005-August 2006 for PR calculi. Percutaneous intervention was performed under C-armed ?ouroscopy on patients in prone position. A subcostal ?ank approach was used for pyelolithotomy. Results: Mean age was 4411 and 428 years for PNL and pyelolithotomy groups, respectively. Mean operative time was 140.6 minutes in PNL group. Stone-free rate was 93.33% and when residual fragments<4mm accepted clinically insignificant increased to 98.33% in PNL group. Differences between pre and postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit were 1.34 gr/dl and 4.22, respectively. Blood transfusion required in 3 (5% patients during early postoperative period. A postoperative fever of 39.5C occured in one patient. Mean operative time was 165.3 minutes in pyelolithotomy group. Stone-free rate was 100%. Differences between pre and postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit were 1.17 gr/dl and 3.42, respectively. Blood transfusion during early postoperative period required in 2 (4.35% patients. A double-j catheter was inserted in 19 patients. Mean duration for nephrostomy removal and mean hospital stay in PNL group were 2.30 and 3.50 days, respectively. Mean duration for drain removal and mean hospital stay in pyelolithotomy group were 3.45 and 5.20 days, respectively. Conclusion: Indications of open stone surgery have been changed and it became to be used only for difficult cases. Our results show that PNL is successful in treatment of PR calculi.

  4. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy versus ureteroscopy for distal ureteric calculi: efficacy and patient satisfaction

    Ibrahim F. Ghalayini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL and ureteroscopy (URS for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi with respect to patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND MHETODS: This is a prospective study where a total of 212 patients with solitary, radiopaque distal ureteral calculi were treated with ESWL (n = 92 using Dornier lithotriptor S (MedTech Europe GmbH or URS (n = 120. Patient and stone characteristics, treatment parameters, clinical outcomes, and patient satisfaction were assessed for each group. RESULTS: The 2 groups were comparable in regard to patient age, sex, stone size, and side of treatment. The stone-free status for ESWL and URS at 3 months was 81.5% and 97.5%, respectively (p < 0.0001. In addition, 88% of patients who underwent ESWL versus 20% who underwent URS were discharged home the day of procedure. Minor complications occurred in 3.3% and 8.3% of the ESWL and URS groups, respectively (p = 0.127. No ureteral perforation or stricture occurred in the URS group. Postoperative flank pain and dysuria were more severe in the URS than ESWL group, although the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.16. Patient satisfaction was high for both groups, including 94% for URS and 80% for ESWL (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: URS is more effective than ESWL for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi. ESWL was more often performed on an outpatient basis, and showed a trend towards less flank pain and dysuria, fewer complications and quicker convalescence. Patient satisfaction was significantly higher for URS according to the questionnaire used in this study.

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... might have the feeling that you need to go to the bathroom all the time. And when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary ...

  6. Solubility and dissolution kinetics of calcium oxalate renal calculi in solutions, containing DL-lysine: in vitro experiments

    Atanassova, S.; Neykov, K.; Gutzow, I.

    An analysis of dissolution of slightly soluble salts in physiological solutions in the presence of complexing ions was carried out, simulating conditions typical in human urine. It was found that DL-lysine, a normal physiological constituent of urine, acts at increased concentrations as a dissolving agent with respect to calcium oxalate (CaOX) calculi. The kinetics of dissolution of crystalline CaOX calculi in physiological solutions containing DL-lysine at different concentrations were studied, using the change in the Archimedean weight of samples immersed in the solution. The possible effect of lysine as a natural regulator of CaOX supersaturation and crystallization in human urine is also discussed.

  7. A STUDY ON THE ROLE OF DJ STENTING IN URETERIC CALCULI PATIENTS AFTER INTRACORPOREAL LITHOTRIPSY

    Pitchai Balashanmugam; Rajaram; Thiruvarul Palanisamy; Periyasamy; Sangameswaran; Kamalesh Kumar; Jessema

    2015-01-01

    A ureteric stent is a tube that is placed using cystoscopy or ureteroscopy inside the ureter to treat and also to prevent urinary obstruction. DJ stents are the most common stents used, which is available in various lengths. The stent that remains in situ usually causes the symptoms of urinary tract infection, pain in the suprapubic region and flank due to urinary reflux, frequency, urgency, dysuria and hematuria. An attempt has been made in this study to evaluate the stent re...

  8. Mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy for renal calculi in paediatric patients: A review of twenty cases

    D'Souza, Nischith; Paul, Saptarshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to report our initial experience of mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mPCNL) performed on patients in the pediatric age group (surgery, size and number of stones, duration of surgery, stone clearance, and postoperative complications. Results: A total of 20 mPCNLs were performed on children, with age ranging from 8 to 16 years. Three children had three stones each, six children had two stones each, eight children had one stone each, and three had multiple. The median stone burden was 1.36 cm. The procedure was via single puncture in 15 cases, and two punctures in five cases. Punctures were upper calyceal in seven cases, lower calyceal in seven cases, and combined upper and lower calyceal in six cases. The calculi were accessed by a 12F mini nephroscope, laser lithotripsy was used in 12 cases and pneumatic lithotripsy used for the rest. Total clearance was achieved in 18 out of 20 cases (90%). Postoperative complications developed in one child, in the form of sepsis. Conclusion: Our initial experience concludes that mPCNL is a safe and efficacious tool for the management of renal calculi in the pediatric population.

  9. Treatment of staghorn calculi by percutaneous nephrolithotomy and SWL: the Hotel Dieu de France experience.

    Merhej, S; Jabbour, M; Samaha, E; Chalouhi, E; Moukarzel, M; Khour, R; Chaiban, R

    1998-02-01

    To evaluate the combined approach of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in the treatment of staghorn calculi, we carried out a retrospective review of 101 patients. The stone surface area ranged from 654 to 3042 mm2 (1535 mm2 on average). During PCNL, a single access tract was used in 22 patients, a double tract in 65 patients, and a triple tract in 14 patients. A double-J stent was placed percutaneously in 62 patients. Extracorporeal lithotripsy was scheduled at the patient's convenience on an outpatient basis approximately 2 weeks after PCNL. The mean hospital stay was 4.4 days. The combined approach showed a stone-free rate of 67% on the initial evaluation, an insignificant residual fragment rate of 26%, and a residual stone rate of 7%. With a follow-up of 52 months on average, the global stone growth rate was 17%, being 4.4% only among the stone-free group and 27% among the group with insignificant residual fragments. The global transfusion rate was 10%. Percutaneous stone debulking combined with SWL on an outpatient basis is an efficient, minimally invasive treatment for staghorn renal calculi. Reducing the number of access tracts, using the flexible nephroscope liberally, and placing a double-J stent frequently after PCNL increases the stone-free rate while reducing the morbidity and hospital stay. PMID:9531142

  10. Endometriosis localized to urinary bladder wall mimicking urinary bladder carcinoma

    Mine Genç; Berhan Genç; Serap Karaarslan; Aynur Solak; Musa Saraçoglu

    2014-01-01

    Although endometriosis is a common disease in women of reproductive age, urinary system endometriosis is an exceedingly rare disease that may cause important clinical problems. In this paper we discussed a 42-year-old woman who had urinary bladder endometriosis misdiagnosed as urinary bladder tumor in imaging modalities. The diagnosis of endometriosis was made by histopathological examination of the operative material after partial resection of the urinary bladder. Urinary bladder endometrios...

  11. Drinking Water Composition and Incidence of Urinary Calculus: Introducing a New Index

    Abbas Basiri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We searched for a pathophysiologically based feature of major water electrolytes, which may define water quality better than the water hardness, respecting urinary calculus formation.Materials and Methods. Utilizing a multistage stratified sampling, 2310 patients were diagnosed in the imaging centers of the provincial capitals in Iran between 2007 and 2008. These were composed of 1755 patients who were settled residents of 24 provincial capitals. Data on the regional drinking water composition, obtained from an accredited registry, and their relationships with the region’s incidence of urinary calculi were evaluated by metaregression models. The stone risk index (defined as the ratio of calcium to magnesium-bicarbonate product in drinking water was used to assess the risk of calculus formation.Results. No correlation was found between the urinary calculus incidence and the amount of calcium, bicarbonate, or the total hardness of the drinking water. In contrast, water magnesium had a marginally significant nonlinear inverse relationship with the incidence of the disease in the capitals (R2 = 26%, P = .05 for a power model. The stone risk index was associated nonlinearly with the calculus incidence (R2 = 28.4%, P = .04.Conclusions. Urinary calculus incidence was inversely related with drinking water magnesium content. We introduced a new index constructed on the foundation of a pathophysiologically based formula; the stone risk index had a strong positive association with calculus incidence. This index can have therapeutic and preventive applications, yet to be confirmed by clinical trials.

  12. Origin of Urinary Oxalate

    Holmes, Ross P.; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2007-04-01

    Urinary oxalate is mostly derived from the absorption of ingested oxalate and endogenous synthesis. The breakdown of vitamin C may also contribute small amounts to the urinary oxalate pool. The amount of oxalate absorbed is influenced by the oxalate content of the diet, the concentrations of divalent cations in the gut, the presence of oxalate-degrading organisms, transport characteristics of the intestinal epithelium, and other factors associated with the intestinal environment. Knowledge of pathways associated with endogenous oxalate synthesis is limited. Urinary oxalate excretion can be modified using strategies that limit dietary oxalate absorption and the ingestion of oxalogenic substrates such as hydroxyproline.

  13. Studies on the function of upper urinary tract, 13

    In order to clarify the changes of the ureteral function after ureterolithotomy, 131I-Hippuran renograms were recorded at 3 times before, immediately after (i.e. 1 - 2 days after) and 10 days after the lithotomy in 52 patients. The influences of preoperative hydronephrosis or urinary tract infection upon the postoperative renogram patterns were studied. The following results were obtained. 1. In the renogram findings of the preoperative 52 cases, 28 delayed excretion types, 15 obstructive types and 9 standard types were shown. 2. The postoperative renogram patterns showed a tendency of increased obstruction immediately after the operation (56.9%) irrespective of the location of the calculi in the ureter, and the recovering excretion phases became visible on the 10th postoperative day (51.1%). 3. In the findings on the postoperative renograms, a tendency of increased obstruction was noted in many of the patients of the non-hydronephrotic group than the hydronephrotic group immediately after the operation, but no statistically significant difference was noted. On the 10th postoperative day, slightly more patients of the hydronephrotic group tended to show improvements of obstruction than those of the non-hydronephrotic group, but with no statistically significant difference. 4. In the relationship between the hydronephrosis and urinary tract infection, the infection rate was 26.9% (7 out of 26) in the non-hydronephrotic group and 52.4% (11 out of 21) in the hydronephrotic group. 5. In the findings on the renograms viewed from presence of urinary tract infection, slightly more cases of increased obstruction were found out immediately after the operation in the non-infected group than in the infected group. On the 10th postoperative day, slightly more cases of improvements of obstruction were noted in the infected group than in the non-infected group, but no statistically significant difference was seen between the two groups at either of the two points. (author)

  14. Magnetic resonance urography: application in urinary tract obstruction

    To compare magnetic resonance urography (MRU) and conventional intravenous urography (IVU) in the assessment of the upper urinary tract in patients with obstructive uropathy. Twenty-three patients suspected of having urinary tract obstruction were examined by IVU and MRU, MRU imaging was performed with a 1.0 Tesla multicoil unit. The images were obtained with two MR sequences: a) half-Fourier single shot turbo spin echo (HASTE), and b) highly T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) based on fast acquisition with the relaxation and enhancement (RARE) method. The images were examined independently by four radiologists. Two radiologists reviewed the IVU images by consensus and two reviewed the MRU images by consensus. The incidencences of dilatation and of stricture were calculated and the McNemar test was used to compare the two techniques. The mean duration of MRU was 11 minutes (range: 7 to 25 minutes), while the mean duration of IVU was 363 minutes (range: 45 to 2,160 minutes). IVU took more than 150 minutes to complete in over 50% of the patients. Twenty.one patients presented dilatation of the pyelocaliceal system. MRU disclosed the urinary tract dilatation in all 21 cases, while IVU detected it in 15 (65%: p=0.03). The causes of obstruction were neoplasm (n=9), calculi (n=6) and extrinsic stricture (n=6). MRU is much more reliable and rapid in the detection of dilatation and the site of obstruction in patients with obstructive uropathy, and could be used as an alternative to IVU in certain cases. (Author) 13 refs

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... Video: Am I Normal? (Girls and Puberty) Movie: Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > I Feel ...

  16. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... a UTI. The doctor also can choose to send the urine sample to a lab for testing. ... Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend Reprint Guidelines Sign up for ...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a UTI. That's because their urethras are much shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... a urinary tract infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong with you. That's why it's ... signs of a kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. previous continue What Will ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... Problems of Grown Ups People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Q&A Movies & More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary ... ll never want to have one again! To help keep those bacteria out of your urinary tract, ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What Exactly Is ... connected to each kidney). From there, the urine travels through the ureters down to the bladder. When ...

  2. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... a UTI. The doctor also can choose to send the urine sample to a lab for testing. ... Movie: Urinary System Contact Us Print Additional resources Send to a friend Reprint guidelines Sign up for ...

  3. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and ...

  4. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted ...

  5. [Urinary tract infections].

    Hrl, W H

    2011-09-01

    Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended. PMID:21850538

  6. Acute Urinary Tract Obstruction

    Aleksic Djordje

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys are paired organs with the primary function of helping to remove toxins from the body and regulate water balance. They are vital to survival. After urine is produced in the kidneys, it must pass into the bladder, where it can be stored before being eliminated from the body through the urethra. Urinary tract obstruction is a common problem encountered by urologists, primary care physicians, and emergency medicine physicians. Urine can become obstructed at any point in this pathway. There are three groups of urinary tract obstructions: 1 obstruction of the urinary tract lumen; 2 obstruction of the urinary tract wall; and 3 extrinsic obstruction, which can press on the urinary tract lumen. An obstruction can be present from birth or develop later in life. The most common causes of obstruction include stones, strictures, tumours, and bladder dysfunction. These obstructions may result in the hydronephrosis of one or both kidneys, which, if left untreated, may lead to the deterioration of renal function. The goal of an initial treatment of urinary tract obstruction is to remove the obstruction. Later, we treat the cause that led to the obstruction. The bottom line is that all efforts should be made to preserve kidney function to avoid the need for dialysis or renal transplantation.

  7. Ureteroscopic and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Rather Large Renal Pelvis Calculi

    Mehri Baghban Haghighi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the results and complications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL plus retrograde ureteroscopic lithotripsy using laser and pneumatic lithotriptors with SWL monotherapy for renal pelvic calculi between 2 cm and 3 cm. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 patients with 2- to 3-cm pelvic calculi were assigned into groups 1 and 2, including 22 and 33 patients, respectively. Patients in group 1 first underwent laser pneumatic lithotripsy and insertion of a double-J ureteral catheter and then underwent SWL 2 to 4 weeks thereafter. In group 2, the patients underwent SWL after double-J ureteral catheter insertion. The stone-free rate, complications, and cost effectiveness were evaluated 3 months postoperatively. Results: Five patients (22.7% in group 1, had their calculi completely fragmented after ureteroscopy and retrograde lithotripsy without any need for further SWL. In 9 patients (40.9%, after a single session of SWL, and in 3 (13.6%, after 2 sessions, fragmentation was completed. In group 2, successful treatment was achieved after 1 and 2 SWL sessions in 6 (18.2% and 8 (24.2% patients, respectively. The stone-free rate was significantly higher in the patients of group1 than those in group 2 (77.3% versus 42.4%, respectively; P = .01. The period of anesthesia was 23.1 minutes (during ureteroscopy in group 1 and 13.2 minutes in group 2 (during cystoscopy or ureteroscopy and insertion of ureteral catheter. No significant complication was reported in neither of the groups. The mean costs of the treatment were US $ 400 and US $ 370 in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: Ureteroscopic lithotripsy before SWL is a rational method for the treatment of the rather large renal pelvic calculi with fairly acceptable costs.

  8. Imaging protocol for suspected ureteric calculi in patients presenting to the emergency department

    Aim: To ensure diagnostic yields were adequate in patients with suspected ureteric calculi with and without haematuria, and to assess whether there was a significant difference between these two groups in men and women. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of 513 patient records who attended the Emergency Department with suspected ureteric colic over 8 months. Results: 513 patient records were evaluated. The overall positive rate for calculi was 45.4%, with an alternative diagnosis in 14.4%. Of the patients scanned with haematuria 49.36% were positive. The positive scan rate in males was significantly higher than in females (56% v. 31%, p < 0.0001). 32.79% of patients scanned without haematuria had a proven calculus. The positive rate in males without haematuria was 40.39% versus 27.14% in females. Conclusion: The overall diagnostic yield of 45.4% is acceptable according to national guidelines. A large number of patients scanned without haematuria were found to have a calculus. This review suggests that in males a negative urine dipstick should not preclude CT investigation for renal colic in the presence of a “classical” history. However, the number of female patients with negative scans suggests that further randomized studies are needed to identify the ideal investigation pathway in women. - Highlights: • Review CTKUB diagnostic yields in patients presenting to the ED with loin pain. • We examine gender differences and whether haematuria is obligatory for CT investigation. • The positive scan rate in males was significantly higher than in females. • The positive rate in males without haematuria was 40.4%. • Diagnostic yields in females were low with or without haematuria

  9. Changes in DMSA scan after PCNL procedure in children with renal calculi

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is an established technique for the management of renal calculi. However there is limited data on the effects of PCNL on the renal parenchyma especially in the paediatric population. This study was aimed to determine the effects of PCNL on the renal parenchyma in children with renal calculi using DMSA scan. Medical records of 37 patients who had undergone PCNL over a five-year period from 1999 to 2003 were reviewed. Details of imaging were not available in 11 patients and these were excluded from the study; only patients who had both preoperative and post operative DMSA scans or a normal postoperative DMSA scan were included. 26 patients (26 renal units) were therefore available for the review. The age of the patients ranged from 1 year to 12.5 years (median, 3.75 years) at the time of PCNL. DMSA scans was done from 1 day to 47 months (median, 2 months) before the PCNL and 2 months to 27 months (median, 3.5 months) after the procedure. Two independent observers interpreted the scans and any discrepancy was reviewed and the Conclusion was reached with mutual agreement. Regions of interest around each kidney were drawn to determine the percent uptake of DMSA. 20 patients (76.9%) showed no change or improvement in post-procedure scans. The uptake of DMSA was 43.63±10.11% (mean±SD) before and 42.79±11.80% after the PCNL procedure. This change did not reach the statistically significant level (p=0.334). Hence DMSA scans showed that PCNL procedure does not produce significant changes in the renal parenchyma in more than three quarters of the patients who undergo this procedure. (authors)

  10. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  11. Fasting and urinary stones

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods:Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field  of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results:The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  12. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs

  13. Imaging of transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary tracts

    Full text: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common urothelial neoplasm to involve the upper urinary tract and bladder. Prognosis significantly worsens with deeper invasion. The role of imaging is to detect the tiniest urothelial neoplasms while still potentially resectable and curable. In case of advance disease, imaging should identify the extent of disease. Intravenous or retrograde urography, ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging have been used for diagnosis of TCC. The diagnostic performances of these imaging modalities differ from each other. A recent review regarding imaging of TCC by Razavi et al states that the retrieved sensitivity/specificity for the detection of TCC of upper urinary tract for CT urography (CTU), MR urography, excretory urography, and retrograde urography were 96%/99%, 69%/97%, 80%/81%, and 96%/96%, respectively. For detecting bladder cancer, the retrieved sensitivity/specificity for CT cystography, MR cystography, and ultrasonography were 94%/98%, 91%/95%, and 78%/96%, respectively. They conclude that CT urography is the best imaging technique for confirming or excluding malignancy in the upper urinary tract, whereas CT cystography has the best diagnostic performance for diagnosing bladder cancer. While cystoscopy is still considered by most to be the gold-standard for evaluation of the urinary bladder, CTU is playing an increasing role in the detection of urinary bladder urothelial neoplasms. As with the upper urinary tract, bladder urothelial neoplasms typically present as a filling defect, a focal mass, or an area of abnormal focal wall thickening. Magnetic resonance imaging is superior for evaluation of the depth of tumour invasion into the bladder wall, but this knowledge may not ultimately affect treatment as feasibility for radical cystectomy depends on staging by a combination of clinical, histopathological and imaging findings. Radical cystectomy may include resection of adjacent organs and regional lymph nodes. The current purpose of CT or MR imaging is to detect T3b disease or higher and, especially, locoregional lymph node metastases. Upper tract urothelial neoplasms commonly present as a single or as multiple irregular filling defects on CTU. Focal urinary tract wall thickening is another finding that can suggest the presence of urothelial neoplasm. CTU is accepted as a gold standard for the diagnosis and staging of upper urinary tract TCC by European Association of Urology. The multicentric nature of TCC makes assessment of the entire urothelium essential before treatment. Vigilant urologic and radiologic follow-up is warranted to assess for metachronous lesions and recurrence. The emerging technique of CT urography allows detection of urinary tract tumors and calculi, assessment of perirenal tissues, and staging of lesions; it may offer the opportunity for one-stop evaluation in the initial assessment of hematuria and in follow-up of TCC

  14. A novel ureter dilatation method for replacing hydromantic perfusion pump during ureteroscopic lithotripsy in patients with ureteral calculi and ibroepithelial polyps

    Li, Tengcheng; Fang, Youqiang; Wu, Jieying; Zhou, Xiangfu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical value of a novel ureter dilatation method during ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy in patients with ureteral calculi and polyps. Clinical information of 86 patients with ureter calculi and polyps who underwent ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy was reviewed. A cavity-distention machine was used in 44 cases to inject normal saline for keeping clear operation view (cavity-distention machine-assisted group). A high handled water bag with artificial wa...

  15. The Evaluation of Ureteroscopy and Pneumatic Lithotripsy Results in Pregnant Women With Urethral Calculi

    Keshvari Shirvan, Maliheh; Darabi Mahboub, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Seyedi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary stone incidence in pregnancy has been reported in a wide range, from 1 in 200 to 1 in 2000 cases. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of ureteroscopic treatment and its results and complications for pregnant women with urinary stones. Patients and Methods From 2003 till 2011, 113 pregnant patients with symptomatic urolithiasis were admitted to the urology emergency clinic at Imam Reza hospital. All patients were initially treated cons...

  16. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    ... these cats are at higher risk of infection. Urinary tract infection is a relatively common cause of FLUTD in older cats, followed by uroliths. The treatment for urinary infections often depends on the severity of the infection ...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Urinary Tract Infections in Children Page Content On this page: What ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)? A UTI is an infection in the ...

  18. Urinary melatonin in depression.

    Rao, A V; Devi, S P; Srinivasan, V

    1983-07-01

    This report is based on a study of 12 cases of depression (8 endogenous, 4 neurotic) with a view to explore the possible association between urinary melatonin and the illness prior to and following treatment. While cases of endogenous depression had low 24 hour as well as nocturnal urinary melatonin levels, the neurotic depressives showed higher than normal levels. A rise in the 24 hour melatonin levels occurred in all cases of endogenous depression though this did not apply, to the nocturnal levels. An association between melatonin levels with suicide behaviour, insomnia, psychomotor retardation and diurnal variation is discussed. PMID:21847281

  19. Urinary albumin in space missions

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina; Norsk, Peter; Elmann-Larsen, Benny; Bellini, Luigi; Stellato, Davide; Drummer, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  20. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    ... On this page: What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)? What is the urinary tract? What causes UTIs? How common are UTIs in adults? Who ... Single-dose treatment is less effective. Longer treatment causes more side ... urinary tract is infection-free. Taking the full course of treatment is ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infection among Renal Transplant Recipients in Yemen

    Gondos, Adnan S.; Al-Moyed, Khaled A.; Al-Robasi, Abdul Baki A.; Al-Shamahy, Hassan A.; Alyousefi, Naelah A.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common complication following kidney transplantation (KT), which could result in losing the graft. This study aims to identify the prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen and to determine the predisposing factors associated with post renal transplantation UTI. A cross sectional study included of 150 patients, who underwent KT was conducted between June 2010 and January 2011. A Morning mid-stream urine specimen was collected for culture and antibiotic susceptibility test from each recipient. Bacterial UTI was found in 50 patients (33.3%). The prevalence among females 40.3% was higher than males 29%. The UTI was higher in the age group between 41–50 years with a percentage of 28% and this result was statistically significant. Predisposing factors as diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder and polycystic kidney showed significant association. High relative risks were found for polycystic kidney = 13.5 and neurogenic bladder = 13.5. The most prevalent bacteria to cause UTI was Escherichia coli represent 44%, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus 34%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic against gram-negative isolates while Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In conclusion, there is high prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen. Diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, polycystic kidney and calculi were the main predisposing factors. PMID:26657128

  2. Kidneys and urinary system

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies

  3. Upper urinary tract tumors

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jrgen; Balslev, Ingegerd; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction of...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    ... urethra, a tube that leads from your bladder out of your body. Ahhh! That feels better. continue Urinary Tract Troubles ... bowel movement (poop), some of these bacteria come out of your body. If they aren't wiped away properly, they ...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... urethra, a tube that leads from your bladder out of your body. Ahhh! That feels better. continue Urinary Tract Troubles ... bowel movement (poop), some of these bacteria come out of your body. If they aren't wiped away properly, they ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  7. Symptomatic small non-obstructing lower ureteric calculi: comparison of ureteroscopy and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Andankar M

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the success, efficacy and complications of ureteroscopy (URS and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL for the treatment of symptomatic small non obstructing lower ureteric calculi. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective non-randomised study was conducted simultaneously at two urological referral centres, included 280 patients with symptomatic small (4-10 mm lower ureteric calculi (situated below the sacroiliac joint, with good renal function on intravenous urography. Patients were offered both the treatment options. One hundred and sixty patients chose ureteroscopy, whereas 120 patients were treated by ESWL. Standard techniques of ureteroscopy and ESWL were employed. Patients were followed-up to assess the success rates and complications of the two procedures. RESULTS: Ureteroscopy achieved complete stone clearance in one session in 95% of patients. In six patients ureteroscopy had failed initially and was later accomplished in second session improving the success rate to 98.7%. Two patients had a proximal migration of calculus that needed ESWL. Of the 120 patients treated by ESWL, 90% achieved stone free status at three months. Ureteroscopy was needed for twelve patients (10% where ESWL failed to achieve stone clearance. There were no significant ESWL related complications. ESWL was administered on outpatient basis, while patients needed hospitalisation and anaesthesia for ureteroscopy. CONCLUSION: ESWL can be the primary mode of treatment for symptomatic small non-obstructing lower ureteric calculi as it is minimally invasive and safe. Ureteroscopy can be offered to patients who demand immediate relief or when ESWL fails.

  8. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects, which are often neglected in fad diets, are a normal intake of milk and dairy products and salt restriction. All these nutritional aspects should be greatly taken into account when patients who are willing to undergo fad or commercial diets ask for dietary advice. PMID:26816783

  9. Management of ureteral calculi and medical expulsive therapy in emergency departments

    Stefano Picozzi C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Ureteral stones are a common problem in daily emergency department practice. Patients may be offered medical expulsive therapy (MET1 to facilitate stone expulsion and this should be offered as a treatment for patients with distal ureteral calculi, who are amenable to waiting management. Emergency department clinicians and family practitioners are often in the front line regarding the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic nephrolithiasis and this commentary is dedicated to them because their decisions directly influence the outcome of the acute stone episode and appropriate referral patterns. Materials and Methods : The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to understand the role of MET in the treatment of obstructing ureteral calculi. A bibliographic search covering the period from January 1980 to March 2010 was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE. The searches were restricted to publications in English. This analysis is based on the 21 studies that fulfilled the predefined inclusion criteria. Results : A metaregression analysis of expulsion time showed a statistically significant advantage in the experimental group, in which the mean expulsion time was 6.2 days compared to 10.3 days in controls. The treatment effect on expulsion rate (P = 0.53 was partially lost as the size of the stones decreased because of the high spontaneous expulsion rate of small stones and the expulsion time was not influenced by pharmacological treatment (P = 0.76 if the stone size was smaller than 5 mm. Analysis of the tamsulosin database : A total of 1283 participants were included in the 17 studies. These studies showed that compared to standard therapy or placebo, tamsulosin had significant benefits, being associated with both a higher stone expulsion rate (P < 0.001 and reduction of the expulsion time (P = 0.02. Reductions in the need for analgesic therapy, hospitalization and surgery are also shown. Analysis of the nifedipine database : The number of participants in each trial ranged from 25 to 70. Compared to standard therapy, the use of nifedipine significantly improved the spontaneous stone expulsion rate (P < 0.001. The mean expulsion time was slightly, but not statistically significantly, different (P = 0.19 between the treatment and control groups. A possible benefit of nifedipine, in terms of significantly reducing the doses of analgesics required, was reported in three studies. There was no difference between the tamsulosin- and nifedipine-treated groups with regard to expulsion time (P = 0.17 or expulsion rate (P = 0.79. Conclusions : Despite all its advantages, MET is rarely used, representing a failure of the translation of medical science into practice. These data raise concerns not only about the quality of care of patients who could benefit from resolution of stones without anaesthetic and surgical risks but also with regard to potential cost savings. MET should be offered as a treatment for patients with distal ureteral calculi who are amenable to a waiting management.

  10. Distinguishing pelvic phleboliths from distal ureteral calculi: thin-slice CT findings

    The objective is to evaluate the appearance of phleboliths and distal ureteral stones by determining their roundness and presence of central lucency on thin-slice CT. Seventy-seven patients with pelvic radioopacities at unenhanced CT were selected. Those patients consequently underwent thin-slice CT with 1-mm collimation, a FOV of 10 cm, a pitch of 1:1 and a bone reconstruction algorithm. Three radiologists reviewed all images for roundness and the presence of central radiolucency. No calculi showed central lucency on either imaging technique used. Thin-slice CT revealed central lucency in 60% of phleboliths with 100% specificity. Three of 40 ureteral stones showed round contour. Thin-slice CT revealed a round contour in 97% of phleboliths with 93% specificity. Central lucency is a characteristic finding of pelvic phleboliths on thin-slice CT. This finding can therefore be used in combination with roundness as a problem-solving tool in differentiating phleboliths from distal ureteral stones. (orig.)

  11. Distinguishing pelvic phleboliths from distal ureteral calculi: thin-slice CT findings

    Arac, Mehmet; Celik, Halil; Oner, A.Yusuf; Gultekin, Serap; Gumus, Terman; Kosar, Sule [Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate the appearance of phleboliths and distal ureteral stones by determining their roundness and presence of central lucency on thin-slice CT. Seventy-seven patients with pelvic radioopacities at unenhanced CT were selected. Those patients consequently underwent thin-slice CT with 1-mm collimation, a FOV of 10 cm, a pitch of 1:1 and a bone reconstruction algorithm. Three radiologists reviewed all images for roundness and the presence of central radiolucency. No calculi showed central lucency on either imaging technique used. Thin-slice CT revealed central lucency in 60% of phleboliths with 100% specificity. Three of 40 ureteral stones showed round contour. Thin-slice CT revealed a round contour in 97% of phleboliths with 93% specificity. Central lucency is a characteristic finding of pelvic phleboliths on thin-slice CT. This finding can therefore be used in combination with roundness as a problem-solving tool in differentiating phleboliths from distal ureteral stones. (orig.)

  12. Minimally Invasive Radiologically Guided Intervention for the Treatment of Salivary Calculi

    Purpose: To describe the technique and examine the value of salivary stone extraction using a minimally invasive, radiologically guided approach as an alternative to salivary gland surgery for the treatment of benign salivary gland obstruction. Methods: Eighty-six cases of sialolithiasis (83 patients) were treated by stone removal using a Dormia basket under local anesthesia and fluoroscopic guidance. Postoperative assessment was made clinically at review, by sialogram and by questionnaire. Results: Of 86 cases of sialolithiasis treated, in 55 (64%)it was possible to remove all stones. In 12 cases (14%) part of a stone or some of a number of calculi were removed and in 19 cases (22%) the procedure failed. The commonest reason for failure was fixation of the stone within the duct. Symptoms at review (range 1-49 months, mean 17 months) were relieved in 55 of 67 (82%) of cases where a stone or portion of stone was removed. Conclusions:Stone removal from the salivary duct system by radiologically guided,minimally invasive approach is a simple procedure with low morbidity and high patient acceptance when appropriate selection criteria are applied. These criteria are considered and recommendations made

  13. Identification of mineral compositions in some renal calculi by FT Raman and IR spectral analysis

    Tonannavar, J.; Deshpande, Gouri; Yenagi, Jayashree; Patil, Siddanagouda B.; Patil, Nikhil A.; Mulimani, B. G.

