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1

Analyses of urinary calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Urinary calculi have been analysed at Birmingham University using three separate techniques: autoradiographic analysis using charged particle activation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with accompanying X-ray microanalysis, and proton induced characteristic X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This latter technique has been developed as a method for quantitative analysis of biological material for trace and minor elements. Closer examinations on the SEM have revealed several interesting and unexpected trace elements particularly in the nuclear region of the stones formed in the bladder or the kidney. The results of the PIXE analyses are important since trace elements (i.e. Ti, Fe, S, Sr, Cu, Cl, K, Zn) have been determined which have been undetectable by previous methods of stone analysis. The analyses have lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of stone formation. The techniques have also been used successfully with investigations on biliary calculi (gall stones). (author)

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21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780 Section...Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended...

2010-04-01

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Computed tomographic analysis of urinary calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computed tomography (CT) was employed in an effort to analyze the chemical composition of urinary calculi. Twenty-three surgically removed calculi were scanned in a water bath (in vitro study). Forteen of them in the body were scanned (in vivo study). The calculi consisted of four types: mixed calcium oxalate and phosphate, mixed calcium carbonate and phosphate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, and uric acid. The in vitro study showed that the mean and maximum CT values of uric acid stones were significantly lower than those of the other three types of stones. This indicated that stones with less than 450 HU are composed of uric acid. In an in vivo study, CT did not help to differentiate the three types of urinary calculi, except for uric acid stones. Regarding the mean CT values, there was no correlation between in vitro and in vivo studies. An experiment with commercially available drugs showed that CT values of urinary calculi were not dependent upon the composition, but dependent upon the density of the calculi. (Namekawa, K.)

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Neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Urinary calculi resulting from disorders in the urinary system are mostly composed of uric acid, urates, calcium oxalate, alkaline earth phosphates (Ca and Mg), triple phosphate (magnesium ammonium phosphate), calcium carbonate, cystine, xanthine, and traces of proteins. The determination of these macro-constituents has been carried out by different analytical procedures. No attempts however, have been reported regarding the determination of trace elements in urinary stones, apart from that of Herring et al., who investigated the consumption of strontium by urolithiasis patients. The present work is a non-destructive neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi, to search the variation in concentration of certain trace elements with the chemical composition of the calculus

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CT findings of melamine caused urinary calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To analyze the CT findings of melamine induced urinary calculi. Methods: Nineteen children with a history of ingestion of melamine contaminated infant formula milk were studied, including 12 males and 7 females, age ranged from 50 days to 5 years. Results: CT demonstrated renal pelvic and ureteral stones in 13 cases, with urinary obstruction in 9 of them. The size of the stones ranged from 0.3 cm x 0.3 cm to stag-horn calculus. Tine density of the stones measured from a low of 40-70 HU up to a high of 410 HU with an average density of 160 HU. Conclusion: CT scan is an excellent modality in demonstrating urinary tract calculi caused by melamine. It is the method of choice when ultrasound examinations are equivocal. (authors)

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Interaction of laser radiation with urinary calculi  

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Urolithias, calculus formation in the urinary system, affects 5 – 10% of the population and is a painful and recurrent medical condition. A common approach in the treatment of calculi is the use of laser radiation, a procedure known as laser lithotripsy, however, the technique has not yet been fully optimised. This research examines the experimental parameters relevant to the interactions of the variable microsecond pulsed holmium laser (? = 2.12 ?m, ?p = 120 – 800 ?s, ...

Mayo, M. E.

2009-01-01

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Computer tomography and urinary calculi, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To find whether computer tomography (CT) can determine the composition of urinary calculi, we measured the CT values of 47 calculi in vitro and 26 calculi in situ. The results are as follows; 1) CT values (Hounsfield Unit) of various stones which were measured in vitro (mean ± s.d.) were as follows; mixed calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate (the mixed stone) 1555 ± 193 H, magnecium ammonium phosphate (MAP) 1285 ± 248 H, cystine 757 ± 114 H, uric acid 480 H. 2) In situ the peak CT values of various calculi were almost the same as those in vitro, but the mean CT values were slightly less. 3) From these results we concluded that cystine and uric acid stones can be identified by the CT value. With regard to the mixed stone and MAP, it is almost impossible to identify these stones especially when they reveal the CT values of 1100 - 1500 H. However, stones with the peak CT values of more than 1500 H were rarely MAP and often the mixed stone, and those with the mean CT values of 1000 - 1100 H were rarely the mixed stone and often MAP. (author)

8

Raman spectroscopic investigation of urinary calculi and salivary stones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The capabilities and limitations of determining the composition of urinary calculi (34 patients) and salivary stones (27 patients) by Raman spectroscopy have been investigated by analysing Raman spectra obtained with 1064 nm laser excitation, and comparing them with Raman spectra both from specific reference substances and from a commercial Raman database. The composition results were also compared with those obtained by other analytical methods e.g. powder diffraction. Raman spectroscopy proves to be an analytical method which provides reliable results on the composition of urinary calculi and salivary stones quickly, non-destructively and without any need of sample preparation. (author)

9

Chemometric examination of trace elements analysis in urinary calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content of Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe, Na and K was determined in sixteen samples of urinary calculi taken from patients in Macedonia. The trace elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and by flame emission spectrometry. The chemometric examination of the calculi was done by factor analysis. This chemometric method has been extensively used for classification purposes while solving different multidimensional problems. The results obtained from the analysis revealed that the highest correlation exists between the concentrations of lead and potassium. No significant correlation among other analyzed elements was found. The examination of the first two principal components (with 67 % variance captured) calculated from the auto scaled data matrix showed a clear separation between the composition of the calculi taken from male and from female patients, especially in the case of the calculi consisting of the two oxalates (whewellite and weddelite) and those composed of carbonate apatite in mixture with oxalates.

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Metabolic Factors Associated With Urinary Calculi in Children  

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Full Text Available Introduction. We aimed to identify metabolic and anatomical abnormalities present in children with urinary calculi. Materials and Methods. Metabolic evaluation was done in 142 pediatric calculus formers. Evaluation included serum biochemistry; measurement of daily excretion of urinary calcium, uric acid, oxalate, citrate, and magnesium (in older children; and measurement of calcium, uric acid, oxalate, and creatinine in random urine samples in nontoilet-trained patients. Urinary tests for cystinuria were also performed. All of the patients underwent renal ultrasonography. Results. Sixty-one patients (42.7% had metabolic abnormalities. Anatomical abnormalities were found in 12 patients (8.4%. Three children (2.1% had infectious calculi, and 3(2.1% had a combination of metabolic and anatomic abnormalities. In 66 children (46.2 % we did not find any reasons for calculus formation (idiopathic. Urinalysis revealed hypercalciuria in 25 (17.6%, hyperuricosuria in 23 (16.1%, hyperoxaluria in 17 (11.9%, cystinuria in 9 (6.3%, hypocitraturia in 3 (2.1%, and low urinary magnesium level in 1 (0.7% patients. Sixteen patients (11.2% had mixed metabolic abnormalities. Conclusions. Metabolic abnormalities are common in pediatric patients with urinary calculi. In our study, calcium and uric acid abnormalities were the most common, and vesicoureteral reflux seemed to be the most common urological abnormality which led to urinary stasis and calculus formation.

Mitra Naseri

2010-01-01

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Chemical Composition of Urinary Calculi in North Jordan  

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The purpose of this study is to report the type and composition of urinary stones in North Jordan. Four hundred and eighty six urinary calculi (398 renal, 88 ureteric) from Jordanian patients 364 male (74.9%) and 122 female (25.1%) from different ages were chemically analyzed. The study takes place in the Collage of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology during the period 2002-2006. The most common type of upper urinary tract stones among patients in North Jordan was a calcium ...

Alsheyab; Fawzi; Ibrahim Bani Hani; Yousef Mosameh

2007-01-01

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The location of urinary calculi using radionuclide imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of in vivo labelling urinary calculi with sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate is described. This enables a radionuclide image of the stones to be produced and permits their location at operation by means of a small scintillation detector. The degree of uptake of the radiopharmaceutical on renal stones appears to depend on a number of factors, particularly the chemical composition of the stones. (author)

13

Inhibition of urinary calculi -- a spectroscopic study  

Science.gov (United States)

Although a considerable number of investigations have already been undertaken and many causes such as life habits, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors have been noted as sources that accelerate calculi depositions and aggregations, there are still plenty of unanswered questions regarding efficient inhibition and treatment mechanisms. Thus, in an attempt to acquire more insights, we propose here a detailed scientific study of kidney stone formation and growth inhibition based on a traditional medicine approach with Rotula Aquatica Lour (RAL) herbal extracts. A simplified single diffusion gel growth technique was used for synthesizing the samples for the present study. The unexpected Zn presence in the sample with RAL inhibitor, as revealed by XPS measurements, explains the inhibition process and the dramatic reflectance of the incident light observed in the infrared transmission studies. Raman data demonstrate potential binding of the inhibitor with the oxygen of the kidney stone. Photoluminescence results corroborate to provide additional evidence of Zn-related inhibition.

