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Sample records for urinary calculi

  1. Analyses of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary calculi have been analysed at Birmingham University using three separate techniques: autoradiographic analysis using charged particle activation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with accompanying X-ray microanalysis, and proton induced characteristic X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This latter technique has been developed as a method for quantitative analysis of biological material for trace and minor elements. Closer examinations on the SEM have revealed several interesting and unexpected trace elements particularly in the nuclear region of the stones formed in the bladder or the kidney. The results of the PIXE analyses are important since trace elements (i.e. Ti, Fe, S, Sr, Cu, Cl, K, Zn) have been determined which have been undetectable by previous methods of stone analysis. The analyses have lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of stone formation. The techniques have also been used successfully with investigations on biliary calculi (gall stones). (author)

  2. [Urinary calculi and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete clearance of the stone must be achieved by primary surgical procedure and residual fragments should be extensively treated. In the case of persistent infection, conservative measures, such as acidification and urease inhibitors or citrate administration, should be adopted to minimize its effect on urinary saturation with respect to struvite. PMID:24874306

  3. Computed tomographic analysis of urinary calculi

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    Newhouse, J.H.; Prien, E.L.; Amis, E.S. Jr.; Dretler, S.P.; Pfister, R.C.

    1984-03-01

    Excised urinary calculi were subjected to computed tomographic (CT) scanning in an attempt to determine whether CT attenuation values would allow accurate analysis of stone composition. The mean, maximum, and modal pixel densities of the calculi were recorded and compared; the resulting values reflected considerable heterogeneity in stone density. Although uric acid and cystine calculi could be identified by their discrete ranges on one or more of these criteria, calcium-containing stones of various compositions, including struvite, could not be distinguished reliably. CT analysis of stone density is not likely to be more accurate than standard radiography in characterizing stone composition in vivo.

  4. Computed tomographic analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excised urinary calculi were subjected to computed tomographic (CT) scanning in an attempt to determine whether CT attenuation values would allow accurate analysis of stone composition. The mean, maximum, and modal pixel densities of the calculi were recorded and compared; the resulting values reflected considerable heterogeneity in stone density. Although uric acid and cystine calculi could be identified by their discrete ranges on one or more of these criteria, calcium-containing stones of various compositions, including struvite, could not be distinguished reliably. CT analysis of stone density is not likely to be more accurate than standard radiography in characterizing stone composition in vivo

  5. Computed tomographic analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) was employed in an effort to analyze the chemical composition of urinary calculi. Twenty-three surgically removed calculi were scanned in a water bath (in vitro study). Forteen of them in the body were scanned (in vivo study). The calculi consisted of four types: mixed calcium oxalate and phosphate, mixed calcium carbonate and phosphate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, and uric acid. The in vitro study showed that the mean and maximum CT values of uric acid stones were significantly lower than those of the other three types of stones. This indicated that stones with less than 450 HU are composed of uric acid. In an in vivo study, CT did not help to differentiate the three types of urinary calculi, except for uric acid stones. Regarding the mean CT values, there was no correlation between in vitro and in vivo studies. An experiment with commercially available drugs showed that CT values of urinary calculi were not dependent upon the composition, but dependent upon the density of the calculi. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. The modulus of toughness of urinary calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen; Yip, Ming-Chuen; Hsu, Yen-Shen; Lai, Kun-Guo; Wang, Shyh-Yau

    2002-02-01

    To improve the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment, it is desirable to identify the physical properties of urinary calculi could offer direct correlation with their fragilities during ESWL and thus could be used to guide treatment procedures for more effective stone fragmentation. Thirty stone specimens removed surgically were compressed by an axial testing system to measure the compressive strength and trace the stress-strain curve. Image analysis software SigmaScan (Jandel Co.) was used to calculate the area under the stress-strain curve, the modulus of toughness, for each stone. The values of compressive strength measured were similar to those reported by other researchers. The modulus of toughness of urinary calculi correlates with clinical representation of the stone fragility during ESWL. The modulus of toughness could be an index to evaluate the physical property of urinary calculi that could be used to guide treatment procedures for more effective stone fragmentation. PMID:11871599

  7. [Analytical evaluation of urinary calculi mineral composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machoy, P

    1995-01-01

    Urolithiasis is the most frequent disease of urinary system. It affects about 3% of people of the productive age. One half of the hospitalized in Departments of Urology is made up of patients with urinary calculi. In some regions of the globe, urolithiasis is a very common pathological disorder. Upper Silesia being such a region in Poland. The objective of the paper is: 1) systematization of calculi according to their mineral composition with regard to eventual prophylaxis of urolithiasis, 2) comparison of mineral components of calculi in the aspect of pollutions for Upper Silesia and West Pomerania territories, and the effect of external factors on the constitution of the formed calculi, 3) making use of X-ray microanalysis in complex determinations of mineral compositions of stones, particularly the trace elements. For that purpose a total of 185 urinary calculi stemming from individuals of both sexes, aged 24 to 82 years were used. The content of calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron was determined by atom absorption method, that of aluminium, chloride, sulphur and copper by X-ray microanalysis method, fluoride by gas chromatographic method, phosphates and urates by colorimetric method. The content of cystine was defined by thermic decomposition and characteristic smell. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. With reference to the first task, the following chemical classification of stones has been suggested, namely; class I: ammonium stones being magnesium-ammonium phosphate, class II: stones with elevated calcium content, calcium oxalate, class III: stones with elevated magnesium content, class IV: calculi rich in calcium and magnesium, class V: calculi deficient in calcium and magnesium, class VI: organic uric stones, class VII: organic cystine stones. The second task consisted in comparing the mineral composition of stones from subjects inhabiting two remote from each other regions-industrialized Silesia and Pomerania (Tab. 10). The statistical analysis has revealed differences being statistically significant only with regard to calcium and magnesium in Silesia and Pomerania groups. Undoubtedly that is of importance when one takes into consideration that calcium and magnesium display high affinity to fluoride, the presence of which was detected in all the stones and which may influence the physicochemical properties of the urinary calculi, first of all their hardness and solubility. The third task consisted in evaluating the possibility of applying the X-ray microanalysis for searching the stone for further elements principally microelements. The performed study comprised 10 stones: Silesia region and Pomerania region, whose composition was compared pairwise. The pairs were selected in such a manner that they should have some features in common found out by previously described atom absorption methods. The established results concerning calcium, magnesium and phosphorus showed in general compatibility of results obtained by the two methods. However, by X-ray microanalysis method it was possible to detect further elements: sulphur, aluminium, chloride and copper. The following conclusions have been drawn, namely: 1) analytic examinations of mineral composition of urinary calculi are the base of their chemical composition with regard to eventual prophylaxis of urolithiasis, 2) a varied composition of urinary calculi from two different regions of Poland may be the reflection of actual state of natural environment pollution in those regions, 3) presence of fluoride in all the urinary calculi allows us to suppose that it is permanent element of urinary calculi. PMID:8615550

  8. CT findings of melamine caused urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the CT findings of melamine induced urinary calculi. Methods: Nineteen children with a history of ingestion of melamine contaminated infant formula milk were studied, including 12 males and 7 females, age ranged from 50 days to 5 years. Results: CT demonstrated renal pelvic and ureteral stones in 13 cases, with urinary obstruction in 9 of them. The size of the stones ranged from 0.3 cm x 0.3 cm to stag-horn calculus. Tine density of the stones measured from a low of 40-70 HU up to a high of 410 HU with an average density of 160 HU. Conclusion: CT scan is an excellent modality in demonstrating urinary tract calculi caused by melamine. It is the method of choice when ultrasound examinations are equivocal. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of Urinary Calculi by Infrared Spectroscopy

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    Abdolrasool Mehrsai

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Purpose: To analyze urinary calculi composition and its relationship with gender, age, calculus weight, color, and location.

    Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty one patients with urinary calculus, who had undergone open lithotomy from June 1999 to April 2001, were enrolled in this prospective study which was performed by Tehran and Oroomieh Medical Sciences Universities. The calculi compositions were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy in Bonn University. Statistical analyses were made by paired t test

    Results: One hundred and forty five males with a mean age of 40.4 years and 96 females with a mean age of 42.5 years were enrolled in this study. Mean calculus weight was 4.28 gr. Mean calculus number was 4.33. Thirty four (14.1% calculi were pure (carbonate apatite: 2, brushite: 1, uric acid: 19, cystine: 3, weddellite: 6, mono-NH4-urate: 2, struvite: 1, 207(85.6% were mixed and none of them contained octa-ca-phosphate, apatite, newberyte, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, mono-Na-urate, or xanthine. Weddellite was found in 77% of calculi. It comprised more than 50% of them in 26% of cases. Whewellite crystals were found in 78% of calculi. It comprised more than 50% of them in 46% of cases. The most common pure calculus was uric acid and the most common component of calculi was whewellite followed by weddellite.

    Conclusion: Although there is no comprehensive study on urolithiasis incidence and prevalence in Iran, it can be concluded that whewellite and weddellite may be the most common components of urolithiasis in Iran and uric acid calculi are the most common pure calculi. There was no significant difference in calculi composition in our study.

  10. Computer tomography and urinary calculi, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find whether computer tomography (CT) can determine the composition of urinary calculi, we measured the CT values of 47 calculi in vitro and 26 calculi in situ. The results are as follows; 1) CT values (Hounsfield Unit) of various stones which were measured in vitro (mean ± s.d.) were as follows; mixed calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate (the mixed stone) 1555 ± 193 H, magnecium ammonium phosphate (MAP) 1285 ± 248 H, cystine 757 ± 114 H, uric acid 480 H. 2) In situ the peak CT values of various calculi were almost the same as those in vitro, but the mean CT values were slightly less. 3) From these results we concluded that cystine and uric acid stones can be identified by the CT value. With regard to the mixed stone and MAP, it is almost impossible to identify these stones especially when they reveal the CT values of 1100 - 1500 H. However, stones with the peak CT values of more than 1500 H were rarely MAP and often the mixed stone, and those with the mean CT values of 1000 - 1100 H were rarely the mixed stone and often MAP. (author)

  11. Raman spectroscopic investigation of urinary calculi and salivary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The capabilities and limitations of determining the composition of urinary calculi (34 patients) and salivary stones (27 patients) by Raman spectroscopy have been investigated by analysing Raman spectra obtained with 1064 nm laser excitation, and comparing them with Raman spectra both from specific reference substances and from a commercial Raman database. The composition results were also compared with those obtained by other analytical methods e.g. powder diffraction. Raman spectroscopy proves to be an analytical method which provides reliable results on the composition of urinary calculi and salivary stones quickly, non-destructively and without any need of sample preparation. (author)

  12. Dietary dissolution of urinary calculi in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A young adult, castrated male DSH cat was admitted for pollakiuria, hematuria and dysuria. The cat was being fed a commercial dry grocery brand cat food. Radiographs demonstrated multiple radiodense cystic calculi and urinalysis showed hematuria but no crystalluria. A tentative diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis was made. The cat was fed s/d® Feline food exclusively. Clinical signs disappeared within a week and no calculi were visible radiographically within three weeks. s/d® Feline food was continued an additional two weeks. This case study shows that s/d® Feline therapeutic food can be used to successfully manage struvite urolithiasis in cats

  13. Factors affecting urinary calculi treatment by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    OpenAIRE

    Tarawneh Emad; Awad Zeyad; Hani Audy; Haroun Azmi; Hadidy Azmi; Mahafza Waleed; Samarah Osama

    2010-01-01

    Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is still the treatment of choice for most renal and upper ureteric stones; however the outcome depends on multiple factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stone density, as measured by Hounsfield Units (H.U) by non-contrast Computerized Tomography (CT), stone size and stone location on ESWL treatment outcome of urinary calculi in Jordanian patients. 65 patients underwent clinical, biochemical and radiological assessme...

  14. The location of urinary calculi using radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of in vivo labelling urinary calculi with sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate is described. This enables a radionuclide image of the stones to be produced and permits their location at operation by means of a small scintillation detector. The degree of uptake of the radiopharmaceutical on renal stones appears to depend on a number of factors, particularly the chemical composition of the stones. (author)

  15. In vitro characterization of urinary calculi: Dual-energy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a dual-energy program implemented on a Siemens Somatom DR3 CT unit, the authors attempted to discriminate between urinary calculi of different chemical compositions by means of selective image reconstruction based on their high kVp(125 keV), low kVp (85 keV), 65 keV, and electron density values. Simultaneous dual-energy images were obtained using a technique of rapid kVp switching (85 and 125 keV) and advanced evaluation algorithms. Representative stones of pure and mixed composition were scanned in a water bath. Computer printouts of electron density and CT attenuation values at each kVp setting were obtained. Preliminary observations indicate readily feasible discrimination between uric acid and all other calculi and between struvite stones and brushite or calcium oxalate stones

  16. Usefulness of reversed display of soft-copy abdominal radiographs for urinary calculi detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PURPOSE: To determine the usefulness of reversed display of soft-copy abdominal radiographs for urinary calculi detection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty radiographs with a single urinary calculus less than 5 mm in the long diameter (15 in the kidney; 15 in the proximal ureter; 15 in the mid-ureter, 15 in the distal ureter) and 15 radiographs without calculi were evaluated. Four readers blinded to the presence or absence of urinary calculi on each radiograph reviewed the radiographs in the conventional display, reversed display, and combination of conventional and reversed displays at 1-week intervals. All images were evaluated in random order and the presence or absence of urinary calculi was interpreted using the confidence score from 1 to 5. RESULTS: Multireader analysis for calculi in all locations showed a greater area under the receiver operating curve for combination of the two displays (0.764) than for the conventional display alone (0.655) (P=0.031). In the single-reader analysis for calculi in all locations, the third reader showed a greater area under the receiver operating curve for the reversed display (0.784) than for the conventional display (0.622) (P=0.027). Multireader analysis of the calculi in the kidney showed a greater area under the receiver operating curve for combination of the two displays (0.824) than for the conventional display alone (0.703) (P=0.043). CONCLUSION: The reversed display of soft-copy abdominal radiographs may be useful for urinaominal radiographs may be useful for urinary calculi detection

  17. Factors affecting urinary calculi treatment by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarawneh Emad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL is still the treatment of choice for most renal and upper ureteric stones; however the outcome depends on multiple factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stone density, as measured by Hounsfield Units (H.U by non-contrast Computerized Tomography (CT, stone size and stone location on ESWL treatment outcome of urinary calculi in Jordanian patients. 65 patients underwent clinical, biochemical and radiological assessments followed by ESWL treatment. Statistical analyses including chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA, correlation, regression were performed for statistical significance between ESWL treatment, stone fragmentation and stone density, size and location in the renal pelvis. ESWL success rate was high (94% for low density stones (< 500 Hounsfield units. In general CT densities of 750 Hounsfield units or less were almost always successfully treated by ESWL. An inverse association between ESWL treatment outcome and stone size was also documented. CT stone density and stone size combined account for nearly 73% of the variation in the number of shock waves required to attain fragmentation. Stones located in lower calyceal area had less success rates. In conclusion, stones with higher density, large size and lower location may better be managed by percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

  18. Current status of minimally invasive management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi

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    Kolla Surendra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The surgical management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi has evolved from open surgery to minimally invasive techniques. With advancement in instrumentation, endourological procedures are being performed more commonly in children. However, the endourological management of renal and ureteral stones in the pediatric population is considered challenging, owing to the smaller size of the urinary tract. Various minimally invasive techniques that are being applied in the management of pediatric urolithiasis, include shock wave lithitripsy (SWL, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL, ureterorenoscopy and a combination of these procedures. The role of SWL is well established and is considered the first line of treatment in the management of urinary calculi in pediatric patients. Recent reports have confirmed the safety of PCNL and ureteroscopy in children, although they are not as widely practiced in children as in adults. This article reviews literature published till October 2005, pertaining to the minimally invasive management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi.

  19. Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm2 and 0.1 cm2 over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

  20. Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciudin, Alexandru; Luque Galvez, Maria Pilar; Franco de Castro, Agustin; Garcia-Cruz, Eduardo; Alcover Garcia, Juan; Alvarez-Vijande Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Alcaraz Asensio, Antonio [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Urology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Salvador Izquierdo, Rafael; Nicolau, Carlos [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm{sup 2} and 0.1 cm{sup 2} over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

  1. Optimization of supervised self-organizing maps with genetic algorithms for classification of urinary calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovski, Igor; Trpkovska, Mira; Šoptrajanov, Bojan

    2005-06-01

    Supervised self-organizing maps were used for classification of 160 infrared spectra of urinary calculi composed of calcium oxalates (whewellite and weddellite), pure or in binary or ternary mixtures with carbonate apatite, struvite or uric acid. The study was focused to such calculi since more than 80% of the samples analyzed contained some or all of the above-mentioned constituents. The classification was done on the basis of the infrared spectra in the 1450-450 cm -1 region. Two procedures were used in order to find the most suitable size and for optimizing the self-organizing map of which that using the genetic algorithms gave better results. Using this procedure several sets of solutions with zero misclassifications were obtained. Thus, the self-organizing maps may be considered as a promising tool for qualitative analysis of urinary calculi.

  2. Current status of minimally invasive management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Kolla Surendra; Wadhwa Pankaj; Aron Monish

    2006-01-01

    The surgical management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi has evolved from open surgery to minimally invasive techniques. With advancement in instrumentation, endourological procedures are being performed more commonly in children. However, the endourological management of renal and ureteral stones in the pediatric population is considered challenging, owing to the smaller size of the urinary tract. Various minimally invasive techniques that are being applied in the management of pedia...

  3. The comparison of PIXE and other methods in the analysis of biliary and urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton induced X-ray analysis (PIXE) and scanning electron microscopy together with X-ray microanalysis have been used to examine biliary and urinary calculi. Particular attention has been given to the centre or nuclear region of the stones and several interesting and unexpected trace elements have been found in these regions. Detailed analyses have indicated distinct mechanisms of formation and growth. (orig.)

  4. Renal stone analysis: LITHOS, an expert system for evaluation of X-ray diffractograms of urinary calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulkan, R W; Zwang, L; Liem, T L; Blijenberg, B G; Leijnse, B

    1987-10-01

    An expert system for evaluation of X-ray diffraction patterns of urinary calculi is described and evaluated. The software was developed using the PERSONAL CONSULTANT expert system shell from Texas Instruments. PMID:3694129

  5. Dual-energy CT for the evaluation of urinary calculi: Image interpretation, pitfalls and stone mimics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with a reported prevalence between 4% and 20% in developed countries. Determination of urinary calculi composition is a key factor in preoperative evaluation, treatment, and stone recurrence prevention. Prior to the introduction of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), available methods for determining urinary stone composition were only available after stone extraction, and thereby unable to aid in optimized stone management prior to intervention. DECT utilizes the attenuation difference produced by two different x-ray energy spectra to quantify urinary calculi composition as uric acid or non-uric acid (with likely further classification in the future) while still providing the information attained with a conventional CT. Knowledge of DECT imaging pitfalls and stone mimics is important, as the added benefit of dual-energy analysis is the determination of stone composition, which in turn affects all aspects of stone management. This review briefly describes DECT principles, scanner types and acquisition protocols for the evaluation of urinary calculi as they relate to imaging pitfalls (inconsistent characterization of small stones, small dual-energy field of view, and mischaracterization from surrounding material) and stone mimics (drainage devices) that may adversely impact clinical decisions. We utilize our clinical experience from scanning over 1200 patients with this new imaging technique to present clinically relevant examples of imaging pitfalls and possible mechanisms for resolution

  6. Common site of urinary calculi in kidney, ureter and bladder region.

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    Chand, R B; Shah, A K; Pant, D K; Paudel, S

    2013-03-01

    Urolithiasis is an ancient disease with global distribution. It refers to stones originating anywhere in the urinary system. Urinary calculi or stones are the most common cause of acute urinary system obstruction. The study was aimed with finding out the common site of urinary calculus in kidney ureter bladder (KUB) region. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted from June 2012 to September 2012 at Tribhuvan University, Teaching Hospital, Maharajgunj. A total 240 urolitiasis patients were enrolled for plain KUB examination. Site of urinary calculus was identified by observing KUB film of the subjects under the supervision of radiologist. The data were analyzed prospectively with outcome measures of gender & stone location. Out of 240 patients, 138 were male and 102 were female with male to female ratio of 1.35:1. The age ranged from 9 to 83 years. Out of total 240 patients, 71.9% (187) patients belonged to productive age group (20-60 years). Total number of urinary calculi was 345 in which 208 were found in male patients and 137 were found in female patients. Of total 345 calculi, 237 were renal stones, 47 were ureteric stones, 22 of the stones were found in pelviureteric junction (PUJ), 33 of stones were found in vesicoureteric junction (VUJ), and 6 were in bladder. In conclusion, urinary stone disease is a major public health problem in a developing country like Nepal with male and productive age group predominance. Kidney stones are most common. Distal ureter is the most common site of ureteric stone. PMID:24592784

  7. [Microscopic investigation of the partial stages of dissolution processes in urinary calculi (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, H H; Hahne, B; Rostek, F P; Sluka, G; Eismann, D

    1975-11-14

    The formation of urinary calculi cannot yet be prevented with certainty. Consequently the dissolution of stones remains a focus of medical interest. The speed of solution of a calculus is not a quantity typical of the substance, but depends largely on the structural formation of the urinary calculi. With very different types of structure (e.g. Whewellite and Weddellite stones) the rate of dissolution can therefore fluctuate between wide limits in spite of similar phase composition. Consequently, type of structure, course of solution and rate of solution can be clearly correlated. Stones with relatively uniform structure formation (e.g. Struvite stones) on the other hand show largely similar solution rates. Medically, it is of interest that in certain structural types, solution may lead to disintegration of the stone into isolated solution residues. PMID:811980

  8. [Extracorporeal shockwave destruction of urinary calculi after ultrasonic localization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, X; Mestas, J L; Cathignol, D; Margonari, J; Gelet, A; Dubernard, J M

    1985-01-01

    Shock waves generated by an underwater spark gap discharge, focused by an ellipsoid can destroy most urinary stones extracorporeally. A device were stones are localized by ultrasound and where the ellipsoid itself could move to be positioned in the adequate position would obviate the need for a very expensive two fluoroscopes localisation system, and patient positioning device. A regular ultrasound probe was fixed on a multijointed metallic arm. From the measurements of the angles of every point it was possible to calculate the exact coordinates X, Y, Z, of the probe. This system, thought not extremely flexible allows to perform ultrasound examination of a kidney in the bathtub and localisation of stones in vivo in good conditions. When the stone was seen on the screen, the angles given to the joints were automatically recorded and the coordinates of the stone were instantly calculated with a personal computer. The computer program was able to calculate the displacement of the ellipsoid necessary to adjust its focal point on the X, Y, Z coordinates. The ellipsoid moved through a simple 3 motors system. Destruction of the stone was performed by shock waves. Progression of the disintegration was followed by plain X-rays performed in the bath tube with a portable X-ray apparatus. This device was tested in 7 dogs with stones surgically implanted in the renal pelvis. In every case, the stone was localised and disintegrated in fragments of the order of one millimeter using 700 to 2 000.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3908572

  9. Targeted dual-energy single-source CT for characterisation of urinary calculi: experimental and clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the accuracy of targeted dual-energy single-source multi-detector CT (MDCT) for characterisation of urinary calculi. For proof of principle, 71 ex-vivo calculi underwent single-source 256-slice MDCT. Low-dose CT was performed in 154 patients with suspected urinary calculi. In 104 patients with urinary calculi targeted dual-energy imaging within one breath-hold was added. 46 patients with sufficient material for infrared-spectroscopy were analysed. Potential anatomical misregistrations between 80- and 140-kVp-images and HU-values were measured. DEIs (dual-energy-indices) were compared with the standard of reference. Effective doses were calculated. In 26 of 46 patients no misregistration was present. Mean deviations were 2.7 mm in the z-axis (16 patients) and 4.3 mm in the axial plane (10 patients). The DEIs were 0.018 ± 0.016 for uric acid (UA), 0.035 ± 0.015 for mixed UA and 0.102 ± 0.015 for calcified stones in-vitro and 0.017 ± 0.002 for UA, 0.050 ± 0.019 for mixed UA and 0.122 ± 0.024 for calcified calculi in-vivo. Significant differences were noted among calcium, mixed UA and UA stones (p < 0.05). For the low-dose examination mean effective dose was 3.11 mSv. Targeted dual-energy resulted in an extra dose of 1.84 mSv (additional 59.1%). Targeted dual-energy imaging within one breath-hold is feasible for characterisation of urinary calculi using single-source MDCT allowing minimal anatomical discordance. (orig.)e. (orig.)

  10. Outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper urinary tract calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcello, Cocuzza; Jose R., Colombo Jr; Antonio L., Cocuzza; Frederico, Mascarenhas; Fabio, Vicentini; Eduardo, Mazzucchi; Miguel, Srougi.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative and financial outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper tract calculi in 44 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2004 and September 2006, 44 patients treated for upper tract stone with flexible ureteroscopic lithot [...] ripsy were evaluated. Renal stones were associated with collecting system obstruction in 15 (34%) patients, failed extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) occurred in 14 (32%) patients, unilateral multiple stones in 18 (41%) patients, and multiple bilateral stones in 3 (7%). In 29 (66%) patients, the stone was located in the inferior calyx. Perioperative and financial outcomes were also evaluated. RESULTS: 50 procedures were performed in 44 patients. The mean stone burden on preoperative CT scan was 11.5 ± 5.8 mm. The mean operative time was 61.3 ± 29.4 min. The stone free rate was 93.1% after one procedure and 97.7% after a second procedure, with overall complication rate of 8%. Therapeutic success occurred in 92% and 93% of patients with lower pole stones and SWL failure, respectively. Treatment failure of a single session was associated with presence of a stone size larger than 15 mm (p = 0.007), but not associated with inferior calyx location (p = 0.09). Surgical disposables were responsible for 78% of overall costs. CONCLUSION: Flexible ureteroscopy using holmium laser is a safe and effective option for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi. In addition, it can be considered an attractive option as salvage therapy after SWL failure or kidney calculi associated with ureteral stones. Stone size larger than 15 mm is associated with single session treatment failure.

  11. Outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper urinary tract calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Cocuzza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative and financial outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper tract calculi in 44 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2004 and September 2006, 44 patients treated for upper tract stone with flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy were evaluated. Renal stones were associated with collecting system obstruction in 15 (34% patients, failed extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL occurred in 14 (32% patients, unilateral multiple stones in 18 (41% patients, and multiple bilateral stones in 3 (7%. In 29 (66% patients, the stone was located in the inferior calyx. Perioperative and financial outcomes were also evaluated. RESULTS: 50 procedures were performed in 44 patients. The mean stone burden on preoperative CT scan was 11.5 ± 5.8 mm. The mean operative time was 61.3 ± 29.4 min. The stone free rate was 93.1% after one procedure and 97.7% after a second procedure, with overall complication rate of 8%. Therapeutic success occurred in 92% and 93% of patients with lower pole stones and SWL failure, respectively. Treatment failure of a single session was associated with presence of a stone size larger than 15 mm (p = 0.007, but not associated with inferior calyx location (p = 0.09. Surgical disposables were responsible for 78% of overall costs. CONCLUSION: Flexible ureteroscopy using holmium laser is a safe and effective option for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi. In addition, it can be considered an attractive option as salvage therapy after SWL failure or kidney calculi associated with ureteral stones. Stone size larger than 15 mm is associated with single session treatment failure.

  12. Application of physico-chemical procedures in the analysis of urinary calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    All physico-chemical techniques used in the analysis of urinary calculi have inherent advantages and limitations. Although x-ray powder diffraction can identify constituents unambiguously, certain minor components can be missed. Infrared spectroscopy is more sensitive but band assignment at low concentrations is difficult. Scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive x-ray analysis permits the simultaneous investigation of morphology and chemical microstructure. With the electron microprobe, minor constituents can be detected but tedious sample preparation procedures are required. Transmission electron microscopy is extremely useful in determining constituent inter-relationships and ultrastructure but ultramicrotomy is very difficult. Thermal gravimetric analysis gives quantitative information easily but does not satisfactorily distinguish between struvite and brushite. In an attempt to assess the accuracy of chemical analyses, 62 calculi were investigated applying several chemical tests. Those for MgS , PO4(T ), NHU and uric acid proved highly reliable while that for CaS often yielded an incorrect result. The test for oxalate was totally unsatisfactory. Investigators of stone composition and structure should include x-ray diffraction (or infrared spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy as their methods of first choice. In addition, chemical or thermogravimetric analyses should be utilized in an auxiliary capacity.

  13. Application of physico-chemical procedures in the analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All physico-chemical techniques used in the analysis of urinary calculi have inherent advantages and limitations. Although x-ray powder diffraction can identify constituents unambiguously, certain minor components can be missed. Infrared spectroscopy is more sensitive but band assignment at low concentrations is difficult. Scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive x-ray analysis permits the simultaneous investigation of morphology and chemical microstructure. With the electron microprobe, minor constituents can be detected but tedious sample preparation procedures are required. Transmission electron microscopy is extremely useful in determining constituent inter-relationships and ultrastructure but ultramicrotomy is very difficult. Thermal gravimetric analysis gives quantitative information easily but does not satisfactorily distinguish between struvite and brushite. In an attempt to assess the accuracy of chemical analyses, 62 calculi were investigated applying several chemical tests. Those for Mg2+, PO4(3-), NH4+ and uric acid proved highly reliable while that for Ca2+ often yielded an incorrect result. The test for oxalate was totally unsatisfactory. Investigators of stone composition and structure should include x-ray diffraction (or infrared spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy as their methods of first choice. In addition, chemical or thermogravimetric analyses should be utilized in an auxiric analyses should be utilized in an auxiliary capacity

  14. Struvite infection calculi in dogs: problems with urinary calculus identification, and the value of the results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    John, Dunlevey; Michael, Laing.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Identifying the crystalline components of a urinary calculus is a valuable aid to correct diagnosis, and subsequent treatment of the underlying cause of the problem. Calculus formation is often an end product brought about by urine with a high concentration of insoluble material causing bladder irri [...] tation. This promotes bacterial infection by Proteus, which not only raises the pH in the bladder and generates ammonia, but also provides sites for mineral nucleation and crystal growth. Treating the infection and removing the stone will not necessarily cure the disorder. Correct identification of a calculus as struvite and even its potassium analogue can be critical in choice of curative protocols, but this is not always straightforward. Our experience with 'problem calculi' is described.

  15. [Mobile extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urinary calculi performed in the county of Ringkjobing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaba, Z; Nielsen, R T; Jensen, M

    2000-03-01

    Experiences with mobile extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) of urinary calculi using a third generation lithotriptor are reported. A total of 146 renal units in 132 patients received 204 ESWL treatments with mobile lithotriptor for renal and ureteric stones. Treatments were given once a month at Holstebro Hospital and Herning Hospital alternately, with six to eight treatments per day. The overall success was 82% (53% stone-free). Success with renal stones was 89% (51% stone-free) and that with ureteric stones 66% (59% stone-free). Retrograde manipulation appeared to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with obstructing upper ureteric stones. Treatment of other ureteric stones in situ gave unsatisfactory results (success 52%, stone-free 51%). There were no serious complications. PMID:10745675

  16. Dual-energy CT for the characterization of urinary calculi: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a low-dose scanning protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Patschan, O.; Nagele, U.; Stenzl, A. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Urology, Tuebingen (Germany); Ketelsen, D.; Tsiflikas, I.; Reimann, A.; Brodoefel, H.; Claussen, C.; Kopp, A.; Heuschmid, M.; Schlemmer, H.P. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Buchgeister, M. [University of Tuebingen, Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The efficiency and radiation dose of a low-dose dual-energy (DE) CT protocol for the evaluation of urinary calculus disease were evaluated. A low-dose dual-source DE-CT renal calculi protocol (140 kV, 46 mAs; 80 kV, 210 mAs) was derived from the single-energy (SE) CT protocol used in our institution for the detection of renal calculi (120 kV, 75 mAs). An Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with thermoluminescence dosimeters and examined by CT with both protocols. The effective doses were calculated. Fifty-one patients with suspected or known urinary calculus disease underwent DE-CT. DE analysis was performed if calculi were detected using a dedicated software tool. Results were compared to chemical analysis after invasive calculus extraction. An effective dose of 3.43 mSv (male) and 5.30 mSv (female) was measured in the phantom for the DE protocol (vs. 3.17/4.57 mSv for the SE protocol). Urinary calculi were found in 34 patients; in 28 patients, calculi were removed and analyzed (23 patients with calcified calculi, three with uric acid calculi, one with 2,8-dihyxdroxyadenine-calculi, one patient with a mixed struvite calculus). DE analysis was able to distinguish between calcified and non-calcified calculi in all cases. In conclusion, dual-energy urinary calculus analysis is effective also with a low-dose protocol. The protocol tested in this study reliably identified calcified urinary calculi in vivo. (orig.)

  17. Dual-energy CT for the characterization of urinary calculi: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a low-dose scanning protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency and radiation dose of a low-dose dual-energy (DE) CT protocol for the evaluation of urinary calculus disease were evaluated. A low-dose dual-source DE-CT renal calculi protocol (140 kV, 46 mAs; 80 kV, 210 mAs) was derived from the single-energy (SE) CT protocol used in our institution for the detection of renal calculi (120 kV, 75 mAs). An Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with thermoluminescence dosimeters and examined by CT with both protocols. The effective doses were calculated. Fifty-one patients with suspected or known urinary calculus disease underwent DE-CT. DE analysis was performed if calculi were detected using a dedicated software tool. Results were compared to chemical analysis after invasive calculus extraction. An effective dose of 3.43 mSv (male) and 5.30 mSv (female) was measured in the phantom for the DE protocol (vs. 3.17/4.57 mSv for the SE protocol). Urinary calculi were found in 34 patients; in 28 patients, calculi were removed and analyzed (23 patients with calcified calculi, three with uric acid calculi, one with 2,8-dihyxdroxyadenine-calculi, one patient with a mixed struvite calculus). DE analysis was able to distinguish between calcified and non-calcified calculi in all cases. In conclusion, dual-energy urinary calculus analysis is effective also with a low-dose protocol. The protocol tested in this study reliably identified calcified urinary calculi in vivo. (orig.)

  18. Scintigraphy and Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of obstructive urinary calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Gandolpho; M., Sevillano; A., Barbieri; S., Ajzen; N., Schor; V., Ortiz; I.P., Heilberg.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-seven patients with unilateral obstructive calculi (12 males and 35 females) were submitted to 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) or 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans for assessment of renal function. The scans revealed unilateral functional deficit in 68 and 66% of the [...] patients, respectively. A calculus size of 1.1 to 2.0 cm was significantly associated with deficit detected by DTPA, but duration of obstruction and calculus localization were not. After relief of the obstruction, the mean percent renal function of the affected kidney was found to be significantly increased from 25 ± 12% to 29 ± 12% in DTPA and from 21 ± 15% to 24 ± 12% in DMSA. Initial Doppler ultrasonography performed in 35 patients detected an increased resistive index in 10 (29%). In the remaining patients with a normal resistive index, ureteral urinary jet was observed, indicating partial obstruction. The high frequency of renal function impairment detected by DTPA and of tubulointerstitial damage detected by DMSA as well as the slight amelioration of unilateral renal function after relief of obstruction suggest that scintigraphy assessment may help evaluate the unilateral percentage of renal function and monitor renal function recovery when it occurs. The presence of a urinary jet detected by Doppler ultrasonography further indicates the severity of obstruction and the recovery prognosis.

  19. Litiasis urinaria en adultos con mielomeningocele / Urinary calculi in myelomeningocele adults

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Verdú Tartajo; J., Salinas Casado; F., Herranz Amo; J.M., Díez Cordero; R., Durán Merino; C., Hernández Fernández.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción y objetivos: Los avances en el tratamiento de los nacidos con mielomeningocele (MMC) han logrado un gran aumento en su supervivencia, permitiéndoles una longevidad nunca antes alcanzada, pero todavía son escasos los datos concernientes a los problemas urológicos que estos enfermos plant [...] ean durante su vida adulta. Hemos evaluado las características de la litiasis urinaria en adultos nacidos con MMC así como los tratamientos empleados en la misma. Material y métodos: Revisamos 52 pacientes nacidos con MMC de entre 18 y 40 años, atendidos durante los últimos 14 años en nuestro hospital, con una media de seguimiento de 6,7 años. Resultados: Se diagnosticaron de litiasis urinaria 10 pacientes (19,2%). Tres formaron cálculos renales (5,7%), y uno de ellos, junto con 7 pacientes más, desarrollaron cálculos vesicales (15,3%). El nivel neurológico fue S1 en otros dos. El tipo de disfunción neurógena del tracto urinario inferior fue de lesión múltiple pura de neurona motora inferior en 6 casos, de neurona motora superior en 1, lesión múltiple mixta en otro, no pudiéndose valorar en el restante. Dos pacientes tenían una ampliación vesical y uno de estos junto con otros 3 pacientes era portador de AMS-800 no funcionantes. La litiasis vesical se trató endoscopicamente en 14 ocasiones y mediante cistolitotomía suprapúbica en 4, junto a la retirada de AMS-800 en 3 de ellas. Un paciente expulsó un pequeño cálculo. En un paciente fueron necesarias 2 litotricias extracorpóreas y 2 nefrolitotomías percutáneas. Tres pacientes tuvieron múltiples recidivas. Conclusiones: La litiasis urinaria es frecuente en los adultos con MMC. Determinadas características de estos pacientes, junto con su configuración anatómica y algunos tratamientos empleados en ellos, ocasionan problemas de diagnostico, tratamiento y prevención de los cálculos que forman. Abstract in english Introduction and objectives: the improvements in the management of newborns with myelomeningocele (MMC) have obtained a big increase in survival, allowing them to get longevity like never before, but data regarding urologic diseases during adult age are still missing. We herein evaluate the features [...] of urinary lithiasis in adults born with MMC and the therapies used for its treatment. Material and method: we review 52 patients diagnosed at birth of MMC, between 18 and 40 years old, treated in our institution, with a mean follow-up of 6.7 years. Results: 10 patients (19.2%) were diagnosed of urolithiasis. Three developed kidney calculi and one of them, with 7 more patients, developed bladder calculi (15.3%). The neurological level was S1 in the other two. The type of neurogenic dysfunction of inferior urinary tract was multiple lesion of lower motor neurone in 6 cases, upper motor neurone in 1 case, multiple mixed lesion in 1 case and in case it was impossible to determine. Two patients had a bladder augmentation procedure and one of these with other 3 patients had a non-functional AMS-800 artificial urinary sphincter. Bladder stones were treated endoscopically in 14 procedures and by suprapubic cystolithotomy in 4 procedures, combined with removal of AMS-800 in 3 of them. One patient spontaneously passed a small stone. In one case, 2 ESWL and 2 percutaneous nephrolithotomies were needed. Three patients developed multiple recurrences during follow-up. Conclusions: urinary lithiasis is common in adults with MMC. Some distinct features of these patients, together with their anatomical configuration and some therapies used in them, cause diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylaxis issues for the calculi they may develop.

  20. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10?12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long?term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride?induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography?electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identi?ed in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol?3?O?rutinoside, kaempferol?3?O?glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that Urtica dioica has strong antiurolithiatic activity and may have potential as a natural therapeutic agent for various urological disorders. PMID:25310585

  1. Safety and effectiveness of Lithostar shock tube C in the treatment of urinary calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabbady, A; Mathes, G; Morehouse, D D; Honey, J; Pahira, J; Zeman, R; Paquin, J M; Faucher, R; Elhilali, M M

    1995-06-01

    Over 14 years of clinical use of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), great technical modifications resulted in the development of many second-generation lipthotripters. The Siemens Lithostar machine, with its standard shockwave tube, was introduced in 1986. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of the newly proposed Lithostar shock tube C in the treatment of urinary calculi. Between July 1992 and August 1993, 319 patients (214 males and 105 females, average 49.7 years) with 433 renal or ureteral stones or both were treated at five centers in Canada and the United States. Most of the stones (72%) were located in the kidneys, while 28% were located in the ureters. Most (81%) of the treated sides (side = kidney and ureter) presented with single stones, 11% presented with two stones, and 8% presented with three or more stones. The average stone burden was 13.6 mm. The average duration of treatment for the whole population of patients was 39.3 minutes using an average number of shockwaves of 3633 in a minimum and maximum energy setting of 0.11 and 3.82, respectively. The majority of treatments (92%) were performed without anesthesia. Fragmentation was achieved in 93.5% of treatments, with a 3-month stone-free rate of 62.5% and a success rate (stone free or fragment < 5 mm) of 72%. Auxiliary procedures were necessary in conjunction with 108 treatments, and most of them were in form of catheter/stent placement. Treatment applied on a separate occasion to different stones but in the same collecting system (either a kidney or a ureter) were considered retreatments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7550263

  2. Helical CT evaluation of the chemical composition of urinary tract calculi with a discriminant analysis of CT-attenuation values and density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellin, Marie-France; Meric, Jean-Baptiste [AP-HP, Department of Radiology, Hopital Paul-Brousse, Villejuif Cedex (France); Renard-Penna, Raphaelle; Grenier, Philippe [AP-HP, Department of Radiology, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Conort, Pierre; Richard, Francois [AP-HP, Department of Urology, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Bissery, Anne; Mallet, Alain [AP-HP, Department of Biostatistics, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Daudon, Michel [AP-HP, Department of Biochemistry, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of helical CT using a combination of CT-attenuation values and visual assessment of stone density as well as discriminant linear analysis to predict the chemical composition of urinary calculi. One hundred human urinary calculi were obtained from a stone-analysis laboratory and placed in 20 excised pig kidneys. They were scanned at 80, 120 and 140 kV with 3-mm collimation. Average, highest and lowest CT-attenuation values and CT variability were recorded. The internal calculus structure was assessed using a wide window setting, and visual assessment of stone density was recorded. A stepwise discriminant linear analysis was performed. The following three variables were discriminant: highest CT-attenuation value, visual density, and highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio, all at 80 kV. The probability of correctly classifying stone composition with these three variables was 0.64, ranging from 0.54 for mixed calculi to 0.69 for pure calculi. The probabilities of correctly classifying calculus composition were: 0.91 for calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite, 0.89 for cystine, 0.85 for uric acid, 0.11 for calcium oxalate dihydrate, 0.10 for hydroxyapatite, and 0.07 for struvite calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, 81% of the calculi were correctly classified. Assessment at 80 kV of the highest CT-attenuation value, visual density and the highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio accurately predicts the chemical composition of 64-81% of urinary calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, all cystine, calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite calculi were correctly classified. (orig.)

  3. Helical CT evaluation of the chemical composition of urinary tract calculi with a discriminant analysis of CT-attenuation values and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of helical CT using a combination of CT-attenuation values and visual assessment of stone density as well as discriminant linear analysis to predict the chemical composition of urinary calculi. One hundred human urinary calculi were obtained from a stone-analysis laboratory and placed in 20 excised pig kidneys. They were scanned at 80, 120 and 140 kV with 3-mm collimation. Average, highest and lowest CT-attenuation values and CT variability were recorded. The internal calculus structure was assessed using a wide window setting, and visual assessment of stone density was recorded. A stepwise discriminant linear analysis was performed. The following three variables were discriminant: highest CT-attenuation value, visual density, and highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio, all at 80 kV. The probability of correctly classifying stone composition with these three variables was 0.64, ranging from 0.54 for mixed calculi to 0.69 for pure calculi. The probabilities of correctly classifying calculus composition were: 0.91 for calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite, 0.89 for cystine, 0.85 for uric acid, 0.11 for calcium oxalate dihydrate, 0.10 for hydroxyapatite, and 0.07 for struvite calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, 81% of the calculi were correctly classified. Assessment at 80 kV of the highest CT-attenuation value, visualf the highest CT-attenuation value, visual density and the highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio accurately predicts the chemical composition of 64-81% of urinary calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, all cystine, calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite calculi were correctly classified. (orig.)

  4. [The evaluation of patients with urinary calculi discloses disturbances of metabolism in 75% of all cases (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummelhardt, S; Zechner, O

    1979-08-10

    The causes of, and physiopathological factors underlying the most common metabolic disorders implicated in the formation of renal stones are reviewed. These include hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria and disturbances of purine metabolism. Apart from metabolic disorders the risk of stone formation is also influenced by a low inhibitor activity in urine. Though some aspects in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis remain uncertain, the exact knowlege of important aetiological factors of stone formation is the basis of correct treatment and the prevention of recurrence of urinary calculi. PMID:473769

  5. Emergency unenhanced multi-slice computed tomography in suspected urinary calculi—with dose reduction method (care dose 4D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Nabir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess urinary calculi and the secondary signs of obstruction, in patients referred from the accident and emergency department, by unenhanced computed tomography examination and to review the radiation dose the patients received with the use of automatic dose modulation technique, care dose 4D. Material and methods: Medical records of unenhanced multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT examinations for 114 patients referred to the emergency department for analysis of suspected urinary calculi were reviewed retrospectively. Their treatment involved automatic tube current modulation, a dose reduction method (care dose 4D, in Hamad General Hospital. The cases were analyzed for the presence of stones, size, site, density and the secondary signs of obstruction, namely hydronephrosis, hydroureter, perinephric fat stranding, peri-ureteric fat stranding and renal enlargement. A search for alternate diagnosis was made if no stone was found. The final diagnosis was noted from the discharge summary in medical records. The radiation dose, Computed Tomographic Dose Index volume (CTDI and Dose Length Product (DLP in each patient was recorded from patient protocol. Results: Of 114 patients referred to CT scan for suspected urinary calculi, between March and June 2008, urinary calculi were noted in 75.4 %. An alternate diagnosis was offered to 5.3 % and a diagnosis of normal was given to 19.3 %. The size of stones detected varied from 2mm-35mm. Density of stones varied from 110-1250 hounsfield units (HU. Solitary stones were seen in 54.4 % of cases observed and multiple stones in 22 %. Renal stones were observed in 6.1 % of cases, urteric stones in 26.3%, vesico-uretric junction stones in 18.4%, multiple sites in 23.7%. Hydronephrosis was seen in 68% of cases, hydroureter in 63%, perinephric fat stranding in 51%, periureteral fat stranding in 34%, ureteric rim sign in 28% and renomegaly in 24%. Time interval between onset of symptoms to imaging varied from 4 to 12 hours. The radiation dose, CTDI, ranged from 6.5-15.8 mGy and DLP from 257 to 918 mGy/cm with the use of automatic tube current modulation, care dose 4D. Final diagnosis and MSCT diagnosis were in concordance in 86 (75% of patients of renal calculi and alternate diagnosis in 6 (5.3% of patients and normal in rest of the patients. Conclusion: In clinically-suspected urinary calculi, unenhanced MSCT of abdomen with the use of care dose 4D, an automatic tube current modulation technique, is a fast and reliable investigation in an emergency setting to detect stones and secondary signs of obstruction. It offers alternate diagnosis with substantial reduction in radiation dose—both the computed tomography dose index (CTDI and dose length product (DLP.

  6. Combined oral and local therapy for the dissolution of urinary calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, F; Frang, D; Hübler, J; Nagy, Z

    1982-01-01

    The factors underlying the formation of Ca-phosphate and struvite calculi, as well as the present possibilities for oral and local therapy, their advantages and drawbacks are discussed in the light of published evidence. In this context a clinical case of multiple injuries is reported in which practically complete chemolitholysis has been achieved by combined oral and local therapy. The rapid growth of the calculi and their alarming tendency to recurrence in case of inadequate treatment is emphasized. The therapeutic method used in this case is regarded as suitable for practical purposes. PMID:7161007

  7. Investigation of the microstructure and mineralogical composition of urinary calculi fragments by synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography: a feasibility study.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaiser, J.; Holá, M.; Galiová, M.; Novotný, K.; Kanický, V.; Martinec, Petr; Š?u?ka, Ji?í; Brun, F.; Sodini, N.; Tromba, G.; Mancini, L.; Ko?istková, T.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 39, ?. 4 (2011), s. 259-267. ISSN 0300-5623 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA203/09/1394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : computed microtomography * synchrotron radiation * urinary calculi Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.233, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/y244643574072rk3/fulltext.pdf

  8. Investigation of the microstructure and mineralogical composition of urinary calculi fragments by synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jozef; Holá, Markéta; Galiová, Michaela; Novotný, Karel; Kanický, Viktor; Martinec, Petr; S?u?ka, Ji?í; Brun, Francesco; Sodini, Nicola; Tromba, Giuliana; Mancini, Lucia; Ko?istková, Tamara

    2011-08-01

    The outcomes from the feasibility study on utilization of synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography (SR-?CT) to investigate the texture and the quantitative mineralogical composition of selected calcium oxalate-based urinary calculi fragments are presented. The comparison of the results obtained by SR-?CT analysis with those derived from current standard analytical approaches is provided. SR-?CT is proved as a potential effective technique for determination of texture, 3D microstructure, and composition of kidney stones. PMID:21161649

  9. Renal calculi in primary hyperaldosteronism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabadi U

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased urinary calcium (Ca++ excretion and the presence of negative Ca++ balance is well documented in primary hyperaldosteronism. However, renal calculi as a major manifestation of this disorder is not previously described. This report describes probably the first patient who presented with renal calculi in association with primary hyperaldosteronism. We believe that primary hyperaldosteronism was a major pathogenetic factor in formation of renal calculi since increased urinary excretion of Ca++ and uric acid noted at the onset declined following short-term spironolactone administration and remission from renal calculi has persisted following initial nephrolithotomy and continued spironolactone therapy which also corrected hypertension and hyperkalemia, a hallmark of this disorder.

  10. Correlative study of fluoride content in urine, serum and urinary calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Rathee, N.; Garg, P.; Pundir, C. S.

    2004-01-01

    Fluoride content was measured in 100 urinary stones retrieved by open surgery of stone formers admitted at PGIMS Rohtak and their respective urine and serum and compared with those of healthy individuals. The concentration of fluoride was also measured in the sources of drinking water of these stone formers. The concentration of fluoride was definitely significantly higher in serum (p>0.01) and highly significantly higher in urine (p>?0.001) of stone formers compared to those of healthy ind...

  11. Incidence of struvite urinary calculi in two ancestral lines of beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspar, L.V.; Poole, C.M.; Norris, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    In the last 17 years, 55 of 2,125 (2.6%) purebred beagles maintained in a closed colony had urolithiasis. Males comprised 72.7% of the affected animals. All the uroliths except one set in the kidneys were in the urinary bladder, the urethra, or both. All uroliths were nearly pure magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate. Partially inbred beagles had a 10.7% incidence of urolithiasis, compared to a 2.0% incidence in an outbred line.

  12. Prediction of calcium level in melamine-related urinary calculi with helical CT: diagnostic performance evaluation and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Xiaorui, Ru; Gang, Huang; Xinsheng, Xi; Xiaogang, Huang; Li, Dong; Yirong, Chen

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between CT-attenuation and stone calcium level in melamine-related urinary calculi (MRUC). A total of 25 MRUC with known composition and calcium level were included (11 uric acid stones, 2 calcium oxalate stones and 12 mixture stones of uric acid and calcium oxalate). Of all, 18 renal stones accepted alkalization therapy except for 5 lower urinary tract stones and 2 stones of unknown position. With well-matched composition, 61 adult urinary stones were included as controls. Every stone was scanned by helical CT (80 kV/120 kV, 300 mA, pitch 0.625 mm) and the highest CT-attenuation value measured. CT-attenuation values of MRUC increased gradually from uric acid stones, mixture stones to calcium oxalate stones, but were always lower than the values of controls. Furthermore, a strong positive correlation was found between stone CT-attenuation value and stone calcium level (n = 25, r (80kV) = 0.883, p = 0.000; r (120kV) = 0.855, p = 0.000). Compared with alkalization-therapy-alone group, stone CT-attenuation values and stone calcium level in the comprehensive-therapy group were significantly greater (CT(80kV) 1,057 ± 639 vs. 172 ± 61 HU, p = 0.001; CT(120kV) 783 ± 476 vs. 162 ± 60 HU, p = 0.001; Ca 19.83 ± 7.48% vs. 1.30 ± 1.51%, p = 0.000). Fisher's exact test suggested that the stones with higher CT-attenuation values tended to resist alkalization when 400 HU served as the cutoff value (P (80kV) = 0.002, P (120kV) = 0.000). In conclusion, the study was the first to illustrate that the CT-attenuation value could reflect calcium level in MRUC and found that stones with higher CT-attenuation value were not amenable to alkalization because they probably contained greater calcium. For those patients, we believe that comprehensive therapy will be the best choice. PMID:21853242

  13. Dissolution of struvite calculi by hemiacidrin solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, F J; Weiner, B; Sant, G R; Meares, E M

    1983-01-01

    Struvite calculi result from urinary tract infections secondary to urease-producing bacteria. To prevent recurrent infection and stone formation complete removal of struvite calculi is recommended. Two illustrative reports of patients with renal struvite calculi are presented in which 10% hemiacidrin (Renacidin) irrigation was instituted for stone dissolution. After surgical removal of the calculi a nephrostomy tube was placed in the renal pelvis. With confirmation of residual struvite calculi, 10% hemiacidrin irrigation was initiated. Urine cultures, electrolytes and nephrotomograms were performed and adverse effects monitored. Using strict aseptic technique and appropriate precautions, hemiacidrin irrigation safely dissolves struvite calculi. PMID:6657490

  14. Successful management of repetitive urinary obstruction and anuria caused by double j stent calculi formation after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zongyao; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Xiansheng; Shi, Haoqiang; Zhang, Yifei; Wei, Pengfei; Liang, Chaozhao

    2014-01-01

    This report firstly describes an extremely rare case of repetitive double J stent calculi formation after renal transplantation caused by the antihyperparathyroidism (HPT) drug calcitriol. In 2012, a woman initially presented to our hospital for anuria with lower abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with allograft hydronephrosis and double J stents obstruction by calculi formation after transplantation and treated with triplicate stents replacements in another hospital without clinical manifestations improvements. Through detailed exploration of medical history, we conclude that the abnormal calculi formation is due to the calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) administration, a drug which can increase renal tubular reabsorption of calcium for treating posttransplant HPT bone disease. After discontinuing calcitriol, the patient was stone-free and had a good recovery without severe complications during the 9-month follow-up. Our novel findings may provide an important clue and approach to managing formidable repetitive double J stent calculi formation in the clinical trial. PMID:25110605

  15. Impact of obesity on ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of urinary tract calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Natalin; Keith, Xavier; Zephaniah, Okeke; Mantu, Gupta.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Purpose: The treatment of urinary tract stones in obese patients may differ from the treatment of non-obese patients and their success rate varies. Our objective was to compare ureteroscopic treatment outcomes of ureteral and renal stones, stratified for stone size and location, between overweight, [...] obese and non-obese patients. Materials and Methods: Charts were reviewed for 500 consecutive patients presenting at our institution for renal and ureteral stones. A total of 107 patients underwent flexible or semi-rigid ureteroscopy with Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy and met criteria for review and analysis. Results: Overall, initial stone-free rates were 91%, 97%, and 94% in normal, overweight and obese individuals respectively. When compared to non-obese patients, there were no significant differences (p value = 0.26; 0.50). For renal and proximal ureteral stones, the stone-free rate in overweight and obese individuals was 94% in both groups; and a stone-free rate of 100% was found for distal stones, also in both groups. Conclusions: Ureteroscopic treatment of stones in obese and overweight patients is an acceptable treatment modality, with success rates similar to non-obese patients.

  16. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, endourology and open surgery: the management and follow-up of 200 patients with urinary calculi.

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, D. R.; Mcnicholas, T. A.; Whitfield, H. N.; Wickham, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The management and follow up of 200 consecutive patients with renal and ureteric calculi are presented. The primary treatment of 185 (92.5%) was by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), of whom three (1.6)%) with large calculi underwent percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) prior to ESWL as a planned combined procedure. Twelve (6%) were treated by PCNL or ureterorenoscopy (URS) as their definitive treatment and three (1.5%) by conventional open renal and ureteric surgery. The average i...

  17. Typed ?-calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A large variety of process calculi extend the pi-calculus with more general notions of messages. Bengtson et al. have shown that many of these pi-like calculi can be expressed as so-called psi-calculi. In this paper, we describe a simple type system for psi-calculi. The type system satisfies a subject reduction property and a general notion of channel safety. A number of existing systems are shown to be instances of our system, and other, new type systems can also be obtained. We first present a new type system for the calculus of explicit fusions by Wischik and Gardner, then one for the distributed pi-calculus of Hennessy and Riely and finally show how existing type systems for secrecy and authenticity in the spi calculus can be represented and shown to be safe.