    2016-02-01

    We present in this paper accurate and reliable Raman and IR spectral identification of mineral constituents in nine samples of renal calculi (kidney stones) removed from patients suffering from nephrolithiasis. The identified mineral components include Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (COM, whewellite), Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate (COD, weddellite), Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Hexahydrate (MAPH, struvite), Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrate (CHPD, brushite), Pentacalcium Hydroxy Triphosphate (PCHT, hydroxyapatite) and Uric Acid (UA). The identification is based on a satisfactory assignment of all the observed IR and Raman bands (3500-400 cm- 1) to chemical functional groups of mineral components in the samples, aided by spectral analysis of pure materials of COM, MAPH, CHPD and UA. It is found that the eight samples are composed of COM as the common component, the other mineral species as common components are: MAPH in five samples, PCHT in three samples, COD in three samples, UA in three samples and CHPD in two samples. One sample is wholly composed of UA as a single component; this inference is supported by the good agreement between ab initio density functional theoretical spectra and experimental spectral measurements of both sample and pure material. A combined application of Raman and IR techniques has shown that, where the IR is ambiguous, the Raman analysis can differentiate COD from COM and PCHT from MAPH.

  14. Urinary Incontinence in Elderly

    N. S. Neki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Incontinence (UI is de?ned any involuntary leakage of urine. It is twice as common in women as in men and affects at least 1 in 3 older women. It is not a normal result of aging. Rather it is a medical problem that is often curable and should be treated. Urine is stored in the bladder and emptied via the urethra. During urination, muscles of the bladder wall contract, forcing urine from the bladder into the urethra. Sphincter muscles surrounding the urethra relax thus releasing urine from the body. Incontinence occurs if bladder muscles suddenly contract or sphincter muscles are not strong enough to contain urine. The diagnosis of geriatric urinary incontinence includes evaluation for over?ow incontinence, functional incontinence and stress incontinence. The treatment goal should be realistic and aim to improve the patient's functional status and quality of life. Best treatment outcomes can only be achieved by a holistic treatment approach.

  15. Diagnosis of urinary tract diseases

    Radiological exploration of the urinary tract has become highly sophisticated. The information provided by the new imaging techniques is extremely accurate and useful in the diagnosis and pretherapeutic assessment of most urinary tract diseases. Interventional radiology has given radiologists an important role in the treatment of some types of pathology. The authors describe the value of modern imaging and its different aspects in each of the principal branches of urinary tract pathology. viz.: tumours, obstructions, infections, vascular and prostatic diseases

  16. Effect of Thymoquinone on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Kidney Calculi in Rats

    Fatemeh Behnam Rassouli

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of thymoquinone, a major component of Nigella Sativa seeds on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats.

    Materials and Methods: Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (intact control, ethylene glycol control, and 4 experimental groups and treated for 28 days according to the protocol of the study. The rats in experimental groups received ethylene glycol and intraperitoneal injection of thymoquinone either from the first day of the study or the 15th day, with either doses of 5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg. Blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected at baseline and on day 28. Urine oxalate and citrate and serum electrolytes were also measured. On day 29, all rats were decapitated and their kidney specimens were studied.

    Results: On day 28, urine oxalate concentration significantly decreased in the experimental groups compared to the ethylene glycol group (P < .001. Also, serum calcium levels were significantly higher in the experimental groups (P = .001. Calcium oxalate deposits were smaller in the experimental groups than the ethylene glycol group. The mean number of deposits was lower in these groups, too (P < .001. Treatment with the lower dose of thymoquinone was associated with fewer deposits.

    Conclusion: Thymoquinone significantly decreased the number and size of calcium oxalate deposits in the renal tubules. The dose and duration of treatment, however, does not have a linear relation with the outcomes. Further studies on thymoquinone as a preventive and therapeutic drug for kidney calculi are suggested.

  17. Urolithiasis, Urinary Cancer, and Home Drinking Water Source in the United States Territory of Guam, 2006–2010

    Robert L. Haddock

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed patient records with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis—also known as urinary tract or kidney stone disease, nephrolithiasis—upon discharge from Guam’s sole civilian hospital during 2006 to 2010 and urinary cancer mortality records from the Guam Cancer Registry for 1970 to 2009 to determine the source of municipal water supplied to the patients’ residence. The objective was to investigate a possible relationship between the sources of municipal water supplied to Guam villages and the incidence of urolithiasis and urinary cancer. We analyzed hospital discharge diagnoses of urolithiasis or renal calculi by calculating the incidence of first-mentioned discharge for urolithiasis or renal calculi and comparing rates across demographic or geographic categories while adjusting by age, sex, and ethnicity/race. We reviewed cancer registry records of urinary cancer deaths by patient residence. The annual incidence of hospitalization for urolithiasis was 5.22 per 10,000. Rates adjusted for sex or age exhibited almost no change. The rate of 9.83 per 10,000 among Chamorros was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than the rates among any other ethnic group or race. When villages were grouped by water source, rates of patients discharged with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis, adjusted for ethnicity/race, were similar for villages using either well water (5.44 per 10,000 or mixed source water (5.39 per 10,000, and significantly greater than the rate for villages using exclusively reservoir water (1.35 per 10,000. No statistically significant differences were found between the water source or village of residence and urinary cancer mortality. Some Guam residents living in villages served completely or partly by deep well water high in calcium carbonate may be at increased risk for urolithiasis compared with residents living in villages served by surface waters. Although the risk appears to be highest in villagers of Chamorro ethnicity, residents should be aware of other contributing risk factors and steps to take to avoid developing this health problem.

  18. Anti-Urolithiatic Effect of Cow Urine Ark on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Calculi

    A.B Shukla

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To investigate the anti-urolithiatic effect of cow urine ark (medicinal distilled cow urine on ethylene glycol (EG induced renal calculi. Materials and Methods 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups. Group I animals served as vehicle control and received distilled water for 28 days. Group II to VI animals received 1% v/v EG in distilled water for 28 days. Group II served as EG control. Group III and IV (preventive groups received cow urine ark orally for 28 days in doses of 1 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg, respectively. Group V and VI (treatment groups received 1 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg cow urine ark orally, respectively from 15th to 28th days. 24-hour urine samples were collected on day 0 and 28. Urine volume and oxalate levels were measured. On day 28, blood was collected for biochemical parameters. Animals were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested, weighed and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals. To calculate the percentage of inhibition of mineralization, simultaneous flow static in-vitro model was used. Results EG significantly increased urine oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea level; kidney weight and CaOx deposits. Provision of cow urine ark resulted in significantly lower levels of urine oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea and CaOx depositions as compared to Group II. (p value < 0.05 It also significantly restored kidney weight. (p value < 0.05 Cow urine ark inhibited 40% and 35% crystallization of CaOx and calcium phosphate, respectively. Conclusion Cow urine ark is effective in prevention and treatment of EG induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats.

  19. [Urinary antimicrobial prophylaxis].

    Nathanson, S; Deschnes, G

    2002-05-01

    Antibiotics are usually used to prevent childhood recurrent urinary tract infections: cystitis or pyelonephritis. The mechanism of action of these antibiotics, although imperfectly known, seems to be double: the antibiotic acts by its bactericidal effect, but also probably for minimal concentrations by reducing adhesion capability of bacteria to the urothelium. The most commonly used molecules are cotrimoxazole, trimethoprime, pivmecillinam, cefaclor and nalidixic acid. However all have not been studied rigorously as for their prophylactic capacity, and in particular very little is known for patients presenting with vesico-ureteral reflux. PMID:12053547

  20. The urinary bladder carcinogen propoxur does not produce genotoxic effects in the urinary bladder of Wistar male rats.

    Iatropoulos, M J; Duan, J-D; Schmuck, G; Williams, G M

    2015-09-01

    Propoxur (PPX) is a carbamate insecticide which induced urinary bladder cancer in Wistar rats when fed at 5000ppm in Altromin 1321 diet (1321). In the present investigation, PPX was studied for induction of several key events related to modes of action (MOA) of carcinogenicity in urinary bladders (UBs). Wistar rats were administered the compound for 28 days at 8000ppm in Provini Liba SA 3883 diet, which is similar to the 1321 diet. o-Anisidine HCl (AH) was used as a genotoxic UB carcinogenic comparator, and trisodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) as an epigenetic UB carcinogen comparator. Along with the non-dosed control and three test substance groups (PPX, AH, NTA), four more groups were additionally fed 2% ammonium chloride (AC) in the diet to acidify the urine, since 1321 was reported to increase urinary pH. AC did acidify the urine, as expected, although the 3883 diet itself did not increase pH values above 8. In the alkaline comet assay, AH produced DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in the UB urothelium (UBU) irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. In the nucleotide (32)P-postlabeling assay (NPL), AH produced DNA adducts irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. Routine (H&E) histopathology evaluation of the UBU did not reveal any hyperplasia or evidence of luminal microprecipitates or calculi in any of the groups. Assessment of UBU proliferation as measured by immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, revealed that NTA and NTA plus AC increased the replicating fraction (RF). Also AH plus AC, but not AH alone, increased the RF of UBU, whereas PPX groups were not significantly different from controls. Thus, the results reveal no evidence for DNA SSBs, binding, or alteration of DNA synthesis in the UBU by PPX, while demonstrating UBU DNA damage by AH and showing that NTA does not damage DNA, but causes increased UBU proliferation. The findings are in accord with a genotoxic MOA for AH, and an epigenetic MOA for NTA. The MOA of PPX does not involve genotoxicity and may be specific to the 1321 diet. PMID:26164753

  1. In vitro crystallization, characterization and growth-inhibition study of urinary type struvite crystals

    Chauhan, Chetan K.; Joshi, Mihir J.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of urinary stones, known as nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis, is a serious, debilitating problem throughout the world. Struvite—NH4MgPO4·6H2O, ammonium magnesium phosphate hexahydrate, is one of the components of urinary stones (calculi). Struvite crystals with different morphologies were grown by in vitro single diffusion gel growth technique with different growth parameters. The crystals were characterized by powder XRD, FT-IR, thermal analysis and dielectric study. The powder XRD results of struvite confirmed the orthorhombic crystal structure. The FT-IR spectrum proved the presence of water of hydration, metal-oxygen bond, N-H bond and P-O bond. For thermal analysis TGA, DTA and DSC were carried out simultaneously. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of dehydration/decomposition process were calculated. Vickers micro-hardness and related mechanical parameters were also calculated. The in vitro growth inhibition studies of struvite by the juice of Citrus medica Linn as well as the herbal extracts of Commiphora wightii, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn and Rotula aquatica Lour were carried out and found potent inhibitors of struvite.

  2. Pattern of urinary tract findings on helical computed tomography in cases of ureterolithiasis

    Objective: To determine the pattern of urinary tract changes in cases of ureterolithiasis as detected on helical computed tomography. Study Design: Descriptive study. Setting: Radiology Department Combined Military Hospital Lahore from Jun 2007 to Jan 2008. Material and Methods: Thirty patients with proven ureterolithiasis on IVU were included. All these patients underwent non contrast enhanced helical computed tomography (CT) scan. Data was analyzed for both quantitative as well as qualitative data and expressed as mean with standard deviation and percentages respectively. Results: All 30 patients had ureteric calculi. Among our study group the frequency expressed as percentages of various secondary signs of ureterolithiasis were hydroureter 25 (83.33%), hydronephrosis of the affected kidney in 23 (76.67%), nephromegaly 16 (53.33%), periureteral edema 19 (63.33%), perinephric stranding 21 (70%), a difference in attenuation between the kidneys 25 (83.33%) while soft tissue rim sign was present in 14 (46.67%) patients. Only one patient lacked the secondary signs. Conclusion: Establishing the pattern of secondary urinary tract findings enables a brisk diagnosis in cases of obstructive ureterolithiasis, thus improving the diagnostic capabilities as well as patient outcome. (author)

  3. Urinary tract trauma

    From a practical point of view, a woman who has blunt injury to the pelvic area with hematuria from the lower urinary tract, has a contused or ruptured bladder. In a man, such a situation calls for retrograde urethrography to determine if the injury is in the urethra or the bladder because the two organs are investigated differently. In both sexes, such injuries are usually associated with pelvic fractures. Massive bladder displacement and severe hemorrhage should alert one to the need for pelvic angiography to find and embolize the bleeding site within the first 24 hours after injury. For blunt trauma to the upper urinary tract an intravenous urogram with tomography is still the main examination. However, a normal intravenous urogram does not exclude serious injury. Therefore, if signs or symptoms persist, a computerized tomographic (CT) examination should be performed if available. Otherwise, a radionuclide study is advisable. Non-excretion on intravenous urography with tomography calls for selective renal arteriography to delineate the etiology. There can be serious renal trauma in the absence of hematuria, which may occur with renal pedicle injury or avulsion of the ureter. Minor forniceal ruptures may occasionally mask severe posterior renal lacerations

  4. Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic activity of Pashanabhedadi Ghrita against experimentally induced renal calculi in rats

    Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Baghel, Madhav Singh; Bhuyan, Chaturbhuja; Ravishankar, B.; B. K Ashok; Patil, Panchakshari D.

    2012-01-01

    Population in an industrialized world is afflicted by urinary stone disease. Kidney stones are common in all kinds of urolithiasis. One distinguished formulation mentioned by Sushruta for management of Ashmari (urolithiasis) is Pashanabhedadi Ghrita (PBG), which is in clinical practice since centuries. Validation of drug is the requirement of time through the experimental study. In this study, trial of PBG has been made against ammonium oxalate rich diet and gentamicin injection induced renal...

  5. Quantum Orthogonal Planes: ISO_{q,r}(N) and SO_{q,r}(N) -- Bicovariant Calculi and Differential Geometry on Quantum Minkowski Space

    Aschieri, Paolo; Castellani, Leonardo(Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica and INFN Torino — Gruppo collegato di Alessandria, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Viale T. Michel 11, Alessandria, 15121, Italy); Scarfone, Antonio Maria

    1997-01-01

    We construct differential calculi on multiparametric quantum orthogonal planes in any dimension N. These calculi are bicovariant under the action of the full inhomogeneous (multiparametric) quantum group ISO_{q,r}(N), and do contain dilatations. If we require bicovariance only under the quantum orthogonal group SO_{q,r}(N), the calculus on the q-plane can be expressed in terms of its coordinates x^a, differentials dx^a and partial derivatives \\partial_a without the need of dilatations, thus g...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  7. Ethanolic Extract of Nigella Sativa L Seeds on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Kidney Calculi in Rats

    Mohammadreza Parizady

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa L (NS seeds on kidney calculi in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group A received tap drinking water for 30 days (intact control. Groups B, C, and D received 1% ethylen glycol for induction of calcium oxalate calculus formation. As the preventive, and treatment subjects, rats in groups C and D received ethanolic extract of NS, 250 mg/kg, in drinking water since day 0 and day 14, respectively. Urine was collected on days 0, 7, 14, and 30 of the study period. After 30 days, the kidneys were removed and prepared for histologic evaluation of calcium oxalate deposits. Urine calcium oxalate concentrations were determined by atomic absorption. Results: The number of CaOx deposits was significantly greater in group B (P = .001. Calcium oxalate concentrations in the urine on days 14 and 30 increased significantly in group B and were higher than those in group C (P = .006 and P = .002, respectively. Urine oxalate concentration in group D decreased on day 30 and was lower than that in group B (P = .04. Conclusion: Treatment of rats with ethanolic extract of NS reduced the number of calcium oxalate deposits in a group of rats that received ethanolic extract of NS. The NS could also lower the urine concentration of calcium oxalate. We suggest further studies on the therapeutic and preventive effects of the NS on kidney calculus formation in human.

  8. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ultrasound reports. Aborted fetuses and still born babies were collected for autopsy after the consent of parents. These babies were fixed in 10% formalin and autopsy was done after fixing, and anomalies were noted. Results: Total births during study period were 3000. There were 61 babies with congenital anomalies and 6 babies had anomalies of urinary system. Among the urinary system anomalies 1 baby had bilateral renal agenesis, 1 baby had unilateral renal agenesis with anophthalmia (Fraser syndrome, 2 babies had Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCDK and 1 live baby had hydronephrosis due to obstruction at pelvi ureteric junction, and 1 live female baby had polycystic kidneys. Conclusion: Incidence of urinary system anomalies in the present study was 2 per 1000 births. U/S detection of urinary anomalies varies with period of gestation, amniotic fluid volume and visualisation of urinary bladder. Autopsy helps to detect renal agenesis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 743-748

  9. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    ... Top of page What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that involves ... page What is a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI)? A catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) occurs when germs (usually bacteria) ...

  10. Evaluation of the efficacy of tamsulosin with or without deflazacort for stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for upper ureteral and renal calculi

    Rajeev T. P.

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Addition of alpha-blocker tamsulosin along with deflazacort post ESWL for renal and upper ureteric calculi increases the stone expulsion rate and reduces the expulsion duration as shown by highly statistically significant results in group C. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(2.000: 643-648

  11. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urinary calculi. Results from the first 306 patients treated at the Copenhagen Municipal Stone Center with a second generation lithotriptor

    Andersen, J T; Mogensen, P

    1991-01-01

    were performed under local analgesia (82%) or epidural or general anesthesia (18%) when invasive procedures had to be done in connection with the treatment. Stone fragmentation was achieved with 2487 +/- 1262 shocks. The first months stone clearance rate was 45%; 26% had fragments less than 6 mm; 29...

  12. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions (For Parents)

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions KidsHealth > For Parents > Recurrent Urinary ... Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) Activity: Urinary System Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Urinary Tract Infections ...

  13. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limitat...

  14. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Sharada B. Menasinkai; Mahantappa A. Chiniwar; Saraswathi, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ul...

  15. Diseases of the urinary system

    Age-dependent anatomo-physiological regularities of development urogenital system of in children are considered. A description of performing examination methods is given: summarized roentgenography, excretary urography, cystography, kidney angiography. Great attention is given to the choice of contrast media, dose calculation, excretion and pharmokinetic mechanism of contrast media. Particular items of roentgenodiagnosis of urinary tract diseases are given: anomalies and acquired diseases of urinary system

  16. Urinary conduits in gynecologic oncology

    Over an 11-year period (1971 to 1981), 212 urinary conduit surgeries were performed by the Department of Gynecology at the University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston. The urinary diversions were performed as part of the pelvic exenteration operation in 154 patients, for radiation injury in 48 patients, and for palliation of disease recurrence in ten patients. Ninety-three percent had prior pelvic radiotherapy. Various segments of the gastrointestinal tract were used, including the ileum (102), sigmoid colon (99), transverse colon (four), jejunum (four), and others (three). Fifty percent of abnormal preoperative intravenous pyelograms reverted to normal after urinary diversion. Revision of the stoma was required in 6%. Other complications included infection (18%), renal loss (17%), and urinary leaks and fistulae (3%). The overall perioperative mortality was 7%, decreasing from 11% in the first five years to 3% during the last six years. Ureteral stents were routinely used. When selecting a segment of bowel for a urinary conduit, both tissue quality and mobility are important. Mortality and morbidity of urinary conduit surgery continues to decrease with experience

  17. La incontinencia urinaria Urinary incontinence

    J. E. Robles

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available La incontinencia urinaria, entendida como cualquier prdida involuntaria de orina, constituye un problema mdico y social importante. Puede clasificarse en incontinencia urinaria de esfuerzo, incontinencia urinaria de urgencia e incontinencia urinaria mixta, principalmente. Las proporciones de estos tres tipos principales de incontinencia urinaria son difciles de establecer y varan notablemente segn las fuentes, pero, podran estar en torno a 40, 33 y 20%, respectivamente. Su diagnstico requiere una correcta historia clnica y exploracin fsica, junto con algunas exploraciones complementarias. El primer escaln teraputico lo constituyen las medidas higinico-dietticas y las tcnicas de modificacin de la conducta. El tratamiento farmacolgico es especfico para cada tipo de incontinencia urinaria, utilizndose anticolinrgicos e inhibidores de la recaptacin de serotonina. Por ltimo, las diferentes tcnicas quirrgicas tienen su papel ante el fracaso de los tratamientos conservadores o frente a incontinencia urinaria severa.Urinary incontinence, understood as any involuntary loss of urine, constitutes an important medical and social problem. It can be classified as stress urinary incontinence, urgent urinary incontinence or mixed urinary incontinence. The proportions of these three types of urinary incontinence are difficult to establish and vary notably between sources, but they might be about 40, 33 and 20% respectively. Its diagnosis requires a correct clinical history and physical exploration, together with some complementary explorations. The first therapeutic step consists of hygienic-dietary measures and behaviour modification techniques. Pharmacological treatment is specific for each type of urinary incontinence, using anticholinergics and inhibitors of serotonin reuptake. Finally, different surgical techniques have a role in cases where conservative treatments fail or when dealing with severe urinary incontinence.

  18. Efect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Hypericum Perforatum L. Leaves on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Kidney Calculi in Rats

    Mohsen Khalili

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum leaves on the kidney calculi in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Groups 2, 3, and 4 received ethylene glycol (EG 1% + ammonium chloride (0.5%-added drinking water as a stone inducer. The H. Perforatum solution was fed at the same time of EG application and was repeated once for two days until the end of the experimental period. Group 1 (control; n = 10 was provided free access to food and normal drinking water. Group 2 (EG; n = 12 received EG-ammonium chloride-added drinking water and was fed with normal chow. Groups 3 and 4 (n = 15, as EG-treatment groups, received H. Perforatum in low (300 mg/kg and high (500 mg/kg doses, respectively. After 28 days, the kidneys were removed and prepared for histologic evaluation of calcium oxalate deposits. RESULTS: Urine level of free calcium in groups EG and EG + H. perforatum (300 mg/kg and phosphorous in EG + H. perforatum (500 mg/kg significantly decreased compared to controls (P < .01; P < .05; and P < .05, respectively. Treatment of the rats with high dose of H. Perforatum (500 mg/kg markedly reduced decrementing effect of EG on serum level of free calcium (P < .05. Histological experiments showed that chronic feeding of H. perforatum (300 and 500 mg/kg, orally could significantly reduce the size and number of calcium oxalate deposits in EG group. CONCLUSION: Chronic treatment of rats with hydroalcoholic extract of H. perforatum reduced the size and number of calcium oxalate deposits in EG-induced calculi.

  19. Palliative urinary conduit diversion in cases of intolerable urinary discomfort

    Fifteen patients with incurable gynecological cancers, all primary radiation treated and all having severe urinary discomfort due to urinary tract injuries were retrospectively examined after urinary conduit diversion. All have been followed-up until termination or until all survivors had lived for 6 months after the operation. Twelve of the 15 were discharged from the hospital, 10 of whom survived the first 6 months. Of those discharged 82% of the cumulated sum of postoperative observations days was spent out of the hospital. At the end of the observation period nine patients had been supplied with a colostomy as well, thus having double stomas. All six patients still alive declared in retrospect that given the choice again, they would still be willing to undergo the operation

  20. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Results: Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidencebased guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. Conclusions: General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. Hypercalciuria: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of different origin decreases calciuria, but their impact on the urinary stone risk profile is uncertain. Sports beverage do not affect the urinary stone risk profile. Hyperoxaluria: A diet low in oxalate and/or a calcium intake normal to high (800-1200 mg/day for adults reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate, conversely a diet rich in oxalates and/or a diet low in calcium increase urinary oxalate. A restriction in protein intake may reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate although a vegetarian diet may lead to an increase in urinary oxalate. Adding bran to a diet low in oxalate cancels its effect of reducing urinary oxalate. Conversely, the addition of supplements of fruit and vegetables to a mixed diet does not involve an increased excretion of oxalate in the urine. The intake of pyridoxine reduces the excretion of oxalate. Hyperuricosuria: In patients with renal calcium stones the decrease of the urinary excretion of uric acid after restriction of dietary protein and purine is suggested although not clearly demonstrated. Hypocitraturia: The administration of alkaline-citrates salts is recommended for the medical treatment of renal stone-formers with hypocitraturia, although compliance to this treatment is limited by gastrointestinal side effects and costs. Increased intake of fruit and vegetables (excluding those with high oxalate content increases citrate excretion and involves a significant protection against the risk of stone formation. Citrus (lemons, oranges, grapefruit, and lime and non citrus fruits (melon are natural sources of dietary citrate, and several studies have shown the potential of these fruits and/or their juices in raising urine citrate levels. Children: There are enought basis to advice an adequate fluid intake also in children. Moderate dietary salt restriction and implementation of potassium intake are useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion whereas dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for children with nephrolithiasis. It seems reasonable to advice a balanced consumption of fruit and vegetables and a low consumption of chocolate and cola according to general nutritional guidelines, although no studies have assessed in pediatric stone formers the effect of fruit and vegetables supplementation on urinary citrate and the effects of chocolate and cola restriction on urinary oxalate in pediatric stone formers. Despite the low level of scientific evidence, a low-protein (< 20 g/day low-salt (< 2 g/day diet with high hydration (> 3 liters/day is strongly advised in children with cystinuria. Elderly: In older patients dietary counseling for renal stone prevention has to consider some particular aspects of aging. A restriction of sodium intake in association with a higher intake of potassium, magnesium and citrate is advisable in order to reduce urinary risk factors for stone formation but also to prevent the loss of bone mass and the incidence of hypertension, although more hemodynamic sensitivity to sodium intake and decreased renal function of the elderly have to be considered. A diet rich in calcium (1200 mg/day is useful to maintain skeletal wellness and to prevent kidney stones although an higher supplementation could involve an increase of risk for both the formation of kidney stones and cardiovascular diseases. A lower content of animal protein in association to an higher intake of plant products decrease the acid load and the excretion of uric acid has no particular contraindications in the elderly patients, although overall nutritional status has to be preserved.

  1. [Secondary malignancies in urinary diversions].

    Kälble, T; Hofmann, I; Thüroff, J W; Stein, R; Hautmann, R; Riedmiller, H; Vergho, D; Hertle, L; Wülfing, C; Truß, M; Roth, S; von Rundstedt, F C; Albers, P; Gschwend, J; Herkommer, K; Humke, U; Spahn, M; Bader, P; Steffens, J; Harzmann, R; Stief, C G; Karl, A; Müller, S C; Waldner, M; Noldus, J; Kleinschmidt, K; Alken, P; Kopper, B; Fisch, M; Lampel, A; Stenzel, A; Fichtner, J; Flath, B; Rübben, H; Juenemann, K P; Hautmann, S; Knipper, A; Leusmann, D; Strohmaier, W; Thon, W F; Miller, S; Weingärtner, K; Schilling, A; Piechota, H; Becht, J E; Schwaibold, H; Bub, P; Conrad, S; Wenderoth, U; Merkle, W; Rösch, W; Otto, T; Ulshöfer, B; Westenfelder, M

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to ureterosigmoidostomy no reliable clinical data exist for tumor risk in different forms of urinary diversion using isolated intestinal segments.In 44 German urological departments, operation frequencies, indications, patient age, and operation dates of the different forms of urinary diversion, operated between 1970 and 2007, could be registered. The secondary tumors up to 2009 were registered as well and related to the numbers of the different forms of urinary diversions resulting in tumor prevalences.In 17,758 urinary diversions 32 secondary tumors occurred. The tumor risk in ureterosigmoidostomy (22-fold) and cystoplasty (13-fold) is significantly higher than in other continent forms of urinary diversion such as neobladders or pouches (p<0.0001). The difference between ureterosigmoidostomy and cystoplasty is not significant, nor is the difference between ileocecal pouches (0.14%) and ileal neobladders (0.05%) (p=0.46). The tumor risk in ileocecal (1.26%) and colonic neobladders (1.43%) is significantly higher (p=0.0001) than in ileal neobladders (0.5%). Of the 16 tumors that occurred following ureterosigmoidostomy, 16 (94%) developed directly at the ureterocolonic borderline in contrast to only 50% following urinary diversions via isolated intestinal segments.From postoperative year 5 regular endoscopic controls of ureterosigmoidostomies, cystoplasties, and orthotopic (ileo-)colonic neobladders are necessary. In ileocecal pouches, regular endoscopy is necessary at least in the presence of symptoms or should be performed routinely at greater intervals. Following neobladders or conduits, only urethroscopies for urethral recurrence are necessary. PMID:22476801

  2. Cranberry Juice for Urinary Tract Infection?

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157466.html Cranberry Juice for Urinary Tract Infection? Specialist says grocery-store ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Contrary to popular belief, cranberry juice does not cure a urinary tract infection, a ...

  3. Radiology of continent urinary diversions

    Continent urinary diversions are gaining wide acceptance as alternatives to the ideal conduit following cystectomy. Clean intermittent catheterization of the pouch at regular intervals obviates the inconvenience of an external stomal appliance. A variety of surgical techniques have been described for continent pouches. These use the small bowel alone or a combination of the cecum and the terminal ileum. The optimum pouch protects upper tracts by preventing reflux, provides urinary continence, and has sufficient capacity to require infrequent catheterization. Simplified construction techniques for the common pouches are graphically presented, and methods are suggested for identification and study of continent diversions

  4. Urinary incontinence in children Invited Editor

    Canpolat, Nur; ,; Çalışkan, Salim

    2007-01-01

    Urinary incontinence which is defined as the involuntary loss of urine is a very common clinical problem in childhood Its etiology includes delayed bladder control effects of environmental and social factors on toilet training urinary tract infection anatomic abnormalities of lower urinary tract and neurogenic disorders The more common cause of childhood urinary incontinence is non neurogenic abnormalities classified as anatomic abnormalities or bladder dysfunction Voiding dysfunction is asso...

  5. Urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick in acute pancreatitis

    Andersen, Anders Mller; Novovic, Srdan; Ersbll, Annette Kjaer; Jrgensen, Lars Nannestad; Hansen, Mark Berner

    2010-01-01

    In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results.......In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results....

  6. Predictors of Success for Stone Fragmentation and Stone-Free Rate After Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy in the Treatment of Upper Urinary Tract Stones

    Kiyoshi Takahara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate factors affecting the success rate of stone fragmentation and stone-free rate after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL in treatment of upper urinary tract stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 121 patients with upper urinary tract calculi underwent SWL treatment. RESULTS: Success rate of stone fragmentation after SWL was 73.6% (89/121. In 89 patients who had success of breaking stones, 71 patients were followed up for the assessment of stone-free status, of whom 51 (71.8% patients were stone-free at 3-month follow-up. Among four prognostic factors, including body mass index (BMI, stone size, stone position, and hydronephrosis, BMI and stone position had a significant impact on the success rate of stone fragmentation (P = .04 and U1: P = .0108, respectively. Among five prognostic factors of BMI, stone size, stone position, hydronephrosis, and times of SWL treatments, stone size was the only factor with significant impact on the stone-free rate (middle: P = .0229. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that stone fragmentation and stone-free rate after SWL treatment for upper urinary tract stones can be predicted.

  7. First experience with blind lithotripsy of ureteral calculi by ruby laser

    Pupkova, Ludmila S.; Reznikov, Leonid L.; Sokolovsky, Alexander A.; Mursin, A. G.; Soms, Leonid N.; Berenberg, Vladimir A.; Polikarpov, Sergey S.; Parkhomchuk, N. A.; Voskresensky, M. A.

    1994-05-01

    For the last two years we have applied continuous dual-wavelength Nd:YAG 20 - 60 W power laser to various urologic operations. Transmission of laser irradiation via a flexible quartz fiber permitted operating at any depth of the wound. High-intensity irradiation of 1.06 mkm wavelength was effective in making thin incisions into a variety of tissues, including skin, subcutaneous fat, aponeurosis, muscles, urinary bladder wall, prostate gland, renal pelvis, renal capsule and parenchyma, and urethra. The incisions were especially effective if the contact method was used. Operational access was accomplished in 3 - 5 minutes. At the same time, hemostasis occurred in small diameter vessels. More reliable hemostasis could be achieved by means of 1.32 mkm wavelength. With the present laser device, we carried out 57 different urologic operations in our clinic. Examples of such operations include prostatectomy, pyelolithotomy, ureterolithotomy, nephrectomy, resection of renal cysts, condylomata acuminata of the urogenital organs, and papilloma of the urethra and bladder. The results suggest that a combination of these two wavelengths may prove most effective. Advantages of this approach include a decreased blood loss and decreased surgical time, asepsis, good short- and long-term results, and no complications.