Manciu, Felicia; Govani, Jayesh; Durrer, William; Reza, Layra; Pinales, Luis

2008-10-01

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Study of cystine urinary calculi in dogs.  

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The composition and structure of 48 canine cystine urinary stones were determined by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron dispersive X-ray analysis. The infrared analysis showed that about 45% of the specimens were composed of pure cystine. The remainder also contained calcium oxalate (mono and/or dihydrate), magnesium ammonium phosphate hexadydrate (struvite), calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (brushite) and complex urates (ammonium, ammonium potassium and/or p...

Escolar, E.; Bellanato, J.; Rodriquez, M.

1991-01-01

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Nondestructive analysis of urinary calculi using micro computed tomography  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro computed tomography (micro CT has been shown to provide exceptionally high quality imaging of the fine structural detail within urinary calculi. We tested the idea that micro CT might also be used to identify the mineral composition of urinary stones non-destructively. Methods Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were measured for mineral that was positively identified by infrared microspectroscopy (FT-IR. To do this, human urinary stones were sectioned with a diamond wire saw. The cut surface was explored by FT-IR and regions of pure mineral were evaluated by micro CT to correlate x-ray attenuation values with mineral content. Additionally, intact stones were imaged with micro CT to visualize internal morphology and map the distribution of specific mineral components in 3-D. Results Micro CT images taken just beneath the cut surface of urinary stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail that could be correlated with structure visible in the optical image mode of FT-IR. Regions of pure mineral were not difficult to find by FT-IR for most stones and such regions could be localized on micro CT images of the cut surface. This was not true, however, for two brushite stones tested; in these, brushite was closely intermixed with calcium oxalate. Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were collected for six minerals that could be found in regions that appeared to be pure, including uric acid (3515 – 4995 micro CT attenuation units, AU, struvite (7242 – 7969 AU, cystine (8619 – 9921 AU, calcium oxalate dihydrate (13815 – 15797 AU, calcium oxalate monohydrate (16297 – 18449 AU, and hydroxyapatite (21144 – 23121 AU. These AU values did not overlap. Analysis of intact stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail and could discriminate multiple mineral types within heterogeneous stones. Conclusions Micro CT gives excellent structural detail of urinary stones, and these results demonstrate the feasibility of identifying and localizing most of the common mineral types found in urinary calculi using laboratory CT.

Lingeman James E

2004-12-01

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Non-contrast thin-section helical CT of urinary tract calculi in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Non-contrast thin-section helical CT has gained acceptance for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in adults, but experience with the technique in children is limited. Purpose: To evaluate the utility of non-contrast thin section helical CT for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in children. Materials and methods: Radiology databases at three pediatric institutions were searched to identify all pediatric patients evaluated by ''renal stone'' protocol CT scans (no oral or intravenous contrast, scans covering the entire urinary tract obtained in helical mode with narrow collimation (< 5 mm)). CT scans were reviewed for the primary finding of urinary tract calculi, for secondary signs of acute urinary tract obstruction and for evidence of alternative diagnoses. Medical records were reviewed to determine clinical presentation and to confirm the eventual diagnosis. Results: One hundred thirty-seven scans of 113 children (mean age: 11.2 years) were studied. Thirty-eight of 94 examinations (40%) performed on 82 children for acute pain and/or hematuria showed ureteral calculi. Alternative diagnoses were suggested by CT on 16 scans (17%). Twenty-eight scans were performed on 10 asymptomatic children with known calculus disease confirming renal stone burden on 21 scans (75%) and persistent ureteral calculi on 6 scans (21%). Upper tract calculi were demonstrated on 10 of 15 scans (67%) performed to evaluate for calculi in patients with known non-calculus genit in patients with known non-calculus genitourinary tract abnormalities. Conclusions: Non-contrast thin section helical CT is a useful method to diagnose urinary tract calculi in children. Radiation dose in this retrospective study may exceed the lowest possible radiation dose for diagnostic accuracy. Further research is needed to optimize CT imaging parameters, while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and minimizing radiation dose. (orig.)

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Usefulness of reversed display of soft-copy abdominal radiographs for urinary calculi detection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PURPOSE: To determine the usefulness of reversed display of soft-copy abdominal radiographs for urinary calculi detection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty radiographs with a single urinary calculus less than 5 mm in the long diameter (15 in the kidney; 15 in the proximal ureter; 15 in the mid-ureter, 15 in the distal ureter) and 15 radiographs without calculi were evaluated. Four readers blinded to the presence or absence of urinary calculi on each radiograph reviewed the radiographs in the conventional display, reversed display, and combination of conventional and reversed displays at 1-week intervals. All images were evaluated in random order and the presence or absence of urinary calculi was interpreted using the confidence score from 1 to 5. RESULTS: Multireader analysis for calculi in all locations showed a greater area under the receiver operating curve for combination of the two displays (0.764) than for the conventional display alone (0.655) (P=0.031). In the single-reader analysis for calculi in all locations, the third reader showed a greater area under the receiver operating curve for the reversed display (0.784) than for the conventional display (0.622) (P=0.027). Multireader analysis of the calculi in the kidney showed a greater area under the receiver operating curve for combination of the two displays (0.824) than for the conventional display alone (0.703) (P=0.043). CONCLUSION: The reversed display of soft-copy abdominal radiographs may be useful for urinaominal radiographs may be useful for urinary calculi detection

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Factors affecting urinary calculi treatment by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy  

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Full Text Available Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL is still the treatment of choice for most renal and upper ureteric stones; however the outcome depends on multiple factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stone density, as measured by Hounsfield Units (H.U by non-contrast Computerized Tomography (CT, stone size and stone location on ESWL treatment outcome of urinary calculi in Jordanian patients. 65 patients underwent clinical, biochemical and radiological assessments followed by ESWL treatment. Statistical analyses including chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA, correlation, regression were performed for statistical significance between ESWL treatment, stone fragmentation and stone density, size and location in the renal pelvis. ESWL success rate was high (94% for low density stones (< 500 Hounsfield units. In general CT densities of 750 Hounsfield units or less were almost always successfully treated by ESWL. An inverse association between ESWL treatment outcome and stone size was also documented. CT stone density and stone size combined account for nearly 73% of the variation in the number of shock waves required to attain fragmentation. Stones located in lower calyceal area had less success rates. In conclusion, stones with higher density, large size and lower location may better be managed by percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

Tarawneh Emad

2010-01-01

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Current status of minimally invasive management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi  

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Full Text Available The surgical management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi has evolved from open surgery to minimally invasive techniques. With advancement in instrumentation, endourological procedures are being performed more commonly in children. However, the endourological management of renal and ureteral stones in the pediatric population is considered challenging, owing to the smaller size of the urinary tract. Various minimally invasive techniques that are being applied in the management of pediatric urolithiasis, include shock wave lithitripsy (SWL, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL, ureterorenoscopy and a combination of these procedures. The role of SWL is well established and is considered the first line of treatment in the management of urinary calculi in pediatric patients. Recent reports have confirmed the safety of PCNL and ureteroscopy in children, although they are not as widely practiced in children as in adults. This article reviews literature published till October 2005, pertaining to the minimally invasive management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi.

Kolla Surendra

2006-01-01

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Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm2 and 0.1 cm2 over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
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Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients  

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To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm{sup 2} and 0.1 cm{sup 2} over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

Ciudin, Alexandru; Luque Galvez, Maria Pilar; Franco de Castro, Agustin; Garcia-Cruz, Eduardo; Alcover Garcia, Juan; Alvarez-Vijande Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Alcaraz Asensio, Antonio [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Urology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Salvador Izquierdo, Rafael; Nicolau, Carlos [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain)

2012-09-15

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The comparison of PIXE and other methods in the analysis of biliary and urinary calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proton induced X-ray analysis (PIXE) and scanning electron microscopy together with X-ray microanalysis have been used to examine biliary and urinary calculi. Particular attention has been given to the centre or nuclear region of the stones and several interesting and unexpected trace elements have been found in these regions. Detailed analyses have indicated distinct mechanisms of formation and growth. (orig.)