  18. Percutaneous dissolution of renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretler, S P; Pfister, R C

    1983-01-01

    The use of percutaneous nephrostomy catheters has allowed access to intrarenal urinary calculi for dissolution. Renacidin is the successful agent for dissolving struvite stones. THAM-E is the most effective agent for the intrarenal dissolution of cystine stone. Calcium oxalate stones are still resistant to dissolution techniques. PMID:6344765

  19. Primary dissolution therapy of struvite calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretler, S P; Pfister, R C

    1984-05-01

    Percutaneous nephrostomy and hemiacidrin were used as primary treatment of magnesium ammonium phosphate calculi in 32 surgical candidates. Of 28 patients who actually received hemiacidrin 24 (85 per cent) had successful treatment (no surgery necessary), including 19 (68 per cent) who had total stone dissolution. There were no significant complications. Patients have been followed for 3 months to 7 years. Percutaneous nephrostomy with hemiacidrin infusion is another possible treatment in the growing alternatives available for patients with urinary struvite calculi. PMID:6708214

  20. Por qué y cómo hemos de analizar los cálculos urinarios / Why and how we must analyse urinary calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Gràcia-Garcia; F., Millán-Rodríguez; F., Rousaud-Barón; R., Montañés-Bermúdez; O., Angerri-Feu; F., Sánchez-Martín; H., Villavicencio-Mavrich; A., Oliver-Samper.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Contexto: Existe una heterogeneidad de criterio sobre la utilidad del análisis del cálculo urinario, así como de cuál es la metodología más adecuada. En esta revisión se presenta el análisis de la litiasis mediante la técnica del estudio morfoconstitucional basada en la combinación de la microscopía [...] estereoscópica (MEST) con el estudio de infrarrojos (EIR). Resumen de la evidencia: Existen múltiples técnicas de análisis del cálculo: análisis químico, microscopía electrónica, difracción por rayos X, MEST y EIR. Mediante la revisión de cada una de estas técnicas y el estudio de varios casos clínicos, el presente trabajo muestra la utilidad clínica del análisis del cálculo, así como las ventajas e inconvenientes de cada uno de los citados métodos. Por otro lado, se evidencia cómo el análisis mediante el estudio morfoconstitucional es el que más información clínica de utilidad ofrece al urólogo. Asimismo, se presenta la clasificación de las litiasis basadas en este método y su correlación clínica con el paciente. Conclusiones: El análisis del cálculo mediante la técnica del estudio morfoconstitucional aporta más información que el resto de técnicas y permite establecer una clasificación del cálculo de gran utilidad clínica y diagnóstica. Abstract in english Context: There is heterogeneity of criteria on the utility of urinary stone analysis as well as on which is the most suitable methodology. This review presents the analysis of the lithiasis using the morphoconstitutional analysis technique based on the combination of the stereoscopic microscopy (SM) [...] with infrared study (IRS). Summary of the evidence: There are many techniques to analyze the stone: chemical analysis, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, SM and IRS. Reviewing each one of these techniques and through the study of several clinical cases, this review shows the usefulness of stone analysis and the pros and cons of each one of the mentioned techniques. Furthermore, it can be clearly seen how the morphoconstitutional analysis is the one that offers the most useful clinical information to the urologist. In addition, classification of the lithiasis based on this method and its clinical correlation with patients is presented. Conclusions: Using the morphoconstitutional study to analyze the stone offers more information than the other techniques and it makes it possible to establish a stone classification of important clinical and diagnostic utility.

  1. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urinary calculi. Results from the first 306 patients treated at the Copenhagen Municipal Stone Center with a second generation lithotriptor.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J T; Mogensen, P

    1991-01-01

    The first Danish experience with Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) using a second generation Lithotriptor (Siemens Lithostar) is reported. 306 patients underwent 392 treatments for 363 stones. There were 339 renal calculi including 5 staghorn calculi and 54 ureteral calculi. Treatments were performed under local analgesia (82%) or epidural or general anesthesia (18%) when invasive procedures had to be done in connection with the treatment. Stone fragmentation was achieved with 2487 +/- 1262 shocks. The first months stone clearance rate was 45%; 26% had fragments less than 6 mm; 29% had residual stones. Corresponding rates after 3 and 6 months were 58%, 24% and 18% and 70%, 21% and 9% respectively. Septicemia occurred in 4 patients and cardial arrhythmia in 34 patients (11%). No serious intra- or perirenal hematomas were registered. In 9% additional procedures were required and 11 patients had residual stones removed at open surgery. The used second generation lithotriptor with X-ray based stone localisation is effective for treatment of both renal calculi and ureteral calculi in situ in all three segments of the ureter.

  2. Mass spectrometry and renal calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Penescu, M.; Purcarea, Vl; Sisu, I.; Sisu, E.

    2010-01-01

    The present review represents a concise and complete survey of the literature covering 2004–2009, concerning the mass spectrometric techniques involved in the structural investigation of renal calculi. After a short presentation of the fundamental mass spectrometric techniques (MALDI–TOF, QTOF, MS–MS) as well as hyphenated methods (GC–MS, LC–MS, CE–MS), an extensive study of the urinary proteome analysis as well as the detection and quantification by mass spectrometry of toxins, ...

  3. Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy of symptomatic renal calculi in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanicolaou, N.; Pfister, R.C.; Yoder, I.C.; Young, H.H. II; Herrin, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy of upper urinary tract lithiasis is a well-established procedure in adults. We successfully applied this technique to completely remove symptomatic renal calculi in two children with idiopathic hypercalciuria. The procedure was well tolerated and no complications occurred. Both patients were discharged within 4 days of the lithotripsy. This method is an alternative to surgery for the removal of large or impacted calculi from the upper urinary tracts of pediatric patients. (orig.).

  4. Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy of symptomatic renal calculi in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy of upper urinary tract lithiasis is a well-established procedure in adults. We successfully applied this technique to completely remove symptomatic renal calculi in two children with idiopathic hypercalciuria. The procedure was well tolerated and no complications occurred. Both patients were discharged within 4 days of the lithotripsy. This method is an alternative to surgery for the removal of large or impacted calculi from the upper urinary tracts of pediatric patients. (orig.)

  5. Management of Ureteric Calculi in Dhule City of North-western Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Lokesh Patni; Chitale, Anjali M.; Patil-rawandale, Ashish V.; Tondare, Sangamesh B.; Tondare, Mahesh B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urolithiasis, usually affecting people in the prime of life, causes significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Uretericstones account for 2/3rd of all urinary calculi brought to attention of doctors. The damaging effects of the calculi may result in obstruction with dilatation of the urinary tract, leading to stasis and severe infection. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate patients with urinary stones with regards to the incidence, age, sex,clinical presentation,...

  6. Factores predictivos de éxito tras una sesión única de litotricia extracorpórea de cálculos urinarios a las tres semanas de seguimiento: Factors Predicting Success after Three Weeks of Follow-Up / Single-Session Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Urinary Calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Vivaldi; M.I., Fernández; J.F., López; F., Fuentes; C., Urzúa; A., Krebs; A., Domenech; P.A., Figueroa; P., Pizzi; M., Westendarp; N., Zambrano; M., Castro; L.F., Coz.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar factores predictivos de éxito después de una sesión única de litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque (LEOC) a las tres semanas de seguimiento. Material y métodos: Se revisaron los registros clínicos de 116 pacientes con cálculos urinarios únicos sometidos a LEOC entre octu [...] bre 2007 y agosto 2009. Las tomografías axiales computarizadas preoperatorias de todos los pacientes fueron revisadas por dos radiólogos en desconocimiento del desenlace clínico. El éxito fue definido como la desaparición completa del cálculo o la persistencia de fragmentos Abstract in english Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors of success following a single-session of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) at 3 weeks of follow-up in our center. Material and methods: The medical records of 116 patients with solitary urinary calculi who underwent single-session SWL [...] in our department between October 2007 and August 2009 were reviewed. All preoperative unenhanced computed axial tomographies were reviewed by two radiologists blinded to clinical outcome. Success was defined as complete clearance or the persistence of fragments

  7. Verifying Psi-calculi

    OpenAIRE

    A?man Pohjola, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Psi-calculi are mobile process calculi, parametrised with arbitrary nominal datatypes representing data, communication channels, assertions and conditions, as well as morphisms over those datatypes. The framework for psi-calculi has been formalised in the interactive theorem prover Isabelle, along with both strong and weak bisimulation. This master's thesis project presents a tool for formally verifying that psi-calculus candidates are well-defined within the Isabelle/HOL-Nominal framework. I...

  8. Association with meteo-climatological factors and daily emergency visits for renal colic and urinary calculi in Cuneo, Italy. A retrospective observational study, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condemi, Vincenzo; Gestro, Massimo; Dozio, Elena; Tartaglino, Bruno; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Meco, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Incidence and prevalence of kidney stones are affected by genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between various meteorological factors (independent variables) and the daily number of visits to the Emergency Department (ED of the S. Croce and Carle Hospital of Cuneo for renal colic (RC) and urinary stones (UC) as the dependent variable over the years 2007-2010. The Poisson generalized regression models (PGAMs) have been used in different progressive ways. The results of PGAMs (stage 1) adjusted for seasonal and calendar factors confirmed a significant correlation ( p 1), with a first peak after 5 days (lag ranges 0-1, 0-3, and 0-5) and a second weak peak observed along the 5-15 lag range days. The estimated RR for females was significant, mainly in the second and fourth age group considered (19-44 and >65 years): RR for total ED visits 1.27, confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.46 (lag 0-5 days); RR 1.42, CI 1.01-2.01 (lag 0-10 days); and RR 1.35, CI 1.09-1.68 (lag 0-15 days). The research also indicated a moderate involvement of the thermal factor in the onset of RC caused by UC, exclusively in the female sex. Further studies will be necessary to confirm these results.

  9. Recurrent bilateral renal calculi in a tetraplegic patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaidyanathan, S; Soni, B M

    1998-01-01

    An 18-year-old male developed C-5 complete tetraplegia following a motor-cycle accident in May 1975. The neuropathic bladder was managed by an indwelling urethral catheter. He developed recurrent episodes of urinary infection with Proteus species. In September 1975, an X-ray of the abdomen revealed small calculi in both the kidneys. In July 1976, he underwent transurethral resection of the bladder neck and division of the external urethral sphincter; subsequently, he was put on a penile sheath drainage. He continued to suffer from repeated episodes of urinary tract infection with Proteus, Providencia, and Pseudomonas species, and he was treated with antibiotics. In 1980, intravenous urography (IVU) showed two large stones in the left kidney with marked caliectasis. The IVU performed in 1984 showed an increase in the size of the calculi in the left kidney which was grossly hydronephrotic. There were clusters of small calculi in the right kidney. The left renal calculi were treated by percutaneous lithotripsy in two sessions. In 1988, an X-ray of the abdomen revealed staghorn calculus in the right kidney and recurrence of stones in the left kidney. The staghorn calculus in the right kidney was treated by percutaneous nephrostolithotomy in two sessions. In 1991, he was admitted with acute urinary infection. IVU showed a stone in the pelviureteric junction with no excretion of contrast in the left kidney. Percutaneous nephrostomy drainage was established followed by left percutaneous nephrostolithotomy. In 1992, he was found to retain large amount of urine in the bladder; subsequently, his mother was taught to perform regular intermittent catheterisations. In 1995, he was admitted with acute urine infection. Abdominal X-ray revealed recurrence of large stones in both kidneys. With multiple sessions of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL), about 80% clearance was achieved on the left side. Right staghorn renal stone awaits treatment. This case shows that recurrent urinary infection in spinal cord injury patients is a predisposing factor for renal lithiasis. These patients require annual urological evaluation. Urinary tract calculi, if detected, should be dealt with promptly to prevent renal damage due to urinary obstruction and urosepsis. Renal calculi can be treated effectively and safely by ESWL in spinal cord injury patients, thus avoiding the need for an invasive procedure. It is essential to achieve low-pressure, adequate emptying of the urinary bladder in patients with spinal cord injury in order to prevent recurrent urinary infection and its sequelae. Social issues involved in the care of a tetraplegic patient play a vital role in the implementation of ideal medical treatment and need to be addressed promptly to avoid any compromise in the quality of medical care.

  10. Endourological management of staghorn calculi: Experience in 120 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy has become a well-established, standardized procedure in the management of upper urinary tract calculi. One hundred twenty consecutive patients, aged 19-95 years (mean age, 63 years); with staghorn calculi have been managed by percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy at our hospital. The overall success rate in achieving a stone-free renal unit was 86%. Multiple nephrostomy tracts were established in more than 60% of patients. Total operative time averaged 161 minutes per patient, despite multistaged nephrolithotripsy in 24% of patients. The most common complications encountered were bleeding requiring transfusion (57%), retained fragments (14%), urinary extravasation (12%), hydrothorax or pneumothorax (5%), and urinary stricture (1.6%). Average duration of hospitalization was 12.6 days

  11. Ureolytic Citrobacter freundii infection of the urine as a cause of dissolution of cystine renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez Millet, V; Praga, M; Miranda, B; Bello, I; Ruilope, L; Diaz Gonzalez, R; Leyva, O; Alcazar, J M; Barrientos, A; Rodicio, J L

    1985-03-01

    We report a case of cystinuria with staghorn renal lithiasis in a solitary right kidney and chronic renal failure. Right nephropyelolithotomy was performed and although 29 renal calculi were extracted many stones remained in situ. A permanent nephrostomy was left in the kidney. Several months later the urine was infected chronically with a ureolytic Citrobacter freundii bacteria and urinary pH oscillated between 8.0 and 9.2. Spontaneous dissolution of the cystine calculi was observed and many tiny fragments of cystine were expulsed through the nephrostomy, following which renal function improved. Despite the conditions favoring struvite calculi, formation did not occur. PMID:3973994

  12. Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J. C.

    2000-05-01

    Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

  13. Free variable sequent calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsen, Roger

    2003-01-01

    This is a thesis about free variable sequent calculi for first-order languages without equality. A brief summary: Chapter 1 and 2 are mainly background material. Chapter 3 introduces a way of representing and reasoning about relations between inferences and sketches a method for syntactical soundness proofs; more precisely, soundness results from one calculus can be transferred to another calculus by means of proof transformations. Chapter 4 investigates a new free variable sequent calculus w...

  14. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF MUSA PARADISICA LINN AGAINST ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED RENAL CALCULI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha U

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ethanol extract of dried roots of Musa paradisica Linn against ethylene glycol induced renal calculi in albino wistar rats are studied in this research. A renal calculus was induced in rats by ingesting 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days and was manifested by high urinary calcium, oxalate, and low urinary magnesium contents. Simultaneous administration of 1ml (1 in 10 Musa paradisica Linn orally for 28 days along with ethylene glycol (0.75% v/v reduced urinary calcium, oxalate and elevated urinary magnesium level. It also increased urinary volume thereby reducing the tendency for crystallization. The histopathological studies confirmed the induction as degenerated glomeruli, necrotic tubule and inflammatory cells was observed in section of kidney from animals treated with ethylene glycol. This was reduced; however after treatment with Musa paradisica Linn. These observations enable to conclude that Musa paradisica Linn is effective against ethylene glycol induced renal calculi.

  15. Observational Calculi and Association Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Observational calculi were introduced in the 1960’s as a tool of logic of discovery. Formulas of observational calculi correspond to assertions on analysed data. Truthfulness of suitable assertions can lead to acceptance of new scientific hypotheses. The general goal was to automate the process of discovery of scientific knowledge using mathematical logic and statistics. The GUHA method for producing true formulas of observational calculi relevant to the given problem of scientific discovery was developed. Theoretically interesting and practically important results on observational calculi were achieved. Special attention was paid to formulas - couples of Boolean attributes derived from columns of the analysed data matrix. Association rules introduced in the 1990’s can be seen as a special case of such formulas. New results on logical calculi and association rules were achieved. They can be seen as a logic of association rules. This can contribute to solving contemporary challenging problems of data minin...

  16. How accurate is unenhanced multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for localization of renal calculi?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetschi, Stefan, E-mail: goetschi@gmx.net [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Umbehr, Martin, E-mail: martin.umbehr@triemli.ch [Urology Clinic, Department of Surgery, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Ullrich, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.ullrich@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Glenck, Michael, E-mail: michael.glenck@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Suter, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.suter@triemli.ch [Urology Clinic, Department of Surgery, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Weishaupt, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.weishaupt@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between unenhanced MDCT and intraoperative findings with regard to the exact anatomical location of renal calculi. Design, setting, and participants: Fifty-nine patients who underwent unenhanced MDCT for suspected urinary stone disease, and who underwent subsequent flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) as treatment of nephrolithiasis were included in this retrospective study. All MDCT data sets were independently reviewed by three observers with different degrees of experience in reading CT. Each observer was asked to indicate presence and exact anatomical location of any calcification within pyelocaliceal system, renal papilla or renal cortex. Results were compared to intraoperative findings which have been defined as standard of reference. Calculi not described at surgery, but present on MDCT data were counted as renal cortex calcifications. Results: Overall 166 calculi in 59 kidneys have been detected on MDCT, 100 (60.2%) were located in the pyelocaliceal system and 66 (39.8%) in the renal parenchyma. Of the 100 pyelocaliceal calculi, 84 (84%) were correctly located on CT data sets by observer 1, 62 (62%) by observer 2, and 71 (71%) by observer 3. Sensitivity/specificity was 90-94% and 50-100% if only pyelocaliceal calculi measuring >4 mm in size were considered. For pyelocaliceal calculi {<=}4 mm in size diagnostic performance of MDCT was inferior. Conclusion: Compared to flexible URS, unenhanced MDCT is accurate for distinction between pyelocaliceal calculi and renal parenchyma calcifications if renal calculi are >4 mm in size. For smaller renal calculi, unenhanced MDCT is less accurate and distinction between a pyelocaliceal calculus and renal parenchyma calcification is difficult.

  17. How accurate is unenhanced multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for localization of renal calculi?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between unenhanced MDCT and intraoperative findings with regard to the exact anatomical location of renal calculi. Design, setting, and participants: Fifty-nine patients who underwent unenhanced MDCT for suspected urinary stone disease, and who underwent subsequent flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) as treatment of nephrolithiasis were included in this retrospective study. All MDCT data sets were independently reviewed by three observers with different degrees of experience in reading CT. Each observer was asked to indicate presence and exact anatomical location of any calcification within pyelocaliceal system, renal papilla or renal cortex. Results were compared to intraoperative findings which have been defined as standard of reference. Calculi not described at surgery, but present on MDCT data were counted as renal cortex calcifications. Results: Overall 166 calculi in 59 kidneys have been detected on MDCT, 100 (60.2%) were located in the pyelocaliceal system and 66 (39.8%) in the renal parenchyma. Of the 100 pyelocaliceal calculi, 84 (84%) were correctly located on CT data sets by observer 1, 62 (62%) by observer 2, and 71 (71%) by observer 3. Sensitivity/specificity was 90–94% and 50–100% if only pyelocaliceal calculi measuring >4 mm in size were considered. For pyelocaliceal calculi ?4 mm in size diagnostic performance of MDCT was inferior. Conclusion: Compared to flexible URS, unenhanced MDCT is accurate for distinction between pyelocaliceal calculi and renal parenchyma calcifications if renal calculi are >4 mm in size. For smaller renal calculi, unenhanced MDCT is less accurate and distinction between a pyelocaliceal calculus and renal parenchyma calcification is difficult.

  18. Comparison of Computerized Spiral Tomography with Ultrasonography for Detection of Ureteral Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin SARIKAYA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to compare accuracy levels of ultrasonography and spiral computerized tomography for detection of the ureteral calculi in patients admitted to the emergency department with flank pain. Methods: The patients presented with either unilateral or bilateral flank pain to the emergency department over a four-month period and who were suspected to be renal colic were included into the study. All of the study patients with distended bladder after hydration had ultrasonography (USG and unhanced helical computerized tomography (UHCT performed by two independent radiologists. Results: Of the 76 patients with flank pain, CT detected ureteral calculi in 47 out of 48 patients (97.9% and USG detected ureteral calculi in 34 out of the 48 patients (70.83%. CT detected uretral calculi in 14 patients which was not detected by USG. CT also detected renal calculi in 7 patients which was not detected by USG. A kappa value of 0.62 (p<0.001 was determined, indicating a moderate concordance between CT and USG in detecting ureteral calculi. Also a kappa value of 0.65 (p<0.001 was determined in the overall diagnostic performance of the both imaging tools in detecting renal calculi. Conclusions: Computerized tomography is better than ultrasonography in detecting urinary calculus in patients presented to the emergency department with flank pain. However, as a bedside, non-invasive and non-ionized tool, USG should be preffered as the first line diagnostic choice in ED for detecting urinary calculus. CT should be used as an second choice in patients with negative USG exam in ED.

  19. Clinical experience with the Swiss LithoClast® Master in treatment of bladder calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingo, Pernille Skjold; Ryhammer, Allan Maltha

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and objective. Bladder calculi account for 5% of urinary tract calculi in the western world and many different treatment modalities have been presented throughout the decades. We report our clinical experience using the Swiss LithoClast® Master (SLM). Materials and Methods. The SLM is a rigid, hand-held endourological probe including a pneumatic lithotriptor and an ultrasonic lithotriptor. Attached to the ultrasonic modality is a suction system. The two lithotriptor modalities are controlled by a footswitch, and can be activated separately or simultaneously. The SLM is used via a rigid endoscope. Indications for treatment were medical complaints like hematuria, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), recurrent bursts of balloon in indwelling catheters, and difficulties performing clean intermittent self-catheterisation (CISC). Results. From August 1st 2009 to August 1st 2011, 27 patients were treated for bladder calculi (24 men). Five had a neurogenic voiding dysfunction, 3 had a prostate cancer, and 19 suffered from benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) or detrusor muscle insufficiency. Median age was 74 years (range 45-86 years). Stone clearance was obtained in 26 (96%) patients. Stone burden was one or multiple bladder calculi. Median stone size of the largest stone in each patient was 20 (5 - 40) mm. Under the same anaesthesia two patients underwent a TURP due to a very large prostate. Median lithotripsy time was 60 (range 20-144) minutes. All patients were discharged within 24 hours. Conclusion. The method described is a safe and quick method for endoscopic lithotripsy of bladder calculi rendering the patients stone free in the vast majority of cases. The procedure can be performed as day case surgery. Keywords: Bladder calculi, lithotripsy, Swiss Lithoclast, transurethral prostatectomy.

  20. Management of Ureteric Calculi in Dhule City of North-western Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Patni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urolithiasis, usually affecting people in the prime of life, causes significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Uretericstones account for 2/3rd of all urinary calculi brought to attention of doctors. The damaging effects of the calculi may result in obstruction with dilatation of the urinary tract, leading to stasis and severe infection. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate patients with urinary stones with regards to the incidence, age, sex,clinical presentation, site, size, side, management and their complications. Material and Methods:It was a prospective study carried out by Department of Surgery at Annasaheb Chudaman Patil Memorial Medical College, and Hospital Dhule for a period of two years. Patients were selected after they were diagnosed as having ureteric calculi. The patients were treated by conservative or surgical methods, and the outcome was monitored. Statistical analysis of the data was done for obtaining results.Result: The majority of the patients were males with peak age group in the second and third decade. Pain in abdomen or loin tenderness was the most common presenting symptom. Most of the patients were treated by conservative medical management. Endourological procedures were the most commonly performed surgical intervention. Conclusion: Most of the patients with ureteric calculi present with painin abdomen and majority can be treated by medical management. With the availability of better facilities the requirement for open surgery is decreasing and endourological procedures are becoming the means of surgical intervention.Complications are minimal with surgical expertise for endourological procedures.

  1. Gentzen Calculi for Modal Propositional Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiolesi, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    This book is about Gentzen calculi for (the main systems of) modal logic. It is divided into three parts. In the first part we introduce and discuss the main philosophical ideas related to proof theory, and we try to identify criteria for distinguishing good sequent calculi. In the second part we present the several attempts made from the 50's until today to provide modal logic with Gentzen calculi. In the third and and final part we analyse new calculi for modal logics, called tree-hypersequent calculi, which were recently introduced by the author. We show in a precise and clear way the main

  2. The feasibility of using microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography for detection and evaluation of renal calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging of renal calculi is important for patients who suffered a urinary calculus prior to treatment. The available imaging techniques include plain x-ray, ultrasound scan, intravenous urogram, computed tomography, etc. However, the visualization of a uric acid calculus (radiolucent calculi) is difficult and often impossible by the above imaging methods. In this paper, a new detection method based on microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography was developed to detect the renal calculi. Thermoacoustic images of calcium oxalate and uric acid calculus were compared with their x-ray images. The microwave absorption differences among the calcium oxalate calculus, uric acid calculus and normal kidney tissue could be evaluated by the amplitude of the thermoacoustic signals. The calculi hidden in the swine kidney were clearly imaged with excellent contrast and resolution in the three orthogonal thermoacoustic images. The results indicate that thermoacoustic imaging may be developed as a complementary method for detecting renal calculi, and its low cost and effective feature shows high potential for clinical applications.

  3. The feasibility of using microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography for detection and evaluation of renal calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Caijun; Nie Liming; Lou Cunguang; Xing Da, E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.c [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2010-09-07

    Imaging of renal calculi is important for patients who suffered a urinary calculus prior to treatment. The available imaging techniques include plain x-ray, ultrasound scan, intravenous urogram, computed tomography, etc. However, the visualization of a uric acid calculus (radiolucent calculi) is difficult and often impossible by the above imaging methods. In this paper, a new detection method based on microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography was developed to detect the renal calculi. Thermoacoustic images of calcium oxalate and uric acid calculus were compared with their x-ray images. The microwave absorption differences among the calcium oxalate calculus, uric acid calculus and normal kidney tissue could be evaluated by the amplitude of the thermoacoustic signals. The calculi hidden in the swine kidney were clearly imaged with excellent contrast and resolution in the three orthogonal thermoacoustic images. The results indicate that thermoacoustic imaging may be developed as a complementary method for detecting renal calculi, and its low cost and effective feature shows high potential for clinical applications.

  4. Computed tomographic analysis of renal calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in vitro study sought to determine the feasibility of using computed tomography (CT) to analyze the chemical composition of renal calculi and thus aid in selecting the best treatment method. Sixty-three coded calculi were scanned in a water bath. Region-of-interest measurements provided the mean, standard deviation, and minimum and maximum pixel values for each stone. These parameters were correlated with aspects of the stones' chemical composition. A multivariate analysis showed that the mean and standard deviation of the stones' pixel values were the best CT parameters for differentiating types of renal calculi. By using computerized mapping techniques, uric acid calculi could be perfectly differentiated from struvite and calcium oxalate calculi. The latter two types also were differentiable, but to a lesser extent. CT has a potential role as an adjunct to clinical and laboratory methods for determining the chemical composition of renal calculi in an effort to select optimal treatment

  5. Computed tomographic analysis of renal calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillman, B.J.; Drach, G.W.; Tracey, P.; Gaines, J.A.

    1984-03-01

    An in vitro study sought to determine the feasibility of using computed tomography (CT) to analyze the chemical composition of renal calculi and thus aid in selecting the best treatment method. Sixty-three coded calculi were scanned in a water bath. Region-of-interest measurements provided the mean, standard deviation, and minimum and maximum pixel values for each stone. These parameters were correlated with aspects of the stones' chemical composition. A multivariate analysis showed that the mean and standard deviation of the stones' pixel values were the best CT parameters for differentiating types of renal calculi. By using computerized mapping techniques, uric acid calculi could be perfectly differentiated from struvite and calcium oxalate calculi. The latter two types also were differentiable, but to a lesser extent. CT has a potential role as an adjunct to clinical and laboratory methods for determining the chemical composition of renal calculi in an effort to select optimal treatment.

  6. Automated Synthesis of Tableau Calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Renate A.; Tishkovsky, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for synthesising sound and complete tableau calculi. Given a specification of the formal semantics of a logic, the method generates a set of tableau inference rules that can then be used to reason within the logic. The method guarantees that the generated rules form a calculus which is sound and constructively complete. If the logic can be shown to admit finite filtration with respect to a well-defined first-order semantics then adding a general ...

  7. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for lower pole calculi smaller than one centimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Chaussy, Christian; Bergsdorf, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has revolutionized the treatment of urinary calculi and became the accepted standard therapy for the majority of stone patients. Only for stones located in the lower calix, ESWL displayed a limited efficacy. Since the stone-free rate seemed to be preferential, endoscopic maneuvers like percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) have been proposed as the primary approach for this stone localization.

  8. Analysis of renal calculi by X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe: a comparison of two methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A.L.

    1981-07-01

    We analyzed 48 renal calculi by X-ray powder diffraction and electron microprobe techniques. In 35 of these, the presence of a minor constituent, not detected by X-ray diffraction, was revealed--hydroxyapatite was found in 24 stones, struvite in 6, and calcium oxalate in 5. The results of this study, as well as others, show that incomplete assignment of the crystalline constituents of urinary calculi is an inherent risk of the X-ray method and that conclusions concerning total chemical composition should be based on X-ray diffraction analyses coupled with data obtained from other analytical procedures.

  9. Analysis of renal calculi by X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe: a comparison of two methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed 48 renal calculi by X-ray powder diffraction and electron microprobe techniques. In 35 of these, the presence of a minor constituent, not detected by X-ray diffraction, was revealed--hydroxyapatite was found in 24 stones, struvite in 6, and calcium oxalate in 5. The results of this study, as well as others, show that incomplete assignment of the crystalline constituents of urinary calculi is an inherent risk of the X-ray method and that conclusions concerning total chemical composition should be based on X-ray diffraction analyses coupled with data obtained from other analytical procedures

  10. Renal calculi in dogs and cats: prevalence, mineral type, breed, age, and gender interrelationships (1981-1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, G V; Ruby, A L; Johnson, D L; Thurmond, M; Franti, C E

    1998-01-01

    Three hundred seventeen specimens of urinary calculi of renal origin from 214 female dogs and 103 male dogs, and 71 specimens of urinary calculi of renal origin from 38 female cats and 33 male cats were submitted for mineral analysis between July 1, 1981, and December 31, 1993. Among dogs, 45 breeds were affected with renal calculi. Thirty-three breeds and a crossbred group were represented among females, but 8 breeds and the crossbred group accounted for 81% of the total. Among male dogs, 30 breeds and a crossbred group were represented, but 7 breeds and the crossbred group accounted for 69% of the total. Among cats, 10 breeds and a crossbred group were represented. Dogs and cats with renal calculi were older than those of 2 comparison population groups. More than one-half of the renal calculi in both dogs and cats were from the 1st known episode of urolithiasis. The risk of formation of renal calculi was found to be higher for cats than for dogs, when compared to other stone-forming cats and dogs (approximately 4.95 per 100 stone-forming cats and 2.88 per 100 stone-forming dogs). Among dogs, breeds at highest risk of developing renal calculi were Miniature Schnauzers, Shih Tzus, Lhasa Aposos, Yorkshire Terriers, and female Pugs. Also at high risk were male Dalmatians and male Basset Hounds. Among small dogs, females generally were at higher risk of developing renal calculi than were males. Regardless of size, terrier breed males generally were at higher risk of developing renal calculi. Breeds of dogs at low risk for development of renal calculi included crossbreds. German Shepherd Dogs, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, and female Dachshunds. When only 1 kidney was involved, the risk of left renal calculus was greatest for both dogs and cats, but bilateral renal involvement was relatively common in both species (19% and 9%, respectively). Among dogs, specimens composed of 1 mineral substance (e.g., struvite) occurred more often in males (58.3%) than in females (37.9%). Female dogs formed renal calculi containing struvite or oxalate more often than did males; males formed calculi containing urate more often than did females. Calculi containing oxalate, apatite, or some combination of these minerals predominated among cats; only 1 specimen from 38 female cats and only 4 specimens from 33 male cats contained neither oxalate nor apatite. Crossbred cats were significantly less likely to have renal calculi than were other breeds. A single renal calculus specimen was identified in several uncommon breeds including Tonkinese and Birman cats, and Affenpinscher, Clumber Spaniel, English Shepherd, and Field Spaniel dogs. No significant differences were observed between male and female dogs or between male and female cats with regard to mineral type of the specimen and the presence of urinary tract infection. PMID:9503355

  11. Urinary stone detection and characterisation with dual-energy CT urography after furosemide intravenous injection: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsikas, Diomidis; Hansen, Catrina; Stefanelli, Salvatore; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospital, Radiology Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    To investigate the added advantage of IV furosemide injection and the subsequent urine dilution in the detection of urinary calculi in the excretory phase of dual-source dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) urography, and to investigate the feasibility of characterising the calculi through diluted urine. Twenty-three urinary calculi were detected in 116 patients who underwent DECT urography for macroscopic haematuria with a split bolus two- or three-acquisition protocol, including a true unenhanced series and at least a mixed nephrographic excretory phase. Virtual unenhanced images were reconstructed from contrast-enhanced DE data. Calculi were recorded on all series and characterised based on their X-ray absorption characteristics at 100 kVp and 140 kVp in both true unenhanced and nephrographic excretory phase series. All calculi with a diameter more than 2 mm were detected in the virtual unenhanced phase and in the nephrographic excretory phase. Thirteen of these calculi could be characterised in the true unenhanced phase and in the mixed nephrographic excretory phase. The results were strictly identical for both phases, six of them being recognised as non-uric acid calculi and seven as uric acid calculi. Mixed nephrographic excretory phase DECT after furosemide administration allows both detection and characterisation of clinically significant calculi, through the diluted urine. (orig.)

  12. Urinary stone detection and characterisation with dual-energy CT urography after furosemide intravenous injection: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the added advantage of IV furosemide injection and the subsequent urine dilution in the detection of urinary calculi in the excretory phase of dual-source dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) urography, and to investigate the feasibility of characterising the calculi through diluted urine. Twenty-three urinary calculi were detected in 116 patients who underwent DECT urography for macroscopic haematuria with a split bolus two- or three-acquisition protocol, including a true unenhanced series and at least a mixed nephrographic excretory phase. Virtual unenhanced images were reconstructed from contrast-enhanced DE data. Calculi were recorded on all series and characterised based on their X-ray absorption characteristics at 100 kVp and 140 kVp in both true unenhanced and nephrographic excretory phase series. All calculi with a diameter more than 2 mm were detected in the virtual unenhanced phase and in the nephrographic excretory phase. Thirteen of these calculi could be characterised in the true unenhanced phase and in the mixed nephrographic excretory phase. The results were strictly identical for both phases, six of them being recognised as non-uric acid calculi and seven as uric acid calculi. Mixed nephrographic excretory phase DECT after furosemide administration allows both detection and characterisation of clinically significant calculi, through the diluted urine. (orig.)

  13. Urinary Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Urinary Dysfunction Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile ... not improve or worsen over time. Management of Urinary Dysfunction Because the urinary symptoms following radiation therapy ...

  14. Statistical field theories deformed within different calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Oliemskoi, Oleksandr Ivanovych; Borysov, Stanislav Sergeevich; Shuda, Iryna Oleksandrivna; ?????????, ????????? ????????; ?????????, ????????? ????????; ????, ????? ?????????????; ????, ????? ?????????????

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of basic-deformed and finite-difference calculi,as well as deformation procedures proposed by Tsallis, Abe, and Kaniadakis and generalized by Naudts, we develop field-theoretical schemes of statistically distributed fields. We construct a set of generating functionals and find their connection with corresponding correlators for basic-deformed,finite-difference,and Kaniadakis calculi. Moreover, we introduce pair of additive functionals, which expansions into deforme...

  15. Flow Logic for Process Calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the ?-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction and adequacy results), and a Moore Family result showing that a least solution always exists, as well as providing insights on how to implement the analysis. We then show how to strengthen the analysis technology by introducing reachability components, interaction points, and localized environments, and finally, we extend it to a relational analysis. A Flow Logic is a program logic---in the same sense that a Hoare’s logic is. We conclude with an executive summary presenting the highlights of the approach from this perspective including a discussion of theoretical properties as well as implementation considerations. The electronic supplements present an application of the analysis techniques to a version of the ?-calculus incorporating distribution and code mobility; also the proofs of the main results can be found in the electronic supplements.

  16. A criterion for separating process calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Banti, Federico; Tiezzi, Francesco; 10.4204/EPTCS.41.2

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new criterion, replacement freeness, to discern the relative expressiveness of process calculi. Intuitively, a calculus is strongly replacement free if replacing, within an enclosing context, a process that cannot perform any visible action by an arbitrary process never inhibits the capability of the resulting process to perform a visible action. We prove that there exists no compositional and interaction sensitive encoding of a not strongly replacement free calculus into any strongly replacement free one. We then define a weaker version of replacement freeness, by only considering replacement of closed processes, and prove that, if we additionally require the encoding to preserve name independence, it is not even possible to encode a non replacement free calculus into a weakly replacement free one. As a consequence of our encodability results, we get that many calculi equipped with priority are not replacement free and hence are not encodable into mainstream calculi like CCS and pi-calculus, t...

  17. FT-Raman spectral analysis of human urinary stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, R.; Raja, A.; Thiruppathi, G.

    2012-12-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy is the most useful tool for the purpose of bio-medical diagnostics. In the present study, FT-Raman spectral method is used to investigate the chemical composition of urinary calculi. Urinary calculi multi-components such as calcium oxalate, hydroxyl apatite, struvite and uric acid are studied. FT-Raman spectrum has been recorded in the range of 3500-400 cm-1. Chemical compounds are identified by Raman spectroscopic technique. The quantitative estimations of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) 1463 cm-1, calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD) 1478 cm-1, hydroxyl apatite 959 cm-1, struvite 575 cm-1, uric acid 1283 cm-1 and oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate) 2129 cm-1 are calculated using particular peaks of FT-Raman spectrum. The quantitative estimation of human urinary stones suitable for the single calibration curve was performed.

  18. Hemiacidrin irrigation in the management of struvite calculi: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, G R; Blaivas, J G; Meares, E M

    1983-12-01

    Renacidin (10 per cent hemiacidrin) irrigation has been used in the management of renal struvite calculi in 25 patients. Of these patients 22 were free of stone after irrigation: 16 after dissolution of residual stone fragments postoperatively, 4 after prophylactic postoperative irrigation and 2 after primary, nonsurgical percutaneous dissolution. Recurrent urinary tract infections owing to the original urease-producing bacteria occurred in 14 per cent of these patients and recurrent nephrolithiasis occurred in 9 per cent during an average followup period of 66 months. PMID:6644880

  19. The value of ultrasound in diagnosis of ureteral calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Seong Ku; Kim, J. S.; Suh, S. J.; Lee, S. J. [Seoul National University University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    To determine the diagnostic value of ultrasound in patient with clinically suspected ureteral calculi, a prospective study was performed on 58 patients. Of these, 42 patients had 44 ureteral calculi and 16 patients had no calculi. The sonographic of a distal shadowign highly echogenic reflector along the ureter, with or without dilatation of the proximal ureter. Ultrasound correctly diagnosed 42 stones among 44 calculi and there was one false positive examination. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95% Ultrasonography appears to be a very useful adjunct for the diagnosis of ureteral calculi when excretory urography is equivocal or contraindicated. Also ultrasonography was valuable in monitoring passage of radiolucent ureteral stones

  20. The value of ultrasound in diagnosis of ureteral calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the diagnostic value of ultrasound in patient with clinically suspected ureteral calculi, a prospective study was performed on 58 patients. Of these, 42 patients had 44 ureteral calculi and 16 patients had no calculi. The sonographic of a distal shadowign highly echogenic reflector along the ureter, with or without dilatation of the proximal ureter. Ultrasound correctly diagnosed 42 stones among 44 calculi and there was one false positive examination. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95% Ultrasonography appears to be a very useful adjunct for the diagnosis of ureteral calculi when excretory urography is equivocal or contraindicated. Also ultrasonography was valuable in monitoring passage of radiolucent ureteral stones

  1. Mobility in process calculi and natural computing

    CERN Document Server

    Aman, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    The design of formal calculi in which fundamental concepts underlying interactive systems can be described and studied has been a central theme of theoretical computer science in recent decades, while membrane computing, a rule-based formalism inspired by biological cells, is a more recent field that belongs to the general area of natural computing. This is the first book to establish a link between these two research directions while treating mobility as the central topic. In the first chapter the authors offer a formal description of mobility in process calculi, noting the entities that move

  2. AN UNASCENDED RIGHT KIDNEY WITH LEFT SIDED URETERIC CALCULI: A CADAVERIC CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meril Ann Soman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies of the urinary system constitute approximately 30% of all the congenital malformations. There are various associated anomalies involving number, size, shape, position and vascularity of the kidneys. Unascended kidneys refers to a halt in the migration of the kidneys during their normal embryological development. Defect in the ascent of the kidneys are closely related with variations in the branching pattern of aorta. Here we report a case of an unilateral unascended right kidney in a male cadaver encountered during routine medical dissection. A left sided ureteric calculi was also seen as an incidental finding in the same cadaver. Ureterolithiasis occurs worldwide in all sets of population with 80% of the stones found in the male sex in the age group of 30- 60 years. There are various factors which favour the formation of ureteric calculi which includes geographical, socio-economical as well as the mineral content of water consumed and some general medical causes. An attempt has been made to document the causes for this variation and the preventive measures that can be adopted to prevent the formation of ureteric calculi.

  3. Rhazes, a Genius Physician in Diagnosis and Treatment of Kidney Calculi in Medical History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Changizi Ashtiyani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya Razi, known in the west as Rhazes (865 to 925 AD, was born in the ancient city of Rayy, near Tehran, Iran. He was a renowned physician in medical history and not only followed Hippocrates and Galen, but also greatly extended the analytical approach of his predecessors. Based on the existing documents, he was known as the most distinguished character in the world of medicine up to the 17th century. A great number of innovations and pioneering works in the medical science have been recorded in the name of Rhazes. His fundamental works in urology as part of his research in the realm of medicine have remained unknown. Pathophysiology of the urinary tract, venereal diseases, and kidney and bladder calculi are among his main interests in this field. He also purposed and developed methods for diagnosis and treatment of kidney calculi for the first time in medical history. He also presented a very exact and precise description of neuropathic bladder followed by vertebral fracture. He advanced urine analysis and studied function and diseases of the kidneys. Rhazes recommendations for the prevention of calculi are quite scientific and practical and in accordance with current recommendations to avoid hypercalciuria and increased saturation of urine. Rhazes was not only one of the most important Persian physician-philosophers of his era, but for centuries, his writings became fundamental teaching texts in European medical schools. Some important aspects of his contributions to medicine are reviewed.

  4. FT-IR Analysis of Urinary Stones: A Helpful Tool for Clinician Comparison with the Chemical Spot Test

    OpenAIRE

    Aniello Primiano; Silvia Persichilli; Giovanni Gambaro; Pietro Manuel Ferraro; Addessi, Alessandro D. X.; Andrea Cocci; Arcangelo Schiattarella; Cecilia Zuppi; Jacopo Gervasoni

    2014-01-01

    Background. Kidney stones are a common illness with multifactorial etiopathogenesis. The determination of crystalline and molecular composition and the quantification of all stone components are important to establish the etiology of stones disease but it is often laborious to obtain using the chemical method. The aim of this paper is to compare chemical spot test with FT-IR spectroscopy, for a possible introduction in our laboratory. Methods. We analyzed 48 calculi using Urinary Calculi Anal...

  5. Stochastic Simulation of Process Calculi for Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Phillips

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems typically involve large numbers of components with complex, highly parallel interactions and intrinsic stochasticity. To model this complexity, numerous programming languages based on process calculi have been developed, many of which are expressive enough to generate unbounded numbers of molecular species and reactions. As a result of this expressiveness, such calculi cannot rely on standard reaction-based simulation methods, which require fixed numbers of species and reactions. Rather than implementing custom stochastic simulation algorithms for each process calculus, we propose to use a generic abstract machine that can be instantiated to a range of process calculi and a range of reaction-based simulation algorithms. The abstract machine functions as a just-in-time compiler, which dynamically updates the set of possible reactions and chooses the next reaction in an iterative cycle. In this short paper we give a brief summary of the generic abstract machine, and show how it can be instantiated with the stochastic simulation algorithm known as Gillespie's Direct Method. We also discuss the wider implications of such an abstract machine, and outline how it can be used to simulate multiple calculi simultaneously within a common framework.

  6. Ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy of impacted ureteral calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur H. Brito

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This work evaluates the results of ureteroscopic treatment of impacted ureteral stones with a pneumatic lithotripter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 1997 to May 2002, 42 patients with impacted ureteral stones were treated by retrograde ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy. Twenty-eight patients were female and 14 were male. The stone size ranged from 5 to 20 mm. The ureteral sites of the stones were distal in 21, middle in 12 and proximal in 9. RESULTS: Considering stones with distal location in the ureter, 1 patient had ureteral perforation and developed a stricture in the follow-up (4.7%. As for stones in the middle ureter, 2 perforations and 1 stricture were observed (8.3% and regarding stones located in the proximal ureter, 5 perforations and 4 strictures occurred (44%. In the mid ureter, 1 ureteral avulsion was verified. In 34 patients without ureteral perforation, only 1 developed a stricture (2.9%. Of 8 patients who had perforation, 6 developed strictures. The overall incidence of stricture following treatment of impacted ureteral calculi was 14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Ureteroscopy for impacted ureteral calculi is associated with a higher incidence of ureteral perforation and stricture. Ureteroscopy of proximal ureteral calculi is associated with a high risk of perforation, when compared to mid or distal ureteral calculi. Ureteral perforation at the site of the stone seems to be the primary risk factor for stricture formation in these cases.

  7. Ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy of impacted ureteral calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Artur H., Brito; Anuar I., Mitre; Miguel, Srougi.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: This work evaluates the results of ureteroscopic treatment of impacted ureteral stones with a pneumatic lithotripter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 1997 to May 2002, 42 patients with impacted ureteral stones were treated by retrograde ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy. Twenty-eig [...] ht patients were female and 14 were male. The stone size ranged from 5 to 20 mm. The ureteral sites of the stones were distal in 21, middle in 12 and proximal in 9. RESULTS: Considering stones with distal location in the ureter, 1 patient had ureteral perforation and developed a stricture in the follow-up (4.7%). As for stones in the middle ureter, 2 perforations and 1 stricture were observed (8.3%) and regarding stones located in the proximal ureter, 5 perforations and 4 strictures occurred (44%). In the mid ureter, 1 ureteral avulsion was verified. In 34 patients without ureteral perforation, only 1 developed a stricture (2.9%). Of 8 patients who had perforation, 6 developed strictures. The overall incidence of stricture following treatment of impacted ureteral calculi was 14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Ureteroscopy for impacted ureteral calculi is associated with a higher incidence of ureteral perforation and stricture. Ureteroscopy of proximal ureteral calculi is associated with a high risk of perforation, when compared to mid or distal ureteral calculi. Ureteral perforation at the site of the stone seems to be the primary risk factor for stricture formation in these cases.

  8. Classification of bicovariant differential calculi on quantum groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suppose that q is not a root of unity. We classify all bicovariant differential calculi of dimension greater than one on the quantum groups GLq(N), Oq(N) and Spq(N) for which the differentials duij of the matrix entries uij generate the left module of first order forms. Our first classification theorem asserts that there are precisely two one-parameter families of such calculi on GLq(N) for N?3. In the limit q ? 1 only two of these calculi give the ordinary differential calculus on GL(N). Our second main theorem states that apart from finitely many q there exist precisely two differential calculi with these properties on Oq(N) and Spq(N) for N?4. There are four such calculi on Oq(3). We introduce two new 4-dimensional bicovariant differential calculi on Oq(3). (orig.)

  9. Do not treat staghorn calculi by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy alone!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, C P; Creagh, T A; Smith, J M; Fitzpatrick, J M

    1993-01-01

    A review of 84 patients with triple phosphate (staghorn) calculi treated by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) revealed a 67% stone clearance at 6 months. Classification of calculi according to morphology showed a variation in stone clearance from 47 to 82%. A significant number of patients developed complications (25%) or required additional procedures (27%). ESWL monotherapy is not a suitable treatment option for most patients with staghorn calculi. PMID:8262102

  10. Unenhanced helical CT in the evaluation of the urinary tract in children and young adults following urinary tract reconstruction: comparison with sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To compare the accuracy of unenhanced, helical CT with sonography for the detection of complications of urinary tract reconstruction. Materials and methods. Forty-six kidneys in 24 patients were examined with CT and sonography. All scans were assessed for ease of renal visualization, presence of renal, ureteral, and bladder calculi, renal scars, hydronephrosis, and abdominal wall hernia. The results of both imaging modalities were independently reported. Results. CT provided excellent visualization of all 46 kidneys, while sonography provided poor visualization of 8 kidneys (17 %) (P < 0.001). CT detected calculi in 10 kidneys, 1 ureter, and 7 bladders. Sonography detected calculi in only 2 kidneys, and 2 bladders. Overall, CT detected significantly more calculi than US (18 vs 4, P = 0.01). CT detected scarring in 15 kidneys, while sonography detected scarring in 10. Hydronephrosis was detected in 6 kidneys by CT and in 8 kidneys by sonography. Three abdominal wall hernias were seen at CT that were not seen at sonography. Conclusion. CT is superior to sonography for the detection of urinary tract calculi and renal scarring. CT will demonstrate abdominal wall hernias that are unsuspected. (orig.)

  11. Posttranslational modification and proteolytic processing of urinary osteopontin

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Brian; Petersen, Torben E.; Sørensen, Esben S.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Osteopontin (OPN) is a highly phosphorylated glycoprotein present in many tissues and body fluids. In urine OPN is a potent inhibitor of nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals suggesting a role in the prevention of renal stone formation. The role of OPN in nephrolithiasis is however somewhat unclear as it may also be involved in urinary stone formation, and it has been identified among the major protein components of renal calculi. Most likely the f...

  12. Native and contrast-radiographic examination of the urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govor?in Mira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Plain x-rays and contrast urography are important for diagnosing urinary tract diseases. The first plain film of the urinary tract was made in 1896, and the first tests using contrasts started in 1904. Excretory urography has been used since 1930. Plain film of the urinary tract Plain films of the urinary tract are used in the kidney area, the area of the ureter and urinary bladder. They also show structures (lumbar and sacral spine and pelvis, muscles (m. iliopsoas as well as calculi. Excretory urography X-ray visualization of the urinary tract with contrast substances is intravenous urography. It is used for diagnosing diseases of the upper urinary system with symptoms such as: pain, colic, hydronephrosis, as well as acute cortical infections, urinary bladder tumors, etc. Retrograde urography Retrograde urography is a procedure recommended when either the pyelocalyx system or the ureter are not seen unilaterally or bilaterally. Cystography and urethrocystography Cystography is used to visualize the bladder. It is recommended in case of intravesical obstruction. Urethrocystography is a technique for investigation of the anterior and prostatic urethra as well as the neck of the urinary bladder. Conclusion Plain film of the urinary tract, excretory urography, retrograde pyelography, cystography and urethrocystography, used along with ultrasonography, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance, are useful diagnostic procedures which provide accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.

  13. Relationship between the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi and surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi and the surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi was examined. Thirty-seven staghorn calculi in 35 cases, which were treated with percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) between 1995 and 2007 in Saga University Hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. The number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi was counted based on the radiographic findings of kidney ureter bladder (KUB), intravenous pyelography (IVP) and CT. The surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi were evaluated according to the number of PCNL sessions, the total number of surgical treatments including transurethral ureterolithotripsy (TUL) and shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), the hospitalization period, the stone-free rate and the residual stone rate. The average stone size was 45.1 mm (21-99 mm). The average number of PCNL sessions was 2.5 times. TUL and SWL were conducted in combination with PCNL in 4 and 25 cases, retrospectively. According to the increase in the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi, the number of PCNL sessions, the total number of surgical treatments and the hospitalization period all increased. In cases where staghorn calculi occupied 3 or more calyces, a lower stone-free rate and a higher residual stone rate were observed, compared with those cases where calculi occupied only 2 calyces. Evaluating the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi seems to be one of td by staghorn calculi seems to be one of the useful indicators for a preoperative assessment of surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi. (author)

  14. Statistical field theories deformed within different calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olemskoi, A. I.; Borysov, S. S.; Shuda, I. A.

    2010-09-01

    Within the framework of basic-deformed and finite-difference calculi, as well as deformation procedures proposed by Tsallis, Abe, and Kaniadakis and generalized by Naudts, we develop field-theoretical schemes of statistically distributed fields. We construct a set of generating functionals and find their connection with corresponding correlators for basic-deformed, finite-difference, and Kaniadakis calculi. Moreover, we introduce pair of additive functionals, which expansions into deformed series yield both Green functions and their irreducible proper vertices. We find as well formal equations, governing by the generating functionals of systems which possess a symmetry with respect to a field variation and are subjected to an arbitrary constrain. Finally, we generalize field-theoretical schemes inherent in concrete calculi in the Naudts manner. From the physical point of view, we study dependences of both one-site partition function and variance of free fields on deformations. We show that within the basic-deformed statistics dependence of the specific partition function on deformation has in logarithmic axes symmetrical form with respect to maximum related to deformation absence; in case of the finite-difference statistics, the partition function takes non-deformed value; for the Kaniadakis statistics, curves of related dependences have convex symmetrical form at small curvatures of the effective action and concave form at large ones. We demonstrate that only moment of the second order of free fields takes non-zero values to be proportional to inverse curvature of effective action. In dependence of the deformation parameter, the free field variance has linearly arising form for the basic-deformed distribution and increases non-linearly rapidly in case of the finite-difference statistics; for more complicated case of the Kaniadakis distribution, related dependence has double-well form.

  15. Shock wave lithotripsy is effective and safe for distal ureteral calculi in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbey, Isa; Aksoy, Yilmaz; Ziypak, Tevfik; Yapanoglu, Turgut; Polat, Ozkan; Aksoy, Mehmet

    2007-10-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of the Siemens Lithostar Modularis lithotriptor for the management of distal ureteric calculi in children. Between 2004 and 2006, 29 children with distal ureteric calculi were treated in our stone center with the Siemens Lithostar Modularis (Siemens Medical Solutions, Inc.) Effectiveness of lithotripsy, retreatment and efficacy quotient rates, and complications were assessed. The series consisted of 18 (62%) boys and 11 (38%) girls with an age range of 1-13 years (average age 7.0 +/- 3.5). Under fluoroscopic guidance, children were treated with a maximum 3,000 shocks at an average of 2.2 +/- 0.3 kV. Mean stone size was 8.2 +/- 3.2 mm (range 4-18). Success was defined as the lack of any visible stone fragments on posttreatment radiological evaluation. The mean number of sessions required was 1.5 +/- 0.8/patient (range 1-4). Complete clearance rate at 3 months was 86.2%. Re-treatment and efficacy quotient rates for distal ureteral stones were 41.4 and 55.6%, respectively. Complications such as urinary tract infection or steinstrasse occurred in 2 (6.9%) patients. Minor complications included petechial skin hemorrhage at the site of entry of shock waves in all patients. Our results show that shock wave lithotripsy for distal ureteral calculi with the Siemens Lithostar Modularis lithotriptor has a high success rate (86.2%) and efficacy quotient (55.6%) with negligible complications in children. PMID:17668197

  16. A standardisation proof for algebraic pattern calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Kesner, Delia; Ríos, Alejandro; 10.4204/EPTCS.49.5

    2011-01-01

    This work gives some insights and results on standardisation for call-by-name pattern calculi. More precisely, we define standard reductions for a pattern calculus with constructor-based data terms and patterns. This notion is based on reduction steps that are needed to match an argument with respect to a given pattern. We prove the Standardisation Theorem by using the technique developed by Takahashi and Crary for lambda-calculus. The proof is based on the fact that any development can be specified as a sequence of head steps followed by internal reductions, i.e. reductions in which no head steps are involved.

  17. A standardisation proof for algebraic pattern calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Kesner

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This work gives some insights and results on standardisation for call-by-name pattern calculi. More precisely, we define standard reductions for a pattern calculus with constructor-based data terms and patterns. This notion is based on reduction steps that are needed to match an argument with respect to a given pattern. We prove the Standardisation Theorem by using the technique developed by Takahashi and Crary for lambda-calculus. The proof is based on the fact that any development can be specified as a sequence of head steps followed by internal reductions, i.e. reductions in which no head steps are involved.