  8. Multi-modality imaging review of congenital abnormalities of kidney and upper urinary tract.

    Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Kumar, Devendra; Khanna, Maneesh; Al Heidous, Mahmoud; Sheikh, Adnan; Virmani, Vivek; Palaniappan, Yegu

    2016-02-28

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include a wide range of abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic ectopic kidneys to life threatening renal agenesis (bilateral). Many of them are detected in the antenatal or immediate postnatal with a significant proportion identified in the adult population with varying degree of severity. CAKUT can be classified on embryological basis in to abnormalities in the renal parenchymal development, aberrant embryonic migration and abnormalities of the collecting system. Renal parenchymal abnormalities include multi cystic dysplastic kidneys, renal hypoplasia, number (agenesis or supernumerary), shape and cystic renal diseases. Aberrant embryonic migration encompasses abnormal location and fusion anomalies. Collecting system abnormalities include duplex kidneys and Pelvi ureteric junction obstruction. Ultrasonography (US) is typically the first imaging performed as it is easily available, non-invasive and radiation free used both antenatally and postnatally. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful to confirm the ultrasound detected abnormality, detection of complex malformations, demonstration of collecting system and vascular anatomy and more importantly for early detection of complications like renal calculi, infection and malignancies. As CAKUT are one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease, it is important for the radiologists to be familiar with the varying imaging appearances of CAKUT on US, CT and MRI, thereby helping in prompt diagnosis and optimal management. PMID:26981222

  9. Aeromonas popoffii Urinary Tract Infection

    Hua, Huy Thong; Bollet, Claude; Tercian, Stephane; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier,

    2004-01-01

    Aeromonas popoffii is a recently described species isolated mainly from freshwater. An isolate of Aeromonas popoffii was found to be responsible for a urinary tract infection in a 13-year-old boy suffering from spina bifida with enterocystoplasty. This is the first reported case of human infection attributed to this species.

  10. Mullerianosis of the urinary bladder.

    Kudva, Ranjini; Hegde, Padmaraj

    2012-04-01

    Mullerianosis of the urinary bladder is a rare and morphologically complex tumor-like lesion, composed of several types of mullerian lesions like endometriosis, endocervicosis, and endosalpingiosis. This disease occurs in women of reproductive age group. Implantative and metaplastic origins have been suggested in the pathogenesis. PMID:22919142

  11. Biofilm infections of urinary tract

    Holá, V.; Růžička, F.; Horáková, L.; Renata, R.; Horká, Marie

    Istanbul, 2008. s. 232. [International Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology /12./. 05.08.2008-09.08.2008, Istanbul] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Keywords : catheter related urinary tract infections * affection of culture conditions * capillary isoelectric focusing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  12. Urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformations in children: A retrospective study of 34 cases

    Jamila Chahed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association of urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation is not rare, their management poses challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between urolithiasis and malformations of the urinary system. There were 34 patients (19 males and 15 females with a mean age of 4.8 years (range, 2 months to 14 years. All patients had urinary lithiasis with a urinary tract malformation. Abdominal pain was the most frequent clinical symptom (38%. Urinary infection was found in 7 patients (21% and macroscopic haematuria was present in 10 patients (29%. The most frequent urinary tract malformations were megaureter (8 cases, uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (7 cases and vesico-ureteric reflux (8 cases, but its malformative origin could not be confirmed. Treatment consisted of lithiasis extraction in 32 cases associated with specific treatment of the uropathy in 27 cases. Postoperative outcome was uneventful in all cases. In fact, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is not rare. Indeed, 9-34% of urinary lithiasis are noted to be associated with urinary tract malformation. Positive diagnosis relies specifically on kidney ultrasound, intravenous urography, and urethrocystography. Treatment depends on the type of urinary tract malformation, localisation and size of the urinary lithiasis. Conclusion: In conclusion, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is a frequent eventuality. Surgical intervention is the usual mode of treatment.

  13. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the urinary bladder: a report of 11 cases.

    Zhang, Miao; Wah, Cheuk; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2014-11-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to the urinary bladder is rarely seen. Herein, we report the histologic subtypes, immunohistochemical characteristics, and prognosis of 11 patients with metastatic RCC to the urinary bladder. The mean age at the time of diagnosis of metastatic RCC to the bladder was 66 years (range, 58 to 79 y). There were 9 male and 2 female patients. Four patients presented with hematuria, 2 with urinary retention/obstruction, and 1 with bladder calculi. Four patients were asymptomatic and presented for surveillance cystoscopy, wherein they were found to have bladder masses. Nine patients had prior histories of RCC. The remaining 2 patients presented with metastatic clear cell RCC to the bladder and were subsequently found to have renal masses. The average time between nephrectomy and metastasis to the bladder was 20.7 months (range, 0 to 87 mo). Of the 10 patients with radical/partial nephrectomy, 7 cases were clear cell (2 with sarcomatoid features), 2 papillary, and 1 chromophobe with histologic fidelity between the primary and metastasis. Of cases with available data, the primaries' ISUP nucleolar grades were 2 (n=2), 3 (n=4), and 4 for the 2 cases with sarcomatoid features. In 8 cases, the bladder RCC undermined overlying urothelium with extensive urothelial denudation, and in 3 cases the RCC was free floating without attachment to the urothelium. The 1 chromophobe RCC metastasized with pagetoid spread to a preexisting urothelial papilloma. PAX8 immunohistochemistry was used to confirm the diagnosis in 2 cases. Three patients have no evidence of disease (7, 9, and 13 mo). Two are alive with disease after chemotherapy (30, 37 mo). Six patients are dead of disease with multiorgan metastases; 4 are dead after therapy (5, 8, 25, 28 mo), and two died without radiation or chemotherapy at 10 and 71 months. Metastatic RCC to the urinary bladder is uncommon, with most cases clear cell RCC. In some cases, evidence supports "drop metastases" as the mechanism of spread and patients have relatively long survival. However, in other cases spread to the bladder is in the setting of metastases to other sites, and these patients tended to die relatively shortly after their bladder metastases. PMID:25140895

  14. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder.

    Rosado, Elsa; Pereira, Jos; Corbusier, Florence; Demeter, Pieter; Bali, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder in a 31 year-old woman. She presented at the emergency room with low abdominal pain and urinary symptoms. Abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and revealed asymmetric thickening of the urinary bladder wall. Cystoscopy with urinary cytology revealed a benign nature of the process. The patient underwent partial cystectomy and the pathologic examination of the specimen revealed an inflammatory pseudotumor. We reviewed the clinical, imaging and pathological features of the inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder and discussed its differential diagnosis. PMID:25926919

  15. Urinary tract infection related to urinary catheterization: literature integrative review

    Ptala Tuani Candido de Oliveira Salvador, Kisna Yasmin Andrade Alves, Rodrigo Assis Neves Dantas, Daniele Vieira Dantas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze, through literature, the knowledge produced on Urinary Tract Infection (UTI related to catheterization, especially in-dwelling urinary catheter (IUC. Methodology: this is an integrative literature review. The review was conducted on the Internet in the BDENF, LILACS, SciELO and MEDLINE databases, using the following keywords: urinary system, catheters delay and hospital infection. We selected: Brazilian studies, from the years 1999 to 2008. Results: 19 studies were selected. The time dimension of the publications ranged from 1999 to 2008, with higher incidence in the year 2007 (5 items = 26%. The studied productions provided some considerations on the following priority topics: the incidence of nosocomial UTI; predominant agent; risk factors; pharmacological treatment and chemoprophylaxis; and prophylactic mechanisms. Conclusion: it was the importance of the issue of ITU for the health / disease process of users and for the finances of the Health System, being essential na embodiment of a new view on the subject by the subject components of health services, especially the hospital to provide care that will allow the accumulation of health.

  16. Major Odorants Released as Urinary Volatiles by Urinary Incontinent Patients

    In Young Sa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, volatile urinary components were collected using three different types of samples from patients suffering from urinary incontinence (UI: (1 urine (A; (2 urine + non-used pad (B; and (3 urine + used pad (C. In addition, urine + non-used pad (D samples from non-patients were also collected as a reference. The collection of urinary volatiles was conducted with the aid of a glass impinger-based mini-chamber method. Each of the four sample types (A through D was placed in a glass impinger and incubated for 4 hours at 37 C. Ultra pure air was then passed through the chamber, and volatile urine gas components were collected into Tedlar bags at the other end. These bag samples were then analyzed for a wide range of VOCs and major offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs, carbonyls, trimethylamine (TMA, ammonia, etc.. Among the various odorants, sulfur compounds (methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, butylaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde were detected above odor threshold and predicted to contribute most effectively to odor intensity of urine incontinence.

  17. Holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy versus pneumatic lithotripsy for treatment of distal ureteral calculi: a meta-analysis.

    Yin, Xiangrui; Tang, Ziwei; Yu, Bei; Wang, Yarong; Li, Yuehua; Yang, Qi; Tang, Wei

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the treatment effect of Pneumatic Lithotripsy (PL) versus holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy (LL) in the treatment of distal ureteric calculi. A bibliographic search covering the period from 1990 to April 2012 was conducted using search engines such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library. Data were extracted and analyzed with RevMan5.1 software. A total of 47 studies were scant, and 4 independent studies were finally recruited. Holmium: YAG LL conveyed significant benefits compared with PL in terms of early stone-free rate [odds ratio (OR)=4.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.14, 17.16), p=0.03], delayed stone-free rate [OR=4.42, 95%CI (1.58, 12.37), p=0.005], mean operative time [WMD=-16.86, 95%CI (-21.33, -12.39), pmeta-analysis. Precise estimates on larger sample size and trials of high quality may provide more uncovered outcomes in the future. PMID:23016622

  18. Combined laparoscopic pyelolithotomy and endoscopic pyelolithotripsy for staghorn calculi: long-term follow-up results from a case series

    Pastore, Antonio Luigi; Palleschi, Giovanni; Silvestri, Luigi; Leto, Antonino; Ripoli, Andrea; Fuschi, Andrea; Al Salhi, Yazan; Autieri, Domenico; Petrozza, Vincenzo; Carbone, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Staghorn renal stones are a challenging field in urology. Due to their high recurrence rates, particularly those associated with an infective process, a complete removal is the ultimate goal in their management. We report our experience with a combined approach of laparoscopic pyelolithotomy and endoscopic pyelolithotripsy, the stone clearance rate, and long-term, follow-up outcomes. Methods: From June 2012 to October 2014, nine adult patients with large staghorn renal calculi (mean size, 7.2 cm; range, 6.29.0 cm) underwent a combined laparoscopic and endoscopic approach. The technique comprised laparoscopic pyelolithotomy and holmium-YAG laser stone fragmentation with the use of a flexible cystoscope introduced through a 12 mm trocar. Results: The average operative time was 140 min (range, 90190 min). The mean estimated hemoglobin loss was 0.6 mmol/l (range 0.50.7 mmol/l). None of the patients required an open- surgery conversion. The mean hospital stay was 4 days (range, 26 days). A computed tomography urogram control at 6 months of follow up did not show any stone recurrence. Conclusions: Laparoscopic pyelolithotomy combined with endoscopic pyelolithotripsy could be a therapeutic option in cases where mini-invasive procedures, that is, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopic lithotripsy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) have failed. This technique has a high stone-clearance rate (75100%) comparable with open surgery and PCNL. However, it could be technically demanding and should be performed by skilled laparoscopy surgeons.

  19. Retencin urinaria aguda por clculo prosttico: a propsito de un caso / Debut endometriosis with urinary manifestations: report of two cases

    Fernando S., Fernndez Marichal; Rafael, Toirn Garca; Ahimara, Varela lvarez; Orlando, Segura Roque.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: los clculos prostticos son frecuentes despus de los 50 aos presentando infecciones urinarias y dificultad miccional cuando son de gran tamao. Caso clnico: se presenta el caso de un paciente con un clculo prosttico de gran tamao que provoc retencin urinaria aguda, al examen dig [...] ital rectal apareci una prstata de consistencia firme que impresionaba crepitar a la palpacin. Resultados: se le realiza extraccin del clculo prosttico a travs de incisin longitudinal de la cpsula prosttica y vejiga en el Hospital Docente de Oncologa Mara Curie de Camagey, en agosto del 2014. El paciente egres a los 7 das despus del tratamiento quirrgico, con seguimiento por consulta externa. Conclusiones: la litiasis prosttica de gran tamao puede ser causa de retencin urinaria aguda, aunque su presentacin no sea frecuente. Abstract in english Background: prostatic calculi are frequent after 50 years old and cause urinary infections and urination difficulty when they are large. Clinical case: the case of a patient with a large prostatic calculus which caused acute urinary retention is presented. When making the digital rectal exam, a pros [...] tate of firm consistency that impressed because it felt crepitant at touching, could be perceived. Results: the extraction of the prostatic calculus was made through the longitudinal incision of the capsule of prostate and the bladder in the Maria Curie Teaching Oncological Hospital of Camagey, in August, 2014. The patient was discharged seven days after the surgical treatment. A follow-up care was established. Conclusions: a large prostatic lithiasis can be the cause of acute urinary retention, although its presentation is infrequent.

  20. Unusual Vesical Calculus in Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta

    Lixian Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several cases of urinary calculi have been reported in cynomolgus monkeys but vesical calculi were not reported in rhesus monkeys. The adult male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta presented here had a vesical calculi which was entire urate.

  1. The menopause and urinary incontinence

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, Søren

    1994-01-01

    prevalence in 1987 of episodes of stress and urge urinary incontinence; prevalence of menopause and exposure to childbirth, gynecologic surgery, cystitis and obesity as indicated by body mass index more than 29; prevalence relative risks, as indicated by odds ratio of UI conditional on menopause and other...... prevalence risk indicators. The 1987 period prevalences of stress and urge urinary incontinence were 15.9% and 8.7%, respectively. Forty-one percent had ceased to menstruate. Irrespective of the UI risk indicators mentioned, UI prevalence was significantly raised from 1 year before until 1 year after the...... year of final menstruation. The findings suggest perimenopausal processes rather than the menopause in general to be responsible for an increased risk of developing UI. The elevation of UI prevalence in the perimenopause may reflect the adjustment of the female continence mechanism to function with a...

  2. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Herráiz, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Antonio; Asenjo, Eloy; Herráiz, Ignacio

    2005-12-01

    Urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), acute cystitis (AC) and acute pyelonephritis (AP), are favored by the morphological and functional changes involved in pregnancy. AB increases the risk of preterm labor, low birth weight and AP. AB should be detected by uroculture (other methods are not sufficiently effective) and treated early. Approximately 80% of cases are caused by Escherichia coli. The risks and effectiveness of the distinct antibiotic regimens should be evaluated: fosfomycin trometamol in monotherapy or as short course therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of AB and AC. AP is the most frequent cause of hospital admission for medical reasons in pregnant women and can lead to complications in 10% of cases, putting the lives of the mother and fetus at risk. Currently outpatient treatment of AP is recommended in selected cases. Adequate follow-up of pregnant women with urinary tract infections is required due to frequent recurrence. PMID:16854357

  3. Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma of urinary bladder

    Gupta, Narmada P.; Kolla, Surendra B.; Panda, Sabyasachi; Sharma, M C

    2008-01-01

    Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma is an uncommon vascular neoplasm and has an unpredictable clinical behavior. It is characterized by round or spindle-shaped endothelial cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation. Most often, epitheloid hemangioendothelioma arise from the soft tissues of the upper and lower extremities and it has borderline malignant potential. We describe the first reported case of epitheloid hemangioendothelioma in the urinary bladder, which was treated by transurethral resection. Th...

  4. Bedside Diagnosis Of Urinary Incontinence

    Lewis,John

    1985-01-01

    Urinary incontinence usually presents as stress incontinence, unstable bladder, incontinence of psychomotor impairment, or neurogenic bladder. While diagnosis may sometimes require specialist investigation, it is often possible on clinical grounds. The otherwise well woman with a long history of incontinence will have either stress incontinence or an unstable bladder; the differences are defined. The ill patient with a short history of incontinence associated with impaired alertness or mobili...

  5. [Melanosis of the urinary bladder].

    Wllner, J; Janzen, J; Pannek, J

    2016-01-01

    Melanosis of the bladder is rare. Only 10cases have been described in the literature. We present the case of an 80-year-old woman with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to spinal paralysis. During the diagnostic work-up which included cystoscopy, black spots in the bladder wall were observed. Histopathological evaluation revealed a benign suburothelial melanosis. Thus, with cystoscopic suspicion of a malignancy (melanoma), a biopsy is mandatory and regular cystoscopic follow-up is recommended. PMID:26358438

  6. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    Evan B. Cohn; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year (1). Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance req...

  7. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen

    Abdullah Saleh Al-Samawi; Saleh Mansoor Aulaqi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998) classification.Methods: This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30t...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections In Pregnancy

    N Sivalingam; Loh KY

    2007-01-01

    Urinary tract infections frequently affect pregnant mothers. This problem causes significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Three common clinical manifestations of UTIs in pregnancy are: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli remains the most frequent organism isolated in UTIs. All pregnant mothers should be screened for UTIs in pregnancy and antibiotics should be commenced without delay. Urine culture and sensitivity is the gold standard in...

  9. Approach to urinary tract infections

    Najar, M S; Saldanha, C. L.; Banday, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomati...

  10. Urinary incontinence and risk factors

    Demirta?, mer; Yaz, Mehlika Pelin; Kurt, Sefa; Ta?yurt, Abdulah

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARYObjective: Examining the effects of body mass index (BMI), parity, method of delivery, defects in pelvic floor, diabetes mellitus on the types of incontinence in Urinary Incontinence (UI) cases.Method: 230 UI cases were evaluated in this study. Questions asked to the cases to determine the age, parity and the type of incontinence. Incontinence was diagnosed with history. Additionally, gynecological examination findings, fasting and postprandial blood glucose (FBG-PPG) and hemoglobin A...

  11. [Investigation of typical melamine urinary stones using infrared spectra].

    Si, Min-Zhen; Li, Qing-Yun; Liu, Ren-Ming; Kang, Yi-Pu; Wang, Kun-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Guo

    2010-02-01

    A typical melamine kidney stone confirmed by some medicine expert was collected from the first people's hospital of Yunnan. The kidney stone was adequately determined by PE corporation spectra 100(with resolution of 1 cm(-1)). The stone samples for FTIR analysis were prepared using the KBr pellet technique, where 2 mg of the pretreated stone powder was mixed with 200 mg of analytical grade KBr using an agate pestle and mortar. The digital spectrum was then scanned in the mid-infrared region from 4 000 to 400 cm(-1) at room temperature. The appearing bands between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 487, 3 325, 3 162 and 2 788 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 694, 1 555, 1 383, 1 340, 1 189 and 1 122 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 782, 748, 709, 624, 585, 565 and 476 cm(-1). It was found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with cat kidney stone, which was from cats that died after consuming the contaminated food, and confirmed that these deposits were primarily composed of melamine and cyanuric acid compared to the IR spectra of calculi in literature. It was also found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with popular kidney stone by comparison with the IR spectra of calculi in literature. The spectrum of calculi was 50% respectively similar with melamine and uric acid as compared with the IR spectrum. It was found that the main constituent of calculi was melamine itself and uric acid as compared with the IR spectra of calculi and melamine: (1 : 1), because the spectrum of calculi was 83. 3% similar to melamine and uric acid (1 : 1). The appearing bands of melamine and uric acid (1 : 1) between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 469, 3 419, 3 333, 3 132, 3 026, 2 827 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 696, 1 656, 1 555, 1 489, 1 439, 1 350, 1 311, 1 198, 1 124 and 1 028 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 878, 814, 784, 745, 708, 619, 577 and 475 cm(-1). PMID:20384125

  12. Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention

    Marcelo Hisano; Homero Bruschini; Antonio Carlos Nicodemo; Miguel Srougi

    2012-01-01

    Lower urinary tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent urinary tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are available, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower urinary tract infections, including in vitro studies and...

  13. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans

    BEHZADI, Payam; BEHZADI, Elham; Ranjbar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution o...

  14. Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention

    Marcelo Hisano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent urinary tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are available, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower urinary tract infections, including in vitro studies and clinical trials.

  15. Urinary calprotectin and posttransplant renal allograft injury

    Tepel, Martin; Borst, Christoffer; Bistrup, Claus; Marcussen, Niels; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix S; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144...... regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation....

  16. Fetal MRI of the urinary system

    Hoermann, Marcus [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: marcus.hoermann@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Balassy, Csilla [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The assessment of the urinary system is typically performed by ultrasound. Nevertheless, an ultrasound may be inconclusive in fetuses with renal diseases that result in anhydramnios or oligohydramnios. In such cases, and in other cases in which ultrasound is limited, further investigation with MR should be considered. In the following article, we will provide an overview of the most commonly encountered disorders of the urinary system and their appearance on fetal MR imaging. Fetal MR imaging can accurately diagnose a wide variety of urinary tract disorders and must be seen as a valuable complementary tool to ultrasound in the assessment of the urinary system, particularly in cases of inconclusive ultrasound findings.

  17. NASA Astronaut Urinary Conditions Associated with Spaceflight

    Law, Jennifer; Cole, Richard; Young, Millennia H.; Mason, Sara

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight is associated with many factors which may promote kidney stone formation, urinary retention, and/or Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). According to ISS mission predictions supplied by NASA's Integrated Medical Model, kidney stone is the second and sepsis (urosepsis as primary driver) the third most likely reason for emergent medical evacuation from the International Space Station (ISS). METHODS: Inflight and postflight medical records of NASA astronauts were reviewed for urinary retention, UTI and kidney stones during Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Mir, Shuttle, and ISS expeditions 1-38. RESULTS: NASA astronauts have had 7 cases of kidney stones in the 12 months after flight. Three of these cases occurred within 90 to 180 days after landing and one of the seven cases occurred in the first 90 days after flight. There have been a total of 16 cases (0.018 events per person-flights) of urinary retention during flight. The event rates per mission are nearly identical between Shuttle and ISS flights (0.019 vs 0.021 events per person-flights). In 12 of the 16 cases, astronauts had taken at least one space motion sickness medication. Upon further analysis, it was determined that the odds of developing urinary retention in spaceflight is 3 times higher among astronauts who took promethazine. The female to male odds ratio for inflight urinary retention is 11:14. An astronaut with urinary retention is 25 times more likely to have a UTI with a 17% infection rate per mission. There have been 9 reported UTIs during spaceflight. DISCUSSION: It is unclear if spaceflight carries an increased post-flight risk of kidney stones. Regarding urinary retention, the female to male odds ratio is higher during flight compared to the general population where older males comprise almost all cases due to prostatic hypertrophy. This female prevalence in spaceflight is even more concerning given the fact that there have been many more males in space than females. Terrestrial medications with a known side effect of urinary retention are also associated with urinary retention during flight. However, not all cases of urinary retention surrounded medication use inflight. It is also known that UTI is a terrestrial cause of urinary retention. Furthermore, the treatment of urinary retention with a urinary catheter may be more likely to initiate a UTI in space than on the ground, as aseptic techniques can be particularly challenging with an inexperienced provider in a free-floating environment. Inflight urinary retention and UTI have proven to be highly associated and urinary risks should be considered collectively when planning for space flight.

  18. FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    ... Tract Infection” What is “catheter-associated urinary tract infection”? A urinary tract infection (also called “UTI”) is an infection in the urinary system, which includes the bladder (which stores the ...

  19. Simple cyst of urinary bladder

    Yang Bo

    2014-01-01

    Simple cysts are rare in the urinary bladder and can pose a diagnostic dilemma to both the urologist and the histopathologist. No case study was found in the database of Elsevier Science Direct, Spring-Link, or PubMed. We present two cases of subserous cyst in the bladder and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The cystic lesion at bladder dome was detected by radiologic examination and confirmed by cystoscopy. In case 1, transurethral resection was first performed which was...

  20. [Serious urinary infections and pregnancy].

    Njeh, M; Baati, S; Sellami, D; Kechaou, M; Rekik, S; Mhiri, M N

    1996-01-01

    Retention of infected urine in the upper urinary tract which is due to obstruction is a serious condition during pregnancy. The authors report their experience on five cases and propose attitudes to adopt against such emergency. Ultrasounds allow accurate diagnosis of the obstruction and may be helpful to find its etiology. Plain X ray film could be of interest mainly for stone recognition after the third month of gestation. Surgical treatment, when possible allows either relief of obstruction and cure of the original disease, otherwise performance of percutaneous nephrostomy represents a better way of drainage until the end of pregnancy. PMID:8766152

  1. Mllerianosis of the urinary bladder.

    Olivia Vella, Josefa Elizabeth; Nair, Nithin; Ferryman, Stephen Robert; Athavale, Ramanand; Latthe, Pallavi; Hirschowitz, Lynn

    2011-08-01

    Mllerianosis of the urinary bladder is a rare condition that encompasses 3 histological entities (endometriosis, endocervicosis, and endosalpingiosis). The authors report 2 patients with bladder mllerianosis, one of whom had endometriosis and the other a history of past pelvic surgery, describe the histological and cystoscopic features, and review the literature on this condition. Mucosal hyperemia and submucosal nodules or cysts with associated fibrosis and distortion of the bladder wall may mimic malignancy on cystoscopy, as may the infiltrative growth pattern sometimes evident histologically. Recognition of this complex diagnostic entity is important to avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate investigation. There is a clinical association with endometriosis and past pelvic surgery. PMID:21632636

  2. Approach to urinary tract infections.

    Najar, M S; Saldanha, C L; Banday, K A

    2009-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in certain age groups and has different connotations. It needs to be treated and completely cured in pregnant women and preschool children. Reflux nephropathy in children could result in chronic kidney disease; otherwise, urinary tract infections do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of end-stage renal disease. Symptomatic urinary tract infections occur most commonly in women of child-bearing age. Cystitis predominates, but needs to be distinguished from acute urethral syndrome that affects both sexes and has a different management plan than UTIs. The prostatitis symptoms are much more common than bacterial prostatic infections. The treatment needs to be prolonged in bacterial prostatitis and as cure rates are not very high and relapses are common, the classification of prostatitis needs to be understood. The consensus conference convened by National Institute of Health added two more groups of patients, namely, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, in addition to acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Although white blood cells in urine signify inflammation, they do not always signify UTI. Quantitative cultures of urine provide definitive evidence of UTI. Imaging studies should be done 3-6 weeks after cure of acute infection to identify abnormalities predisposing to infection or renal damage or which may affect management. Treatment of cystitis in women should be a three-day course and if symptoms are prolonged, then a seven day course of antibiotics should be given. Selected group of patients benefits from low-dose prophylactic therapy. Upper urinary tract infection may need in-patient treatment. Treatment of acute prostatitis is 30-day therapy of appropriate antibiotics and for chronic bacterial prostatitis a low dose therapy for 6-12 months may be required. It should be noted that no attempt should be made to eradicate infection unless foreign bodies such as stones and catheters are removed and correctable urological abnormalities are taken care of. Treatment under such circumstances can result only in the emergence of resistant organisms and complicate therapy further. PMID:20535247

  3. Imaging in urinary tract infection.

    Gleeson, F. V.; Gordon, I.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship of vesicoureteric reflex (VUR) and renal scarring was studied in 94 children (188 kidneys) with proved urinary tract infection in a district general hospital. There were 61 girls and 33 boys, with nine girls and 17 boys aged less than 1 year, 31 girls and nine boys aged between 1 and 5 years, the remaining 28 children were over 5 years of age. All children had a micturating cystourethrogram and a 99mTc (technetium) dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan. Forty two of the 188 kid...

  4. URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANCY

    N Sivalingam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections frequently affect pregnant mothers. This problem causes significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Three common clinical manifestations of UTIs in pregnancy are: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli remains the most frequent organism isolated in UTIs. All pregnant mothers should be screened for UTIs in pregnancy and antibiotics should be commenced without delay. Urine culture and sensitivity is the gold standard in diagnosing UTIs. Without treatment, asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, maternal hypertension, pre-eclampsia and anaemia. Acute pyelonephritis can lead to maternal sepsis. Recurrent UTIs in pregnancy require prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

  5. RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF TAMSULOSIN AND SILODOSIN IN MEDICAL EXPULSIVE THERAPY FOR DISTAL THIRD URETERIC CALCULI

    Rajanna; Manjunath; Harsharvardhan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Urolithiasis is a common condition that affects approximately 5% to 10% of the population and the incidence of Urolithiasis is rising. Ureteric stones account for 20% of urinary tract stones and about 70% of them are found in the lower third of the ureter at presentation. Recent literatures show the efficacy of various drugs and minimally invasive procedures for the management of lower third ureteral stones. We performed a randomized, prospective study to assess ...

  6. ENTEROCOCCAL URINARY TARACT INFECTION: AN EMERGING THREAT

    Mohua; Shiv Sekhar; Kheya;; Sanjeev,; Chinmoy; Banya; Mitali; Mandira

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Enterococcus faecalis is a frequent cause of hospital acquired urinary tract infection and is being increasingly recognized as a cause of community acquired urinary tract infection. The organism is resistant to commonly used antibiotics, thereby limiting treatment options. OBJECTIVES: To study the epidemiology and resistogram of enterococcal ...

  7. Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because

  8. Follow the Stream: Imaging of Urinary Diversions.

    Moomjian, Lauren N; Carucci, Laura R; Guruli, Georgi; Klausner, Adam P

    2016-01-01

    Urinary diversion is a surgical technique to redirect the stream of urine, most often after cystectomy. Cystectomy may be performed both for benign and for malignant conditions. Bladder cancer is the most common indication for cystectomy, and most patients who undergo radical cystectomy and urinary diversion have muscle-invasive or high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. There are two major surgical approaches for urinary diversions performed after radical cystectomy: continent and incontinent diversions. For incontinent urinary diversions, a cutaneous ostomy is used for continuous urine drainage (eg, ileal conduit). With a continent diversion procedure, the patient may void through the native urethra or self-catheterize through a surgically created stoma. The goals of imaging after urinary diversion are to assess postoperative anatomy, detect postoperative complications, evaluate for residual or recurrent tumor and metastatic disease, and monitor for upper tract distention and/or deterioration. Multiple imaging modalities and techniques may be used to evaluate urinary diversions, including computed tomographic and magnetic resonance urography, intravenous pyelography, ultrasonography, pouchography, loopography, and nephrostomy studies. Knowledge of the expected postoperative appearance after urinary diversions and potential postoperative complications is crucial because many complications may be clinically silent. Radiologists must be able to recognize the expected postoperative appearance as well as complications to facilitate appropriate diagnosis and treatment of patients after cystectomy and urinary diversion. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27058730

  9. Sexually acquired Salmonella Typhi urinary tract infection.

    Wielding, Sally; Scott, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of isolated urinarySalmonella entericaserotype Typhi in an HIV-positive man who has sex with men. He was clinically well and blood and stool cultures were negative, indicating that this may have been a sexually acquired urinary tract infection. PMID:25953964

  10. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not ... Elder JS. Urinary tract infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  11. Analysis of naltrexone urinary metabolites.

    Ventura, R; de la Torre, R; Segura, J

    1988-01-01

    A reversed-phase HPLC method using ion-pair formation has been developed for the simultaneous determination of naltrexone and three urinary metabolites. The extraction of the free and conjugated metabolites was studied by liquid-solid procedures using styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers (Amberlite XAD-2) and bonded octadecyl silica supports (ODS-silica). Optimum recovery was obtained with ODS-silica extraction using 25% acetonitrile in a 5 mM diammonium phosphate buffer pH 2.1 as elution solvent. The chromatographic behaviour of naltrexone metabolites and naloxone (internal standard) was examined by varying the mobile phase composition. Increments of both the diammonium phosphate buffer concentration and the percentage of organic solvent in the eluent decreases the retention of compounds in a non-linear manner. Increments of the dodecyl sulphate (counter-ion) concentration, increases the retention time. The method was applied to determine the urinary levels of major naltrexone metabolites in a volunteer receiving a 50 mg oral dose. This is the first method reported which permits the simultaneous quantitative determination of naltrexone and its metabolites, 6beta-naltrexol, naltrexone glucuronide and 6beta-naltrexol glucuronide, in urine. PMID:16867358

  12. Organic Selenium Alleviated the Formation of Ethylene Glycol-Induced Calcium Oxalate Renal Calculi by Improving Osteopontin Expression and Antioxidant Capability in Dogs.