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Dual-energy CT for the evaluation of urinary calculi: Image interpretation, pitfalls and stone mimics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Urolithiasis is a common disease with a reported prevalence between 4% and 20% in developed countries. Determination of urinary calculi composition is a key factor in preoperative evaluation, treatment, and stone recurrence prevention. Prior to the introduction of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), available methods for determining urinary stone composition were only available after stone extraction, and thereby unable to aid in optimized stone management prior to intervention. DECT utilizes the attenuation difference produced by two different x-ray energy spectra to quantify urinary calculi composition as uric acid or non-uric acid (with likely further classification in the future) while still providing the information attained with a conventional CT. Knowledge of DECT imaging pitfalls and stone mimics is important, as the added benefit of dual-energy analysis is the determination of stone composition, which in turn affects all aspects of stone management. This review briefly describes DECT principles, scanner types and acquisition protocols for the evaluation of urinary calculi as they relate to imaging pitfalls (inconsistent characterization of small stones, small dual-energy field of view, and mischaracterization from surrounding material) and stone mimics (drainage devices) that may adversely impact clinical decisions. We utilize our clinical experience from scanning over 1200 patients with this new imaging technique to present clinically relevant examples of imaging pitfalls and possible mechanisms for resolution

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Common site of urinary calculi in kidney, ureter and bladder region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urolithiasis is an ancient disease with global distribution. It refers to stones originating anywhere in the urinary system. Urinary calculi or stones are the most common cause of acute urinary system obstruction. The study was aimed with finding out the common site of urinary calculus in kidney ureter bladder (KUB) region. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted from June 2012 to September 2012 at Tribhuvan University, Teaching Hospital, Maharajgunj. A total 240 urolitiasis patients were enrolled for plain KUB examination. Site of urinary calculus was identified by observing KUB film of the subjects under the supervision of radiologist. The data were analyzed prospectively with outcome measures of gender & stone location. Out of 240 patients, 138 were male and 102 were female with male to female ratio of 1.35:1. The age ranged from 9 to 83 years. Out of total 240 patients, 71.9% (187) patients belonged to productive age group (20-60 years). Total number of urinary calculi was 345 in which 208 were found in male patients and 137 were found in female patients. Of total 345 calculi, 237 were renal stones, 47 were ureteric stones, 22 of the stones were found in pelviureteric junction (PUJ), 33 of stones were found in vesicoureteric junction (VUJ), and 6 were in bladder. In conclusion, urinary stone disease is a major public health problem in a developing country like Nepal with male and productive age group predominance. Kidney stones are most common. Distal ureter is the most common site of ureteric stone. PMID:24592784

Chand, R B; Shah, A K; Pant, D K; Paudel, S

2013-03-01

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Spectroscopic analysis of urinary calculi and inhibition of their growth  

Science.gov (United States)

We present here a study of kidney stone formation and growth inhibition based on a traditional medicine approach with Aquatica Lour (RAL) herbal extracts. Kidney stone material systems were synthesized in vitro using a simplified single diffusion gel growth technique. With the objective of revealing the mechanism of inhibition of calculi formation by RAL extracts, samples prepared without the presence of extract, and with the presence of extract, were analyzed using Raman, photoluminescence, and XPS. The unexpected presence of Zn revealed by XPS in a sample prepared with RAL provides an explanation for the inhibition process, and also explains the dramatic reflectance of incident light observed in attempts to obtain infrared transmission data. Raman data are consistent with the binding of the inhibitor to the oxygen of the kidney stone. Photoluminescence data corroborate with the other results to provide additional evidence of Zn-related inhibition.

Manciu, Felicia; Durrer, William; Govani, Jayesh; Reza, Layra; Pinales, Luis

2009-10-01

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Trace element studies in urolithiasis; preliminary investigation on mixed calcium oxalate-struvite urinary calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study the levels of the trace elements copper , zinc, lead, iron, aluminum, nickel, chromium along with magnesium, sodium and potassium were estimated in fifteen mixed calcium oxalate-struvite (CaOx/STR) urinary stones. The mean values of the combined results were, copper 4.24, zinc 1302, zinc 1302.10, lead 23.25, iron 36.83,nickel 0.69, chromium 1.93, magnesium 4530441, sodium 54.13 and potassium 5.93 ng mg/sup -1/. It was observed that zinc, aluminum and potassium levels were higher than in calcium oxalate(CaOx) calculi 0.05>P>0.02 and potassium levels were higher than in mixed calcium oxalate-hydroxy appetite (CaOx/APA) calculi, P<0.01. A combination of all the results was also compared with similar data from South Africa, Turkey, Austria, India, U.S.A and Japan. (author)

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Laser lithotripsy: experience with different laser systems in the treatment of urinary calculi  

Science.gov (United States)

Two different systems for laserlithotripsy - the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with an optomechanical coupler and the flashlamp pumped dye laser with integrated optical feedback mechanism are in clinical use for the treatment of urinary calculi at the Department of Urology of the Medical University of LUbeck. Seventy-five patients with ureteral calculi have been treated by laser lithotripsy. Eleven of 15 treatments using the Nd:YAG laser have been performed under visual control with the help of a rigid ureteroscope of 11.5 F. Thirty-five of 42 treatments with the dye laser were carried out with the help of a rigid ureteroscope of 9.5 F. Four patients with the Nd:YAG laser and 7 patients with the dye laser, respectively, have been treated without visual control using a flexible application system and fluoroscopy alone. Both systems showed excellent results. Fourteen of 15 laser lithotripsies with the Nd:YAG laser were successful showing complete (4 cases) or partial (10 cases) fragmentation. The analysis of the failure showed calcium oxalate monohydrate. Thirty-eight of 42 laser 1 ithotripsies with the dye laser were successful. Fragmentation was complete in 26 and partial in 12 cases. The 4 calculi which proved to be failures were all of pale color and 2 of them consisted of cystine alone. Both laser systems are suitable for the treatment of ureteral calculi under visual control or by blind application using fluoroscopy. No serious side effects of the treatment have been observed. Treatment results are satisfactory. Problems may occur in calculi of hard structure using the Nd:YAG laser due to its limited energy and in pale-colored stones using the dye laser due to poor absorption of the laser energy.

Muschter, Rolf; Knipper, Ansgar; Maghraby, Hisham; Thomas, Stephen

1990-06-01

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Unique ability of the Proteus mirabilis capsule to enhance mineral growth in infectious urinary calculi.  

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Struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O) calculi are a common complication of Proteus mirabilis urinary tract infections. Although urease is a major virulence factor in calculus formation, the polysaccharide capsule (CPS) of this organism also enhances struvite crystallization and growth in vitro (L. Clapham, R. J. C. McLean, J. C. Nickel, J. Downey, and J. W. Costerton, J. Crystal Growth 104:475-484, 1990). We obtained purified CPS, of known structure and varying anionic character, from P. mirabilis ATCC 49...

Dumanski, A. J.; Hedelin, H.; Edin-liljegren, A.; Beauchemin, D.; Mclean, R. J.

1994-01-01

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Targeted dual-energy single-source CT for characterisation of urinary calculi: experimental and clinical experience  

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To assess the accuracy of targeted dual-energy single-source multi-detector CT (MDCT) for characterisation of urinary calculi. For proof of principle, 71 ex-vivo calculi underwent single-source 256-slice MDCT. Low-dose CT was performed in 154 patients with suspected urinary calculi. In 104 patients with urinary calculi targeted dual-energy imaging within one breath-hold was added. 46 patients with sufficient material for infrared-spectroscopy were analysed. Potential anatomical misregistrations between 80- and 140-kV{sub p}-images and HU-values were measured. DEIs (dual-energy-indices) were compared with the standard of reference. Effective doses were calculated. In 26 of 46 patients no misregistration was present. Mean deviations were 2.7 mm in the z-axis (16 patients) and 4.3 mm in the axial plane (10 patients). The DEIs were 0.018 {+-} 0.016 for uric acid (UA), 0.035 {+-} 0.015 for mixed UA and 0.102 {+-} 0.015 for calcified stones in-vitro and 0.017 {+-} 0.002 for UA, 0.050 {+-} 0.019 for mixed UA and 0.122 {+-} 0.024 for calcified calculi in-vivo. Significant differences were noted among calcium, mixed UA and UA stones (p < 0.05). For the low-dose examination mean effective dose was 3.11 mSv. Targeted dual-energy resulted in an extra dose of 1.84 mSv (additional 59.1%). Targeted dual-energy imaging within one breath-hold is feasible for characterisation of urinary calculi using single-source MDCT allowing minimal anatomical discordance. (orig.)

Eiber, Matthias; Holzapfel, Konstantin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Dobritz, Martin; Huber, Armin [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Frimberger, Markus; Straub, Michael [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany); Schneider, Heike [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Munich (Germany)

2012-01-15

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Outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper urinary tract calculi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative and financial outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper tract calculi in 44 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2004 and September 2006, 44 patients treated for upper tract stone with flexible ureteroscopic lithot [...] ripsy were evaluated. Renal stones were associated with collecting system obstruction in 15 (34%) patients, failed extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) occurred in 14 (32%) patients, unilateral multiple stones in 18 (41%) patients, and multiple bilateral stones in 3 (7%). In 29 (66%) patients, the stone was located in the inferior calyx. Perioperative and financial outcomes were also evaluated. RESULTS: 50 procedures were performed in 44 patients. The mean stone burden on preoperative CT scan was 11.5 ± 5.8 mm. The mean operative time was 61.3 ± 29.4 min. The stone free rate was 93.1% after one procedure and 97.7% after a second procedure, with overall complication rate of 8%. Therapeutic success occurred in 92% and 93% of patients with lower pole stones and SWL failure, respectively. Treatment failure of a single session was associated with presence of a stone size larger than 15 mm (p = 0.007), but not associated with inferior calyx location (p = 0.09). Surgical disposables were responsible for 78% of overall costs. CONCLUSION: Flexible ureteroscopy using holmium laser is a safe and effective option for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi. In addition, it can be considered an attractive option as salvage therapy after SWL failure or kidney calculi associated with ureteral stones. Stone size larger than 15 mm is associated with single session treatment failure.