  18. Major Constituents, Free Amino Acids and Metal Levels in Renal Calculi from Multan Region

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Aslam Shad; Tariq Mahmood Ansari; Uzma Afzal; Samina Kauser; Muhammad Rafique; Misbahul Islam Khan

    2001-01-01

    Renal calculi collected from adult male/female patients of Multan, Pakistan were analyzed for major constituents, free amino acids and metallic contents. Composition of calculi (whole powder) was determined by chemical method using stone analysis kit. Thirteen distinct types of renal calculi were identified. Most of the calculi were compound in nature, however, some simple calculi containing calcium oxalate only were also found. Two dimensional descending paper chromatography was used to iden...

  19. Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic activity of Pashanabhedadi Ghrita against experimentally induced renal calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Baghel, Madhav Singh; Bhuyan, Chaturbhuja; Ravishankar, B; Ashok, B K; Patil, Panchakshari D

    2012-07-01

    Population in an industrialized world is afflicted by urinary stone disease. Kidney stones are common in all kinds of urolithiasis. One distinguished formulation mentioned by Sushruta for management of Ashmari (urolithiasis) is Pashanabhedadi Ghrita (PBG), which is in clinical practice since centuries. Validation of drug is the requirement of time through the experimental study. In this study, trial of PBG has been made against ammonium oxalate rich diet and gentamicin injection induced renal calculi in albino rats. The calculi were induced by gentamicin injection and ammonium oxalate rich diet. Test drug was administered concomitantly in the dose of 900 mg/kg for 15 consecutive days. Rats were sacrificed on the 16(th) day. Parameters like kidney weight, serum biochemical, kidney tissue and histopathology of kidney were studied. Concomitant treatment of PBG attenuates blood biochemical parameters non-significantly, where as it significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation and enhanced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activities. It also decreased crystal deposition markedly into the renal tubules in number as well as size and prevented damage to the renal tubules. The findings showed that PBG is having significant anti-urolithiatic activities against ammonium oxalate rich diet plus gentamicine injection induced urolithiasis in rats. PMID:23723654

  20. Outpatient bilateral supracostal tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy for staghorn calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorovic, Andrea; Wilson, James W.L.; Beiko, Darren

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the surgical procedure of choice to treat staghorn calculi. Most centres perform PCNL as the traditional inpatient procedure. However, outpatient PCNL has been successfully attempted and represents a feasible method of reducing hospital costs. We report the case of a 35-year-old female who underwent outpatient simultaneous PCNL for bilateral renal staghorn calculi. The patient was discharged in stable condition less than 3 hours following the procedure with minimal discomfort. To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first to describe a successfully completed outpatient bilateral supracostal tubeless PCNL for staghorn calculi. PMID:24839499

  1. SEM and X-ray microanalysis of human prostatic calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilches, J.; Lopez, A.; De Palacio, L.; Munoz, C.; Gomez, J.

    1982-02-01

    Calculi removed from human prostates affected with nodular hyperplasia were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and EDAX system. The general spectrum was made up of Na, Al, Mg, S, P, Ca and Zn. Two types of stone were identified morphostructurally and microanalytically: calculi type I of nodular surface with high peaks of S, and calculi type II polyfaceted with high peaks of P and Ca. Their formation from corpora amylacea and/or exogenous constituents is discussed. The superficial deposit of Zn suggests its incorporation from the prostatic liquid and does not seem to play an important role in the genesis.

  2. SEM and X-ray microanalysis of human prostatic calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculi removed from human prostates affected with nodular hyperplasia were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and EDAX system. The general spectrum was made up of Na, Al, Mg, S, P, Ca and Zn. Two types of stone were identified morphostructurally and microanalytically: calculi type I of nodular surface with high peaks of S, and calculi type II polyfaceted with high peaks of P and Ca. Their formation from corpora amylacea and/or exogenous constituents is discussed. The superficial deposit of Zn suggests its incorporation from the prostatic liquid and does not seem to play an important role in the genesis

  3. Urinary Catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... men. After the catheter is inserted Whenever a catheter enters the bladder, there is a risk that bacteria will get into the urinary tract. In many cases, the bacteria grow in the urine without causing ...

  4. Lower pole calculi larger than one centimeter: Retrograde intrarenal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Andreas J.; Bach, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Controversy remains on how to treat lower pole calculi between 1 and 2 cm of size. Treatment options like shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) or percutaneous stone treatment (PCNL) are associated with poor stone-free rates or high morbidity.

  5. Computerised tomography localisation of intrarenal calculi prior to nephrolithotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the EMI CT 5005 scanner in patients with renal calculus disease is described. This investigation was found to be a useful aid in the accurate localisation of calculi within the renal collecting system prior to surgery. (author)

  6. Laser lithotripsy in the treatment of ureteral calculi.

    OpenAIRE

    Psihramis, K. E.; Buckspan, M. B.

    1990-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of laser lithotripsy with a flash-lamp-pumped tunable dye laser in the treatment of ureteral calculi that were too large for direct extraction and that could not be treated with or had not responded to extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) or forms of ureteroscopic lithotripsy other than laser lithotripsy. In 20 (74%) of the 27 patients the laser alone successfully fragmented the calculi into pieces small enough to pass spontaneously or to be easily extrac...

  7. Ureteroscopy Assisted Retrograde Nephrostomy for Complete Staghorn Renal Calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahara, Takashi; Ito, Hiroki; Terao, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Takehiko; Uemura, Hiroji; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Matsuzaki, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Complete staghorn calculi are typically managed with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). However, dilating nephrostomy and inserting a nephro access sheath can be difficult to perform without hydronephrosis. We reported the procedure of ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy (UARN) during PCNL. UARN is effective without dilating the renal collecting system in cases of complete staghorn calculi. A 63-year old female with a left complete staghorn renal calculus was referred to our hospit...

  8. Outpatient bilateral supracostal tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy for staghorn calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Kokorovic, Andrea; Wilson, James W. L.; Beiko, Darren

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the surgical procedure of choice to treat staghorn calculi. Most centres perform PCNL as the traditional inpatient procedure. However, outpatient PCNL has been successfully attempted and represents a feasible method of reducing hospital costs. We report the case of a 35-year-old female who underwent outpatient simultaneous PCNL for bilateral renal staghorn calculi. The patient was discharged in stable condition less than 3 hours following the procedure w...

  9. Shockwave lithotripsy in patients with renal calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to demonstrate the efficacy of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in the primary treatment of 1647 patients with renal calculi using a Dornier Doli U/50 lithotripter. One thousand six hundred forty-seven patients underwent SWL as day-cases at King Abdulaziz Hospital, Saudi Arabia between October 2001 and July 2007, using intravenous sedation (Pethidine 1mg/kg and Midazolam 5-10mg) for analgesia in 85.5% of the patients. The treatment outcome of 2241 renal calculi was analyzed and stratified according to the size and site of the stones. Recorded data included shock waves intensity, number of shocks, treatment time, analgesia stone related factors such as size, site, number, nature, composition and any related complications. The stones were grouped into 5 groups, according to the largest stone size in the kidney. Patients were followed up for 6-18 months, mean of 13 months. Complete clearance of the stones occurred in 2154 kidneys (89.5%). At 3-months follow-up, the overall treatment rate was 57.2% and for each group it was 132 (23.5%) for Group I, 254 (36.1%) for Group II, 473 (85.5%) for Group III, 278 (100%) for Group IV and 147 (100%) for Group V. Treatment failed in 87 patients with stone size of 30-39 mm. Fifty-six were solitary pelvic stones treated with ureteroscopy, while 31 were calyceal stoned treated by other modalities such as per-cutaneousnephro-lithotomy. The most common complication was pyelonephritis with or without obstruction. Shock wave lithoh or without obstruction. Shock wave lithotripsy treatment was a successful primary management of renal stones of variable sizes in 89.5% of the treated kidneys. (author)

  10. Site of impaction of ureteric calculi requiring surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Barky, Ehab; Ali, Yusuf; Sahsah, Mohammed; Terra, Ali A; Kehinde, Elijah O

    2014-02-01

    Textbooks describe three narrowest anatomic sites in the ureter as the most likely places for ureteral calculi to lodge, these are: the pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ), the point where the ureters cross over the iliac vessels and the ureterovesical junction (UVJ). The purpose of this study is to determine whether calculi causing ureteric obstruction and requiring surgical treatment are found mostly at these three narrowest anatomic points of the ureter. Three hundred consecutive patients with impacted ureteric calculi who required surgical intervention were studied. The location of the impacted calculus on the day of surgical intervention was categorized according to nine predetermined levels outlined in a designed diagram based on findings on non-contrast CT of kidneys, ureters and bladder. Two peaks in stone distribution in the ureters were encountered; the first was above the ischial spine in the proximal part of the lower third ureter (84 patients, 28%), while the second was at the level between L3 and L4 lumbar vertebrae (66 patients, 22%). Overall, the location of impacted calculi was as follows, 53, 34, 10 and 3% in the lower third ureter, upper third ureter, PUJ and mid ureter, respectively. This study demonstrates two peaks of calculi distribution in the ureter where ureteric calculi become impacted: the upper ureter below the PUJ and a second in the lower ureter, more proximal than the UVJ. There was an absence of the peak in stone location over the iliac vessels, that is, the mid ureter. PMID:24057120

  11. Análise do impacto do progresso tecnológico nos custos do tratamento hospitalar: o caso do tratamento para litíase urinária no Hospital Universitário de Brasília Analysis of the technological change impact in the costs in hospital treatment: the case study of the treatment for urinary calculi in hospital in university hospital of Brasília

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Souza Costa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O progresso tecnológico na área de saúde tem provocado a elevação dos custos da assistência médica, preocupando a população mundial, os agentes privados e os responsáveis pelas políticas públicas. Estetrabalho apresenta uma análise do impacto do progresso tecnológico - delimitado, neste estudo, à incorporação de equipamentos médicos - nos custos do tratamento hospitalar. Para cumprir o objetivo, foram escolhidos ostratamentos médicos para litíase urinária - litotripsia e cirurgia - devido ao histórico de relevantes avanços tecnológicos. O estudo de caso foi realizado no Serviço de Litotripsia e no Centro Cirúrgico do Hospital Universitário de Brasília (HUB, no período de 2001 a 2003. Foram comparados os custos e as receitas diferenciais das alternativas de tratamento para calculose urinária em quatro opções de decisão. Para testar a robustez dos resultados, foi incorporada a variável incerteza, por meio de simulações no sistema Crystall Ball, realizando 50.000 iterações. Os principais impactos do progresso tecnológico nos custos do tratamento paralitíase urinária são: aumento da capacidade instalada, geração de despesa com obsolescência e aumento das receitas.The technological progress in the field of health has been triggering rises of medical assistance costs, worrying the world-wide population, private agents and the responsible ones for public policies. This search presents an analysis of technological evolution impact - here, bounded to the medical equipments incorporation - on thehospital treatment costs. In order to accomplish the objective, the medical care for urinary lithiasis - lithotripsyand surgery - had been chosen due to the record of meaningful technological advances. The case study wascarried through at the Lithotripsy Service and Hospital Universitário de Brasília (HUB Surgical Center from 2001to 2003. The costs and incomes - differential items inherent to options for urinary calculosis treatment - were compared in four proposals. As a means to prove the results robustness the variable uncertainty wasincorporated through simulations at the Crystal Ball system, achieving 50.000 iterations. The main impacts from technological progress on the medical care for urinary lithiasis costs are: increase of the installed capacity, generation of expense with obsolescence and increase of revenues.

  12. Análise do impacto do progresso tecnológico nos custos do tratamento hospitalar: o caso do tratamento para litíase urinária no Hospital Universitário de Brasília / Analysis of the technological change impact in the costs in hospital treatment: the case study of the treatment for urinary calculi in hospital in university hospital of Brasília

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia de Souza, Costa; César Augusto Tibúrcio, Silva.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O progresso tecnológico na área de saúde tem provocado a elevação dos custos da assistência médica, preocupando a população mundial, os agentes privados e os responsáveis pelas políticas públicas. Estetrabalho apresenta uma análise do impacto do progresso tecnológico - delimitado, neste estudo, à in [...] corporação de equipamentos médicos - nos custos do tratamento hospitalar. Para cumprir o objetivo, foram escolhidos ostratamentos médicos para litíase urinária - litotripsia e cirurgia - devido ao histórico de relevantes avanços tecnológicos. O estudo de caso foi realizado no Serviço de Litotripsia e no Centro Cirúrgico do Hospital Universitário de Brasília (HUB), no período de 2001 a 2003. Foram comparados os custos e as receitas diferenciais das alternativas de tratamento para calculose urinária em quatro opções de decisão. Para testar a robustez dos resultados, foi incorporada a variável incerteza, por meio de simulações no sistema Crystall Ball, realizando 50.000 iterações. Os principais impactos do progresso tecnológico nos custos do tratamento paralitíase urinária são: aumento da capacidade instalada, geração de despesa com obsolescência e aumento das receitas. Abstract in english The technological progress in the field of health has been triggering rises of medical assistance costs, worrying the world-wide population, private agents and the responsible ones for public policies. This search presents an analysis of technological evolution impact - here, bounded to the medical [...] equipments incorporation - on thehospital treatment costs. In order to accomplish the objective, the medical care for urinary lithiasis - lithotripsyand surgery - had been chosen due to the record of meaningful technological advances. The case study wascarried through at the Lithotripsy Service and Hospital Universitário de Brasília (HUB) Surgical Center from 2001to 2003. The costs and incomes - differential items inherent to options for urinary calculosis treatment - were compared in four proposals. As a means to prove the results robustness the variable uncertainty wasincorporated through simulations at the Crystal Ball system, achieving 50.000 iterations. The main impacts from technological progress on the medical care for urinary lithiasis costs are: increase of the installed capacity, generation of expense with obsolescence and increase of revenues.

  13. Urinary diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautmann, Richard E; Abol-Enein, Hassan; Hafez, Khaled; Haro, Isao; Mansson, Wiking; Mills, Robert D; Montie, James D; Sagalowsky, Arthur I; Stein, John P; Stenzl, Arnulf; Studer, Urs E; Volkmer, Bjoern G

    2007-01-01

    A consensus conference convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Société Internationale d'Urologie (SIU) met to critically review reports of urinary diversion. The world literature on urinary diversion was identified through a Medline search. Evidence-based recommendations for urinary diversion were prepared with reference to a 4-point scale. Many level 3 and 4 citations, but very few level 2 and no level 1, were noted. This outcome supported the clinical practice pattern. Findings of >300 reviewed citations are summarized. Published reports on urinary diversion rely heavily on expert opinion and single-institution retrospective case series: (1) The frequency distribution of urinary diversions performed by the authors of this report in >7000 patients with cystectomy reflects the current status of urinary diversion after cystectomy for bladder cancer: neobladder, 47%; conduit, 33%; anal diversion, 10%; continent cutaneous diversion, 8%; incontinent cutaneous diversion, 2%; and others, 0.1%. (2) No randomized controlled studies have investigated quality of life (QOL) after radical cystectomy. Such studies are desirable but are probably difficult to conduct. Published evidence does not support an advantage of one type of reconstruction over the others with regard to QOL. An important proposed reason for this is that patients are subjected preoperatively to method-to-patient matching, and thus are prepared for disadvantages associated with different methods. (3) Simple end-to-side, freely refluxing ureterointestinal anastomosis to an afferent limb of a low-pressure orthotopic reconstruction, in combination with regular voiding and close follow-up, is the procedure that results in the lowest overall complication rate. The potential benefit of "conventional" antireflux procedures in combination with orthotopic reconstruction seems outweighed by the higher complication and reoperation rates. The need to prevent reflux in a continent cutaneous reservoir is not significantly debated, and this should be done. (4) Most reconstructive surgeons have abandoned the continent Kock ileal reservoir largely because of the significant complication rate associated with the intussuscepted nipple valve. PMID:17280907

  14. Recent advances in management of ureteral calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Richard Daron; Shah, Mushtaq; Patel, Anup

    2009-01-01

    The management of patients with urinary tract stone disease has changed dramatically over recent years, with current treatment modalities focused on their minimal invasiveness. In this article we will discuss the recent advances in the field of urolithiasis management, with a focus on medical expulsive therapy, extra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy.

  15. [Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urolithiasis in patients with urinary diversion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Vega, A; García Alonso, D; Parra Muntaner, L; Sánchez Merino, J M; García Alonso, J

    2004-05-01

    We evaluate the efficacy of ESWL in the management of calculi in patients with urinary diversion. We treated 5 patients who suffered from urinary lithiasis after urinary diversion post cistectomy. We managed the patients with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in monotherapy with a Siemens Lithostar Modularis device. Mean stone size (long axis) was 1.95 cm (range 1 to 3.5 cm). The mean shockwave number per session was 2.6 per patient. Stone free result was 100%. We conclude that ESWL technique can provide acceptable results in patients with urinary diversion and can be used as first choice treatment in these type of patients due to its minimal morbidity and excellent results, equivalent to those achieved in patients without urinary diversion. PMID:15264685

  16. Existence families, functional calculi and evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    deLaubenfels, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This book presents an operator-theoretic approach to ill-posed evolution equations. It presents the basic theory, and the more surprising examples, of generalizations of strongly continuous semigroups known as 'existent families' and 'regularized semigroups'. These families of operators may be used either to produce all initial data for which a solution in the original space exists, or to construct a maximal subspace on which the problem is well-posed. Regularized semigroups are also used to construct functional, or operational, calculi for unbounded operators. The book takes an intuitive and constructive approach by emphasizing the interaction between functional calculus constructions and evolution equations. One thinks of a semigroup generated by A as etA and thinks of a regularized semigroup generated by A as etA g(A), producing solutions of the abstract Cauchy problem for initial data in the image of g(A). Material that is scattered throughout numerous papers is brought together and presented in a fresh, ...

  17. Salivary gland calculi - contemporary methods of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sialolithiasis is the most common disorder of major salivary glands. The main site of salivary stones formation is submandibular gland, followed by parotid and sublingual gland. The aim of this article was to present current diagnostic imaging modalities carried out in patients suspected with salivary stones on the basis of own material and review of literature. Current diagnostic imaging tools used in the imaging of salivary stones were described and illustrated in this paper. These are: conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance sialography and sialoendoscopy. Digital subtraction sialography and ultrasonography are the methods of choice in the imaging of salivary gland calculi. Although sialography is a very old diagnostic method, still it is the best diagnostic tool in the imaging of subtle anatomy of salivary gland duct system. Digital subtraction sialography can show the exact location of salivary stone and enables imaging of salivary ducts pathology (e.g. stenoses), which is especially important when sialoendoscopy is planned. Sialography is also used as the treatment method, i.e. interventional sialography. Non enhanced computed tomography is recommended when multiple and tiny salivary stones are suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the evolving alternative diagnostic method. In this diagnostic modality there is no need for salivary ducts cannulation and administration of contrast material. Thus magnetic ation of contrast material. Thus magnetic resonance sialography can also be carried out in the acute sialoadenitis. In the future, sialoendoscopy may become one of the main diagnostic and treatment procedures for salivary duct disorders, especially in salivary stone cases. (authors)

  18. The composition of urinary stones in central sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine chemical analysis of urinary stones of central sindh. Study design: Prospective and randomized study. Setting: Department of Surgery and Pathology of Peoples University of Medical and Health Sciences Nawabshah. Duration of study: Three years from May 2008 to May 2011. Material and Methods: Total 106 urolith patients who underwent open stone surgery were included in the study. EDTA Titration used for determination of calcium ions and determination of oxalate, phosphate, magnesium, ammonia, uric acid and cystine stones was carried out using spectrophotometer. These patients were asked to fill out a proforma with parameters of age, sex, radiological location of stone and chemical composition of surgically recovered stones. The stone analysis findings were reviewed and compared with other reported series Results: In this study 75(70.75%) patients were male and 31 (29.25%) female. Male to female ratio was of 2.41:1. The age ranged from 1 to 70 years with the mean of 22.69 years. The peak incidence of upper urinary tract stone in 20-30 years and lower urinary tract stones in both sexes was under 10 years. Anatomical location of stone showed 48(45.29%) renal, 13(12.26%) ureteric and 45(42.45%) bladder calculi. Chemical analysis revealed 56(52.8%) calcium oxalate, 7(6.6%) calcium phosphate, 11(10.3%) ammonium urate, 18(16.9%) uric acid, 13(12.2%) Sturvite and 1(0.9%) cystine calculi. Conclusion: It was concluded that urolithiasis is predominantly male disease. No age group was spared to stone disease. Calcium oxalate, uric acid, ammonium urate and mixed calculi are the main types in our study due to poor nutritional status, poverty and inadequate health facilities. Considering that knowledge of stone composition is of utmost importance to modify the incidence of urolithiasis. (author)

  19. High-energy v low-energy shockwave lithotripsy in treatment of ureteral calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, G L; Mathes, L T

    1997-10-01

    The size of the crater formed in a urinary calculus subjected to shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is directly proportional to the energy delivered to the stone surface. This study compared the effect of high and low energy levels on the outcomes of ureteral SWL. Ureteral calculi (N = 336) were treated with the conventional low-energy Siemens Lithostar and 62 with the higher-energy (1.02 v 0.5 mJ/mm2) modification of the Lithostar, the Siemens Shock Tube C. Stone locations included all regions of the ureter. The average stone treated with the standard Lithostar measured 8.1 mm in diameter and received 5461 shockwaves (treatment time 45 minutes) at 17.2 kV (range 14.5-19.0 kV). The stone-free rate was 72%, with stents being used in 16% of patients and a retreatment rate of 9%. The typical stone treated with Shock Tube C was 10.4 mm in diameter and received 3528 shockwaves (treatment time 30 minutes) at an average energy setting of 4.1 (range 1.5-8.0). The stone-free rate was 75%, with stents being used in 9.8% of cases, and a retreatment rate of only 1.6% (P < 0.003). In this study, Shock Tube C yielded stone-free rates equivalent to those of the conventional machine. However, the number of shockwaves, treatment time, and retreatment rate were significantly lower with the new shock tube. High-energy lithotripsy is more efficient than low-energy treatment of ureteral calculi. PMID:9355946

  20. Correlations Between the Composition of Moroccan Urinary Stones and the Risk Factors (Food Habit)

    OpenAIRE

    Laziri Fatiha; Rhazi Filali Fouzia; Amechrouq Ali; Soulaymani Abdelmajid

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize and to analyze the likely factors to influence the composition of the Morocco urinary calculi, we took a study between July 2002 and June 2007 with 283 lithiasis patients that gave their sample (stone) for analyzes by infrared spectroscopy and replied to the questionnaire. Different informations were recorded: epidemiological characteristic (sex, age, residence zone and profession), food habits (tea; rich products in calcium, oxalate, animal proteins a...

  1. Intracorporeal Lithotripsy for Ureteral Calculi Using Swiss Lithoclast : SKIMS Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hamid, M. Saleem Wani, B. S. Wazir

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available At present the techniques available for performing intracorporeal lithotripsy include electrohydraulic,ultrasonic, laser, and ballistic lithotripsy. We present our experience with a unique technology forperforming intracorporeal lithotripsy, namely the Swiss lithoclast, which is a form of ballistic lithotripsy.This simple and inexpensive device uses compressed air to activate a solid probe in a manner similarto that of a jackhammer. We report the use of this lithoclast in 92 patients involving a total of 95ureteral calculi. The lithoclast successfully fragmented 81 of the 95 calculi, a success rate of 85.26%.There were no major complications directly related to the use of this device. The Swiss lithoclastseems to be a safe, effective and an inexpensive means of performing intracorporeal lithotripsy forureteral calculi

  2. Percutaneous Removal of Retained Calculi from the Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With rising pressure placed on health service resources minimally invasive techniques requiring only short hospital admissions are increasing in importance. We describe the techniques used to remove calculi from the peritoneal cavity which had been retained after surgery and continued to cause clinical problems. In both cases described the calculi lay within abscess cavities associated with fistulous tracks to the skin. The fistulae were dilated to allow passage of therapeutic radiologic and endoscopic equipment enabling manipulation and subsequent extraction of the stones. In both cases removal of the calculi allowed complete resolution of the fistulae and the patients made a full clinical recovery. Removal of gallstones which have escaped into the peritoneum at laparoscopic cholecystectomy leading to sepsis has been described; we describe the novel management of a patient in whom extraction had already been attempted, at another hospital, without success. Removal of an appendicolith, described herein another patient, does not appear to have been reported previously

  3. PCNL in the Management of Lower Pole Caliceal Calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Amir Mohsen Ziaee; Abdollah Nasehi; Abbas Basiri; Nasser Simforoosh; AbdolKarim Danesh; Farzaneh Sharifi Aghdas; Ali Tabibi

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Several therapeutic methods are used in the management of lower pole caliceal calculi. This survey has been conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the management of lower pole calculi.

  4. Treatment of giant ureterocele calculi by Holmium Laser Lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Söylemez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Most ureteral stones pass spontaneously. But patients who have a calculi in an ureterocele could not pass their stone, because of narrow ureteral orifice. These stones may remain asymptomatic until hematuria or obstruction occurs.Materials and Methods: Holmium laser has many uses in urology, including soft tissue incision and calculus fragmentation. These properties are ideal for endoscopic management of the ureterocele calculusResults: We present a young patient who has no spesific and severe symptoms with a hypofunctional left kidney because of giant calculi in an ureterocele Conclusion: Its imaging characteristics on intravenous pyelography and endoscopic treatment were emphasized.

  5. Labelled Lambda-calculi with Explicit Copy and Erase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Fernández

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present two rewriting systems that define labelled explicit substitution lambda-calculi. Our work is motivated by the close correspondence between Levy's labelled lambda-calculus and paths in proof-nets, which played an important role in the understanding of the Geometry of Interaction. The structure of the labels in Levy's labelled lambda-calculus relates to the multiplicative information of paths; the novelty of our work is that we design labelled explicit substitution calculi that also keep track of exponential information present in call-by-value and call-by-name translations of the lambda-calculus into linear logic proof-nets.

  6. New Graph Calculi for Planar Non-3-Colorable Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanatani, Yoichi; Horiyama, Takashi; Iwama, Kazuo; Tamaki, Suguru

    The Hajós calculus is a nondeterministic procedure which generates the class of non-3-colorable graphs. If all non-3-colorable graphs can be constructed in polynomial steps by the calculus, then NP=co-NP holds. Up to date, however, it remains open whether there exists a family of graphs that cannot be generated in polynomial steps. To attack this problem, we propose two graph calculi PHC and PHC* that generate non-3-colorable planar graphs, where intermediate graphs in the calculi are also restricted to be planar. Then we prove that PHC and PHC* are sound and complete. We also show that PHC* can polynomially simulate PHC.

  7. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation. PMID:25433503

  8. [Clinical results of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for upper urinary tract stone using Siemens Lithostar2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, J; Bessho, H; Kamizuru, M; Terada, T

    1997-07-01

    Between May 1994 and March 1996, a total of 427 cases of upper urinary tract stones were treated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using a Siemens Lithostar2. Of 427 patients, 167 had renal stones and 260 had ureteral calculi. A double J stent was inserted preoperatively for patients with stones > or = 20 mm in diameter. The success rate after 3 months, defined as complete disappearance of stone or partial disintegration with residual stones Lithostar 2 is safe and useful for treating upper urinary tract stones. PMID:9282290

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system ... of your body. Ahhh! That feels better. Continue Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys ...

  10. Urinary Tract Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español Urinary Tract Health: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is urinary tract health? The urinary (pronounced YOOR-uh-ner- ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our ePublications > Urinary tract infection fact sheet ePublications Urinary tract infection fact sheet Print this fact sheet ... and the symptoms were gone. What is a urinary (YOOR-uh-nair-ee) tract infection (UTI)? A ...

  12. Renal calculi with retrocaval ureter: is percutaneous nephrolithotomy sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jai; Raj, Anubhav; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan; Singh, Vishwajeet

    2013-01-01

    A 60-year-old woman presented with complaints of intermittent right flank pain which had begun one year ago. Ultrasonography and intravenous urogram showed right pelvic (15?mm) and inferior calyceal (6?mm) calculi along with suspected retrocaval course of right ureter, which was confirmed by contrast CT scan. Tc-99m diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (DTPA) scan showed normal function and normal drainage of right kidney. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) was performed for right renal calculi. Because of curved ureteric course, negotiation of ureteric catheter in pelvis was anticipated to be troublesome, so intraoperative retrograde pyelogram (RGP) was performed to delineate the anatomy. Puncture was performed safely after air contrast pyelography. No complications occurred intraoperatively and postoperatively. On follow-up of up to 1?year patient was asymptomatic and renal scan showed normal function and drainage. So in the presence of retrocaval ureter and associated renal calculi, PCNL is a safe and optimal procedure and in condition of non-obstructive drainage, management of calculi only is adequate. PMID:23536623

  13. Major Constituents, Free Amino Acids and Metal Levels in Renal Calculi from Multan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Shad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal calculi collected from adult male/female patients of Multan, Pakistan were analyzed for major constituents, free amino acids and metallic contents. Composition of calculi (whole powder was determined by chemical method using stone analysis kit. Thirteen distinct types of renal calculi were identified. Most of the calculi were compound in nature, however, some simple calculi containing calcium oxalate only were also found. Two dimensional descending paper chromatography was used to identify free amino acids in some prominent classes of renal calculi. Arginine, aspartinine, glycine, leucine, isoleucine and tryptophan were found in nearly all the calculi whereas glutamic acid, histidine, hydroxyproline, phenylalanine, threonine and tryosine occurred randomly. Analysis of major (Na, K, Ca and Mg and trace (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Mn elements in the calculi was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Elements such as Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn have shown their presence in nearly all the calculi however Pb, Ni, Mn and Cu levels were below the limit of detection. This study has revealed useful information about the chemical nature of renal calculi from Multan region. It will be helpful in adopting preventive strategies to minimize stone formation and their reoccurrence.

  14. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy of Kidney Calculi in Horseshoe Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zolfaghari

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL in horseshoe kidneys with calculi. Materials and Methods: Between 1995 and 2005, we performed PCNL in 9 patients with horseshoe kidney. In 3 of them, there was a single calculus and the rest had multiple calculi in the pelvis and at least 1 in the calyxes. Ultrasonography, plain abdominal radiography, and intravenous urography (IVU were performed in all patients. We used fluoroscopy for entering the system and then, pneumatic or ultrasonic lithotripsy was used. Results: In all except 1 patient (88.9% we could access the system. Single calculi in 3 patients were removed. In 5 patients with multiple calculi, the calculus causing obstruction was removed, and in 3, the calculi located in the calyxes were removed too. Consequently, 66.7% were stone-free at the end of the procedure. In 2 patients, there were residual calculi in the calyxes and they underwent candidates for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Conclusion: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy can be used in patients with horseshoe kidney if the patient selection is appropriate and the surgeon is experienced enough. The success rate and complications are the same as the patients with normal anatomy. However, access to the lower calyx is more difficult due to its anatomic status.

  15. Safety and efficacy of transurethral pneumatic lithotripsy for bladder calculi in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of transurethral pneumatic lithotripsy for bladder calculi in children. Method: The study included 100 children up to 15 years of age undergoing pneumatic cystolithoclast for bladder stones. The descriptive study was conducted from September 2006 to February 2007 at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi. The inclusion criteria was children up to 15 years of age with a bladder stone of up to 3 cm, pre-operative negative urine culture, no coagulopathy and fit for general anaesthesia. An X-ray and ultrasound of Kidney and Urinary Bladder (KUB) was mandatory. The procedure was done under general anaesthesia with a single dose of pre-operative antibiotic. A mini-scope of 4 FR or a semi-rigid ureteroscope of 7/8.5 FR with pneumatic wolf lithoclast was used for the fragmentation of stones. Duration of procedure, any per-operative and post-operative complications and the duration of hospital stay were recorded. Post-operatively, the patient underwent ultrasound Kidney and Urinary Bladder at the first follow-up to assess stone clearance after one week. Result: Mean patients age was 4.95+-3.3 years. The male-to-female ratio was 11.5: 1 The mean hospital stay was 9.2 +- 2.5 hours. The mean operating time was 25 (10 -65) minutes. Ten (10%) patients developed minor complications out of which 5 (5%) developed haematuria and 4 (4%) developed difficulty in passing urine. One (1%) of the patients developed post-opere (1%) of the patients developed post-operative retention of urine. All the patients were stone free after the procedure. Conclusion: The transurethral pneumatic lithoclast is very effective and safe in children with bladder stones up to 3 cm. (author)

  16. Diagnosis and surgical management of obstructive ureteral calculi in cats: 11 cases (1993-1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate diagnostic methods, surgical treatment, perioperative management, and renal function of cats with obstructive calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Retrospective case series. 11 cats that underwent surgery for removal of calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Medical records were reviewed, and the following information was recorded: signalment; results of physical examination, clinicopathologic analyses, and abdominal imaging; surgical procedure; postoperative management; and results of ureterolith quantitative analysis. Ureteroliths in the proximal portion of the ureter were removed from 5 cats (pyelotomy, 1 cat; unilateral ureterotomy, 2 cats; bilateral ureterotomies, 2 cats). Calculi in the middle and distal part of the ureter were removed by partial ureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy (6 cats). Ten cats recovered from surgery and were discharged from the hospital. One cat died from unknown causes 4 months after surgery, and 1 cat had a nephrectomy elsewhere 5 weeks after ureterolith removal. Eight cats were evaluated 12 to 20 months after surgery. Of these, 2 cats that were markedly azotemic before surgery improved after surgery, and 2 cats developed nephroliths after surgery. Also, of 5 cats that had nephroliths that were not removed at the time of surgery, 4 still had visible nephroliths. One cat had recurrent ureteral obstruction from a ureterolith and persistent urinary tract infection. Ureteroliths or ultrasonographic evidence of ureteral obstruction were not detected in other cats. A combination of microsurgical techniques and intensive postoperative care is necessary to minimize morbidity of cats after removal of a ureterolith. Renal function may improve or stabilize after removal of the ureteral obstruction

  17. Ureteral calculi as a source of low back pain- a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satishkumar Anandan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes a 49 year old male with complaints of back pain that was diagnosed as degenerative low back pain and referred to the physical therapist. The mode of onset was insidious and the pain was intermittent with no relief from specific intervention as in rest, heat or analgesics. There was no report of changes in urinary frequency or color, and any vomiting sensation. This patient was appropriately screened by a physical therapist who suspected a pain origin that could potentially be of a viscerogenic origin. He was referred back to the primary care physician who ordered an ultrasound and a CT-KUB (Computerized Tomography-Kidney, Ureter, Bladder which revealed a 10.5 mm calculi in the left upper ureter. The patient was then referred to a urologist who confirmed the findings and performed a ureterorenoscopy (URS lithoclast fragmentation and J-J stenting under spinal anaesthesia. The result was an excellent symptomatic and functional outcome. The need for lateral thinking in the evaluation of non specific low back pain is enumerated. The treatment based classification system is a referenced model. The emerging role of the physical therapist in screening of back pain as a first contact practitioner and the responsibility therein, is described.

  18. Acute urinary retention as a late complication of subcutaneous liquid silicone injection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luongo de Matos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute urinary retention is characterized by a sudden interruption of urinary output; urine is retained in the bladder due to either functional or obstructive anatomic factors, and cannot be voided. The main causes of acute urinary obstruction are benign prostatic hyperplasia, constipation, prostate adenocarcinoma, urethral stenosis, clot retention, neurological disorders, following surgery, calculi, drugs, or urinary tract infections. A transvestite patient, aged 55 years, described having had liquid silicone subcutaneously injected in various parts of the body, the last one four years ago. He complained of absent urinary output during the last 14 hours. The physical examination revealed skin deformation due to migration of implants; a hard nodule (characterized as a foreign body was present in the preputium and a diagnosis of acute urinary retention was made; an unsuccessful attempt to exteriorize the glans for urinary catheterization, was followed by therapeutic cystostomy. Acute urinary retention has not been mentioned in the medical literature as a complication of liquid silicone subcutaneous injection.

  19. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy and Transureteral Lithotripsy in the Treatment of Impacted Lower Ureteral Calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Armin Iranpour; Saeed Zand; Mohammad Nadjafi-Semnani; Abbas Basiri; Seyyed Amir Mohsen Ziaee,

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) with ureteroscopy followed by transureteral lithotripsy (TUL) for the treatment of impacted distal ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 patients with solitary impacted distal ureteral calculi were assigned into 2 groups of treatment with SWL (42 patients) and TUL (54 patients) with a 6.9-F semirigid ureteroscope. Characteristics of the patients and the calculi, treatment parameters, clin...

  20. Improved focusing for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of ureteral calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostendorf, N; Hertle, L

    1995-03-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of ureteral calculi, which is usually performed with the patient in the prone position, may be difficult or even impossible under certain conditions because x-ray visibility is poor or the calculus is out of range of the shock wave focus. Treatment conditions can be improved by a simple change in the positioning of the patient, using the shock wave head from the contralateral side. This method is applicable for the common Siemens Lithostar device. PMID:7861517

  1. The efficacy of tamsulosin in lower ureteral calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griwan M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There has been a paradigm shift in the management of ureteral calculi in the last decade with the introduction of new less invasive methods, such as ureterorenoscopy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. Aims: Recent studies have reported excellent results with medical expulsive therapy (MET for distal ureteral calculi, both in terms of stone expulsion and control of ureteral colic pain. Settings and Design: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting and MET with tamsulosin. Materials and Methods: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting (Group I and MET with tamsulosin (Group II in 60 patients, with a follow up of 28 days. Statistical Analysis: Independent ?t? test and chi-square test. Results: Group II showed a statistically significant advantage in terms of the stone expulsion rate. The mean number of episodes of pain, mean days to stone expulsion and mean amount of analgesic dosage used were statistically significantly lower in Group II (P value is 0.007, 0.01 and 0.007, respectively as compared to Group I. Conclusions: It is concluded that MET should be considered for uncomplicated distal ureteral calculi before ureteroscopy or extracorporeal lithotripsy. Tamsulosin has been found to increase and hasten stone expulsion rates, decrease acute attacks by acting as a spasmolytic, reduces mean days to stone expulsion and decreases analgesic dose usage.

  2. What is important to patients receiving extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy for urinary tract calculi?

    OpenAIRE

    Kouriefs, C.; Quatan, N.; Larking, A.; Watkin, N. A.; Boyd, P. J. R.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients' experience and expectations are paramount in the current era of clinical governance. However, there is lack of published information on patients' expectations from extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment for renal stone disease. We conducted a survey to quantify what aspects of ESWL are important purely from the patients' prospective. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Postal questionnaires were sent out to all patients who attended our unit for ESWL treatment for re...

  3. Urinary schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbola, Oluwatoyin F

    2014-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second most common socio-economically devastating parasitic disease after malaria, affecting about 240 million residents of developing countries. In Africa, it predominantly manifests as urogenital disease, and the main infective agent is Schistosoma hematobium. Endemicity is propagated by poor socio-economic status and environmental degradation due to rapid urbanization. Recreational swimming is a potent medium for the spread of disease in children and adolescents. Most affected individuals are asymptomatic. The male and female worms are equipped with an extraordinary capacity for immune evasion and are able to co-habit for several decades within the pelvic venous plexus. Eggs deposited in the bladder wall resist elimination by type 1 T lymphocytes. Instead, they are sustained by pro-fibrogenic encapsulation (as modulated by type 2 helper cells). Progressive bladder disease results in obstructive uropathy and predisposes to (mostly) squamous cell carcinoma. Schistosomal glomerulopathy manifests as a clinical spectrum of asymptomatic proteinuria, nephrosis and/or nephritic syndrome. Findings on renal biopsy may be influenced by co-morbidity with Salmonella bacteria, amyloidosis and hepatitis C infection. Potentially fatal Katayama fever and spinal radiculopathy may ensue in tourists visiting an endemic zone. Early detection by urine microscopy is hampered by low urinary excretion rates of the parasite eggs. Although useful in travelers with newly acquired disease, the results of the serological antibody assay may be false positive in residents of an endemic zone. Cystoscopy, however, may be invaluable. Due to its safety, effectiveness and once-daily dosing, praziquantel is the drug of choice. An integrated approach that includes mass chemotherapy, environmental health programs and public health education is the most cost-effective preventive strategy. PMID:24469437

  4. Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

  5. Comparative study of minimally invasive endoscopic surgery and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL for proximal ureteral calculi in pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-qing GUO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective?To observe and compare the therapeutic effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL and minimally invasive endoscopic surgery (URL/PCNL for proximal urinary calculi in pilots. Methods?A retrospective analysis was conducted for the clinical data of 115 pilots who had received ESWL, URL and PCNL for the treatment of proximal urinary tract calculi from Sep, 2005 to Sep, 2012. The patients were divided into two groups according to the way of treatment: ESWL group (n=83 and URL/PCNL group (n=32. In ESWL group, the patients received ESWL for a maximum of 3 times. In URL/PCNL group, the patients received URS or PCNL after ESWL for 3 times without lithecbole. Results?All the patients were male and the mean age was 36.1±9.1 years. The average diameter of the stones was 0.68±0.22cm in ESWL group and 0.78±0.25cm in URL/PCNL group. There was no significant difference in stone diameter between the two groups (P=0.526. The rate of qualification for flying was 68.7% in ESWL group and 81.3% in URL/PCNL group (URL 80.0%, PCNL 100%, showing a significant difference (P=0.002. In ESWL group, the rate of qualification for flying of pilots harboring renal and proximal ureteral stone, middle ureteral stone and distal ureteral stone was 64.3%, 88.9% and 33.3% respectively, with a significant difference (P=0.023. The rate of flying qualification of pilots harboring proximal ureteral stone, middle ureteral stone and distal ureteral stone was 71.4%, 86.7% and 87.5% respectively after URL, and there was no significant difference (P=0.174. Among the five patients who received URL but did not achieve satisfactory effect, two had stones retreated to the renal pelvis during the operation, and in two patients distal ureter was too narrow to allow passage of ureteroscope, and the ureteroscope was enveloped by inflammatory polyp in one patient. Conclusion?URL/PCNL maybe more effective than ESWL in the treatment of proximal urinary calculus in pilots, and it may enable them to fly again. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.12.14

  6. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and continue throughout life? There ... To protect the kidneys from damage By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) By identifying and treating vesicoureteral ...

  7. The relationship of CT value and the upper urinary tract stones pneumatic lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of non-enhanced spiral CT for upper urinary tract calculi pneumatic lithotripsy (PL) and provide more scientific basis for clinical treatments. Methods: Ninety-three PL treatment of patients with upper urinary tract stones were divided into A, B, C three groups according to the PL times. The average CT values were comparatively analyzed. Results: The average CT values have a statistically significant difference (F=42.271, P=0.000). Conclusions: Patients with upper urinary tract stones before the average CT value can be used to estimate the difficulty of lithotripsy. In the choice of treatment times and programs, it should be comprehensive analysis of stone location, quantity, level of operator, equipment performance, patient tolerance and other factors. For the fragile factor of stone, it recommend that when CT value1300 HU and larger (maximum diameter>2.5) or more than four multiple stones surgery should be selected. (authors)

  8. Value of MRCP combined with thin-sliced T2WI in diagnosis of biliary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of MRCP and thin-sliced fat-saturated T2WI for diagnosing biliary calculi. Methods: MRI and MRCP were performed on 56 patients with suspected biliary calculi including thin-sliced fat-saturated T2WI in the area of interest. Compared with ERCP or surgical findings, diagnostic accordance rates before and after thin-sliced fat-saturated T2WI were calculated. Results: The diagnostic accordance rate for biliary calculi was significantly higher (P2WI. Conclusion: Thin-sliced fat-saturated T2WI depicts small biliary calculi and biliary tract malformation, thus reducing the incidence of biliary tract injury and residual calculi after surgery. (authors)

  9. Psi-calculi: a framework for mobile processes with nominal data and logic

    CERN Document Server

    Bengtson, Jesper; Parrow, Joachim; Victor, Björn

    2011-01-01

    The framework of psi-calculi extends the pi-calculus with nominal datatypes for data structures and for logical assertions and conditions. These can be transmitted between processes and their names can be statically scoped as in the standard pi-calculus. Psi-calculi can capture the same phenomena as other proposed extensions of the pi-calculus such as the applied pi-calculus, the spi-calculus, the fusion calculus, the concurrent constraint pi-calculus, and calculi with polyadic communication channels or pattern matching. Psi-calculi can be even more general, for example by allowing structured channels, higher-order formalisms such as the lambda calculus for data structures, and predicate logic for assertions. We provide ample comparisons to related calculi and discuss a few significant applications. Our labelled operational semantics and definition of bisimulation is straightforward, without a structural congruence. We establish minimal requirements on the nominal data and logic in order to prove general alge...

  10. [Pregnancy and lithiasis of the upper urinary tract. Clinical aspects and therapeutic management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, J; Doré, B; Moreau, P; Giraud, J R

    1985-01-01

    Upper urinary tract calculi can be difficult to diagnose and to treat. One has to be aware that there is a risk for the mother which is often not recognized in the long term. The authors describe 17 cases of pregnant women aged between 20 and 33 who were treated for calculi in the Urological Service in Poitiers. They were diagnosed at different stages of pregnancy and a few had a previous urological history. The women presented in different ways, several of them with urinary colic and 10 with urinary colic and fever. Urinary tract infection and septicaemia also occurred. Six patients passed the stones spontaneously. The rest had to be treated by some form of operation, either during the pregnancy or afterwards, including one case of a patient who had to have her kidney and ureter removed and another who had to have a kidney removed. One patient had to have an emergency caesarean section for fetal distress although she had had stone removed at the 20th week of pregnancy. It is not possible to know from this series the incidence of stones in the tract. Various theories of the formation of the stones, including the anatomical changes that occur in the urinary tract in pregnancy, are suggested and these include the hormonal theory of dilatation of the ureters as well as the mechanical theory of changes in the course of the ureters. There are also likely to be changes in the phosphocalcium metabolism. Pain in the lumbar and lower abdominal region is the most frequent symptom occurring in 90-100% of cases and urinary tract infection is common.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4008892

  11. Shock wave lithotripsy in patients with renal calculi.

    OpenAIRE

    Tayib, Abdulmalik M.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Farsi, Hasan M.; Atwa, Mahmoud A.; Saada, Hisham A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To demonstrate the efficacy of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in the primary treatment of 1647 patients with renal calculi using a Dornier Doli U/50 lithotripter. METHODS One thousand and six hundred forty-seven patients underwent SWL as day-cases at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between October 2001 and July 2007, using intravenous sedation (Pethidine 1mg/kg and Midazolam 5-10mg) for analgesia in 85.5% of the patients. The treatment outcome of 2...

  12. [Dissolution therapy of struvite calculi with solution G].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, M; Maeda, O; Matsumiya, K; Koide, T; Takaha, M; Oka, T; Sonoda, T

    1988-07-01

    In 6 patients (9 kidneys) irrigation with Solution G in the renal pelvis was performed for the dissolution of their infectious stones. Staghorn calculi larger than 30 mm in diameter were observed in all patients. In two kidneys all stones were dissolved and the rest were dissolved into small fragments that constituted no problem in those kidneys. Irrigation was done with no major side effects or complications. The dissolution of infectious stones with Solution G is another possible treatment that could be first chosen among percutaneous nephrolithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and other treatments. PMID:3177135

  13. Laser lithotripsy in the treatment of ureteral calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psihramis, K E; Buckspan, M B

    1990-04-15

    We examined the effectiveness of laser lithotripsy with a flash-lamp-pumped tunable dye laser in the treatment of ureteral calculi that were too large for direct extraction and that could not be treated with or had not responded to extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) or forms of ureteroscopic lithotripsy other than laser lithotripsy. In 20 (74%) of the 27 patients the laser alone successfully fragmented the calculi into pieces small enough to pass spontaneously or to be easily extracted with a basket. In five (19%) laser lithotripsy was partially successful: another procedure (ESWL in three and fragment extraction with a basket in two) was needed. In two patients (7%) the stones could not be fragmented with the laser, and either ESWL or percutaneous antegrade extraction was performed. At follow-up 3 months after treatment there was no sign of stone fragments in 26 (96%) of the patients. We believe that laser lithotripsy is a safe and effective method of ureteral stone fragmentation. PMID:1969767

  14. Focused ultrasound to displace renal calculi: threshold for tissue injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The global prevalence and incidence of renal calculi is reported to be increasing. Of the patients that undergo surgical intervention, nearly half experience symptomatic complications associated with stone fragments that are not passed and require follow-up surgical intervention. In a clinical simulation using a clinical prototype, ultrasonic propulsion was proven effective at repositioning kidney stones in pigs. The use of ultrasound to reposition smaller stones or stone fragments to a location that facilitates spontaneous clearance could therefore improve stone-free rates. The goal of this study was to determine an injury threshold under which stones could be safely repositioned. Methods Kidneys of 28 domestic swine were treated with exposures that ranged in duty cycle from 0%–100% and spatial peak pulse average intensities up to 30 kW/cm2 for a total duration of 10 min. The kidneys were processed for morphological analysis and evaluated for injury by experts blinded to the exposure conditions. Results At a duty cycle of 3.3%, a spatial peak intensity threshold of 16,620 W/cm2 was needed before a statistically significant portion of the samples showed injury. This is nearly seven times the 2,400-W/cm2 maximum output of the clinical prototype used to move the stones effectively in pigs. Conclusions The data obtained from this study show that exposure of kidneys to ultrasonic propulsion for displacing renal calculi is well below the threshold for tissue injury. PMID:24921046

  15. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics and Titles : Urinary Tract Infections in Children Urinary Tract Infections in Children On this page: What ... Research For More Information Acknowledgments What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)? A UTI is an infection ...

  16. PCNL in the Management of Lower Pole Caliceal Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amir Mohsen Ziaee

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Purpose: Several therapeutic methods are used in the management of lower pole caliceal calculi. This survey has been conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the management of lower pole calculi.

    Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients, 43 males and 12 females with a mean age of 41.5 (range 11 to 75 years, who had suffered from lower pole caliceal calculi and treated by standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL between 1997 and 2001, were enrolled in this study. The stones were classified as follows: small (less than 25 mm, intermediate (25 to 34 mm and large (more than 35 mm. Mean follow-up was 6.2 months (range 2 weeks to 34 months.

    Results: The stones were completely extracted by one session PCNL in 43 patients (79%. Repeat PCNL was needed in one patient and another method was used for stone extraction in another patient. Regarding the size of stone, 88%, 79%, and 74% of small, intermediate, and large stones were completely extracted, respectively. No major complication was noted.

    Conclusion: PCNL has high success rate in patients with stones larger than 2 cm and its morbidity would be low, provided that it is performed by skilled surgeons.

  17. Laparoscopic Management of Ureteral Calculi: A Report of 123 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Farrokhi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic surgery for the management of ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods: We performed 123 laparoscopic calculus removal in 103 men and 31 women. Indications for the procedure were extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy or transureteral lithotomy failure and large calculus. The mean age of the patients was 39.6 ± 13.8 years. The calculi were between 1 and 5.6 cm and located in the upper, middle, and lower ureter in 90 (73.2%, 20 (16.3%, and 13 (10.5% patients, respectively. Ureteral stent was used in 52 (42.3% patients. We used 3 ports for camera and instruments. Intraperitoneal approach was used in 104 (84.6% and extraperitoneal in 19 (15.4%. Results: The mean operative time was 143.2 ± 60.5 minutes. One hundred and nineteen patients (96.7% became stone free. Minor complications occurred in 14 (11.4% patients. Conversion to open surgery was required in 1 patient due to migration of the calculus to the peritoneum after removal from the ureter. Intra-abdominal hematoma led to reoperation 1 day after the surgery in 1 patient. Operative time was different significantly between extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal approaches (171.3 ± 91.3 minutes and 137.3 ± 52.2 minutes, respectively; P = .02. Conclusion: Our results confirm the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic removal of ureteral calculi in selected groups of patients, taking the advantage of this minimally invasive procedure such as better cosmetic results and patient’s satisfaction.

  18. A Syntactic Correspondence between Context-Sensitive Calculi and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    We present a systematic construction of environment-based abstract machines from context-sensitive calculi of explicit substitutions, and we illustrate it with ten calculi and machines for applicative order with an abort operation, normal order with generalized reduction and call/cc, the lambda-mu-calculus, delimited continuations, stack inspection, proper tail-recursion, and lazy evaluation. Most of the machines already exist but have been obtained independently and are only indirectly related to the corresponding calculi. All of the calculi are new and they make it possible to directly reason about the execution of the corresponding machines. In connection with the functional correspondence between evaluation functions and abstract machines initiated by Reynolds, the present syntactic correspondence makes it possible to construct reduction-free normalization functions out of reduction-based ones, which was an open problem in the area of normalization by evaluation.

  19. In-vivo labelling of renal calculi with technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of labelling renal calculi in-vivo with 99Tcsup(m) methylene diphosphonate is described. The way in which this enables the stones to be located both before and during surgical removal is discussed. (author)

  20. Arithmetical proofs of strong normalization results for symmetric lambda calculi

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2009-01-01

    We give arithmetical proofs of the strong normalization of two symmetric $\\lambda$-calculi corresponding to classical logic. The first one is the $\\bar{\\lambda}\\mu\\tilde{\\mu}$-calculus introduced by Curien & Herbelin. It is derived via the Curry-Howard correspondence from Gentzen's classical sequent calculus LK in order to have a symmetry on one side between "program" and "context" and on other side between "call-by-name" and "call-by-value". The second one is the symmetric $\\lambda \\mu$-calculus. It is the $\\lambda \\mu$-calculus introduced by Parigot in which the reduction rule $\\mu'$, which is the symmetric of $\\mu$, is added. These results were already known but the previous proofs use candidates of reducibility where the interpretation of a type is defined as the fix point of some increasing operator and thus, are highly non arithmetical.

  1. Cohomological Properties of Differential Calculi on Hopf Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Bonechi, F; Maciocco, R; Sorace, E; Tarlini, M

    1996-01-01

    In this report we give an intrinsic treatment of the results we developed in a previous work connecting the differential calculi on Hopf algebras to the Drinfeld double. In the first place we recover that bicovariant bimodules are in one to one correspondence with the Drinfeld double representations; we then introduce a Hochschild cohomology of the algebra of functions and discuss the main result stating that each differential calculus is associated to a 1-cocycle satisfying an additional invariance condition with respect to a natural action. Defining a Hochschild cohomology of the double, the above invariance becomes a condition with respect to the enveloping algebra component of the double that must be added to the 1-cocycle relation.

  2. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy versus ureteroscopy for distal ureteric calculi: efficacy and patient satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ghalayini, Ibrahim F.; Al-ghazo, Mohammed A.; Khader, Yousef S.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and ureteroscopy (URS) for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi with respect to patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND MHETODS: This is a prospective study where a total of 212 patients with solitary, radiopaque distal ureteral calculi were treated with ESWL (n = 92) using Dornier lithotriptor S (MedTech Europe GmbH) or URS (n = 120). Patient and stone characteristics, treatment parameters, clinical outcomes,...

  3. Porfirinas en Cálculos Renales (Revisión) / Porphyrins in renal calculi (Review)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MªL., Traba Villameytide.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Hemos realizado una revisión del contenido de porfirinas en una clase peculiar de cálculos renales. Estos son negros como el carbón y presentan un espectro infrarrojo (EIR) similar al conocido como "materia orgánica", el cual no indica la clase de sustancia a la que corresponde. Otros tipos de cálcu [...] los renales, principalmente de pequeño tamaño y eliminados espontáneamente, pueden tener un compuesto oscuro o negro de forma difusa o aislada y presentan un espectro de IR similar al de "materia orgánica". Después de observar que la hemoglobina presentaba un espectro de IR de "materia orgánica", estudiamos, por cromatografía en capa fina, un método sensible para la determinación de porfirinas, la presencia de porfirinas en diversos tipos de cálculos renales negros y oscuros, ya que las porfirinas son los precursores del grupo hemo. Este trabajo ha puesto de manifiesto dos tipos de porfirinas: la coproporfirina, en pacientes que padecen hepatopatías, y la uroporfirina y heptacarboxilporfirina en pacientes con algún tipo de porfiria o bien con fracaso renal crónico. Abstract in english We performed a review of the porphyrines content in a type of black, charcoal-like, renal calculi exhibiting infrarred spectra (IRS) similar to those characteristic of "organic material" which has not yet been fully elucidate. Several other types of renal calculi, mainly those of small size, spontan [...] eous passage renal stone, may also have diffuse or isolated dark charcoal components showing "organic material" IRS. After observing that haemoglobin has an "organic material" IRS, we studied, by a sensitive thin layer chromatography method, the presence of porphyrines in several types of dark or charcoal renal stones, since porphyrines are the physiological precursors of haemo group biosynthesis. We found two types of porphyrine content: coproporphyrin, in patients suffering from hepatopathy, and uroporphyrin and heptacarboxil-porphyrin in patients with some types of porphyria or with chronic renal failure.