    Liu, Yongwang; Xu, Haibin; Zhong, Wenting; Shen, Qingpeng; Zhuang, Tenghan; Huang, Kehe

    2015-12-01

    Twenty one-year-old local male dogs were randomly assigned into four groups (five dogs per group). The control and the ethylene glycol (EG) groups were fed basal diets without and with EG, and the EG+sodium selenite (EG+SS) and EG+selenium yeast (EG+SY) groups were fed basal diets with EG containing SS and SY, respectively. Blood, urine, and renal samples were taken after 18 weeks of feeding. The results showed that compared with the control group, the serum calcium levels and antioxidase activities significantly decreased in the EG group. Serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and urine calcium and oxalate levels significantly increased. Calcium oxalate crystal deposition and osteopontin (OPN) messenger RNA and protein expression in the renal tissues significantly increased. These changes above in the EG group were reversed within limits by adding selenium in the diets (both EG+SS and EG+SY groups). Further, compared with the EG+SS group, the EG+SY group showed better effects in decreasing the formation of EG-induced calcium oxalate renal calculi and OPN expression and improving antioxidant capability in dogs. It indicates that organic selenium has the potential value to alleviate the formation of EG-induced calcium oxalate renal calculi. PMID:26018495

  13. Evaluation of Urinary Stones Ex Vivo With Micro-Computed Tomography: Preliminary Results of an Investigational Technique

    Emre Huri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the ultrastructural features of the urinary stonesremoved with endoscopic stone surgery, using micro computed tomography(micro-CT.Materials and Methods: Patients who had endoscopic surgery for renalor ureteral stones removal were included in this study. After surgery, thestones were classified into three groups and investigated with Skyscan 1174micro-CT. Group I underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL withultrasonic lithotripsy; group II had ureteroscopic stone surgery (USS withpneumatic lithotripsy; and group III (the control group had stone removalwith USS or PNL without lithotripsy. Stone homogeneity, voids, and theinternal structure of the stones were evaluated. Chi-square test was used toevaluate the difference statistically. P values less than .05 were consideredstatistically significant.Results: A total of 24 calcium oxalate monohydrate stones from 24patients were scanned with micro-CT. Stones treated with ultrasoniclithotripsy (group I were more fragile, fragmented, and cracked than thosetreated with the pneumatic lithotripsy (group II; P = .01. Stones in groupII were more homogeneous and smooth than those in group I and resembled those of the control group (P = .02. Homogeneous, non-fragile stones andheterogeneous, fragile calculi were seen in all groups.Conclusion: The stone fragility could be confirmed by micro-CTinvestigation. Ultrasonic lithotripters increase the stone fragility, which isdemonstrated with increased heterogeneity by micro-CT.

  14. Can Computed Tomography Scout Radiography Replace Plain Film in the Evaluation of Patients with Acute Urinary Tract Colic?

    Purpose: To determine the sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) scout view in detecting ureteral stones and whether CT scout radiography can replace plain film in the evaluation of patients with acute urinary tract colic. Material and Methods: Between January 2000 and 2002, 110 patients with ureterolithiasis were prospectively evaluated for the detection of ureteral stones on CT scout radiographs. The findings were compared with those of plain films. All patients were examined with plain film, CT scout radiography, and unenhanced helical CT. CT scans were performed within 24 h of plain films. Each CT scout radiograph was interpreted without knowledge of the findings on plain film. Results: 111 stones were detected by unenhanced helical CT. Mean stone size was 3.9 mm (range 1-10 mm). Of all stones, 57 (52%) were visible on plain film; 44 (40%) were seen on CT radiographs. The sensitivity of 79 small stones (5 mm), the sensitivity of CT scout radiography was 66% and of abdominal radiography 87.5%. Conclusion: In this study, plain film was more sensitive than CT scout radiography in revealing ureteral calculi. However, the detection of stones 5 mm or larger had a sensitivity of 66% on CT scout radiographs; 77% (44/57) of the stones visible on plain films were also seen on CT scout radiographs. We therefore believe that CT scout radiography can be used as a baseline study in most patients with big ureteral stones

  15. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine

  16. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen

    Abdullah Saleh Al-Samawi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998 classification.Methods: This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30th April 2009. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and categorized according to WHO/ISUP 1998 classification.Results: Out of 316 urinary bladder cancers, 248 (78% were urothelial neoplasms, 53 (17% were squamous cell carcinoma, 7 (2% were adenocarcinoma, and 3 (1% were rhabdomyosarcoma. The remaining cases were metastatic carcinomas (n=3, small cell carcinoma (n=1, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1. The urothelial neoplasms observed were carcinoma in situ 4 (2%, papilloma 7 (3%, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential 26 (11%, papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade 107 (43%, papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 18 (7%, and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 85 (34%, with 60 years mean age for males and 58 years for females; along with a male to female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was observed in the 61-70 years age group.Conclusion: This study documents a high frequency of urothelial neoplasms, mostly papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade with male preponderance and peak incidence in 6th decade of age.

  17. Urinary biomarkers of diabetic nephropathy

    Mehta S

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Swati Mehta,1 Valerie Jorge Cabrera,2 Roshni Upputalla,2 Belinda Jim21Department of Medicine, James J Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA; 2Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAAbstract: The fervent search for an early biomarker for diabetic nephropathy is continuing because this entity has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in many countries. Novel biomarkers are being described in a high-speed manner. Using urine as a biological source is especially appealing given its ease of collection and its ability to serve as a direct conduit to the site of injury. We begin by briefly discussing the merits and pitfalls of our gold standard of microalbuminuria, and shift quickly to several promising nontraditional protein and messenger (mRNA biomarkers. The quality of the evidence for using urinary podocyte as a marker will be described. Exploring entire sets of protein in humans in terms of proteomics has been a favorite approach in the last decade because the technology of protein separation and mass spectrometry allows for the unbiased search for new biomarkers. Isolating urinary microRNA may become yet another preferred method because these small, noncoding mRNA that regulate gene expression are particularly stable and apt for biomarker studies. Finally, the latest development is perhaps the study of exosomes, which are nanometer particles derived from the fusion of internal vesicles to the plasma membrane. These particles harbor protein, mRNA, and microRNA that may be isolated for further study. With the advent of newer technologic approaches, we hope that these newly discovered biomarkers will be rigorously tested in large, prospective, clinical trials so they can be implemented in clinical practice.Keywords: diabetes, predictor, proteinuria, albuminuria, exosomes, proteomics, podocyte

  18. Characteristic plain radiographic and intravenous urographic findings of bladder calculi formed over a hair nidus: a case report

    We present the characteristic plain radiographic and intravenous urographic (IVU) findings of calculus formed over a hair. A 66-year-old man who had been quadriplegic for 40 years because of vertebral injury was admitted for further evaluation of frequent urinary tract infection. Plain radiography showed a linear, serpiginous calcification in the lower abdomen, and IVU revealed a round filling defect with linear radiopacity in the bladder, suggesting calculus. The gross appearance of the stone after extraction demonstrated that calcification had formed over a hair

  19. Interventional Radiology of the Urinary Tract.

    Berent, Allyson C

    2016-05-01

    Minimally invasive treatment options using interventional radiology and interventional endoscopy for urologic disease have become more common over the past decade in veterinary medicine. Urinary tract obstructions and urinary incontinence are the most common reasons for urinary interventions. Ureteral obstructions are underdiagnosed and a common clinical problem in veterinary medicine. Ureteral obstructions should be considered an emergency, and decompression should be performed as quickly as possible. Diagnostic imaging is the mainstay in diagnosing a ureteral obstruction and has changed in the last few years, with ultrasound and radiographs being the most sensitive tools in making this diagnosis preoperatively. PMID:26920646

  20. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device... Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver implanted...

  1. Lichen sclerosus and acute urinary obstruction.

    Hawkswell, J; Nathan, M

    1992-01-01

    A case of acute urinary obstruction due to early lichen sclerosus disease is described. In this case both histological corroboration and efficacy of potent topical steroid have been beneficial. Images PMID:1607195

  2. Adult female urinary incontinence and childhood bedwetting

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, S.

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional random population sample of women 30 to 59 years old was sent a questionnaire on urinary incontinence and, among other things, childhood bedwetting. Among 2,613 responders 17.0% reported prevalent urinary incontinence (14.7% stress provoked, 8.3% associated with urge, 6.8% stres...... during sleep (p < 0.0001) but was less marked with urinary incontinence occurring in situations of anxiety (p < 0.025). It is concluded that some individuals suffer a long-lasting disturbance of the balance between micturition and sleep processes....... and urge overlap, 2.2% occurring especially during sleep and 3.9% occurring especially when anxious), and 6.5% reported childhood bedwetting after age 5 years and 3.3% after age 10 years. Childhood bedwetting was associated with prevalent urge urinary incontinence (p < 0.01) and incontinence occurring...

  3. A murine model of urinary tract infection

    Hung, Chia-Suei; Dodson, Karen W; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) inflict extreme pain and discomfort to those affected and have profound medical and socioeconomic impact. Although acute UTIs are often treatable with antibiotics, a large proportion of patients suffer from multiple recurrent infections. Here, we describe and provide a protocol for a robust murine UTI model that allows for the study of uropathogens in an ideal setting. The infections in the urinary tract can be monitored quantitatively by determining the bacter...

  4. Antimicrobial Stewardship and Urinary Tract Infections

    Lilian M. Abbo; Hooton, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections encountered in ambulatory and long-term care settings in the United States. Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories and many such cultures are collected from patients who have no or questionable urinary symptoms. Unfortunately, antimicrobials are often prescribed inappropriately in such patients. Antimicrobial use, whether appropriate or inappropriate, is associated ...

  5. Herbs In Treatment Of Urinary Tract Infections

    Manish Wasamwar; Vijay S.Wadha; Gopal S. Gond

    2012-01-01

    It is known that urinary tract is very common source of infection and UTIs are second most common reason people visit their doctors each year. Escherichia coli is responsible for large majority of UTIs. UTIs is most commonly diagnosed bacterial infection in woman. Population at risk of complication include older woman, pregnant woman. Continuous antibiotics prophylaxis are used to treat and prevent recurrent urinary tract infections, frequent antibiotic use can result in vagin...

  6. Pharmacology of the Lower Urinary Tract

    Drutz, Harold P

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the neurophysiology and neuropharmacology of the lower urinary tract have improved our ability to treat disorders of bladder and urethral function. Similarly, many classes of drugs used in treating various medical conditions can cause lower urinary-tract symptoms and dysfunction. Based on objective urodynamic evaluation, the clinician is able to sort out bladder and urethral abnormalities and scientifically choose appropriate pharmacologic regimes to tr...

  7. Breast Cancer Metastatic to the Urinary Bladder

    Ramsey, Jennifer; Beckman, Edwin N.; Winters, J. Christian

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is common and has the potential to spread to multiple organs. This article describes metastasis to the urinary bladder. In most instances, breast cancer metastatic to the bladder is associated with other pelvic organ metastasis. In patients with known metastatic breast cancer, bladder screening is not warranted. However, if lower urinary tract symptoms persist, an evaluation of the bladder should be considered to rule out metastatic involvement.

  8. Neuropeptides in Lower Urinary Tract (LUT) Function

    Arms, Lauren; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous neuropeptide/receptor systems including vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, neurokinin A, bradykinin, and endothelin-1 are expressed in the lower urinary tract (LUT) in both neural and non-neural (e.g., urothelium) components. LUT neuropeptide immunoreactivity is present in afferent and autonomic efferent neurons innervating the bladder and urethra and in the urothelium of the urinary bla...

  9. Epidemiology of community urinary tract infections

    Savoye-Rossignol, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (IUs) are a frequent reason for consultation and prescription of antibiotics in general practice. The choice of the antibiotic is based on the patient’s characteristics, the antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria and cost analyzes. This therapeutic approach has become increasingly complex due to the increase in antibiotic resistance. In this context, my thesis is based on two main studies:From the data of IMS health France, a spectral analysis of urinary antibiotic sal...

  10. Semantics, Logics, and Calculi

    Hanne Riis Nielson and Flemming Nielson turned 60 in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Congratulations! To celebrate the 60th birthdays, and to honor the birthday children, a colloquium was held at the Technical University of Denmark on January 8, 2016, to deliver the Festschrift and presentations of ...

  11. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nIn the name of God. Dear colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great honor to be here. Bladder dysfunction is serious enough to seek serious help. If you may know I am working in a private clinic which it is impossible to follow the patients so this lecture is based on unusual and rare cases who came to me. Bladder dysfunction (BD is common among 30% of young and old people who are suffering from it, however it is more common in old ages. According to a research, women are more involved as in men which prostate has a role is more common. The usual cases were: "n1. A young girl, aged 20, who had to wake up five times during the night to micturate. "n2. Also a lady said when I roll in bed I wet myself. "n3. A young lady who always had to use a pad. "n4. A man said I can’t use underground. "n5. I cannot go out since I have to micturate every hour. "n6. One said I have to wake up every hour at night. "n7. Young people say we have to micturate 3-4 times at night. "n8. A young man said as soon as I feel to micturate I empty my bladder before I’ve reached the WC and I wet myself to the ankle, how could I have a job? "n9. Some women wet themselves when they cough. "nIn order to know and diagnosis, the physiology of bladder function must be known. "nThe bladder is divided into two parts: "nThe Dom, which is innervated by Beta-Adrenergic. It relaxes the bladder in order to comply the urine. "nFrom the orifice of the urether and posterior ridge of the trigon to the bladder neck or internal sphincter. The prostatic urethra plays a major role in conti- nence. It has two parts,   "n1: From the bladder neck to V.M. this is enclaved by extension of detrusor muscles like a sleeve. These muscles contract during ejaculation to prevent retrograde ejaculation. "nDistal urethra from V.M. to the external sphincter which is covered by voluntary muscles. "nThe internal pressure of the urethra is higher than the bladder. If the pressure of the bladder rises, the internal pressure of the urethra should also increase. In women, the internal pressure of the urethra is short, and even if it has poorly developed they wet themselves when they cough. "nThe causes of BD: "nAs you see there are 17 causes, which 11 are related to the bladder. The bladder is responsible for retaining the urine and voiding. "nPathophysiology: "nThe bladder and sphincter should work in a coordinated manner: "nDuring the course of a day, an average person will void approximately 4-8 times. The urinary bladder is in storage mode for most of the day, allowing an individual to engage in more important activities than urination. "nNormal bladder function consists of 2 phases—filling and emptying. The normal micturition cycle requires the urinary bladder and the urethral sphincter working together as a coordinated unit to store and empty urine. During urinary storage, the bladder acts as a low-pressure receptacle, while the urinary sphincter maintains high resistance to urinary flow to keep the bladder outlet closed. During urine elimination, the bladder contracts to expel urine while the urinary sphincter opens (low resistance to allow unobstructed urinary flow and bladder emptying. "nFilling phase: "nDuring the filling phase, the bladder accumulates increasing volumes of urine while the pressure inside the bladder remains low. The pressure within the bladder must be lower than the urethral pressure during the filling phase. If the bladder pressure is greater than the urethral pressure (resistance, urine will leak out. "nThe filling of the urinary bladder depends on the intrinsic viscoelastic properties of the bladder and the inhibition of the parasympathetic nerves. Thus, bladder filling is primarily a passive event. "nSympathetic nerves also facilitate urine storage in the following ways: "nSympathetic nerves inhibit the parasympathetic nerves from triggering bladder contractions. "nSympathetic nerves directly cause relaxation and expansion of the detrusor muscle. "nSympathetic nerves close the bladder neck by constricting the internal urethral sphincter. This sympathetic input to the lower urinary tract is constantly active during bladder filling. "nAs the bladder fills, the pudendal nerve becomes excited. Stimulation of the pudendal nerve results in contraction of the external urethral sphincter. Contraction of the external sphincter, coupled with that of the internal sphincter, maintains urethral pressure (resistance higher than normal bladder pressure. The combination of both urinary sphincters is known as the continence mechanism. "nThe pressure gradients within the bladder and urethra play an important functional role in normal micturition. As long as the urethral pressure is higher than that of the bladder, patients will remain continent. If the urethral pressure is abnormally low or if the intravesical pressure is abnormally high, urinary incontinence will result. "nAs the bladder initially fills, a small rise in pressure occurs within the bladder (intravesical pressure. When the urethral sphincter is closed, the pressure inside the urethra (intraurethral pressure is higher than the pressure within the bladder. While the intraurethral pressure is higher than the intravesical pressure, urinary continence is maintained. "nDuring some physical activities and with coughing, sneezing, or laughing, the pressure within the abdomen rises sharply. This rise is transmitted to both the bladder and urethra. As long as the pressure is evenly transmitted to both the bladder and urethra, urine will not leak. When the pressure transmitted to the bladder is greater than the urethra, urine will leak out, resulting in stress incontinence. "nEmptying phase: The storage phase of the urinary bladder can be switched to the voiding phase either involuntarily (reflexively or voluntarily. Involuntary reflex voiding occurs in an infant when the volume of urine exceeds the voiding threshold. When the bladder is filled to capacity, the stretch receptors within the bladder wall signal the sacral cord. The sacral cord, in turn, sends a message back to the bladder indicating that it is time to empty the bladder. "nAt this point, the pudendal nerve causes relaxation of the levator ani so that the pelvic floor muscle relaxes. The pudendal nerve also signals the external sphincter to open. The sympathetic nerves send a message to the internal sphincter to relax and open, resulting in a lower urethral resistance. "nWhen the urethral sphincters relax and open, the parasympathetic nerves trigger contraction of the detrusor. When the bladder contracts, the pressure generated by the bladder overcomes the urethral pressure, resulting in urinary flow. These coordinated series of events allow unimpeded, automatic emptying of the urine. "nA repetitious cycle of bladder filling and emptying occurs in newborn infants. The bladder empties as soon as it fills because the brain of an infant has not matured enough to regulate the urinary system. Because urination is unregulated by the infant's brain, predicting when the infant will urinate is difficult. "nAs the infant brain develops, the PMC also matures and gradually assumes voiding control. When the infant enters childhood (usually at age 3-4 years, this primitive voiding reflex becomes suppressed and the brain dominates bladder function, which is why toilet training usually is successful at age 3-4 years. However, this primitive voiding reflex may reappear in people with spinal cord injuries. "nDelaying voiding or voluntary voiding: "nBladder function is automatic but completely governed by the brain, which makes the final decision on whether or not to void. The normal function of urination means that an individual has the ability to stop and start urination on command. In addition, the individual has the ability to delay urination until a socially acceptable time and place. The healthy adult is aware of bladder filling and can willfully initiate or delay voiding. "nIn a healthy adult, the PMC functions as an on-off switch that is activated by stretch receptors in the bladder wall and is, in turn, modulated by inhibitory and excitatory neurologic influences from the brain. When the bladder is full, the stretch receptors are activated. The individual perceives the activation of the stretch receptors as the bladder being full, which signals a need to void. "nWhen an individual cannot find a bathroom nearby, the brain bombards the PMC with a multitude of inhibitory signals to prevent detrusor contractions. At the same time, an individual may actively contract the levator muscles to keep the external sphincter closed or initiate distracting techniques to suppress urination. "nThus, the voiding process requires coordination of both the ANS and somatic nervous system, which are in turn controlled by the PMC located in the brainstem. "nPathophysiology: "nIf a problem occurs within the nervous system, the entire voiding cycle is affected. Any part of the nervous system may be affected, including the brain, pons, spinal cord, sacral cord, and peripheral nerves. A dysfunctional voiding condition results in different symptoms, ranging from acute urinary retention to an overactive bladder or to a combination of both. "nUrinary incontinence results from a dysfunction of the bladder, the sphincter, or both. Bladder overactivity (spastic bladder is associated with the symptoms of urge incontinence, while sphincter underactivity (decreased resistance results in symptomatic stress incontinence. A combination of detrusor overactivity and sphincter underactivity may result in mixed symptoms. "nBrain lesion: "nLesions of the brain above the pons destroy the master control center, causing a complete loss of voiding control. The voiding reflexes of the lower urinary tract—the primitive voiding reflex—remain intact. Affected individuals show signs of urge incontinence, or spastic bladder (medically termed detrusor hyperreflexia or overactivity. The bladder empties too quickly and too often, with relatively low quantities, and storing urine in the bladder is difficult. Usually, people with this problem rush to the bathroom and even leak urine before reaching their destination. They may wake up frequently at night to void. Typical examples of a brain lesion are stroke, brain tumor, or Parkinson disease. Hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, and Shy-Drager syndrome also are brain lesions. Shy-Drager syndrome is a rare condition that also causes the bladder neck to remain open.Spinal cord lesion: "nDiseases or injuries of the spinal cord between the pons and the sacral spinal cord also result in spastic bladder or overactive bladder. People who are paraplegic or quadriplegic have lower extremity spasticity. Initially, after spinal cord trauma, the individual enters a spinal shock phase where the nervous system shuts down. After 6-12 weeks, the nervous system reactivates. When the nervous system becomes reactivated, it causes hyperstimulation of the affected organs. For example, the legs become spastic. "nThese people experience urge incontinence. The bladder empties too quickly and too frequently. The voiding disorder is similar to that of the brain lesion except that the external sphincter may have paradoxical contractions as well. If both the bladder and external sphincter become spastic at the same time, the affected individual will sense an overwhelming desire to urinate but only a small amount of urine may dribble out. The medical term for this is detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia because the bladder and the external sphincter are not in synergy. Even though the bladder is trying to force out urine, the external sphincter is tightening to prevent urine from leaving. "nThe causes of spinal cord injuries include motor vehicle and diving accidents. Multiple sclerosis (MS is a common cause of spinal cord disease in young women. Those with MS also may exhibit visual disturbances, known as optic neuritis. Children born with myelomeningocele may have spastic bladders and/or an open urethra. Conversely, some children with myelomeningocele may have a hypocontractile bladder instead of a spastic bladder. "nSacral cord injury: "nSelected injuries of the sacral cord and the corresponding nerve roots arising from the sacral cord may prevent the bladder from emptying. If a sensory neurogenic bladder is present, the affected individual may not be able to sense when the bladder is full. In the case of a motor neurogenic bladder, the individual will sense the bladder is full and the detrusor may not contract, a condition known as detrusor areflexia. These individuals have difficulty eliminating urine and experience overflow incontinence; the bladder gradually overdistends until the urine spills out. Typical causes are a sacral cord tumor, herniated disc, and injuries that crush the pelvis. This condition also may occur after a lumbar laminectomy, radical hysterectomy, or abdominoperineal resection. "nSome teenagers suddenly develop an abnormal voiding pattern and often are evaluated for tethered cord syndrome, a neurologic condition in which the tip of the sacral cord is stuck near the sacrum and cannot stretch as the child grows taller. Ischemic changes of the sacral cord associated with the tethering cause the manifestation of dysfunctional voiding symptoms. "nType of incontinence-Symptomatologic categories : "nStress incontinence = involuntary leakage from effort or exertion, or sneezing or coughing.  Usually related to poor sphincter function and/or increased urethral mobility. "nUrge incontinence = involuntary leakage accompanied or proceeded by urgency. Usually related to detrusor overactivity "nMixed incontinence = features of both "nOverflow incontinence = associated with overdistention of the bladder, e.g. form detrusor paralysis or bladder outflow obstruction. "nPost prostectatomy BD: "nFollowing the removal of prostate the length of the remaining urethra is very important. It should be 18 mm in rest, and 13 mm in strain. If the length of opposition tissue or the functional urethra which is left is less than 13mm, the patient is incontinent and must always use a pad. Between these two lengths the patient will have leaks during daily activities. Manipulation of this functional urethra during operation worsens the continents. Preserving the tissue round the urethra will improve. "nNow what are the diagnoses of the mentioned disorders? "nThe young man who voids before reaching the WC suffered from detrusor instability and pons malfunction. "n The girl who has to wake up five times at night suffered from detrusor overactive and urge incontinence. "n In the case of the young man who voids his bladder before reaching the WC, the diagnosis is sphincter dyssynergia, detrusor instability and pons malfunction.  The two women: the one who used pads as she wetted herself constantly and the other case who wet herself while she rolled in bed suffered from the above mentioned dysfunctions. "nThe lower activity of the detrusor is common in old age. Those who feel their bladder is not empty although they have voided and no residue is left have continuous detrusor activity. "nThe man who wakes up every hour was because of improper operation since the bladder sphincter has been damaged and 5mm of functional urethra has been left open. Therefore, as soon as urine reaches the open area it triggers the external sphincter to open. "nChronic prostatitis inputs an impulse to the bladder to void. "nAs far as treatment is concerned its not my specialty to discuss, I should say there is no proper cure for all the cases. Anti-cholinergic drugs relax the bladder and increase the tone of the external sphincter, so it is the benefit of over activity. The anti alpha-adrenogenic decreases and relaxes the internal sphincter, urethra and prostetic smooth muscles. They are three types” Thank you for your time. 

  12. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Duarte, Geraldo; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2008-02-01

    Several factors cause urinary tract infection (UTI) to be a relevant complication of the gestational period, aggravating both the maternal and perinatal prognosis. For many years, pregnancy has been considered to be a factor predisposing to all forms of UTI. Today, it is known that pregnancy, as an isolated event, is not responsible for a higher incidence of UTI, but that the anatomical and physiological changes imposed on the urinary tract by pregnancy predispose women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) to become pregnant women with symptomatic UTI. AB affects 2 to 10% of all pregnant women and approximately 30% of these will develop pyelonephritis if not properly treated. However, a difficult-to-understand resistance against the identification of AB during this period is observed among prenatalists. The diagnosis of UTI is microbiological and it is based on two urine cultures presenting more than 10(5) colonies/mL urine of the same germ. Treatment is facilitated by the fact that it is based on an antibiogram, with no scientific foundation for the notion that a pre-established therapeutic scheme is an adequate measure. For the treatment of pyelonephritis, it is not possible to wait for the result of culture and previous knowledge of the resistance profile of the antibacterial agents available for the treatment of pregnant women would be the best measure. Another important variable is the use of an intravenous bactericidal antibiotic during the acute phase, with the possibility of oral administration at home after clinical improvement of the patient. At our hospital, the drug that best satisfies all of these requirements is cefuroxime, administered for 10-14 days. Third-generation cephalosporins do not exist in the oral form, all of them involving the inconvenience of parenteral administration. In view of their side effects, aminoglycosides are considered to be inadequate for administration to pregnant women. The inconsistent insinuation of contraindication of monofluorinated quinolones, if there is an indication, norfloxacin is believed to be a good alternative to cefuroxime. In cases in which UTI prophylaxis is indicated, chemotherapeutic agents are preferred, among them nitrofurantoin, with care taken to avoid its use at the end of pregnancy due to the risk of kernicterus for the neonate. PMID:19142482

  13. Urinary prostasin in normotensive individuals: correlation with the aldosterone to renin ratio and urinary sodium.

    Olivieri, Oliviero; Chiecchi, Laura; Pizzolo, Francesca; Castagna, Annalisa; Raffaelli, Ricciarda; Gunasekaran, Muthukumar; Guarini, Patrizia; Consoli, Letizia; Salvagno, Gianluca; Kitamura, Kenichiro

    2013-06-01

    Prostasin, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease, activates the epithelial sodium (Na) channel (ENaC), and prostasin is released in extracellular fluids, including urine. Previous data have suggested a direct association between urinary prostasin and the activation of an aldosterone-driven pathway, but a quantitative association has never been demonstrated in normotensive subjects. Similarly, physiological relationships with natriuresis or possible gender- or female hormone-related changes in urinary prostasin concentrations have never been investigated. We measured urinary prostasin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 43 healthy normotensive subjects of similar age presenting different urinary Na levels and in 15 women during the menstrual cycle and after oral estro-progestinic contraceptive (OC) therapy. Exosomal urinary prostasin was also estimated by western blotting of samples from six healthy subjects twice during the morning. Urinary prostasin presented a wide range of values (from 0.5 to 18.9?nM) without gender differences. It was positively correlated with the aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) but not with circulating aldosterone or renin individually. Urinary prostasin was directly correlated with U-Na levels (up to 200?nmol Na), whereas it decreased for higher Na concentrations. In women, no significant changes of prostasin concentration were observed during menstrual phases. After OC therapy, prostasin increased (from 2.371.27 to 4.855.28?nM), although the increase was not statistically different (P=0.07). Prostasin was detectable in urinary exosomes and displayed a pattern similar to urinary prostasin in relation to urinary Na. In conclusion, urinary prostasin correlates with the ARR, and it is physiologically modulated by natriuresis in normotensive individuals. PMID:23344129

  14. Radioimmunoassay of human urinary kallikrein

    Using a human urinary kallikrein, purified by means of Trasylol sepharose, it has been possible to develop a radioimmunoassay of kallikrein capable of detecting the substance down to a concentration of 0.5 ng/ml. The specific activity of the tracer labelled with 125-iodine using the Chloramine-T method was 30-70 nCi/ng of kallikrein. The antiserum titres for the antikallikrein serum were 1:20.000 up to 1:50.000. Human urine, submandibular and parotid salivae as well as pancreatic secretion in this RIA reacted in the same manner as the kallikrein standard solution. The kallikrein content in urine, as determined by the RIA was between 0 and 300 ng/ml, in the saliva between 400 and 2.000 ng/ml, and in the pancreatic juice between 300 and 12.000 ng/ml. Using human serum, only an incomplete immunological cross-reaction could be achieved. In human liquor as well as in animal preparation, no cross-reacting substances could be detected. (orig.)

  15. Pre- and Post-operative cortical function of the kidney with staghorn calculi assessed by sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy

    sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy consisting of the cortical image and DMSA renal uptake was used to assess the pre- and post-operative renal function in 39 patients with staghorn calculi or complicated calculi occupying more than 2 major calices. Extended pyelolithotomy was performed on 14 patients, nephrolithotomy on 14 patients, pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy on 7 patients, and partial nephrectomy on 4 patients. Nine out of 14 patients who underwent pyelolithotomy and 4 out of 14 patients who underwent nephrolithotomy showed an increase or no change in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney. However, there was no increase in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the patients who underwent pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy or partial nephrectomy. Eight percent of the preoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney seems to be the absolute level for predicting a postoperative recovery of the kidney function. The contralateral kidney function can affect the postoperative recovery of the function in the operative side. It seems to be hard to expect an increment in the DMSA renal uptake postoperatively when the ratio of DMSA renal uptake in the operative side to the total DMSA renal uptake is less than 20%. At least 6 months of the follow-up period is necessary for the evaluation of the kidney function in the operative side. DMSA renal scintigraphy is a useful modality to assess pre- and post-operative kidney function in nephrolithiasis from the point of both morphological and functional changes in the renal cortex. (author)

  16. Pre- and post-operative cortical function of the kidney with staghorn calculi assessed by sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy

    Kawamura, Juichi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-08-01

    sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy consisting of the cortical image and DMSA renal uptake was used to assess the pre- and post-operative renal function in 39 patients with staghorn calculi or complicated calculi occupying more than 2 major calices. Extended pyelolithotomy was performed on 14 patients, nephrolithotomy on 14 patients, pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy on 7 patients, and partial nephrectomy on 4 patients. Nine out of 14 patients who underwent pyelolithotomy and 4 out of 14 patients who underwent nephrolithotomy showed an increase or no change in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney. However, there was no increase in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the patients who underwent pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy or partial nephrectomy. Eight percent of the preoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney seems to be the absolute level for predicting a postoperative recovery of the kidney function. The contralateral kidney function can affect the postoperative recovery of the function in the operative side. It seems to be hard to expect an increment in the DMSA renal uptake postoperatively when the ratio of DMSA renal uptake in the operative side to the total DMSA renal uptake is less than 20%. At least 6 months of the follow-up period is necessary for the evaluation of the kidney function in the operative side. DMSA renal scintigraphy is a useful modality to assess pre- and post-operative kidney function in nephrolithiasis from the point of both morphological and functional changes in the renal cortex.

  17. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B; Nissen, H M

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p <0.01). Four patients had inco...

  18. Use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection in women undergoing surgery for urinary incontinence

    Guldberg, Rikke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Brostrøm, Søren; Kærlev, Linda; Hansen, Jesper Kjær; Hallas, Jesper; Nørgård, Bente Mertz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection (UTI) before and after surgery for urinary incontinence (UI); and for those with use of antibiotics before surgery, to estimate the risk of treatment for a postoperative UTI, relative to those without use of antibiotics...