Marcello, Cocuzza; Jose R., Colombo Jr; Antonio L., Cocuzza; Frederico, Mascarenhas; Fabio, Vicentini; Eduardo, Mazzucchi; Miguel, Srougi.

2008-03-01

31

Outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper urinary tract calculi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative and financial outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper tract calculi in 44 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2004 and September 2006, 44 patients treated for upper tract stone with flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy were evaluated. Renal stones were associated with collecting system obstruction in 15 (34% patients, failed extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL occurred in 14 (32% patients, unilateral multiple stones in 18 (41% patients, and multiple bilateral stones in 3 (7%. In 29 (66% patients, the stone was located in the inferior calyx. Perioperative and financial outcomes were also evaluated. RESULTS: 50 procedures were performed in 44 patients. The mean stone burden on preoperative CT scan was 11.5 ± 5.8 mm. The mean operative time was 61.3 ± 29.4 min. The stone free rate was 93.1% after one procedure and 97.7% after a second procedure, with overall complication rate of 8%. Therapeutic success occurred in 92% and 93% of patients with lower pole stones and SWL failure, respectively. Treatment failure of a single session was associated with presence of a stone size larger than 15 mm (p = 0.007, but not associated with inferior calyx location (p = 0.09. Surgical disposables were responsible for 78% of overall costs. CONCLUSION: Flexible ureteroscopy using holmium laser is a safe and effective option for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi. In addition, it can be considered an attractive option as salvage therapy after SWL failure or kidney calculi associated with ureteral stones. Stone size larger than 15 mm is associated with single session treatment failure.

Marcello Cocuzza

2008-03-01

32

Application of physico-chemical procedures in the analysis of urinary calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All physico-chemical techniques used in the analysis of urinary calculi have inherent advantages and limitations. Although x-ray powder diffraction can identify constituents unambiguously, certain minor components can be missed. Infrared spectroscopy is more sensitive but band assignment at low concentrations is difficult. Scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive x-ray analysis permits the simultaneous investigation of morphology and chemical microstructure. With the electron microprobe, minor constituents can be detected but tedious sample preparation procedures are required. Transmission electron microscopy is extremely useful in determining constituent inter-relationships and ultrastructure but ultramicrotomy is very difficult. Thermal gravimetric analysis gives quantitative information easily but does not satisfactorily distinguish between struvite and brushite. In an attempt to assess the accuracy of chemical analyses, 62 calculi were investigated applying several chemical tests. Those for Mg2+, PO4(3-), NH4+ and uric acid proved highly reliable while that for Ca2+ often yielded an incorrect result. The test for oxalate was totally unsatisfactory. Investigators of stone composition and structure should include x-ray diffraction (or infrared spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy as their methods of first choice. In addition, chemical or thermogravimetric analyses should be utilized in an auxiric analyses should be utilized in an auxiliary capacity

33

Ultrasound versus intravenous urography in the initial evaluation of patients with suspected obstructing urinary calculi.  

Science.gov (United States)

A consecutive series of 102 patients admitted to the radiology department for emergency intravenous urography (IVP) due to suspected obstructing urinary calculus, had an ultrasound scanning (US) performed immediately prior to the requested IVP. The scannings were performed by US-specialists who had access to all patient data except the IVP result. IVP diagnosed renal outlet obstruction in 53 of the 102 cases. This was correctly diagnosed by US in 50 cases. In three cases where IVP described acute obstruction ("white kidney") no dilatation was visible on US. The false negative rate concerning obstruction was thus 6%. No false positive US investigations occurred. Five cases of uretero-pelvic stenosis were correctly diagnosed at both investigations. 18 kidney stones--two being obstructing--were found at both investigations. IVP diagnosed 40 of 46 ureteral stones. The remaining stones were diagnosed by other means (retrograde pyelography, ureteroscopy). US only visualized 18 ureteral stones. The overlooked stones were all less than 5 mm in size, the major part being situated in the middle and lower ureter. We conclude that US plays a role in the initial evaluation of patients with suspected obstructing urinary calculi. If obstruction is diagnosed emergency IVP may be substituted by an elective investigation or even omitted. If no obstruction is diagnosed IVP must be performed in order to rule out non-dilated obstruction. IVP remains the gold standard for visualization of the urinary tract in patients with suspected acute obstruction. PMID:1947840

Juul, N; Brøns, J; Torp-Pedersen, S; Fredfeldt, K E

1991-01-01

34

[Mobile extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urinary calculi performed in the county of Ringkjobing].  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiences with mobile extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) of urinary calculi using a third generation lithotriptor are reported. A total of 146 renal units in 132 patients received 204 ESWL treatments with mobile lithotriptor for renal and ureteric stones. Treatments were given once a month at Holstebro Hospital and Herning Hospital alternately, with six to eight treatments per day. The overall success was 82% (53% stone-free). Success with renal stones was 89% (51% stone-free) and that with ureteric stones 66% (59% stone-free). Retrograde manipulation appeared to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with obstructing upper ureteric stones. Treatment of other ureteric stones in situ gave unsatisfactory results (success 52%, stone-free 51%). There were no serious complications. PMID:10745675

Kalaba, Z; Nielsen, R T; Jensen, M

2000-03-01

35

Dual-energy CT for the characterization of urinary calculi: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a low-dose scanning protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency and radiation dose of a low-dose dual-energy (DE) CT protocol for the evaluation of urinary calculus disease were evaluated. A low-dose dual-source DE-CT renal calculi protocol (140 kV, 46 mAs; 80 kV, 210 mAs) was derived from the single-energy (SE) CT protocol used in our institution for the detection of renal calculi (120 kV, 75 mAs). An Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with thermoluminescence dosimeters and examined by CT with both protocols. The effective doses were calculated. Fifty-one patients with suspected or known urinary calculus disease underwent DE-CT. DE analysis was performed if calculi were detected using a dedicated software tool. Results were compared to chemical analysis after invasive calculus extraction. An effective dose of 3.43 mSv (male) and 5.30 mSv (female) was measured in the phantom for the DE protocol (vs. 3.17/4.57 mSv for the SE protocol). Urinary calculi were found in 34 patients; in 28 patients, calculi were removed and analyzed (23 patients with calcified calculi, three with uric acid calculi, one with 2,8-dihyxdroxyadenine-calculi, one patient with a mixed struvite calculus). DE analysis was able to distinguish between calcified and non-calcified calculi in all cases. In conclusion, dual-energy urinary calculus analysis is effective also with a low-dose protocol. The protocol tested in this study reliably identified calcified urinary calculi in vivo. (orig.)

36

Dual-energy CT for the characterization of urinary calculi: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a low-dose scanning protocol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficiency and radiation dose of a low-dose dual-energy (DE) CT protocol for the evaluation of urinary calculus disease were evaluated. A low-dose dual-source DE-CT renal calculi protocol (140 kV, 46 mAs; 80 kV, 210 mAs) was derived from the single-energy (SE) CT protocol used in our institution for the detection of renal calculi (120 kV, 75 mAs). An Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with thermoluminescence dosimeters and examined by CT with both protocols. The effective doses were calculated. Fifty-one patients with suspected or known urinary calculus disease underwent DE-CT. DE analysis was performed if calculi were detected using a dedicated software tool. Results were compared to chemical analysis after invasive calculus extraction. An effective dose of 3.43 mSv (male) and 5.30 mSv (female) was measured in the phantom for the DE protocol (vs. 3.17/4.57 mSv for the SE protocol). Urinary calculi were found in 34 patients; in 28 patients, calculi were removed and analyzed (23 patients with calcified calculi, three with uric acid calculi, one with 2,8-dihyxdroxyadenine-calculi, one patient with a mixed struvite calculus). DE analysis was able to distinguish between calcified and non-calcified calculi in all cases. In conclusion, dual-energy urinary calculus analysis is effective also with a low-dose protocol. The protocol tested in this study reliably identified calcified urinary calculi in vivo. (orig.)