  4. Anti-Urolithiatic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Pedalium Murex Linn. Fruits on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyesh R. Mandavia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate effect of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits on experimentalmodel of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided in 6 groups.Normal controls received distilled water for 28 days. Other five groups received ethylene glycol(1% v/v in distilled water for 28 days. Pedalium murex ethanolic extract was given 200 mg/kgand 400 mg/kg orally in distilled water for 28 days in prophylactic groups (III and IV and from15th to 28th days in treatment groups (V and VI. The urea, creatinine, random blood sugar, aspartateaminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and calcium weremeasured on 28th day. 24 hr urinary oxalate and volume were measured on day 0 and 28. On day28, kidneys were removed, weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. Calcium oxalatecrystallization was evaluated by renal histopathology and in-vitro method of mineralization.All parameters were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis or one-way ANOVA with post-hoc test.Results: Pedalium murex showed significant improvement in renal function and kidney weight inprophylactic groups as compared to ethylene glycol controls. It did not show any effect on urinaryoxalate, urine volume and any other serological parameters. Calcium oxalate crystallization wassignificantly reduced in all the Pedalium murex treated groups (P < .05. Calcium oxalate and phosphatemineralization were also inhibited by 33% and 57%.Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex fruits possess significant activity for preventionof renal calculi.

  5. Role of combined use of potassium citrate and tamsulosin in the management of uric acid distal ureteral calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Osama; El-Bendary, Mohamed; Ragab, Maged; Rasheed, Mohamed

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we investigated the effect of the combined use of tamsulosin and potassium citrate (Uralyt-U(®)) for the treatment of uric acid stones in the distal ureter. The study was designed as a prospective, double blind randomized controlled trial. A total of 191 adult patients with radiolucent distal ureteral calculi were recruited. We included patients with solitary stones ?5 mm with mild or moderate hydronephrosis and a normal contralateral tract. The patients were randomized into four equal groups (the placebo, tamsulosin, Uralyt-U(®), and the combined treatment groups). The patients were treated for a maximum duration of 4 weeks or until stone expulsion. The stone size in all groups ranged from 5 to 11 mm (7.69 ± 1.7 mm). The total expulsion rate of the stones was significantly lower in the control group (26.1%) compared with that of any of the other three groups (68.8, 58.7, and 84.8% respectively) (P 8 mm as a separate subgroup to find the effect of the used drugs on the relatively large stones, we detected that the expulsion rate of these stones was significantly higher in the patients who received the combined treatment in comparison with any of the other three groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of urinary alkalization with tamsulosin can increase the frequency of spontaneous passage of distal ureteral uric acid stones especially those of 8-11 mm. PMID:21858663

  6. Comparative Study of Lithotripsy and PCNL for 11-15 mm Lower Caliceal Calculi In Community Health Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Wankhade, Narendra Haribhau; Gadekar, Jayant; Shinde, Babaji B.; Tatte, Julie Anand

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is not a popular procedure in smaller sized calculi due to its invasive nature, complications and need for anesthesia. Small sized lower caliceal calculi are generally treated by ESWL but have significantly less clearance rate in spite of several sittings. Here we want to study the efficacy and safe of both procedures in 11 to 15 mm lower caliceal calculi.

  7. O que há de novo no diagnóstico e tratamento da litíase urinária? What's new in the diagnosis and management of urinary lithiasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mazzucchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Atualizar aspectos do diagnóstico e do tratamento da litíase urinária. MÉTODOS. Uma revisão dos principais artigos publicados sobre o tema em revistas indexadas no "Medline" entre 1979 e 2009. RESULTADOS. A ocorrência de cálculos é maior em pacientes com IMC > 30. A TC sem contraste promove o diagnóstico correto em até 98% dos casos. O uso de bloqueadores alfa-adrenérgicos aumenta a eliminação de cálculos ureterais menores que 8 mm em 29%. O índice de pacientes livres de cálculo após LEOC varia entre 35% e 91%, conforme seu tamanho e localização. Cálculos renais maiores que 2 cm são eliminados pela NLPC entre 60% e 100% dos casos. Cálculos de ureter distal são tratados com sucesso em até 94% dos casos pela ureteroscopia semirrígida contra 74% da LEOC. Já para cálculos de ureter superior as taxas de sucesso situam-se entre 77% e 91% para ureteroscopia e 41% e 82% para a LEOC. CONCLUSÃO. A associação da calculose urinária com obesidade e Diabetes mellitus está bem estabelecida. A TC sem contraste é atualmente o padrão-ouro no diagnóstico da litíase urinária. A LEOC é o método de eleição em nosso meio para tratamento de cálculos renais menores que 2 cm e com densidade tomográfica OBJECTIVE. To review developments in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary lithiasis. METHODS. A review of the most important articles on the subject published in Medline indexed periodicals between 1979 and 2009.RESULTS. Stones occur with greater frequency among people with BMI > 30. Computerized tomography without contrast provides the correct diagnosis in up to 98% of cases. Alpha-adrenergic blockers increase elimination of ureteral calculi smaller than 8 mm by 29%. The proportion of patients free from calculi after ESWL varies from 35% to 91%, depending on size and location. In between 60% and 100% of cases, renal calculi larger than 2 cm are eliminated with PCNL. Calculi of the distal ureter are successfully treated in up to 94% of cases using semi-rigid ureteroscopy, compared to 74% using ESWL. For calculi of the upper ureter success rates are around 77% and 91% for ureteroscopy and 41% and 82% for ESWL. CONCLUSION. The association between urinary lithiasis and Diabetes mellitus, is well-established. Computerized tomography without contrast is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of urinary lithiasis. In Brazil, ESWL is the method of choice for treating renal calculi smaller than 2 cm and with tomographic density < 1000 HU, except those of the lower pole, where the ideal limit for treatment is 1 cm. Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy is the best method of treating renal calculi larger than 2 cm and semi-rigid ureteroscopy is the best treatment for calculi of the distal ureter. Flexible ureteroscopy is an option for calculi of the upper ureter and renal calculi smaller than 1.5 cm that do not respond to ESWL or where PCNL is contraindicated.

  8. Transureteral Lithotripsy of Ureteral Calculi in Children with Holmium: Yttrium Aluminium Garnet Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Sheikh Monazzah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Surgical management of pediatric urinary calculi evolved dramatically over the past two decades. However, with the miniaturization of equipment and with improvisation of endourologic techniques, access to the entire pediatric urinary system is possible. Ho: YAG laser provides more maneuverability during transuretereal lithotripsy (TUL than the pneumatic system which uses a metal probe, especially when used in pediatrics urinary systems. In this study, we report our experience about treatment of pediatric ureteral stone with HO: YAG laser.METHODS: Between 2008 -2011, 41 children ? 12 years of age with ureteral stones were included in our study. Using K.U.B, sonography, and intravenous urogram, diagnoses were established for all patients. 6F or 8F wolf semi rigid ureteroscope was used for ureteroscopy under general anesthesia and stone fragmentation was implemented by Ho: YAG laser. For the evaluation of stone free rate, we used the following day & week confirmatory KUB, and sonograms additional to the direct visualization of the ureter during ureteroscopy. The patients were scheduled to be followed by control sonograms 2 weeks and 2 months after the operation to rule out past operational ureteral stenosis.RESULTS: From our 40 patients whose ages were in the range of 8 months and twelve years of old with a mean age 3.5 years, 18 patients (45% had distal ureteral stones, ten (25% in mid ureter, and twelve of them (30% had the stone in their proximal ureter. The mean diameter of stones was 9.3 mm (3.5-11 mm. Three patients had encrusted double j stents (DJS. Our overall stone free rate was 89.35% at the end of 1 week. The complications were fever in 5 patients (12.5% and ureteral stricture due to ureteral perforation in one patient, while one patient had long hospital stay due to refractory pain and nausea. The mean time of post-surgical hospital stay was 42 hours, while for only 20% of patients (8 patients and in the rest of patients (30 patients this period was only 24hours.DISCUSSION: Endoscopic lithotripsy in children has gradually become a major technique for the treatment of ureteral stones. This progression has been on the basis of the development of appropriate endoscopes and effective working instruments. The stone-free rate following urteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteral stones has been reported in as high as 98.5-100%. In this study, overall stone free rate was 89.35%. The complications after ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy are uncommon and usually related to passage of the ureteroscope than from laser action. Fever was the most common complication which occurred in 5 (12.5% of our patients despite the fact that all patients were hospitalized the day before the procedure and were under parenteral antibiotic therapy. Postoperative stenting after ureteroscopic lithotripsy remained controversial. Most children were able to tolerate the attached string and the stent could be removed 5-7 days after without the use of an additional anesthetic. We used suitable ureteral catheters for 24 hours in all patients.CONCLUSION: Although HO: YAG laser lithotripsy is safe in children, we need more controlledtrials to show the best method of lithotripsy in pediatric ureteral stones.

  9. O que há de novo no diagnóstico e tratamento da litíase urinária? / What's new in the diagnosis and management of urinary lithiasis?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Mazzucchi; Miguel, Srougi.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO. Atualizar aspectos do diagnóstico e do tratamento da litíase urinária. MÉTODOS. Uma revisão dos principais artigos publicados sobre o tema em revistas indexadas no "Medline" entre 1979 e 2009. RESULTADOS. A ocorrência de cálculos é maior em pacientes com IMC > 30. A TC sem contraste promov [...] e o diagnóstico correto em até 98% dos casos. O uso de bloqueadores alfa-adrenérgicos aumenta a eliminação de cálculos ureterais menores que 8 mm em 29%. O índice de pacientes livres de cálculo após LEOC varia entre 35% e 91%, conforme seu tamanho e localização. Cálculos renais maiores que 2 cm são eliminados pela NLPC entre 60% e 100% dos casos. Cálculos de ureter distal são tratados com sucesso em até 94% dos casos pela ureteroscopia semirrígida contra 74% da LEOC. Já para cálculos de ureter superior as taxas de sucesso situam-se entre 77% e 91% para ureteroscopia e 41% e 82% para a LEOC. CONCLUSÃO. A associação da calculose urinária com obesidade e Diabetes mellitus está bem estabelecida. A TC sem contraste é atualmente o padrão-ouro no diagnóstico da litíase urinária. A LEOC é o método de eleição em nosso meio para tratamento de cálculos renais menores que 2 cm e com densidade tomográfica Abstract in english OBJECTIVE. To review developments in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary lithiasis. METHODS. A review of the most important articles on the subject published in Medline indexed periodicals between 1979 and 2009.RESULTS. Stones occur with greater frequency among people with BMI > 30. Computerized [...] tomography without contrast provides the correct diagnosis in up to 98% of cases. Alpha-adrenergic blockers increase elimination of ureteral calculi smaller than 8 mm by 29%. The proportion of patients free from calculi after ESWL varies from 35% to 91%, depending on size and location. In between 60% and 100% of cases, renal calculi larger than 2 cm are eliminated with PCNL. Calculi of the distal ureter are successfully treated in up to 94% of cases using semi-rigid ureteroscopy, compared to 74% using ESWL. For calculi of the upper ureter success rates are around 77% and 91% for ureteroscopy and 41% and 82% for ESWL. CONCLUSION. The association between urinary lithiasis and Diabetes mellitus, is well-established. Computerized tomography without contrast is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of urinary lithiasis. In Brazil, ESWL is the method of choice for treating renal calculi smaller than 2 cm and with tomographic density

  10. Development of a urinary lithiasis localizer mechanism to couple ultrasound and extracorporeal lithotripsy equipment in canine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Andrade

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Due to the evolution of extracorporeal lithotripsy equipment (ESWL and presently, the fact that most part of the equipment does not present ultrasound to localize urinary calculi, a system that allows adapting ultrasound equipment to ESWL equipment was developed, disposing only of fluoroscopy. Thus, this equipment was developed and was tested in urinary stones in canine models, to check its precision in relation to fluoroscopy. METHOD: Seven male dogs were utilized with the introduction, in the bladder through the ureteral route, of chalkstones, with initial localization by fluoroscopy, with a further ultrasound coincidence check localization of the vesical stones, being submitted to ESWL with a 3-hour, 21 days and 60 days follow-up after the procedure. RESULTS: Success of localization in all animals was verified presenting elimination of stones in the first micturitions, after ESWL. No complications were verified in those animals for 60 days. CONCLUSION: We verified that this equipment can lead to an update of the equipment that use only fluoroscopy, increasing in this way, their technical capacity in the treatment of urinary calculi, mainly in cases of non-radiopaque stones.

  11. Development of a urinary lithiasis localizer mechanism to couple ultrasound and extracorporeal lithotripsy equipment in canine model

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enrico, Andrade; Gustavo, Alarcon; Eduardo, Pompeu; Archimedes, Nardozza Jr; Joaquim A., Claro; Valdemar, Ortiz; Miguel, Srougi.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Due to the evolution of extracorporeal lithotripsy equipment (ESWL) and presently, the fact that most part of the equipment does not present ultrasound to localize urinary calculi, a system that allows adapting ultrasound equipment to ESWL equipment was developed, disposing only of flu [...] oroscopy. Thus, this equipment was developed and was tested in urinary stones in canine models, to check its precision in relation to fluoroscopy. METHOD: Seven male dogs were utilized with the introduction, in the bladder through the ureteral route, of chalkstones, with initial localization by fluoroscopy, with a further ultrasound coincidence check localization of the vesical stones, being submitted to ESWL with a 3-hour, 21 days and 60 days follow-up after the procedure. RESULTS: Success of localization in all animals was verified presenting elimination of stones in the first micturitions, after ESWL. No complications were verified in those animals for 60 days. CONCLUSION: We verified that this equipment can lead to an update of the equipment that use only fluoroscopy, increasing in this way, their technical capacity in the treatment of urinary calculi, mainly in cases of non-radiopaque stones.

  12. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

  13. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... Most urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and then the bladder. The infection most commonly develops ...

  14. Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. You may have a UTI if you notice Pain or burning when you ...

  15. Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... guideline on the surgical management of female stress urinary incontinence. J Urol . 2010;183:1906-1914. Chapple CR. Retropubic suspension surgery for incontinence in women. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et ...

  16. Phyllanthus niruri normalizes elevated urinary calcium levels in calcium stone forming (CSF) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, J L; Campos, A H; Boim, M A; Heilberg, I P; Schor, N

    2004-10-01

    Phyllanthus niruri is a plant used for years in Brazil to treat urinary calculi. We prospectively evaluated the effect of P. niruri intake on 24 h urinary biochemical parameters in an attempt to assess its in vivo effect in calcium stone forming (CSF) patients. A total of 69 CSF patients (39 males and 30 females, 38+/-8 years old) were randomized to take either P. niruri ( n=33) (450 mg capsules, td) or placebo ( n=36) for 3 months. Blood calcium, uric acid, citrate, magnesium, oxalate, sodium and potassium were determined at baseline and at the end of the study. A subset analysis was made in patients classified according to the presence of metabolic abnormalities (hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia and hypomagnesiuria). Overall, there were no significant differences in the mean values of urinary parameters between the urine samples before and after P. niruri intake, except for a slight reduction in mean urinary magnesium after P. niruri, which was within the normal range. However, in the subset analysis, we observed that P. niruri induced a significant reduction in the mean urinary calcium in hypercalciuric patients (4.8+/-1.0 vs 3.4+/-1.1 mg/kg/24 h, Pniruri or the placebo were detected. Our data suggest that P. niruri intake reduces urinary calcium based on the analysis of a subset of patients presenting with hypercalciuria. Larger trials including primary hypercalciuric stone formers should be performed in order to confirm these findings and to determine the possible clinical consequences of urinary calcium reduction during P. niruri administration. PMID:15221244

  17. FT-IR Analysis of Urinary Stones: A Helpful Tool for Clinician Comparison with the Chemical Spot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primiano, Aniello; D'Addessi, Alessandro; Cocci, Andrea; Schiattarella, Arcangelo; Zuppi, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Background. Kidney stones are a common illness with multifactorial etiopathogenesis. The determination of crystalline and molecular composition and the quantification of all stone components are important to establish the etiology of stones disease but it is often laborious to obtain using the chemical method. The aim of this paper is to compare chemical spot test with FT-IR spectroscopy, for a possible introduction in our laboratory. Methods. We analyzed 48 calculi using Urinary Calculi Analysis kit in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. The same samples were analyzed by FT-IR using the Perkin Elmer Spectrum One FT-IR Spectrometer. All FT-IR spectra of kidney stones were then computer matched against a library of spectra to generate a report on the various components. Results. On the basis of FT-IR analysis, the 48 calculi were divided into three groups: pure stone, mixed stone, and pure stone with substances in trace. Results of each group were compared with those obtained with chemical spot test. A general disagreement between methods was observed. Conclusions. According to our data, the introduction of the FT-IR technique in clinical chemistry laboratory may be more responsive to clinician expectations. PMID:24868112

  18. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs

  19. Urinary Tract and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Urinary Tract and How It Works The Urinary Tract and How It Works On this page: ... Research For More Information Acknowledgments What is the urinary tract and how does it work? The urinary ...

  20. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with the Chiba needle in patients with biliary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a prospective study, 276 consecutive patients were evaluated using percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) with a Chiba needle prior to surgery for cholestasis. Biliary calculi were diagnosed in 109 patients. The success rate was 92.4% overall, 93.6% among patients with biliary calculi, 83.3% in those with cholelithiasis, 97.3% in those with choledocholithiasis, and 100.0% in those with intrahepatic stones. The overall morbidity rate was 4.6%, including hemoperitoneum in 1.8% and bile leakage in 2.8%. There were no deaths. This technique offers a more definitive diagnosis than noninvasive procedures, especially with small calculi, but is also more traumatic. PTC may play an important role when noninvasive methods are inconclusive or in difficult cases, particularly following surgery on the common bile duct

  1. Adjunctive chemotherapy of infection-induced staghorn calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, D P; Moskowitz, P A; Carlton, C E

    1979-06-01

    Bacteria induce urinary crystallization of struvite and carbonate-apatite as a by-product of ureolysis by urease. Eradication of infection and/or inhibition of urease with acetohydroxamic acid for 5 to 30 months retarded stone growth and brought about partial or comple dissolution of stones in 9 patients. Long-term chemotherapy with antimicrobial agents that achieve steril urine or acetohydroxamic acid in those patients with recalcitrant infection lessens the risk of recurrent calculogenesis. PMID:458940

  2. Solo Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Management of Upper Ureteral Calculi With Hydronephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaiyah Girish

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL outcomes as a solo therapy in patients with upper ureteral calculi and varying degrees of hydronephrosis.Materials and Methods: Eighty patients with upper ureteral calculi and a body mass index between 19.5 kg/m2 and 22.5 kg/m2 were included. They were categorized into 4 groups according to the severity of hydronephrosis as seen on ultrasonography and intravenous urography: group 1, no dilatation; group 2, mild dilatation; group 3, moderate dilatation; and group 4, severe dilatation of the pyelocaliceal system. The size of calculi, time to calculus clearance, success rate of solo SWL, and the need for additional therapeutic methods were recorded and compared between the four groups of patients. Results: The median size of the calculi was 13.5 mm, and the mean time to calculus clearance was 56.0 ± 24.2 days. In 71.3% of the patients, solo SWL was successful in the treatment of the calculi. Twenty-three patients required other therapies including double-J stenting, ureteroscopy, and nephrolithotomy. The patients without hydronephrosis and those with severe hydronephrosis (groups 1 and 4 showed a significant difference in the days to clearance of the calculus (mean, 31.7 days versus 85.6 days; P Conclusion: Patients with upper ureteral calculi and mild hydronephrosis can be effectively treated with solo SWL therapy. In those with moderate hydronephrosis, clearance takes longer or requires secondary interventions. In patients with severe hydronephrosis, we recommend alternative/adjunctive procedures.

  3. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are types of surgeries that help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when ... Vaginal sling procedures are done to treat stress urinary incontinence. Before discussing surgery, your doctor will have ...

  4. Analytical scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microdiffractometry of renal calculi using etched plastic sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, P.T.; Pritzker, K.P.; Tausch, J.; Pittaway, A.; Millard, J.

    1981-01-01

    We describe the technique and illustrate results of renal calculi analyses utilizing correlative analytical scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microdiffractometry on the same 100 micrometer Spurr embedded sections. Essential to the technique is the employment of an extremely sensitive x-ray microdiffractometer, and for morphological analysis, pretreatment of the sections with a sodium ethoxide etching solution. This technique facilitates more precise identification of crystalline constituents especially calcium apatite and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (struvite). Further, the technique permits detection and mapping of both crystalline and amorphous constituents within calculi.

  5. Analytical scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microdiffractometry of renal calculi using etched plastic sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the technique and illustrate results of renal calculi analyses utilizing correlative analytical scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microdiffractometry on the same 100 micrometer Spurr embedded sections. Essential to the technique is the employment of an extremely sensitive x-ray microdiffractometer, and for morphological analysis, pretreatment of the sections with a sodium ethoxide etching solution. This technique facilitates more precise identification of crystalline constituents especially calcium apatite and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (struvite). Further, the technique permits detection and mapping of both crystalline and amorphous constituents within calculi

  6. URINARY MELATONIN IN DEPRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Devi, S. Parvathi; Srinivasan, V.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY This report is based on a study of 12 cases of depression (8 endogenous, 4 neurotic) with a view to explore the possible association between urinary melatonin and the illness prior to and following treatment. While cases of endogenous depression had low 24 hour as well as nocturnal urinary melatonin levels, the neurotic depressives showed higher than normal levels. A rise in the 24 hour melatonin levels occurred in all cases of endogenous depression though this did not apply, to the nocturnal levels. An association between melatonin levels with suicide behaviour, insomnia, psychomotor retardation and diurnal variation is discussed. PMID:21847281

  7. Litiasis prostática: cálculos silentes / Prostatic calculi: silent stones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H., Köseoglu; G., Aslan; B.H., Sen; B., Tuna; K., Yörükoglu.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción y objetivos: En la práctica urológica se encuentran con frecuencia cálculos prostáticos durante la resección transuretral de la próstata. Nuestro objetivo era demostrar las propiedades físicas y químicas de los cálculos prostáticos, así como determinar la posible relación entre la infla [...] mación de la próstata y los cálculos prostáticos. Métodos: Se incluyó en el estudio a pacientes consecutivos (excluidos los sujetos con PSA>4ng/ml y urolitiasis) sometidos a resección transuretral de la próstata (RTUP) en quienes se observaron cálculos prostáticos. Se analizó la composición química de los cálculos prostáticos obtenidos de cada paciente durante la RTUP, que se observaron también al microscopio electrónico (MEB) para determinar su estructura y morfología superficial. El uroanatomopatólogo valoró las muestras para emitir el diagnóstico definitivo y determinar la existencia y el grado de la inflamación. Resultados: Se incluyó en el estudio a cinco pacientes. Se obtuvieron de cada paciente al menos tres (de 3-8) muestras de cálculos (con un diámetro de 1-5mm). Los cálculos tenían una composición mixta de fosfato cálcico y carbonato cálcico. En la MEB se observó que los cálculos tenían una superficie lobular formada por pequeñas esferas. El examen histopatológico de las muestras de RTUP reveló hiperplasia prostática benigna acompañada de inflamación entre leve e intensa. Conclusiones: Los cálculos prostáticos son cálculos de calcio precipitados concéntricamente situados dentro de los conductillos prostáticos con una morfología granular arracimada. Estos cálculos prostáticos parecen ir acompañados de inflamación histopatológica. Abstract in english Introduction: Introduction and Objectives Prostate stones are frequently encountered during transurethral resection of the prostate in urology practice. We aimed to demonstrate the physical and chemical properties of prostate stones. We also aimed to determine possible relationship between inflammat [...] ion of prostate gland and prostate stones. Methods: The consecutive patients (excluding subjects with PSA>4ng/ml and urolithiasis), who underwent TURP operation and who were observed to have prostatic calculi during TURP, were included in the study. The prostatic stones obtained from each patient during TURP were analysed for chemical composition and observed under electron microscopy (SEM) for structure and surface morphology. The pathological specimens were assessed by the uropathologist for the final diagnosis and existence and degree of inflammation. Results: Five patients were included in the study. From each patient at least three (range 3-8) samples of stones (diameter varying from 1mm up to 5mm) were obtained. The stones were made of mixed composition of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. The stones were found to have lobular surface made up of small spheres under SEM. Histopathological examination of the TURP specimens revealed being prostatic hyperplasia accompanied with inflammation of mild to severe degree. Conclusions: Prostatic stones are concentrically precipitated calcium stones within the prostatic ductuli with granular grape like morphology. Histopathological inflammation seems to be associated with these prostatic calculi.

  8. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  9. Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex to help wash away bacteria. Use enough lubrication during sex. Try using a small amount of lubricant (such as K-Y Jelly) before sex if you're a little dry. If you get urinary tract infections often, you ...

  10. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalyses of the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalyses in the study of dental calculus showed that such studies provided confirmatory and supplementary data on the morphological features of human dental calculi but gave only limited information on the identity of the crystalline or inorganic components. This study aimed to explore the potential of combined SEM and microanalyses in the identification of the crystalline components of the human and animal dental calculi. Human and animal calculi were analyzed. Identification of the crystalline components were made based on the combined information of the morphology (SEM) and Ca/P molar ratios of the crystals with the morphology and Ca/P molar ratio of synthetic calcium phosphates (brushite or DCPD; octacalcium phosphate, OCP; Mg-substituted whitlockite, beta-TCMP; CO3-substituted apatite, (CHA); and calcite. SEM showed similarities in morphological features of human and animal dental calculi but differences in the forms of crystals present. Microanalyses and crystal morphology data suggested the presence of CaCO3 (calcite) and CHA in the animal (cat, dog, tiger) and of OCP, beta-TCMP and CHA in human dental calculi. X-ray diffraction and infrared (IR) absorption analyses confirmed these results. This exploratory study demonstrated that by taking into consideration what is known about the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi, combined SEM and m animal dental calculi, combined SEM and microanalyses can provide qualitative identification

  11. Elementos no frecuentes en cálculos renales / Unusual elements in renal calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.L., Rodríguez-Miñón Cifuentes; E., Salvador; MªL., Traba Villameytide.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizó un grupo de 54 cálculos expulsados espontáneamente después de padecer un cólico nefrítico. Dos grupos de cálculos fueron encontrados: papilares y no papilares. Todos los cálculos fueron analizados por espectroscopia infrarroja y por microscopia electrónica de barrido y EDAX. Al ser analiz [...] ados los cálculos por EDAX se detectaron los siguientes elementos químicos; C, N, O, Na, S, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn. El posible origen de estos elementos es analizado en este trabajo. Abstract in english A group of 54 renal calculi were spontaneously passed renal stone after a nephritic colic. Two groups of calculi were found: papillary and non-papillary calculi. All calculi were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and electronic microscopy scan (EMS) and EDAX. When the stones were analyzed with EDAX, [...] elements such as C, N, O, Na, S, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn were detected. The possible origin of these elements is discussed in this work.

  12. Feline porphyria associated with anemia, severe hepatic disease, and renal calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Schnier, Jonathan J.; Hanna, Paul

    2010-01-01

    A 13-year-old, neutered male domestic cat presented with signs of weight loss, anemia, and hepatomegaly. Pathognomonic signs of porphyria were identified. Charcoal-like renal calculi and severe liver changes were observed, neither of which has been previously reported in association with feline porphyria.

  13. Drug-induced MR urography: the effects of furosemide and intravenous saline injection on MR urography of obstructed and non-obstructed urinary tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Ha; Lee, Myung Jun; Lee, Chang Joon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To determine the usefulness of MR urography technique for the evaluation of urinary systems in patients with obstructed urinary tract and normal volunteers with non-obstructed urinary tract after intravenous normal saline and diuretic injection. Three normal volunteers and 12 patients with urinary tract obstruction [ureteral calculi (n=8), extraurinary mass (n=1), ureteral tumor invasion (n=3)] underwent MR urography using a 1.0T scanner and a 2D non-breath-hold heavily T2-weighted fast spin-cho sequence. These acquisition were post-processed with a maximum intensity projection (MIP) algorithm. Two acquisitions were performed, the first prior to saline solution infusion following standard MR urography procedures, and the second, within 2-3 minutes of the infusion of 250 ml saline solution followed by 20 mg of Lasix administered intravenously. For this latter, drug-induced MR urography procedures were followed. In healthy volunteer (n=3) and those experiencing partial obstruction (n=4) by a urinary stone, drug-induced MR urography provided better images of the urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those in whom a urinary stone or tumor had caused complete obstruction (n=8), standard MR urography provided good images, as did drug-induced MR urography. In patients with a partially or non-obstructed urinary tract, drug-induced MR urography provided better anatomic and functional details of the kidney and urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those experiencing complete obstruction of the urinary tract, however, standard or drug-induced MR urography permitted very adequate evaluation of the tract, and drug-induced MR urography was unnecessary.

  14. El artefacto de centelleo en la caracterización de los cálculos urinarios / Role of twinkling artifact in characterization of urinary calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Alan; H., Koçoglu; S., Kosar; O., Karatag; A., Resit Ersay; A., Erhan.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La caracterización de los cálculos renales está cada vez cobrando mayor importancia como paso previo a la toma de decisiones terapéuticas tales como la nefrolitotomía percutánea (NLP) y la litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque (LEOC). En algunos estudios se ha publicado que el a [...] rtefacto de centelleo (artefacto de ecografía de flujo en color) puede ser de utilidad en la detección de piedras en el riñón. En este estudio se pretende dilucidar si la presencia o ausencia del artefacto de centelleo tendría alguna relación con la composición química de los cálculos. Material y método: En un estudio prospectivo se incluyó a pacientes con cálculos renales de > 0,5cm. Se examinó a 70 pacientes mediante rayos X, pielografía intravenosa, tomografía computarizada sin contraste y ecografía doppler espectral y a color. El artefacto se consideró de grado 1 si sólo ocupaba una parte de la sombra acústica, considerándose de grado 2 si ocupaba la totalidad de la sombra. Se trató a los pacientes con cálculos de menos de 2cm con LEOC, y a aquellos con piedras de mayor tamaño se les derivó a tratamiento con NLP. Resultados: No se detectó artefacto alguno (grado 0) en 11 sujetos, detectándose el grado 1 en 25 y el grado 2 en 24. Se encontró una relación significativa entre el aumento en artefactos de centelleo y tamaño del cálculo (p Abstract in english Introduction: Stone characterization is becoming important before decision of treatment such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Some studies have reported that the twinkling artifact (color-flow ultrasonography artifact) may be useful to detect u [...] rinary stones. This study aims to determine whether the presence or absence of the twinkling artifact is correlated with the chemical composition of the stones. Material and method: Patients with renal stones > 0.5cm were included in a prospective study. Sixty patients were examined with x-ray film, intravenous pyelography, non-contrast computerized tomography, and color and spectral doppler ultrasonography. The artifact was considered grade 1 when occupied only one portion of the acoustic shadowing and when the artifact occupied the entire acoustic shadowing was considered grade 2. Patients with stones smaller than 2 cm were treated with SWL and patients with stones larger than 2cm were treated with PCNL. Results: No artifact (grade 0) was detected in 11 subjects, grade 1 in 25 and grade 2 in 24. Significant relationship was found between the increase in twinkling artifact and stone size (p

  15. Female urinary incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Abdool, Zeelha

    1980-01-01

    Urinary incontinence affects approximately a quarter of a billion people worldwide. It is associated with high economic costs, psychological morbidity and adverse effects on the quality of life. Despite this, few women seek help for this condition either due to embarrassment and unwillingness to discuss the symptom with their family member or friend or, acceptance of the disorder as a natural part of aging or being unaware that treatment exists. More resources are utilised in maintaining pati...

  16. Multislice computed tomography urography in the diagnosis of urinary tract diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoli? Olivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Multislice computed tomography (MSCT has triggered considerable changes in uroradiological imaging. The aim of this study was to establish the place of MSCT urography (MSCTU in comparison with intravenous urography (IVU and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of MSCT in the evaluation of urothelial abnormalities. Methods. This prospective study included 120 patients with a high clinical suspicion of urinary tract diseases divided into two groups. The group I consisted of 60 patients with macroscopic hematuria, bladder carcinoma and malignant pelvic tumors after radiotherapy or operation. They underwent both IVU and MSCTU. The group II included 60 patients (? 40 years old with retroperitoneal and malignant pelvic tumors, complicated pyelonephritis, microscopic hematuria, acute urinary tract obstruction (without visible calculi on unenhanced scans, and they were submitted to computed tomography with additional scan phase enabling MSCTU. Results. Compared with IVU, MSCTU is more sensitive for the detection of urinary tract diseases (parenchymal changes, renal tumors, urolithiasis, fibrosis and extraurinary processes. MSCTU is more specific than IVU for renal parenchymal abnormalities, tumors of the excretory system, urolithiasis, bladder tumors, fibrosis and extraurinary diseases. MSCTU is equally sensitive, but more specific for hydronephrosis compared to MSCT. The diagnosis made by the use of MSCTU in patients with macroscopic and microscopic hematuria and with obstruction not caused by stones, perfectly comply with operative findings and histological diagnosis. Conclusion. The obtained results support MSCTU to be the modality of choice in the diagnostic algorithm of patients with macroscopic hematuria and in the evaluation of microscopic hematuria and unexplained obstruction of the urinary tract. The only remaining role for IVU in our institution is imaging of the upper urinary tract in patients with hematuria under the age of 40.

  17. Duodenal diverticula demonstrated by endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) : their relationship to biliary calculi and gastrooesophageal reflux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, B; Christiansen, T

    1987-01-01

    In 24 patients with duodenal diverticula, demonstrated by ERCP, food-stimulated gastrooesophageal reflux was demonstrated in 33% of the patients and biliary tract calculi in 81%. This is in contrast to a previous study in patients with duodenal diverticula demonstrated by barium examination where gastroesophageal reflux occurred in 81% and biliary tract calculi in 38% of the patients. Differences in clinical selection are believed to be the underlying cause to these varying results.

  18. Radiological aspects of urinary disfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After filling the urinary bladder with contrast material, serial radiograms were taken during micturition. The changes of the shape of the urinary bladder were studied in healthy individuals and in patients suffering from urinary disfunction due to local alterations or to disturbances of the innervation. The relationship between the location of the urine and the activation of the micturition reflex was studied, too. (L.E.)

  19. Probabilistic Models and Process Calculi for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Due to the wide use of communicating mobile devices, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have gained in popularity in recent years. In order that the devices communicate properly, many protocols have been proposed working at different levels. Devices in an MANET are not stationary but may keep moving, thus the network topology may undergo constant changes. Moreover the devices in an MANET are loosely connected not depending on pre-installed infrastructure or central control components, they exchange messages via wireless connections which are less reliable compared to wired connections. Therefore the protocols for MANETs are usually more complicated and error-prone. In this thesis we discuss different models and their underlying theories which will facilitate the verification of protocols for MANETs. Process calculi have been used successfully as a formal method to verify and analyze functional behaviors of concurrent systems e.g. free of deadlock, and they also have been extended with probability to verify quantitative properties e.g. “the sent message will arrive at the destination in 5 seconds with probability no less than 0.99”. In this thesis we extend the framework to deal with special issues in MANETs e.g. mobility and unreliable connections. Specially speaking, 1. We first propose a discrete probabilistic process calculus with which we can model in an MANET that the wireless connection is not reliable, and the network topology may undergo changes. We equip each wireless connection with a probability, and moreover we allow these probabilities to be changed according to some mobility rule to model the changes of the network topology. 2. Secondly we extend the discrete probabilistic process calculus in several directions: i) Generalize the notions of mobility rules which allow to change part of a network topology depending on an exponentially distributed random delay and a network topology constraint. ii) Introduce stochastic time behavior for processes running at network nodes. iii) A novel abstraction is proposed where several broadcasts may be simulated by one. 3. Various behavioral equivalences and their logical characterizations have been proposed to combat the infamous states space explosion problem of PAs, but unfortunately it is well known that the behavioral equivalences are strictly stronger than the logical equivalences induced by PCTL or PCTL*. We address this problem in this thesis by introducing a sequence of strong bisimulations, which will converge to the PCTL or PCTL* equivalence eventually. This work is then extended to CTMDPs. 4. Recently, MAs have been proposed as a compositional behavior model supporting both probabilistic transitions and exponentially distributed random delays. In this thesis, we introduce both early and late semantics for MAs based on which we define the early and late weak bisimulation respectively. We also show that the early weak bisimulation coincides with the previous variants while the late weak bisimulation is strictly coarser than them.

  20. [Urinary infection and pyelonephritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz París, J

    1979-01-01

    Actual concepts on urinary tract infection (UTI) and pyelonephritis have changed constantly through the years. A brief historical review has been considered in this paper, with the hope that nowadays concepts may help the clinician towards a better diagnostic and management approach of these still so common clinical disorders. Bacteriological studies were performed in 245 urine samples obtained by three different procedures, in order to evaluate the reability of each technique, which were: different procedures, in order to evaluate the reability of each technique, which were: a) suprapubic puncture; b) single culture obtained by midstream voiding technique, and c) serial cultures in three different samples, also obtained by the latter technique. E. coli was isolated in 91% of the initial diagnosed episode of UTI, and in 87% of the recurrences. Same bacteria, as well as other organisms and mixed flora were isolated from patients with predisposing factors present within the urinary tract (intra UT predisposing factor). Results show that suprapubic tap is the most reliable technique, since bacterial contamination of the sample is avoided. Fifty percent incidence of false positive results was found when a single culture by midstream voiding technique was used. A better correlation between suprapubic puncture and serial cultures obtained by midstream voiding technique was found. Both procedures are recommended. Predisposing factors, mainly within the urinary tract, were found in 68% of the cases with demonstrated UTI. Vesicoureteral reflux was found in 27% from the total number of patients studied, and in 52% of the patients with intra-UT predisposing factors. Suggestions are made in relationship with diagnostic approach and management of patients with UTI, in order to reveal the presence of predisposing factors, since they are the main feature to take into account regarding UTI, location of the site of infection, recurrences, chronic evolution, treatment and prognosis. PMID:465182

  1. Urinary excretion of aspirin.

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot Cham, B.; Dykman, J. H.; Bochner, F.

    1982-01-01

    Six human volunteers were each given single oral doses of aspirin (ASA) ranging from 300-1,500 mg. The unchanged ASA excreted in the urine was proportional to dose and urinary pH. The mean percent (+/- s.d.) of dose excreted was 1.9 +/- 0.67. The clearance for ASA was 1.42 +/- 0.28 1/h. The rate of in vitro hydrolysis of ASA to salicylic acid in urine at 37 degrees C was 4 micrograms/min for an initial ASA concentration of 7.5 mg in 100 ml human urine.

  2. Swapping: a natural bridge between named and indexed explicit substitution calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelzon, Ariel; Ziliani, Beta; 10.4204/EPTCS.49.1

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to the presentation of lambda_rex, an explicit substitution calculus with de Bruijn indexes and a simple notation. By being isomorphic to lambda_ex - a recent formalism with variable names -, lambda_rex accomplishes simulation of beta-reduction (Sim), preservation of beta-strong normalization (PSN) and meta-confluence (MC), among other desirable properties. Our calculus is based on a novel presentation of lambda_dB, using a swap notion that was originally devised by de Bruijn. Besides lambda_rex, two other indexed calculi isomorphic to lambda_x and lambda_xgc are presented, demonstrating the potential of our technique when applied to the design of indexed versions of known named calculi.

  3. Toward the classification of differential calculi on $\\kappa$-Minkowski space and related field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Juric, Tajron; Pikutic, Danijel; Strajn, Rina

    2015-01-01

    Classification of differential forms on $\\kappa$-Minkowski space, particularly, the classification of all bicovariant differential calculi of classical dimension is presented. By imposing super-Jacobi identities we derive all possible differential algebras compatible with the $\\kappa$-Minkowski algebra. Embedding into the super-Heisenberg algebra is constructed using non-commutative (NC) coordinates and one-forms. Particularly, a class of differential calculi with an undeformed exterior derivative and one-forms is considered. NC differential calculus and twist leading to $\\kappa$-Poincar\\'e Hopf algebra for light-like deformation are proposed. Corresponding super-algebra and deformed super-Hopf algebra, as well as the symmetries of differential algebras are presented and elaborated. Using the NC differential calculus, we analyze NC field theory, modified dispersion relations, and discuss further physical applications.

  4. Cystic calculi removal in African spurred Tortoise (Geochelone sulcata using transplstron coeliotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Che' Amat

    Full Text Available The present report was carried out to manage a case of calculi in the bladder of African spurred tortoise. A 6 year old African spurred tortoise presented with history of anorexia and whitish discharged from the vent. Upon physical examination, the tortoise were 10% dehydrated, hindlegs muscle wasting and whitish materials came out from the vent. Plain radiograph revealed increased radiopacity in the bladder and also both right and left kidney. Contrast gastrointestinal radiograph showed less possibility of foreign body. Inconclusive radiological findings required the decision to proceed with exploratory transplastron coeliotomy by using dental burr. About 4 cm solid, hard whitish mass was removed from the bladder and both kidney was congested with whitish material. The findings were suggestive for urates crystal calculi based on histology result. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 489-492

  5. Primary Giant Cell Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Kidney with Staghorn Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen C

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFH as primary renal tumours are rare, with less than 50 cases described in the literature. We report a case of primary renal MFH of giant cell type in a 56-year-old man, who presented with bilateral dull flank pain, intermittent gross haematuria and body weight loss (6 kg in 3 months. Intravenous urography, computerized tomography (CT and magnetic resonance image (MRI showed right ureteral stones with mild hydronephrosis, and a solid mass at the lower pole of the left kidney associated with staghorn calculi, as well as tumour thrombi in the left renal vein and inferior vena cava. Left radical nephrectomy and evacuation of tumour thrombi from the left renal vein and inferior vena cava were performed. Histopathologic examination revealed malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH of giant cell type. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of primary renal MFH associated with staghorn calculi.

  6. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy versus ureteroscopy for distal ureteric calculi: efficacy and patient satisfaction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ibrahim F., Ghalayini; Mohammed A., Al-Ghazo; Yousef S., Khader.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and ureteroscopy (URS) for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi with respect to patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND MHETODS: This is a prospective study where a total of 212 patients with solitary, radiopaque dis [...] tal ureteral calculi were treated with ESWL (n = 92) using Dornier lithotriptor S (MedTech Europe GmbH) or URS (n = 120). Patient and stone characteristics, treatment parameters, clinical outcomes, and patient satisfaction were assessed for each group. RESULTS: The 2 groups were comparable in regard to patient age, sex, stone size, and side of treatment. The stone-free status for ESWL and URS at 3 months was 81.5% and 97.5%, respectively (p

  7. On the Expressiveness and Decidability of Higher-Order Process Calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Lanese, Ivan; Pere?z, Jorge; Sangiorgi, Davide; Schmitt, Alan

    2008-01-01

    In higher-order process calculi the values exchanged in communications may contain processes. A core calculus of higher-order concurrency is studied; it has only the operators necessary to express higher-order communications: input prefix, process output, and parallel composition. By exhibiting a nearly deterministic encoding of Minsky machines, the calculus is shown to be Turing complete and therefore its termination problem is undecidable. Strong bisimilarity, however, is shown to be decida...

  8. Urinary infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Om Prakash; Abhinay, Abhishek; Prasad, Rajniti

    2013-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common infection in infants and children. During infancy, boys are more commonly affected than girls and thereafter, female preponderance is found. Presentation varies among different age groups. Clinical features in neonates and young infants are non-specific, manifest as septicemia where a high index of suspicion is needed. Older children typically present as simple or complicated UTI. Rapid diagnosis, institution of early treatment and further evaluation by imaging modalities are of utmost importance. The prevention of recurrent UTI and detection of congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract are major objectives in the management. Use of ultrasound is required to detect underlying congenital abnormalities, whereas voiding cystourethrogram and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan are useful in the diagnosis of obstructive uropathy and vesicoureteric reflux and renal scar, respectively. The children requiring surgical interventions are to be recognised early to prevent recurrent UTI. The treatment of vesicoureteric reflux by chemoprophylaxis in lower grades and surgical treatment in higher grades are important consideration in prevention of recurrent UTI. This is required to prevent renal parenchymal damage and scarring that can cause hypertension and progressive renal insufficiency in later life. PMID:23881478

  9. The new generation Siemens Multiline lithotripter tube "M": early results in ureteral calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethuys, H; Winnepenninckx, B; Van Poppel, H; Baert, L

    1996-10-01

    The Siemens electromagnetic Lithostar tube "C" and the new multiline tube "M" lithotripters were compared for the in situ treatment of ureteral calculi. A series of 248 patients with a calcium oxalate ureteral stone (proven by stone analysis) more than 4 mm in diameter were treated between December 1994 and September 1995 with the tube M Multiline lithotripter. The results were compared with those of 462 patients treated in prior years with tube C. High energy levels were obtained without sedation in 11% of patients with tube C and in 61% with tube M. The proportion of patients needing additional analgetics was 11% and 6%, respectively. The percentages of patients reporting no pain at all were 7 and 77. In proximal calculi, stone-free status was achieved in 63 of 79 patients (80%) with tube C and in 82 of 91 patients (90%) with tube M (p = 0.057). In distal calculi, stone-free status was achieved in 124 of 173 patients (72%) with tube C and in 134 of 157 patients (85%) with tube M (p = 0.0027). The evacuation rate for distal ureteral stones was significantly higher with tube M, which implies that the new shock head can enable the operator to apply higher energy without sedation because of the better tolerance. PMID:8905483

  10. Feynman's Operational Calculi: Spectral Theory for Noncommuting Self-adjoint Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectral theorem for commuting self-adjoint operators along with the associated functional (or operational) calculus is among the most useful and beautiful results of analysis. It is well known that forming a functional calculus for noncommuting self-adjoint operators is far more problematic. The central result of this paper establishes a rich functional calculus for any finite number of noncommuting (i.e. not necessarily commuting) bounded, self-adjoint operators A1,..., An and associated continuous Borel probability measures ?1, ?, ?n on [0,1]. Fix A1,..., An. Then each choice of an n-tuple (?1,...,?n) of measures determines one of Feynman's operational calculi acting on a certain Banach algebra of analytic functions even when A1, ..., An are just bounded linear operators on a Banach space. The Hilbert space setting along with self-adjointness allows us to extend the operational calculi well beyond the analytic functions. Using results and ideas drawn largely from the proof of our main theorem, we also establish a family of Trotter product type formulas suitable for Feynman's operational calculi

  11. Urolitíase no alotransplante renal / Urinary lithiasis in renal allografts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adauto José, Cologna; Antonio Carlos Pereira, Martins; Haylton Jorge, Suaid; Silvio, Tucci Júnior; Rodolfo Borges dos, Reis; Ricardo Mesquita, Paschoal; André Luis Alonso, Domingos; Lucy Vieira da, Silva-Lima.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: A litíase urinária é uma complicação incomum no alotransplante renal, a incidência varia de 0,02 a 3,4%. A maioria dos cálculos forma-se após o transplante, porém alguns podem ser transferidos junto com o enxerto para o hospedeiro. O tratamento desta complicação está baseado em alguns caso [...] s descritos na literatura. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de relatar a incidência da litíase renal no paciente com transplante renal, assim como a conduta adotada no HCFMRPUSP. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 953 pacientes submetidos a transplante renal no HCFMRPUSP, de fevereiro 1968 a maio de 2003. A idade média foi de 47,2 anos (35 a 63 anos). Em 09 pacientes, o rim foi proveniente de doador cadáver e apenas 01 doador vivo. RESULTADOS:Foram diagnosticados 10 casos de litíase (1,05%). Em 02 pacientes (20%) o cálculo foi diagnosticado no intraoperatório, em 01 (10%) no peri-operatório (5º. dia), os 07 restantes (70%) no pós-operatório tardio. Em 04 pacientes (57%) não havia sintomatologia específica, 02 (29%) apresentaram ITU, em 03 (43%) ocorreu elevação da creatinina sérica. De 8 pacientes com litíase no pós-operatorio, em 06 os cálculos estavam localizados no rim e 02 no ureter. Dos pacientes com cálculos renais, 02 foram observados, 02 submetidos a LECO, 01 a nefrolitripsia percutânea, 01 à pielolitotomia. Em 01 paciente com cálculo ureteral foi realizada pielovesicostomia (cálculo + estenose), no outro paciente foi feita a ureterorrenoscopia retrógrada. CONCLUSÃO: A urolitíase é complicação rara no transplante renal, a conduta terapêutica no pós-operatório tardio é semelhante à da população geral. Abstract in english Purpose: Urinary lithiasis is an uncommon complication in recipient of kidney allografts. The prevalence varies from 0.02 to 3.4%. The majority of calculi arises de novo in the recipient, however some of them are transferred with the transplanted kidney. The treatment relies on few reports published [...] previously. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of lithiasis as well as the treatment in an university hospital. METHODS: We analyzed 953 recipients of renal transplant undertaken in Hospital das Clínicas - FMRP-USP, from February of 1968 to May of 2003. The mean age of patients bearing lithiasis was 47.2 years (range 35 to 63 years). RESULTS: The prevalence of lithiasis was 10/953 (1.0%). Nine patients received kidneys from cadaver donor and 1 from living donor. The diagnosis occurred during the surgery in 2 (20%), within few days after transplantation in 1 (10%) and in the late postoperative period in 7 (70%). Seven patients had no complains, 2 had associated urinary tract infection and 1 a rise in serum creatinine. Of 8 cases with lithiasis in the postoperative period, the stones were localized in the kidney in 6 and in the ureter in 2. Renal calculi were managed as follows: watchful-waiting - 2, extracorporeal lithotrypsy - 2, percutaneous nepholithotrypsy - 1 and open pyelolithomy - 1. One patient with ureteric lithiasis associated ureteral stenosis underwent a pyelo-vesicostomy. The other patient with ureteric lithiasis was treated by retrograde endoscopic ureterolithothrypsy. CONCLUSION: Urinary lithiasis is rare in transplanted kidneys and can be managed as to the general population.

  12. Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter and struvite calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Danielo Garcia de, Freitas; Adriano Scaff, Garcia; Osvaldo de, Freitas Filho.

    1999-05-06

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: A associação de carcinoma primário de ureter e litíase é muito rara, sendo observado em 30 a 50% o carcinoma de células escamosas. Relatamos um caso raro de carcinoma de células transicionais e cálculo de estruvita.RELATO DE CASO: Descreve-se caso raro de carcinoma primário de ureter assoc [...] iado a cálculo corariforme. A apresentação clínica inicial estava predominantemente ligada ao quadro de litíase renal, não detectando-se o tumor pela urografia excretora, cistoscopia ou ultrassonografia. Dois meses após a eliminação do cálculo, a paciente evoluiu com alterações clínicas importantes, sendo então diagnosticado carcinoma de células transicionais de ureter, grau III. Nefroureterectomia radical e quimioterapia M.V.A.C. foram tentadas, sem sucesso. Enfatizamos a dificuldade diagnóstica na concomitância das duas patologias e a rápida evolução do caso, ao nosso ver, diretamente ligada ao grau tumoral. Abstract in english CONTEXT: The association of primary carcinoma of the ureter and lithiasis is extremely rare. We report a rare case of a primary carcinoma of the ureter with corariform calculus. CASE REPORT: 60-year-old phaeodermal female, reported a history of right-side nephritic colic, hyperthermia and pyuria dur [...] ing the past 20 years and had received treatment for urinary infections a number of times. The first clinical presentation was related to lithiasis and the tumor had not been shown up by excretory urography, cystoscopy or ultrasonography. Two months after the calculus had been eliminated, the patient began to have serious symptoms and a grade III transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter was discovered. Total nephroureterectomy and M.V.A.C. (Metotrexate + Vinblastina + Doxo Rubicina + Cisplatina) chemotherapy were tried unsuccessfully. In this report we emphasize the diagnostic difficulty caused by the concomitant presence of the two pathologies. In our opinion, the rapid evolution in this case is directly related to the high grade of the tumor.

  13. Transureteral Lithotripsy Versus Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Management of Upper Ureteral Calculi: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrasoul Mehrsai

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: Our aim was to compare transureteral lithotripsy (TUL and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL in the management of upper ureteral calculi larger than 5 mm in diameter. Materials and Methods: Patients who had upper ureteral calculi greater than 5 mm in diameter were enrolled in this clinical trial. The calculi had not responded to conservative or symptomatic therapy. Semirigid ureteroscopy and pneumatic lithotripsy were used for TUL in 52 patients and SWL was performed in 48. Analysis of the calculi compositions was done and the patients were followed up by plain abdominal radiography and ultrasonography 3 month postoperatively. Results: The stone-free rates were 76.9% in the patients of the TUL group and 68.8% in the patients of the SWL group. These rates in the patients with mild or no hydronephrosis were 85.7% and 59.1% for the SWL and TUL groups, respectively. In the TUL group, half of the patients with no hydronephrosis developed upward calculus migration. The stone-free rates were 75.0% and 89.3% for the patients with moderate hydronephrosis and 70.0% and 100.0% for those with severe hydronephrosis in the SWL and TUL groups, respectively. All of the failed cases were treated by double-J stenting and TUL or SWL successfully. There were no serious complications. Upward calculus migration after TUL was more frequent in cases with no hydronephrosis or mild hydronephrosis (41.0%. Conclusion: Upper ureteral calculi smaller than 1 cm can be safely and effectively managed using semirigid ureteroscopy and pneumatic lithotripsy. However, the SWL approach has still its role if an experienced endourologist is not available.

  14. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy and Transureteral Lithotripsy in the Treatment of Impacted Lower Ureteral Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Iranpour

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL with ureteroscopy followed by transureteral lithotripsy (TUL for the treatment of impacted distal ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 patients with solitary impacted distal ureteral calculi were assigned into 2 groups of treatment with SWL (42 patients and TUL (54 patients with a 6.9-F semirigid ureteroscope. Characteristics of the patients and the calculi, treatment parameters, clinical outcomes, and patients’ satisfaction were assessed for each group as well as efficiency quotient. Results: Demographic characteristics of the patients in the 2 groups were similar as well as the sizes of the calculi. The stone-free rate, 2 months postoperatively, was 71.4% in the patients of the SWL group and 88.9% in those of the TUL group. The efficiency quotient was 56% and 81% for the SWL and TUL groups, respectively (P = .004. Retreatment rate was 26.2% (11 patients and 9.3% (5 patients for the SWL and TUL groups, respectively (P = .027. Thirty patients in the SWL group (71.4% and 52 in the TUL group (96.3% were satisfied with their treatment (P = .001. There were no major complications in neither of the groups. Minor complications (pain and hematuria were more common in the TUL group. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, TUL seems to be more effective than SWL in the treatment of impacted lower ureteral calculi sized smaller than 12 mm, and patients are more satisfied with this treatment method.

  15. Studies on the function of upper urinary tract, 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify the changes of the ureteral function after ureterolithotomy, 131I-Hippuran renograms were recorded at 3 times before, immediately after (i.e. 1 - 2 days after) and 10 days after the lithotomy in 52 patients. The influences of preoperative hydronephrosis or urinary tract infection upon the postoperative renogram patterns were studied. The following results were obtained. 1. In the renogram findings of the preoperative 52 cases, 28 delayed excretion types, 15 obstructive types and 9 standard types were shown. 2. The postoperative renogram patterns showed a tendency of increased obstruction immediately after the operation (56.9%) irrespective of the location of the calculi in the ureter, and the recovering excretion phases became visible on the 10th postoperative day (51.1%). 3. In the findings on the postoperative renograms, a tendency of increased obstruction was noted in many of the patients of the non-hydronephrotic group than the hydronephrotic group immediately after the operation, but no statistically significant difference was noted. On the 10th postoperative day, slightly more patients of the hydronephrotic group tended to show improvements of obstruction than those of the non-hydronephrotic group, but with no statistically significant difference. 4. In the relationship between the hydronephrosis and urinary tract infection, the infection rate was 26.9% (7 out of 26) in the non-hydronephrotic group and 52.4% (11 out of 21) in the hic group and 52.4% (11 out of 21) in the hydronephrotic group. 5. In the findings on the renograms viewed from presence of urinary tract infection, slightly more cases of increased obstruction were found out immediately after the operation in the non-infected group than in the infected group. On the 10th postoperative day, slightly more cases of improvements of obstruction were noted in the infected group than in the non-infected group, but no statistically significant difference was seen between the two groups at either of the two points. (author)

  16. Determinants of 24-hour Urinary Oxalate Excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Eric N.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Higher levels of urinary oxalate substantially increase the risk of calcium oxalate kidney stones. However, the determinants of urinary oxalate excretion are unclear. The objective was to examine the impact of dietary factors, age, body size, diabetes, and urinary factors on 24-h urinary oxalate.