  19. Current practices in the management of patients with ureteral calculi in the emergency room of a university hospital

    Oliver Rojas Claros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Urinary lithiasis is a common disease. The aim of the present study is to assess the knowledge regarding the diagnosis, treatment and recommendations given to patients with ureteral colic by professionals of an academic hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five physicians were interviewed about previous experience with guidelines regarding ureteral colic and how they manage patients with ureteral colic in regards to diagnosis, treatment and the information provided to the patients. RESULTS: Thirty-six percent of the interviewed physicians were surgeons, and 64% were clinicians. Forty-one percent of the physicians reported experience with ureterolithiasis guidelines. Seventy-two percent indicated that they use noncontrast CT scans for the diagnosis of lithiasis. All of the respondents prescribe hydration, primarily for the improvement of stone elimination (39.3%. The average number of drugs used was 3.5. The combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids was reported by 54% of the physicians (i.e., 59% of surgeons and 25.6% of clinicians used this combination of drugs (p = 0.014. Only 21.3% prescribe alpha blockers. CONCLUSION: Reported experience with guidelines had little impact on several habitual practices. For example, only 21.3% of the respondents indicated that they prescribed alpha blockers; however, alpha blockers may increase stone elimination by up to 54%. Furthermore, although a meta-analysis demonstrated that hydration had no effect on the transit time of the stone or on the pain, the majority of the physicians reported that they prescribed more than 500 ml of fluid. Dipyrone, hyoscine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opioids were identified as the most frequently prescribed drug combination. The information regarding the time for the passage of urinary stones was inconsistent. The development of continuing education programs regarding ureteral colic in the emergency room is necessary.

  20. Imaging of urinary bladder tumors

    Full text: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with urinary bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common cancer in males. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype of urothelial tumour accounting for approximately 90% of all urothelial cancers. It is typically observed in men aged 50-70 years with history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, with high incidence of recurrence, requires rigorous follow-up but have a relatively good prognosis. Other bladder neoplasm include squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-15% mainly according to geographic location; adenocarcinoma - less than 2% /both occurring in the context of chronic bladder infection and irritation/; mesenchymal tumors in 5%, with the most common examples being rhabdomyosarcoma in children and leiomyosarcoma in adults. More rare mesenchymal tumors include paraganglioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma and solitary fibrous tumor which have no specific typical imaging findings to be differentiated. Multidetector computed tomography urography is an efficient tool for diagnosis and follow-up in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and it can be considered the primary radiologic method for detection, staging and assessment of the entire urothelium regarding the multicentric nature of TCC. MRI is rapidly expanding modality of choice especially in locally staging the tumor and in controversies. Accurate TNM staging is primordial in choosing treatment and prognosis for patients with bladder carcinoma. Correct interpretation and classification of the tumour is helpful for the urologists to determine further management in these cases. The learning objectives of the presentation are: to illustrate the spectrum of CT and MRI findings and to assess their clinical value in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and some other bladder neoplasm; to discuss the TNM staging based on the imaging findings; to be aware from pitfalls in diagnosis and to overview the treatment and prognosis of bladder neoplasms

  1. Urinary tract injuries in children

    As shown by literature data, abdominal trauma in children is responsible for 14% of deaths, whereas in adults for 10%. Although abdominal traumas in children can be severe and lead to massive blood loss, most children die because of accompanying traumas of the thorax and head. It validates the surgical rule concerning abdominal traumas 'investigate aggressively, manage conservatively'. Posttraumatic injury of the urinary system is not frequent in children and its specificity (compared with adults), depends on greater susceptibility to external aggressive factors. Blunt trauma is the cause of renal parenchyma injury and acceleration/deceleration injury affects the excretory system and vessels. Extension mechanism is the cause of ureter avulsion and/or thrombus formation in stretched renal vessels- it is characteristic in children with non-accidental traumas. Bladder and urethra injuries are rare in children. During car accidents, a rupture of full bladder (seat belt injury) or bladder perforation by fractured bones of the pelvis is possible. We analyzed all hospitalizations of abdominal trauma in our surgical ward in the year 2004 (70 cases). Renal injuries were found in 6 children (8.6%). Thanks to five-year clinical experience of our hospital, on the average only 1-2 cases per annum needed operation. The management of renal injuries involves first of all conservative treatment. This publication has educational character and may serve as a valuable reminder of the useful knowledge in daily cooperation between the emergency room, radiology department and surgical ward. Based on available literature from recent few years, we quote suggested renal injuries classifications and procedures.This publication contains only images from our department of radiology archives. Clinical symptoms are often not appropriate for blunt abdominal traumas diagnosis. Owing to clinical status, which is difficult to interpret, fast and complete radiological diagnosis is necessary for proper treatment of children after abdominal trauma. Further complications of renal injuries may affect the further growth of the child. (author)

  2. Urinary Dysfunctions Associated With Spinal Cord Injury

    Serdar KOER

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War, urinary dysfunctions due to spinal cord injury had gained more importance and the life expectancy and quality of life of the patients had increased due to the improvements in this field. The management and follow-up period of urinary dysfunctions can be examined in three stages: initial stage after the injury, rehabilitation stage and long-term follow-up stage. Urodynamic and videourodynamic evaluations are the gold standards in the diagnosis. Bladder filling pressure, bladder compliance and bladder sphincter dyssynergia are the important prognostic factors during the management of neurogenic bladder. The aim of the treatment is to protect upper urinary tract, to lower the complications in the lower urinary tract and to improve the quality of life of the patient. Recently, botulinum toxin injections and improved surgical techniques become good treatment options besides clean intermittent catheterization and oral medical agents. The success of the treatment is based on long-term follow-up of the patients with appropriate treatment strategy. In this review, the current developments in the diagnosis and management of urinary dysfunctions seen after spinal cord injury will be discussed. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 201;58 Suppl 1: 10-5.

  3. Urinary infection before and after prostatectomy

    Pourmand Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of pre and post prostatectomy related urinary tract in-fection and its correlation with peri-operative events, we studied 120 patients who underwent pros-tatectomy due to benign prostatic hypertrophy from September 2005 to September 2006. Urine cultures were performed before the operations, after a week, and three months later. Data including prostate volume, prostatic specific antigen (PSA, post voiding residue (PVR and histopathological reports as well as the duration of urinary leak, bladder irrigation, hospitalization, and catheterization were studied. The mean age of the studied patients was 70.5 ± 8 years. Significant preoperative bac-teriuria was revealed in 18 (15% patients of whom 14(77% patients developed negative cultures following the operation. Postoperative bacteriuria was detected in 9(7.5% patients who negative urine cultures preoperatively. Pre and post operative micro-organisms were different in the majority of the cases. The mean PSA was higher in patients with a positive history of infection. Following prostatectomy, patients with positive urine cultures had significantly longer urinary leakage, cathe-terization, and hospital stays compared with those who remained culture negative. We conclude that the incidence of positive urine culture pri-prostatectomy for BPH can be improved by appropriate antibiotic therapy, and the risk factors for postoperative urinary infection include preoperative infec-tion, prolonged urinary leakage, catheterization, and hospital stay. The elevated PSA may be a risk factor.

  4. Radiodiagnosis of anomalies, diseases and injuries of urinary bladder in children

    Problems of radiodiagnosis of such urinary bladder diseases as ureter and urinary bladder anomalies, congenital fistulae, urinary bladder calcicosis, calculuses, foreign bodies and injuries of urinary bladder tuberculosis and tumors neurogenic disorder of urination in children are considered

  5. [Urinary tract infections in the elderly].

    Becher, Klaus Friedrich; Klempien, Ingo; Wiedemann, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Acute infection of the urinary tract is one of the most commonly encountered bacterial infections in the frail elderly population and is responsible for substantial morbidity and recurrent infections with antibiotic resistance. Although generally considered to be self-limiting without treatment or easily treated with a short antibiotic regime, urinary tract infections (UTIs) often have a dramatic history, associated with incomplete resolution and frequent recurrence. The biological complexity of the infections combined with a dramatic rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens highlight the need for an anticipating strategy for therapy necessary for a rapid recovery. The first crucial step is the classification in asymptomatic bacteriuria or complicated pyelonephritis, on which the decision for the intensity of treatment and diagnostic effort is based. For the selection of empiric antibiotic therapy, knowledge about the predominant uropathogens as well as local resistance patterns is important. In this manner, most urinary tract infections in the elderly can be treated without greater expense. PMID:26318186

  6. Diagnosis and management of urinary ectopia.

    Davidson, Autumn P; Westropp, Jodi L

    2014-03-01

    Ectopic ureters are the most common cause of urinary incontinence in young dogs but should be considered as a differential in any incontinent dog for which the history is not known. Ectopic ureters can be diagnosed with excretory urography, fluoroscopic urethrography or ureterography, abdominal ultrasonography, cystoscopy, helical computed tomography, or a combination of these diagnostic procedures. Other congenital abnormalities can also occur in dogs with ectopic ureters, including renal agenesis or dysplasia, hydronephrosis, and/or hydroureter and vestibulovaginal anomalies; therefore, the entire urinary system must be evaluated with ultrasonography if cystoscopy is the only other diagnostic tool used before surgery. Novel surgical techniques and adjunctive medical management have improved the prognosis for dogs with urinary ectopia. PMID:24580995

  7. Herbs In Treatment Of Urinary Tract Infections

    Manish Wasamwar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that urinary tract is very common source of infection and UTIs are second most common reason people visit their doctors each year. Escherichia coli is responsible for large majority of UTIs. UTIs is most commonly diagnosed bacterial infection in woman. Population at risk of complication include older woman, pregnant woman. Continuous antibiotics prophylaxis are used to treat and prevent recurrent urinary tract infections, frequent antibiotic use can result in vaginal and intestinal dysbiosis as well as antibiotic resistance. Thus, it is desirable to seek alternative methods of prevention and treatment of simple UTIs. Few herbal antimicrobial agents Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry, Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry; Blueberry, Berberine, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (Bearberry are proved to be very effective in preventing and treating urinary tract infections.

  8. Resistance of bacteria in urinary tract infections.

    Chomarat, M

    2000-12-01

    Bacterial infection of the urinary tract is a common health problem in young women but also the most common nosocomial infection (>33%) contributing to the mortality of patients, and increasing the duration and cost of hospitalization. Escherichia coli is the most predominant organism and its prevalence varies in different studies. The high consumption of inappropriately prescribed antibiotics, combined with multiple pathology and frequent use of invasive devices, is a major factor contributing to high levels of resistance. There is a serious decrease in susceptibility of E. coli strains to amoxycillin, due to the presence of R-TEM enzymes, to cotrimoxazole and trimethoprim. Nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin-trometamol remain highly active against urinary Enterobacteriaceae, with over 90% of E. coli being susceptible. Knowledge of the most likely causative organisms and the prevalence of resistance pathogens to antimicrobial agents is essential to select antibiotics and to establish guidelines for the empirical treatment of urinary tract infections. PMID:11118863

  9. Urinary infections in children: main radiological alterations

    The authors present 120 cases of urinary tract infection in children. Radiological evaluation of every child with urinary tract infection included both excretory urography and voiding cyst urethrography. Fifty eight percent of the children were found to have urinary anomalies. Reflux was present in 26.6% of the cases and congenital anomalies in 25%. Among the latter, duplication of collecting system and pyeloureteral and ureterovesical stenosis were the more frequent findings. Hypo tony of the collecting systems, loss of cortical renal tissue and irregularities of the renal contour were the main radiological signs. The delay in performing the radiological evaluation (46% of the children presenting radiological abnormalities were examined only one year after the beginning of the symptoms) contributed to a greater incidence of irreversible lesions, showing therefore that it should be done immediately. A scheme for radiological investigation is also proposed. (author)

  10. Regulation of urinary thromboxane B2 in man: influence of urinary flow rate and tubular transport

    Thromboxane B2 (TxB) is excreted in human urine, but the mechanism of renal excretion and the quantitative relationship of urinary TxB to the active parent compound, thromboxane A2, of renal or extrarenal origin is not established. To determine the effects of vasoactive hormones, uricosuric agents and urinary flow rate on TxB excretion, urinary TxB was measured by radioimmunoassay and mass spectrometry, and renal metabolism of blood TxB was determined by radiochromatography of urine after i.v. [3H]-TxB infusions. Basal TxB was 6.7 +/- 1.1 ng/h during an oral water load, and TxB fell with s.g. antidiuretic hormone (to 3.4 +/- 0.4 ng/h, P less than 0.01) and with fluid restriction (to 2.6 +/- 0.5 ng/hr, P . 0.001) in parallel with urinary volume. Urinary excretion of unmetabolized [3H]-TxB also fell (by 56%) with fluid restriction, implicating altered metabolism rather than synthesis as the mechanism of the urinary flow effect. Angiotensin II infusions slightly reduced both TxB and urine volume, consistent with a flow effect. In contrast, probenecid did not alter urine volume, but increased urinary uric acid (by 244%), TxB (from 5.6 +/- 0.9 to 11.1 +/- 2.9 ng/h) and urinary excretion of blood [3H]-TxB (by 243%) by similar amounts (all P less than 0.05), suggesting that TxB is actively reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, similarly to uric acid. Thus, urinary excretion of TxB of renal and extrarenal origin is regulated by proximal and distal tubule factors

  11. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  12. Actinobaculum schaalii, a cause of urinary tract infections in children?

    Andersen, Lise Bols; Bank, Steffen; Hertz, Birgitte; Sby, Karen Marie; Prag, Jrgen

    2012-01-01

    To inform that Actinobaculum schaalii can colonize the urine and cause urinary tract infection in children.......To inform that Actinobaculum schaalii can colonize the urine and cause urinary tract infection in children....

  13. Radiology of trauma to kidney and lower urinary tract

    The contents are trauma to kidney, imaging of kidney trauma, management of renal trauma, delayed complications, trauma to the lower urinary tract, trauma to urinary bladder, radiologic diagnosis, ethiology of blunt bladder injury, urethal injury (6 refs.)

  14. Parental reporting of smelly urine and urinary tract infection

    Struthers, S; Scanlon, J; Parker, K; Goddard, J; Hallett, R

    2003-01-01

    Background: Parents often report that young children have "smelly urine" or a particular urinary odour. There is little evidence that these observations are relevant to the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI).

  15. Urinary iodine levels with respect to clinical thyroid status

    Urinary iodine estimation was performed using biochemical method in 51 euthyroid and 98 thyrotoxic individuals. It was concluded that the urinary iodine level was not statistically higher in thyrotoxic patients than in euthyroid individual

  16. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Farzana Hamid; Md. Rafiqul Islam; Nibedeta Paul; Nadia Nusrat; Rafia Parveen

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species) and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an importa...

  17. Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    BALAT, Ayse

    1999-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized children, and the urinary tract is one of the most common sites of these infections. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 1,221 children discharged with a diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) from July 1, 1991 to June 30, 1994. Of the 1,221 UTIs, there were 137 (11.2%) cases of nosocomial UTI (NUTI) in 136 patients. NUTI accounted for 0.28% of all discharges (48, 382 patients) at a single institution...

  18. Urinary Tract Infection By Chromobacterium Violaceum

    Otta, Sarita; Sahu, Kundan Kumar; Panda, Kirtika; Rout, Subhrajita

    2014-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a facultative anaerobic proteobacterium, is particularly isolated from water and soil in tropical areas and has been implicated in few infections like septicemia, visceral abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, meningitis and diarrhea. But urinary tract infection caused by it is very rare. Limited awareness about this pathogen and inappropriate antibiotic therapy contribute to a high mortality rate. Here, we describe an unusual case of urinary tract infection by Chromobacterium violaceum in a young immuno-competent male which was managed aggressively with proper antibiotics as per the culture sensitivity report. PMID:25302195

  19. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie de Rouen, Laboratoire Quant-If, Rouen (France); Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); CRLCC Henri Becquerel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rouen (France); Avni, Fred E. [Free University of Brussels, Department of Radiology, Erasmus Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  20. Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria in Pregnancy.

    Glaser, Alexander P; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Bacteriuria during pregnancy may be classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria, infections of the lower urinary tract (cystitis), or infections of the upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis). Lower tract bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis in pregnancy, which is itself associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women should be screened for the presence of bacteriuria early in pregnancy. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated, and antimicrobial choice in pregnancy should reflect safety for both the mother and the fetus. After treatment of bacteriuria, patients should be followed closely due to risk of recurrent bacteriuria. PMID:26475951

  1. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  2. Current Trends in the Management of Difficult Urinary Catheterizations

    Willette, Paul A.; Coffield, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Routine urinary catheter placement may cause trauma and poses a risk of infection. Male catheterization, in particular, can be difficult, especially in patients with enlarged prostate glands or other potentially obstructive conditions in the lower urinary tract. Solutions to problematic urinary catheterization are not well known and when difficult catheterization occurs, the risk of failed catheterization and concomitant complications increase. Repeated and unsuccessful attempts at urinary ca...

  3. Significance of Urinary Proteome Pattern in Renal Allograft Recipients

    Suhail, Sufi M

    2014-01-01

    Urinary proteomics is developing as a platform of urinary biomarkers of immense potential in recent years. The definition of urinary proteome in the context of renal allograft and characterization of different proteome patterns in various graft dysfunctions have led to the development of a distinct science of this noninvasive tool. Substantial numbers of studies have shown that different renal allograft disease states, both acute and chronic, could portray unique urinary proteome pattern enab...

  4. Scintigraphic detection of urinary leakage after kidney transplantation

    Urinary leakage after kidney transplantation is a serious complication. In a retrospective study we analyzed 8 relevant cases of 14 patients with urinary leakage. In these eight patients kidney scintigraphy indicated the presence of urinary extravasation. Compared with other imaging modalities such as IV urography, cystography and ultrasound, scintigraphy seems to be an easy and safe method to detect urinary leakage. Moreover scintigraphic examination may suggest leakage, while this may not be clinically evident or suspected. (orig.)

  5. Models of Inflammation of the Lower Urinary Tract

    Bjorling, Dale E; Wang, Zun-Yi; Bushman, Wade

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation of the lower urinary tract occurs frequently in people. The causes remain obscure, with the exception of urinary tract infection. Animal models have proven useful for investigating and assessing mechanisms underlying symptoms associated with lower urinary tract inflammation and options for suppressing these symptoms. This review will discuss various animal models of lower urinary tract inflammation, including feline spontaneous (interstitial) cystitis, neurogenic cystitis, autoim...

  6. Current Trends in the Management of Difficult Urinary Catheterizations

    Willette, Paul A.; Coffield, Scott K

    2012-01-01

    Routine urinary catheter placement may cause trauma and poses a risk of infection. Male catheterization, in particular, can be difficult, especially in patients with enlarged prostate glands orother potentially obstructive conditions in the lower urinary tract. Solutions to problematic urinary catheterization are not well known and when difficult catheterization occurs, the risk of failedcatheterization and concomitant complications increase. Repeated and unsuccessful attempts aturinary cathe...

  7. How Family Physicians Manage Urinary Tract Infection in Women

    Woolnough, K. V.; Domovitch, E.

    1983-01-01

    Physicians vary in their approaches to urinary tract infections in females. We studied 198 women with symptoms suggesting urinary tract infection. Computer analysis failed to identify any clusters of symptoms, signs or significant historical data which would predict significant bacteriuria with acceptable accuracy. Routine culturing of all symptomatic women is not recommended. Risk factors causing complications of urinary tract infection are reviewed.

  8. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Agarwala, Sandeep [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Prerna; Kumar, Sunesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, New Delhi (India)

    2006-10-15

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  9. Novel Antiseptic Urinary Catheters for Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections: Correlation of In Vivo and In Vitro Test Results?

    Hachem, Ray; Reitzel, Ruth; BORNE, AGATHA; Jiang, Ying; Tinkey, Peggy; Uthamanthil, Rajesh; Chandra, Jyotsna; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Raad, Issam

    2009-01-01

    Urinary catheters are widely used for hospitalized patients and are often associated with high rates of urinary tract infection. We evaluated in vitro the antiadherence activity of a novel antiseptic Gendine-coated urinary catheter against several multidrug-resistant bacteria. Gendine-coated urinary catheters were compared to silver hydrogel-coated Foley catheters and uncoated catheters. Bacterial biofilm formation was assessed by quantitative culture and scanning electron microscopy. These d...

  10. Urinary Incontinence: Causes and Methods of Evaluation

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the third of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. Here, the author introduces the types and physiology of urinary incontinence. The author also…

  11. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M; Skakkebaek, N E

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly of...

  12. Effects of microgravity on urinary osteopontin

    Hoyer, J. R.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Liu, H.; Whitson, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Increased risk of renal stone formation during space flight has been linked primarily to increased calcium excretion from bone demineralization induced by space flight. Other factors contributing to increased risk include increased urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation, while urinary citrate, magnesium and volume are all decreased. The aim of this study was to increase the predictive value of stone risk profiles for crew members during space flight by evaluating the excretion of urinary protein inhibitors of calcium crystallization so that more comprehensive stone risk profiles could relate mineral saturation to the concentrations of inhibitor proteins. Levels of urinary osteopontin (uropontin) are reported in a series of 14 astronauts studied before, during, and after space flights. During space flight, a compensatory increase in uropontin excretion was not observed. However, the uropontin excretion of a majority of astronauts was increased during the period after space flight and was maximal at 2 wk after landing. The downward shift in the molecular size of uropontin observed in samples obtained during space flight was shown to result from storage at ambient temperature during flight, rather than an effect of microgravity on uropontin synthesis.

  13. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Christoph von Klot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  14. Urinary excretion of iopamidol following intrathecal administration

    Pitre, D.; Zingales, M.F.; Trevisan, C.

    1983-04-01

    No iodinated compound other than Iopamidol was found in the urine of subjects who received intrathecal injection of 10 ml of Iopamiro '300'. The compound was neither metabolized nor altered chemically and urinary iodide content was always in the normal range. Between 72 and 85% of injected Iopamidol was excreted within 72 h of injection.

  15. Urinary excretion of iopamidol following intrathecal administration

    No iodinated compound other than Iopamidol was found in the urine of subjects who received intrathecal injection of 10 ml of Iopamiro '300'. The compound was neither metabolized nor altered chemically and urinary iodide content was always in the normal range. Between 72 and 85% of injected Iopamidol was excreted within 72 h of injection. (orig.)

  16. Urinary Flow Patterns of Healthy Newborn Males

    Olsen, Lars Henning; Grothe, Ingrid; Rawashdeh, Yazan F; Jrgensen, Troels Munch

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed urinary flow patterns in newborn males using ultrasound flow probes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specifically customized ultrasound flow probes connected to a flowmeter were mounted on the penis of 30 newborn males. Flow data together with signals from a silent diaper alarm were...

  17. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Farzana Hamid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

  18. Best pharmacological practice: urinary tract infections.

    Nicolle, Lindsay

    2003-05-01

    Urinary tract infection is the most frequent bacterial infection. Acute uncomplicated urinary infection and acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis occur in young women with normal genitourinary tracts. Empirical short-course therapy is preferred for the management of acute cystitis, but evolving resistance requires continuing reassessment of optimal antimicrobial selection. Empirical trimethoprim or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole has been recommended, but increasing resistance to these agents suggests that pivmecillinam, nitrofurantoin and perhaps fosfomycin trometamol should be considered. Although flouroquinolones are effective as short-course therapy, widespread empirical use of these agents should be discouraged because of potential promotion of resistance. For acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis, flouroquinolones are the empirical oral treatment of choice, although urine culture results should direct continuing therapy. Complicated urinary tract infection occurs in men or women of all ages with underlying abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Treatment of complicated urinary infection is individualised, taking into consideration the underlying abnormality and susceptibilities of the infecting organism. Asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be treated except in pregnant women, in patients prior to undergoing an invasive surgical procedure, or renal transplant recipients in the early postrenal transplant period. PMID:12739995

  19. [Pharmacotherapy of urinary incontinence in the elderly].

    Becher, K F

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence and the incidence of Urinary Incontinence is growing. Women suffer predominantly from stress and mixed urinary incontinence and men from urge incontinence. In elderly people, the pathophysiological and the physiological change in the lower urinary tract system must be considered as well as an underlying multimorbidity. Stress urinary incontinence is among others caused by an insufficient urethral closure mechanism and urge incontinence is followed by unhibited detrusor contractions. Medical treatment is beside other important conservative options only one part of the treatment strategy in incontinence. Duloxetine, a serotonine-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitore can increase activity of the external urethral sphincter and is able to reduce incontinence episodes in up to 64 %. Antagonists of muscarinic receptors can reduce urgency, frequency and urge incontinence as well as increase bladder capacity significantly. In Germany, darifenacin, fesoterodin, oxybutynin, propiverine, solifenacin, tolterodine and trospium chloride are available to treat urge incontinence. The efficacy of these agents are almost comparable in the elderly with the exception of oxybutynin IR. However, tolerability is different and not well studied in the elderly population with the exception of fesoterodin. Side effects, especially dry mouth, dizziness and constipation often limit their use. None of the agents show ideal efficacy or tolerability in all patients. Last summer therefore a β3-agonist mirabegron was also introduced in Germany but was withdrawn. PMID:26886709

  20. Urinary Bladder Hemangioma –A Rare Urinary Bladder Tumor in a Child

    Shubhangi Jibhkate; Vandana Sanklecha; Arvind Valand

    2014-01-01

    Urinary bladder hemangiomas are rare, accounting for 0.6% of the urinary bladder tumors. Hemangioma is considered arising from embryonic stem cells of an angioblastic lineage. A 3-year old boy presented with hematuria. He had past operative history of excision of extensive lymphatic malformation involving retroperitoneum, pelvis and upper thigh. Computed tomography scan of abdomen and pelvis with contrast revealed a large soft tissue mass arising from the dome of the bladder. Partial cystecto...

  1. Urinary creatinine concentrations in the U.S. population: implications for urinary biologic monitoring measurements.

    Barr, Dana B; Wilder, Lynn C; Caudill, Samuel P; Gonzalez, Amanda J; Needham, Lance L; Pirkle, James L

    2005-02-01

    Biologic monitoring (i.e., biomonitoring) is used to assess human exposures to environmental and workplace chemicals. Urinary biomonitoring data typically are adjusted to a constant creatinine concentration to correct for variable dilutions among spot samples. Traditionally, this approach has been used in population groups without much diversity. The inclusion of multiple demographic groups in studies using biomonitoring for exposure assessment has increased the variability in the urinary creatinine levels in these study populations. Our objectives were to document the normal range of urinary creatinine concentrations among various demographic groups, evaluate the impact that variations in creatinine concentrations can have on classifying exposure status of individuals in epidemiologic studies, and recommend an approach using multiple regression to adjust for variations in creatinine in multivariate analyses. We performed a weighted multivariate analysis of urinary creatinine concentrations in 22,245 participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) and established reference ranges (10th-90th percentiles) for each demographic and age category. Significant predictors of urinary creatinine concentration included age group, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and fat-free mass. Time of day that urine samples were collected made a small but statistically significant difference in creatinine concentrations. For an individual, the creatinine-adjusted concentration of an analyte should be compared with a "reference" range derived from persons in a similar demographic group (e.g., children with children, adults with adults). For multiple regression analysis of population groups, we recommend that the analyte concentration (unadjusted for creatinine) should be included in the analysis with urinary creatinine added as a separate independent variable. This approach allows the urinary analyte concentration to be appropriately adjusted for urinary creatinine and the statistical significance of other variables in the model to be independent of effects of creatinine concentration. PMID:15687057

  2. Urinary Creatinine Concentrations in the U.S. Population: Implications for Urinary Biologic Monitoring Measurements

    Barr, Dana B; Wilder, Lynn C.; Caudill, Samuel P.; Gonzalez, Amanda J.; Needham, Lance L.; Pirkle, James L

    2004-01-01

    Biologic monitoring (i.e., biomonitoring) is used to assess human exposures to environmental and workplace chemicals. Urinary biomonitoring data typically are adjusted to a constant creatinine concentration to correct for variable dilutions among spot samples. Traditionally, this approach has been used in population groups without much diversity. The inclusion of multiple demographic groups in studies using biomonitoring for exposure assessment has increased the variability in the urinary cre...

  3. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  4. Are urinary PAHs biomarkers of controlled exposure to diesel exhaust?

    Lu, Sixin S.; Sobus, Jon R.; Sallsten, Gerd; Albin, Maria; Pleil, Joachim D.; Gudmundsson, Anders; Madden, Michael C.; Strandberg, Bo; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as possible biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in two controlled-chamber studies. We report levels of 14 PAHs from 28 subjects in urine that were collected before, immediately after and the morning after exposure. Using linear mixed-effects models, we tested for effects of DE exposure and several covariates (time, age, gender and urinary creatinine) on urinary PAH levels. DE exposures did not significantly alter urinary PAH levels. We conclude that urinary PAHs are not promising biomarkers of short-term exposures to DE in the range of 106276 ?g/m3. PMID:24754404

  5. Patient perspectives on indwelling urinary catheter use in the hospital.

    Safdar, Nasia; Codispoti, Nicolette; Purvis, Suzanne; Knobloch, Mary Jo

    2016-03-01

    Urinary tract infections are one of the most common hospital-acquired infections, with 70%-80% resulting from catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). We undertook a qualitative study to assess patient perspectives of indwelling urinary catheters using a semistructured interview. We found that patient awareness and patient engagement regarding indwelling urinary catheters and their consequences could be improved in the hospital setting. Implementing educational programs incorporating patient preferences for both health care workers and patients is likely to increase the involvement of patients in decision-making regarding urinary catheters and may lead to a decline in CAUTIs. PMID:26698670

  6. Urinary endothellin-1 level in children with pyelonephritis and hydronephrosis.

    Sharifian, Mostafa; Ahmadi, Mitra; Karimi, Abdollah; Zand, Ranna Esmaili; Moghadar, Roozbeh; Ahmadi, Roya; Chimeh, Masoud Dadkhah

    2013-07-01

    Hydronephrosis is a common finding in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI). Endothellin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoactive peptide that has vasoconstrictive effects. It has been shown that urinary ET-1 increases in urinary obstructions. In this study, we measured the urinary ET-1 level in patients with UTI and hydronephrosis of various causes. In this case-control study, we evaluated the urinary ET-1 level in 45 patients who had UTI and hydronephrosis, serving as a case group, and 45 patients who had UTI without hydronephrosis, serving as a control group. Urinary ET-1 was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and urinary creatinine (Cr) by Jaffe method. To rule out the effect of urinary flow rate, the urinary ET-1 to Cr correlation was considered for analysis of the results. The mean age of the patients in the case and control groups was 36.5 27.2 and 26.2 15.5 months, respectively (P >0.01). The mean urinary ET-1 was 89.6 41.7 pg/dL in the case group and 29.3 26 pg/dL in the control group, P cases. Urinary ET-1 could be a useful marker that can be utilized in young children for diagnosis of hydronephrosis, especially obstructive cases. PMID:23816722

  7. Clinical study of urinary excretion of Ga-67

    Ga-67 urinary excretion was examined in 59 patients. The 72-hour urinary excretion rate ranged from 4.3 to 67.8% of the injected dose. Within the first 24 hours, 60.9% of the 72-hour urinary excretion was excreted. There was no significant difference in the Ga-67 urinary excretion rate between males and females, nor between the Ga-67 positive and negative cases. A significant negative correlation was found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and the unsaturated iron binding capacity. Notably, four patients with hyperferremia, which was considered secondary to leukemia and/or chemotherapy or liver cirrhosis, excreted more than 46.8% of Ga-67 within 72 hours. A significant negative correlation was also found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and age. Urinary excretion of Ga-67 may be related to the glomerular filtration rate, which decreases with age

  8. Use of computed tomography scout film and Hounsfield unit of computed tomography scan in predicting the radio-opacity of urinary calculi in plain kidney, ureter and bladder radiographs

    Michael E. Chua

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Urolithiases identified on the CT-scout film were also seen as radiopaque on the KUB radiograph while those stones not visible on the CT-scout film, but above the optimal HU cut-off value of 630 are also likely to be radiopaque.

  9. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Whitcomb EL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative approaches is effective in reducing urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered as a first line treatment for overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence.Keywords: urinary incontinence, obesity, women

  10. Effective Factors on Urinary Incontinence in Natural Menopausal Women

    Shohani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infections and urinary incontinence are common urogenital problems affecting 7 - 10% of menopausal women. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to quantify effective factors on urinary incontinence in a cohort of menopausal women. Patients and Methods A sample of 150 menopausal women (natural menopause for at least 12 months were recruited from 13 healthcare centers in Ilam, Iran. Data regarding diagnosis, medical history and clinical symptoms were collected using a structured questionnaire and screening patient medical records. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between urinary incontinence and other variables. Results Multiple atrophic urogenital changes were identified including vaginal dryness (42%, decreased libido (41.3%, dyspareunia (16%, vaginal itching (11.3% and vaginal discharge and burning (10.7%. The prevalence of urinary frequency, stress urinary incontinence, nocturia and urge urinary incontinence were 33.3%, 28.7%, 22.7% and 17.3%, respectively. A multivariate logistic model found that urinary infection (OR 5.6; 95% CI: 2.6 - 11.58, cystocele (OR 1.73; 95% CI: 1.29 - 2.33 and rectocele (OR 1.47; 95% CI: 1.20 - 1.80 were potential risk factors for incontinence. A significant association was observed between marital status and vaginal atrophy, body mass index and urinary incontinence and parity type and urinary incontinence (P < 0.05 for all. Conclusions Multiple associations existed between atrophic urogenital changes and urinary incontinence. The most significant interaction was between urinary tract infections and urinary incontinence in menopausal women, with urinary tract infections increasing the risk of incontinence by 5.6 fold. We recommend health professionals to focus on early screening of these issues and implement educational programs for women as part of standard practice.