Thomas, C. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Patschan, O.; Nagele, U.; Stenzl, A. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Urology, Tuebingen (Germany); Ketelsen, D.; Tsiflikas, I.; Reimann, A.; Brodoefel, H.; Claussen, C.; Kopp, A.; Heuschmid, M.; Schlemmer, H.P. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Buchgeister, M. [University of Tuebingen, Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany)

2009-06-15

37

Litiasis urinaria en adultos con mielomeningocele / Urinary calculi in myelomeningocele adults  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción y objetivos: Los avances en el tratamiento de los nacidos con mielomeningocele (MMC) han logrado un gran aumento en su supervivencia, permitiéndoles una longevidad nunca antes alcanzada, pero todavía son escasos los datos concernientes a los problemas urológicos que estos enfermos plant [...] ean durante su vida adulta. Hemos evaluado las características de la litiasis urinaria en adultos nacidos con MMC así como los tratamientos empleados en la misma. Material y métodos: Revisamos 52 pacientes nacidos con MMC de entre 18 y 40 años, atendidos durante los últimos 14 años en nuestro hospital, con una media de seguimiento de 6,7 años. Resultados: Se diagnosticaron de litiasis urinaria 10 pacientes (19,2%). Tres formaron cálculos renales (5,7%), y uno de ellos, junto con 7 pacientes más, desarrollaron cálculos vesicales (15,3%). El nivel neurológico fue S1 en otros dos. El tipo de disfunción neurógena del tracto urinario inferior fue de lesión múltiple pura de neurona motora inferior en 6 casos, de neurona motora superior en 1, lesión múltiple mixta en otro, no pudiéndose valorar en el restante. Dos pacientes tenían una ampliación vesical y uno de estos junto con otros 3 pacientes era portador de AMS-800 no funcionantes. La litiasis vesical se trató endoscopicamente en 14 ocasiones y mediante cistolitotomía suprapúbica en 4, junto a la retirada de AMS-800 en 3 de ellas. Un paciente expulsó un pequeño cálculo. En un paciente fueron necesarias 2 litotricias extracorpóreas y 2 nefrolitotomías percutáneas. Tres pacientes tuvieron múltiples recidivas. Conclusiones: La litiasis urinaria es frecuente en los adultos con MMC. Determinadas características de estos pacientes, junto con su configuración anatómica y algunos tratamientos empleados en ellos, ocasionan problemas de diagnostico, tratamiento y prevención de los cálculos que forman. Abstract in english Introduction and objectives: the improvements in the management of newborns with myelomeningocele (MMC) have obtained a big increase in survival, allowing them to get longevity like never before, but data regarding urologic diseases during adult age are still missing. We herein evaluate the features [...] of urinary lithiasis in adults born with MMC and the therapies used for its treatment. Material and method: we review 52 patients diagnosed at birth of MMC, between 18 and 40 years old, treated in our institution, with a mean follow-up of 6.7 years. Results: 10 patients (19.2%) were diagnosed of urolithiasis. Three developed kidney calculi and one of them, with 7 more patients, developed bladder calculi (15.3%). The neurological level was S1 in the other two. The type of neurogenic dysfunction of inferior urinary tract was multiple lesion of lower motor neurone in 6 cases, upper motor neurone in 1 case, multiple mixed lesion in 1 case and in case it was impossible to determine. Two patients had a bladder augmentation procedure and one of these with other 3 patients had a non-functional AMS-800 artificial urinary sphincter. Bladder stones were treated endoscopically in 14 procedures and by suprapubic cystolithotomy in 4 procedures, combined with removal of AMS-800 in 3 of them. One patient spontaneously passed a small stone. In one case, 2 ESWL and 2 percutaneous nephrolithotomies were needed. Three patients developed multiple recurrences during follow-up. Conclusions: urinary lithiasis is common in adults with MMC. Some distinct features of these patients, together with their anatomical configuration and some therapies used in them, cause diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylaxis issues for the calculi they may develop.

F., Verdú Tartajo; J., Salinas Casado; F., Herranz Amo; J.M., Díez Cordero; R., Durán Merino; C., Hernández Fernández.

2006-08-01

38

Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10?12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long?term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride?induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography?electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identi?ed in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol?3?O?rutinoside, kaempferol?3?O?glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that Urtica dioica has strong antiurolithiatic activity and may have potential as a natural therapeutic agent for various urological disorders. PMID:25310585

Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

2014-12-01

39

Helical CT evaluation of the chemical composition of urinary tract calculi with a discriminant analysis of CT-attenuation values and density  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of helical CT using a combination of CT-attenuation values and visual assessment of stone density as well as discriminant linear analysis to predict the chemical composition of urinary calculi. One hundred human urinary calculi were obtained from a stone-analysis laboratory and placed in 20 excised pig kidneys. They were scanned at 80, 120 and 140 kV with 3-mm collimation. Average, highest and lowest CT-attenuation values and CT variability were recorded. The internal calculus structure was assessed using a wide window setting, and visual assessment of stone density was recorded. A stepwise discriminant linear analysis was performed. The following three variables were discriminant: highest CT-attenuation value, visual density, and highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio, all at 80 kV. The probability of correctly classifying stone composition with these three variables was 0.64, ranging from 0.54 for mixed calculi to 0.69 for pure calculi. The probabilities of correctly classifying calculus composition were: 0.91 for calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite, 0.89 for cystine, 0.85 for uric acid, 0.11 for calcium oxalate dihydrate, 0.10 for hydroxyapatite, and 0.07 for struvite calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, 81% of the calculi were correctly classified. Assessment at 80 kV of the highest CT-attenuation value, visual density and the highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio accurately predicts the chemical composition of 64-81% of urinary calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, all cystine, calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite calculi were correctly classified. (orig.)

Bellin, Marie-France; Meric, Jean-Baptiste [AP-HP, Department of Radiology, Hopital Paul-Brousse, Villejuif Cedex (France); Renard-Penna, Raphaelle; Grenier, Philippe [AP-HP, Department of Radiology, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Conort, Pierre; Richard, Francois [AP-HP, Department of Urology, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Bissery, Anne; Mallet, Alain [AP-HP, Department of Biostatistics, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Daudon, Michel [AP-HP, Department of Biochemistry, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France)

2004-11-01

40

Helical CT evaluation of the chemical composition of urinary tract calculi with a discriminant analysis of CT-attenuation values and density  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of helical CT using a combination of CT-attenuation values and visual assessment of stone density as well as discriminant linear analysis to predict the chemical composition of urinary calculi. One hundred human urinary calculi were obtained from a stone-analysis laboratory and placed in 20 excised pig kidneys. They were scanned at 80, 120 and 140 kV with 3-mm collimation. Average, highest and lowest CT-attenuation values and CT variability were recorded. The internal calculus structure was assessed using a wide window setting, and visual assessment of stone density was recorded. A stepwise discriminant linear analysis was performed. The following three variables were discriminant: highest CT-attenuation value, visual density, and highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio, all at 80 kV. The probability of correctly classifying stone composition with these three variables was 0.64, ranging from 0.54 for mixed calculi to 0.69 for pure calculi. The probabilities of correctly classifying calculus composition were: 0.91 for calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite, 0.89 for cystine, 0.85 for uric acid, 0.11 for calcium oxalate dihydrate, 0.10 for hydroxyapatite, and 0.07 for struvite calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, 81% of the calculi were correctly classified. Assessment at 80 kV of the highest CT-attenuation value, visualf the highest CT-attenuation value, visual density and the highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio accurately predicts the chemical composition of 64-81% of urinary calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, all cystine, calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite calculi were correctly classified. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
41

Outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper urinary tract calculi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative and financial outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper tract calculi in 44 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2004 and September 2006, 44 patients treated for upper tract stone with flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy were evaluated. Renal stones were associated with collecting system obstruction in 15 (34%) patients, failed extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) occurred in 14 (32%) patients, unilate...

Marcello Cocuzza; Colombo Jr, Jose R.; Cocuzza, Antonio L.; Frederico Mascarenhas; Fabio Vicentini; Eduardo Mazzucchi; Miguel Srougi

2008-01-01

42

Impact of obesity on ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of urinary tract calculi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: The treatment of urinary tract stones in obese patients may differ from the treatment of non-obese patients and their success rate varies. Our objective was to compare ureteroscopic treatment outcomes of ureteral and renal stones, stratified for stone size and location, between overweight, obese and non-obese patients. Materials and Methods: Charts were reviewed for 500 consecutive patients presenting at our institution for renal and ureteral stones. A total of 107 patients underwent...

Ricardo Natalin; Keith Xavier; Zephaniah Okeke; Mantu Gupta

2009-01-01

43

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urinary calculi. Theory, efficacy, and adverse effects.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for the treatment of upper urinary tract stone disease is held in high regard by the public and the profession. Although the efficacy is good (77.4% to 100%) for the treatment of 1- to 2-cm stones in select patients, ESWL may require the assistance of adjuvant procedures in as many as 26% of patients and may need repeating in as many as 32% of patients. These represent more difficult situations in which larger, more numerous, or harder stones may b...

Kelley, J. M.