  17. General practitioners and women with urinary incontinence.

    OpenAIRE

    Grealish, M.; O Dowd, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence is a common problem for adult women. It results in a large financial and psychosocial cost. Much urinary incontinence goes unreported. Women with urinary incontinence can be successfully assessed and treated in general practice but studies have shown that many GPs manage the condition inadequately. AIM: This study aims to examine GPs' awareness of urinary incontinence in women and their management of, and attitudes to, female urinary incontinence. METHOD: A qu...

  18. Surprises in the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Bhushan Wani; Suhas Jajoo; Navinchandra Wani; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Bhushan Wani1, Suhas Jajoo1, Navinchandra Wani2, Anil Bhole11Department of Surgery, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, India; 2Department of Surgery, Annasaheb Chudaman Patil Memorial Medical College, Dhule, IndiaAbstract: Foreign bodies of the urinary bladder may occur by self insertion, iatrogenic means or migration from the neighbouring organs. The variety of objects found self-inserted is impressive. The patient usually presents with dysuria, poor urinary stream or...

  19. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limit...

  20. [Artificial urinary sphincter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, C; Richard, F; Bitker, M O

    1995-03-01

    The artificial urinary sphincter is a totally implantable hydraulic prosthesis designed to restore continence without inducing dysuria. It is composed of 3 silicone elastomer elements: a periurethral or pericervical cuff, a pressure regulating reservoir balloon inserted in the retropubic space, and a pump situated in the scrotum or labia majora. The prosthesis is filled with a liquid containing a contrast agent. Pressure on the pump allows passage of liquid from the cuff towards the balloon and allows micturition. After 3 to 4 minutes, the liquid is automatically transferred from the balloon to the cuff to restore continence. The artificial sphincter is currently a very effective therapeutic solution in cases of severe urinary incontinence with 3 main indications: persistent incontinence after prostatic surgery, recurrent incontinence in women due to sphincter insufficiency, and certain forms of neurogenic incontinence. The Pitié-Salpêtrière Urology Department's experience currently consists of 200 implantations performed over the last 10 years. The overall success rate varies from 80 to 90% according to sex and the aetiology of incontinence, in patients in whom the sphincter remains in place. In fact, there is a risk of explantation due to erosion of the tissues by the cuff or infection, but this risk is less than 15%. The risk of prosthesis failure is about 20%, but after correction of the defective element, cure is achieved in almost every case. Analysis of the results in the first 120 patients with the two most frequent aetiologies and with at least three years' follow-up (range: 3 to 10 years) reveals: in a series of 75 men, treated for severe incontinence persisting more than one year after surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia, the explantation rate was 15% and, in the patients in whom the sphincter remained in place, complete cure was obtained in 73% of cases without any incontinence, while 17% of patients suffered from minimal incontinence, not requiring protection, 7% had moderate incontinence requiring protection and 3% were considered to be failures. The revision rate for technical failure was 24%. In a series of 45 women with recurrent incontinence after surgery, due to sphincter insufficiency, the explanation rate was 13% and, in women in whom the sphincter remained in place, complete success was obtain in 78% of cases without any incontinence, while 17% suffered from minimal incontinence, usually not requiring protection, 5% require protection, with no failures and a revision rate for technical failure of 24%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7648305

  1. Urinary conduits in gynecologic oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over an 11-year period (1971 to 1981), 212 urinary conduit surgeries were performed by the Department of Gynecology at the University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston. The urinary diversions were performed as part of the pelvic exenteration operation in 154 patients, for radiation injury in 48 patients, and for palliation of disease recurrence in ten patients. Ninety-three percent had prior pelvic radiotherapy. Various segments of the gastrointestinal tract were used, including the ileum (102), sigmoid colon (99), transverse colon (four), jejunum (four), and others (three). Fifty percent of abnormal preoperative intravenous pyelograms reverted to normal after urinary diversion. Revision of the stoma was required in 6%. Other complications included infection (18%), renal loss (17%), and urinary leaks and fistulae (3%). The overall perioperative mortality was 7%, decreasing from 11% in the first five years to 3% during the last six years. Ureteral stents were routinely used. When selecting a segment of bowel for a urinary conduit, both tissue quality and mobility are important. Mortality and morbidity of urinary conduit surgery continues to decrease with experience

  2. Comparison of urinary calculus fragmentation during Ho:YAG and Er:YAG lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Wook; Lee, Ho; Teichman, Joel H.; Welch, A. J.

    2005-04-01

    We compared urinary calculus fragmentation with long pulsed Ho:YAG (?= 2.12 ?m) versus Er:YAG (? = 2.94 ?m) lasers. We measured the ablation width, depth, volume and efficiency as a function of pulse energy from calculus threshold energy to clinical energy typically used for Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy. Ablation effects were evaluated for three types of urinary calculi (calcium oxalate monohydrate, cystine, and uric acid), for single and multiple pulses applied at various optical energy levels. By means of comparing laser-induced crater topography and ablation volume for each stone type, the feasibility of Er:YAG laser lithotripsy was appraised. The Er:YAG laser pulse energy generated deeper and narrower crater shapes with relatively smooth contours whereas the Ho:YAG laser produced shallower and wider craters with irregular shapes. In terms of multiple pulses ablation, the Er:YAG produced larger ablation volume than Ho:YAG. The deeper crater induced by the Er:YAG was attributed to the higher absorption coefficient of stones at the 2.94 ?m wavelength, and widening of crater by Ho:YAG was perhaps caused by lateral expansion of ablated material. Comparing the ablation efficiency, Er:YAG was superior to Ho:YAG for both single and five-pulses.

  3. Urinary stone size estimation: a new segmentation algorithm-based CT method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liden, Mats; Geijer, Haakan [Oerebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Oerebro (Sweden); Oerebro University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oerebro (Sweden); Andersson, Torbjoern [Oerebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Oerebro (Sweden); Broxvall, Mathias [Oerebro University, Centre for Modelling and Simulation, Oerebro (Sweden); Thunberg, Per [Oerebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Oerebro (Sweden); Oerebro University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Oerebro (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    The size estimation in CT images of an obstructing ureteral calculus is important for the clinical management of a patient presenting with renal colic. The objective of the present study was to develop a reader independent urinary calculus segmentation algorithm using well-known digital image processing steps and to validate the method against size estimations by several readers. Fifty clinical CT examinations demonstrating urinary calculi were included. Each calculus was measured independently by 11 readers. The mean value of their size estimations was used as validation data for each calculus. The segmentation algorithm consisted of interpolated zoom, binary thresholding and morphological operations. Ten examinations were used for algorithm optimisation and 40 for validation. Based on the optimisation results three segmentation method candidates were identified. Between the primary segmentation algorithm using cubic spline interpolation and the mean estimation by 11 readers, the bias was 0.0 mm, the standard deviation of the difference 0.26 mm and the Bland-Altman limits of agreement 0.0{+-}0.5 mm. The validation showed good agreement between the suggested algorithm and the mean estimation by a large number of readers. The limit of agreement was narrower than the inter-reader limit of agreement previously reported for the same data. (orig.)

  4. In vitro crystallization, characterization and growth-inhibition study of urinary type struvite crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Chetan K.; Joshi, Mihir J.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of urinary stones, known as nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis, is a serious, debilitating problem throughout the world. Struvite—NH4MgPO4·6H2O, ammonium magnesium phosphate hexahydrate, is one of the components of urinary stones (calculi). Struvite crystals with different morphologies were grown by in vitro single diffusion gel growth technique with different growth parameters. The crystals were characterized by powder XRD, FT-IR, thermal analysis and dielectric study. The powder XRD results of struvite confirmed the orthorhombic crystal structure. The FT-IR spectrum proved the presence of water of hydration, metal-oxygen bond, N-H bond and P-O bond. For thermal analysis TGA, DTA and DSC were carried out simultaneously. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of dehydration/decomposition process were calculated. Vickers micro-hardness and related mechanical parameters were also calculated. The in vitro growth inhibition studies of struvite by the juice of Citrus medica Linn as well as the herbal extracts of Commiphora wightii, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn and Rotula aquatica Lour were carried out and found potent inhibitors of struvite.

  5. Comparative Study of Lithotripsy and PCNL for 11-15 mm Lower Caliceal Calculi In Community Health Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadekar, Jayant; Shinde, Babaji B.; Tatte, Julie Anand

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is not a popular procedure in smaller sized calculi due to its invasive nature, complications and need for anesthesia. Small sized lower caliceal calculi are generally treated by ESWL but have significantly less clearance rate in spite of several sittings. Here we want to study the efficacy and safe of both procedures in 11 to 15 mm lower caliceal calculi. Materials and Methods: We present comparative study of lithotripsy and PCNL in 11-15 mm lower caliceal calculi in our hospital. Total 156 patients were studied 78 underwent lithotripsy and 78 underwent PCNL. We compared results in the form of clearance rate, the number of settings needed, hospital stay, need for anesthesia, blood transfusion rate, chest complication, the incidence of sepsis, the need for another procedure, need for stenting in either group. Results: We found a 67.95% clearance rate in SWL group and 97.43% clearance rate in PCNL group. Hospital stay was minimum in SWL group and was 46 hours in PCNL group. The procedure time was 42 minutes in PCNL and it was 114 mins in SWL (considering all settings). The rest of the complications like chest complication, sepsis and bleeding were negligible due to the small size of calculi. Conclusion: In a small sized LPC calculi, PCNL is gaining increased popularity due to lower complication and high safety and complete clearance rate. It is wide accepted by society as the patient is totally stone free at the end of the procedure. SWL is less invasive but less effective and has given significant discomfort to patients. PMID:25121001

  6. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy versus ureteroscopy for distal ureteric calculi: efficacy and patient satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim F. Ghalayini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL and ureteroscopy (URS for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi with respect to patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND MHETODS: This is a prospective study where a total of 212 patients with solitary, radiopaque distal ureteral calculi were treated with ESWL (n = 92 using Dornier lithotriptor S (MedTech Europe GmbH or URS (n = 120. Patient and stone characteristics, treatment parameters, clinical outcomes, and patient satisfaction were assessed for each group. RESULTS: The 2 groups were comparable in regard to patient age, sex, stone size, and side of treatment. The stone-free status for ESWL and URS at 3 months was 81.5% and 97.5%, respectively (p < 0.0001. In addition, 88% of patients who underwent ESWL versus 20% who underwent URS were discharged home the day of procedure. Minor complications occurred in 3.3% and 8.3% of the ESWL and URS groups, respectively (p = 0.127. No ureteral perforation or stricture occurred in the URS group. Postoperative flank pain and dysuria were more severe in the URS than ESWL group, although the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.16. Patient satisfaction was high for both groups, including 94% for URS and 80% for ESWL (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: URS is more effective than ESWL for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi. ESWL was more often performed on an outpatient basis, and showed a trend towards less flank pain and dysuria, fewer complications and quicker convalescence. Patient satisfaction was significantly higher for URS according to the questionnaire used in this study.

  7. Solubility and dissolution kinetics of calcium oxalate renal calculi in solutions containing L-arginine: In-vitro experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, S.

    2010-06-01

    The kinetics of dissolution of calcium oxalate (CaOX) calculi in physiological solutions containing L-arginine at different concentrations were studied using the change in the Archimedean weight of samples immersed in the solution. It was faound that arginine, which is a normal constituent of human urine, acts at increased concentrations as a dissolving agent with respect to CaOX calculi. The possible effect of L-arginine as a natural regulator of CaOX supersaturation and crystalization in human urine is also disscused.

  8. Urinary incontinence and bladder endometriosis: conservative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Ferrero, Simone; Salvatore, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Bladder endometriosis causes urinary symptoms including frequency, dysuria, cyclic haematuria and non-urinary pain symptoms. To our knowledge, the association of bladder endometriosis with urinary incontinence has not been described. We present the first case of bladder endometriosis that caused urinary symptoms including mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). A 34-year-old nulliparous woman was referred to our urogynaecology clinic with a 18-month history of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). A diagnosis of bladder endometriosis was performed on the basis of symptoms and imaging. The patient refused surgery and dienogest was prescribed. At the 12-month follow-up, all endometriosis-related symptoms and questionnaire scores had significantly improved, and there was resolution of the abnormal urodynamic findings. In reproductive-aged women suffering pain symptoms, bladder endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of urinary incontinence and treatment with dienogest may lead to improvement of both urinary and pain symptoms. PMID:25182151

  9. Commutator Representations of Differential Calculi on the Quantum Group SU_q(2)

    OpenAIRE

    Schmuedgen, Konrad

    1998-01-01

    Let (\\Gamma,d) be the 3D-calculus or the 4D_{\\pm}-calculus on the quantum group SU_q(2). We describe all pairs (\\pi, F) of a *-representation \\pi of O(SU_q(2)) and of a symmetric operator F on the representation space satisfying a technical condition concerning its domain such that there exist a homomorphism of first order differential calculi which maps dx into the commutator [iF,\\pi(x)] for x\\in O(SU_q(2)). As an application commutator representations of the 2-dimensional ...

  10. Litotricia extracorpórea en litiasis en pacientes con derivación urinaria / Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urolithiasis in patients with urinary diversion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Vega Vega; D., García Alonso; L., Parra Muntaner; J.M., Sánchez Merino; J., García Alonso.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Exponemos nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento de litiasis en pacientes con derivación urinaria. Hemos tratado 5 pacientes con litiasis en el tracto urinario superior tras cistectomía y derivación urinaria. El tratamiento se ha hecho con monoterapia por ondas de choque con el litotritor Lithostar M [...] odularis de Siemens. El tamaño medio de las litiasis fue de 1,95 cm (rango 1 a 3,5 cm). El número medio de sesiones ha sido 2,6, con 3961 ondas de choque de media por sesión. Hemos conseguido un 100% de pacientes libres de litiasis, indicando que la litotricia extracorpórea tiene unos buenos resultados en el tratamiento de las litiasis en pacientes con derivación urinaria, siendo el tratamiento de elección en estos pacientes, con muy baja morbilidad y alta eficacia, comparable a los pacientes sin derivación urinaria. Abstract in english We evaluate the efficacy of ESWL in the management of calculi in patients with urinary diversion. We treated 5 patients who suffered from urinary lithiasis after urinary diversion post cistectomy. We managed the patients with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in monotherapy with a Siemens Lithos [...] tar Modularis device. Mean stone size (long axis) was 1.95 cm (range 1 to 3.5 cm). The mean shockwave number per session was 2.6 per patient. Stone free result was 100%. We conclude that ESWL technique can provide acceptable results in patients with urinary diversion and can be used as first choice treatment in these type of patients due to its minimal morbidity and excellent results, equivalent to those achieved in patients without urinary diversion.

  11. La incontinencia urinaria / Urinary incontinence

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. E., Robles.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La incontinencia urinaria, entendida como cualquier pérdida involuntaria de orina, constituye un problema médico y social importante. Puede clasificarse en incontinencia urinaria de esfuerzo, incontinencia urinaria de urgencia e incontinencia urinaria mixta, principalmente. Las proporciones de estos [...] tres tipos principales de incontinencia urinaria son difíciles de establecer y varían notablemente según las fuentes, pero, podrían estar en torno a 40, 33 y 20%, respectivamente. Su diagnóstico requiere una correcta historia clínica y exploración física, junto con algunas exploraciones complementarias. El primer escalón terapéutico lo constituyen las medidas higiénico-dietéticas y las técnicas de modificación de la conducta. El tratamiento farmacológico es específico para cada tipo de incontinencia urinaria, utilizándose anticolinérgicos e inhibidores de la recaptación de serotonina. Por último, las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas tienen su papel ante el fracaso de los tratamientos conservadores o frente a incontinencia urinaria severa. Abstract in english Urinary incontinence, understood as any involuntary loss of urine, constitutes an important medical and social problem. It can be classified as stress urinary incontinence, urgent urinary incontinence or mixed urinary incontinence. The proportions of these three types of urinary incontinence are dif [...] ficult to establish and vary notably between sources, but they might be about 40, 33 and 20% respectively. Its diagnosis requires a correct clinical history and physical exploration, together with some complementary explorations. The first therapeutic step consists of hygienic-dietary measures and behaviour modification techniques. Pharmacological treatment is specific for each type of urinary incontinence, using anticholinergics and inhibitors of serotonin reuptake. Finally, different surgical techniques have a role in cases where conservative treatments fail or when dealing with severe urinary incontinence.

  12. Female urinary incontinence rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, P

    2004-08-01

    Pelvic floor rehabilitation (PFR) is an important and recommended strategy for the treatment of many urogynecological disorders including urinary incontinence (UI). The recognised pioneer of PFR is the American gynecologist Arnold Kegel who, over 50 years ago, proposed pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME) to prevent and/or treat female UI. Kegel's techniques were successfully used by others too, but as the years passed these techniques sank into unjustified oblivion. In the 1980s in Europe the medical world's interest in PFME techniques gained ground, contemporaneously with functional electrical stimulation (FES) and biofeedback (BFB). As a general rule, the least invasive and least dangerous procedure for the patient should be the first choice, and behavioural and rehabilitative techniques should be considered as the first line of therapy for UI. The behavioural approaches in women with UI and without cognitive deficits are tailored to the patient's underlying problem, such as bladder training or retraining (BR) for urge UI. BR has many variations but generally consists of education, scheduled voiding, and positive reinforcements. The rehabilitative approaches comprise BFB, FES, PFME, and vaginal cones (VC). BFB allows the subject to modify the unconscious physiological events, while FES is aimed at strengthening perineal awareness, increasing the tone and trophism of the pelvic floor, and inhibiting detrusor overactivity. PFME play an extremely important role in the conservative treatment of UI and overactive bladder, and many studies have demonstrated their effectiveness. Many authors have used the different methods for PFR in a heterogeneous manner: the best results were obtained when protocols requiring the contemporary use of 2 or more techniques were followed. PMID:15377984

  13. Palliative urinary conduit diversion in cases of intolerable urinary discomfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyndrup, J.; Sorensen, B.L.

    1983-12-01

    Fifteen patients with incurable gynecological cancers, all primary radiation treated and all having severe urinary discomfort due to urinary tract injuries were retrospectively examined after urinary conduit diversion. All have been followed-up until termination or until all survivors had lived for 6 months after the operation. Twelve of the 15 were discharged from the hospital, 10 of whom survived the first 6 months. Of those discharged 82% of the cumulated sum of postoperative observations days was spent out of the hospital. At the end of the observation period nine patients had been supplied with a colostomy as well, thus having double stomas. All six patients still alive declared in retrospect that given the choice again, they would still be willing to undergo the operation.

  14. Treatment of staghorn calculi by percutaneous nephrolithotomy and SWL: the Hotel Dieu de France experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhej, S; Jabbour, M; Samaha, E; Chalouhi, E; Moukarzel, M; Khour, R; Chaiban, R

    1998-02-01

    To evaluate the combined approach of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in the treatment of staghorn calculi, we carried out a retrospective review of 101 patients. The stone surface area ranged from 654 to 3042 mm2 (1535 mm2 on average). During PCNL, a single access tract was used in 22 patients, a double tract in 65 patients, and a triple tract in 14 patients. A double-J stent was placed percutaneously in 62 patients. Extracorporeal lithotripsy was scheduled at the patient's convenience on an outpatient basis approximately 2 weeks after PCNL. The mean hospital stay was 4.4 days. The combined approach showed a stone-free rate of 67% on the initial evaluation, an insignificant residual fragment rate of 26%, and a residual stone rate of 7%. With a follow-up of 52 months on average, the global stone growth rate was 17%, being 4.4% only among the stone-free group and 27% among the group with insignificant residual fragments. The global transfusion rate was 10%. Percutaneous stone debulking combined with SWL on an outpatient basis is an efficient, minimally invasive treatment for staghorn renal calculi. Reducing the number of access tracts, using the flexible nephroscope liberally, and placing a double-J stent frequently after PCNL increases the stone-free rate while reducing the morbidity and hospital stay. PMID:9531142

  15. Ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy for lower calyx calculi in horseshoe kidney: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawahara Takashi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We previously reported on the effectiveness of ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy during percutaneous nephrolithotomy and report two cases of lower calyx calculi in horseshoe kidney that were successfully treated with ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy. During the ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy procedure, a ureteroscope is advanced in the desired calyx and a Lawson retrograde nephrostomy puncture wire is inserted. The wire is advanced through the calyx to exit the skin. The wire is then used for the percutaneous dilation. Case presentation Case 1 was a 68-year-old man who was shown on radiography to have left lower calyx calculi (19?×?15mm, 7?×?5mm, and 7?×?3mm in horseshoe kidney. Case 2 was a 36-year-old woman shown on radiography to have a left lower calyx calculus (10?×?8mm in horseshoe kidney. Conclusions Both patients were stone-free after ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy is a promising procedure for safely and effectively treating lower calyx stones in horseshoe kidney.

  16. Acoustic and mechanical properties of renal calculi: implications in shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuong, C J; Zhong, P; Preminger, G M

    1993-12-01

    The acoustic and mechanical properties of renal calculi dictate how a stone interacts with the mechanical forces produced by shock wave lithotripsy; thus, these properties are directly related to the success of the treatment. Using an ultrasound pulse transmission technique, we measured both longitudinal and transverse (or shear) wave propagation speeds in nine groups of renal calculi with different chemical compositions. We also measured stone density using a pycnometer based on Archimedes' principle. From these measurements, we calculated wave impedance and dynamic mechanical properties of the renal stones. Calcium oxalate monohydrate and cystine stones had higher longitudinal and transverse wave speeds, wave impedances, and dynamic moduli (bulk modulus, Young's modulus, and shear modulus), suggesting that these stones are more difficult to fragment. Phosphate stones (carbonate apatite and magnesium ammonium phosphate hydrogen) were found to have lower values of these properties, suggesting they are more amenable to shock wave fragmentation. These data provide a physical explanation for the significant differences in stone fragility observed clinically. PMID:8124332

  17. Urinary tract infection in children - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days. ... If diagnosed with a urinary tract infection (UTI), your child will take antibiotic medicines by mouth at home. These may come as pills, capsules, or ...

  18. Urinary incontinence - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have urinary incontinence. This means that you are not able to keep urine from leaking from your urethra, the tube ... urine out of your body from your bladder. Urinary incontinence may occur as you get older. It ...

  19. Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal tape is surgery to help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when ... Urinary leakage decreases for most women who have this procedure. But you may still have some leakage. ...

  20. A Surprising Attempt for Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Tunçk?ran; Mehmet Ekinci; Mustafa Hoscan

    2012-01-01

    Although there are various treatment types, majority of women with urinary incontinence do not seek care for that disorder. We present a case of woman who used a walnut for the treatment of urinary incontinence by herself.

  1. Cases of polycystic kidney associated with right renal calculi and right perirenal abscess diagnosed preoperably by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) was used in 2 patients with polycystic kidney associated with right renal calculi and right perirenal abscess and definitive diagnostic informations were obtained preoperably. Therefore, CT was proved to be very valuable with its diagnostic accuracy and less complications compared with other diagnostic methods in recent urologic fields. (author)

  2. Radiology of continent urinary diversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continent urinary diversions are gaining wide acceptance as alternatives to the ideal conduit following cystectomy. Clean intermittent catheterization of the pouch at regular intervals obviates the inconvenience of an external stomal appliance. A variety of surgical techniques have been described for continent pouches. These use the small bowel alone or a combination of the cecum and the terminal ileum. The optimum pouch protects upper tracts by preventing reflux, provides urinary continence, and has sufficient capacity to require infrequent catheterization. Simplified construction techniques for the common pouches are graphically presented, and methods are suggested for identification and study of continent diversions

  3. Radioimmunoassay of urinary intrinsic factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An antiserum against human intrinsic factor (IF) was used for radioimmunoassay of this antigen. Immunoreactive IF was detected in concentrated urine samples from control subjects but not in most of those from pernicious anaemia patients. The IF concentration in urine was 1/10 000 that of gastric juice. It is assumed to be of gastric origin, like urinary pepsinogen. (author)

  4. Managing urinary incontinence: what works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarenis, I; Cardozo, L

    2014-12-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common condition, which, although not life-threatening, impairs the health-related quality of life of affected individuals. All women complaining of incontinence require a basic assessment and those with complex or refractory symptoms may benefit from urodynamic studies. Initial treatment includes lifestyle advice, behavioral modifications, bladder retraining and pelvic floor muscle training. For those women with persistent stress urinary incontinence following conservative therapy, surgical management might be considered. The development of the minimally invasive, retropubic, synthetic, mid-urethral sling procedures has revolutionized stress incontinence surgery and reduced the popularity of 'traditional' procedures, such as colposuspension and autologous fascial sling. In an attempt to reduce further the morbidity, transobturator and single-incision slings have been introduced. While antimuscarinic agents are the mainstay of the current medical management of urgency urinary incontinence, a recently developed selective ?3-adrenergic receptor agonist (mirabegron) offers an alternative pharmacological option. Modalities such as intravesical botulinum toxin and neuromodulation (peripheral or sacral) are available to women with refractory urgency incontinence. Finally, when all other options have been explored and proven unsuccessful, inappropriate or not feasible, reconstructive surgery or catheter insertion might be considered as a last resort. The aim of this paper is to review conservative, medical and surgical management for urinary incontinence by using the best available evidence in the literature. PMID:25196507

  5. Aeromonas popoffii Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Huy Thong; Bollet, Claude; Tercian, Stephane; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2004-01-01

    Aeromonas popoffii is a recently described species isolated mainly from freshwater. An isolate of Aeromonas popoffii was found to be responsible for a urinary tract infection in a 13-year-old boy suffering from spina bifida with enterocystoplasty. This is the first reported case of human infection attributed to this species.

  6. Defective urinary crystallization inhibition and urinary stone formation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauricio, Carvalho; Jody P., Lulich; Carl A., Osborne; Yasushi, Nakagawa.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nephrocalcin (NC) is a glycoprotein produced in the kidney and inhibits calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has been separated into 4 isoforms (A, B, C, and D) and found that (A + B) are more abundant than (C + D) in urine of healthy subjects, but the reverse is seen in human urine o [...] f kidney stone patients. To further examine the role of this protein in inhibition of urinary crystallization, nephrocalcin isoforms were purified from 2 genetically pure dog species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied healthy Beagles, known to be non-stone forming dogs, and Mini-Schnauzers, known to be calcium oxalate stone formers. NC was isolated and purified from each group. Urinary biochemistry and calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibition were measured. RESULTS: Specific crystal growth inhibition activity was significantly higher in non-stone forming dogs (9.79 ± 2.25 in Beagles vs. 2.75 ± 1.34 of Mini-Schnauzers, p

  7. Factors affecting treatment success of staghorn calculi: stone burden or stone locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahad?r Can Balc?

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the results and comlications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL treatment in patients with staghorn calculi.Materials and methods: We performed multi-access PCNL in 54 patients with staghorn stones in our department between 2004 to 2007. Of these patients, 2 access tracts were used for 41, 3 access tracts for 8, and 4 access tracts for 5 patients. The mean stone burden was 10.7 cm2 for 2 access group, 11.7 cm2 for 3 access group, and 11.2 cm2 for 4 access group. Preoperative data including stone surface area, stone locations, and patient demograghics were recorded. Access number, transfusion rate, and operative duration were recorded intraoperatively. Stone-free rates and need for opioids were determined postoperatively.Results: Transfusion rate was 24.3% in 2 access group, 37.5% in 3 access group, and 80% in 4 access group. The mean operative duration was 145, 157, and 189 sec in 2, 3, and 4 access groups, respectively. Stone-free rate was 63.4%, 50%, and 20%; need of opioids was 4.8%, 25%, and 60% in three groups. Two A-V fistulas, one in 3 access group and the other in 4 access group, were treated by chemoembolisation.Conclusion: Stone burden is not the most important factor for stone-free rates in complex and branched renal calculi. Different caliceal locations of stones is more predictive for stone-free rates for staghorn stones. Increased access number is associated with more blood transfusion, long operative duration, more complications, and more opioid needs.

  8. Changes in DMSA scan after PCNL procedure in children with renal calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is an established technique for the management of renal calculi. However there is limited data on the effects of PCNL on the renal parenchyma especially in the paediatric population. This study was aimed to determine the effects of PCNL on the renal parenchyma in children with renal calculi using DMSA scan. Medical records of 37 patients who had undergone PCNL over a five-year period from 1999 to 2003 were reviewed. Details of imaging were not available in 11 patients and these were excluded from the study; only patients who had both preoperative and post operative DMSA scans or a normal postoperative DMSA scan were included. 26 patients (26 renal units) were therefore available for the review. The age of the patients ranged from 1 year to 12.5 years (median, 3.75 years) at the time of PCNL. DMSA scans was done from 1 day to 47 months (median, 2 months) before the PCNL and 2 months to 27 months (median, 3.5 months) after the procedure. Two independent observers interpreted the scans and any discrepancy was reviewed and the Conclusion was reached with mutual agreement. Regions of interest around each kidney were drawn to determine the percent uptake of DMSA. 20 patients (76.9%) showed no change or improvement in post-procedure scans. The uptake of DMSA was 43.63±10.11% (mean±SD) before and 42.79±11.80% after the PCNL procedure. This change did not reach the statistically significant level (p=0.334). Hence DMSA scans showed that PC0.334). Hence DMSA scans showed that PCNL procedure does not produce significant changes in the renal parenchyma in more than three quarters of the patients who undergo this procedure. (authors)

  9. Effects of urinary volume on urinary concentrations of lead, delta-aminolaevulinic acid, coproporphyrin, creatinine, and total solutes.

    OpenAIRE

    Araki, S.

    1980-01-01

    Urinary volume was related to urinary concentrations of lead, delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), coproporphyrin (COPRO), creatinine, and total solutes in nine lead workers. On a log scale, linear relationships were found between urinary volume and the urinary concentrations. There was a certain difference in the extent of the effects of urinary volume on the urinary concentrations. For example, the concentration of creatinine was more affected by urinary volume than those of lead, ALA, and tot...

  10. CT evaluation of urinary lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Philip J

    2003-09-01

    Unenhanced CT has been demonstrated to be the most accurate and efficient diagnostic imaging means to evaluate urinary lithiasis, with capability of directing management, and has become well accepted by radiologists, urologists, and emergency department physicians such that it is now the standard of practice. It is the duty of the radiologist to be aware of proper technique and the details of interpretation. The radiologist also has a duty to be aware of the limitations of unenhanced CT for detection and evaluation of various nonstone disorders, particularly with poor patient selection, and to extend the examination if appropriate. Controversies and future developments include cost containment with care for the selection of patients. Further attempts to reduce radiation exposure should be made. Optimal CT technique is not needed in general merely to detect urinary lithiasis. A consensus should be developed regarding use of CT in pregnant patients. Further improvements in the digital scout view would be useful for following patients. PMID:14521205

  11. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Saleh Al-Samawi; Saleh Mansoor Aulaqi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998) classification.Methods: This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30t...

  12. Promotion in urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    Aromatic amines, including 2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine, are known urinary bladder carcinogens in man and other species, but in rodents, aromatic amines and amides have usually induced liver tumors, occasionally also with tumors of the bladder and other tissues. Variations in organ specificity are related to differences in metabolism; for the production of bladder tumors, the rates of acetylation and deacetylation appear to be critical. Bladder specific carcinogens in rodent...

  13. Management of male urinary incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Katie C.; Lucas, Malcolm G.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of male urinary incontinence seen is secondary to sphincter weakness following prostatic surgery. As there is a rising elderly population and increasing numbers of surgical interventions for prostate cancer, incidence of male incontinence is increasing. Hence, management of male incontinence has become a subject of increased interest for urologists. Various non-surgical and surgical approaches have been suggested for this devastating condition. Non-invasive therapies are suggeste...

  14. A unique presentation, and management, of acute urinary retention in a young boy with underlying vesicoureteral reflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag; Modgil, Vaibhav; Luscombe, Christopher; Liu, Samson

    2013-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) affects ?1% of children. We present an unusual case of urinary retention secondary to an obstructing urethral stone, underlying reflux, and its management. A 7-year-old boy presenting with acute urinary retention had a palpable penile shaft swelling and patent urethral meatus on examination. Cysto-urethroscopy with a 6.6Fr ureteroscope, due to unavailability of paediatric instruments, revealed an obstructing calculus impacted in the navicular fossa. This was laser fragmented and extracted. Cystoscopy revealed multiple bladder calculi with a patulous right ureteric orifice. Post-operative investigations revealed a small, scarred right kidney (ultrasound), bilateral ureteric reflux (micturating-cystourethrogram), 4 cm by 0.8 cm right ureteric calculus (CT-KUB) and 4% right split renal function (DMSA). Right laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was subsequently performed. Our case highlights the variety with which VUR can present and the effectiveness of a ureteroscope in an emergency setting as an alternative to a paediatric cystoscope to visualize the urethra and the bladder. PMID:24963900

  15. Female urinary incontinence: effective treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R A; Arruda, R M; Bortolini, M A T

    2015-04-01

    Urinary incontinence is a dysfunction that tremendously affects women's quality of life, involving social, emotional and economic aspects. Although various treatments for urinary incontinence have been described, it is important to know which of them are truly effective. This review seeks to determine the current available therapies for women with stress urinary incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome, based on the best scientific evidence. PMID:25307986

  16. Stem cells for urinary tract regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Bajek, Anna; Drewa, Tomasz; Joachimiak, Romana; Marsza?ek, Andrzej; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Alina

    2012-01-01

    Regeneration of the urinary bladder is a complicated task, due to organ dimensions and diseases (cancer, interstitial cystitis) when autologous bladder cells cannot be used. Cancer is the most frequent indication for bladder removal (cystectomy). Stem cells can be used with the guarantee of the sufficient cell number for the in vitro construction of the urinary bladder wall. Tissue engineering techniques hold great promise for regeneration of dysfunctional urinary sphincter. Denervation follo...

  17. Symptomatic small non-obstructing lower ureteric calculi: comparison of ureteroscopy and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andankar M

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the success, efficacy and complications of ureteroscopy (URS and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL for the treatment of symptomatic small non obstructing lower ureteric calculi. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective non-randomised study was conducted simultaneously at two urological referral centres, included 280 patients with symptomatic small (4-10 mm lower ureteric calculi (situated below the sacroiliac joint, with good renal function on intravenous urography. Patients were offered both the treatment options. One hundred and sixty patients chose ureteroscopy, whereas 120 patients were treated by ESWL. Standard techniques of ureteroscopy and ESWL were employed. Patients were followed-up to assess the success rates and complications of the two procedures. RESULTS: Ureteroscopy achieved complete stone clearance in one session in 95% of patients. In six patients ureteroscopy had failed initially and was later accomplished in second session improving the success rate to 98.7%. Two patients had a proximal migration of calculus that needed ESWL. Of the 120 patients treated by ESWL, 90% achieved stone free status at three months. Ureteroscopy was needed for twelve patients (10% where ESWL failed to achieve stone clearance. There were no significant ESWL related complications. ESWL was administered on outpatient basis, while patients needed hospitalisation and anaesthesia for ureteroscopy. CONCLUSION: ESWL can be the primary mode of treatment for symptomatic small non-obstructing lower ureteric calculi as it is minimally invasive and safe. Ureteroscopy can be offered to patients who demand immediate relief or when ESWL fails.

  18. Application of fast-track surgery concept in perioperative patients with biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hua

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the advantage and safety of the concept of fast-track surgery (FTS applied in perioperative patients with biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis. MethodsFifty-two patients undergoing operation for biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis from January 2011 to September 2013 were included in this study. These patients were randomly divided into FTS group (n = 30 and control group (n = 22. Patients in the FTS group received perioperative care measures guided by FTS concept, while patients in the control group received traditional perioperative management measures. The intraoperative situation of patients, time to postoperative recovery of intestinal function, length of postoperative hospital stay, total medical expenses during hospitalization, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Continuous data and categorical data were compared by t-test and ?2 test, respectively. ResultsAs compared with the control group, the FTS group had significantly time to postoperative recovery of intestinal function (t = 2.239, P = 0.045, a significantly shortened length of postoperative stay (t = 4.246, P = 0.038, and significantly reduced total medical expenses during hospitalization (t = 3.045, P = 0.033. No significant difference in postoperative complications was observed between the two groups (P?0.05. ConclusionThe concept of FTS can be safely and effectively applied in perioperative patients with biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis, which can accelerate rehabilitation without increasing the risk of surgery.

  19. Mechanism of Urinary Calcium Regulation by Urinary Magnesium and pH

    OpenAIRE

    Bonny, Olivier; Rubin, Adam; Huang, Chou-long; Frawley, William H.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Moe, Orson W.

    2008-01-01

    Urinary magnesium and pH are known to modulate urinary calcium excretion, but the mechanisms underlying these relationships are unknown. In this study, the data from 17 clinical trials in which urinary magnesium and pH were pharmacologically manipulated were analyzed, and it was found that the change in urinary calcium excretion is directly proportional to the change in magnesium excretion and inversely proportional to the change in urine pH; a regression equation was generated to relate thes...

  20. Can Urinary Nitrite Results Be Used to Conduct Antimicrobial Option for Urinary Tract Infection in Children?

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Mahyar; Parviz Ayazi; Mahta Froozesh; Mohammad-Mahdi Daneshi-Kohan; Ameneh Barikani

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to determine the relationship between urinary nitrite results and bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs in urinary tract infection of children.Methods: In a cross-section study 119 children younger than 12 years with urinary tract infection were evaluated in Qazvin children's hospital. Patients were divided into negative and positive nitrite groups depending on urinary nitrite test result. Rates of antibiotic resistance in the two groups were compared...

  1. Fetal MRI of the urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of the urinary system is typically performed by ultrasound. Nevertheless, an ultrasound may be inconclusive in fetuses with renal diseases that result in anhydramnios or oligohydramnios. In such cases, and in other cases in which ultrasound is limited, further investigation with MR should be considered. In the following article, we will provide an overview of the most commonly encountered disorders of the urinary system and their appearance on fetal MR imaging. Fetal MR imaging can accurately diagnose a wide variety of urinary tract disorders and must be seen as a valuable complementary tool to ultrasound in the assessment of the urinary system, particularly in cases of inconclusive ultrasound findings

  2. Fetal MRI of the urinary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoermann, Marcus [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: marcus.hoermann@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Balassy, Csilla [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The assessment of the urinary system is typically performed by ultrasound. Nevertheless, an ultrasound may be inconclusive in fetuses with renal diseases that result in anhydramnios or oligohydramnios. In such cases, and in other cases in which ultrasound is limited, further investigation with MR should be considered. In the following article, we will provide an overview of the most commonly encountered disorders of the urinary system and their appearance on fetal MR imaging. Fetal MR imaging can accurately diagnose a wide variety of urinary tract disorders and must be seen as a valuable complementary tool to ultrasound in the assessment of the urinary system, particularly in cases of inconclusive ultrasound findings.

  3. Use of traditional Chinese medicine in the management of urinary stone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Miyaoka

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the evidence-based literature supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine Kampo herbal and Acupuncture in stone disease management. Materials and Methods: Four of the most commonly used herbal components of Kampo medicine in the treatment of stone disease are described according to their in vitro and in vivo effects. We also reviewed the role of Acupuncture in urologic clinical setting as well as its proposed mechanisms of action and results. Medline database was assessed using isolated and conjugated key words (Chinese Medicine, Kampo, Chinese Herbal, Calculi, Stone Disease, Kidney, Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine. Articles were reviewed and summarized. Results: Herbal medicine has been proven to be free from side-effects and therefore suitable for long term use therapy. Its antilithic beneficial effects include increased urinary volume, increased magnesium excretion (Takusya, inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate aggregation (Takusya, Wulingsan and Desmodyum styracyfolium, inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation and hydroxyapatite internalization (Wulingsan. In contrast, acupuncture, has shown to be effective as a pre-treatment anxiolytic and analgesic during colic pain and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment, reducing the need for complementary sedative drugs. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine is promising as regards its role in stone prevention. An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each procedure differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics. Similarly, standardization of Kampo formulations and acceptable clinical endpoints (imaging vs. symptomatic events is needed.

  4. Management of ureteral calculi and medical expulsive therapy in emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Picozzi C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Ureteral stones are a common problem in daily emergency department practice. Patients may be offered medical expulsive therapy (MET1 to facilitate stone expulsion and this should be offered as a treatment for patients with distal ureteral calculi, who are amenable to waiting management. Emergency department clinicians and family practitioners are often in the front line regarding the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic nephrolithiasis and this commentary is dedicated to them because their decisions directly influence the outcome of the acute stone episode and appropriate referral patterns. Materials and Methods : The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to understand the role of MET in the treatment of obstructing ureteral calculi. A bibliographic search covering the period from January 1980 to March 2010 was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE. The searches were restricted to publications in English. This analysis is based on the 21 studies that fulfilled the predefined inclusion criteria. Results : A metaregression analysis of expulsion time showed a statistically significant advantage in the experimental group, in which the mean expulsion time was 6.2 days compared to 10.3 days in controls. The treatment effect on expulsion rate (P = 0.53 was partially lost as the size of the stones decreased because of the high spontaneous expulsion rate of small stones and the expulsion time was not influenced by pharmacological treatment (P = 0.76 if the stone size was smaller than 5 mm. Analysis of the tamsulosin database : A total of 1283 participants were included in the 17 studies. These studies showed that compared to standard therapy or placebo, tamsulosin had significant benefits, being associated with both a higher stone expulsion rate (P < 0.001 and reduction of the expulsion time (P = 0.02. Reductions in the need for analgesic therapy, hospitalization and surgery are also shown. Analysis of the nifedipine database : The number of participants in each trial ranged from 25 to 70. Compared to standard therapy, the use of nifedipine significantly improved the spontaneous stone expulsion rate (P < 0.001. The mean expulsion time was slightly, but not statistically significantly, different (P = 0.19 between the treatment and control groups. A possible benefit of nifedipine, in terms of significantly reducing the doses of analgesics required, was reported in three studies. There was no difference between the tamsulosin- and nifedipine-treated groups with regard to expulsion time (P = 0.17 or expulsion rate (P = 0.79. Conclusions : Despite all its advantages, MET is rarely used, representing a failure of the translation of medical science into practice. These data raise concerns not only about the quality of care of patients who could benefit from resolution of stones without anaesthetic and surgical risks but also with regard to potential cost savings. MET should be offered as a treatment for patients with distal ureteral calculi who are amenable to a waiting management.

  5. JAMA Patient Page: Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urinary System Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women Urinary tract infections (UTIs)are common, especially in older women. Your ... your body through the urethra. What Is a UTI? Having a UTI means that germs (bacteria) in ...

  6. URINARY TRACT OBSTRUCITON FOLLOWING ESWL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Among 2379 patients with upper urinary tract stones who underwent ESWL (Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy at Sina Hospitál using the Siemens Lithostar, 638 developed Stone Street (SteinStrasse. Of these, 516 (81% passed all of the stone fragments spontaneously and no treatment was required, 90 cases (14% had more ESWL sessions to complete the treatment, and 30 (4.7% required further interventional procedures. Only two cases (0.3% needed an open ureterolithotomy."nIn this paper, we report the results of our experience in treating Stein Strasse as a complication of the ESWL.

  7. FEMALE URINARY INCONTINENCE IN CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    Drutz, Harold P.

    2010-01-01

    In Canada, Urinary Incontinence (UI) is a significant medical and social problem which can be devastating to a women’s physical, social and emotional well being. As in other developed countries our population is aging. In 1993, 11.8 per cent of all Canadians were over age 65; by the year 2011, the proportion of this age group will be 14.0 per cent; by 2031, it will be 21.7 per cent (1). It is estimated that between 1.5 to 2.0 million Canadians (out of a population of just over 30 millio...

  8. Mixed urinary incontinence: what first?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandukwala, Nazia Q; Gousse, Angelo E

    2015-03-01

    Mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) is the involuntary loss of urine associated with the sensation of urgency and also with exertion, effort, sneezing, or coughing. The underlying cause of MUI is poorly understood. Without clearly understanding the pathophysiological and anatomical changes associated with MUI, treatment is often misdirected. This review presents an analysis of the most recent studies and pathophysiological mechanisms thought to be associated with MUI-related voiding dysfunction. A suggested algorithm is provided for the workup of these women with a review of medical and surgical treatment options used to treat MUI. PMID:25677232

  9. [Urodynamics of artificial urinary bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiakov, B K; Fadeev, V A; Novikov, A I; Zuban', O N; Atmadzhev, D N; Sergeev, A V; Kirichenko, O A; Burlaka, O O

    2006-01-01

    Radical cystectomy with creation of orthotopic reservoir from various segments of gastrointestinal tract was made in 120 patients (99 males, 21 females, age 37-74 years) with muscular-invasive cancer of the urinary bladder (UB) in 1996-2004. Replacement of UB was made according to the Studer and Hautmann method in 38 and 27 patients, respectively. S-cystoplasty was performed in 31 patients. The gastric segment was used for creation of the reservoir in 24 patients. Three patients died. Three to twelve month follow-up recorded the best functional results in patients after Studer cystoplasty. PMID:17058673

  10. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB) is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell ly...

  11. Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because…

  12. JAMA Patient Page: Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Spanish. A Patient Page on urinary tract infection was published in the March 22/29, 2000, issue; one on urinary incontinence in older women was published in the June 2, 2010, issue; and one on uterine prolapse was published in the April 27, 2005, ...

  13. Imaging in urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, F V; Gordon, I

    1991-11-01

    The relationship of vesicoureteric reflex (VUR) and renal scarring was studied in 94 children (188 kidneys) with proved urinary tract infection in a district general hospital. There were 61 girls and 33 boys, with nine girls and 17 boys aged less than 1 year, 31 girls and nine boys aged between 1 and 5 years, the remaining 28 children were over 5 years of age. All children had a micturating cystourethrogram and a 99mTc (technetium) dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan. Forty two of the 188 kidneys were scarred and 70 of the kidneys had VUR. Only 37.1% of the kidneys with reflux were scarred but 61.9% of the scarred kidneys had VUR. In children of less than 1 year, 48% of kidneys with VUR were scarred whereas 70.6% of scarred kidneys had reflux. In children between 1 and 5 years of age only 36.4% of kidneys with VUR were scarred but 63.2% of scarred kidneys had VUR. There is good correlation between the detection of a scarred kidney on DMSA and the presence of vesicoureteric reflux. However the detection of reflux particularly in children over 1 year of age shows poor correlation with renal scarring. This suggests that the primary imaging in children over 1 year of age presenting with a urinary tract infection should be of the kidney: a cystogram should be performed only if the DMSA scan is abnormal. PMID:1661570

  14. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nIn the name of God. Dear colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great honor to be here. Bladder dysfunction is serious enough to seek serious help. If you may know I am working in a private clinic which it is impossible to follow the patients so this lecture is based on unusual and rare cases who came to me. Bladder dysfunction (BD is common among 30% of young and old people who are suffering from it, however it is more common in old ages. According to a research, women are more involved as in men which prostate has a role is more common. The usual cases were: "n1. A young girl, aged 20, who had to wake up five times during the night to micturate. "n2. Also a lady said when I roll in bed I wet myself. "n3. A young lady who always had to use a pad. "n4. A man said I can’t use underground. "n5. I cannot go out since I have to micturate every hour. "n6. One said I have to wake up every hour at night. "n7. Young people say we have to micturate 3-4 times at night. "n8. A young man said as soon as I feel to micturate I empty my bladder before I’ve reached the WC and I wet myself to the ankle, how could I have a job? "n9. Some women wet themselves when they cough. "nIn order to know and diagnosis, the physiology of bladder function must be known. "nThe bladder is divided into two parts: "nThe Dom, which is innervated by Beta-Adrenergic. It relaxes the bladder in order to comply the urine. "nFrom the orifice of the urether and posterior ridge of the trigon to the bladder neck or internal sphincter. The prostatic urethra plays a major role in conti- nence. It has two parts,   "n1: From the bladder neck to V.M. this is enclaved by extension of detrusor muscles like a sleeve. These muscles contract during ejaculation to prevent retrograde ejaculation. "nDistal urethra from V.M. to the external sphincter which is covered by voluntary muscles. "nThe internal pressure of the urethra is higher than the bladder. If the pressure of the bladder rises, the internal pressure of the urethra should also increase. In women, the internal pressure of the urethra is short, and even if it has poorly developed they wet themselves when they cough. "nThe causes of BD: "nAs you see there are 17 causes, which 11 are related to the bladder. The bladder is responsible for retaining the urine and voiding. "nPathophysiology: "nThe bladder and sphincter should work in a coordinated manner: "nDuring the course of a day, an average person will void approximately 4-8 times. The urinary bladder is in storage mode for most of the day, allowing an individual to engage in more important activities than urination. "nNormal bladder function consists of 2 phases—filling and emptying. The normal micturition cycle requires the urinary bladder and the urethral sphincter working together as a coordinated unit to store and empty urine. During urinary storage, the bladder acts as a low-pressure receptacle, while the urinary sphincter maintains high resistance to urinary flow to keep the bladder outlet closed. During urine elimination, the bladder contracts to expel urine while the urinary sphincter opens (low resistance to allow unobstructed urinary flow and bladder emptying. "nFilling phase: "nDuring the filling phase, the bladder accumulates increasing volumes of urine while the pressure inside the bladder remains low. The pressure within the bladder must be lower than the urethral pressure during the filling phase. If the bladder pressure is greater than the urethral pressure (resistance, urine will leak out. "nThe filling of the urinary bladder depends on the intrinsic viscoelastic properties of the bladder and the inhibition of the parasympathetic nerves. Thus, bladder filling is primarily a passive event. "nSympathetic nerves also facilitate urine storage in the following ways: "nSympathetic nerves inhibit the parasympathetic nerves from triggering bladder contractions. "

  15. A combined transport-kinetics model for the growth of renal calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Brock, Robert; Nemeth, Noel

    2011-10-01

    Renal stone disease is not only a concern on the Earth but could conceivably pose a serious risk to the astronauts' health and safety in Space. In this study, a combined transport-kinetics model for the growth of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals is presented. The model is used to parametrically investigate the growth of renal calculi in urine with a focus on the coupled effects of transport and surface reaction on the ionic concentrations at the surface of the crystal and their impact on the resulting growth rates. It is shown that under nominal conditions of low solution supersaturation and low Damköhler number that typically exist on the Earth, the surface concentrations of calcium and oxalate approach their bulk solution values in the urine and the growth rate is most likely limited by the surface reaction kinetics. But for higher solution supersaturations and large Damköhler numbers that may be prevalent in the microgravity environment of Space, the calcium and oxalate surface concentrations tend to shift more towards their equilibrium or saturation values and thus the growth process may be limited by the transport through the medium. Furthermore, it is shown that as the crystal size increases a shift towards a transport-limited growth process is likely. In this situation beyond a critical radius that is a function of the physiochemical parameters of the renal environment, the growth rate will not be independent of the radius as in a reaction-limited situation but will decrease as the crystal size increases.

  16. Considerations in Minimally Invasive Surgery for Renal and Ureteric Calculi: A Bicenter Quality Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltings, Saskia; Roshani, Hossain; Leenarts, Joost; Pelger, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of minimally invasive surgery is increasing. Evaluating the quality of care brings new sights in the optimization of operating techniques. Methods We included all procedures performed in two hospitals during 2010 and 2011. A total of 264 patients were included in the ureterorenoscopy (URS) group and 77 patients in the percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy (PCNL) group. Data were gathered by retrospectively reviewing medical records. Results Mean stone diameter in the URS group was 9 mm. Patients suffered from a single stone in 79% of the cases. Calculi in the distal ureter, defined as the part of the ureter below the lower border of the sacroiliac joint, were most likely to be removed. A stone-free status was reached in 69% of the cases using URS. Mean stone diameter in the PCNL group was 23 mm. PCNL was successful in 70% of the cases in Haga Hospital versus 53% in Medisch Centrum Haaglanden. Incidence of complications was comparable between the hospitals (p = 0.5). Outcome and quality of both PCNL and URS was not influenced by sex, age or body mass index. Conclusion The clinical results were comparable with results in the literature. Further improvement can be made by optimization of technical aspects and centralization of treatment by urologists experienced in minimally invasive techniques. PMID:24917772

  17. Minimally Invasive Radiologically Guided Intervention for the Treatment of Salivary Calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe the technique and examine the value of salivary stone extraction using a minimally invasive, radiologically guided approach as an alternative to salivary gland surgery for the treatment of benign salivary gland obstruction. Methods: Eighty-six cases of sialolithiasis (83 patients) were treated by stone removal using a Dormia basket under local anesthesia and fluoroscopic guidance. Postoperative assessment was made clinically at review, by sialogram and by questionnaire. Results: Of 86 cases of sialolithiasis treated, in 55 (64%)it was possible to remove all stones. In 12 cases (14%) part of a stone or some of a number of calculi were removed and in 19 cases (22%) the procedure failed. The commonest reason for failure was fixation of the stone within the duct. Symptoms at review (range 1-49 months, mean 17 months) were relieved in 55 of 67 (82%) of cases where a stone or portion of stone was removed. Conclusions:Stone removal from the salivary duct system by radiologically guided,minimally invasive approach is a simple procedure with low morbidity and high patient acceptance when appropriate selection criteria are applied. These criteria are considered and recommendations made

  18. Anti-Urolithiatic Effect of Cow Urine Ark on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.B, Shukla; D.R, Mandavia; M.J, Barvaliya; S.N, Baxi; C.B, Tripathi.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Purpose To investigate the anti-urolithiatic effect of cow urine ark (medicinal distilled cow urine) on ethylene glycol (EG) induced renal calculi. Materials and Methods 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups. Group I animals served as vehicle control and received distilled [...] water for 28 days. Group II to VI animals received 1% v/v EG in distilled water for 28 days. Group II served as EG control. Group III and IV (preventive groups) received cow urine ark orally for 28 days in doses of 1 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg, respectively. Group V and VI (treatment groups) received 1 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg cow urine ark orally, respectively from 15th to 28th days. 24-hour urine samples were collected on day 0 and 28. Urine volume and oxalate levels were measured. On day 28, blood was collected for biochemical parameters. Animals were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested, weighed and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. To calculate the percentage of inhibition of mineralization, simultaneous flow static in-vitro model was used. Results EG significantly increased urine oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea level; kidney weight and CaOx deposits. Provision of cow urine ark resulted in significantly lower levels of urine oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea and CaOx depositions as compared to Group II. (p value

  19. [Long-term clinical outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy monotherapy for staghorn calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, S; Yamamoto, A; Oka, N; Masuda, S; Yuasa, K; Terao, N

    1998-08-01

    We treated 97 patients with staghorn calculi by ESWL monotherapy using a Lithostar Lithotriptor (Siemens) between January 1989 and December 1996. Seventeen patients (18 renal units) out of 45 patients (47 renal units) who could be followed up for more than 12 months after ESWL had no stones on radiographs at 3 months after the treatment. The actuarial non-recurrence (or stone-free) rate was 88.9% at 1 year, 79.0% at 3 years, and 63.2% at 5 years after ESWL (Kaplan-Meier method). The actuarial non-regrowth rate (regrowth or = 10/HPF), hydronephrosis on DIP, and staghorn type were not significantly associated with stone recurrence or regrowth (Cox proportional hazard model). Late complications associated with ESWL included renal dysfunction (serum Cr > or = 1.1 mg/dl) in 2 patients, hypertension (> or = 160 mmHg) in 3, and renal atrophy (two-dimensional size < or = 80%) in 5. ESWL exerted adverse effects in a session-dependent manner on the kidney resulting in renal atrophy. Therefore, we highly recommend that ESWL should be limited to less than 10 sessions. PMID:9783188

  20. Urinary calprotectin and posttransplant renal allograft injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Borst, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144 incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r?=?-0.33; P<0.001). Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98; specificity, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.66). Higher urinary calprotectin concentrations predicted impaired kidney function 4 weeks after transplantation, as well as 6 months and 12 months after transplantation. When data were analyzed using the urinary calprotectin/creatinine-ratio similar results were obtained. Urinary calprotectin was superior to current use of absolute change of plasma creatinine to predict allograft function 12 months after transplantation. Urinary calprotectin predicted an increased risk both in transplants from living and deceased donors. Multivariate linear regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation.