  11. Effect of BMI and urinary pH on urolithiasis and its composition

    Qazi Najeeb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a common urological disease predominantly affecting males. The lifetime risk of urolithiasis varies from 1% to 5% in Asia, 5% to 9% in Europe, 10% to 15% in the USA and 20% to 25% in the middle-east; lowest prevalence is reported from Greenland and Japan. Such differences have been explained on the basis of race, diet and climate factors. Furthermore, changing socio-economic conditions have generated changes in the prevalence, incidence and distribution for age, sex and type of lithiasis in terms of both the site and the chemical as well as the physical composition of the calculi. The aim of our study was to determine the association between body mass index (BMI and urine pH in patients with urolithiasis and the influence of body size, as reflected by the BMI, on the composition. The study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, on urolithiatic patients. The data included patient′s age, sex, BMI, urine pH, serum calcium, serum uric acid, serum creatinine and stone composition. Data from 100 patients, 70 men (70% and 30 women (30%, were analyzed, with 28 patients having normal weight, 38 patients being overweight and 34 patients being obese. The mean age of the patients was 36.58 ± 9.91 years in group I, 40.47 ± 14.48 years in group II and 37.85 ± 12.46 years in group III (P > 0.05. The stone composition was calcium oxalate (CaOx in 66 patients, calcium phosphate (CaP in 60 patients, uric acid (UA in 38 patients, combined calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in 28 patients and three stones in 10 patients. The urinary pH levels (mean ± SD were 7.78 ± 1.49 in group I, 7.15 ± 1.11 in group II and 6.29 ± 1.14 in group III patients (P = 0.0001. Urine pH showed a stepwise decrease with increasing BMI (inverse correlation. Urine pH is inversely related to BMI among patients with urolithiasis, as is the occurrence of urate, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones. Similarly, the serum creatinine increased as the BMI and number of stones increased among the study population.

  12. Urinary tract infection by Trichosporon asahii

    Sood S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichosporon asahii is a basidiomycetous yeast which causes white piedra and onychomycosis in immunocompetent hosts as well as various localized and disseminated invasive infections in immunodeficient hosts. Urinary tract infection caused by Trichosporon asahii is rare. One month after posterior urethral valve surgery a seven-month-old male child presented with fever, severe vomiting and crying on micturition for five - to six days. Yeast-like fungus was isolated in pure cultures from three consecutive urine samples. It was identified as Trichosporon asahii using standard techniques. The response to antifungal therapy was dramatic. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a urinary tract infection caused by Trichosporon asahii from Western India.

  13. Urinary tract infection caused by Chromobacterium violaceum

    Pant ND

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Narayan Dutt Pant, Manisha SharmaDepartment of Microbiology, Grande International Hospital, Dhapasi, Kathmandu, NepalAbstract: Chromobacterium violaceum, a proteobacterium, is a facultative anaerobe, which is generally present as the normal flora of water and soil in tropical and subtropical regions. The infection due to Chromobacterium violaceum is rare but mostly fatal. It is responsible for causing fatal cases of septicemia, visceral abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, meningitis, diarrhea, and rarely urinary tract infection. The bacteria has high propensity to spread causing sepsis. Delayed proper treatment due to limited awareness related to the C. violaceum infection is responsible for the high mortality rate. Here, we describe a rare case of urinary tract infection by C. violaceum in a chronic kidney disease patient, which was managed with timely proper antimicrobial therapy as per the culture sensitivity report.Keywords: Chromobacterium violaceum, proteobacterium, septicemia, visceral abscesses, nephrectomy

  14. Urinary tract infection caused by Chromobacterium violaceum

    Pant, Narayan Dutt; Sharma, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a proteobacterium, is a facultative anaerobe, which is generally present as the normal flora of water and soil in tropical and subtropical regions. The infection due to Chromobacterium violaceum is rare but mostly fatal. It is responsible for causing fatal cases of septicemia, visceral abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, meningitis, diarrhea, and rarely urinary tract infection. The bacteria has high propensity to spread causing sepsis. Delayed proper treatment due to limited awareness related to the C. violaceum infection is responsible for the high mortality rate. Here, we describe a rare case of urinary tract infection by C. violaceum in a chronic kidney disease patient, which was managed with timely proper antimicrobial therapy as per the culture sensitivity report. PMID:26392784

  15. Clinical observation of radiation urinary bladder disease

    Objective: Clinical characteristic, diagnosis and treatment of radiation urinary bladder disease induced by radiation therapy for cancers in the pelvis were inquired into for providing diagnostic basis. Methods: Statistical analysis for the clinical cases was carried out. Results: The incidence of radiation bladder diseases induced by radiation therapy of cervix cancer are about 0.8%-2.96%, with an average of 2.14%. Radiation bladder disease is divided into acute radiation cystitis, chronic radiation cystitis and radiation vesical fistula. Chronic radiation cystitis is seen most often in the clinic and its main clinical symptom is painless macroscopic hematuria, which is again subdivided into slight and severe degrees. Diagnosis should include history of exposure to radiation, which dose exceed the dose threshold, and typical clinical characteristics. Conclusion: The characteristics, types and diagnostic basis of radiation urinary bladder disease analyzed in this study can provide the reference for drawing up diagnostic standard

  16. Can Urinary Nitrite Results Be Used to Conduct Antimicrobial Option for Urinary Tract Infection in Children?

    Abolfazl Mahyar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was performed to determine the relationship between urinary nitrite results and bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs in urinary tract infection of children.Methods: In a cross-section study 119 children younger than 12 years with urinary tract infection were evaluated in Qazvin children's hospital. Patients were divided into negative and positive nitrite groups depending on urinary nitrite test result. Rates of antibiotic resistance in the two groups were compared.Findings: Sixty seven patients were in the negative nitrite group and 52 in the positive nitrite group.Resistance rates to ceftriaxone, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, gentamicin, amikacin, nalidixic acid, cephalothin and nitrofurantoin in the nitrite negative group were 7.5%, 31.3%, 50.7%, 11.9%, 9%, 3%,14.9% and 11.9%, respectively. These values in the nitrite positive group were 21.2%, 28.8%, 63.5%, 7.7%, 5.8%, 1.9%, 9.6%, and 3.8%, respectively (P>0.05.Conclusion: This study showed that there is no correlation between urinary nitrite results and bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, it seems that physicians should not adjust antibiotic therapy for UTI based on nitrite results.

  17. Could Urinary Tract Infection Cause Female Stress Urinary Incontinence? A Clinical Study

    Heydari, Fatemeh; Motaghed, Zahra; Abbaszadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), the most common type of urinary incontinence (UI), is usually defined as leakage of urine during movement or activity which puts pressure on the bladder, such as coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting. It is reported in most countries that 15% to 40% of women struggle with SUI and its severe implications for daily life, including social interactions, sexuality, and psychological wellbeing. Objectives The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between urinary tract infection and the severity of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Patients and Methods This research was a cross-sectional study conducted in a public urology clinic in Tehran. The study population was all females with complaints of SUI who visited the clinic during 2014. We compared Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP) in two groups of patients, with and without history of urinary tract infection (UTI). Results According to the findings of our study, the mean VLPP was 83.10 cm H2O in the group with UTI history, and 81.29 cm H2O in those without history of UTI. The difference in VLPP between the two groups was not significant (P opinion would require extensive future studies by prospective methods.

  18. Animal Models of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Jiang, Hai-Hong; Damaser, Margot S

    2011-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common health problem significantly affecting the quality of life of women worldwide. Animal models that simulate SUI enable the assessment of the mechanism of risk factors for SUI in a controlled fashion, including childbirth injuries, and enable preclinical testing of new treatments and therapies for SUI. Animal models that simulate childbirth are presently being utilized to determine the mechanisms of the maternal injuries of childbirth that lead to S...

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens

    Khameneh Zakieh; Afshar Ali

    2009-01-01

    Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Str...

  20. Hyperammonaemic coma in ureterosigmoid urinary diversion.

    Oliver, R M; Talbot, S.; Raman, G. V.

    1989-01-01

    We report on a patient with ureterosigmoid anastomosis, who presented with recurrent episodes of confusion, agitation and aggressive behaviour, culminating in coma. Investigations revealed profound hyperammonaemia, which responded to treatment with sodium benzoate and sodium phenylacetate. No definite cause was found for the abnormality, apart from possible urinary tract infection. The patient remains well on a protein restricted diet with mildly elevated levels of plasma ammonia.

  1. Chlamydia and Male Lower Urinary Tract Diseases

    Lee, Young-Suk; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such ...

  2. The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis

    The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis was performed in two hundred and five patients at the Clinical Hospital of the University of de State of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), in the period of 1962 to 1982. Clinical, radiological and pathological findings of ten cases of pionephrosis submitted to nephrectomy, and two cases of vesical enlargement by coloncystoplasty were related. Excretory urograms constitutes the most important radiological exam in reaching a diagnosis, followed by retrograde urograms. (author)

  3. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis

    Tomislav M Jelic; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G.; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electro...

  4. Biocide Activity against Urinary Catheter Pathogens

    Malic, Sladjana; Rachael P. C. Jordan; Waters, Mark G. J.; Stickler, David J.; Williams, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial effects of essential oils against bacteria associated with urinary catheter infection was assessed. Tests were performed on 14 different bacterial species cultured either planktonically or as biofilms. Biofilms were found to be up to 8-fold more tolerant of the test agents. Higher antimicrobial tolerance was also evident in tests conducted in artificial urine. Eugenol exhibited higher antimicrobial effects against both planktonic cells and biofilms than did terpinen, tea tree oi...

  5. Primary posterior perineal herniation of urinary bladder

    Kurumboor Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary perineal hernia is a rare clinical condition wherein herniation of viscera occurs through pelvic diaphragm. They are usually mistaken for sciatic hernia, rectal prolapse or other diseases in the perineum. Correct identification of the type of hernia by imaging is crucial for planning treatment. We present a case of primary posterior herniation of urinary bladder and rectal wall through levator ani repaired laparoscopically using a mesh repair.

  6. Improved method to measure urinary alkoxyacetic acids

    Shih, T. S.; Chou, J. S.; Chen, C Y; Smith, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To simplify the current preparation of samples, and to improve the specificity and reliability of the conventional analytical methods to measure urinary alkoxyacetic acids. METHODS: Samples containing alkoxyacetic acids including methoxy, ethoxy, and butoxyacetic acids (MAA, EAA, and BAA) were acidified with HCl and extracted with a mixed solvent of methylene chloride and isopropyl alcohol, then analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). RESULTS: Optimal resul...

  7. Urinary Tract Infection in Postmenopausal Women

    Raz, Raul; Naber, Kurt G.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it i...

  8. Ultrasonographic evaluation of urinary bladder neoplasias

    Nipa Patidar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasound has been shown to be a sensitive method for evaluating patients with chronic obstruction, bladder outlet obstruction, urinary tract infection, renal failure, renal and bladder neoplasm and renal transplants. It is now recommended as the method of choice for preliminary assessment and follow-up of several of these disorders. The objective of the study was to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of ultrasonographic features of neoplastic lesions of urinary bladder. Methods: Clinical impression about the suspected abnormality was obtained from the case papers or from referring by clinical colleagues. Data was recorded under headings like clinical history, clinical examinations, investigations like urine analysis, serum creatinine and blood urea, X-ray of chest and Kidney Urinary Bladder, pelvic and abdominal Ultrasonography, and if require CT scan and guided biopsy. Results: out of total 35 cases 29 were Transitional Cell Carcinoma, 4 were Squamous Cell Carcinoma, One leiomyoma and one was secondary from bronchogenic carcinoma. Most of tumours were irregular in shape in both TCC and SCC patients. Most of tumour showed heterogeneous echo-texture in ultrasonography. While all SCC showed heterogeneous with calcification echo-texture. Most of the cases had residual urine volume was less than 100 cc. Conclusions: The primary advantage of ultrasound over the conventional study was found to be its ability to detect focal or diffuse bladder wall abnormalities in patients who presented with commonest complaint of painless hematuria. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3775-3778

  9. Biomonitoring Equivalents for interpretation of urinary fluoride.

    Aylward, L L; Hays, S M; Vezina, A; Deveau, M; St-Amand, A; Nong, A

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to fluoride is widespread due to its natural occurrence in the environment and addition to drinking water and dental products for the prevention of dental caries. The potential health risks of excess fluoride exposure include aesthetically unacceptable dental fluorosis (tooth mottling) and increased skeletal fragility. Numerous organizations have conducted risk assessments and set guidance values to represent maximum recommended exposure levels as well as recommended adequate intake levels based on potential public health benefits of fluoride exposure. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are estimates of the average biomarker concentrations corresponding to such exposure guidance values. The literature on daily urinary fluoride excretion rates as a function of daily fluoride exposure was reviewed and BE values corresponding to the available US and Canadian exposure guidance values were derived for fluoride in urine. The derived BE values range from 1.1 to 2.1mg/L (1.2-2.5?g/g creatinine). Concentrations of fluoride in single urinary spot samples from individuals, even under exposure conditions consistent with the exposure guidance values, may vary from the predicted average concentrations by several-fold due to within- and across-individual variation in urinary flow and creatinine excretion rates and due to the rapid elimination kinetics of fluoride. Thus, the BE values are most appropriately applied to screen population central tendency estimates for biomarker concentrations rather than interpretation of individual spot sample concentrations. PMID:25863192

  10. [Tumor markers of urinary tract carcinoma].

    Kikuchi, Haruhito

    2004-04-01

    The tumor markers for malignant tumors arisen from urinary system including prostate cancer were reviewed. As for renal cell carcinoma there was no good marker used in routine test level at present. In the diagnosis of urothelial (transitional cell) carcinoma, mainly bladder cancer, 3 methods (urinary BTA, NMP22 and BFP) are used now in Japan. They all seem to be not fully sufficient in respect of the specificity. In foreign countries, new tests such as urinary telomerase and BLCA-4 are used and have been evaluated. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, serum total PSA is well established and used. Various PSA relation markers have been advocated for the differentiation between benign prostate hypertrophy and carcinoma in so called "gray zone" level of total PSA. In methods based on the molecular forms of PSA, the ratio of free PSA to total PSA (f/T) is widely use, and proPSA is a test that is expected. Other approaches such as volume of index PSA, age specific PSA reference range and PSA velocity are also in practical application. Human glandular kallikrein 2, which belong to the human kallikrein family as well as PSA, is expected as a tumor specific marker. PMID:15164607

  11. [Urinary tumor marker for urothelial cancer].

    Ohtani, M; Iwasaki, A; Shiraiwa, H

    2001-11-01

    The urinary tumor markers BTA, BFP and NMP22 used for urothelial cancer in Japan are reviewed briefly. We also evaluate and compare the sensitivity and specificity of BTA, BFP and NMP22 with urine cytology in detecting bladder cancer in 24 of our patients. The results showed that the sensitivity with urine cytology, BTA, BFP and NMP22 was 37, 54, 66 and 62% respectively. The specificity of BTA, BFP and NMP22 with urine cytology was 100, 65, 60 and 70% respectively. The sensitivity with BTA, BFP and NMP22 for urothelial cancer was higher than that with urine cytology. However, all except for urine cytology showed high false positive rates (83-90%) for urinary tract infection. These markers may thus complement urine cytology, which has a low sensitivity for urothelial cancer. Quite possibly they could act as low-cost and useful tumor markers, which could in turn reduce the number of invasive cystoscopic examinations. However, considering their high false positive rates for benign disease such as urinary tract infection, we must acknowledge that an ideal urothelial tumor marker, which is simple, non-invasive, inexpensive and accurate with high sensitivity and specificity has yet to be developed. PMID:11729491

  12. Aggregation of Urinary Microcrystallines with Different Sizes

    YAO Xiu-Qiong, HE Jie-Yu, YANG Jin, HOU Shan-Hua, OUYANG Jian-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes of average size (), autocorrelation curve, aggregation state and stability of urinary crystallites in urine samples of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) stone patients and healthy controls with placement time were comparatively studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoparticle size analyzer. The urine samples were filtrated by microporous membrane with a pore size of 0.22, 0.45, 1.2 and 3 mm, respectively. With the increase of placement time from 0 to 4 h, the values of the crystallites in various filtrated urine of patients increased rapidly. The amplification of (Δ) was 1439, 1557, 1534 and 1051 nm, respectively, when the placement time was up to 4 h. However, the Δof the urine crystallites of the controls was relatively small, which was only 474, 511, 567 and 433 nm, respectively. The urinary crystallites of the patients had rapid and large agglomeration and poor stability compared with those of the controls. The urinary crystallites of small size agglomerated more easily than those of large size. The results show that the rapid agglomeration of urine crystallites may play an important role in the formation of CaOxa stones.

  13. Depressive symptom patterns and urinary MHPG excretion.

    Agren, H

    1982-04-01

    Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl-glycol (MHPG) was analyzed in 48 unipolar and 19 bipolar depressed patients and 16 healthy controls. All patients were interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Various symptoms and descriptive variables were correlated univariately with urinary MHPG in two random groups, and those items showing a trend in both splits were further reduced by a multiple regression technique, first on each split separately and finally on the pooled sample. Urinary MHPG correlated significantly both in uni- and multivariate tests with age (positively, but only in females), altered motor activity (summed scores of agitation and retardation during the worst week of present or recent depression), and with existence of at least one suicide attempt before the present depressive episode (last items negatively). There were no differences between unipolar and bipolar patients, or between any patient group and the healthy controls. Males excreted about 25% more MHPG than females. Levels of MHPG in urine and cerebrospinal fluid were highly significantly intercorrelated. PMID:6953458

  14. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections.

    Schaffer, Jessica N; Pearson, Melanie M

    2015-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium and is well known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls'-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition, which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis. PMID:26542036

  15. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    Liedl, B

    2001-01-01

    In the past few years it has been clearly demonstrated that the concept of bacterial biofilm production permits an understanding and provides some explanation of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. This concept describes the colonization of catheter surfaces and the movement of bacteria against the urinary flow. It explains the antibacterial resistance of these matrix-enclosed sessile populations of bacteria. The catheter encrustation can be observed as mineralizing bacterial biofilm. The differentiation in swarming cells exposing a much higher activity of the enzyme urease is responsible for the predominant role of Proteus mirabilis in obstructing encrustations. The guidelines for the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections were developed over the past decades by clinicians and are still valid. They can now be better understood taking into consideration these new theories. As overuse of urethral catheters and non-compliance of their recommended use are still apparent, educational and surveillance programmes are needed to help maintain good standards of care. PMID:11148750

  16. [Treatment of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections].

    Horcajada, Juan Pablo; García-Palomo, Daniel; Fariñas, M Carmen

    2005-12-01

    Empirical antibiotic treatment of lower urinary tract infections should be based on the patient's clinical data and on local sensitivity data. Because of the increase in resistance among uropathogens, recommendations on the empirical treatment of urinary tract infections have been modified. Currently, the empirical use of co-trimoxazole, ampicillin, and first-generation cephalosporins and quinolones is not recommended. Fluoroquinolones have been demonstrated to be highly effective in comparative studies but, because of the increase in resistance, the type of patient who can benefit from these antimicrobial agents must be selected. Second- and third-generation cephalosporins still have high sensitivity rates, although the higher recurrence rates associated with their use and the emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacterial in the community should be taken into account. Amoxicillin-clavulanate is less effective in eradicating infections than quinolones. Fosfomycin-trometamol has resistance rates of below 2% and single-dose therapy has been demonstrated to be safe and effective. Nitrofurantoin is also currently active, although it must be administered for 7 days and can produce toxicity. Both agents are currently recommended as alternative therapeutic options to fluoroquinolones in uncomplicated infections of the lower urinary tract. PMID:16854355

  17. Recurrent urinary tract infections in females

    Uncomplicated Urinary tract infections are common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, with mean annual incidence of 15% and 10% in those aged 15-39 and 40-79 years, respectively. Urinary tract infection (UTI), with its diverse clinical syndromes and affected host groups, remains one of the most common but widely misunderstood and challenging infectious diseases encountered in clinical practice. Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) present a significant problem for women and a challenge for the doctors who care for them. The diagnosis of uncomplicated UTI can be achieved best by a thorough assessment of patient symptoms with or without the addition of a urine dipstick test. Treatment should be based on the most recent guidelines, taking into account resistance patterns in the local community. The patient who suffers from recurrent UTIs can be treated safely and effectively with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital therapy, or self-initiated treatment. This review article covers the latest trends in the management of recurrent UTI among women. Further research is needed regarding rapid diagnosis of UTI, accurate presumptive identification of patients with resistant pathogens, and development of new antimicrobials for drug-resistant UTI. (author)

  18. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: → Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. → We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. → The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. → Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. → Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  19. Detecting microalbuminuria by urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio

    Jensen, J S; Clausen, P; Borch-Johnsen, K; Jensen, G; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin....../creatinine concentration ratio, instead of the usual measurement of the albumin excretion rate in a timed urine collection. METHODS: All 2579 subjects analysed were screened in a population based epidemiological study. Participants with diabetes mellitus, renal disease, haematuria, or urinary tract infection were not...... included. Urinary albumin (Ualb) and creatinine (Ucreat) concentrations were measured in an overnight collected sample by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and colorimetric assays, respectively. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio (Ualb/Ucreat) were calculated...

  20. Migrated embolization coil: A rare cause of urinary tract obstruction

    Bhageria, Anand; Seth, Amlesh; Bora, Girdhar S.

    2012-01-01

    Refractory bleeding following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is mainly due to formation of pseudoaneurysm. Transarterial embolization is required to control the bleeding in such cases. We report a case of post-PCNL hematuria in whom angioembolization was done. An early erosion of the embolization coil from the renal vasculature into the urinary collecting system occurred, causing urinary tract obstruction and urinary tract infection (UTI). The coil was retrieved ureteroscopically after c...

  1. Urinary oxalate and glycolate excretion and plasma oxalate concentration.

    Barratt, T M; Kasidas, G. P.; Murdoch, I; Rose, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    The diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria in young children is hampered by the lack of a reliable reference range for urinary oxalate excretion, especially in infants. We present data on urinary oxalate and glycolate excretion in 137 normal children, on the plasma oxalate concentration in 33 normal children and 53 with chronic renal failure, and on amniotic fluid oxalate concentration in 63 uncomplicated pregnancies. The urinary oxalate:creatinine molar ratios were log normally distributed: mean...

  2. Nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder: a case report

    Chung, Sun Hee; Lee, Sun Wha; Han, Woon Seup [Ewha Womans Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma is a benign metaplastic lesion of the urinary tract occurring most frequently at the urinary bladder. It is very rare, especially in children. We describe the US, CT and MRI findings of nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder in an 8-year-old girl who suffered rupture of the bladder, urethra and vagina after a traffic accident and whose condition was complicated by urethral stricture and vesicoureteral reflux.

  3. Ascending urinary tract infection in rats caused by Proteus mirabilis

    Al Murayati, H. Y. A. [حيدر المراياتي; Al-Murayati, H. Y.; Al-Ani, I. M.; Gani, H. M.

    1997-01-01

    A model for ascending unobstructed urinary tract infection was developed in female rats to study the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection by Proteus mirabilis. Urinary bladders of rats were inoculated by I. V. cannula with 0.5 ml ofbrainheart infusion broth containing approximataly 3 x 108 living bacteria. Kidney, blood and urine samples collected at days 2, 4 and weeks 1-8 intervals were studied for renal infection as well as renal function tests. The results indicated the variation an...

  4. [Radiological features of urinary tract infection in childhood (author's transl)].

    Lucaya, J

    1975-07-01

    The diagnosis of one documented urinary tract infection in children establishes indication for carrying out a radiologic investigation of patient's urinary tract. Such an approach is mostly aimed at recognizing the presence of predisposing factors such as congenital malformations. Upon mentioning available techniques and its indications, the author describes radiologic findings of the most common inflamatory diseases of the urinary tract in childhood. PMID:808154

  5. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S; Schroll, M; Jensen, J S

    1999-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict...... ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population-based cohort. In 1983, urinary albumin and creatinine levels were measured, along with the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors, in 2085 consecutive participants without IHD, renal disease, urinary tract infection, or diabetes mellitus. The participants...

  6. Detection of Intracellular Bacterial Communities in Human Urinary Tract Infection

    Opal, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    Steven Opal reviews the phenomenon of bacterial communities and discusses the role played by bacterial communication and cooperation in host-pathogen interactions, particularly in urinary tract infection.

  7. A prospective study of urinary tract infection during pelvic radiotherapy

    The frequency of urinary tract infection before and during pelvic radiotherapy was studied prospectively in 172 patients who were not catherised and had not had instrumentation for at least 4 weeks prior to radiotherapy. The incidence of urinary tract infection prior to radiotherapy was 17% and a further 17% of patients develped a urinary tract infection during radiotherapy. Mid-stream specimens of urine (MSU) should be examined for infection on a weekly basis during pelvic radiotherapy not only to identify this additional 17% of patients but also to detect those patients who have persistent urinary tract infection in spite of treatment with appropriate antibiotics. (author). 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  8. Role of Urinary Cathelicidin LL-37 and Human ?-Defensin 1 in Uncomplicated Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infections

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Dynesen, Pia; Larsen, Preben; Jakobsen, Lotte; Andersen, Paal S.; Frimodt-Mller, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Cathelicidin (LL-37) and human ?-defensin 1 (hBD-1) are important components of the innate defense in the urinary tract. The aim of this study was to characterize whether these peptides are important for developing uncomplicated Escherichia coli urinary tract infections (UTIs). This was investigated by comparing urinary peptide levels of UTI patients during and after infection to those of controls, as well as characterizing the fecal flora of participants with respect to susceptibility to LL-...

  9. Effects of urinary bladder distention on location of the urinary bladder and urethra of healthy dogs and cats

    Evaluation of the anatomic location of the distended and empty urinary bladders and urethras of healthy adult male and female dogs and cats by retrograde urethrocystography revealed substantial variations. In 15 dogs in lateral recumbency with empty bladder lumens, the caudal portion of the urinary bladder was within the pelvic canal in 5 of 7 male and 5 of 8 female dogs. In female dogs examined in ventrodorsal recumbency, only 4 of 8 had the empty urinary bladders in part within the pelvic canal. After luminal distention, 3 of 7 male and 3 of 8 female dogs, while in lateral recumbency, had the urinary bladders in part intrapelvically. However, when female dogs were placed in ventrodorsal recumbency, only 1 of 7 urinary bladders was in part within the pelvis. The urinary bladders of 14 cats were consistently within the abdominal cavity, irrespective of whether the bladder lumen was distended or empty. Urethral flexures occurred in dogs with intrapelvic bladders that were distended or empty. Urethral flexures were not found in cats. The urethras of dogs and cats in lateral recumbency were generally closer to the floor of the pelvis after urinary bladder distention than when the bladder was empty. The urethra of the dogs and cats in ventrodorsal recumbency was to the left or right of or on the midsagittal plane, whether the urinary bladder was empty or distended. A greater degree of lateral displacement was encountered in ventrodorsal recumbency after urinary bladder distention

  10. 77 FR 11133 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    2012-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Complicated Urinary Tract... guidance for industry entitled ``Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment... treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs). Specifically, this guidance addresses...

  11. Post traumatic urinary extravasation in occult urinary obstruction: Report of three cases

    Jyoti Bothra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary extravastion after blunt abdominal trauma is seen often and generally treated conservatively. However a blunt renal trauma causing huge amount of extravasations and symptoms disproportionate to the severity of trauma should alarm the surgeon towards an underlying occult renal pathology usually an obstruction. In this case series, we share three such experiences and their management.

  12. Post traumatic urinary extravasation in occult urinary obstruction: Report of three cases

    Jyoti Bothra; Gursev Sandlas; Shalika Jayaswal; Hemanshi Shah

    2015-01-01

    Urinary extravastion after blunt abdominal trauma is seen often and generally treated conservatively. However a blunt renal trauma causing huge amount of extravasations and symptoms disproportionate to the severity of trauma should alarm the surgeon towards an underlying occult renal pathology usually an obstruction. In this case series, we share three such experiences and their management.

  13. Antibiotic Resistance in Urinary Isolates of Escherichia coli from College Women with Urinary Tract Infections?

    Olson, Ronald P.; Harrell, Lizzie J.; Kaye, Keith S.

    2009-01-01

    Of 176 urine isolates from female students positive for Escherichia coli, 29.6% were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistant and none were nitrofurantoin resistant. Among students with a history of urinary tract infection (UTI) (n = 119), resistance to ciprofloxacin was 11.8%, compared to 1.8% among those without prior UTI. Nitrofurantoin should be considered for empirical therapy of lower tract UTI.

  14. Assessment of infective urinary tract disorders

    Urinary tracts infection (UTI) is common in children, particularly in the youngest age groups. There is a risk for progressive deterioration of renal function in these children if aggravating factors such as gross reflux and/or outflow obstruction of the urinary tract are present. In this review the pros and cons of available scintigrafic and radiological imaging techniques for the work-up of these children are presented. Ultrasound can be used in the acute phase to exclude obstruction but can not reliably show transient or permanent parenchymal lesions. The presence of reflux can be established with X-ray or direct nuclide cystography. The X-ray technique gives good morphological information and has a grading system with prognostic relevance. Both techniques are invasive and great care must be taken to keep the radiation burden down with the X-ray technique. Indirect nuclide cystography following a renographic study is non-invasive but has a lower sensitivity than direct techniques. More experience is needed with the indirect technique to evaluate the consequences of its apparently low sensitivity. Urography has a limited place in the acute work-up of urinary tract infection but can be used to look for renal scarring 1-2 years after an acute pyelonephritis. The 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan can be used during the acute UTI to show pyelonephritic lesions with good accuracy and/or during the follow-up after six months to show permanent lesions. The acute DMSA scan can be omitted

  15. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Vahlensieck, W; Bauer, H W; Weidner, W; Piechota, H J; Naber, K G

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequent bacterial infections in the community and health care setting. Mostly young and, to some extent, postmenopausal women are affected by recurrent UTI (rUTI) defined as ≥3 UTI/year or ≥2 UTI/half year. In contrast, rUTI is rare in healthy men. On the other hand, rUTI are frequently found in female and male patients with complicating urological factors, e.g. urinary catheters, infection stones. Remediable predisposing factors in uncomplicated rUTI in women are rare. In complicated rUTI the success depends mainly on the possibility to eliminate or at leastimprove the complicating risk factors. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis or postcoital prophylaxis, if there is close correlation with sexual intercourse, are most effective to prevent rUTI. Nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim (or cotrimoxazole), and fosfomycin trometamol are available as first-line drugs. Oral cephalosporins and quinolones should be restricted to specific indications. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the number of uropathogens in the gut and/or vaginal flora and reduces bacterial "fitness". Given the correct indication, the recurrence rate of rUTI can be reduced by about 90%. Due to possible adverse events and the concern of selecting resistant pathogens, according to the guidelines of the European Association of Urology antimicrobial prophylaxis should be considered only after counselling, behavioural modification and non-antimicrobial measures have been attempted. In postmenopausal patients vaginal substitution of oestriol should be started first. Oral or parenteral immunoprophylaxis is another option in patients with rUTI. Other possibilities with varying scientific evidence are prophylaxis with cranberry products, specific plant combinations or probiotics. The prophylaxis of catheter-associated UTI should employ strategies which result in a reduction of frequency and duration of catheter drainage of the urinary tract. The currently available catheter materials have only little influence on reducing catheter-associated rUTI. PMID:23538307

  16. Urinary pH and stone formation

    Wagner, C A; Mohebbi, N

    2010-01-01

    The formation of various types of kidney stones is strongly influenced by urinary pH. An alkaline pH favors the crystallization of calcium- and phosphate-containing stones, whereas and acidic urine pH promotes uric acid or cystine stones. The activity of many transport processes involved in calcium, citrate and phosphate handling are sensitive to changes in systemic or local pH as shown for several phosphate transporters, the citrate transporter NaDC1 and the TRPV5 calcium channel. Defects in...