1990-01-01

44

X-ray diffraction analysis of urinary calculi: need for heat treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although X-ray diffraction (XRD) is the most reliable method for analysis of urinary stones, it has its specific limitations. It fails to detect amorphous phases, cannot distinguish between chemically different phases having identical lattice geometry (e.g., brushite CaHPO4.2H2O and gypsum CaSO4.2H2O) and may miss some phases (e.g., apatite and calcium urates) due to peak overlaps. XRD of urinary stones was performed using a DRON 2.0 diffractometer with CuKalpha radiation and repeated after calcining the sample, preferably with weighing. XRD of the calcined samples enabled detection of amorphous magnesium phosphates, poor crystallized apatite mixed with struvite, weddellite and/or organic matter, hidden organic calcium salts mixed with uric acid; unambiguously discriminated between brushite and gypsum, struvite and its potassium analogue; confirmed presence of quartz in one stone. Statistical study of 341 samples from Rostov region has shown that three-phase mixtures are most frequent (32.3%). Redoing XRD phase analysis after heat treatment, preferably at 500 and/or 900 degrees C, considerably enhances capabilities of the method due to (i) avoiding peak overlaps; (ii) crystallization of amorphous phases; (iii) concentrating minority inorganic components in organic stones; (iv) different decomposition products from indistinguishable phases; (v) semi-quantitative information from the weight loss data. PMID:18766336

Nalbandyan, Vladimir B

2008-10-01

45

Impact of obesity on ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of urinary tract calculi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Purpose: The treatment of urinary tract stones in obese patients may differ from the treatment of non-obese patients and their success rate varies. Our objective was to compare ureteroscopic treatment outcomes of ureteral and renal stones, stratified for stone size and location, between overweight, [...] obese and non-obese patients. Materials and Methods: Charts were reviewed for 500 consecutive patients presenting at our institution for renal and ureteral stones. A total of 107 patients underwent flexible or semi-rigid ureteroscopy with Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy and met criteria for review and analysis. Results: Overall, initial stone-free rates were 91%, 97%, and 94% in normal, overweight and obese individuals respectively. When compared to non-obese patients, there were no significant differences (p value = 0.26; 0.50). For renal and proximal ureteral stones, the stone-free rate in overweight and obese individuals was 94% in both groups; and a stone-free rate of 100% was found for distal stones, also in both groups. Conclusions: Ureteroscopic treatment of stones in obese and overweight patients is an acceptable treatment modality, with success rates similar to non-obese patients.

Ricardo, Natalin; Keith, Xavier; Zephaniah, Okeke; Mantu, Gupta.

2009-02-01

46

Impact of obesity on ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of urinary tract calculi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The treatment of urinary tract stones in obese patients may differ from the treatment of non-obese patients and their success rate varies. Our objective was to compare ureteroscopic treatment outcomes of ureteral and renal stones, stratified for stone size and location, between overweight, obese and non-obese patients. Materials and Methods: Charts were reviewed for 500 consecutive patients presenting at our institution for renal and ureteral stones. A total of 107 patients underwent flexible or semi-rigid ureteroscopy with Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy and met criteria for review and analysis. Results: Overall, initial stone-free rates were 91%, 97%, and 94% in normal, overweight and obese individuals respectively. When compared to non-obese patients, there were no significant differences (p value = 0.26; 0.50. For renal and proximal ureteral stones, the stone-free rate in overweight and obese individuals was 94% in both groups; and a stone-free rate of 100% was found for distal stones, also in both groups. Conclusions: Ureteroscopic treatment of stones in obese and overweight patients is an acceptable treatment modality, with success rates similar to non-obese patients.

Ricardo Natalin

2009-02-01

47

[Fragmentation of urinary calculi using the Lithoclast EMS. Technique and results].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lithoclast is an endoscopic lithotriptor which uses the ballistic energy produced by a small hand-held apparatus, by the movement of a small metal part (the projectile) driven by a jet of compressed air. The energy is transmitted to a metal rod whose diameter is selected according to the application: 0.8 or 1 mm in the ureter; 2 mm in the bladder and kidney. We have used this apparatus to treat 40 stones in 39 patients (25 ureteric stones, 11 renal stones, 4 bladder stones). Satisfactory fragmentation was obtained for 39 of the 40 stones (97.5%). The apparatus is very easy to use in the kidney and bladder (the risk of urinary tract perforation is very low at this level). The risk of perforation of the ureteric wall by 0.8 mm or 1 mm rods is considerable (12% of cases), but these punctate lesions heal rapidly over a double J stent. Special techniques should be used in the ureter to limit the risk of pushing the stone towards the renal pelvis. PMID:8305936

Abbar, M; Sousa Castello, A; Gelet, A; Martin, X; Marechal, J M; Dubernard, J M

1993-12-01

48

Clinical characteristics and risk factors for septic shock in patients receiving emergency drainage for acute pyelonephritis with upper urinary tract calculi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pyelonephritis (APN is a common complication of ureteral obstruction caused by urolithiasis, and it can be lethal if it progresses to septic shock. We investigated the clinical characteristics of patients undergoing emergency drainage and assessed risk factors for septic shock. Methods A retrospective study was performed of 98 patients (101 events requiring emergency drainage at our urology department for obstructive APN associated with upper urinary tract calculi from January 2003 to January 2011. Clinical characteristics were summarized, and risk factors for septic shock were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results Objective evidence of sepsis was found in 64 (63.4% events, and 21 events (20.8% were categorized as septic shock. Ninety-six patients recovered, but 2 patients died of septic shock. Multivariate analysis revealed that age and the presence of paralysis were independent risk factors for septic shock. Conclusions APN associated with upper urinary tract calculi is a severe disease that should be treated with caution, particularly when risk factors are present.

Yamamoto Yoshiyuki

2012-03-01

49

Typed ?-calculi  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A large variety of process calculi extend the pi-calculus with more general notions of messages. Bengtson et al. have shown that many of these pi-like calculi can be expressed as so-called psi-calculi. In this paper, we describe a simple type system for psi-calculi. The type system satisfies a subject reduction property and a general notion of channel safety. A number of existing systems are shown to be instances of our system, and other, new type systems can also be obtained. We first present a new type system for the calculus of explicit fusions by Wischik and Gardner, then one for the distributed pi-calculus of Hennessy and Riely and finally show how existing type systems for secrecy and authenticity in the spi calculus can be represented and shown to be safe.

Hüttel, Hans

2011-01-01

50

Vaginal calculi in a juvenile harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).  

Science.gov (United States)

A large number of vaginal calculi were observed in a juvenile harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) stranded on Whidbey Island, Washington. Vaginal calculi have been reported in other species, but not in harbor porpoises. Histologic examination of the urinary tract revealed mucosal hyperplasia most likely attributable to the calculi. The calculi were numerous (>30), composed completely of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate), and on culture yielded Enterococcus spp., a bacterium not usually associated with struvite urolith formation in domestic animals. The only other lesion of note was severe hepatic lipidosis, and its relationship to the development of the vaginal calculi is unknown. PMID:22946417

Norman, Stephanie A; Garner, Michael M; Berta, Susan; Dubpernell, Sandra; Klope, Matthew

2011-06-01

51

Mass spectrometry and renal calculi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present review represents a concise and complete survey of the literature covering 2004–2009, concerning the mass spectrometric techniques involved in the structural investigation of renal calculi. After a short presentation of the fundamental mass spectrometric techniques (MALDI–TOF, QTOF, MS–MS) as well as hyphenated methods (GC–MS, LC–MS, CE–MS), an extensive study of the urinary proteome analysis as well as the detection and quantification by mass spectrometry of toxins, ...

Penescu, M.; Purcarea, Vl; Sisu, I.; Sisu, E.

2010-01-01

52

Intracorporal Alexandrite-laser lithotripsy in the treatment of ureteral calculi  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the standard therapy in the treatment of urinary calculi. the high rate of fragmentation and simultaneous stone selectivity makes laser lithotripsy an alternative method in the treatment of obstructing ureteral calculi. In comparison to the success rate of ESWL, laser lithotripsy as a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure seems to be superior in disintegrating calculi in the distal ureter. Together with the advance of miniaturized semiflexible endoscopes, intracorporal laser lithotripsy presents a new aspect in the treatment of urinary calculi.

Zumbe, Juergen; Fischer, Hermann; Kimont, Hans-Georg; Kierfeld, Gerd

1994-02-01

53

Posterior urethral calculi in patients without anatomical abnormalities: Case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urethral calculi are uncommon problem in urological practice. The incidence of these stones is reported to be lower than 0.3% in the literature. The majority of urethral calculi originates from upper urinary tract or bladder and migrates into the urethra. Native forms are generally associated with postsurgical changes or anatomic abnormalities such as strictures and urethral diverticula. In this paper, we discussed posterior urethral stones in three patients without any urethral anatomic abno...

Ömer Faruk Karata?; Ömer Bayrak; Ersin Çimentepe; Do?an Ünal

2008-01-01

54

Factores predictivos de éxito tras una sesión única de litotricia extracorpórea de cálculos urinarios a las tres semanas de seguimiento: Factors Predicting Success after Three Weeks of Follow-Up / Single-Session Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Urinary Calculi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Identificar factores predictivos de éxito después de una sesión única de litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque (LEOC) a las tres semanas de seguimiento. Material y métodos: Se revisaron los registros clínicos de 116 pacientes con cálculos urinarios únicos sometidos a LEOC entre octu [...] bre 2007 y agosto 2009. Las tomografías axiales computarizadas preoperatorias de todos los pacientes fueron revisadas por dos radiólogos en desconocimiento del desenlace clínico. El éxito fue definido como la desaparición completa del cálculo o la persistencia de fragmentos Abstract in english Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors of success following a single-session of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) at 3 weeks of follow-up in our center. Material and methods: The medical records of 116 patients with solitary urinary calculi who underwent single-session SWL [...] in our department between October 2007 and August 2009 were reviewed. All preoperative unenhanced computed axial tomographies were reviewed by two radiologists blinded to clinical outcome. Success was defined as complete clearance or the persistence of fragments

B., Vivaldi; M.I., Fernández; J.F., López; F., Fuentes; C., Urzúa; A., Krebs; A., Domenech; P.A., Figueroa; P., Pizzi; M., Westendarp; N., Zambrano; M., Castro; L.F., Coz.