  1. Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic activity of Pashanabhedadi Ghrita against experimentally induced renal calculi in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Baghel, Madhav Singh; Bhuyan, Chaturbhuja; Ravishankar, B.; Ashok, B. K.; Patil, Panchakshari D.

    2012-01-01

    Population in an industrialized world is afflicted by urinary stone disease. Kidney stones are common in all kinds of urolithiasis. One distinguished formulation mentioned by Sushruta for management of Ashmari (urolithiasis) is Pashanabhedadi Ghrita (PBG), which is in clinical practice since centuries. Validation of drug is the requirement of time through the experimental study. In this study, trial of PBG has been made against ammonium oxalate rich diet and gentamicin injection induced renal...

  2. Chemolysis of residual stone fragments after extensive surgery for staghorn calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaivas, J G; Pais, V M; Spellman, R M

    1975-12-01

    Chemical dissolution of residual stone fragments was attempted in twelve instances via nephrostomy tube irrigation. Appropriate solutions containing either hemiacidrin or sodium bicarbonate were used for struvite and uric acid stones, respectively. Precautions were taken to prevent and recognize outflow obstruction and urinary infection. Seventy-five per cent of the stones so treated were completely dissolved, and there were no major complications. The incidence of retained stones, natural history, and indications for chemical dissolution are reviewed. PMID:1202716

  3. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium ?0.88 ?g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 ?g/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium ?0.88 ?g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 ?g/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium ?0.88 ?g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 ?g/g creatinine

  4. Urinary biomarkers of diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta S

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Swati Mehta,1 Valerie Jorge Cabrera,2 Roshni Upputalla,2 Belinda Jim21Department of Medicine, James J Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA; 2Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAAbstract: The fervent search for an early biomarker for diabetic nephropathy is continuing because this entity has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in many countries. Novel biomarkers are being described in a high-speed manner. Using urine as a biological source is especially appealing given its ease of collection and its ability to serve as a direct conduit to the site of injury. We begin by briefly discussing the merits and pitfalls of our gold standard of microalbuminuria, and shift quickly to several promising nontraditional protein and messenger (mRNA biomarkers. The quality of the evidence for using urinary podocyte as a marker will be described. Exploring entire sets of protein in humans in terms of proteomics has been a favorite approach in the last decade because the technology of protein separation and mass spectrometry allows for the unbiased search for new biomarkers. Isolating urinary microRNA may become yet another preferred method because these small, noncoding mRNA that regulate gene expression are particularly stable and apt for biomarker studies. Finally, the latest development is perhaps the study of exosomes, which are nanometer particles derived from the fusion of internal vesicles to the plasma membrane. These particles harbor protein, mRNA, and microRNA that may be isolated for further study. With the advent of newer technologic approaches, we hope that these newly discovered biomarkers will be rigorously tested in large, prospective, clinical trials so they can be implemented in clinical practice.Keywords: diabetes, predictor, proteinuria, albuminuria, exosomes, proteomics, podocyte

  5. Implementing a clinical practice guideline to manage postpartum urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Angela Y; Conner, Brian T

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum urinary retention is a common condition in obstetric units. A Clinical Practice Guideline was implemented in a high-risk obstetrical unit to decrease variance of clinical practice, rate of postpartum urinary retention, and number of urinary catheterizations and increase awareness of this common condition. Guideline implementation met the 4 aims, including a decreased rate of urinary retention. PMID:25166910

  6. [Investigation of typical melamine urinary stones using infrared spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Min-Zhen; Li, Qing-Yun; Liu, Ren-Ming; Kang, Yi-Pu; Wang, Kun-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Guo

    2010-02-01

    A typical melamine kidney stone confirmed by some medicine expert was collected from the first people's hospital of Yunnan. The kidney stone was adequately determined by PE corporation spectra 100(with resolution of 1 cm(-1)). The stone samples for FTIR analysis were prepared using the KBr pellet technique, where 2 mg of the pretreated stone powder was mixed with 200 mg of analytical grade KBr using an agate pestle and mortar. The digital spectrum was then scanned in the mid-infrared region from 4 000 to 400 cm(-1) at room temperature. The appearing bands between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 487, 3 325, 3 162 and 2 788 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 694, 1 555, 1 383, 1 340, 1 189 and 1 122 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 782, 748, 709, 624, 585, 565 and 476 cm(-1). It was found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with cat kidney stone, which was from cats that died after consuming the contaminated food, and confirmed that these deposits were primarily composed of melamine and cyanuric acid compared to the IR spectra of calculi in literature. It was also found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with popular kidney stone by comparison with the IR spectra of calculi in literature. The spectrum of calculi was 50% respectively similar with melamine and uric acid as compared with the IR spectrum. It was found that the main constituent of calculi was melamine itself and uric acid as compared with the IR spectra of calculi and melamine: (1 : 1), because the spectrum of calculi was 83. 3% similar to melamine and uric acid (1 : 1). The appearing bands of melamine and uric acid (1 : 1) between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 469, 3 419, 3 333, 3 132, 3 026, 2 827 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 696, 1 656, 1 555, 1 489, 1 439, 1 350, 1 311, 1 198, 1 124 and 1 028 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 878, 814, 784, 745, 708, 619, 577 and 475 cm(-1). PMID:20384125

  7. Effective management in male urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Julie

    2014-07-01

    Effective assessment is key to the effective management of male urinary incontinence. Identification of the specific type of incontinence being experienced by the patient will inform the treatment plan, and the holistic needs of the patient need to be considered before making a decision in this regard. This article describes the different types of male lower urinary tract symptoms and gives recommendations for managing and treating each specific type. It will also consider potential issues surrounding treatment of male urinary incontinence, such as communication issues from the perspective of the health-care professional and the patient themselves, before giving containment strategies and methods. PMID:25039338

  8. Managing pregnancy in women with urinary diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, Sharon

    The number of individuals undergoing urinary tract reconstruction, particularly for congenital abnormalities, has increased significantly over the years. Many types of urinary tract reconstruction are carried out on children and young women who have the potential to have reproductive capability (Hensle et al, 2004). Surgical procedures included in this group include enterocystoplasties, neobladder, Mitrofanoff pouch, ileal conduit and Sigma Mainz II (rectal bladder). The common factor in each of these procedures is the use of bowel to create a reservoir for urine. This article describes the different types of urinary diversion in relation to pregnancy, and presents a case study to illustrate the recommendations made. PMID:18946392

  9. Therapeutic Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Petroselinum Sativum on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Kidney Calculi in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jamshid Mehrzad; Ahmad Zendehdel; Hadi Bozorgi; Jafar Saeidi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic effects of the aqueous extract of Petroselinum Sativum aerial parts and roots on kidney calculi. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 6 groups and treated for 30 days. Group A served as normal control and group B received 1% ethylene glycol in drinking water. Groups C, D, E, and F received 1% ethylene glycol from day 0 and were used as the treatment subjects. Rats in groups C and D received 200 and 600 mg/kg bod...

  10. Comparative evaluation of upper versus lower calyceal approach in percutaneous nephrolithotomy for managing complex renal calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit; Kankalia, S. P.; Sabale, Vilas; Satav, Vikram; Mane, Deepak; Mulay, Abhirudra; Kadyan, Bhupender; Thakur, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the treatment of choice for staghorn and large renal stones. The success of PCNL is highly related to optimal renal access. Upper calyceal puncture being more difficult and more demanding have relatively few studies presented. Aims and Objectives: This prospective study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of upper calyceal versus lower calyceal puncture for the removal of complex renal stones through PCNL. Materials and Methods: A total of 94 patients underwent PCNL for complex renal stone in our institute. Fifty-one of them underwent lower calyceal, while 43 underwent upper calyceal puncture. The two approaches are compared as per total duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, infundibular/pelvic tear, rate of complete clearance and rate of postoperative complications (pulmonary, bleeding, fever and sepsis, etc.). Observation and Results: In our study, the success rate was 76.47% for those in the lower, 90.70% for those in the upper calyceal access group. Thoracic complications (hydrothorax) occurred to 1 patient in upper calyceal supracostal access group. Bleeding requiring blood transfusion happened to 5 patients in lower calyceal access and 1 in upper calyceal group. Conclusion: In our study for the management of complex renal calculi, we conclude that in a previously unoperated kidney, upper calyceal puncture through subcostal or supra 12th rib is a feasible option minimizing lung/pleural rupture and gives a better clearance rate. We suggest that with due precautions, there should not be any hesitation for upper calyceal puncture in indicated patients. PMID:25657540

  11. Measurement of Urinary Lactoferrin as a Marker of Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Arao, Shinsuke; Matsuura, Shiro; Nonomura, Mitsuo; Miki, Kanji; Kabasawa, Keigo; Nakanishi, Hisao

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of the measurement of urinary lactoferrin (LF) released from polymorphonuclear leukocytes and of an immunochromatography test strip devised for measuring urinary LF for the simple and rapid diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI) was evaluated. Urine specimens were collected from apparently healthy persons and patients diagnosed as suffering from UTI. In the preliminary study, the LF concentrations in 121 normal specimens and 88 specimens from patients (60 with UTI) were qu...

  12. [Imaging of urinary lithiasis: "all in one"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, C

    2006-04-01

    Urinary lithiasis is very common among the general population, with a high prevalence level. In rich countries it is mainly located inside the upper urinary tract. Helical CToperated with newer devices is the most accurate modality to provide all needed information: diagnosis of stone without contrast medium injection, morphology (size, number) and localization, diagnosis of urinary obstruction, urinary tract aspect and all kind of differential diagnosis in emergency. It must be used during follow up to diagnose residual fragments. Multiplanar reconstructions are essential for the clinicians; but diagnosis is interpreted by scrolling axial views with dynamic analysis on computer screen. Low-dose helical CT is today available. Helical CT provides an "all-in-one" examination. It should soon replace combined plain film-ultrasonography performed in an emergency context of renal colic and intravenous urography for pre- and post-treatment assessments. PMID:16709006

  13. Urinary tract infection and renal scarring

    OpenAIRE

    Chromek, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection. Although most patients with UTI have a good prognosis, there is a risk of serious complications in a group of them. In up to 40% of the cases of infection of the upper urinary tract, pyelonephritis, renal scar develops and the scarring process may occasionally lead to chronic renal insufficiency. Moreover, UTI has a high tendency of recurrence and recurrent UTis even increase the risk of renal scarring. ...

  14. [Mechanisms of urinary tract sterility maintenance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okr?g?a, Emilia; Szychowska, Katarzyna; Wolska, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    Physiologically, urine and the urinary tract are maintained sterile because of physical and chemical properties of urine and the innate immune system's action. The urinary tract is constantly exposed to the invasion of microorganisms from the exterior environment, also because of the anatomical placement of the urethra, in the vicinity of the rectum. Particularly vulnerable to urinary tract infections (UTI) are women (an additional risk factor is pregnancy), but also the elderly and children. The main pathogens causing UTI are bacteria; in 70-95% of cases it is the bacterium Escherichia coli. Infections caused by viruses and fungi are less common and are associated with decreased immunity, pharmacotherapy, or some diseases. Bacteria have evolved a number of factors that facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract: the cover and cell membrane antigens O and K1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), fimbriae, pile and cilia. On the other hand, the human organism has evolved mechanisms to hinder colonization of the urinary tract: mechanisms arising from the anatomical structure of the urinary tract, the physicochemical properties of the urine and the activity of the innate immune system, also known as non-specific, which isolates and destroys pathogens using immunological processes, and the mechanisms for release of antimicrobial substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, mucopolysaccharides, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, lactoferrin, lipocalin, neutrophils, cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. This review aims to analyze the state of knowledge on the mechanisms to maintain the sterility of the urinary tract used by the human organism and bacterial virulence factors to facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract. PMID:24934526

  15. Urinary phytoestrogens and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Tonkelaar, I.; Keinan-boker, L.; Veer, P.; Arts, C. J. M.; Adlercreutz, H.; Thijssen, J. H. H.; Peeters, H. M.

    2001-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant substances that are structurally or functionally similar to estradiol. We report the associations of two major phytoestrogens, genistein and enterolactone, with breast cancer risk, using urinary specimens collected 1-9 years before breast cancer was diagnosed. The subjects were 88 breast cancer cases and 268 controls, selected from a cohort of postmenopausal women (n = 14,697) who participated in a breast cancer screening program. Mean levels of urinary gen...

  16. Urinary Tract Infection By Chromobacterium Violaceum

    OpenAIRE

    Swain, Bichitrananda; Otta, Sarita; Sahu, Kundan Kumar; Panda, Kirtika; Rout, Subhrajita

    2014-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a facultative anaerobic proteobacterium, is particularly isolated from water and soil in tropical areas and has been implicated in few infections like septicemia, visceral abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, meningitis and diarrhea. But urinary tract infection caused by it is very rare. Limited awareness about this pathogen and inappropriate antibiotic therapy contribute to a high mortality rate. Here, we describe an unusual case of urinary tract infection b...

  17. Urinary tract infection and hyperbilirubinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgen, Hülya; Ozek, Eren; Unver, Tamer; Biyikli, Ne?e; Alpay, Harika; Cebeci, Dil?at

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in newborns with asymptomatic, unexplained indirect hyperbilirubinemia in the first two weeks of life. Jaundiced infants, otherwise clinically well, less than two weeks of ages, with a total bilirubin level above 15 mg/dl were eligible for the study. A bilirubin work-up including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6 PD) level, as well as urinalysis and a urine culture were performed in all patients. Patients with UTI, defined as more than 10,000 colony-forming units per milliliter of a single pathogen obtained by bladder catheterization, were evaluated for sepsis. Renal function tests and renal ultrasound were performed in cases with UTI. During follow-up, voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy (DMSA) were performed as well. A total of 102 patients were enrolled. The bilirubin work-up of patients did not demonstrate any significant underlying disorder. None of the infants had a high direct bilirubin level. UTI was diagnosed in eight (8%) cases [Enterobacter aerogenes (3/8:38%), Enterococcus faecalis (2/8:25%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (2/8:25%) and Escherichia coli (1/8:12%)]. Of those eight patients, only four (50%) had pyuria. Bacteriuria was present in seven (88%) patients. The sepsis screen was negative in all but one case with a high C-reactive protein (CRP) level. None of the patients had a positive blood culture. Renal function tests were within normal levels in all patients. Renal ultrasound showed urinary tract abnormalities in three (38%) patients (hydronephrosis, n=1 and pelviectasis, n=2). VCUG was performed in all patients during the study period and one had unilateral grade 3-4 reflux, while only one patient had a diverticulum of the bladder. DMSA was performed in seven patients and none had renal scars. It is of importance that UTI can occur in asymptomatic, jaundiced infants even in the first week of life. Although it is well known that UTI is a common cause of prolonged jaundice, urine culture should be considered in the bilirubin work-up of infants older than three days of age with an unknown etiology. PMID:16562786

  18. Congenital anomalies of the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Hans G; Belman, A Barry

    2014-01-01

    The upper urinary tract forms as a consequence of the reciprocal inductive signals between the metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud. A clue to the timing of events leading to an abnormality of the upper urinary tract can be the presence also of associated anomalies of internal genitalia since separation of these systems occurs at about the 10th week of gestation. Prenatal sonography has facilitated the detection of urological abnormalities presenting with hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis suggests obstruction, but by itself cannot be equated with it. Instead, further radiographic imaging is required to delineate anatomy and function. Now, moreover, non-surgical management of CAKUT should be considered whenever possible. Despite the widespread use of prenatal screening sonography that usually identifies the majority of congenital anomalies of the urinary tract, many children still present with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Regardless of the etiology for the presentation, the goal of management is preservation of renal function through mitigation of the risk for recurrent UTI and/or obstruction. In the past many children underwent surgical repair aimed at normalization of the appearance of the urinary tract. Today, management has evolved such that in most cases surgical reconstruction is performed only after a period of observation - with or without urinary prophylaxis. The opinions presented in this section are not espoused by all pediatric urologists but represent instead the practice that has evolved at Children's National Medical Center (Washington DC) based significantly on information obtained by nuclear renography, in addition to sonography and contrast cystography. PMID:25088266

  19. Trans-Ureteral Ureterolithotripsy of Ureteral Calculi:Which is the Best; Pneumatic or Holmium Laser Technique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mohammadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Our aim was compare of two types of lithotripter include holmium: YAG laser and pneumatic one in transurethral ureterolithotripsy (TUL for the management of ureteral calculi ?1 cm.METHODS: 112 patients with ureteral calculi more than 1 cm were selected in randomized order for pneumatic or holmium: YAG laser transurethral ureterolithotripsy (56 patients in each group. Ultrasonography and intravenous urography were performed for all patients before surgery. Complete clearance and success was defined as the absence of any fragments on post operation KUB and ultrasonography images.RESULTS: Success rate was 85.7% in pneumatic group and 100% in holmium: YAG laser group (p =0.003. Stone migration up in the pelvicalyceal system was observed only in 8 cases of pneumatic group. No statically differences were observed in terms of patient’s age, hospital stay, and complications between two groups.CONCLUSION: According to our experience, for ureteral stone larger than 1 Cm treatment with ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy is a preferring approach with favorable operation time and hospital admission, and no more significant complication.

  20. Primary adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocks, B N; Heney, N M; Daly, J J

    1983-01-01

    We reviewed the clinical course and pathologic findings of 17 patients with adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder at Massachusetts General Hospital between 1962 and 1978. The 12 men and 5 women were between thirty-eight and eighty-six years old (mean, sixty years). Five patients had urachal adenocarcinoma, 8 had pure adenocarcinoma, and 4 had mixed adenocarcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma. Twelve of 17 patients (71 per cent) had muscle invasion (T2-T3), and none had evidence of regional or distant metastases at initial presentation. The mean follow-up was four years. The treatment modalities included transurethral resection alone in 3 patients, radical cystectomy in 4, simple cystectomy in 2, salvage radical cystectomy in 1, and partial cystectomy in 7, 3 of whom also received radiation therapy. Over-all crude three and five-year survival rates were 60 per cent and 27 per cent, respectively; patients with invasive disease did poorly regardless of treatment modality. Five of 8 patients who died had evidence of metastatic disease, and only 1 patient with invasive disease was alive more than five years. However, 2 of 3 patients with invasive urachal adenocarcinoma who had preoperative radiotherapy plus partial cystectomy are free of disease at thirty-eight and sixty months. PMID:6823700

  1. Radioimmunoassay of human urinary kallikrein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a human urinary kallikrein, purified by means of Trasylol sepharose, it has been possible to develop a radioimmunoassay of kallikrein capable of detecting the substance down to a concentration of 0.5 ng/ml. The specific activity of the tracer labelled with 125-iodine using the Chloramine-T method was 30-70 nCi/ng of kallikrein. The antiserum titres for the antikallikrein serum were 1:20.000 up to 1:50.000. Human urine, submandibular and parotid salivae as well as pancreatic secretion in this RIA reacted in the same manner as the kallikrein standard solution. The kallikrein content in urine, as determined by the RIA was between 0 and 300 ng/ml, in the saliva between 400 and 2.000 ng/ml, and in the pancreatic juice between 300 and 12.000 ng/ml. Using human serum, only an incomplete immunological cross-reaction could be achieved. In human liquor as well as in animal preparation, no cross-reacting substances could be detected. (orig.)

  2. Urinary excretion of cyanidin glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülleder, Ursula; Murkovic, Michael; Pfannhauser, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Anthocyanins, which are natural plant pigments from the flavonoid family, represent substantial constituents of the human diet. Several fruits (blackcurrant, blue berries, red grape and elderberry) are rich sources of these efficient antioxidant compounds. The present study was designed to determine the potential bioavailability in humans of the anthocyanins of elderberry, mainly cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside, and the influence of the simultaneous ingestion of sucrose on the absorption of anthocyanins. Urinary samples from 16 healthy volunteers--8 women and 8 men--were collected before and over a period of 6 h with intervals of 1 h after the ingestion of 11 g elderberry concentrate (containing 1.9 g of anthocyanins equivalent to 235 ml of fresh juice) 1 day diluted with water, the other day with 30 g sucrose. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, it was possible to quantify the two main anthocyanins of elderberry excreted unchanged in the urine (0.003-0.012% of the oral dose). The ingestion of sucrose led to a reduced excretion of anthocyanins. PMID:12406587

  3. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1990-01-01

    This review presents reported cure and improvement rates of stress urinary incontinence in women obtained by different treatment modalities. Apart from the urodynamic findings, histological and histochemical changes of the pelvic floor may be clinically relevant to treatment in the future. Long-term cure and improvement rates achieved by non-surgical treatment (physiotherapy, biofeedback, bladder training, electrostimulation) are commented on. These rates range from 40-60% for physiotherapy and electrostimulation but are considerably less after biofeedback and bladder training. Pharmacotherapy is unlikely to offer more than a placebo effect. Studies of a single surgical procedure usually report high cure rates. In making the appropriate choice of operation the best guidelines are the cure rates from comparative or prospective randomized reports. From such studies an abdominal retropubic suspension operation (cure rates after five years 57-78 %) is more likely to help the patient than an anterior colporrhaphy (cure rates 31-70 %) or a transvaginal needle bladder neck suspension (cure rates 39-61 %). In selected patients sling procedures or the use of artificial sphincters may produce excellent results (70-80 %). To estimate the results of different treatments urine loss should be assessed objectively and physical restrictions and hygienic and social implications taken into account. A method of pre- and post-treatment "performance scores" should be developed.

  4. A heterotopic autoinnervated urinary neosphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovich, J G; McKenna, P H; Grice, G P; Docimo, S G

    1995-06-01

    Twenty-six female adult New Zealand white rabbits underwent surgical denervation of a gracilis muscle to study the possibility of developing an autologous neosphincter innervated by the pudendal nerve. The study was conducted in 2 phases. In both Phase I and Phase II, the study group had the motor nerve to the gracilis, a branch of the obturator nerve and the pudendal nerve coapted in the perineum. The control group was left denervated. In Phase I, all muscle flaps were wrapped around the urogenital sinus. In Phase II, the muscle flaps were returned to their anatomic location. With bulbocavernosus reflex testing, 89% of the reinnervated group and 60% of the denervated group from Phase I and 86% of the reinnervated group and none of the denervated group from Phase II had a contractile response in the muscle flap. In Phase II, histologic examination of the gracilis muscle was suggestive of an early change in muscle myofiber physiology from fast twitch to slow twitch in the reinnervated group only. In the rabbit, a transplanted vascularized muscle flap, cross-innervated by the pudendal nerve has a reproducible response to bulbocavernosus reflex testing. This suggests that a transplanted muscle might be able to assume some of the characteristics of the voluntary urinary sphincter. The rabbit is a useful model in which to investigate the potential of the heterotopic neosphincter. PMID:7752385

  5. [Forms of urinary diversion--methods and imaging findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenauer, S; Plothe, K-D; Ringert, R-H; Grabbe, E; Heuser, M

    2007-10-01

    After cystectomy two principal types of urinary diversion are used for the surgical reconstruction of the urinary tract: incontinent and continent. In the continent type of urinary diversion, a differentiation must be made between those with and without catheterization for voiding. Besides urothelial cancer other reasons for urinary diversion include neurogenic bladder palsy (connatal or acquired) due to meningomyelocele or connatal diseases like bladder exstrophy. The main objective of the clinical urologist when selecting urinary diversion are to achieve continence and to preserve upper urinary tract function. Knowledge of the different forms of urinary diversion is critical for the exact interpretation of the images. This review presents the typical imaging techniques after a description of the basic surgical features of urinary diversion. CT urography and MR urography are becoming increasingly important as further imaging tools for controlling urinary diversions. PMID:17786893

  6. Unusual Vesical Calculus in Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Lixian Chen; Yuyu Niu; Wei Si; Hong Wang; Ye Yan

    2012-01-01

    Several cases of urinary calculi have been reported in cynomolgus monkeys but vesical calculi were not reported in rhesus monkeys. The adult male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) presented here had a vesical calculi which was entire urate.

  7. Can Computed Tomography Scout Radiography Replace Plain Film in the Evaluation of Patients with Acute Urinary Tract Colic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) scout view in detecting ureteral stones and whether CT scout radiography can replace plain film in the evaluation of patients with acute urinary tract colic. Material and Methods: Between January 2000 and 2002, 110 patients with ureterolithiasis were prospectively evaluated for the detection of ureteral stones on CT scout radiographs. The findings were compared with those of plain films. All patients were examined with plain film, CT scout radiography, and unenhanced helical CT. CT scans were performed within 24 h of plain films. Each CT scout radiograph was interpreted without knowledge of the findings on plain film. Results: 111 stones were detected by unenhanced helical CT. Mean stone size was 3.9 mm (range 1-10 mm). Of all stones, 57 (52%) were visible on plain film; 44 (40%) were seen on CT radiographs. The sensitivity of 79 small stones (5 mm), the sensitivity of CT scout radiography was 66% and of abdominal radiography 87.5%. Conclusion: In this study, plain film was more sensitive than CT scout radiography in revealing ureteral calculi. However, the detection of stones 5 mm or larger had a sensitivity of 66% on CT scout radiographs; 77% (44/57) of the stones visible on plain films were also seen on CT scout radiographs. We therefore believe that CT scout radiography can be used as a baseline study in mosphy can be used as a baseline study in most patients with big ureteral stones

  8. Evaluation of Urinary Stones Ex Vivo With Micro-Computed Tomography: Preliminary Results of an Investigational Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Huri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the ultrastructural features of the urinary stonesremoved with endoscopic stone surgery, using micro computed tomography(micro-CT.Materials and Methods: Patients who had endoscopic surgery for renalor ureteral stones removal were included in this study. After surgery, thestones were classified into three groups and investigated with Skyscan 1174micro-CT. Group I underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL withultrasonic lithotripsy; group II had ureteroscopic stone surgery (USS withpneumatic lithotripsy; and group III (the control group had stone removalwith USS or PNL without lithotripsy. Stone homogeneity, voids, and theinternal structure of the stones were evaluated. Chi-square test was used toevaluate the difference statistically. P values less than .05 were consideredstatistically significant.Results: A total of 24 “calcium oxalate monohydrate” stones from 24patients were scanned with micro-CT. Stones treated with ultrasoniclithotripsy (group I were more fragile, fragmented, and cracked than thosetreated with the pneumatic lithotripsy (group II; P = .01. Stones in groupII were more homogeneous and smooth than those in group I and resembled those of the control group (P = .02. Homogeneous, non-fragile stones andheterogeneous, fragile calculi were seen in all groups.Conclusion: The stone fragility could be confirmed by micro-CTinvestigation. Ultrasonic lithotripters increase the stone fragility, which isdemonstrated with increased heterogeneity by micro-CT.

  9. Use of traditional Chinese medicine in the management of urinary stone disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Miyaoka; Manoj, Monga.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective: To assess the evidence-based literature supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine Kampo herbal and Acupuncture in stone disease management. Materials and Methods: Four of the most commonly used herbal components of Kampo medicine in the treatment of stone disease are described ac [...] cording to their in vitro and in vivo effects. We also reviewed the role of Acupuncture in urologic clinical setting as well as its proposed mechanisms of action and results. Medline database was assessed using isolated and conjugated key words (Chinese Medicine, Kampo, Chinese Herbal, Calculi, Stone Disease, Kidney, Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine). Articles were reviewed and summarized. Results: Herbal medicine has been proven to be free from side-effects and therefore suitable for long term use therapy. Its antilithic beneficial effects include increased urinary volume, increased magnesium excretion (Takusya), inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate aggregation (Takusya, Wulingsan and Desmodyum styracyfolium), inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation and hydroxyapatite internalization (Wulingsan). In contrast, acupuncture, has shown to be effective as a pre-treatment anxiolytic and analgesic during colic pain and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment, reducing the need for complementary sedative drugs. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine is promising as regards its role in stone prevention. An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each procedure differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics. Similarly, standardization of Kampo formulations and acceptable clinical endpoints (imaging vs. symptomatic events) is needed.

  10. Urinary tract injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As shown by literature data, abdominal trauma in children is responsible for 14% of deaths, whereas in adults for 10%. Although abdominal traumas in children can be severe and lead to massive blood loss, most children die because of accompanying traumas of the thorax and head. It validates the surgical rule concerning abdominal traumas 'investigate aggressively, manage conservatively'. Posttraumatic injury of the urinary system is not frequent in children and its specificity (compared with adults), depends on greater susceptibility to external aggressive factors. Blunt trauma is the cause of renal parenchyma injury and acceleration/deceleration injury affects the excretory system and vessels. Extension mechanism is the cause of ureter avulsion and/or thrombus formation in stretched renal vessels- it is characteristic in children with non-accidental traumas. Bladder and urethra injuries are rare in children. During car accidents, a rupture of full bladder (seat belt injury) or bladder perforation by fractured bones of the pelvis is possible. We analyzed all hospitalizations of abdominal trauma in our surgical ward in the year 2004 (70 cases). Renal injuries were found in 6 children (8.6%). Thanks to five-year clinical experience of our hospital, on the average only 1-2 cases per annum needed operation. The management of renal injuries involves first of all conservative treatment. This publication has educational character and may serve as a valuable reminder of the useay serve as a valuable reminder of the useful knowledge in daily cooperation between the emergency room, radiology department and surgical ward. Based on available literature from recent few years, we quote suggested renal injuries classifications and procedures.This publication contains only images from our department of radiology archives. Clinical symptoms are often not appropriate for blunt abdominal traumas diagnosis. Owing to clinical status, which is difficult to interpret, fast and complete radiological diagnosis is necessary for proper treatment of children after abdominal trauma. Further complications of renal injuries may affect the further growth of the child. (author)

  11. Lower urinary tract development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

    2013-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the lower urinary tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder, and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomaliesc such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUVs). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease, and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, the bladder, and the urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, the bladder and the urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the postgenomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

  12. Cigarette smoking and urinary organic sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, L; Cao, W J

    2000-03-01

    In order to observe how cigarette smoking influences levels of thio-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to detect TTCA in urine from 18 healthy male volunteers. At the same time, the total amount of urinary organic sulfides was determined by the iodine azide test (IAT). Nine of the volunteers had smoking histories (5 to 10 cigarettes per day, as the smoking group), and the rest only occasionally smoke (1 to 2 cigarettes per month, as the control group). Samples were collected in the early morning (limosis) and 90 minutes after smoking a cigarette. Results showed that smoking a single cigarette could elevate the level of urinary organic sulfides both in the smoking and control groups, while a smoking habit appeared to have no significant influence on the urinary organic sulfide level. No significant cumulative effect of cigarette smoking on urinary organic sulfides was found. The influence of cigarette on urinary organic sulfides was temporary. The results suggest that cigarette smoking might be a confounding factor in biomonitoring the levels of carbon disulfide in exposed workers. PMID:10853834

  13. Urinary infection before and after prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmand, Gholamreza; Abedi, Amir Reza; Karami, Ali Akbar; Khashayar, Patricia; Mehrsai, Abdul Rasoul

    2010-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of pre and post prostatectomy related urinary tract infection and its correlation with peri-operative events, we studied 120 patients who underwent prostatectomy due to benign prostatic hypertrophy from September 2005 to September 2006. Urine cultures were performed before the operations, after a week, and three months later. Data including prostate volume, prostatic specific antigen (PSA), post voiding residue (PVR) and histopathological reports as well as the duration of urinary leak, bladder irrigation, hospitalization, and catheterization were studied. The mean age of the studied patients was 70.5 +/- 8 years. Significant preoperative bacteriuria was revealed in 18 (15%) patients of whom 14(77%) patients developed negative cultures following the operation. Postoperative bacteriuria was detected in 9(7.5%) patients who negative urine cultures preoperatively. Pre and post operative micro-organisms were different in the majority of the cases. The mean PSA was higher in patients with a positive history of infection. Following prostatectomy, patients with positive urine cultures had significantly longer urinary leakage, catheterization, and hospital stays compared with those who remained culture negative. We conclude that the incidence of positive urine culture pri-prostatectomy for BPH can be improved by appropriate antibiotic therapy, and the risk factors for postoperative urinary infection include preoperative infection, prolonged urinary leakage, catheterization, and hospital stay. The elevated PSA may be a risk factor. PMID:20228515

  14. Urinary infection before and after prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmand Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of pre and post prostatectomy related urinary tract in-fection and its correlation with peri-operative events, we studied 120 patients who underwent pros-tatectomy due to benign prostatic hypertrophy from September 2005 to September 2006. Urine cultures were performed before the operations, after a week, and three months later. Data including prostate volume, prostatic specific antigen (PSA, post voiding residue (PVR and histopathological reports as well as the duration of urinary leak, bladder irrigation, hospitalization, and catheterization were studied. The mean age of the studied patients was 70.5 ± 8 years. Significant preoperative bac-teriuria was revealed in 18 (15% patients of whom 14(77% patients developed negative cultures following the operation. Postoperative bacteriuria was detected in 9(7.5% patients who negative urine cultures preoperatively. Pre and post operative micro-organisms were different in the majority of the cases. The mean PSA was higher in patients with a positive history of infection. Following prostatectomy, patients with positive urine cultures had significantly longer urinary leakage, cathe-terization, and hospital stays compared with those who remained culture negative. We conclude that the incidence of positive urine culture pri-prostatectomy for BPH can be improved by appropriate antibiotic therapy, and the risk factors for postoperative urinary infection include preoperative infec-tion, prolonged urinary leakage, catheterization, and hospital stay. The elevated PSA may be a risk factor.

  15. Herbs In Treatment Of Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Wasamwar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that urinary tract is very common source of infection and UTIs are second most common reason people visit their doctors each year. Escherichia coli is responsible for large majority of UTIs. UTIs is most commonly diagnosed bacterial infection in woman. Population at risk of complication include older woman, pregnant woman. Continuous antibiotics prophylaxis are used to treat and prevent recurrent urinary tract infections, frequent antibiotic use can result in vaginal and intestinal dysbiosis as well as antibiotic resistance. Thus, it is desirable to seek alternative methods of prevention and treatment of simple UTIs. Few herbal antimicrobial agents Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry, Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry; Blueberry, Berberine, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (Bearberry are proved to be very effective in preventing and treating urinary tract infections.

  16. Differences in urinary trichloroethylene metabolites of animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogata,Masana

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences in urinary excretion of trichloroethylene were studied in rabbits, rats and mice. Trichloretylene (1 m mole/kg was injected intra-peritoneally, then urinary trichloroacetic acid and trichloroethanol glucuronide were measured. The results were: 1. The ratio of total excretion of trichloroethylene metabolites to the administered trichloroethylene decreased in the order of mice, rats and rabbits. 2. The ratio of total trichloroethanol to trichloroacetic acid in urine decreased in the order of rabbits (69.2, mice (12.8 and rats (2.3. The high ratio in rabbits was due to the extremely small amount of trichloroacetic acid in the urine. 3. Differences in these two urinary metabolites in the three kinds of animals and in human subjects were discussed.

  17. Radiology of trauma to kidney and lower urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents are trauma to kidney, imaging of kidney trauma, management of renal trauma, delayed complications, trauma to the lower urinary tract, trauma to urinary bladder, radiologic diagnosis, ethiology of blunt bladder injury, urethal injury (6 refs.)

  18. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  19. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Farzana Hamid; Md. Rafiqul Islam; Nibedeta Paul; Nadia Nusrat; Rafia Parveen

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species) and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an importa...

  20. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  1. Increased urinary neopterin excretion in vaccinated adults

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannoni, G.; Bell, J.; Feldmann, M.; Thompson, Ej

    1996-01-01

    Serial urinary neopterin:creatinine ratios of 58 healthy adult subjects were measured from 2 days prior to and up to 12 days post vaccination. An increase in the urinary neopterin of at least twice the baseline was detected in 24/46 subjects who received either a Mantoux skin test or a live viral vaccine (cell mediated immune group, median average increase above baseline = 206%((interquartile range 150-338%)), and in 5/12 who received non-live vaccines known to stimulate mainly humoral immuni...

  2. Urinary tract infection by chromobacterium violaceum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Bichitrananda; Otta, Sarita; Sahu, Kundan Kumar; Panda, Kirtika; Rout, Subhrajita

    2014-08-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a facultative anaerobic proteobacterium, is particularly isolated from water and soil in tropical areas and has been implicated in few infections like septicemia, visceral abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, meningitis and diarrhea. But urinary tract infection caused by it is very rare. Limited awareness about this pathogen and inappropriate antibiotic therapy contribute to a high mortality rate. Here, we describe an unusual case of urinary tract infection by Chromobacterium violaceum in a young immuno-competent male which was managed aggressively with proper antibiotics as per the culture sensitivity report. PMID:25302195

  3. Scintigraphic detection of urinary leakage after kidney transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary leakage after kidney transplantation is a serious complication. In a retrospective study we analyzed 8 relevant cases of 14 patients with urinary leakage. In these eight patients kidney scintigraphy indicated the presence of urinary extravasation. Compared with other imaging modalities such as IV urography, cystography and ultrasound, scintigraphy seems to be an easy and safe method to detect urinary leakage. Moreover scintigraphic examination may suggest leakage, while this may not be clinically evident or suspected. (orig.)

  4. Decreasing urinary PAH metabolites and 7-methylguanine after smoking cessation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ichiba, M.; Matsumoto, A.; Kondoh, T.; Horita, M.; Tomokuni, K.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Humans are exposed to various carcinogens by smoking. Urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), one of the major carcinogens in cigarette smoke, were measured as the environmental carcinogen exposure marker for humans. We evaluated urinary exposure markers for smoking cessation. METHOD: In this study, we measured cigarette smoke exposure markers, such as urinary cotinine, PAH exposure markers, such as urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), 2-naphthol (2-NP) and 1-nap...

  5. Urinary endothellin-1 level in children with pyelonephritis and hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Mostafa; Ahmadi, Mitra; Karimi, Abdollah; Zand, Ranna Esmaili; Moghadar, Roozbeh; Ahmadi, Roya; Chimeh, Masoud Dadkhah

    2013-07-01

    Hydronephrosis is a common finding in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI). Endothellin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoactive peptide that has vasoconstrictive effects. It has been shown that urinary ET-1 increases in urinary obstructions. In this study, we measured the urinary ET-1 level in patients with UTI and hydronephrosis of various causes. In this case-control study, we evaluated the urinary ET-1 level in 45 patients who had UTI and hydronephrosis, serving as a case group, and 45 patients who had UTI without hydronephrosis, serving as a control group. Urinary ET-1 was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and urinary creatinine (Cr) by Jaffe method. To rule out the effect of urinary flow rate, the urinary ET-1 to Cr correlation was considered for analysis of the results. The mean age of the patients in the case and control groups was 36.5 ± 27.2 and 26.2 ± 15.5 months, respectively (P >0.01). The mean urinary ET-1 was 89.6 ± 41.7 pg/dL in the case group and 29.3 ± 26 pg/dL in the control group, P hydronephrosis. We conclude that urinary ET-1 was significantly higher in the obstructed than in non-obstructed cases. Urinary ET-1 could be a useful marker that can be utilized in young children for diagnosis of hydronephrosis, especially obstructive cases. PMID:23816722

  6. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Hamid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

  7. Is Streptococcus bovis a urinary pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matesanz, M; Rubal, D; Iñiguez, I; Rabuñal, R; García-Garrote, F; Coira, A; García-País, M J; Pita, J; Rodriguez-Macias, A; López-Álvarez, M J; Alonso, M P; Corredoira, J

    2015-04-01

    The Streptococcus bovis group (SBG) comprises several microorganisms associated with human infections. They have been associated with bacteremia, endocarditis, biliary tract infection, meningitis, and colorectal cancer, but their role as urinary pathogens is not well known. The objective of this investigation was to discover the incidence and clinical significance of the bacteriuria associated with this complex. A retrospective analysis of all adult patients with bacteriuria caused by SBG during the period 1995-2012 was carried out. During the study period, SBG was isolated in 153 adult patients, who had a mean age of 67 years, most of them being women (80 %). Most of our patients (65 %) had some underlying disease, with urologic disease being the most common (37 %), followed by diabetes mellitus (27 %) and neurologic disease (25 %). Among the 88 patients in whom we were able to correctly assess symptoms, 45 % had asymptomatic bacteriuria, 35 % had lower urinary tract infection, and 20 % had upper urinary tract infection. In 14 cases (9 %), SBG was also isolated in blood cultures. Most of the isolates of SBG (72 %) were S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, 98 % to nitrofurantoin, and 77 % to fosfomycin. Although SBG bacteriuria is uncommon, it should not always be taken as a contaminant, mainly when S. pasteurianus is isolated, because it may cause urinary tract infections and, occasionally, sepsis, whereas when S. gallolyticus is isolated from urine, it may be a marker of underlying endocarditis and colorectal cancer. PMID:25416160

  8. Neural control of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groat, William C; Griffiths, Derek; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes anatomical, neurophysiological, pharmacological, and brain imaging studies in humans and animals that have provided insights into the neural circuitry and neurotransmitter mechanisms controlling the lower urinary tract. The functions of the lower urinary tract to store and periodically eliminate urine are regulated by a complex neural control system in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral autonomic ganglia that coordinates the activity of smooth and striated muscles of the bladder and urethral outlet. The neural control of micturition is organized as a hierarchical system in which spinal storage mechanisms are in turn regulated by circuitry in the rostral brain stem that initiates reflex voiding. Input from the forebrain triggers voluntary voiding by modulating the brain stem circuitry. Many neural circuits controlling the lower urinary tract exhibit switch-like patterns of activity that turn on and off in an all-or-none manner. The major component of the micturition switching circuit is a spinobulbospinal parasympathetic reflex pathway that has essential connections in the periaqueductal gray and pontine micturition center. A computer model of this circuit that mimics the switching functions of the bladder and urethra at the onset of micturition is described. Micturition occurs involuntarily in infants and young children until the age of 3 to 5 years, after which it is regulated voluntarily. Diseases or injuries of the nervous system in adults can cause the re-emergence of involuntary micturition, leading to urinary incontinence. Neuroplasticity underlying these developmental and pathological changes in voiding function is discussed. PMID:25589273

  9. Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Nickel, J. Curtis

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 50% to 60% of men with chronic prostatitis experience troublesome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Individual interventions yield statistically significant but minimally important improvements in clinical trials. Research has shown that categorizing patients with prostatitis by phenotype is an effective way to rationally select therapy and maximize the impact on symptom reduction and improve quality of life.

  10. Urinary excretion of iopamidol following intrathecal administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No iodinated compound other than Iopamidol was found in the urine of subjects who received intrathecal injection of 10 ml of Iopamiro '300'. The compound was neither metabolized nor altered chemically and urinary iodide content was always in the normal range. Between 72 and 85% of injected Iopamidol was excreted within 72 h of injection. (orig.)

  11. Urinary Incontinence: Causes and Methods of Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the third of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. Here, the author introduces the types and physiology of urinary incontinence. The author also…

  12. Psychosomatic Aspects of Urinary Incontinence in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, G.; Kästner, R.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence in women is a common problem. With increasing age its prevalence and severity of its manifestations increase. Among nursing home residents the frequency is between 43 and 77?%, 6 to 10?% of all admissions to nursing homes are due to urinary incontinence. The risk for urinary incontinence among women with cognitive deficits is 1.5- to 3.4-fold higher than for women without mental disorders. The most common form is stress incontinence (50?%), followed by mixed stress-urge incontinence (40?%) and purely urge incontinence (OAB = overactive bladder, 20?%). With regard to its cause, the latter remains unclarified in about 80?% of the cases. It is often difficult to treat. There are also cases in which urge incontinence is related to traumatic events. In such cases behavioural and psychotherapeutic options may be helpful. Almost inevitably every form of incontinence has psychological consequences: shame and insecurity are often results of uncontrolled loss of urine. Among others, in the long term, they lead to the avoidance of social contacts and possibly to depression and isolation. Consideration of the psychosomatics is important in the therapy for female urinary incontinence from three points of view: 1) the efficacy of treatment is better suited to the patient, 2) the treatment costs are lower, 3) the professional satisfaction of the responsible physician increases. PMID:25797959

  13. A hydrophilic technology for intermittent urinary catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Al-Lamee, Kadem

    2008-01-01

    A biocompatible and highly lubricous hydrophilic coating has been developed for intermittent urinary catheters. The coating has additives incorporated into it, which reduce the drying out of the catheter when it is inserted into the urethra, and antimicrobial agents can be incorporated into it to minimise the trauma associated with catheterisation. PMID:18348434

  14. The medical management of urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Ahmed; Drake, Marcus J; Hashim, Hashim

    2010-01-15

    Urinary incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine; it affects millions of people worldwide, causing significant detrimental effects on their quality of life. Direct expenses, such as containment products, long-term drug prescriptions and surgery, complemented by indirect costs, such as reduced employment productivity, result in overall expenditure running to billions of dollars. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) occurs on physical exertion, and results from weakness of the bladder outlet. Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) results from inability to resist a sudden compelling desire to pass urine, arising as a consequence of bladder dysfunction. Clinical evaluation clarifies the underlying mechanisms and excludes diseases causing similar symptoms. Urodynamic studies to measure bladder and abdominal pressures and deduce the bladder and outlet function are undertaken when invasive treatments are being considered or when the nature of the incontinence is not entirely clear. Initial management of SUI involves pelvic floor muscle exercise training; if insufficient symptom improvement results, surgical measures are needed. UUI treatment commences with advice on suitable fluid intake and measures to improve ability to defer voiding, followed by antimuscarinic drugs. Refractory UUI is a difficult problem, currently managed with a range of surgical interventions, including bladder injections of botulinum-A neurotoxin, augmentation cystoplasty and nerve stimulation methods. New treatment options are needed, because of the risk of impeding voiding function, resulting in urinary retention. Persistent leakage is controlled with containment products, such as pads, or collection devices, such as catheters. PMID:19900845

  15. Microbiological Characteristics of Yeasts Isolated from Urinary Tracts of Intensive Care Unit Patients Undergoing Urinary Catheterization

    OpenAIRE

    Febre?, N.; Silva, V.; Medeiros, E. A. S.; Wey, S. B.; Colombo, A. L.; Fischman, O.

    1999-01-01

    We studied 70 intensive care unit patients to determine the incidence of nosocomial candiduria associated with indwelling urinary catheters and to assess microbiological characteristics of the yeasts. The yeasts were isolated, 13 of 17 in urine cultures and 4 of 17 in blood cultures, and colonization had occurred 3 days after the insertion of indwelling urinary catheters. For four strains the MICs of the antifungal drugs were high.

  16. Urinary extravasation in the fetus with obstructive uropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzick, N S; Harrison, M R; Flake, A W; deLorimier, A A

    1985-12-01

    Urinary extravasation resulting in either urinary ascites or an isolated perirenal urinoma is relatively common in the fetus with severe obstructive uropathy. We examined the effect of fetal urinary extravasation on the developing kidney and abdominal wall in 12 fetuses taken from a series of 44 cases of fetal urinary tract obstruction. Based on this experience, we conclude that fetal urinary extravasation has predictable pathophysiologic consequences. Fetal urinary ascites appears to ameliorate obstruction-induced renal dysplasia by decompressing the high-pressure, obstructed fetal urinary system. Conversely, contained urinomas secondary to ureteropelvic junction obstruction provide inadequate decompression and are associated with renal dysplasia. Last, the severity of abdominal wall laxity (prune belly) relates directly to the timing and degree of fetal ascites. PMID:4087086

  17. In situ extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for ureteral calculi: investigation of factors influencing stone fragmentation and appropriate number of sessions for changing treatment modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H H; Lee, J H; Park, M S; Lee, S E; Kim, S W

    1996-12-01

    To determine the factors influencing stone fragmentation and to suggest when to change treatment modality for ureteral calculi refractory to repetitive in situ extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), we analyzed 369 patients treated primarily by the second-generation lithotripter, Siemens Lithostar, from March 1989 to December 1993. Three hundred forty-two (92.7%) of the patients were ultimately free of stones after repetitive in situ SWL. The cumulative stone-free rates of the first, second, and third session were 64%, 81%, and 88%, respectively, and the increment in the cumulative stone-free rate thereafter with further repeated in situ SWL was minimal (p 0.05). The cumulative stone-free rate at the third session was 100%, 90%, 87%, 70%, 67%, and 50% for stones 25 mm, respectively (p < 0.001). According to the radiopacity of the stone, the cumulative stone-free rate at the third session was 96% for stones with minimal opacity, 94% for those with moderate opacity, and 70% for highly opaque stones (p < 0.001). The cumulative stone-free rate at the second session was 100% without ureteral obstruction; 80% with mild, 57% with moderate, and 67% with severe obstruction; and 50% in patients with nonappearance of the kidney (p < 0.05). From these observations, it could be concluded that the factors influencing fragmentation were the size and radiopacity of the calculi and the degree of ureteral obstruction, whereas the location of the calculi did not influence the cumulative stone-free rate of repetitive in situ SWL. It is preferable to restrict in situ SWL to three sessions in patients with ureteral calculi refractory to shockwaves. An early change of treatment modality either to ureteroscopic manipulation or to open surgery would be recommended if there were risk factors as listed above. PMID:8972781

  18. E.A.E.S. multicenter prospective randomized trial comparing two-stage vs single-stage management of patients with gallstone disease and ductal calculi.

    OpenAIRE

    Morino, Mario

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current management of patients with gallstone disease and ductal calculi consists of endoscopic stone extraction (ESE) followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Following the advent of techniques of laparoscopic ductal stone clearance, an alternative single-stage laparoscopic treatment was introduced for these patients. The European Association of Endoscopic Surgery (E.A. E.S.) set up a ductal stone trial to compare the relative efficacy and outcome of these two managemen...

  19. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitcomb EL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative approaches is effective in reducing urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered as a first line treatment for overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence.Keywords: urinary incontinence, obesity, women

  20. [Conservative treatment of female urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdraon, Jacques; Denys, Pierre; Amarenco, Gérard

    2011-09-01

    Female urinary incontinence can be improved by nonsurgical pharmacologic as well as non-pharmacologic treatments. Hygiene and dietary rules apply to all forms of incontinence. If overweight, weight loss improves stress urinary incontinence. There are levels of evidence to show that pelvic floor muscle training and behavioral therapy improve incontinence. Duloxetine is better than placebo for improvement of quality of life and for the impression of an improvement, but its place is still not determined in the algorithm of conservative treatments. The effects of vaginal electrostimulation and oestrogen are inconsistent or inhomogeneous. In case of urgency incontinence, anticholinergics remain the first line treatment and the place of stimulation of posterieur tibial nerve is still to be defined. PMID:22039739

  1. Current Staging Procedures in Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambros J. Beer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently computed tomography (CT represents the most widely used standard imaging modality in muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer. Visualization of local tumor or depth of invasion as well as lymph node staging, however, is often impaired. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with diffusion-weighted sequences, determination of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values or utilization of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles potentially exhibits advantages in the assessment of local tumor or lymph node involvement and therefore might play a role in routine staging of urinary bladder cancer in the future. Likewise, positron emission tomography (PET with the currently utilized tracers 18F-FDG, 11C-choline and 11C-acetate is investigated in bladder cancer patients—mostly in combination with diagnostic CT. Although promising results could be obtained for these PET/CT examinations in smaller series, their true value cannot be determined at present.

  2. Incontinencia urinaria post-prostatectomía: El esfinter artificial / Urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy: Urinary artificial sphinter

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando, Rodríguez Escobar; Pedro, Arañó Bertrán.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El esfínter artificial (EA) es actualmente el tratamiento considerado como "gold standard" en el tratamiento de la incontinencia urinaria post prostatectomía radical. La incontinencia de orina post prostatectomía radical es una complicación que se presenta en un 5-25% de los pacientes sometidos a es [...] te tratamiento. Esta complicación genera en los pacientes un deterioro importante en cuanto a su calidad de vida. Tratamientos conservadores y mínimamente invasivos han sido utilizados sin éxito, como por ejemplo los ejercicios de Kegel, el uso de absorbentes, farmacoterapia y electroestimulación o cirugía menor como los inyectables. Esta revisión resume las ventajas y complicaciones del esfínter artificial y su efectividad en el manejo de la incontinencia urinaria tras una prostatectomía radical. Abstract in english Urinary artificial sphincter (UAS) is currently the gold standard treatment for urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. 5-25% of the patients undergoing radical prostatectomy develop urinary incontinence. This complication generates important deterioration in the quality of life of these p [...] atients. Conservative and minimally invasive treatments, such as Kegel exercises, use of pads, drugs, and electrostimulation, or minor surgery have been used without success. This review summarizes the advantages and complications of the urinary artificial sphincter and its efficacy in the management of urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy.

  3. Can Urinary Nitrite Results Be Used to Conduct Antimicrobial Option for Urinary Tract Infection in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mahyar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was performed to determine the relationship between urinary nitrite results and bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs in urinary tract infection of children.Methods: In a cross-section study 119 children younger than 12 years with urinary tract infection were evaluated in Qazvin children's hospital. Patients were divided into negative and positive nitrite groups depending on urinary nitrite test result. Rates of antibiotic resistance in the two groups were compared.Findings: Sixty seven patients were in the negative nitrite group and 52 in the positive nitrite group.Resistance rates to ceftriaxone, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, gentamicin, amikacin, nalidixic acid, cephalothin and nitrofurantoin in the nitrite negative group were 7.5%, 31.3%, 50.7%, 11.9%, 9%, 3%,14.9% and 11.9%, respectively. These values in the nitrite positive group were 21.2%, 28.8%, 63.5%, 7.7%, 5.8%, 1.9%, 9.6%, and 3.8%, respectively (P>0.05.Conclusion: This study showed that there is no correlation between urinary nitrite results and bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, it seems that physicians should not adjust antibiotic therapy for UTI based on nitrite results.

  4. Lower urinary tract development and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

    2013-01-01

    Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Urinary Tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomalies such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUV). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often ass...

  5. Assessment of Diagnostic Techniques of Urinary Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaleb, Khaled; Afifi, Magdy; El-gohary, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of active tuberculosis remains an elusive challenge. In addition, one third of the world’s population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and up to 10% of infected individuals develop tuberculosis (TB) in their lifetime. In this investigation, the incidence of urinary tuberculosis among renal patients was studied. Three hundreds urine samples were processed for detection of Mtb by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear examination, Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium, rad...

  6. Carumonam versus ceftazidime for urinary tract infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelstein, H.; Oster, S.; Cassano, K.; Mccabe, R.

    1988-01-01

    Carumonam is a new monobactam antibiotic with potent activity against gram-negative aerobes. To study the efficacy and safety of carumonam for treatment of complicated and uncomplicated urinary tract infections, 54 patients were randomized to therapy with either carumonam or ceftazidime. Of 42 patients who could be evaluated, 82% of the carumonam-treated patients and 80% of the ceftazidime-treated patients were cured clinically. At 5 to 9 days posttherapy, microbiologic criteria indicated tha...

  7. Urinary Tract Infection in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Raz, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it i...

  8. Nervous network for lower urinary tract function

    OpenAIRE

    Birder, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, sensory signaling in the urinary bladder has been largely attributed to direct activation of bladder afferents. There is substantive evidence that sensory systems can be influenced by non-neuronal cells, such as the urothelium, which are able to respond to various types of stimuli that can include physiological, psychological and disease-related factors. The corresponding release of chemical mediators (through activation of a number of receptors/ion channels) can initiate signa...

  9. Urinary metabolites of tetrahydronorharman in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of THN in the rat was studied in vivo by use of 14C-radiolabelled compound. Structures of major urinary metabolites were determined by exact spectral data. Their concentrations were measured by liquid scintillation counting. It was found that THN is submitted to endogenous transformation, and that the excreted derivatives form three groups of similar concentration: unchanged substance, hydroxylated/conjugated compounds, and aromatic metabolites. Structures and proposed pathways are summed in diagram

  10. Epidemiology of urinary incontinence in Jordanian women.

    OpenAIRE

    Shakhatreh, Farouk M. N.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To find out prevalence rate of urine incontinence (UI) in a representative sample of women aged 50-65 years in south Jordan. The study will also investigate the relationship between UI (stress and urge) and the following variables: age of the woman and her parity, diabetes mellitus, urinary tract infection (UTI), body mass index (BMI), medications (diuretics), menopause, past history of hysterectomy, and poor mobility. METHODS For achieving the objectives of this study, a ...