  17. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis

    Tomislav M Jelic; Rod Roque; Uzay Yasar; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; et al.

    2008-01-01

    Tomislav M Jelic1, Rod Roque1, Uzay Yasar2, Shayna B Tomchin1, Jose M Serrato2, Samuel G Deem3, James P Tierney3, Ho-Huang Chang11Department of Pathology Charleston Area Medical Center, Charleston WV, USA; 2Urology Center of Charleston, Charleston WV, USA; 3Urologic-Surgical Assoc. of Charleston, Charleston WV, USAAbstract: Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bla...

  18. Characterization of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Among Custodians.

    Cavallari, Jennifer M; Simcox, Nancy J; Wakai, Sara; Lu, Chensheng; Garza, Jennifer L; Cherniack, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of chemicals found in consumer, personal care, and cleaning products, have been linked to adverse health effects. Our goal was to characterize urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and to identify work and nonwork sources among custodians using traditional cleaning chemicals and 'green' or environmentally preferable products (EPP). Sixty-eight custodians provided four urine samples on a workday (first void, before shift, end of shift, and before bedtime) and trained observers recorded cleaning tasks and types of products used (traditional, EPP, or disinfectant) hourly over the work shifts. Questionnaires were used to assess personal care product use. Four different phthalate metabolites [monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)] were quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Geometric means (GM) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for creatinine-adjusted urinary phthalate concentrations. Mixed effects univariate and multivariate modeling, using a random intercept for each individual, was performed to identify predictors of phthalate metabolites including demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. Creatinine-adjusted urinary concentrations [GM (95% CI)] of MEP, MMP, MEHP, and MBzP were 107 (91.0-126), 2.69 (2.18-3.30), 6.93 (6.00-7.99), 8.79 (7.84-9.86) µg g(-1), respectively. An increasing trend in phthalate concentrations from before to after shift was not observed. Creatinine-adjusted urinary MEP was significantly associated with frequency of traditional cleaning chemical intensity in the multivariate model after adjusting for potential confounding by demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. While numerous demographics, workplace factors, and personal care products were statistically significant univariate predictors of MMP, MEHP, and MBzP, few associations persisted in multivariate models. In summary, among this population of custodians, we identified both occupational and nonoccupational predictors of phthalate exposures. Identification of phthalates as ingredients in cleaning chemicals and consumer products would allow workers and consumers to avoid phthalate exposure. PMID:26240196

  19. Reducing urinary tract infections in catheterised patients.

    Howe, Pam; Adams, John

    2015-01-20

    Urinary tract infections in catheterised patients continue to present a challenge in reducing healthcare-associated infection. In this article, an infection prevention and control team in one NHS trust reports on using audit results to focus attention on measures to reduce bacterial infections. Educational initiatives have an important role in reducing infection, but there is no single solution to the problem. Practice can be improved using a multi-targeted approach, peer review and clinical audit to allow for shared learning and experiences. These, along with informal education in the clinical area and more formal classroom lectures, can ultimately lead to improved patient outcomes. PMID:25585767

  20. Effect of ionizing radiation on urinary bladder

    This paper describes the effect of radiation on urinary bladder. A significant proportion of tumors occur in the pelvis. During the treatment of malignancies in pelvis by external radiation beam, the urinary bladder may be within the irradiated volume. The experiment was carried out on mice to measure the loss of elasticity of the urinary bladder wall following irradiation to the pelvis. The analysis describe both early and late responses. Subacute response can be seen within 4-12 months following irradiation but most late reactions are seen between 1-4 years following successful radiotherapy for the primary cancer. Contracted bladders may occur within 1-5 years following radiotherapy. . The mice of 80-100 days of age were used. For irradiation, each group containing four mice was anesthetized with Phenobarbital (50 mg/kg ). Only urinary bladders of the mice were irradiated keeping the other parts of the body under lead shielding. The radiation dose to the bladder was measured by placing TLD-700 (LiF (MN)) chips at the ventral and dorsal surface of the bladder. The total dose given to the five groups of mice were 15 Gy (Gray), 30 Gy, 45 Gy, 60 Gy and 70 Gy at the rate of 300 cGy per fraction. Another four groups were irradiated with the total dose of 17.5 Gy, 35 Gy, 52.5 Gy and 70 Gy at the rate of 350 cGy per fraction. One group of mice was not irradiated and treated as control. As the total dose increases, the stiffness increases, reaching a maximum value and then falls as the bladder wall begins to rupture and the bladder loses its elasticity, presumably fibrosis is a major reason. Bladder contraction and urination frequency are known to increase with radiation dose. The maximum force for the respective displacement increased with the increase of total dose as well as fractionated dose, indicating the loss of elasticity of the bladder wall. The effect of dose per fraction was higher at all total doses for fraction size of 350 cGy as compared with the fraction size of 300 cGy. It was also observed that the maximum force F(g) at all doses were significantly greater than the control with no radiation treatment. 4 refs., 13 figs

  1. Retroperitoneal lipoma arising from the urinary bladder

    Hisato Kobayashi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Retroperitoneal benign lipomas are extremely rare and represent about 2.9% of all primary retroperitoneal tumors. About 80% of the tumors in the retroperitoneal cavities are malignant neoplasms. We experienced a case of a retroperitoneal lipoma simulating an ovarian mature cystic teratoma. A diagnosis was correctly made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI prior to surgery, and a total tumorectomy was performed. The retroperitoneal lipoma was recognized to have arisen from the urinary bladder. Histological sections revealed a tumor consisting of typical adipose cells without atypia. These types of lipomas should be carefully followed-up because they often recur and undergo malignant transformations.

  2. Introital ultrasonography in female urinary incontinence

    To evaluate the usefulness of introital ultrasonography in the assessment of female urinary incontinence. Introital ultrasonography was performed in fifteen with stress urinary incontinence(mean age 50) and six patients without symptoms of incontinence(mean age 37). Using a sagittal section of the anterior pelvis in the plane of the symphysis pubis the posterior urethrovesical angle, the pubourethral distance and the pubo-yregrak abgle were measured at rest and during stress(Valsalva's maneuver state). The student T-test and the ANOVA test were used in statistical analysis. The posterior urethrovesical angels of the controls were 125.3 deg (±10.9) at rest and 125.7 deg (±7.6) during stress. In the patients, the corresponding angles were135.3 deg (±11.3) and 139.6 deg(±10.8). The posterior urethrovesical angles increased 0.3 deg (±4.7) in the controls and 5.6 deg (±4.0) in the patients(p=0.018). In the controls, the pubo-urethral distances were 21.8 mm(±5.8) at rest and 18.2 mm(±7.1) during stress, while in the patients these distances were 18.4 mm(±3.9) and 12.6 mm(±4.4). The pubo-urethral distance decreased 3.5 mm (±1.5) in the controls and 5.8 mm (±2.3) in the patients(p=0.039). In the patients with mild incontinence(Grade I), the posterior urethrovesical angles increased 3.4 deg (±2.8) : 132.3 deg (±12.5) at rest and 135.6 deg (12.8) during stress. In the patients with moderate incontinence(Grade II), the angles increased 8.1 deg(±3.8) : 136.0 deg( 6.5) at rest and 144.1 deg((±5.9) during stress. The change of the posterior urethrovesical angle was related to the grade of urinary incontinence in the patients(p<0.05). There was no statistical significancy in the pubo-urethral angle (p=0.315). Introital ultrasonography may be useful for assessment of stress urinary incontinence

  3. In vitro activity of vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) on urinary tract pathogens in uncomplicated urinary tract infection

    Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection in the community, mainly caused by Escherichia coli (E coli). Due to its high incidence and recurrence, problems are faced in the treatment with antibiotics. Cranberry being herbal remedy have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections. This study was conducted to analyse in vitro activity of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on uropathogenic E coli in uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Method: In this laboratory based single group experimental study, anti-bacterial activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate on urinary tract E coli was investigated, in vitro. Ninety-six culture positive cases of different uropathogens were identified. Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate at different concentrations was prepared in distilled water and put in wells punched in nutrient agar. E coli isolates were inoculated on the plates and incubated at 37 Degree C for 24 hours. A citric acid solution of the same pH as that of Vaccinium macrocarpon was used and put in a well on the same plate to exclude the effect of pH. Results: A total of 35 isolates of E coli were identified out of 96 culture positive specimens of urine and found sensitive to Vaccinium macrocarpon (p<0.000). Results revealed that Vaccinium macrocarpon has antibacterial effect against E coli. Furthermore the antibacterial activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon has dose response relationship. Acidic nature of Vaccinium macrocarpon due to its pH is not contributory towards its antibacterial effect. Conclusion: Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate may be used in urinary tract infection caused by E coli. (author)

  4. Urinary tract infection due to Enterobacter sakazakii

    Bhat Gopalkrishna; Anandhi.R; Dhanya V; Shenoy Shalini

    2009-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is a rare but important cause of necrotizing enterocolitis, bloodstream infection and central nervous system infections in humans, with mortality rates of 40-80%. It has not been reported to cause urinary tract infection. We report a case of urinary tract infection due to E. sakazakii in a 63-year-old lady with chronic renal failure.

  5. Visceral pain originating from the upper urinary tract

    Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Frimodt-Møller, Poul Christian; Osther, Palle Jørn Sloth

    2010-01-01

    Pain originating from the upper urinary tract is a common problem and stone colic is one of the most intense pain conditions that can be experienced in the clinic. The pain is difficult to alleviate and often leads to medical attention. In humans, pain mechanisms of the upper urinary tract pain are...

  6. Staphylococcus haemolyticus urinary tract infection in a male patient.

    Gunn, B. A.; Davis, C E

    1988-01-01

    Urinary tract infections caused by staphylococci are usually attributed to Staphylococcus epidermidis or S. saprophyticus. The case study reported here describes a persistent urinary tract infection caused by S. haemolyticus in a 38-year-old male whose infection was ultimately resolved through the use of the antibiotic trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

  7. Urinary flow patterns in first year of life

    Olsen, Lars Henning; Grothe, Ingrid; Rawashdeh, Yazan F; Jrgensen, Troels Munch

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: We studied the natural development of urinary flow and lower urinary tract function in healthy male infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Custom-made ultrasound flow probes connected to a flowmeter were mounted on the penis in 20 infants who previously had been assessed in the immediate...

  8. A RARE CASE OF URINARY BLADDER ENDOMETRIOSIS FOLLOWING CESAREAN SECTION

    Shirish Paul; Venkateshwar Rao; Kiran Raju; Narvekar; Sivaleela; Ankum; Devi; Srikanth,

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common benign gynecological disease characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue, outside the uterus. Involvement of the urinary tract however is rare with an occurence of 4%. 1 We are report ing a case of endometriosis involving the Right posterior lateral wall of the urinary bladder, following Cesarean section. 2

  9. Non-invasive localization of urinary tract infection

    New methods to localize the source of bacteriuria were evaluated in monkeys with experimental urinary tract infection. A high level of diagnostic accuracy was obtained with the combined study of antibody-coated urinary bacteria by immunofluorescence, 131I hippuran scintiphotos in the hydropenic state and 67gallium citrate scintiphotos. Unique patterns were found, which differentiate cystitis, ureteritis, pyelonephritis and renal or perinephric abscesses

  10. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Urinary Tract Infection

    ... on the Farm Get Smart About Antibiotics Week Urinary Tract Infection Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Prevention Español: Infección de las vías urinarias Overview Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections in ...

  11. What I Need to Know about Urinary Tract Infections

    ... URL Español What I need to know about Urinary Tract Infections Page Content On this page: What is a ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)? A UTI is an infection in the ...

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens

    Khameneh Zakieh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done according to age-group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates. A total of 803 urine culture positive patients were studied of whom 81.6% were females and 18.4% were males. The common micro-organisms isolated were E. coli (78.58%, Klebsiella (5.48%, Proteus and Staphylococcus. About 89% of the E. coli isolated showed sensitivity to cephtizoxin, 83.9% to gentamycin and 83.2% to ciprofloxacin; the highest resistance was shown to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole. Surveys of this nature will give a clear idea about the bacteriologic profile in a given institution as well their antibiotic sensitivity profile. This will act as a guide to commencing empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary infections until such time culture reports are available.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens

    Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done according to age-group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates. A total of 803 urine culture positive patients were studied of whom 81.6% were females and 18.4% were males. The common micro-organisms isolated were E. coli (78.58%), Klebsiella (5.48%), Proteus and Staphylococcus. About 89% of the E. coli isolated showed sensitivity to cephtizoxin, 83.9% to gentamycin and 83.2% to ciprofloxacin; the highest resistance was shown to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Surveys of this nature will give a clear idea about the bacteriologic profile in a given institution as well their antibiotic sensitivity profile. This will act as a guide to commencing empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary infections until such time culture reports are available. (author)

  14. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis

    Tomislav M Jelic

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomislav M Jelic1, Rod Roque1, Uzay Yasar2, Shayna B Tomchin1, Jose M Serrato2, Samuel G Deem3, James P Tierney3, Ho-Huang Chang11Department of Pathology Charleston Area Medical Center, Charleston WV, USA; 2Urology Center of Charleston, Charleston WV, USA; 3Urologic-Surgical Assoc. of Charleston, Charleston WV, USAAbstract: Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria. We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.Keywords: calcifying nanoparticles, nanobacteria, encrusted cystitis

  15. Urinary bladder rupture during voiding cystourethrography

    Kyong Ok Lee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux with urinary tract infection or congenital renal diseases in children. The procedure is relatively simple and cost-effective, and complications are very rare. The iatrogenic complication of VCUG range from discomfort, urinary tract infection to bacteremia, as well as bladder rupture. Bladder rupture is a rare complication of VCUG, and only a few cases were reported. Bladder rupture among healthy children during VCUG is an especially uncommon event. Bladder rupture associated with VCUG is usually more common in chronically unused bladders like chronic renal failure. Presented is a case of bladder rupture that occurred during a VCUG in a healthy 9-monthold infant, due to instilled action of dye by high pressure. This injury completely healed after 7 days of operation, and it was confirmed with a postoperative cystography. The patient’s bladder volume, underlying disease, velocity of the contrast media instilled, catheter size, and styles of instillation are important factors to prevent bladder rupture during VCUG. Management of bladder rupture should be individualized, but the majority of infants are treated with the operation. In conclusion, bladder rupture is a rare complication, however, delicate attention is needed in order to prevent more dire situations.

  16. [Microbiological diagnosis of urinary tract infections].

    de Toro-Peinado, Inmaculada; Concepcin Mediavilla-Gradolph, M; Tormo-Palop, Nuria; Palop-Borrs, Begoa

    2015-07-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common infectious diseases observed in primary care; up to one-third of women will have at least one symptomatic UTI by age 24, and more than one-half of women will be affected by the end of life. In addition, UTIs represent 40% of nosocomial infections, and being usually associated with urinary catheters. Although urine cultures would not be indicated in all cases, these samples are the most abundant in the laboratories of clinical microbiology. Thus, the working protocols applied to these samples have an important impact in the performance of the laboratory. The samples are collected by mid stream urine, and 60-70% of them are negative culture. At present, several commercial systems have been introduced in order to simplify and automate this process. A urine culture with ? 10(5) CFU/ml has classically been considered as positive, although lower counts are valued in certain clinical settings. Factors related to this count e.g. methods to obtain urine, conservation of the sample or use of chemical preservatives as well as low counts are critical points to be discussed in detail. The development of antimicrobial resistance logically affects uropathogens, mainly Escherichia coli, which remains the most frequently isolated in urine cultures. The aim of this paper is to review the most innovating aspects influencing the microbiological diagnosis of UTI. PMID:26320994

  17. ILEOCYSTOPLASTY IN INVASIVE URINARY BLADDER CARCINOMA

    V. N. Pavlov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the results of surgical treatment of patients with the intestinal urinary bladder, to characterize its early and late postoperative complications, and to develop their correction tactics.  Subjects and methods. The results of treatment in 198 patients who had undergone ileocystoplasty were analyzed.  Results. The developed diagnostic approach and the determined examination periods could reduce the number of late postoperative complications of ileocystoplasty: acute and chronic pyelonephritis from 19.4 to 7.6%, urolithiasis from 17.2 to 1.9%, bladder dysfunction from 25.8 to 7.6%, and metabolic acidosis from 4.3 to 1.9%, and prevent the development of ureterovesical anastomosis stricture.  Conclusion. Radical cystectomy with the ileoplasty using an isolated segment of the ileum in patients with invasive urinary bladder carcinoma has been the operation of choice no longer; it has become an essential surgical adjunct. This method permits overall 5-year survival to be achieved in 69.7% of patients.  

  18. Granular cell tumors of the urinary bladder

    Kayani Naila

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granular cell tumors (GCTs are extremely rare lesions of the urinary bladder with only nine cases being reported in world literature of which one was malignant. Generally believed to be of neural origin based on histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies; they mostly follow a clinically benign course but are commonly mistaken for malignant tumors since they are solid looking, ulcerated tumors with ill-defined margins. Materials and methods We herein report two cases of GCTs, one benign and one malignant, presenting with gross hematuria in a 14- and a 47-year-old female, respectively. Results Histopathology revealed characteristic GCTs with positive immunostaining for neural marker (S-100 and negative immunostaining for epithelial (cytokeratin, Cam 5.2, AE/A13, neuroendocrine (neuron specific enolase, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin and sarcoma (desmin, vimentin markers. The benign tumor was successfully managed conservatively with transurethral resection alone while for the malignant tumor, radical cystectomy, hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, anterior vaginectomy, plus lymph node dissection was done. Both cases show long-term disease free survival. Conclusion We recommend careful pathologic assessment for establishing the appropriate diagnosis and either a conservative or aggressive surgical treatment for benign or localized malignant GCT of the urinary bladder, respectively.

  19. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A; Ness, Roberta B; Vogel, Victor G; Fentiman, Ian S; Fowke, Jay H; Krogh, Vittorio; Loft, Steffen; Meilahn, Elaine N; Muti, Paola; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Sieri, Sabina; Tjønneland, Anne; Ursin, Giske; Wellejus, Anja; Taioli, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1), and their...... ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive breast cancer cases and 723 controls) were analyzed. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured using...... premenopausal 2:16a-OHE1 was suggestive of reduced breast cancer risk overall (study-adjusted ORIIIvsI=0.80; 95% CI: 0.49-1.32) and for estrogen receptor negative (ER-) subtype (ORIIIvsI=0.33; 95% CI: 0.13-0.84). Among postmenopausal women, 2:16a-OHE1 was unrelated to breast cancer risk (study-adjusted ORIIIvs...

  20. [Urodynamic parameters of fetal lower urinary tract in physiological pregnancy].

    Chekhonatskaia, M L; Glybochko, P V; Demidov, V N

    2005-01-01

    The study of urodynamic parameters in 76 fetuses in physiological course of pregnancy at gestation term from 20 to 40 weeks has shown that urodynamics of the lower urinary tract in the prenatal period directly correlate with embryon and fetus formation. Urodynamic indices of fetal lower urinary tract have 13 significant correlations out of possible 43, indicating distinct interactions of various organs and strictures of fetal urinary system. The analysis of the structure of correlations between different urodynamic indices of the lower urinary tract of the fetus demonstrates that they vary greatly in pregnancy trimester II and remain constant in trimester III. Thus, interrelations between basic urodynamic parameters of the lower urinary tract get established to the end of trimester II. PMID:16097713

  1. Urinary density measurement and analysis methods in neonatal unit care

    Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess urine collection methods through cotton in contact with genitalia and urinary collector to measure urinary density in newborns. This is a quantitative intervention study carried out in a neonatal unit of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, in 2010. The sample consisted of 61 newborns randomly chosen to compose the study group. Most neonates were full term (31/50.8% males (33/54%. Data on urinary density measurement through the methods of cotton and collector presented statistically significant differences (p<0.05. The analysis of interquartile ranges between subgroups resulted in statistical differences between urinary collector/reagent strip (1005 and cotton/reagent strip (1010, however there was no difference between urinary collector/ refractometer (1008 and cotton/ refractometer. Therefore, further research should be conducted with larger sampling using methods investigated in this study and whenever possible, comparing urine density values to laboratory tests.

  2. The Artificial Urinary Sphincter in the Management of Incontinence.

    Suarez, Oscar A; McCammon, Kurt A

    2016-06-01

    Despite the emergence of different devices in the treatment of postprostatectomy urinary incontinence, the AMS 800 (American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, MN) remains the gold standard for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in men. We reviewed the current literature regarding the indications, surgical principles, outcomes, and complications of artificial urinary sphincter placement for stress urinary incontinence after prostatectomy. Despite all the available information, heterogeneous data, different success definitions, and the lack of high-quality prospective studies with long-term follow-up, it is difficult to compare outcomes between studies. In spite of these, the perineal implantation of a single cuff artificial urinary sphincter has withstood the test of time. PMID:26845050

  3. Diagnostic value of cytology in urinary system malignancies

    ?kr O?uz ZDAMAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES:The contribution of cytological methods to the diagnosis and follow-up of urinary system malignancies was investigated in this study, along with histological diagnosis and clinical follow-up results of the cases. METHODS: One hundred forty-four cases who underwent cystoscopy in ZKTF Urology Department between 2003 and 2007 were included in this study, and urinary cytology and biopsy samples were assessed in the Pathology Department. RESULTS: When cytological and histological diagnoses were compared, results in 17 positive cases and in 109 negative cases were consistent. Three cases were false-positive and 15 cases were false-negative. In our series, sensitivity of urinary cytological diagnostic methods was 53% and specificity was 97%. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that urinary cytology has a high diagnostic value in the evaluation of urinary system diseases. However, decrease in the sensitivity of this method in low-grade urothelial tumors should be taken into account.

  4. Urinary symptoms in Parkinson's disease: prevalence and associated factors

    Campos-Sousa Raimundo Nonato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a cross-sectional study involving 61 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD who were consecutively examined and compared to a control group with 74 subjects. Only patients who fulfilled the standard diagnostic criteria for PD and whose brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal were included. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of inferior urinary tract symptoms in PD and to study the possible association between clinical factors to urinary dysfunction. ln the patient group, 39.3% presented urinary symptoms when compared to 10.8% in the control group. All symptomatic patients presented irritative symptoms. The most common irritative symptom PD was nocturia, followed by frequency and urinary incontinence. Around 25% of the patients presented functional obstructive symptoms determined by the disease. The most frequent obstructive symptom was incomplete emptying of the bladder. Only the age of the patients and control group were correlated with urinary dysfunction.

  5. Quality of life in women with urinary incontinence

    DraLjiljana Mladenović Segedi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine the characteristics of urinary incontinence and its impact on the quality of life in adult women with urinary incontinence who presented to a tertiary care clinic of Vojvodina from September 2008 to May 2009 for treatment Methods We used a prospective case-control study. Cases were defined as patients (47 with urinary incontinence symptoms. Controls(50 were defined as patients without urinary incontinence who presented to a tertiary care gynecology clinic for other reasons. Both, cases and controls, completed two questionnaires recommended for the evaluation of symptoms, The Urinary Distress Inventory, and quality of life impact The Urinary Impact Questionnaire. Results There was a significant correlation between aging(r=0.614; p<0.01, body mass index (r=0.357; p<0.01 and menopause(r= -0.572; p<0.01 and urinary incontinence. All patients had symptoms of stress incontinence, 61.7% had urge incontinence symptoms, 21.3% voiding difficulty and 85.1% dysuria. Ninety-four patients believed that urinary incontinence impaired their quality of life: 50% of patients reported an impaired ability to do household activities, 59.1% avoided social activities, 70.4% reported an impaired ability to travel more than 30 minutes by car or bus, 88.6% avoided leisure activities, 45.5% of patients had impaired emotional health and 34% felt frustrated. Conclusion The dominant type of urinary incontinence in more than half of the respondents was a mixed type, with moderate to very severe problems. Symptoms of urinary incontinence interfere with the performance of everyday household and social activities, causing the appearance of anxiety, depression and frustration, and in more than 50% of women leads to reduced quality of life.

  6. Urinary Tract Infections in Renal Transplantation Patient

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Tract Infection (UTI can be associated with significant morbidity after renal transplantation. While, the use of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis has dramatically reduced the incidence of UTI after renal transplantation over the past decades, rates of serious complications associated with UTI, such as bacterial septicemia, remain high for post transplantation patients even in the modern era. However, late post transplantation UTI has been widely considered as benign based on relatively small studies. The majority of transplant centers administers prophylactic antibiotics post transplantation, but most generally stop antibiotic prophylaxis 6 months after transplantation. However, emerging concepts from recent studies suggest that UTI, even if late after renal transplantation, has definite risks, suggesting that this clinical entity may not be as "benign" as previously supposed. A total of 185 midstream urine samples were collected in sterile containers from patient with kidney transplantation. With standard calibrated loop delivering 0.01 mL of urine was inoculated on Blood agar and EMB agar and incubated aerobically at 37C for 24-48 h. Urinary tract infection was diagnosed by growth of at least 100000 colony-forming units of a urinary tract pathogen per milliliter in a culture of a midstream urine sample. Any specimen containing high colony counts with more than one species of bacteria in asymptomatic patient was considered contamination. Identification of bacterial pathogens was made on the basis of gram reactions, morphology and biochemical characteristics. Total 185 kidney transplantation patient studied, of whom 52 (28.10% were identified to have asymptomatic bacteriuria. In present study, the most common isolate was E. coli 33 (56.89%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 13 (22.41%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5 (8.62%, Proteus mirabilis 3 (5.17%, Citrobacter freundii 3 (5.17% and Staphylococcus aureus 1(1.72%. UTIs are a frequent problem after kidney transplantation. In the long-term, UTIs should be considered as a potential risk for poorer graft outcomes. In this study, the incidence of UTIs was 31.35% among renal transplant recipients, with E coli as the most common cause. While ureteral double-J catheter and female gender were the risk factors for UTI, female gender was the only independent risk factor.

  7. Urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women.

    Raz, Raul

    2011-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it is asymptomatic. However, the risk factors associated with recurrent UTI in elderly women are not widely described. In a multivariate analysis it was found that urinary incontinence, a history of UTI before menopause, and nonsecretor status were strongly associated with recurrent UTI in young postmenopausal women. Another study described the incidence and risk factors of acute cystitis among nondiabetic and diabetic postmenopausal women. Independent predictors of infection included insulin-treated patients and a lifetime history of urinary infection. Borderline associations included a history of vaginal estrogen cream use in the past month, kidney stones, and asymptomatic bacteriuria at baseline. Another important factor in postmenopausal women is the potential role that estrogen deficiency plays in the development of bacteriuria. There are at least two studies showing a beneficial effect of estrogen in the management of recurrent bacteriuria in elderly women. One of these studies showed that vaginal estrogen cream reduced vaginal pH from 5.50.7 to 3.61.0, restored lactobacillus, and decreased new episodes of UTI. Another study reported similar results using an estriol vaginal ring. However, contradictory results are found in the literature. For example, additional studies found that the use of estriol-containing vaginal pessaries was less effective than oral nitrofurantoin macrocrystals in preventing UTI in postmenopausal women. Two other studies also did not find any benefit in the reduction of UTI by oral estrogen therapy. Unfortunately, the use of estrogen in preventing UTI in postmenopausal women remains questionable. New strategies have been researched for reducing the use of antibiotics in the prevention and treatment of UTI. Two of them are probiotics and cranberry juice or capsules. Although several studies regarding probiotics and cranberry juice or capsules have reported a reduction of episodes of UTI, there is no conclusive evidence that they are useful in the prevention of UTI in postmenopausal women. As for the optimal drug, dosage, and length of treatment for UTI in the elderly, there are no studies comparing these data with the treatment for young women. PMID:22216390

  8. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie; Cogswell, Mary E; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

    2013-01-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the...... utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984-1987 at the ages of 20-59 years from 29 North American and...... European samples. Participants were randomly assigned to test or validation data sets. Equations derived from casual urinary sodium concentration and other variables in the test data were applied to the validation data set. Correlations between observed and estimated 24-hour sodium excretion were 0.50 for...

  9. Value of Ultrasound in Detecting Urinary Tract Anomalies After First Febrile Urinary Tract Infection in Children.

    Ghobrial, Emad E; Abdelaziz, Doaa M; Sheba, Maha F; Abdel-Azeem, Yasser S

    2016-05-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. Ultrasound is a noninvasive test that can demonstrate the size and shape of kidneys, presence of dilatation of the ureters, and the existence of anatomic abnormalities. The aim of the study is to estimate the value of ultrasound in detecting urinary tract anomalies after first attack of UTI. Methods This study was conducted at the Nephrology Clinic, New Children's Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, from August 2012 to March 2013, and included 30 children who presented with first attack of acute febrile UTI. All patients were subjected to urine analysis, urine culture and sensitivity, serum creatinine, complete blood count, and imaging in the form of renal ultrasound, voiding cysto-urethrography, and renal scan. Results All the patients had fever with a mean of 38.96°C ± 0.44°C and the mean duration of illness was 6.23 ± 5.64 days. Nineteen patients (63.3%) had an ultrasound abnormality. The commonest abnormalities were kidney stones (15.8%). Only 2 patients who had abnormal ultrasound had also vesicoureteric reflux on cystourethrography. Sensitivity of ultrasound was 66.7%, specificity was 37.5%, positive predictive value was 21.1%, negative predictive value was 81.8%, and total accuracy was 43.33%. Conclusion We concluded that ultrasound alone was not of much value in diagnosing and putting a plan of first attack of febrile UTI. It is recommended that combined investigations are the best way to confirm diagnosis of urinary tract anomalies. PMID:26084536

  10. Effect of drinking parsley leaf tea on urinary composition and urinary stones? risk factors

    Fahad A Alyami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of parsley leaf tea on urine composition and the inhibitors of urinary tract stones formation, we studied 20 healthy volunteers who were divided into two groups: the first group of 10 subjects drank daily 1,200 mL of parsley leaf tea for 2 weeks, while the second group drank at least 1,200 mL daily of bottled water for the same period. This was followed by a 2-week "washout" period before the two groups were crossed over for another 2 weeks. During the experimental phase, 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline, on day 14, and at the end of the 6-week period and different urinary parameters were measured and analyzed statistically. We found no significant difference in the urine volume, pH, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, phosphorus, magnesium, uric acid, cystine, or citric acid. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of parsley leaf tea on urinary parameters in healthy and stone-forming patients.

  11. Agglomeration of urinary nanocrystallites: Key factor to formation of urinary stones

    He Jieyu [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ouyang Jianming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yang Rue [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-07-20

    With transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoparticle size analyzer, comparative studies were conducted on the property variation of nanocrystallites in the urine of 5 lithogenic patients and 5 healthy subjects following the placement time (t{sub 1}). These properties include average particle size (d), size distribution, intensity-autocorrelation function, Zeta potential ({zeta}) and aggregation state. With the prolongation of t{sub 1} from 0 h to 4 h, d value of the nanocrystallites in urine of lithogenic patients increased from 742 nm to 1667 nm, the autocorrelation time increased from 7.68 ms to 1050 ms and {zeta} decreased from -1.52 mV to -4.44 mV, respectively; the autocorrelation curves were of fluctuating and unsmooth, and TEM showed that most of the patient's urinary nanocrystallites were in aggregation state and three types of agglomeration were observed. However, for nanocrystallites in urine of healthy subjects, there was little variation in the above properties within 4 h. The autocorrelation curves were of regular and smooth, and TEM showed that healthy urinary nanocrystallites were well-dispersed. The above results show that the nanocrystallites in urine of healthy subjects can keep stability, whereas those of lithogenic patients are easier to agglomerate gradually; and the agglomeration of urinary nanocrystallites is the key factor to stone formation.