2011-10-01

55

[Female urethral diverticulum containing multiple calculi].  

Science.gov (United States)

Diverticulum of female urethra is rare, often discovered during complications. We report a case of diverticulum of female urethra containing multiple calculi in a multiparous woman of 52 years old. She has consulted for dysuria and a hard painful periurethral mass in the anterior vagina wall. The diagnosis was easily established by physical examination and confirmed by plain radiographs of the lower urinary tract and endovaginal ultrasound. The patient was treated successfully by diverticulectomy. PMID:21354043

Diabate, I; Sow, I

2011-03-01

56

Association with meteo-climatological factors and daily emergency visits for renal colic and urinary calculi in Cuneo, Italy. A retrospective observational study, 2007-2010  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of nephrolithiasis is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Incidence and prevalence of kidney stones are affected by genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between various meteorological factors (independent variables) and the daily number of visits to the Emergency Department (ED of the S. Croce and Carle Hospital of Cuneo for renal colic (RC) and urinary stones (UC) as the dependent variable over the years 2007-2010. The Poisson generalized regression models (PGAMs) have been used in different progressive ways. The results of PGAMs (stage 1) adjusted for seasonal and calendar factors confirmed a significant correlation (p dose-response effect [PGAMs combined with distributed lags nonlinear models (DLNMs)—stage 2], expressed in terms of relative risk (RR) and cumulative relative risk (RRC), indicated a relative significant effect up to 15 lag days of lag (RR > 1), with a first peak after 5 days (lag ranges 0-1, 0-3, and 0-5) and a second weak peak observed along the 5-15 lag range days. The estimated RR for females was significant, mainly in the second and fourth age group considered (19-44 and >65 years): RR for total ED visits 1.27, confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.46 (lag 0-5 days); RR 1.42, CI 1.01-2.01 (lag 0-10 days); and RR 1.35, CI 1.09-1.68 (lag 0-15 days). The research also indicated a moderate involvement of the thermal factor in the onset of RC caused by UC, exclusively in the female sex. Further studies will be necessary to confirm these results.

Condemi, Vincenzo; Gestro, Massimo; Dozio, Elena; Tartaglino, Bruno; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Meco, Roberto

2014-06-01

57

In Vivo Comparison of Radiation Exposure of Dual-Energy CT Versus Low-Dose CT Versus Standard CT for Imaging Urinary Calculi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Purpose: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is an emerging imaging modality with the unique capability of determining urinary stone composition. This study compares radiation exposure of DECT, standard single-energy CT (SECT), and low-dose renal stone protocol single-energy CT (LDSECT) for the evaluation of nephrolithiasis in a single in vivo patient cohort. Materials and Methods: Following institutional review board (IRB) approval, we retrospectively reviewed 200 consecutive DECT examinations performed on patients with suspected urolithiasis over a 6-month period. Of these, 35 patients had undergone examination with our LDSECT protocol, and 30 patients had undergone examination of the abdomen and pelvis with our SECT imaging protocol within 2 years of the DECT examination. The CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) was used to compare radiation exposure between scans. Image quality was objectively evaluated by comparing image noise. Statistical evaluation was performed using a Student's t-test. Results: DECT performed at 80/140?kVp and 100/140?kVp did not produce a significant difference in radiation exposure compared with LDSECT (p=0.09 and 0.18, respectively). DECT performed at 80/140?kVp and 100/140?kVp produced an average 40% and 31%, respectively, reduction in radiation exposure compared with SECT (p<0.001). For patients imaged with the 100/140?kVp protocol, average values for images noise were higher in the LDSECT images compared with DECT images (p<0.001) and there was no significant difference in image noise between DECT and SECT images in the same patient (p=0.88). Patients imaged with the 80/140?kVp protocol had equivocal image noise compared with LDSECT images (p=0.44), however, DECT images had greater noise compared with SECT images in the same patient (p<0.001). Of the 75 patients included in the study, stone material was available for 16; DECT analysis correctly predicted stone composition in 15/16 patients (93%). Conclusion: DECT provides knowledge of stone composition in addition to the anatomic information provided by LDSECT/SECT without increasing patient radiation exposure and with minimal impact on image noise. PMID:25058059

Jepperson, Maria A; Cernigliaro, Joseph G; Ibrahim, El-Sayed H; Morin, Richard L; Haley, William E; Thiel, David D

2014-09-17

58

Recurrent bilateral renal calculi in a tetraplegic patient  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An 18-year-old male developed C-5 complete tetraplegia following a motor-cycle accident in May 1975. The neuropathic bladder was managed by an indwelling urethral catheter. He developed recurrent episodes of urinary infection with Proteus species. In September 1975, an X-ray of the abdomen revealed small calculi in both the kidneys. In July 1976, he underwent transurethral resection of the bladder neck and division of the external urethral sphincter; subsequently, he was put on a penile sheath drainage. He continued to suffer from repeated episodes of urinary tract infection with Proteus, Providencia, and Pseudomonas species, and he was treated with antibiotics. In 1980, intravenous urography (IVU) showed two large stones in the left kidney with marked caliectasis. The IVU performed in 1984 showed an increase in the size of the calculi in the left kidney which was grossly hydronephrotic. There were clusters of small calculi in the right kidney. The left renal calculi were treated by percutaneous lithotripsy in two sessions. In 1988, an X-ray of the abdomen revealed staghorn calculus in the right kidney and recurrence of stones in the left kidney. The staghorn calculus in the right kidney was treated by percutaneous nephrostolithotomy in two sessions. In 1991, he was admitted with acute urinary infection. IVU showed a stone in the pelviureteric junction with no excretion of contrast in the left kidney. Percutaneous nephrostomy drainage was established followed by left percutaneous nephrostolithotomy. In 1992, he was found to retain large amount of urine in the bladder; subsequently, his mother was taught to perform regular intermittent catheterisations. In 1995, he was admitted with acute urine infection. Abdominal X-ray revealed recurrence of large stones in both kidneys. With multiple sessions of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL), about 80% clearance was achieved on the left side. Right staghorn renal stone awaits treatment. This case shows that recurrent urinary infection in spinal cord injury patients is a predisposing factor for renal lithiasis. These patients require annual urological evaluation. Urinary tract calculi, if detected, should be dealt with promptly to prevent renal damage due to urinary obstruction and urosepsis. Renal calculi can be treated effectively and safely by ESWL in spinal cord injury patients, thus avoiding the need for an invasive procedure. It is essential to achieve low-pressure, adequate emptying of the urinary bladder in patients with spinal cord injury in order to prevent recurrent urinary infection and its sequelae. Social issues involved in the care of a tetraplegic patient play a vital role in the implementation of ideal medical treatment and need to be addressed promptly to avoid any compromise in the quality of medical care.

Vaidyanathan, S; Soni, B M

1998-01-01

59

Posterior urethral calculi in patients without anatomical abnormalities: Case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urethral calculi are uncommon problem in urological practice. The incidence of these stones is reported to be lower than 0.3% in the literature. The majority of urethral calculi originates from upper urinary tract or bladder and migrates into the urethra. Native forms are generally associated with postsurgical changes or anatomic abnormalities such as strictures and urethral diverticula. In this paper, we discussed posterior urethral stones in three patients without any urethral anatomic abnormality who were admitted to our clinic over a period of 5 years.

Ömer Faruk Karata?

2008-01-01

60

Endourological management of staghorn calculi: Experience in 120 cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy has become a well-established, standardized procedure in the management of upper urinary tract calculi. One hundred twenty consecutive patients, aged 19-95 years (mean age, 63 years); with staghorn calculi have been managed by percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy at our hospital. The overall success rate in achieving a stone-free renal unit was 86%. Multiple nephrostomy tracts were established in more than 60% of patients. Total operative time averaged 161 minutes per patient, despite multistaged nephrolithotripsy in 24% of patients. The most common complications encountered were bleeding requiring transfusion (57%), retained fragments (14%), urinary extravasation (12%), hydrothorax or pneumothorax (5%), and urinary stricture (1.6%). Average duration of hospitalization was 12.6 days

 
 
 
 
61

Transureteral Lithotripsy of Ureteral Calculi in Children with Holmium: Yttrium Aluminium Garnet Laser  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

INTRODUCTION: Surgical management of pediatric urinary calculi evolved dramatically over the past two decades. However, with the miniaturization of equipment and with improvisation of endourologic techniques, access to the entire pediatric urinary system is possible. Ho: YAG laser provides more maneuverability during transuretereal lithotripsy (TUL) than the pneumatic system which u...