  11. Factors associated with urinary incontinence in women.

    OpenAIRE

    Yarnell, J. W.; Voyle, G. J.; Sweetnam, P. M.; Milbank, J.; Richards, C. J.; Stephenson, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    Possible aetiological factors for urinary incontinence were examined in a prevalence study among a random sample of 1000 women aged 18 and over. Infective factors were not markedly associated with incontinence but mechanical factors such as parity and obesity were. No association was found, however, between a history of perineal damage at childbirth and incontinence. Women with incontinence had on average a higher score for a 'neuroticism' trait elicited by questionnaire than women without th...

  12. Management of urinary incontinence in women.

    OpenAIRE

    O Dowd, T. C.

    1993-01-01

    Control of micturition is a complex physiological and anatomical process which often fails in women. The sequelae of urinary incontinence in women range from inconvenience to social and psychological stigmatization. Surprisingly, many women are tolerant of often quite severe sequelae, despite a range of management techniques that exist to alleviate or cure incontinence. Some of the more successful techniques are well suited to general practice management and can be carried out by the patient ...

  13. Assessing drug influences on urinary albumin excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Monster, Taco Bo Michiel

    2003-01-01

    Microalbuminuria, defined as a urinary albumin excretion of 30-300 mg per 24 hours, was first recognised as a risk marker for diabetic renal disease but it is suggested that microalbuminuria is a marker for renal disease in the general population too. It is thought to reflect endothelial damage and an early sign of atherosclerosis. Indeed, microalbuminuria appears to be a risk marker for cardiovascular morbidity and mortalityas well. This thesis explored the extent in which drug use could ...

  14. Urinary neopterin in idiopathic retinal vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, H.; Giovannoni, G.; Stanford, M.; Wallace, G.; Graham, E.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To determine whether urinary neopterin:creatinine (UNC) ratios relate to disease activity in idiopathic retinal vasculitis (RV).?METHODS—18 patients with RV were prospectively recruited into a year long longitudinal study. Patients collected first morning urine samples on a weekly basis and on the same day completed a diary which documented their subjective view of RV activity and any concurrent infection. They were examined in clinic on a 6-8 weekly basis and an objective assessme...

  15. Current Staging Procedures in Urinary Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Ambros J.; Gschwend, Ju?rgen E.; Matthias Eiber; Matthias Heck; Thomas Horn; Tobias Maurer

    2013-01-01

    Currently computed tomography (CT) represents the most widely used standard imaging modality in muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer. Visualization of local tumor or depth of invasion as well as lymph node staging, however, is often impaired. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted sequences, determination of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values or utilization of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles potentially exhibits advantages in the assessment of local tumor or ...

  16. Surgical Management of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Sharifi-Aghdas

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This review evaluates the most recent knowledge regarding surgical management of stress urinary incontinence.Materials and Methods: A comprehensive MEDLINE search was performed, limited to those articles published from 1995 to 2005; 470 articles were reviewed. The most relevant of which were considered, and additional ones were selected by reviewing these studies’ bibliographies. Overall, 53 articles were selected and used in this study.Results: Few randomized controlled trial...

  17. The management of childhood urinary incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Maternik, Michal; Krzeminska, Katarzyna; Zurowska, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The International Children’s Continence Society (ICCS) has undertaken an enormous effort to standardize both the terminology and management of various aspects of incontinence in children, including enuresis, bladder overactivity, dysfunctional voiding and psychological comorbidities. A number of guidelines have been published to aid those involved in the care of children with lower urinary tract symptoms. This review addresses a number of recommended diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, i...

  18. Biocide Activity against Urinary Catheter Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Malic, Sladjana; Jordan, Rachael P. C.; Waters, Mark G. J.; Stickler, David J.; Williams, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial effects of essential oils against bacteria associated with urinary catheter infection was assessed. Tests were performed on 14 different bacterial species cultured either planktonically or as biofilms. Biofilms were found to be up to 8-fold more tolerant of the test agents. Higher antimicrobial tolerance was also evident in tests conducted in artificial urine. Eugenol exhibited higher antimicrobial effects against both planktonic cells and biofilms than did terpinen, tea tree oi...

  19. Profile of urinary arsenic metabolites during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hopenhayn, Claudia; Huang, Bin; Christian, Jay; Peralta, Cecilia; Ferreccio, Catterina; Atallah, Raja; Kalman, David

    2003-01-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (In-As) from drinking water is associated with different health effects, including skin, lung, bladder, and kidney cancer as well as vascular and possibly reproductive effects. In-As is metabolized through the process of methylation, resulting in the production and excretion of methylated species, mainly monomethylarsenate (MMA) and dimethylarsenate (DMA). Because a large percentage of the dose is excreted in urine, the distribution of urinary In-As, MMA,...

  20. Animal Models of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hai-hong; Damaser, Margot S.

    2011-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common health problem significantly affecting the quality of life of women worldwide. Animal models that simulate SUI enable the assessment of the mechanism of risk factors for SUI in a controlled fashion, including childbirth injuries, and enable preclinical testing of new treatments and therapies for SUI. Animal models that simulate childbirth are presently being utilized to determine the mechanisms of the maternal injuries of childbirth that lead to S...

  1. Metabolic assessment in patients with urinary lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen R. Amaro

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metabolic investigation in patients with urinary lithiasis is very important for preventing recurrence of disease. The objective of this work was to diagnose and to determine the prevalence of metabolic disorders, to assess the quality of the water consumed and volume of diuresis as potential risk factors for this pathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 182 patients older than 12 years. We included patients with history and/or imaging tests confirming at least 2 stones, with creatinine clearance > 60 mL/min and negative urine culture. The protocol consisted in the collection of 2, 24-hour urine samples, for dosing Ca, P, uric acid, Na, K, Mg, Ox and Ci, glycemia and serum levels of Ca, P, Uric acid, Na, K, Cl, Mg, U and Cr, urinary pH and urinary acidification test. RESULTS: 158 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among these, 151 (95.5% presented metabolic changes, with 94 (62.2% presenting isolated metabolic change and 57 (37.8% had mixed changes. The main disorders detected were hypercalciuria (74%, hypocitraturia (37.3%, hyperoxaluria (24.1%, hypomagnesuria (21%, hyperuricosuria (20.2%, primary hyperparathyroidism (1.8% secondary hyperparathyroidism (0.6% and renal tubular acidosis (0.6. CONCLUSION: Metabolic change was diagnosed in 95.5% of patients. These results warrant the metabolic study and follow-up in patients with recurrent lithiasis in order to decrease the recurrence rate through specific treatments, modification in alimentary and behavioral habits.

  2. Urinary ?-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in 1126 female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailsford, Alan D; Cowan, David A; Kicman, Andrew T

    2010-11-01

    ?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its metabolic precursor ?-butyrolactone (GBL) are often implicated in cases of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), although definitive confirmation of GHB/GBL ingestion is complicated by GHB's endogenous nature and rapid elimination following ingestion. Multiple studies have attempted to establish a discriminant limit (generally 10 mg/L) above which urinary GHB concentrations can be considered consistent with GHB/GBL consumption. To supplement the currently available data, a rapid gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the analysis of GHB (following acidic conversion to GBL) and used to analyze urine samples collected from 1126 women (mean = 0.84 mg/L, median = 0.68 mg/L, range = 0.00-5.5 mg/L). GHB concentrations were shown to be independent of urinary pH (within the range 4.6-9.3), age (within the range 18-35 years), body mass index (within the range 13.8-36.3), and race. Adjusting GHB concentrations with respect to urinary specific gravity had little effect on the mean value (0.91 mg/L) and range (0.0-7.76 mg/L), although a statistically significant trend of increasing GHB concentration with specific gravity could be observed. Our results can be taken to offer further support for the 10 mg/L discriminant limit for GHB administration in antemortem urine samples. PMID:21073808

  3. Pharmacology of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennenberg, Martin; Stief, Christian G; Gratzke, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Pharmacology of the lower urinary tract provides the basis for medical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Therapy of LUTS addresses obstructive symptoms (frequently explained by increased prostate smooth muscle tone and prostate enlargement) in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and storage symptoms in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). Targets for medical treatment include G protein-coupled receptors (?1-adrenoceptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, ?3-adrenoceptors) or intracellular enzymes (5?-reductase; phosphodiesterase-5, PDE5). Established therapies of obstructive symptoms aim to induce prostate smooth muscle relaxation by ?1-blockers or PDE5 inhibitors, or to reduce prostate growth and volume with 5?-reductase inhibitors. Available options for treatment of OAB comprise anitmuscarinics, ?3-adrenoceptor agonists, and botulinum toxin A, which improve storage symptoms by inhibition of bladder smooth muscle contraction. With the recent approval of ?3-antagonists, PDE inhibitors, and silodosin for therapy of LUTS, progress from basic research of lower urinary tract pharmacology was translated into new clinical applications. Further targets are in preclinical stages of examination, including modulators of the endocannabinoid system and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. PMID:24744518

  4. Recurrent urinary tract infections in females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncomplicated Urinary tract infections are common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, with mean annual incidence of 15% and 10% in those aged 15-39 and 40-79 years, respectively. Urinary tract infection (UTI), with its diverse clinical syndromes and affected host groups, remains one of the most common but widely misunderstood and challenging infectious diseases encountered in clinical practice. Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) present a significant problem for women and a challenge for the doctors who care for them. The diagnosis of uncomplicated UTI can be achieved best by a thorough assessment of patient symptoms with or without the addition of a urine dipstick test. Treatment should be based on the most recent guidelines, taking into account resistance patterns in the local community. The patient who suffers from recurrent UTIs can be treated safely and effectively with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital therapy, or self-initiated treatment. This review article covers the latest trends in the management of recurrent UTI among women. Further research is needed regarding rapid diagnosis of UTI, accurate presumptive identification of patients with resistant pathogens, and development of new antimicrobials for drug-resistant UTI. (author)

  5. Aggregation of Urinary Microcrystallines with Different Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAO Xiu-Qiong, HE Jie-Yu, YANG Jin, HOU Shan-Hua, OUYANG Jian-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes of average size (), autocorrelation curve, aggregation state and stability of urinary crystallites in urine samples of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) stone patients and healthy controls with placement time were comparatively studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoparticle size analyzer. The urine samples were filtrated by microporous membrane with a pore size of 0.22, 0.45, 1.2 and 3 mm, respectively. With the increase of placement time from 0 to 4 h, the values of the crystallites in various filtrated urine of patients increased rapidly. The amplification of (?) was 1439, 1557, 1534 and 1051 nm, respectively, when the placement time was up to 4 h. However, the ?of the urine crystallites of the controls was relatively small, which was only 474, 511, 567 and 433 nm, respectively. The urinary crystallites of the patients had rapid and large agglomeration and poor stability compared with those of the controls. The urinary crystallites of small size agglomerated more easily than those of large size. The results show that the rapid agglomeration of urine crystallites may play an important role in the formation of CaOxa stones.

  6. Control of urinary drainage and voiding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Warren G

    2015-03-01

    Urine differs greatly in ion and solute composition from plasma and contains harmful and noxious substances that must be stored for hours and then eliminated when it is socially convenient to do so. The urinary tract that handles this output is composed of a series of pressurizable muscular compartments separated by sphincteric structures. With neural input, these structures coordinate the delivery, collection, and, ultimately, expulsion of urine. Despite large osmotic and chemical gradients in this waste fluid, the bladder maintains a highly impermeable surface in the face of a physically demanding biomechanical environment, which mandates recurring cycles of surface area expansion and increased wall tension during filling, followed by rapid wall compression during voiding. Afferent neuronal inflow from mucosa and submucosa communicates sensory information about bladder fullness, and voiding is initiated consciously through coordinated central and spinal efferent outflow to the detrusor, trigonal internal sphincter, and external urethral sphincter after periods of relative quiescence. Provocative new findings suggest that in some cases, lower urinary tract symptoms, such as incontinence, urgency, frequency, overactivity, and pain may be viewed as a consequence of urothelial defects (either urothelial barrier breakdown or inappropriate signaling from urothelial cells to underlying sensory afferents and potentially interstitial cells). This review describes the physiologic and anatomic mechanisms by which urine is moved from the kidney to the bladder, stored, and then released. Relevant clinical examples of urinary tract dysfunction are also discussed. PMID:24742475

  7. Fungus ball pieloureteral en pacientes con litiasis urinaria: Tratamiento con ureterorrenoscopia / Pyelo-ureteral fungus ball in patients with urinary lithiasis: Ureterorrenoscopic management

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.P., Burgués Gasión; J.M., Alapont Alacreu; F., Oliver Amorós; A., Benedicto Redón; F., Boronat Tormo; J.F., Jiménez Cruz.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: C. albicans es el hongo que con mayor frecuencia produce infecciones oportunistas del tracto urinario. Cuando las hifas se aglutinan alrededor de un núcleo de tejido necrótico (necrosis papilar), hebras mucosas, restos de suturas quirúrgicas y/o material litiásico, se forma una pelota [...] fúngica que puede obstruir cualquier tramo del tracto urinario. CASOS CLÍNICOS: Presentamos dos pacientes formadores crónicos de cálculos que en ausencia de otros factores de riesgo para las infecciones fúngicas oportunistas, desarrollan fungus balls en el tracto urinario superior dilatado por una litiasis ureteral obstructiva. La paciente 1 tuvo afectación bilateral y en ningún momento hubo manifestaciones sistémicas. El tratamiento consistió en ureterorrenoscopia con extracción de las bolas fúngicas, derivación bilateral y anfotericina B sistémica y en irrigaciones tópicas. El paciente 2, en el contexto de una sepsis candidiásica, se trató con anfotericina B sistémica, desobstrucción mediante ureterorrenoscopia con extracción de un cálculo ureteral y de pelotas fúngicas, y colocación de catéter JJ y nefrostomía con irrigaciones de anfotericina B. DISCUSIÓN: La litiasis urinaria constituye por sí sola un factor de riesgo para la infección fúngica del tracto urinario superior, en ausencia de otros factores favorecedores de las infecciones fúngicas oportunistas. El mecanismo por el cual el cálculo favorece el crecimiento de los hongos es, por un lado, la obstrucción pieloureteral con éstasis retrógrado y, por otro lado, la nucleación alrededor de una matriz de material cálcico sobre la que crecen, se agregan y se ramifican los micelios. La vía de infección es probablemente ascendente y puede complicarse con funguemia y sepsis. Los antimicóticos sistémicos, la derivación con catéteres ureterales o de nefrostomía que permitan irrigación local con antifúngicos, y las técnicas endourológicas, constituyen los tres pilares básicos del tratamiento. La ureterorrenoscopia juega aquí un papel importante al ser una técnica diagnóstica y al mismo tiempo terapéutica al permitir la desobstrucción litiásica y la limpieza de las masas fúngicas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: C. albicans is the most frequent fungus causing opportunist infections of the urinary tract. Agglutination of necrotic tissue nucleus (papilar necrosis), mucosus debri and chirurgic or lithiasic debri, originates a fungus ball, which can obstruct the urinary tract at any level. CLINICA [...] L DATA: We present 2 patients with obstructive urinary lithiasis developing fungus ball in the dilated upper urinary tract. Patient 1 was bilaterally affected and never had systemic symptoms. Treatment consisted of uretherorrenoscope for removal of fungus ball, bilateral urinary diversion and anphotericine B irrigations and systemic. Patient 2 developed a candidemia and was treated with systemic liposomal anphotericine B, uretherorrenoscopy with removal of ureteric calculus and fungus ball, and placement of a double J catheter and nephrostomy tube for anphotericine B irrigation. DISCUSSION: Urinary lithiasis is a risk factor for fungal infection of the upper urinary tract, provided there is no other predisponent factor for opportunistic fungal infections. Calculi facilitates fungal growth by means of obstruction and subsequent retrograde estasis and creating a nucleus for growth, aggregation and ramification of mycelium. The infection pathway is probably ascendent and may turn into fungemia and septicaemia. Systemic antimicotics, urinary diversion and local irrigations with antimicotics, and endourologic technics, are the three basic items in the treatment. Ureterorrenoscopy plays an important roll as a diagnostic and terapeutic tool as it may solve the obstruction and allows removal of fungus ball.

  8. Photmicrography of urinary deposits in stone clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil; Salim, Abiya

    2009-12-01

    The importance of routine urine deposit study has not been projected satisfactorily in literature. This paper analyses the findings of urine microscopy of urinary stone patients who attended the stone clinic. A total number of 800 patients who attended the urinary stone clinic during the years 2005-2007 were selected for the study. Each patient had two samples of urine studied; early morning urine (EMU) and random. The patients were classified into different groups as proved stone patients (304), colic patients (289) and crystalluria patients (207). They were further classified as pre-treatment group and post-treatment group. The patients had chemotherapy depending on the biochemical abnormalities. The urine samples were centrifuged and the deposits examined under the low-power and high-power magnifications of the binocular microscope. The appropriate fields were photographed using a micro-photographic camera. 23% of the urinary samples studied contained deposits (36% of the EMU and 16% of the random samples). The most common deposits were red blood cells (RBC) (17%), pus cells (PC) (13%), calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals (7%), calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals (11%), uric acid crystals (2%), amorphous phosphates (1%), epithelial cells (13%) and sperms (7%). The unusual deposits included ammonium urate and cystine. Comparison of the results of deposits with those of 473 deposits from other laboratories showed that the present reports showed much more deposits than the outside ones. Deposits were more in the male patients (25%) compared to the females (19%). 83% of the patients with significant deposits had symptoms at the time of collection of sample, while 17% were not symptomatic. Among the patients with crystals, 53% had RBC associated and 49% had PC. RBCs were seen most in the COD crystal group. PC alone were seen in 2% and all were females. Percentage of urinary deposits was more in the pre-treatment group (32%) than in the post-treatment group (17%). Extent of crystalluria was more in the colic group (38%) compared to the crystalluria (22%) and stone (13%) groups. It is concluded from the study that accurate assessment of the urinary stone patient lies in a proper microscopic evaluation. It is mandatory that EMU should be examined as there is greater chance of identifying crystals and other deposits. Centrifuged deposits showed more deposits and these should be standards in urine examination. Regular urine deposit examination should be performed in all patients coming for follow-up. PMID:19834702

  9. Impacting health care: study of a reusable urinary drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, M

    1994-03-01

    This study of a reusable urinary leg bag system was undertaken to ascertain possible increased incidence of urinary tract infection attributable to reusing urinary leg bags. The fourteen patients involved had diagnoses of "neurogenic bladder," and required long-term drainage. Ten were on Foley catheter drainage and four were on external drainage. Before the reusable bags were placed into use, urine cultures were collected to establish baseline information about prevalent urinary organisms for each subject. During the study period, random urine specimens for culture/sensitivity were collected. Analysis of the findings of this study demonstrates no increase in incidence of urinary tract infection attributable to use of reuseable leg bags for urinary drainage. PMID:7863309

  10. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of ureteroscopic lithotripsy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on ureteral calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yahong, Xu; Yi, Lu; Jian, Li; Shunwen, Luo; Yang, Liu; Zhigang, Jia; Ping, Chen; Yu, Guo; Qihua, Zhao; Xiaoping, Ma; Shufang, Jia.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To re-evaluated the clinic efficacy of ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URS) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on ureteral calculi with Cochrane systematic reviews in this paper. METHODS: We searched clinical randomized controlled trials and prospective controlled trials in d [...] atabases such as Cochrane library, Medline, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, PubMed. Pooled estimate of risk ratios (RRs), standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as measure of effect sizes. Summary effect estimates were also stratified by sample size, study design and study region. The overall effect sizes were derived using a random-effects model or fixed-effects model when appreciated, and meta-analysis were conducted with software RewMan 5.0. RESULTS: The meta-analysis suggested that there were significant differences of post-treatment stone free rate, repeat treatment rate, patients' satisfaction, incidence of postoperative complications, operation time and hospital stays between ESWL treatment cases and URS treatment cases. But in the sample sizes analysis, there were no significant differences of the post-treatment stone free rate and repeat treatment rate when the sample sizes were less than 100. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the ureteroscopic lithotripsy treatment, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment provided a significantly lower post-treatment stone free rate, but it also obviously brought out less postoperative complications, shorter operation time and hospital stays.

  11. Migrated embolization coil: A rare cause of urinary tract obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Bhageria, Anand; Seth, Amlesh; Bora, Girdhar S.

    2012-01-01

    Refractory bleeding following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is mainly due to formation of pseudoaneurysm. Transarterial embolization is required to control the bleeding in such cases. We report a case of post-PCNL hematuria in whom angioembolization was done. An early erosion of the embolization coil from the renal vasculature into the urinary collecting system occurred, causing urinary tract obstruction and urinary tract infection (UTI). The coil was retrieved ureteroscopically after c...

  12. Determinants of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in South Korean children.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K. H.; Vermeulen, R. C. H.; Lenters, V. C.; Cho, Soo-hun; Strickland, Paul T.; Kang, D.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the dominant sources of the urinary pyrene metabolite, 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG), in South Korean children. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from 102 non-smoking children (aged 10-14). Urinary 1-OHPG was assayed by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, following immuno-affinity purification using monoclonal antibody 8E11. Urinary cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, was measured by GC/MS. Information on environmental tobacco ...

  13. Menopause, hormone treatment and urinary incontinence at midlife.

    OpenAIRE

    Legendre, Guillaume; Ringa, Virginie; Fauconnier, Arnaud; Fritel, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Whether there is any association between urinary incontinence and menopause is the subject of debate, partly due to the fact it is difficult to tell the difference between the effects of menopause and those of ageing. For some time it was hoped that hormonal treatment for menopause would be beneficial for urinary incontinence because there are hormonal receptors in the urinary tract. The goal of this survey of current knowledge on the subject is to explore thoroughly the relationship between ...

  14. Anti-diuresis in the management of daytime urinary ­incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, D.; Cardozo, L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract dysfunction, whilst not life threatening conditions, remain an important cause of morbidity in women and are responsible for significant impairment of quality of life. Drug therapy is often used to treat women who complain of urgency and urge incontinence and has an emerging role in the management of stress urinary incontinence. However, bothersome side effects are known to affect compliance and therefore compromise efficacy, making longterm drug t...

  15. Observations on urinary 17-ketosteroids in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh R

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary 17-ketosteroids (17-KS have been estimated and correlated with different stages of breast cancer in this study. We observed marked increase in urinary 17-KS in advanced stages of the disease. Further, we noticed a positive correlation between urinary 17-KS levels and the progress of the disease. Thus, estima-tion of urinary 17-KS may prove to be of some prognostic value and may help the clinicians concerned in the clinical evaluation of the stage and the progress of the disease.

  16. A prospective study of urinary tract infection during pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of urinary tract infection before and during pelvic radiotherapy was studied prospectively in 172 patients who were not catherised and had not had instrumentation for at least 4 weeks prior to radiotherapy. The incidence of urinary tract infection prior to radiotherapy was 17% and a further 17% of patients develped a urinary tract infection during radiotherapy. Mid-stream specimens of urine (MSU) should be examined for infection on a weekly basis during pelvic radiotherapy not only to identify this additional 17% of patients but also to detect those patients who have persistent urinary tract infection in spite of treatment with appropriate antibiotics. (author). 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  17. Update on duloxetine for the management of stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Basu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Maya Basu, Jonathan RA DuckettDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medway Maritime Hospital, Gillingham, Kent, UKAbstract: Duloxetine is a relatively balanced serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI, which is the first drug with widely proven efficacy to have been licensed for the medical treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI. Despite favorable results from randomized controlled trials, surgical management continues to be the mainstay of treatment for SUI. In this review we explore the pharmacology of duloxetine in the nervous system and lower urinary tract, and the evidence for its use in the management of women with urinary incontinence.Keywords: duloxetine, stress urinary incontinence, overactive bladder

  18. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  19. Urinary Tract Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a Foley Catheter ?? ??? ?? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Urine Sample -- Female (Clean Catch) ?? ??-?? (??? ??) - ??? ( ... Translations UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) ?? ?? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF ... -- Female (Clean Catch) ?????? ????-??????? (?????? ?????) - ??????? ( ...

  20. Assessing urinary tract defects in mice: methods to detect the presence of vesicoureteric reflux and urinary tract obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Inga J; Watt, Christine L; Gupta, Indra R

    2012-01-01

    Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract (CAKUT) encompass a spectrum of kidney and urinary tract disorders. Here, we describe two assays that can be used to determine if a mouse has vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) or urinary tract obstruction, two urinary tract defects observed in CAKUT. To test for VUR, dye is injected into the mouse bladder and then monitored to determine if it passes retrogradely from the bladder towards the kidneys, indicating the presence of VUR. To test for urinary tract obstruction, the renal pelvis is microinjected with dye and its passage along the urinary tract is monitored to determine if there is evidence of impaired flow along the tract. These methods will facilitate the analysis of CAKUT phenotypes in the mouse. PMID:22639276

  1. Effects of urinary bladder distention on location of the urinary bladder and urethra of healthy dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the anatomic location of the distended and empty urinary bladders and urethras of healthy adult male and female dogs and cats by retrograde urethrocystography revealed substantial variations. In 15 dogs in lateral recumbency with empty bladder lumens, the caudal portion of the urinary bladder was within the pelvic canal in 5 of 7 male and 5 of 8 female dogs. In female dogs examined in ventrodorsal recumbency, only 4 of 8 had the empty urinary bladders in part within the pelvic canal. After luminal distention, 3 of 7 male and 3 of 8 female dogs, while in lateral recumbency, had the urinary bladders in part intrapelvically. However, when female dogs were placed in ventrodorsal recumbency, only 1 of 7 urinary bladders was in part within the pelvis. The urinary bladders of 14 cats were consistently within the abdominal cavity, irrespective of whether the bladder lumen was distended or empty. Urethral flexures occurred in dogs with intrapelvic bladders that were distended or empty. Urethral flexures were not found in cats. The urethras of dogs and cats in lateral recumbency were generally closer to the floor of the pelvis after urinary bladder distention than when the bladder was empty. The urethra of the dogs and cats in ventrodorsal recumbency was to the left or right of or on the midsagittal plane, whether the urinary bladder was empty or distended. A greater degree of lateral displacement was encountered in ventrodorsal recumbency after urinary bladder distention

  2. Antibiotic Resistance in Urinary Isolates of Escherichia coli from College Women with Urinary Tract Infections?

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Ronald P.; Harrell, Lizzie J.; Kaye, Keith S.

    2009-01-01

    Of 176 urine isolates from female students positive for Escherichia coli, 29.6% were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistant and none were nitrofurantoin resistant. Among students with a history of urinary tract infection (UTI) (n = 119), resistance to ciprofloxacin was 11.8%, compared to 1.8% among those without prior UTI. Nitrofurantoin should be considered for empirical therapy of lower tract UTI.

  3. Metabolic assessment in patients with urinary lithiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmen R., Amaro; Jose, Goldberg; Joao L., Amaro; Carlos R., Padovani.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Metabolic investigation in patients with urinary lithiasis is very important for preventing recurrence of disease. The objective of this work was to diagnose and to determine the prevalence of metabolic disorders, to assess the quality of the water consumed and volume of diuresis as po [...] tential risk factors for this pathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 182 patients older than 12 years. We included patients with history and/or imaging tests confirming at least 2 stones, with creatinine clearance > 60 mL/min and negative urine culture. The protocol consisted in the collection of 2, 24-hour urine samples, for dosing Ca, P, uric acid, Na, K, Mg, Ox and Ci, glycemia and serum levels of Ca, P, Uric acid, Na, K, Cl, Mg, U and Cr, urinary pH and urinary acidification test. RESULTS: 158 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among these, 151 (95.5%) presented metabolic changes, with 94 (62.2%) presenting isolated metabolic change and 57 (37.8%) had mixed changes. The main disorders detected were hypercalciuria (74%), hypocitraturia (37.3%), hyperoxaluria (24.1%), hypomagnesuria (21%), hyperuricosuria (20.2%), primary hyperparathyroidism (1.8%) secondary hyperparathyroidism (0.6%) and renal tubular acidosis (0.6). CONCLUSION: Metabolic change was diagnosed in 95.5% of patients. These results warrant the metabolic study and follow-up in patients with recurrent lithiasis in order to decrease the recurrence rate through specific treatments, modification in alimentary and behavioral habits.

  4. Assessment of infective urinary tract disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixt, R.; Stokland, E. [Goteborg, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital/Ostra (Sweden). Dept. of Pediatric Clinical Physiology and Dept. of Pediatric Radiology

    1998-06-01

    Urinary tracts infection (UTI) is common in children, particularly in the youngest age groups. There is a risk for progressive deterioration of renal function in these children if aggravating factors such as gross reflux and/or outflow obstruction of the urinary tract are present. In this review the pros and cons of available scintigrafic and radiological imaging techniques for the work-up of these children are presented. Ultrasound can be used in the acute phase to exclude obstruction but can not reliably show transient or permanent parenchymal lesions. The presence of reflux can be established with X-ray or direct nuclide cystography. The X-ray technique gives good morphological information and has a grading system with prognostic relevance. Both techniques are invasive and great care must be taken to keep the radiation burden down with the X-ray technique. Indirect nuclide cystography following a renographic study is non-invasive but has a lower sensitivity than direct techniques. More experience is needed with the indirect technique to evaluate the consequences of its apparently low sensitivity. Urography has a limited place in the acute work-up of urinary tract infection but can be used to look for renal scarring 1-2 years after an acute pyelonephritis. The {sup 99m}Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan can be used during the acute UTI to show pyelonephritic lesions with good accuracy and/or during the follow-up after six months to show permanent lesions. The acute DMSA scan can be omitted.

  5. Urinary incontinence in Belgium; prevalence, correlates and psychosocial consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oyen, H; Van Oyen, P

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the prevalence of urinary incontinence in the Belgian population and assesses factors associated with urinary incontinence. The significance of urinary incontinence as a public health problem is evaluated through its psychosocial consequences. The data comes from the participants of the 1997 national health survey in Belgium, 15 years and older, (n = 7266). The presence and frequency of the urinary incontinence was estimated through self-reporting using a standard questionnaire. The prevalence of urinary incontinence in the population was 1.4% in men and 4.6% in women ranging from less than 1% under the age of 25 years to 13% in males and 21% in females aged 75 years and older. The prevalence in women was higher in all age groups. The prevalence of frequent incontinence (at least once a week) was 0.8% in males and 2.4% in females. Over the age of 75 years 9.8% of the males and 7.9% of the females reported weekly incontinence. Factors associated with the incontinence were physical limitations, comorbidity, having a prostate problem or uterine prolapse, being obese. Further, the prevalence of urinary incontinence was higher in women reporting chronic urinary infection and with a sedentary lifestyle. The prevalence of subjective ill-health, of mental ill-health, of a low appreciation of social contacts and of a low functional content of social contacts was higher in subjects with urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence is common in both men and women, especially in older ages. Urinary incontinence is associated with other health problems. The substantial psychosocial consequences of urinary incontinence stress the need for more public health and medical attention. PMID:12462797

  6. Current practices in the management of patients with ureteral calculi in the emergency room of a university hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Rojas Claros; Carlos Hirokatsu Watanabe Silva; Horacio Consolmagno; Americo Toshiaki Sakai; Rodrigo Freddy; Oscar Eduardo Hidetoshi Fugita

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Urinary lithiasis is a common disease. The aim of the present study is to assess the knowledge regarding the diagnosis, treatment and recommendations given to patients with ureteral colic by professionals of an academic hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five physicians were interviewed about previous experience with guidelines regarding ureteral colic and how they manage patients with ureteral colic in regards to diagnosis, treatment and the information provided to the patient...

  7. Reducing urinary tract infections in catheterised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Pam; Adams, John

    2015-01-20

    Urinary tract infections in catheterised patients continue to present a challenge in reducing healthcare-associated infection. In this article, an infection prevention and control team in one NHS trust reports on using audit results to focus attention on measures to reduce bacterial infections. Educational initiatives have an important role in reducing infection, but there is no single solution to the problem. Practice can be improved using a multi-targeted approach, peer review and clinical audit to allow for shared learning and experiences. These, along with informal education in the clinical area and more formal classroom lectures, can ultimately lead to improved patient outcomes. PMID:25585767

  8. Botanical medicines for the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Eric

    2002-11-01

    Four important categories of urologic herbs, their history, and modern scientific investigations regarding them are reviewed. Botanical diuretics are discussed with a focus on Solidago spp (goldenrod) herb, Levisticum officinale (lovage) root, Petroselinum crispus (parsley) fruit, and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) herb. Urinary antiseptic and anti-adhesion herbs, particularly Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (uva-uri) leaf, Juniperus spp (juniper) leaf, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) fruit are reviewed. The antinephrotoxic botanicals Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) root and Lespedeza capitata (round-head lespedeza) herb are surveyed, followed by herbs for symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, most notably Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) fruit, Urtica dioica root, and Prunus africana (pygeum) bark. PMID:12522584

  9. Urinary tract infections in the infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Mehreen; Seed, Patrick C

    2015-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in an infant may be the first indication of an underlying renal disorder. Early recognition and initiation of adequate therapy for UTI is important to reduce the risk of long-term renal scarring. Ampicillin and gentamicin are traditionally the empiric treatment of choice; however, local antibiotic resistance patterns should be considered. Maternal antibiotics during pregnancy also increase the risk of resistant pathogens during neonatal UTI. Long-term management after the first UTI in infants remains controversial because of lack of specific studies in this age group and the risk-benefit issues for antibiotic prophylaxis between reduced recurrent disease and emergent antibiotic resistance. PMID:25677994

  10. Urinary polyomavirus infections in neurodevelopmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gentile

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have recently reported enhanced frequencies of polyomavirus infection in post-mortem brain tissue of autistic patients compared to controls. To further explore potential contributions to neurodevelopmental disorders by polyomaviruses, we have employed specie-specific TaqMan assays to assess the prevalence and titres of BKV, JCV and SV40 inthe urines of 87 patients with autism spectrum disorder, 84 controls matched by sex and age with the autistic sample, 15 subjects with Down syndrome and 13 fragile X individuals. Prevalence rates of urinary BKV infection were significantly greater in Down syndrome and fragile X patients compared to autistic and control individuals (P

  11. Urinary metabolites of busulfan in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, M.; Ehrsson, H.

    1987-05-01

    After ip administration of 15 mg/kg (1,4-/sup 14/C)busulfan to rats, the urinary excretion was 70% of the total radioactivity after 72 hr. Three major metabolites were isolated and quantified by HPLC. Of the total radioactivity in the urine, unchanged busulfan was excreted as a minor amount (6%) and the following metabolites were identified as: 3-hydroxysulfolane (39%), tetrahydrothiophene 1-oxide (20%), and sulfolane (13%) using GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of busulfan and its major metabolites was examined using a V79 Chinese hamster cell line.

  12. Urinary metabolites of busulfan in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After ip administration of 15 mg/kg [1,4-14C]busulfan to rats, the urinary excretion was 70% of the total radioactivity after 72 hr. Three major metabolites were isolated and quantified by HPLC. Of the total radioactivity in the urine, unchanged busulfan was excreted as a minor amount (6%) and the following metabolites were identified as: 3-hydroxysulfolane (39%), tetrahydrothiophene 1-oxide (20%), and sulfolane (13%) using GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of busulfan and its major metabolites was examined using a V79 Chinese hamster cell line

  13. Bone and metabolic complications of urinary diversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; Muñoz Delgado, Eva Golmayo

    2015-02-01

    Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is a complication of urinary diversion using ileum or colon. Its prevalence ranges from 25% and 46% depending on the procedure used and renal function of the patient. It is a consequence of intestinal fluid and electrolyte exchange between intestinal mucosa and urine. The main mechanism is absorption of ammonium and chloride from urine. Long-term chronic metabolic acidosis in these patients may lead to impaired bone metabolism and osteomalacia. Regular monitoring of pH, chlorine, bicarbonate, and calcium-phosphorus metabolism is therefore essential for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25481805

  14. Malignant pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwahlen, Daniel; Fishman, Paula N; Honey, John; Milosevic, Michael; Tannock, Ian

    2007-02-01

    This report describes an illustrative case of malignant pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder in a 28-year old man. A combined-modality treatment plan with partial cystectomy and post-operative radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy with single agent cisplatin weekly was performed. Three weeks after completing concurrent chemoradiation the first of four planned cycles of cisplatin 25 mg/m2 and etoposide 100 mg/m2 was administered daily over 3 days. Although there are no controlled series offering proof of benefit, postoperative concurrent chemoradiation followed by chemotherapy alone are reasonable options for patients with residual disease or at high risk for locoregional relapse. PMID:17324326

  15. Clinical evaluation of genito-urinary fistula

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    Companywala Rashida

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical evaluation of 50 cases of genito-urinary fistula from January 1969 to March 1917 is presented. In 84% of the cases the aetiological factor was obstetric injury while in 12% it followed hysterectomy. Sixty per cent of the patients had come within one year of the development of symptoms. Eighty per cent of the cases were operated upon by vaginal route while 14% were operated upon by abdominal route and 6% by pereineo-abdominal route. The operative management is discussed. The success rate was 72%. The literature on this subject is reviewed.

  16. Urinary and metabolic clearances of arginine vasopressin in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic arginine vasopressin (AVP) was infused into 11 hydrated normal subjects at five different infusion rates ranging from 10 to 350 ?U kg-1 min-1. Each infusion rate was continued for 1 h, and urinary determinations were made on the 30- to 60-min specimens during which time there was no further rise in plasma AVP. Urinary AVP concentrations (?U/ml) and excretion rates (?U/min) increased linearly with increasing infusion rates, and the concentration of AVP in urine increased 120 times more rapid than plasma. Urinary and metabolic clearances of AVP also increased linearly with the maximum urinary clearance being 60.6% of the creatinine clearance. The total metabolic clearance of AVP (including urinary clearance) was 17.8 times that of the urinary clearance of AVP alone. These data clarify the relationships between plasma and urinary AVP in normal hydrated subjects during AVP infusion under steady-state conditions and emphasize the potential advantage of measuring urinary AVP as a monitor of endogenous AVP secretion. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay

  17. Carcinosarcoma of the Ureter and Urinary Bladder: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kang, Mi Jin; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Soung Hee; Cho, Hyun Sun; Jeong, Myeong Ja [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Carcinosarcoma is biphasic neoplasm with distinct carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. Carcinosarcoma arising from the urinary system is extremely rare and only 14 such cases of the ureteral carcinosarcoma have been reported in the medical literature. We experienced a case of surgically proven carcinosarcoma of the ureter and urinary bladder and we report here on the computed tomography findings of this rare neoplasm

  18. Non-invasive localization of urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New methods to localize the source of bacteriuria were evaluated in monkeys with experimental urinary tract infection. A high level of diagnostic accuracy was obtained with the combined study of antibody-coated urinary bacteria by immunofluorescence, 131I hippuran scintiphotos in the hydropenic state and 67gallium citrate scintiphotos. Unique patterns were found, which differentiate cystitis, ureteritis, pyelonephritis and renal or perinephric abscesses

  19. The Management of Urinary Incontinence by Community-Living Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteness, Linda S.

    1987-01-01

    Explored ways elderly people (N=30) manage urinary incontinence. Subjects tended to dismiss their urinary incontinence as a normal part of aging and used various behavioral and psychological strategies to maintain their independence, usually without any assistance from the health professions. Management strategies commonly involved some degree of…

  20. Biomaterials in urinary incontinence and treatment of their complications

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, Philippa; Morley, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Biomaterials integrate with the anatomy and provide support to the weakened area. They are generally synthetic, but natural substances are also used. These substances are being increasingly used in stress urinary incontinence. This article discusses the various biomaterials, minimally invasive techniques, and recent advances for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. In addition, their complications and subsequent management are explored.

  1. Clomipramine-induced urinary retention in a cat.

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer, E.; Guy, N.; Cribb, A.

    1999-01-01

    A 10-year-old, female, spayed shorthair with presumed psychogenic alopecia was treated with clomipramine (1 mg/kg body weight/day). The cat developed urinary retention within 2 days. Clomipramine was discontinued. Clinical signs resolved over the next 7 days. The urinary retention was attributed to the anticholinergic effects of clomipramine.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done according to age-group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates. A total of 803 urine culture positive patients were studied of whom 81.6% were females and 18.4% were males. The common micro-organisms isolated were E. coli (78.58%), Klebsiella (5.48%), Proteus and Staphylococcus. About 89% of the E. coli isolated showed sensitivity to cephtizoxin, 83.9% to gentamycin and 83.2% to ciprofloxacin; the highest resistance was shown to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Surveys of this nature will give a clear idea about the bacteriologic profile in a given institution as well their antibiotic sensitivity profile. This will act as a guide to commencing empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary infections until such time culture reports are available. (author)

  3. Granular cell tumors of the urinary bladder

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    Kayani Naila

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granular cell tumors (GCTs are extremely rare lesions of the urinary bladder with only nine cases being reported in world literature of which one was malignant. Generally believed to be of neural origin based on histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies; they mostly follow a clinically benign course but are commonly mistaken for malignant tumors since they are solid looking, ulcerated tumors with ill-defined margins. Materials and methods We herein report two cases of GCTs, one benign and one malignant, presenting with gross hematuria in a 14- and a 47-year-old female, respectively. Results Histopathology revealed characteristic GCTs with positive immunostaining for neural marker (S-100 and negative immunostaining for epithelial (cytokeratin, Cam 5.2, AE/A13, neuroendocrine (neuron specific enolase, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin and sarcoma (desmin, vimentin markers. The benign tumor was successfully managed conservatively with transurethral resection alone while for the malignant tumor, radical cystectomy, hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, anterior vaginectomy, plus lymph node dissection was done. Both cases show long-term disease free survival. Conclusion We recommend careful pathologic assessment for establishing the appropriate diagnosis and either a conservative or aggressive surgical treatment for benign or localized malignant GCT of the urinary bladder, respectively.

  4. [Creation of artificial urinary bladder in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, V V; Braev, A T; Shamatrin, S V

    2001-01-01

    In children creation of artificial urinary bladder using intestinal segments was made in the absent or reduced reservoir function of the bladder. From 1990 to 1998 enterocystoplasty was performed in 30 boys and 6 girls. 15 of them have undergone colocystoplasty, 21--ileocystoplasty with detubulized segment. Holding conduits were made of the appendix or intestinal segment in 31 patients. On postoperative day 1-16 six patients developed complications demanding emergency operation--3 cases of comissural ileus and 3 of urinary peritonitis. 33 patients were followed up for 1 to 9 years. 29 patients urinated only through catheter 3 to 6 times a day. 4 patients urinated without a catheter but they had imperative enuresis. Concrements in the artificial bladder were detected in 8 postcolocystoplasty patients and 1 postileocystoplasty patient. The preference was given to ileocystoplasty with detubulized segment with creation of the holding conduit and occlusion of the bladder neck. The ileal artificial bladder is characterized by less probable long-term complications, greater volume, low pressure at filling, less intensive mucus production. PMID:11505544

  5. Circadian urinary excretion rhythms in adrenalectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulis, J A; Roelfsema, F; van der Heide, D

    1986-09-01

    The impact of the adrenal system on urinary rhythms was investigated in adrenalectomized (ADX) rats under various experimental conditions. During a 12:12 light-dark cycle the acrophases were shifted in ADX rats with respect to control rats. Under constant light conditions ADX rats displayed free-running rhythms, similar to those of control rats. The periods were stable in blind rats but not in rats maintained on a constant light cycle. The abrupt change in period, which occurred after approximately 8 days, suggests a stage of internal desynchronization. A 6-h delay in the administration of corticosterone to ADX rats caused a delay shift of the acrophases. A single intraperitoneal injection of corticosterone in blind free-running ADX rats caused delay or advance shifts so that we could construct phase-response curves for the various excretory rhythms. These observations indicate that the adrenals are not essential for the establishment of the urinary rhythms; however, corticosterone influences the phase setting of these rhythms. The site of action is probably the X pacemaker (controlling the body temperature rhythm), although we cannot totally exclude an additional effect on secondary (renal) oscillators. PMID:3752278

  6. Sexual dysfunction after cystectomy and urinary diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modh, Rishi A; Mulhall, John P; Gilbert, Scott M

    2014-08-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) in men and sexual dysfunction in men and women are common after cystectomy and urinary diversion. Research has focused on both qualifying the prevalence of ED following cystectomy and identifying surgical approaches to limit sexual dysfunction after surgery, but most studies have been limited by small patient populations, an absence of control groups, and a lack of adjustment for confounding factors. Similarly, quality of life (QoL) research studies have also emerged in the context of bladder cancer and cystectomy, and increase our understanding of sexual outcomes associated with cystectomy. A number of instruments for collection of patient-reported outcomes among patients with bladder cancer treated with cystectomy are available for the assessment of condition-specific and procedure-specific QoL. However, other factors that negatively affect sexual function after removal of the bladder, such as psychological issues, age, and health-related competing risks for ED, body image, partner response, and change in life course and sexual priorities, have received less attention. Nevertheless, ED and sexual dysfunction are important complications of cystectomy and urinary diversion. Although changes in the approach to surgery, such as nerve-sparing cystectomy, might improve outcomes, evaluation and management of the source factors of ED and sexual dysfunction are necessary to optimize recovery of function. PMID:24980191

  7. Newer carbapenems for urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Muratani, Tetsuro

    2004-09-01

    Four carbapenems have been available clinically in Japan. These are imipenem/cilastatin (IMIP/CS) and panipenem/ betamipron (PANI/BP) of the older compounds and newer carbapenems such as biapem (BIAP) and meropenem (MERO). The latter compounds are relatively stable to dehydropeptidase-1 (DHP-1) and have been reported to have higher antimicrobial activities compared to the earlier carbapenems. The antimicrobial activity of these four carbapenems against fresh urinary isolates showed high activities against Enterobacteriacae such as Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii and Escherichia coli containing the class C-beta-lactamase- and extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains compared to piperacillin (PIPC) and ceftazidime (CTAZ). Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the carbapenems, with the exception of panipenem showed strong antimicrobial activities compared to PIPC and CTAZ. High activities were also seen against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, but methicillin-resistant strains were not affected. The first generation carbapenems showed better activity against E. faecalis than newer carbapenems. All four carbapenems were similar in clinical effectiveness in double blind trials for complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, PANI/BP is less effective in UTIs caused by P. aeruginosa than IMIP/CS. MERO showed better eradication rate of P. aeruginosa than IMIP/CS. Retrospective analysis of treated cases using carbapenems showed a rapid defervescence in the treatment of febrile complicated UTIs, which were mainly caused by mixed infection of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, especially those involving P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis. PMID:15364304

  8. Lymphoma and metastases in the urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidneys lymphomas are mainly secondary and represent the most frequent localizations in the urinary tract (68%). The appearance most frequently observed with computed tomography (CT) as well as ultrasound is that of multinodular involvement or, less frequently, of contiguous involvement from retroperitoneal adenopathy in an isolate nodular or tumoral form or in an infiltrating form. The lesions are most often bilateral and involve the lymph nodes, the liver and/or the spleen, especially when the tumor is a metastasis. Lymphoma in the excreting cavities of the bladder is much less frequent. The frequent stasis does no allow obtaining satisfactory urograms for the exploration of the ureters, so that antegrade or retrograde pyelography is often necessary. The lesions of the bladder are well demonstrated by ultrasound and CT exploration. The metastases of lymphoma in the urinary tract are most frequently located in the kidneys, and represent the most frequent malignant kidney tumors. They are often non recognized clinically since they occur at late stages in cancer evolution. Their usual appearance with ultrasound and CT is that of multiple solid-type tumors. Metastases in the excreting cavities of the bladder are very rare

  9. Safety and Efficacy of Pneumatic Lithotripters Versus Holmium Laser in Management of Ureteral Calculi: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Reza Valipour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare efficacy and safety of holmium:YAG laser and pneumatic lithotripter in the management of ureteral stones.MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred and twelve patients with 1 to 2 cm ureteral calculi were selected for pneumatic or holmium:YAG laser transurethral ureterolithotripsy (56 patients in each group. Ultrasonography and plain abdominal x-ray were performed for all the patients before the operation. The pneumatic lithoclast was Swiss LithoClast, while in laser lithotripsy, holmium:YAG laser frequency was used, which was usually set between 5 and 10 Hz at a power of 10 to 15 Watt. Intravenous urography was performed for all the patients at 3 months to assess functional status and to delineate the ureteral anatomy.RESULTS: The mean patients’ age and stones’ size were the same in both groups, and there were no statistical differences. Mean duration of lithotripsy was 13.7 ± 12.6 minutes in laser group and 7.9 ± 4.2 minutes in pneumatic lithotripsy group. Immediate stone-free rate was 100% and 82.1% in the laser and pneumatic groups, respectively (P = .001. Stone pushing back occurred only in 10 (17.9% patients in pneumatic group. In terms of complications, such as perforation, mucosal injury, and bleeding, there were no differences between the two groups. No intravenous pyelography related complication was seen at 3-month follow-up.CONCLUSION:Laser lithotripsy is a superior approach for the management of upper ureteral stones of 1 to 2 cm in size due to its higher rate of stone clearance.

  10. Therapeutic Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Petroselinum Sativum on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Kidney Calculi in Rats

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    Jamshid Mehrzad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic effects of the aqueous extract of Petroselinum Sativum aerial parts and roots on kidney calculi. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 6 groups and treated for 30 days. Group A served as normal control and group B received 1% ethylene glycol in drinking water. Groups C, D, E, and F received 1% ethylene glycol from day 0 and were used as the treatment subjects. Rats in groups C and D received 200 and 600 mg/kg body weight of aerial parts aqueous extract, respectively, and those in groups E and F received 200 and 600 mg/kg body weight of root aqueous extract in drinking water, respectively, from the 14th day of the experiment. Results: On the 14th and 30th days of the experiment, serum level of magnesium (1.71 ± 0.12 and 3.81 ± 0.25, respectively decreased significantly while serum level of calcium (10.45 ± 0.26 and 11.33 ± 0.18, respectively increased significantly in group B compared with the control group (14th day: magnesium = 2.87 ± 0.17 and calcium = 8.80 ± 0.00 and 30th day: magnesium = 6.01 ± 0.00 and calcium = 8.30 ± 0.22; P < .001. In the treatment groups of C, D, E, and F, the number of deposits decreased significantly compared with group B on the 30th day (P < .001. The weight of the kidneys increased significantly in group B (2.01 ± 0.17 compared with the control group (1.52 ± 0.07 and decreased significantly in treatment groups (P < .05. Conclusion: Petroselinum Sativum has a therapeutic effect on calcium oxalate stones in rats with nephrolithiasis and reduces the number of calcium oxalate deposits.

  11. Urinary symptoms in Parkinson's disease: prevalence and associated factors

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    Campos-Sousa Raimundo Nonato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a cross-sectional study involving 61 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD who were consecutively examined and compared to a control group with 74 subjects. Only patients who fulfilled the standard diagnostic criteria for PD and whose brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal were included. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of inferior urinary tract symptoms in PD and to study the possible association between clinical factors to urinary dysfunction. ln the patient group, 39.3% presented urinary symptoms when compared to 10.8% in the control group. All symptomatic patients presented irritative symptoms. The most common irritative symptom PD was nocturia, followed by frequency and urinary incontinence. Around 25% of the patients presented functional obstructive symptoms determined by the disease. The most frequent obstructive symptom was incomplete emptying of the bladder. Only the age of the patients and control group were correlated with urinary dysfunction.

  12. Urinary kallikrein activity of workers exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscolo, P.; Porcelli, G.; Cecchetti, G.; Salimei, E.; Iannaccone, A.

    1978-08-01

    Two groups of men of different age ranges and with the same period of lead exposure were selected for study in a recently opened car-battery factory. Two other groups of age-matched men, not exposed to heavy metals in their work, were used as controls. Morning urines were collected from control and exposed groups for determination of urinary kallikrein activity, urinary delta-amino-levulinic acid (ALA) and lead levels. The environmental lead levels and the urinary ALA and lead values indicated that exposure in the factory was not heavy. The older group of lead-exposed workers showed greatly reduced urinary kallikrein activity compared with that of the age-matched controls. In contrast, the younger group did no show any significant alteration in urinary kallikrein excretion.

  13. [Urolithiasis and urinary tract abnormalities in children: own experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawro, A; Zwoli?ska, D; Miler, M; Polak-Jonkisz, D; Musia?, K

    2000-04-01

    The study aimed analyzing case histories of 36 children (21 girls and 15 boys), from between 3 weeks and 17 years old, with urinary tract abnormalities, admitted to the Pediatric Nephrology Department for renal stone disease within a 5-year period (1995-1999). Most common clinical manifestations, requiring further urinary tract investigation, were: pain, urinary tract infections caused mainly by Gram-negative bacteria, and erythrocyturia. Most frequent anomalies observed in our patients were those resulting in urinary outlet obstruction. Disturbances in uremic acid and oxalate metabolism were abnormalities we have often found in the examined children. The majority of patients underwent a successful conservative treatment. The obtained results indicate that disorders in the urine flow are main risk factors for crystallization in children with urinary tract abnormalities. PMID:10897603

  14. Adjusting for Urinary Creatinine Overestimates Arsenic Concentrations in Diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Hussein; Kimzey, Michael J.; Galligan, Michael A.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Stump, Craig S.; Lau, Serrine S.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Arsenic (As) is linked to insulin resistance in animal studies, but the effect of low-level As exposure on the prevalence of diabetes in humans is uncertain. An optimal method to report inorganic As in humans has not been established. Measurements of As in spot urine are usually adjusted to creatinine (Cr). However, urinary Cr is an independent variable in diabetes. Our aims are to optimize reporting of urinary As in the setting of diabetes and insulin resistance. Methods Urinary inorganic As was measured in 24-hour or first-void spot urine from diabetic (n = 31) and non-diabetic (n = 12) subjects and normalized to Cr or specific gravity (SG). The relation of normalized urinary inorganic As to glycemia and surrogate measures of insulin resistance was investigated. Blood pressure, waist circumference, and glycated hemoglobin were also assessed. Homeostasis model assessment was used to determine insulin resistance. Results A strong correlation was found between spot urinary As adjusted to Cr (R2 = 0.82) or SG (R2 = 0.61) to 24-hour urinary As (p < 0.001), while non-adjusted urinary As did not correlate well (R2 = 0.03, p = 0.46). Adjusting for Cr revealed significant differences in total 24-hour urinary As when comparing diabetic to normal subjects. In contrast, no differences were found when As was adjusted to SG using either 24-hour or spot urine. Moreover, adjusted urinary spot or 24-hour As measures did not correlate with measures of glycemia or insulin resistance. Conclusions: Urinary Cr is an independent variable in diabetes, therefore adjusting spot As for SG is preferred. PMID:22493600

  15. Urinary metabolites of diisodecyl phthalate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kayoko; Silva, Manori J; Wolf, Cynthia; Gray, L Earl; Needham, Larry L; Calafat, Antonia M

    2007-07-01

    Diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP) is an isomeric mixture of phthalates with predominantly 10-carbon branched-dialkyl chains, widely used as a plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride. The extent of human exposure to DiDP is unknown in part because adequate biomarkers of exposure to DiDP are not available. We identified several major metabolites of DiDP in urine of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats after a single oral administration of DiDP (300 mg/kg). These metabolites can potentially be used as biomarkers of exposure to DiDP. The metabolites extracted from urine were chromatographically resolved and identified by their chromatographic behavior and full scan negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrum. The identity of metabolites with similar molecular weights was further examined in accurate mass mode. For some metabolites, unequivocal identification was done using authentic standards. Among these were the hydrolytic monoester of DiDP, monoisodecyl phthalate (MiDP), detected as a minor metabolite, and one omega oxidation product of MiDP, mono(carboxy-isononyl) phthalate (MCiNP), which was the most abundant urinary metabolite. We also tentatively identified other secondary metabolites of MiDP, mono(hydroxy-isodecyl) phthalate, mono(oxo-isodecyl) phthalate, mono(carboxy-isoheptyl) phthalate, mono(carboxy-isohexyl) phthalate, mono(carboxy-isopentyl) phthalate, mono(carboxy-isobutyl) phthalate, and mono(carboxy-ethyl) phthalate. Oxidative metabolites of diisoundecyl phthalate (DiUdP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) were also detected suggesting the presence of DiUdP and DiNP in the DiDP formulation. The urinary concentrations of all these metabolites gradually decreased in the 4 days following the administration of DiDP. MCiNP and other DiDP secondary metabolites are more abundant in urine than MiDP, suggesting that these oxidative products are better biomarkers for DiDP exposure assessment than MiDP. Additional research on the toxicokinetics of these metabolites is needed to understand the extent of human exposure to DiDP from the urinary concentrations of MCiNP and other DiDP secondary metabolites. PMID:17499416

  16. Primary Staphylococcus aureus urinary tract infection: the role of undetected hematogenous seeding of the urinary tract

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Staphylococcus aureus (SA) bacteriuria may accompany SA bacteremia, but primary SA urinary tract infection (UTI) may also occur. Our clinical observation of SA UTIs following intravenous catheter-related phlebitis lead us to review hematogenous and ascending route-related risk factors in patients with primary SA UTIs. The charts from all patients with SA UTIs over a 1.5-year period were reviewed for concurrent or recent hospitalization, intravenous catheterization, and for...