  12. Urinary stones in pediatric age group

    Abdurrahman nen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The presenting symptoms of stone disease in children are rather different than the adult patients.US, direct urinary X-ray exam or/and computarized tomography are the diagnostic tools of choice.In case of obstruction,infection,or in the presence of larger stones prone to obstructive signs are the candidates of surgical intervention. In case of acute conditions insertion of JJ stents or percutaneous nephrostomy can be a solution.Asymptomatic and small stones should be treated by minimal invazive procedures such as. ESWL, URS or PNL. According to the results of biochemical analysis, medical treatment or/and dietary recommendations ar very important for the long term prophylaxis. (Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45 Suppl: 104-9

  13. Combined therapy of urinary bladder radiation injury

    Zaderin, V.P.; Polyanichko, M.F. (Rostovskij-na-Donu Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Onkologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1982-01-01

    A scheme of therapy of radiation cystitis is suggested. It was developed on the basis of evaluation of literature and clinical data of 205 patients with radiation injury of the urinary bladder. The method is based on general and local therapy of damaged tissues by antiinflammatory drugs, anesthetics and stimulators of reparative regeneration. Severe ulcerative and incrustation cystites, refractory to conservative therapy, were treated by surgery, using antiseptics and reparation stimulators before, during and after operation. As a result, there were hardly any complications after reconstruction of the bladder with intestinal and peritoneal tissues. 104 patients (96.1%) were cured completely and ability to work was restored in 70 patients (76.9%).

  14. Placenta percreta with urinary bladder involvement

    A 37-years old Pakistani lady, who had previously undergone one cesarean delivery and one uterine curettage, was admitted to the labor ward at 29 weeks of gestation with history of sudden severe painless vaginal bleeding from a sonographically diagnosed placenta pervia. An immediate cesarean was performed and a live male infant was delivered. The placenta was morbidly adherent to the lower uterine segment and attempts at removal caused torrential bleeding, necesstiating cesarean hysterectomy. In addition, attempts to dissect the bldder from lower uterine segment was unsuccessful and, hence, the diagnosis of placenta percreta with involvement of urinary bladder was made. A modified posterior approach to the hyterectomy was carried out, with subsequent good recovery. (author)

  15. Derivaciones urinarias laparoscpicas / Laparoscopic urinary diversions

    S., Alonso y Gregorio; M., lvarez Maestro; P.M., Cabrera Castillo; A., Tabernero Gmez; R., Cansino Alcaide; J., Cisneros Ledo; J.J., De la Pea Barthel.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: El tratamiento del cncer vesical infiltrante y el carcinoma superficial de alto grado recidivante est claramente establecido en la cistectoma radical y linfadenectoma pelviana. Uno de los campos que ms dudas plantea en su abordaje por va laparoscpica es el tratamiento radical de [...] l cncer vesical, que exige experiencia en ciruga laparoscpica pelviana y en el que la derivacin urinaria presenta grandes dificultades tcnicas a su abordaje laparoscpico. Objetivos: El objetivo fundamental de este artculo es comunicar nuestros resultados con las derivaciones urinarias tras cistectoma radical laparoscpica en las que hemos llevado a cabo las anastomosis ureteroileales por va laparoscpica. Material y Mtodos: Desde enero del 2005 hasta diciembre 2007 hemos completado 67 cistectomas radicales laparoscpicas. Hemos realizado un total de 28 derivaciones urinarias laparoscpicas segn nuestra tcnica, siendo en 7 pacientes enterocistoplastias de sustitucin con una edad media de 54,85 aos y en 21 pacientes ureteroileostoma cutnea con una edad media de 69,15 aos. Resultados: El tiempo quirrgico medio de la enterocistoplastia con anastomosis uretral y ureteral laparoscpicas es de 5 h y 30 min. Para la ureteroileostoma cutnea con anastomosis ureteral laparoscpica el tiempo quirrgico medio ha sido de 4hs. y 30 min. Hemos tenido 1 caso de fuga urinaria en las neovejigas laparoscpicas y 3 casos en los conductos ileales laparoscpicos (14%). No hemos tenido ningn caso de dehiscencia intestinal ni de estenosis ureteroileal. La estancia media de las neovejigas es de 13,6 das para el 85% de los casos y de 11,8 das para el 77,7% de las ureteroileostomas laparoscpicas. Discusin: La cistectoma radical laparoscpica constituye un procedimiento todava relegado a centros con gran experiencia en ciruga laparoscpica. El procedimiento ms aceptado por la mayora de los grupos incluye realizar la cistectoma por va laparoscpica y la derivacin urinaria por va abierta. No existen evidencias sobre las posibles ventajas de las derivaciones urinarias por va laparoscpica. En cualquier caso, son necesarios estudios comparativos para definir claramente el papel de la ciruga laparoscpica en las derivaciones urinarias. Abstract in english Introduction: The treatment of the invasive bladder cancer and the recurrent T1G3 is clearly established in radical cystectomy and pelvic linphadenectomy. One of the fields where the laparoscopic approach implies more doubts is the treatment of bladder cancer, because it requires experience enough i [...] n pelvic laparoscopic surgery and the urinary diversion implies great technical difficulties to the laparoscopic approach. Objetives: The main goal of this article is to report our results with the urinary diversion after laparoscopic radical cystectomy where the ureteral anastomosis has been performed by a laparoscopic approach. Methods: From January 2005 to December 2007 we have performed 67 laparoscopic radical cistectomies. We conducted 28 laparoscopic urinary diversions with our technique: 7 neobladder with an average age of 54,85 years and 21 ileal conduit with an average age of 69,15 years. Results: The averagesurgical time for enterocistoplasty with laparoscopic urethral and ureteral anastomosis is of 5 hours and 30 minutes. For the cutaneous ureteroileostomy with laparoscopic ureteral anastomosis the average surgical time has been of 4 hours and 30 minutes. We have had 1 case of urinary leakage in the laparoscopic neobladder and 3 cases in the laparoscopic ileal conduit (14%). We have not intestinal dehiscence nor ileal-ureteric stenosis. The average hospital stay for laparoscopic neobladder is for the 85% of cases of 13,6 days , and of 11,8 days for the 77,7% ofileal ureteric laparoscopies. Discussion: The laparoscopic radical cystectomy is still a procedure reserved for groups with great experience in laparoscopic surgery. Nowadays, the most accepted procedure by most groups

  16. Urinary tract cryptosporidiosis in commercial laying hens.

    Trampel, D W; Pepper, T M; Blagburn, B L

    2000-01-01

    Formalin-fixed kidney tissues from adult egg-laying chickens in two houses of an egg-production complex in the upper Midwest were submitted to Iowa State University for histopathologic examination. An increased incidence of visceral gout, average daily mortality 1%-2% higher than expected, and egg production within normal limits were observed in both houses. Numerous developing stages of Cryptosporidium were observed on the apical surface of epithelial cells lining renal collecting tubules and ureters. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to visualize colonization of cryptosporidia, disruption of microvilli, and exfoliation of parasitized epithelial cells. Lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the wall of ureters and hyperplasia of parasitized epithelial cells resulted in partial obstruction of ureters, which may have induced visceral gout in affected hens. This is the first report of urinary tract cryptosporidiosis occurring in adult hens in a modern commercial egg-production facility. PMID:10879932

  17. Correlates of urinary incontinence in pregnancy

    Hvidman, Lone; Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, S.; Nielsen, John Bugge

    2002-01-01

    nulliparous and the primiparous, respectively. The present data suggest pregnancy UI not to be provoked by the mere onset of pregnancy, but by increasing hormonal concentrations or local tissue changes caused by hormones, whereas there was no support for a theory based on increasing pressure on the bladder......In a population sample, the period prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) during pregnancy was found to be 19.9% and 24.1% among 352 nulliparous and 290 primiparous women, respectively. The first UI episode ever was experienced by 16.7% and 7.0% during the two last trimesters of the first and...... second pregnancies, respectively. None of the pregnancy-specific risk factors, such as emesis and birthweight, was significantly associated with UI during pregnancy. Previous UI was a significant risk factor for period prevalent UI during pregnancy, explaining 34% and 83% of pregnancy UI for the...

  18. Significance of urinary proteome pattern in renal allograft recipients.

    Suhail, Sufi M

    2014-01-01

    Urinary proteomics is developing as a platform of urinary biomarkers of immense potential in recent years. The definition of urinary proteome in the context of renal allograft and characterization of different proteome patterns in various graft dysfunctions have led to the development of a distinct science of this noninvasive tool. Substantial numbers of studies have shown that different renal allograft disease states, both acute and chronic, could portray unique urinary proteome pattern enabling early diagnosis of graft dysfunction and proper manipulation of immunosuppressive strategy that could impact graft prognosis. The methodology of the urinary proteome is nonetheless not more complex than that of other sophisticated assays of conventional urinary protein analysis. Moreover, the need for a centralized database is also felt by the researchers as more and more studies have been presenting their results from different corners and as systems of organizing these newly emerging data being developed at international and national levels. In this context concept of urinary proteomics in renal allograft recipients would be of significant importance in clinical transplantation. PMID:24757556

  19. Urinary Citrate: A view in Chronic Renal Failure

    SANTHOSH KUMAR.N

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim & Objective: To evaluate the 24 hour urinary citrate levels in chronic renal failure and healthy controls and to define the role of urinary citrates in the chronic renal failures. Materials and Methods: The 24 hours urinary citrates, Blood urea, Serum creatinine, Na+, K+were evaluated in 25 chronic renal failure patients and25 healthy subjects taken as controls. In both groups participants were on their usual diet. In addition, none of the participant was taking any drugs that could interfere with the citrate excretion. Results: The mean 24 hour urinary citrate excretion in patients and healthy controls was 296.3 ± 8.543mg and 323.9 ± 4.304mg respectively. Using previously defined values of normal urinary citrates as more than 320 mg.The difference in 24 hour urinary citrateexcretion in all patients and healthy control was statistically significant (

    urinary citrate excretion in recurrent renal failures and healthy controls. Uniformly low citrate excretion in patients indicates that low citrate levels may be a feature seen in predisposing factor for renal failure

  20. Evaluation of a behavioral treatment for female urinary incontinence

    Santacreu M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Marta Santacreu, Rocío Fernández-BallesterosBiological and Health Psychology, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Urinary incontinence is a medical, psychological, social, economic, and hygienic problem. Although it is difficult to state its prevalence, all authors agree that it is related to age and gender. This study aimed to carry out a urinary incontinence behavioral treatment in order to reduce urine leakages in 14 participants recruited from a senior center. The program consists of daily training of the pelvic floor muscles with a weekly control by a supervisor during a 2-month period and follow-up of results 2 months after the last control session. Urinary incontinence episodes were reduced by 75.67% after program completion. It appears that pelvic floor muscles training, carried out under controlled and constant supervision, significantly reduces urinary leakage. Moreover, maintaining this improvement after treatment depends on the continuation of the exercises as well as on the urinary leakage frequency baseline and the urinary leakage frequency during the last treatment session.Keywords: urinary incontinence, pelvic floor muscle training, quasi-experimental design

  1. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder.

    Vigil, Humberto R; Hickling, Duane R

    2016-02-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥10(3) CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5-14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:26904414

  2. Complementary and integrative therapies for lower urinary tract diseases.

    Raditic, Donna M

    2015-07-01

    Consumer use of integrative health care is growing, but evidence-based research on its efficacy is limited. Research of veterinary lower urinary tract diseases could be translated to human medicine because veterinary patients are valuable translational models for human urinary tract infection and urolithiasis. An overview of complementary therapies for lower urinary tract disease includes cranberry supplements, mannose, oral probiotics, acupuncture, methionine, herbs, or herbal preparations. Therapies evaluated in dogs and cats, in vitro canine cells, and other relevant species, in vivo and in vitro, are presented for their potential use as integrative therapies for veterinary patients and/or translational research. PMID:25838155

  3. The new world of the urinary microbiota in women.

    Brubaker, Linda; Wolfe, Alan J

    2015-11-01

    Emerging evidence challenges the long-held paradigm that the healthy bladder is sterile. These discoveries may provide new opportunities to address important women's health conditions, which include preterm labor and delivery, urinary tract infections, and common forms of urinary incontinence. Traditional tools for urinary bacterial assessment, which includes urinary dipsticks and standard urine cultures, have significant limitations that restrict the information that is available to clinicians. For example, the standard urine culture does not detect slow-growing bacteria that die in the presence of oxygen. Two new, complementary tools, however, can detect these and other organisms, which permits a more complete characterization of bacterial communities within the female bladder. Obstetrician-gynecologists should become familiar with these new approaches (expanded quantitative urine culture and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing) that can detect previously unrecognized organisms. These advances are making it possible to answer previously intractable scientific and clinical questions. Traditional nomenclature used to describe the bacterial status in the bladder is quite dated and unsuited for the emerging information about the bacterial milieu of the female urinary tract. In the context of the sterile bladder paradigm, clinicians have learned about "uropathogens," "asymptomatic bacteriuria," and "urinary tract infection." Given that the lower urinary tract is not sterile, these terms should be reevaluated. Clinicians can already benefit from the emerging knowledge regarding urinary organisms that have previously gone undetected or unappreciated. For example, in some subpopulations of women with urinary symptoms, existing data suggest that the urinary bacterial community may be associated with women's health conditions of interest. This Clinical Opinion highlights the inadequacies of the current tools for urinary bacterial assessment, describes the new assessment tools, explains the current interpretation of the resulting data, and proposes potential clinical uses and relevance. A new world is opening to our view that will give us the opportunity to better understand urinary bacteria and the bladder in which they live. This new knowledge has significant potential to improve patient care in obstetrics and gynecology. PMID:26003055

  4. Bacterial effect of hydrogen peroxide on urinary tract pathogens.

    Schaeffer, A J; JONES, J M; Amundsen, S K

    1980-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of urinary drainage bags is a frequent source of bladder bacteriuria in patients with indwelling catheters. Previous work demonstrated that the addition of 30 ml of 3% H2O2 prevented bacterial contamination of urinary drainage bags for up to 8 h in patients with urinary infections (greater than 10(5) colony-forming units per ml). Survival curves of a variety of organisms in filter-sterilized urine with various concentrations of H2O2 (0.6 to 0.01%) were constructed. Org...

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in lower urinary tract endometriosis: iconographic essay

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the endometrial cavity and myometrium. Although this is a frequent disease with multifactorial causes, involvement of the lower urinary tract is rare. Magnetic resonance imaging is highly sensitive, specific and accurate in the diagnosis of endometriosis in the lower urinary tract, especially for allowing the identification of lesions obscured by adhesions or with subperitoneal extension. The present iconographic essay presents the main magnetic resonance imaging findings of the lower urinary tract involvement by endometriosis. (author)

  6. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L; Poulsen, Henrik E; Voutilainen, Sari

    2010-01-01

    of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intake of water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and...... which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...

  7. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L; Poulsen, Henrik E; Voutilainen, Sari

    2010-01-01

    of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intakeof water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and...... which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...

  8. Research Concerning the Correlations Between Urinary Tract Infections and Congenital Malformations of the Renourinary System

    Morh Zsuzsanna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital malformations of the urinary system are risk factors for the development of urinary tract infections (UTI. Besides the severity of the malformation, urinary infection is always associated with poor prognosis for these patients. Late discovery of the malformation background, after several urinary tract infection episodes, contributes to the development of chronic pyelonephritis that may lead to chronic renal failure.

  9. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  10. Infection risk with nitrofurazone-impregnated urinary catheters in trauma patients

    Stensballe, Jakob; Tvede, Michael; Looms, Dagnia; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen; Dahl, Benny; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2007-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most common nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients. It is predominantly associated with indwelling urinary catheters.......Urinary tract infection is one of the most common nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients. It is predominantly associated with indwelling urinary catheters....

  11. Unusual Cancers of the Reproductive and Urinary Systems

    ... cause signs or symptoms. Unusual Cancers of the Reproductive and Urinary Systems Bladder Cancer Bladder cancer is a disease in ... are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are located in the pelvis , one on ...

  12. Low urinary albumin excretion in astronauts during space missions

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina; Norsk, Peter; Elmann-Larsen, Benny; Bellini, Luigi; Stellato, Davide; Drummer, Christian

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiological changes occur in man during space missions also at the renal level. Proteinuria was hypothesized for space missions but research data are missing. METHODS: Urinary albumin, as an index of proteinuria, and other variables were analyzed in 4 astronauts during space missions......-two 24-hour urine collections were obtained in space (n per astronaut = 1-14) and on the ground (n per astronaut = 2-12). Urinary albumin was measured by radioimmunoassay. For each astronaut, mean of data in space and on the ground was defined as individual average. RESULTS: The individual averages of 24...... h urinary albumin were lower in space than on the ground in all astronauts; the difference was significant (mean +/- SD, space and on the ground = 3.41 +/- 0.56 and 4.70 +/- 1.20 mg/24 h, p = 0.017). Dietary protein intake and 24-hour urinary urea were not significantly different between space and...

  13. Phaechromocytoma of the urinary bladder in the computer tomogram

    In 10% of the cases, phaeochromocytomas are extra-adrenal. This is a report on an 18 year old patient in whom the tumour was identified via sonography and computed tomography in the urinary bladder wall. (orig.)

  14. Detection of Intracellular Bacterial Communities in Human Urinary Tract Infection

    Rosen, David A; Hooton, Thomas M; Walter E. Stamm; Humphrey, Peter A; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2007-01-01

    Analyzing urine specimens from women with bladder infections, Scott Hultgren and colleagues find evidence for intracellular bacterial communities, which have been associated with recurrent urinary tract infections in mice.

  15. Early prediction of urinary tract infection in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia

    Azar NICKAVAR; Khosravi, Nastaran; Doaei, Mahdiye

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common manifestation of infectious disorders during the neonatal period. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the serious bacterial infections with hyperbilirubinemia among newborn infants.

  16. A multicenter evaluation of the Biotest legionella urinary antigen EIA

    Harrison, Timothy; Uldum, Søren; Alexiou-Daniel, Stella; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Bernander, Sverker; Dra&sbreve;ar, Vladimir; Etienne, Jerome; Helbig, Jürgen; Lindsay, Diane; Lochman, Ivo; Marques, Teresa; de Ory, Fernando; Tartakovskii, Igor; Wewalka, Günther; Fehrenbach, Franz

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To undertake a multicenter study to evaluate the Biotest legionella urinary antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA) performance against those EIAs already in use in 14 European laboratories. METHODS: Each laboratory examined urine specimens from appropriate patients using both their current...

  17. Sensitive radioimmunoassay method for urinary kinins in man

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay method for urinary kinins was developed, which uses antiserum against synthetic bradykinin in combination with labeled tyr8-bradykinin. The assay detects as little as 6 pg per tube of bradykinin. The dose-response curves of bradykinin, lysyl-bradykinin (kallidin), and methionyl-lysyl-bradykinin were almost identical. This suggests that the values estimated with bradykinin as the standard exhibit the total urinary kinins which contain these three peptides. The assay was performed without extraction of urinary samples, since a chromatographic study demonstrated that no interfering substances in urine samples remain in our assay system. The urinary levels of total kinins in 10 normal male subjects, three male patients with chronic renal failure, and 12 male patients with essential hypertension were 37.9 +- 3.9 ?g/day (mean +- S.E.M.), 9.0 +- 5.1 ?g/day, and 24.2 +- 5.2 ?g/day, respectively

  18. Effects of a multi-media course on urinary incontinence.

    Niewijk, A H; Weijts, W B

    1997-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a complicated problem, both in terms of diagnosis and treatment. There are, however, quite a few therapies for its treatment. Teleac, a Dutch broadcasting company for adult education, has offered people who suffer from urinary incontinence 'a training therapy' on a distance. This therapy consists of exercise of the lower pelvic muscles, bladder training, relaxation exercises, and advice on posture. On average, there were 140,000 viewers per broadcast. After the course, 51% of the students experienced an improvement of their urinary incontinence. Also, 83% were satisfied with the result of the course. The results suggest that a mass media approach offers major opportunities for secondary prevention of urinary incontinence. PMID:9110836

  19. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary tract: a case report

    Kozyrakis, Diomidis; Papadaniil, Panteleimon; Stefanakis, Stefanos; Pantazis, Efstathios; Grigorakis, Alkiviadis; Petraki, Konstantina; Malovrouvas, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the urinary tract is rarely encountered and very few cases have been reported in the literature. Herein we describe a case of small cell malignancy located contemporarily in the ureter and the bladder.

  20. Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type: a rare case

    Mahmoud Abbas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare disease. It occurs in 0.5-2% of all bladder cancers and is discussed as the malignant counterpart of nephrogenic adenomas. We report a 46-year-old white female presented with gross hematuria for clinical examination. Histopathology revealed pT2, Pn1, L1, G2 adenocarcinoma of the bladder and carcinoma in situ according to the TNM classification. Computed tomography scan diagnostic was unremarkable. Patients with adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder should be treated vigorously and without time delay. Only 7 cases of adenocarcinoma in the urinary bladder (mesonephroid have been described until now. We present a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type that early diagnosed and till now 3 months after the cystectomy without symptoms and without complications.

  1. Urinary tract infections in patients with spinal injuries.

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection remains an important problem for patients with spinal cord injury. Interventions used to promote bladder emptying and maintain low-pressure voiding have variable risks for urinary tract infection. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in this population and should not be treated. However, identification of symptomatic infection is compromised by difficulties in ascertainment of symptoms. Use of hydrophilic coated catheters for intermittent catheterization does not influence the frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection. Botulinum toxin injection in the detrusor muscle or the urethral sphincter improves bladder emptying and does not influence the frequency of urinary infection. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is a common finding in pregnant women with spinal cord injury, but optimal management is not clear. Other research needs include further development and evaluation of interventions to decrease the frequency of infection, improve diagnostic precision, and limit the emergence of resistant organisms. PMID:24445675

  2. Urinary Tract Infections in Adolescents and Adults (Beyond the Basics)

    ... home and continue taking oral antibiotics there. Most pregnant women with a kidney infection are hospitalized and treated with intravenous (IV) antibiotics and fluids. (See "Urinary tract infections and asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy" .) RECURRENT BLADDER INFECTIONS Bladder infections versus ...

  3. Antibiotic Resistance Common in Kids' Urinary Tract Infections

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157809.html Antibiotic Resistance Common in Kids' Urinary Tract Infections Researchers ... coli bacteria are now failing to respond to antibiotic treatment, a new review warns. The culprit, according ...

  4. The procedures that confirm and localize a urinary tract infection

    Laboratory procedures are described that should be used after taking the history and noting the clinical findings. They included haematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, survey and contrast radiography, additional diagnostic techniques and localizing the urinary tract infection

  5. Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

    UTI - self-care; Cystitis - self-care; Bladder infection - self-care ... Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. This can lead ...

  6. Lower urinary tract symptoms after total and subtotal hysterectomy

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Birthe Jakobsen; Sørensen, Helle Christina; Toftager-Larsen, Kim; Sidenius, Katrine; Møller, Nini; Madsen, Ellen Merete; Vejtorp, Mogens; Clausen, Helle; Rosgaard, Annie; Villumsen, John; Gluud, Christian; Ottesen, Bent S; Tabor, Ann

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this Danish multicenter trial was to compare the proportion of women with lower urinary tract symptoms after total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy (SAH) for benign uterine disorders. A total of 319 women were randomized to TAH (n = 158) or SAH (n = 161......). Women were followed up for 1 year by strict data collection procedures, including postal questionnaires. Results were analyzed by intention-to-treat analyses. Urinary incontinence was found less often among TAH women than among SAH women. This was due to a larger reduction of the number of women with...... stress and urinary incontinence in the TAH group. No other differences were found between the two operation methods. The number of women with urinary incontinence and frequency was reduced from study entry for follow-up, while double/triple voiding was increased. Incontinent women had significantly lower...

  7. Urinary kallikrein excretion in children of parents with essential hypertension.

    Uchiyama, M.; Otsuka, T.; Sakai, K.

    1985-01-01

    Twelve hour urinary kallikrein excretion was measured in 18 healthy children of parents with essential hypertension and in 47 healthy children of parents without this disorder. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups of children.

  8. Urinary stone disease in Kano, North Western Nigeria

    S A Aji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary stone disease is the third most common affliction of the urinary tract after urinary tract infection and pathologic conditions of the prostate. Although the disease is commoner in the developed countries, the incidence is also increasing in the developing countries. In this study, we sought to determine the pattern and treatment given for patients with urinary stones in our institution. Patients and Method: A 5 year retrospective study of patients treated for urolithiasis was conducted in a Teaching Hospital in North-western Nigeria. The age, sex, clinical presentations, investigations and treatment offered to the patients were reviewed. Results: A total of seventy six patients were treated for urinary stones during the study period. 58(76.3% were males and 18(23.7% females. Majority of patients 39(51.3% presented with loin pain as the main presenting symptom. The diagnosis of stones was by plain abdominal Xray(KUB in 68 patients and abdominal ultrasound scan in 46 cases. Urine culture was positive in 27 patients with E. coli as the predominant organism. All had normal serum calcium, phosphate and uric acid. 56(73.7% patients had stones in the upper urinary tract and 20 (26.3% in the lower urinary tract. Thirty four (44.7% patients were found to have predisposing factors. Most of the patients 50(65.7% were treated by open surgery and 26(34.2% by endoscopic removal/lithotripsy. Conclusion: Urinary stone disease is common in this environment. Majority of the stones are radio-opaque on plain xrays. Significant number of patients had a predisposing factor and majority of the stones were found in the upper tract. Most of the patients were treated by open surgery while a significant number were treated with endoscopic removal/lithotripsy.

  9. Bulbourethral Sling in Men with Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Mohsen Ayati; Peyman Hekmati; Abolghasem Nikfallah; Mohsen Varyanee; Mohammad Reza Nowroozi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated  the efficacy and safety of  the bulbourethral sling in male urinary incontinence. Materials and methods: This case series was conducted in  Imam Khomeini hospital-Tehran , between April 2001 to December 2006. Bulbourethral sling was implanted in 7  patients with stress urinary incontinence after prostate surgery. The patients were monitored and evaluated in a prospective manner. The average follow up period was 24 months. Treatment was cons...

  10. Herpes zoster-associated acute urinary retention in immunocompetent patient*

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Hortense, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster-associated urinary retention is an uncommon event related to virus infection of the S2-S4 dermatome. The possible major reasons are ipsilateral hemicystitis, neuritis-induced or myelitis-associated virus infection. We report a case of a 65-year-old immunocompetent female patient who presented an acute urinary retention after four days under treatment with valacyclovir for gluteal herpes zoster. The patient had to use a vesical catheter, was treated with antibiotics and corticost...

  11. Rat Indwelling Urinary Catheter Model of Candida albicans Biofilm Infection

    Nett, Jeniel E.; Brooks, Erin G.; Cabezas-Olcoz, Jonathan; Sanchez, Hiram; Zarnowski, Robert; Marchillo, Karen; Andes, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Indwelling urinary catheters are commonly used in the management of hospitalized patients. Candida can adhere to the device surface and propagate as a biofilm. These Candida biofilm communities differ from free-floating Candida, exhibiting high tolerance to antifungal therapy. The significance of catheter-associated candiduria is often unclear, and treatment may be problematic considering the biofilm drug-resistant phenotype. Here we describe a rodent model for the study of urinary catheter-a...

  12. Sensory disorders of the lower urinary tract: urodynamic evaluation.

    Cecchi, M; Mancini, P; Pistolesi, D; Giannoti, P

    1992-01-01

    Sensory disorders of the lower urinary tract (urethral syndrome, prostatodynia, painful pelvic-perineal syndromes, trigonitis) are clinically frequent, however this diagnosis is possible only by excluding other pathologies after clinical and instrumental evaluation. The Authors report their experience in urodynamic evaluation of sensory disorders of the lower urinary tract and they discuss about the absence of a typical urodynamic pattern of sensorial pathology. PMID:1414722

  13. Recent Sensitivity Pattern of Escherichia Coli in Urinary Tract Infection

    Nalini, R.; J Ezhil Ramya; B. Meenakshi; N Palniappan; S Poongodi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess the recent sensitivity pattern of Escherichia coli in Urinary tract infection (UTI).Widespread use of antibiotics has led to the emergence of resistant microorganisms. As the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the microorganisms are frequently changing, this retrospective analysis was designed to assess the recent antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Escherichia coli (E.coli) in urinary tract infection among the human population. Details of 412 urine cultu...

  14. Prevalence and bacterial susceptibility of hospital acquired urinary tract infection

    Dias Neto Jos Anastcio; Silva Leonardo Dias Magalhes da; Martins Antonio Carlos Pereira; Tiraboschi Ricardo Brianezi; Domingos Andr Luis Alonso; Suaid Haylton Jorge; Tucci Jr Silvio; Cologna Adauto Jos

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Urinary tract infection is the most common nosocomially acquired infection. It is important to know the etiology and antibiotic susceptibility infectious agents to guide the initial empirical treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacterial strains and their antibiotic susceptibility in nosocomially acquired urinary tract infection in a university hospital between January and June 2003. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 188 patients with positive urine culture (= 10(5) c...

  15. Prospective study of urinary tract infection surveillance after kidney transplantation

    Rivera-Sanchez Roberto; Delgado-Ochoa Dolores; Flores-Paz Rocio R; Garca-Jimnez Elvia E; Espinosa-Hernndez Ramon; Bazan-Borges Andres A; Arriaga-Alba Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) remains one of the main complications after kidney transplantation and it has serious consequences. Methods Fifty-two patients with kidney transplantation were evaluated for UTI at 3-145 days (mean 40.0 days) after surgery.. Forty-two received a graft from a live donor and 10 from a deceased donor. There were 22 female and 30 male patients, aged 11-47 years. Microscopic examinations, leukocyte esterase stick, and urinary culture were performed...

  16. Urinary tract infections: etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens

    Mario Laneve; Carmela Mazzone

    2009-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections are a serious health problem affecting millions of people each year.They are the second most common type of infection in the body.The objective of study was to determine the etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infections pathogens isolated in our Patology Clinic laboratory. Materials and Methods: During the period July 2007- July 2008,were analysed 1422 urine samples.The determination of the total microbe load were acquire w...

  17. Alterations of urinary metabolite profile in model diabetic nephropathy

    Highlights: • 1H NMR spectroscopy was employed to study urinary metabolite profile in diabetic mouse models. • Mouse urinary metabolome showed major changes that are also found in human diabetic nephropathy. • These models can be new tools to study urinary biomarkers that are relevant to human disease. - Abstract: Countering the diabetes pandemic and consequent complications, such as nephropathy, will require better understanding of disease mechanisms and development of new diagnostic methods. Animal models can be versatile tools in studies of diabetic renal disease when model pathology is relevant to human diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetic models using endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice develop major renal lesions characteristic of human disease. However, it is unknown whether they can also reproduce changes in urinary metabolites found in human DN. We employed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic mouse models of DN, i.e. STZ-eNOS−/− C57BLKS and eNOS−/− C57BLKS db/db, with the goal of determining changes in urinary metabolite profile using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Six urinary metabolites with significantly lower levels in diabetic compared to control mice have been identified. Specifically, major changes were found in metabolites from tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid catabolism including 3-indoxyl sulfate, cis-aconitate, 2-oxoisocaproate, N-phenyl-acetylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, and hippurate. Levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and hippuric acid showed the strongest reverse correlation to albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), which is an indicator of renal damage. Importantly, similar changes in urinary hydroxyphenyl acetate and hippurate were previously reported in human renal disease. We demonstrated that STZ-eNOS−/− C57BLKS and eNOS−/− C57BLKS db/db mouse models can recapitulate changes in urinary metabolome found in human DN and therefore can be useful new tools in metabolomic studies relevant to human pathology

  18. The Role of Intraprostatic Inflammation in the Acute Urinary Retention

    Asgari, Seyed Alaeddin; Mohammadi, Mohaddeseh

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Almost 20% of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) might also have symptoms of prostatitis. But, the interrelationship between BPH and prostatic inflammation, and how one can influence the other, is under controversy. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of prostatic inflammation in BPH patients presented with acute urinary retention (AUR). Methods: This crosssectional study was conducted in a hospital at Guilan...

  19. Etiology of urinary tract infection in scholar children

    Ubirajara Barroso Jr; Danilo V. Barroso; Modesto Jacobino; Antonio J. Vinhaes; Antonio Macedo Jr; Miguel Srougi

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the prevalence of vesicourethral dysfunction in children over 3 years old, comparing it with the occurrence rate for other potential factors that cause urinary infection in this age range. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 36 girls and 9 boys were assessed, with mean age of 6.4 years, ranging from 3 to 13.9 years. These children were prospectively assessed regarding the presence of symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction. These data were compared with the retrospec...

  20. Susceptibility of Urinary Tract Bacteria to Newer Antimicrobial Drugs

    Manjula Mehta; Jyoti Sharma; Sonia Bhardwaj

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the commonest types of bacterial infections. The antibiotic treatment for UTIs is associated with important medical and economic implications. Many different microorganisms can cause UTIs though the most common pathogens are E. coli and members of family Enterobacteriaceae. The knowledge of etiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of the organisms causing urinary tract infection is essential. The present study was undertaken to evaluate trends of an...