  17. Significance of Urinary Proteome Pattern in Renal Allograft Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhail, Sufi M.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary proteomics is developing as a platform of urinary biomarkers of immense potential in recent years. The definition of urinary proteome in the context of renal allograft and characterization of different proteome patterns in various graft dysfunctions have led to the development of a distinct science of this noninvasive tool. Substantial numbers of studies have shown that different renal allograft disease states, both acute and chronic, could portray unique urinary proteome pattern enabling early diagnosis of graft dysfunction and proper manipulation of immunosuppressive strategy that could impact graft prognosis. The methodology of the urinary proteome is nonetheless not more complex than that of other sophisticated assays of conventional urinary protein analysis. Moreover, the need for a centralized database is also felt by the researchers as more and more studies have been presenting their results from different corners and as systems of organizing these newly emerging data being developed at international and national levels. In this context concept of urinary proteomics in renal allograft recipients would be of significant importance in clinical transplantation. PMID:24757556

  18. [Drainage of the urinary tract as preparation for extracorporeal lithotripsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel', Iu A; Rapoport, L M; Rudenko, V I

    1998-01-01

    Upper urinary tract drainage in patients with chronic calculous pyelonephritis (CCP) results in not only successful anti-inflammatory and antibacterial treatment but also in more effective and safe ESWL. In 21 CCP patients with upper urinary tract drainage by means of catheter-stent, ESWL was performed using Lithostar-Plus (Siemens). Active inflammation with marked pyuria, bacteriuria and even moderate upper urinary tract dilation were indications for the upper urinary tract drainage with catheter-stent before and during ESWL in CCP patients. Upper urinary tract drainage with catheter-stent contributed to effective treatment of chronic pyelonephritis and allowed to perform ESWL. There were neither attacks of acute pyelonephritis nor upper urinary tract obstruction after catheter-stent removal. The catheter-stent allows to create closed drainage system with active evacuation function as it functions in physiological conditions. ESWL in patients with upper urinary tract drainage using catheter-stent is more effective and has lower risk of complications. PMID:9727311

  19. Urinary IL-6: a marker for mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C; Richards, N; Howie, A J; Richardson, K; Michael, J; Adu, D; Emery, P

    1991-10-01

    A prospective study of plasma and urinary interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels was performed in 54 patients undergoing renal biopsy to determine whether detectable urinary IL-6 was a reliable marker for mesangial proliferation. Interleukin-6 was found in both the urine and plasma of seven patients, the urine alone of 15 patients, and the plasma alone of two patients. Interleukin-6 was not detected in the urine or the plasma of the remaining 30 patients, the urine of 10 healthy controls or the urine of 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis with raised plasma IL-6. Interleukin-6 was found in the urine of only one out of an additional seven patients with lupus nephritis. Urinary IL-6 was associated with a variety of renal abnormalities and was not restricted to those with mesangial hypercellularity. Furthermore, many patients with mesangial hypercellularity did not have detectable urinary IL-6. There was no correlation between urinary IL-6 and plasma IL-6, urinary albumin excretion or urinary creatinine. These results suggest that IL-6 detected in the urine is a marker of renal IL-6 production, but not specifically of mesangial hypercellularity. The patients with IL-6 in the urine had a mean serum creatinine significantly higher than those without IL-6. It is not possible to distinguish at present whether IL-6 contributes to renal dysfunction or whether it reflects renal damage. PMID:1914227

  20. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko

    2010-01-01

    Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100 Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans to compare the intake and metabolism. Dietary determinants of lignan intake and their urinary excretion were also determined. The mean intake of lignans was 1224 (sd 539) mug/d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intakeof water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4 % by the intake of lariciresinol. Although the assessed intake of lignans corresponded well with the urinary excretion of lignans, the enterolactone production in the human body depended more on the dietary sources of lignans than the absolute intake of lignans.

  1. Agglomeration of urinary nanocrystallites: Key factor to formation of urinary stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jieyu [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ouyang Jianming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yang Rue [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-07-20

    With transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoparticle size analyzer, comparative studies were conducted on the property variation of nanocrystallites in the urine of 5 lithogenic patients and 5 healthy subjects following the placement time (t{sub 1}). These properties include average particle size (d), size distribution, intensity-autocorrelation function, Zeta potential ({zeta}) and aggregation state. With the prolongation of t{sub 1} from 0 h to 4 h, d value of the nanocrystallites in urine of lithogenic patients increased from 742 nm to 1667 nm, the autocorrelation time increased from 7.68 ms to 1050 ms and {zeta} decreased from -1.52 mV to -4.44 mV, respectively; the autocorrelation curves were of fluctuating and unsmooth, and TEM showed that most of the patient's urinary nanocrystallites were in aggregation state and three types of agglomeration were observed. However, for nanocrystallites in urine of healthy subjects, there was little variation in the above properties within 4 h. The autocorrelation curves were of regular and smooth, and TEM showed that healthy urinary nanocrystallites were well-dispersed. The above results show that the nanocrystallites in urine of healthy subjects can keep stability, whereas those of lithogenic patients are easier to agglomerate gradually; and the agglomeration of urinary nanocrystallites is the key factor to stone formation.

  2. Prevalence of upper urinary tract anomalies in hospitalized premature infants with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachharajani, A; Vricella, G J; Najaf, T; Coplen, D E

    2014-12-01

    Objective:The 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines address imaging after initial febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants >2 months of age. We sought to determine the frequency of upper urinary tract anomalies (hydronephrosis and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)) in hospitalized premature infants with UTI.Study design:We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions at a tertiary care children's hospital between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2010. We queried the records for UTI, renal ultrasound (US) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG).Result:We identified 3518 unique admissions. UTI occurred in 118 infants (3%). Sixty-nine (60%) had a normal US. Renal dilation was predominantly renal pelvic dilation (12%) and isolated caliectasis (22%). VUR was identified in 15 (14%) infants evaluated with a VCUG. VUR was identified in nine (12%) infants without and in seven (16%) with an abnormality on US. Reflux was identified in 7% of male and 38% of female infants with a UTI.Conclusion:Anatomic abnormalities of the upper urinary tract are uncommon in premature infants with a UTI that occurs during neonatal hospitalization. In concordance with the AAP guidelines, a VCUG may not be required in all NICU infants under age 2 months after a single UTI.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 4 December 2014; doi:10.1038/jp.2014.209. PMID:25474556

  3. Agglomeration of urinary nanocrystallites: Key factor to formation of urinary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoparticle size analyzer, comparative studies were conducted on the property variation of nanocrystallites in the urine of 5 lithogenic patients and 5 healthy subjects following the placement time (t1). These properties include average particle size (d), size distribution, intensity-autocorrelation function, Zeta potential (?) and aggregation state. With the prolongation of t1 from 0 h to 4 h, d value of the nanocrystallites in urine of lithogenic patients increased from 742 nm to 1667 nm, the autocorrelation time increased from 7.68 ms to 1050 ms and ? decreased from -1.52 mV to -4.44 mV, respectively; the autocorrelation curves were of fluctuating and unsmooth, and TEM showed that most of the patient's urinary nanocrystallites were in aggregation state and three types of agglomeration were observed. However, for nanocrystallites in urine of healthy subjects, there was little variation in the above properties within 4 h. The autocorrelation curves were of regular and smooth, and TEM showed that healthy urinary nanocrystallites were well-dispersed. The above results show that the nanocrystallites in urine of healthy subjects can keep stability, whereas those of lithogenic patients are easier to agglomerate gradually; and the agglomeration of urinary nanocrystallites is the key factor to stone formation.

  4. Effect of drinking parsley leaf tea on urinary composition and urinary stones' risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyami, Fahad A; Rabah, Danny M

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the effect of parsley leaf tea on urine composition and the inhibitors of urinary tract stones formation, we studied 20 healthy volunteers who were divided into two groups: the first group of 10 subjects drank daily 1,200 mL of parsley leaf tea for 2 weeks, while the second group drank at least 1,200 mL daily of bottled water for the same period. This was followed by a 2-week "washout" period before the two groups were crossed over for another 2 weeks. During the experimental phase, 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline, on day 14, and at the end of the 6-week period and different urinary parameters were measured and analyzed statistically. We found no significant difference in the urine volume, pH, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, phosphorus, magnesium, uric acid, cystine, or citric acid. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of parsley leaf tea on urinary parameters in healthy and stone-forming patients. PMID:21566309

  5. Placenta percreta with urinary bladder involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 37-years old Pakistani lady, who had previously undergone one cesarean delivery and one uterine curettage, was admitted to the labor ward at 29 weeks of gestation with history of sudden severe painless vaginal bleeding from a sonographically diagnosed placenta pervia. An immediate cesarean was performed and a live male infant was delivered. The placenta was morbidly adherent to the lower uterine segment and attempts at removal caused torrential bleeding, necesstiating cesarean hysterectomy. In addition, attempts to dissect the bldder from lower uterine segment was unsuccessful and, hence, the diagnosis of placenta percreta with involvement of urinary bladder was made. A modified posterior approach to the hyterectomy was carried out, with subsequent good recovery. (author)

  6. [Microbiological diagnosis of urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Antonia; Cacho, Juana; Coira, Amparo; Lepe, José Antonio

    2011-01-01

    For the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI), besides the quantification of bacteria in the urine, cellular elements contained in the urine, the collection method used and the clinical syndrome should also be considered. Therefore, the microbiological diagnosis of UTI should be performed by an experienced person who takes into account the diversity of situations that may influence the result of each of the cultures. The processing of urine samples depends on the number of samples received daily. In laboratories with a high number, it is impossible to culture each of them, so negative urines have to be ruled out by using automated systems and cultivate only those that are positive. This review includes an analysis of the methods currently available for this screening. It also includes procedures to be performed in special situations such as prostatitis, UTI caused by fastidious microorganisms and other kind of infections that may be diagnosed in a urine test. PMID:21310512

  7. Catheter-related urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2005-01-01

    Indwelling urinary catheters are used frequently in older populations. For either short- or long-term catheters, the infection rate is about 5% per day. Escherichia coli remains the most common infecting organism, but a wide variety of other organisms may be isolated, including yeast species. Bacteria tend to show increased resistance because of the repeated antimicrobial courses. Urinary tract infection (UTI) usually follows formation of biofilm on both the internal and external catheter surface. The biofilm protects organisms from both antimicrobials and the host immune response. Morbidity from UTI with short-term catheter use is limited if appropriate catheter care is practised. In patients with long-term catheters, fever from a urinary source is common with a frequency varying from 1 per 100 to 1 per 1000 catheter days. Long-term care facility residents with chronic indwelling catheters have a much greater risk for bacteraemia and other urinary complications than residents without catheters. Asymptomatic catheter-acquired UTI should not be treated with antimicrobials. Antimicrobial treatment does not decrease symptomatic episodes but will lead to emergence of more resistant organisms. For treatment of symptomatic infection, many antimicrobials are effective. Wherever possible, antimicrobial selection should be delayed until culture results are available. Whether to administer initial treatment by an oral or parenteral route is determined by clinical presentation. If empirical therapy is required, antimicrobial selection is based on variables such as route of administration, anticipated infecting organism and susceptibility, and patient tolerance. Renal function, concomitant medications, local formulary and cost may also be considered in selection of the antimicrobial agent. The duration of therapy is usually 10-14 days, but patients who respond promptly and in whom the catheter must remain in situ may be treated with a shorter 7-day course to reduce antimicrobial pressure. Relevant clinical trials are necessary to define optimal antimicrobial regimens for the management of catheter-acquired UTI. Prevention of catheter-acquired UTI and its complications is a major goal. With short-term catheters, avoiding their use or limiting the duration of use to as short a time as possible are the most effective prevention strategies. Maintaining a closed drainage system and adhering to appropriate catheter care techniques will also limit infection and complications. As the duration of catheterisation is the principal determinant of infection with long-term indwelling catheters, it is not clear that any interventions can decrease the prevalence of bacteriuria in this setting. Catheter flushing or daily perineal care do not prevent infection and may, in fact, increase the risk of infection. Complications of infection may be prevented by giving antibacterials for bacteriuria immediately prior to any invasive urological procedure, and by avoiding catheter blockage, twisting or trauma. The major focus of future advances in prevention of catheter-acquired UTI is the development of biomaterials resistant to biofilm formation. There is substantial current research addressing this issue, but current catheter materials all remain susceptible to biofilm formation. PMID:16060714

  8. Radionuclide studies of the lower urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of prospective experimental and clinical studies into the use of radionuclides in the evaluation of urinary flow rates and residual urine volume estimations are presented. Studies were made following renography using 123I-Hippuran or sup(99m)Tc-DTPA. The results indicate that the radionuclide estimation of flow rates is accurate, but complex and time-consuming compared with other available methods. The calculation of residual urine is simple and accurate where residual volumes are not extremely large. The opportunity for such lower tract studies after renography should not be missed where clinically appropriate, and the combined upper and lower tract studies provide a useful quantitative urological profile. (author)

  9. A radioimmunoassay kit for urinary ?1-microglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?1-microglobulin (?1-MG) was isolated and purified from the urine of patients with kinder translation by ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatography on Sephadex G-75, Con A-Sepharose 4B and DEAE-cellos 32. Antiserum were raised by immunizing rabbits. The titers of antiserum were 1:1000-1:3500 and affinity constant was 3.45 x 109 l/mol. The cross reactions with ?2-MG, Alb and IgG were less than 0.003%. Urinary ?1-MG RIA kit was developed. The standard range was 25 to 800 ng/ml and the mean of recoveries was 112% Intra- and Inter-assay coefficient of variation were 2.5-3.3% and 2.4-3.8% respectively. The normal value was 5.86 +- 4.50 ?g/ml

  10. [Surgical urinary and male genital tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuban', O N; Volkov, A A; Sushchi?, E A; Murav'ev, A N

    2008-01-01

    A total of 209 and 188 patients with urogenital tuberculosis were operated on in 1985-1987 (Period 1) and in 2005-2007 (Period 2), respectively. The mean age of patients with nephrotuberculosis has increased by 10 years in the past 20 years. The total number of operations has retained as before: organ-removing operations have decreased from 61.1 to 27.3% and reconstructive plastic ones increased from 9.7 to 23%. Epididymectomy remains to be a major intervention for genital tuberculosis, with thrice-fold reduction in their number. The specific features of the course of tuberculosis of the kidney and upper urinary tract were studied in 158 patients. The disease complicated by obstructive uropathy takes a more severe course than the uncomplicated disease, which causes a rise in the number of nephrectomies from 25 to 40.5%. PMID:19227325

  11. The management of childhood urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternik, Michal; Krzeminska, Katarzyna; Zurowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    The International Children's Continence Society (ICCS) has undertaken an enormous effort to standardize both the terminology and management of various aspects of incontinence in children, including enuresis, bladder overactivity, dysfunctional voiding and psychological comorbidities. A number of guidelines have been published to aid those involved in the care of children with lower urinary tract symptoms. This review addresses a number of recommended diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, including urotherapy and pharmacological treatment, with emphasis on a focused medical history, information acquired from bladder diaries and uroflow evaluations. The major role of urotherapy is underlined with supportive pharmacotherapy, when indicated. The article provides both a summary of ICCS guidelines and a brief review of recently published papers related to the contemporary management of childhood incontinence, a health issue still underestimated by both the child's caregivers and healthcare providers. PMID:24615564

  12. Urinary incontinence in the bitch: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichler, I M; Hubler, M

    2014-06-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI), defined as the involuntary loss of urine during the filling phase of the bladder (Abrams et al. 2002), is a commonly seen problem in veterinary practice. Urinary sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) after spaying is the most common micturition disorder, and its medical treatment is normally successful, even though the underlying pathophysiological mechanism is not fully understood. Hormonal changes inducing structural and functional alterations in the bladder, as well as in the urethra composition, are discussed. To manage incontinent patients successfully, possible underlying abnormalities besides USMI should be ruled out. In the majority of cases, history, physical examination and simple tests including urinalysis and urine bacterial culture lead to a presumed aetiology. If USMI is the most likely cause, then the advantage of further diagnostic tests should be discussed with the owner before starting a trial therapy with alpha-adrenergic drugs. Potential side effects of this therapy have to be mentioned even though they rarely occur. It is important to thoroughly evaluate the success of the initial treatment. Its failure should lead to further diagnostic testing. Specialized clinical assessments may provide an aetiological diagnosis, and this could serve as a basis for discussing further treatment options. Surgical procedures, which may in rare cases cause irreversible side effects, may be instituted. If incontinence reoccurs after initial treatment was successfully performed, the diagnostic work-up including urinalysis should always be repeated. As results of urinalysis did not correlate well with results of bacterial culture, a urine culture is recommended (Comer and Ling 1981). Cystocentesis is the preferred method of urine collection (Bartges 2004). Equivocal results of quantitative cultures of urine samples obtained during midstream voiding or by catheterization require repeat collection by cystocentesis (Comer and Ling 1981). PMID:24947864

  13. Surgical Management of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Sharifi-Aghdas

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This review evaluates the most recent knowledge regarding surgical management of stress urinary incontinence.Materials and Methods: A comprehensive MEDLINE search was performed, limited to those articles published from 1995 to 2005; 470 articles were reviewed. The most relevant of which were considered, and additional ones were selected by reviewing these studies’ bibliographies. Overall, 53 articles were selected and used in this study.Results: Few randomized controlled trials have been done. The best results of retropubic procedures are seen when the intrinsic urethral sphincter is competent and its effectiveness is sustained in the long term. A laparoscopic approach, although less popular and with a lower short-term cure rate, is an alternative. Sling surgeries can be the first-line treatment for all types of stress urinary incontinence. Autologous grafts are still considered the gold standard, but synthetic materials such as tension-free tape have comparable results with standard open retropubic procedures. Still, long-term–cure and complication rates have not yet been elucidated. Using urethral bulking agents is the least invasive approach, applicable in both intrinsic sphincter deficiency and urethral hypermobility. However, it has a poor long-term outcome and necessitates repeat injections.Conclusion: Long-term data suggest that Burch colposuspension and sling procedures produce similar objective cure rates. New synthetic suburethral slings such as tension-free vaginal tape have gained popularity in recent years. Complications of traditional and newer suburethral slings are declining, but they still occur and often are associated with serious morbidity. New therapies should be studied in randomized clinical trials and compared with conventional approaches.

  14. Preparation of urinary exosomes: methodological issues for clinical proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitto, Marina; Corbetta, Samuele; Raimondo, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Urinary exosomes are small (coated with lipid bilayer, they contain an array of membrane and cytosolic proteins, and selected RNA species, reflecting the molecular composition of their cell of origin. Thus, urinary exosomes have received considerable attention as potential biomarker source, as their proteomic analysis could lead to the discovery of new non-invasive site-specific biomarkers for renal diseases. Here, we describe a robust method for urinary exosome preparation, additional protocols for their biochemical characterization and for the quantitation of different preparations, to be used for comparative proteomic studies. PMID:25384739

  15. Advances in urinary proteome analysis and applications in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Szymon; Zoidakis, Jerome; Vlahou, Antonia; Mischak, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The urinary proteome is the focus of many studies due to the ease of urine collection and the relative proteome stability. Systems biology allows the combination of multiple omics studies, forming a link between proteomics, metabolomics, genomics and transcriptomics. In-depth data interpretation is achieved by bioinformatics analysis of -omics data sets. It is expected that the contribution of systems biology to the study of the urinary proteome will offer novel insights. The main focus of this review is on technical aspects of proteomics studies, available tools for systems biology analysis and the application of urinary proteomics in clinical studies and systems biology. PMID:25411698

  16. Urinary nicotine concentrations in cigarette and pipe smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, Nj; Idle, M.; Boreham, J.; Bailey, A.; Vunakis, H.

    1984-01-01

    Urinary concentrations of nicotine were studied in men who did not smoke (27) and in men who smoked cigarettes only (145) or pipes only (48). The median urinary nicotine concentrations were less than 50 ng/ml (the detection limit of the assay for urine tests) in the non-smokers, 1393 ng/ml in the cigarette smokers, and 1048 ng/ml in the pipe smokers. These values were standardised for urinary pH and creatinine concentration to allow for the fact that nicotine excretion is influenced by the ac...

  17. Analysis of glycosuria in okapi (Okapia johnstoni): examination of urinary N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Ryuta; Azumano, Akinori; Ueda, Miya; Tanaka, Souhei; Yokota, Aya; Katoh, Kazuo; Hagino, Akihiko

    2014-10-01

    We analyzed the urinary excretion of glucose and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) in six okapis (Okapia johnstoni) in captivity to investigate the cause of their urinary sugar excretion. The urinary glucose-positive okapi had significantly higher urinary NAG indices than the urinary glucose-negative okapi. There was also a positive correlation between urinary glucose levels and urinary NAG indices. These results suggest that the proximal tubular function of the glycosuric okapi may have been obstructed, which impaired glucose reabsorption. PMID:24841561

  18. MPH Urinary Rules: Breeze Training Transcript: Feb 16 07

    Science.gov (United States)

    NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE SURVEILLANCE, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND END RESULTS (SEER) PROGRAM Breeze Session Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules—Renal Pelvis, Ureter and Bladder and Other Urinary Sites February 16, 2007

  19. MPH Urinary Practicum : Breeze Training Transcript: Feb 20 07

    Science.gov (United States)

    NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE SURVEILLANCE, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND END RESULTS (SEER) PROGRAM BREEZE SESSION Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules—Renal Pelvis, Ureter, Bladder and Other Urinary Sites Practicum February

  20. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...false Implanted electrical urinary continence device. 876.5270 Section 876.5270 Food and...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5270...

  1. [Urinary bladder displacement (lateroflexio vesicae urinariae) in the sow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinritzi, K; Hammerl, J

    1987-01-01

    In older gravid sows in the last stage of gestation or after pariturition lateroflexion of the urinary bladder into the space between the vagina and the pelvic wall occasionally occurs. The reposition of the displaced urinary bladder by exerting external pressure either on the vulva or the perineum is usually unsuccessful. Only after the bladder has been emptied by a catheter spontaneous reposition does occur. In two cases displacement of the urinary bladder occurred immediately after normal pariturition. In both cases relapses were observed after the removal of the implanted balloon catheter. Both sows had the urinary balloon catheter reinserted and it was left in place until the weaning of the piglets. There were no complications during the whole lactation period. Both sows reared their piglets and could then be slaughtered. PMID:3617039

  2. The procedures that confirm and localize a urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory procedures are described that should be used after taking the history and noting the clinical findings. They included haematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, survey and contrast radiography, additional diagnostic techniques and localizing the urinary tract infection

  3. [Plastic repair of the urinary tract with intestinal graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiakov, B K; Novikov, A I; Guliev, B G; Dorofeev, S Ia; Zuban', O N; Atmadzhev, D N

    2005-01-01

    Enteroplasty of the urinary tract was made in 224 patients (175 male and 49 female, age 21-72 years): enteroplasty of the ureter (n = 25), augmentation cystoplasty (n = 38), replacement of the urinary bladder after radical cystectomy for cancer (n = 161). The grafts were made of the small intestine segments--149 (66,5%), sigmoid--45 (20%), stomach--25 (11.2%), appendix--3 (1.3%). Total postoperative lethality reached 2.7%. Early and late complications occurred in 26.8 and 32.2% patients, respectively. In half the cases complications were related to the derivation method. Fifty three reoperations were made, most frequent of them was percutaneous nephrostomy. Thus, use of gastrointestinal tract segments for replacement of the urinary tract provides adequate urine outflow from the kidneys, close to natural micturition. Introduction of advanced methods of urine derivation prevents formation of urinary fistulas and improves quality of the patients' life. PMID:16281832

  4. Abdominoscrotal hydrocele causing upper urinary tract displacement and obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, K M; Crowley, I P; Morkel, R

    1993-03-01

    We report on a case of abdominal hydrocele in which the abdominal component caused displacement and obstruction of the upper urinary tracts. We review the surgical management of this rare condition. PMID:8442305

  5. Urinary Incontinence Treatments for Women (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful for women with stress and/or urgency incontinence. Fluid management — If you drink large amounts of fluids, you ... in women Vaginal pessary treatment of prolapse and incontinence Surgical management of stress urinary incontinence in women: Choosing a ...

  6. Urinary excretion of mutagens in coke oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonfero, E; Granella, M; Marchioro, M; Barra, E L; Nardini, B; Ferri, G; Foà, V

    1995-03-01

    The influence of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on urinary mutagenic activity was assessed in 75 coke oven workers, using a highly sensitive bacterial mutagen technique (extraction with C18 resin and liquid micro-preincubation test on strain TA98 of Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of metabolizing and deconjugating enzymes). Exposure to PAHs was assessed according to the urinary excretion of 1-pyrenol; the main confounding factors were checked by the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the levels of nicotine and its metabolites in urine, or by ascertaining whether recommended dietary restrictions had been followed. Of the 20 urine samples which turned out to be positive (producing at least double the number of spontaneous revertants), 19 (95%) belonged to smokers. Only one non-smoker had obvious urinary mutagenic activity, and was highly exposed occupationally to PAHs (urinary 1-pyrenol of 3.930 mumol/mol of creatinine). Of the five urine samples from subjects who had not followed the recommended diet, two (40%) were clearly mutagenic. Multiple regression analysis (n = 67) showed that the presence of samples positive for urinary mutagenic activity depended only on smoking habits, if this confounding factor was assessed according to the number of cigarettes smoked per day, while the significant influence of exposure to PAH could be shown when the confounding factor was objectively estimated according to the urinary levels of nicotine and its metabolites. Assessment of the mutagenic potency of urinary extracts (net revertants/mmol creatinine) confirmed the strong influence of smoking habits on urinary mutagenic activity (all smokers 2156 +/- 2691 versus non-smokers 939 +/- 947 net revertants/mmol creatinine; Mann-Whitney test: P coke oven workers depended on exposure to PAHs, tobacco smoking habits, and consumption of fried, grilled or barbecued meat. Increased urinary mutagenic activity strengthens epidemiological evidence of the increased risk of renal and urinary tract tumours in these workers. The presence of mutagenic metabolites in urine as a result of occupational exposure to PAH may be demonstrated only by using highly sensitive techniques for assessing urinary mutagenic activity in studies which include careful checking of the main confounding factors. PMID:7697812

  7. Urinary interleukin-1ß levels among gynecological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolery, Kamisha T; Hoffman, Mitchel S; Kraft, Joshua; Nicosia, Santo V; Kumar, Ambuj; Kruk, Patricia A

    2014-11-18

    BackgroundEarly detection of epithelial ovarian cancer (OC) is necessary to overcome the high mortality rate of late stage diagnosis; and, examining the molecular changes that occur at early disease onset may provide new strategies for OC detection. Since the deregulation of inflammatory mediators can contribute to OC development, the purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether elevated urinary levels of Interleukin-1beta (IL-1 beta) are associated with OC and associated clinical parameters.MethodsUrinary and serum levels of IL-1 beta were analyzed by ELISA from a patient cohort consisting of healthy women (N¿=¿10), women with ovarian benign disease (N¿=¿23), women with OC (N¿=¿32), women with other benign gynecological conditions (N¿=¿22), and women with other gynecological cancers (N¿=¿6).ResultsAverage urinary IL-1 beta levels tended to be elevated in ovarian benign (1.26 pg/ml) and OC (1.57 pg/ml) patient samples compared to healthy individuals (0.36 pg/ml). Among patients with benign disease, urinary IL-1ß levels were statistically higher in patients with benign inflammatory gynecologic disease compared to patients with non-inflammatory benign disease. Interestingly, urinary IL-1 beta levels tended to be 3-6x greater in patients with benign ovarian disease or OC as well as with a concomitant family history of ovarian and/or breast cancer compared to similar patients without a family history of ovarian and/or breast cancer. Lastly, there was a pattern of increased urinary IL-1 beta with increasing body mass index (BMI); patients with a normal BMI averaged urinary IL-1 beta levels of 0.92 pg/ml, overweight BMI averaged urinary IL-1 beta levels of 1.72 pg/ml, and obese BMI averaged urinary IL-1 beta levels of 5.26 pg/ml.ConclusionsThis pilot study revealed that urinary levels of IL-1 beta are elevated in patients with epithelial OC supporting the thought that inflammation might be associated with cancer progression. Consequently, further studies of urinary IL-1 beta and the identification of an inflammatory profile specific to OC development may be beneficial to reduce the mortality associated with this disease. PMID:25403235

  8. Minimally invasive treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Gravas, Stavros; Fitzpatrick, John M

    2008-08-01

    During the past decade, increasing numbers of minimally invasive treatments for managing male lower urinary tract symptoms caused by urinary tract obstruction have been positioned. On one hand, transurethral needle ablation and transurethral microwave thermotherapy bridge the gap between medical management and surgery, while on the other hand, outcomes of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate and Greenlight laser equal outcomes following transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). With the introduction of the bipolar technology, however, TURP has reinforced its position. PMID:18761203

  9. Virulence factors in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli are characterized by the expression of distinctive bacterial properties, products, or structures referred to as virulence factors because they help the organism overcome host defenses and colonize or invade the urinary tract. Virulence factors of recognized importance in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) include adhesins (P fimbriae, certain other mannose-resistant adhesins, and type 1 fimbriae), the aerobactin system, hemolysin, K cap...

  10. Diagnostic Value of Urinary Sodium, Chloride, Urea, and Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Schrier, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Up to 30% of hospitalized critically ill patients may have a rise in serum creatinine concentration. In addition to history and physical examination, there is diagnostic value in assessing urinary electrolytes, solute excretion, and urine flow in these patients. The correct interpretation of these urinary parameters can avoid unnecessary volume overload and mechanical ventilation, risk factors for increased mortality in patients with rising serum creatinine. The present article also discusses...

  11. The Effects of Oxidative Stress in Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Kilinc; Mustafa Gul; Amp Nar Ciragil, P.; Ergul Belge Kurutas

    2005-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of oxidative stress in urinary tract infection (UTI). One hundred sixty-four urine samples obtained from patients with the prediagnosis of acute UTI admitted to the Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, were included in this study. Urine cultures were performed according to standard techniques. Urinary isolates were identified by using API ID 32E. The catalase and superoxide dismutase activity and the lipid peroxida...

  12. Investigation of Urinary Tract Infection in Neonates with Hyperbilirubinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Zia Eslami; Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed on 100 jaundiced neonates as cases and on 100 neonates without hyperbilirubinemia as controls to investigate the incidence of UTI in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia. Medical history, physical examinations and laboratory tests were done on all cases and data was analyzed by SPSS software. The urinary analysis and culture (U/A, U/C) were performed on the urinary samples which were collected by bladder catheterization under sterile condition. Of the total of 100 jaundic...

  13. Prospective study of urinary tract infection surveillance after kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera-Sanchez Roberto; Delgado-Ochoa Dolores; Flores-Paz Rocio R; García-Jiménez Elvia E; Espinosa-Hernández Ramon; Bazan-Borges Andres A; Arriaga-Alba Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) remains one of the main complications after kidney transplantation and it has serious consequences. Methods Fifty-two patients with kidney transplantation were evaluated for UTI at 3-145 days (mean 40.0 days) after surgery.. Forty-two received a graft from a live donor and 10 from a deceased donor. There were 22 female and 30 male patients, aged 11-47 years. Microscopic examinations, leukocyte esterase stick, and urinary culture were performed...

  14. Identification of Urinary Peptide Biomarkers Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Stalmach, Angelique; Johnsson, Hanna; Mcinnes, Iain B.; Husi, Holger; Klein, Julie; Dakna, Mohammed; Mullen, William; Mischak, Harald; Porter, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis are associated with improved outcomes but current diagnostic tools such as rheumatoid factor or anti-citrullinated protein antibodies have shown limited sensitivity. In this pilot study we set out to establish a panel of urinary biomarkers associated with rheumatoid arthritis using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. We compared the urinary proteome of 33 participants of the Scottish Early Rheumatoid Arthritis inception...

  15. Imagery of the lower urinary system and the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of lesions of the lower urinary tract and prostate can be identified and sometimes diagnosed by medical imagery techniques. Radiography without and after preparation remains useful in a certain number of indications. It has nevertheless been replaced, most often, by ultrasonography, more precise and less invasive. This article described the indications, techniques, normal images and the main abnormal images for ultrasonography and radiography of the lower urinary tract

  16. Parity as a correlate of adult female urinary incontinence prevalence.

    OpenAIRE

    Foldspang, A.; Mommsen, S.; Lam, G. W.; Elving, L.

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the possible association between parity, as indicated by the number of childbirths, and prevalence of urinary incontinence in an adult female population sample. DESIGN AND SETTING--A sample of 3114 women aged 30-59 years was selected at random from the population of Aarhus, Denmark, and mailed a self administered questionnaire on urinary incontinence and, among other things, parity. PARTICIPANTS--A total of 2631 questionnaires was returned (85%) wit...

  17. Urinary incontinence after vaginal delivery or cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    João Bosco Ramos Borges; Telma Guarisi; Ana Carolina Marchesini de Camargo; Thomaz Rafael Gollop; Rogério Bonassi Machado; Pítia Cárita de Godoy Borges

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence, urge incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence among women residing in the city of Jundiaí (São Paulo, Brazil), and the relation between the type of incontinence and the obstetric history of these women. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted. A total of 332 women were interviewed; they were seen for whatever reason at the public primary healthcare units of the city of Jundiaí, from March 2005 to ...

  18. When Are Urodynamics Indicated in Patients with Stress Urinary Incontinence?

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Benjamin E.; Zimmern, Philippe E.

    2012-01-01

    Despite technical and procedural advances in urodynamics over the past decade, the role of urodynamics in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) remains controversial. Many of these advancements have been the result of multicentric studies in the United States, such as the UITN and PFDN, which will be highlighted in this article. It appears to be the consensus that urodynamics may not be needed in pure stress incontinence. Urodynamics can be valuable in unmasking stress urinary incontin...

  19. Evaluation of a commercially available rapid urinary porphobilinogen test

    OpenAIRE

    Vogeser, Michael; Stauch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Demonstration of substantially increased urinary excretion of porphobilinogen is the cornerstone of diagnosing acute porphyria crisis. Because porphobilinogen testing is not implemented on clinical chemistry analysers, respective analyses are available in rather few clinical laboratories. The aim of this study was to critically describe and to evaluate a semi-quantitative rapid test for urinary porphobilinogen determination which is commercially available and recommended by the Am...

  20. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao A Venket

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03 with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body.

  1. Melanoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Melanomas of the urinary bladder and urethra are rare. Aims. To review the literature on the disease. Methods. Various Internet databases were used to identify reported cases of the disease. Results. Less than 30 cases of primary melanoma of the urinary bladder and urethra have been reported in the literature and they have been associated with melanosis and commonly with metastases. The lesions may be primary or metastatic with no gender preference. The diagnostic features inclu...

  2. Expert system for management of urinary incontinence in women.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this nursing informatics and outcomes research study was to determine the effectiveness of an expert system for disseminating knowledge to ambulatory women health care consumers with urinary incontinence. Clinical knowledge from the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) patient guideline for urinary incontinence and research literature for behavioral treatments provided the knowledge base for the expert system. Two experimental groups (booklet and expert system) an...

  3. Management of urinary incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Thelma M.; Karran, Olive D.; Meade, T. W.

    1981-01-01

    We investigated the management of urinary incontinence in 50 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in two London boroughs. Only seven appeared to be satisfied with the management of their bladder problems. A total of 51 suggestions was made for improving management in 33 of the patients. Most of these suggestions involved services which were available though not being used. The management of urinary incontinence in patients with MS should be tailored to the requirements of the individual. Alt...

  4. Renal scintigraphy in children with first febrile urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urinary tract infection is one of the most frequent bacterial infections in the childhood. Two hundred eleven children diagnosed as first febrile urinary tract infection patients were studied and performed Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in the acute phase of infection. The results were correlated to the duration and intensity of the fever before the diagnosis, to the acute phase reactants (hemogram, erythrosedimentation and reactive-C protein) and to the results of imaging studies (renal ultrasound and mictional uretrocystography)

  5. Specific pharmacokinetic aspects of the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korstanje, Cees; Krauwinkel, Walter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews the evidence for "specific" pharmacokinetics playing a role in currently marketed drugs intended to treat lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms. Principles of drug targeting include intrinsic properties of drugs or organs as well as drug formulations to modify drug release or to create confinement of drug presence. Prodrugs and specific formulations to deliver high drug concentrations at the site(s) of action as well as other ways to manipulate drug distribution to achieve enrichment in target tissues are considered. In overactive bladder (OAB), specific formulations for oxybutynin have been introduced to reduce the level of side effects of the active drug. Extended release tablet formulations and a topical gel formulation have been introduced, with efficacy similar to immediate release (IR) tablets, but with a reduction in anticholinergic adverse effects. However, these modifications have not led to outstanding performance parameters compared to other anticholinergic drugs marketed as IR formulations. Urinary excretion is discussed as potential mechanism for targeting LUT symptoms, but no strong indications appear to exist that this mechanism would contribute for currently available drugs. Intravesical administration of drugs is not a preferred option and only considered for drugs like botulinum toxin, where the inconvenient application compensates for a reasonable degree of long-term efficacy in severe refractory OAB. Alpha acid glycoprotein binding is discussed as a potential factor to influence drug tissue distribution, and it is concluded that there is reasonable evidence that for tamsulosin this mechanism is responsible for the difference in free fraction of the drug observed in plasma and prostate, which could contribute to its relative absence of blood pressure effects in patients with LUT symptoms related to benign prostate hyperplasia (LUTS-BPH). The principle of irreversible inhibition of type II 5?-reductase as a tool to develop drugs to reduce prostatic levels of dihydrotestosterone is employed by both dutasteride and finasteride for treatment of LUTS-BPH. Of the mechanisms discussed, the principles employed for the 5?-reductase blockers and tamsulosin in this respect can be considered relatively specific for its urological indication. PMID:21290231

  6. Helical CT of the urinary organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreyer, H.H.; Uggowitzer, M.M.; Ruppert-Kohlmayr, A. [Graz Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-03-01

    Despite of the diagnostic potential of conventional CT (CCT), limitations being inherent in this technology reduce its diagnostic confidence and limit clinical CT applications as 3D imaging. Helical CT (HCT) has far overcome the limitations of CCT and has become the standard CT technology. After a short overview on the technique of HCT and its advantages over CCT, the impact of HCT on the detection of disorders of the urinary organs is discussed. Due to the high quality of 3D reconstructions, vessels are visualized free of artefacts resulting in a dramatic improvement and acceptance of CT angiography, which has become a clinically important examination in the evaluation of obstructive renal artery disease. Fast HCT provides a precise assessment of the three phases of the nephrogram and it is a prerequisite for an improved depiction of abnormal vascular perfusion and impaired tubule transit of contrast material. Helical CT enables an improved characterization of cystic mass lesions reducing the diagnosis of indeterminate masses and thus facilitating a better therapeutic management. The diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas (RCC) has improved due to an increased sensitivity in detecting small RCCs, and an increased specificity in the diagnosis of neoplastic lesions. Improved staging of RCCs is the result of accurate assessment of venous tumour extension. When planning nephron-sparing surgery 3D display of the renal tumour helps to determine the resectability of the mass depicting its relation to major renal vessels and the renal collecting system. In the evaluation of renal trauma HCT provides shorter scanning time and thus fewer artefacts in the examination of traumatized patients who cannot cooperate adequately. Three-dimensional postprocessing modalities allow the assessment of the renal vascular pedicel by CT angiography and improve the demonstration of complex lacerations of the renal parenchyma. In the evaluation of the upper urinary tract unenhanced HCT has become the imaging method of choice in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of acute flank pain since it is highly sensitive and specific in detecting calculus disease. Unenhanced HCT may furthermore demonstrate causes of flank pain unrelated to urolithiasis. Gapless volume scanning and improved resolution in the z-axis during the excretory phase enables improved visualization of the renal collecting systems and ureters, resulting in a better demonstration of intraluminal and extraluminal pathology. (orig.)

  7. Helical CT of the urinary organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite of the diagnostic potential of conventional CT (CCT), limitations being inherent in this technology reduce its diagnostic confidence and limit clinical CT applications as 3D imaging. Helical CT (HCT) has far overcome the limitations of CCT and has become the standard CT technology. After a short overview on the technique of HCT and its advantages over CCT, the impact of HCT on the detection of disorders of the urinary organs is discussed. Due to the high quality of 3D reconstructions, vessels are visualized free of artefacts resulting in a dramatic improvement and acceptance of CT angiography, which has become a clinically important examination in the evaluation of obstructive renal artery disease. Fast HCT provides a precise assessment of the three phases of the nephrogram and it is a prerequisite for an improved depiction of abnormal vascular perfusion and impaired tubule transit of contrast material. Helical CT enables an improved characterization of cystic mass lesions reducing the diagnosis of indeterminate masses and thus facilitating a better therapeutic management. The diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas (RCC) has improved due to an increased sensitivity in detecting small RCCs, and an increased specificity in the diagnosis of neoplastic lesions. Improved staging of RCCs is the result of accurate assessment of venous tumour extension. When planning nephron-sparing surgery 3D display of the renal tumour helps to determine the resectability of the mass dedetermine the resectability of the mass depicting its relation to major renal vessels and the renal collecting system. In the evaluation of renal trauma HCT provides shorter scanning time and thus fewer artefacts in the examination of traumatized patients who cannot cooperate adequately. Three-dimensional postprocessing modalities allow the assessment of the renal vascular pedicel by CT angiography and improve the demonstration of complex lacerations of the renal parenchyma. In the evaluation of the upper urinary tract unenhanced HCT has become the imaging method of choice in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of acute flank pain since it is highly sensitive and specific in detecting calculus disease. Unenhanced HCT may furthermore demonstrate causes of flank pain unrelated to urolithiasis. Gapless volume scanning and improved resolution in the z-axis during the excretory phase enables improved visualization of the renal collecting systems and ureters, resulting in a better demonstration of intraluminal and extraluminal pathology. (orig.)

  8. Bladder sensory desensitization decreases urinary urgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino António

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder desensitization has been investigated as an alternative treatment for refractory detrusor overactivity. Most open and controlled clinical trials conducted with intravesical RTX showed that desensitization delays the appearance of involuntary detrusor contractions during bladder filling and decreases the number of episodes of urgency incontinence. Urgency is being recognised as the fundamental symptom of overactive bladder (OAB, a symptomatic complex which recent epidemiological studies have shown to affect more than 10% of the Western population. As anti-muscarinic drugs, the first line treatment for OAB, are far from being able to fully control urgency, the opportunity to test other therapeutic approaches is created. The present work was, therefore, designed as an exploratory investigation to evaluate the effect of bladder desensitization on urinary urgency. Methods Twenty-three OAB patients with refractory urgency entered, after given informed consent, a 30 days run-in period in which medications influencing the bladder function were interrupted. At the end of this period patients filled a seven-day voiding chart where they scored, using a 0–4 scale, the bladder sensations felt before each voiding. Then, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 10% ethanol in saline (vehicle solution and 30 days later a second seven-day voiding chart was collected. Finally, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 50 nM RTX in 10% ethanol in saline. At 1 and 3 months additional voiding charts were collected. At the end of the vehicle and 3 months period patients were asked to give their subjective impression about the outcome of the treatment and about the willingness to repeat the previous instillation. Results At the end of the run-in period the mean number of episodes of urgency per week was 71 ± 12 (mean ± SEM. After vehicle instillation, the mean number of episodes of urgency was 56 ± 11, but only 4 patients (17% considered that their urinary condition had improved enough to repeat the treatment. At 1 and 3 months after RTX the number of episodes of urgency decreased to 39 ± 9 (p = 0.002 and 37 ± 6 (p = 0.02, respectively (p indicates statistical differences against vehicle. The percentage of patients with subjective improvement after RTX and willing to repeat the instillation at a later occasion was 69%. Conclusion In OAB patients with refractory urgency bladder desensitization should be further investigated as an alternative to the standard management. Additionally, the specific effect of RTX on TRPV1 receptors suggests that urothelium and sub-urothelial C-fibers play an important role to the generation of urgency sensation.

  9. Role of the chronic bacterial infection in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether or not bacterial infection of the urinary bladder had a role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this proposition, four separate studies were conducted. The first study developed an experimental animal model where bacterial infection of the urinary bladder could be introduced and maintained for a period in excess of one year. The method of infection, inoculation of bacteria (Escherichia coli type 04) subserosally into the vesical wall, successfully caused persistent infection in the majority of animals. In the second study the temporal effects of bacterial infection on the induction of urothelial ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and 3H-thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis were examined. Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder induced urothelial ODC with a peak in enzyme activity 6 hr after infection.3H-Thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis peaked 48 hr after infection and coincided with the urothelial hyperplasia that occurred in response to the infection. In the third study the specific bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) was given to rats concurrent with the urinary bacterial infection. In the fourth study rats were administered sodium nitrate and either dibutylamine or piperazine in the drinking water. The infected group developed bladder tumors while none were detected in the non-infected rats. From these studies it may be concluded that bacterial infectiot may be concluded that bacterial infection may have a significant role in the process of urinary bladder carcinogenesis

  10. Four cases of spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between November 1997 and March 2001, 4 female patients from 44 to 65 years of age with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder were analyzed. They complained of abdominal pain and had undergone an intra-pelvic gynecological operation (3 for uterine cancer, 1 for an ovarian cyst) several years before. The three with uterine cancer had also received radiation therapy. For their present condition, spontaneous urinary bladder rupture, their treatment was indwelling a urethral catheter. Two of them have had no recurrence of urinary bladder rupture after one month since having the urethral catheter indwelt. One, however, had to have the catheter re-indwelt due to unsuccessful suturing of the urinary bladder wall. The fourth patient had bilateral nephrostomy tubes due to severe radiation cystitis. Thus, one can infer that intra-pelvic gynecological operations and radiation therapy are major factors causing spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. While indwelling a urethral catheter may be effective for some patients with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder, it may be very difficult to treat more complicated cases. (author)

  11. Urinary neopterin levels in patients with thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inancli, Serap Soytac; Caner, Sedat; Balkan, Fevzi; Tam, Abbas Ali; Guler, Gulnur; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2014-09-01

    Increased urinary neopterin concentrations have been described in many cancers. We aimed to evaluate the urinary neopterin levels in thyroid cancer. Sixty-nine patients with thyroid cancer, 76 patients with benign thyroid pathology and 33 healthy subjects were evaluated. First morning urine samples were collected from the patients and normal subjects for neopterin and creatinine measurement and stored at -80 °C until analysed. Neopterin levels were 149.3 (15.2-1,602.2) ?mol/mol creatinine in the malignant group, 32 (5.2-275.6) ?mol/mol creatinine in the benign group and 9.2 (2.7-78.7) ?mol/mol creatinine in normal subjects (p ? 0.001). Urinary neopterin levels were significantly higher in patients with thyroid cancer than patients with benign thyroid pathologies and normal subjects. Also the patients with benign thyroid pathologies had a higher urinary neopterin level than the normal subjects. Malignant group was divided to two groups; patients with/without chronic thyroiditis (confirmed histologically). There were 22 (31.9 %) patients with and 47 (68.1 %) patients without chronic thyroiditis. Urinary levels of neopterin didn't differ in both groups (168.6 (21.3-716.8) ?mol/mol creatinine and 135.3 (15.2-1,602.2) ?mol/mol creatinine respectively; p = 0.381). Urinary neopterin levels are high in thyroid cancer patients independently from the presence of chronic thyroiditis. PMID:25032119

  12. Urinary mutagenic activity in workers exposed to diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Kado, N.Y. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States)); Hammond, S.K.; Woskie, S.R.; Smith, T.J. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Worcester (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The authors measured postshift urinary mutagenicity on a population of railroad workers with a range of diesel exhaust exposures. Postshift urinary mutagenicity was determined by a sensitive microsuspension procedure using Salmonella strain TA 98 {plus minus} S9. Number of cigarettes smoked on the study day and urinary cotinine were highly correlated with postshift urinary mutagenicity. Diesel exhaust exposure was measured over the work shift by constant-flow personal sampling pumps. The relative ranking of jobs by this adjusted respirable particle concentration (ARP) was correlated with relative contact the job groups have with operating diesel locomotives. After adjustment for cigarette smoking in multiple regressions, there was no independent association of diesel exhaust exposure, as estimated by ARP, with postshift urinary mutagenicity among smokers or nonsmokers. An important finding is the detection of baseline mutagenicity in most of the nonsmoking workers. Despite the use of individual measurements of diesel exhaust exposure, the absence of a significant association in this study may be due to the low levels of diesel exposure, the lack of a specific marker for diesel exhaust exposure, and/or urinary mutagenicity levels from diesel exposure below the limit of sensitivity for the mutagenicity assay.

  13. Identification of Urovirulence Traits in Escherichia coli by Comparison of Urinary and Rectal E. coli Isolates from Dogs with Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, James R.; Kaster, Nicholas; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Ling, Gerald V.

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneously occurring urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs was exploited as an experiment of nature to gain insights into UTI pathogenesis in humans. Concurrent urinary and rectal Escherichia coli isolates from 37 dogs with UTI were compared with respect to phylogenetic background, O antigens, and extended virulence genotype. In 54% of the UTI episodes, the dog's urinary and rectal isolates represented the same strain. Urinary isolates differed dramatically from rectal-only isolates in tha...

  14. An individual urinary proteome analysis in normal human beings to define the minimal sample number to represent the normal urinary proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Xuejiao; Shao Chen; Wei Lilong; Duan Jindan; Wu Shuzhen; Li Xuewang; Li Mingxi; Sun Wei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The urinary proteome has been widely used for biomarker discovery. A urinary proteome database from normal humans can provide a background for discovery proteomics and candidate proteins/peptides for targeted proteomics. Therefore, it is necessary to define the minimum number of individuals required for sampling to represent the normal urinary proteome. Methods In this study, inter-individual and inter-gender variations of urinary proteome were taken into consideration to ...

  15. Interplay between Bladder Microbiota and Urinary Antimicrobial Peptides: Mechanisms for Human Urinary Tract Infection Risk and Symptom Severity

    OpenAIRE

    Nienhouse, Vanessa; Gao, Xiang; Dong, Qunfeng; Nelson, David E.; Toh, Evelyn; Mckinley, Kathleen; Schreckenberger, Paul; Shibata, Noriko; Fok, Cynthia S.; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Brubaker, Linda; Wolfe, Alan J.; Radek, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Resident bacterial communities (microbiota) and host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are both essential components of normal host innate immune responses that limit infection and pathogen induced inflammation. However, their interdependence has not been investigated in the context of urinary tract infection (UTI) susceptibility. Here, we explored the interrelationship between the urinary microbiota and host AMP responses as mechanisms for UTI risk. Using prospectively collected day of surgery (...

  16. The association between indwelling urinary catheter use in the elderly and urinary tract infection in acute care

    OpenAIRE

    Gareri Michele; Tsai Margaret; Hazelett Susan E; Allen Kyle

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of indwelling urinary catheters (IUCs) is thought to be the most significant risk factor for developing nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, it is unclear how many elderly patients have preexisting bacteriuria prior to IUC placement. The purpose of this study was to determine 1) the frequency and appropriateness of IUC use in the Emergency Department (ED) in elderly patients admitted to our acute care hospital, 2) the percentage of elderly patients ...

  17. [Nosocomially acquired infection of the urinary tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, J A; Gómez Moro, M B; González López, B; Maradona, J A; de Diego, I; Cárcaba, V; Arribas, J M

    1989-10-01

    We have evaluated 283 consecutive hospital acquired urinary tract infections (HAUTI) in a University hospital (incidence 5.6% of admissions). In females, spontaneous, symptomatic and younger patient infections predominated, while in males HAUTI were mostly asymptomatic, after catheterization and in elderly patients. Chronic nonfatal diseases--particularly neurologic disease and diabetes--, old age, previous antibiotic use, the postoperative period, and cancer were the major general predisposing factors, mostly because they involved urological procedures. There was an urethral catheter in 78% of cases, with questionable indication or maintenance in 37%. In 65% of cases there were clinical data attributable to HAUTI; however, on strict criteria only 5% of pyelonephritis and 24% of cystitis were detected. Mortality rate was 0.4%. Etiology was E. coli in 29%, Proteus in 13%, Enterobacter in 12%, enterococcus in 11.5%, Serratia in 7%, Pseudomonas in 6.5%, and Klebsiella in 6.5%. There were differences regarding endogenous and hospital flora on the basis of sex, hospital situation, catheterization, mobility, and previous duration of hospitalization. The microbial resistance pattern was high in the hospital flora. The major therapeutical problem was the high number of unnecessary treatments representing the automatic medical response to the finding of a positive urine culture. PMID:2490855

  18. Symptomatic urinary tract infections following voiding cystourethrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmiel, Marianna; Aladjem, Mordechay; Starinsky, Ruth; Strauss, Simon; Villa, Yael; Goldman, Michael

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) following voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) while using prophylactic antibiotics. Medical records of 421 patients who underwent a VCUG during a period of 4 years were reviewed. Three hundred forty-nine had a VCUG following a febrile UTI, and 72 had the test for evaluation of hydronephrosis. All received prophylactic antibiotics and were evaluated within 7-10 days following the VCUG. One hundred seventy-two children (41%) had an abnormal VCUG. Seven of 421 children (1.7%) had symptoms suggestive of UTI. Two had culture negative pyuria; one had Escherichia Coli UTI, and four had Pseudomonas aeruginosa UTI. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk factors contributing to the development of UTI following VCUG were the presence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and its severity (odds ratio [OR] 2.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.24, 2.83, p =0.001; and OR 2.32; 95% CI 2.05,2.62, p =0.04, respectively). The incidence of VCUG-induced UTI in children receiving prophylactic antibiotic therapy is low. There is a relatively high rate of Pseudomonas UTI, especially in children with moderate to severe reflux. We recommend that children with symptoms suggesting a UTI following a VCUG should be treated for Pseudomonas aeruginosa pending culture results. PMID:16047224

  19. Urinary Melatonin Levels and Skin Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Reza; Sehatbakhsh, Samineh; Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Sharifzadeh, Gholam Reza

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin inhibits tumor genesis in a variety of in vivo and in vitro experimental models of neoplasia. In industrialized societies, light at night, by suppressing melatonin production, poses a new risk for the development of a variety of cancers such as breast cancer. This effect on skin has been previously studied only in animals and not in humans. Our goal was to examine the relationship between 24-hour 6-sulphatoxymelatonin levels and skin cancer in a case-control study of 70 patients with skin cancer and 70 healthy individuals. The level of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin was measured in 24-hour urine by the ELISA method. In the case group, 55 (78%) patients had basal cell carcinoma and 15 (22%) had squamous cell carcinoma. The mean level of 24-hour urine 6-sulfatoxymelatonin was significantly higher in the control group (P<0.001). Also, sleep duration had a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.001). It seems that a low level of 24-hour urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin renders human beings prone to skin cancer. This association, however, requires further investigation. PMID:24453396

  20. Decontamination of urinary bags for rehabilitation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashisaki, P; Swenson, J; Mooney, B; Epstein, B; Bowcutt, C

    1984-08-01

    Patients with neurologic injuries frequently have permanent indwelling or external catheters connected to disposable urinary bags. These patients routinely disconnect the bed bag during the day and apply a leg bag which can be concealed under their clothes. In our rehabilitation unit, both bags are discarded daily. This study investigated the possibility of safely reusing bed and leg bags. The procedure involved decontamination of the bags using 180 ml of a 1% solution of sodium hypochlorite. Initially, discarded bed and leg bags were decontaminated in the lab to ensure effectiveness of the procedure. Next, 22 patients reused their bed and leg bags with daily decontamination by the rehabilitation nursing staff. These bags were reused for two to eight days. Cultures of 137 bags were obtained to evaluate the technique. All cultures were negative. Baseline urine cultures for both time periods showed no significant difference in rates of bacteriuria. The potential savings for one year on our rehabilitation unit, with an average of 12 catheterized patients, would be approximately $39,000. Although this methodology conflicts with thoughts about not reusing disposable products, we have shown that the procedure can be done safely in rehabilitation patients and it is easy and inexpensive. PMID:6466079