Farzin Sheikh Monazzah; Reza Sari Motlagh; Fahimeh Kazemi Rashed; Mohsen Amjadi

2012-01-01

62

Comparative study of minimally invasive endoscopic surgery and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for proximal ureteral calculi in pilots  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective?To observe and compare the therapeutic effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and minimally invasive endoscopic surgery (URL/PCNL) for proximal urinary calculi in pilots. Methods?A retrospective analysis was conducted for the clinical data of 115 pilots who had received ESWL, URL and PCNL for the treatment of proximal urinary tract calculi from Sep, 2005 to Sep, 2012. The patients were divided into two groups according to the way of treatment: ESWL group (n=83) a...

Guo, He-qing; Li, Jian-ye; Zhou, Gao-biao; Mu, Da-wei; Yan, Jing-min; Wang, Guang-feng; Sun, Bin; Liu, Hong-ming; Xing, Ji-zhang; Hong, Quan

2014-01-01

63

PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF MUSA PARADISICA LINN AGAINST ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED RENAL CALCULI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of ethanol extract of dried roots of Musa paradisica Linn against ethylene glycol induced renal calculi in albino wistar rats are studied in this research. A renal calculus was induced in rats by ingesting 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days and was manifested by high urinary calcium, oxalate, and low urinary magnesium contents. Simultaneous administration of 1ml (1 in 10 Musa paradisica Linn orally for 28 days along with ethylene glycol (0.75% v/v reduced urinary calcium, oxalate and elevated urinary magnesium level. It also increased urinary volume thereby reducing the tendency for crystallization. The histopathological studies confirmed the induction as degenerated glomeruli, necrotic tubule and inflammatory cells was observed in section of kidney from animals treated with ethylene glycol. This was reduced; however after treatment with Musa paradisica Linn. These observations enable to conclude that Musa paradisica Linn is effective against ethylene glycol induced renal calculi.

Jha U

2011-03-01

64

How accurate is unenhanced multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for localization of renal calculi?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To investigate the correlation between unenhanced MDCT and intraoperative findings with regard to the exact anatomical location of renal calculi. Design, setting, and participants: Fifty-nine patients who underwent unenhanced MDCT for suspected urinary stone disease, and who underwent subsequent flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) as treatment of nephrolithiasis were included in this retrospective study. All MDCT data sets were independently reviewed by three observers with different degrees of experience in reading CT. Each observer was asked to indicate presence and exact anatomical location of any calcification within pyelocaliceal system, renal papilla or renal cortex. Results were compared to intraoperative findings which have been defined as standard of reference. Calculi not described at surgery, but present on MDCT data were counted as renal cortex calcifications. Results: Overall 166 calculi in 59 kidneys have been detected on MDCT, 100 (60.2%) were located in the pyelocaliceal system and 66 (39.8%) in the renal parenchyma. Of the 100 pyelocaliceal calculi, 84 (84%) were correctly located on CT data sets by observer 1, 62 (62%) by observer 2, and 71 (71%) by observer 3. Sensitivity/specificity was 90-94% and 50-100% if only pyelocaliceal calculi measuring >4 mm in size were considered. For pyelocaliceal calculi {<=}4 mm in size diagnostic performance of MDCT was inferior. Conclusion: Compared to flexible URS, unenhanced MDCT is accurate for distinction between pyelocaliceal calculi and renal parenchyma calcifications if renal calculi are >4 mm in size. For smaller renal calculi, unenhanced MDCT is less accurate and distinction between a pyelocaliceal calculus and renal parenchyma calcification is difficult.

Goetschi, Stefan, E-mail: goetschi@gmx.net [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Umbehr, Martin, E-mail: martin.umbehr@triemli.ch [Urology Clinic, Department of Surgery, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Ullrich, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.ullrich@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Glenck, Michael, E-mail: michael.glenck@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Suter, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.suter@triemli.ch [Urology Clinic, Department of Surgery, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Weishaupt, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.weishaupt@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2012-11-15

65

How accurate is unenhanced multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for localization of renal calculi?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To investigate the correlation between unenhanced MDCT and intraoperative findings with regard to the exact anatomical location of renal calculi. Design, setting, and participants: Fifty-nine patients who underwent unenhanced MDCT for suspected urinary stone disease, and who underwent subsequent flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) as treatment of nephrolithiasis were included in this retrospective study. All MDCT data sets were independently reviewed by three observers with different degrees of experience in reading CT. Each observer was asked to indicate presence and exact anatomical location of any calcification within pyelocaliceal system, renal papilla or renal cortex. Results were compared to intraoperative findings which have been defined as standard of reference. Calculi not described at surgery, but present on MDCT data were counted as renal cortex calcifications. Results: Overall 166 calculi in 59 kidneys have been detected on MDCT, 100 (60.2%) were located in the pyelocaliceal system and 66 (39.8%) in the renal parenchyma. Of the 100 pyelocaliceal calculi, 84 (84%) were correctly located on CT data sets by observer 1, 62 (62%) by observer 2, and 71 (71%) by observer 3. Sensitivity/specificity was 90–94% and 50–100% if only pyelocaliceal calculi measuring >4 mm in size were considered. For pyelocaliceal calculi ?4 mm in size diagnostic performance of MDCT was inferior. Conclusion: Compared to flexible URS, unenhanced MDCT is accurate for distinction between pyelocaliceal calculi and renal parenchyma calcifications if renal calculi are >4 mm in size. For smaller renal calculi, unenhanced MDCT is less accurate and distinction between a pyelocaliceal calculus and renal parenchyma calcification is difficult.

66

Clinical experience with the Swiss LithoClast® Master in treatment of bladder calculi  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction and objective. Bladder calculi account for 5% of urinary tract calculi in the western world and many different treatment modalities have been presented throughout the decades. We report our clinical experience using the Swiss LithoClast® Master (SLM). Materials and Methods. The SLM is a rigid, hand-held endourological probe including a pneumatic lithotriptor and an ultrasonic lithotriptor. Attached to the ultrasonic modality is a suction system. The two lithotriptor modalities are controlled by a footswitch, and can be activated separately or simultaneously. The SLM is used via a rigid endoscope. Indications for treatment were medical complaints like hematuria, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), recurrent bursts of balloon in indwelling catheters, and difficulties performing clean intermittent self-catheterisation (CISC). Results. From August 1st 2009 to August 1st 2011, 27 patients were treated for bladder calculi (24 men). Five had a neurogenic voiding dysfunction, 3 had a prostate cancer, and 19 suffered from benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) or detrusor muscle insufficiency. Median age was 74 years (range 45-86 years). Stone clearance was obtained in 26 (96%) patients. Stone burden was one or multiple bladder calculi. Median stone size of the largest stone in each patient was 20 (5 - 40) mm. Under the same anaesthesia two patients underwent a TURP due to a very large prostate. Median lithotripsy time was 60 (range 20-144) minutes. All patients were discharged within 24 hours. Conclusion. The method described is a safe and quick method for endoscopic lithotripsy of bladder calculi rendering the patients stone free in the vast majority of cases. The procedure can be performed as day case surgery. Keywords: Bladder calculi, lithotripsy, Swiss Lithoclast, transurethral prostatectomy.

Kingo, Pernille Skjold; Ryhammer, Allan Maltha

2013-01-01

67

[Functional evaluation in patients with kidney calculi].  

Science.gov (United States)

Nephrolithiasis is a common disorder and a significant problem because of incidence, recurrence and severe consequences. Stone disease is a surgical as well as a medical problem. Major progress has been made recently in understanding the pathophysiological disturbances responsible for stone formation as well as in the techniques of stone removal. The introduction of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has considerably reduced the need for surgery. Improvements in methods of kidney stone removal have not diminished the need for the application of an effective prophylactic program. The internist should take a complete history of stone events (number, composition, location and outcome of stone event), family history of stones, dietary habits (focusing on the consumption of animal protein, salt and dairy products), medications and physical examination. Radiopaque stones should be documented by plane X-ray films. Ultrasonography should be used to image calculi that are nonopaque, and to easily distinguish them from masses such as tumour or blood clot. Computed tomography is also an excellent method for imaging nonopaque renal calculi but higher cost and radiation exposure are disadvantages [2]. Crystallographic analysis is the essential diagnostic procedure. If available, previous stones should also be examined. "In stone disease, everything is measurement. What the laboratory cannot tell you, you will not know; what it tells you in error, you will not correct by using your instincts, your medical experience, or your art [3]". Reliable diagnostic protocols are available for the identification of different causes of stones. The complexity of protocols depend on the severity of nephrolithiasis. Patients with a single stone episode undergo simple protocol, and extensive detailed protocol is used for patients with recurrent stone disease, or patients at increased risk. Simple protocol, besides the already mentioned history of stone events, radiographic investigation and crystallographic analysis, includes serum urea, creatinine, uric acid, sodium, calcium, phosphorus and protein levels, urinary pH and volume, urine samples for culture and urinary calcium, uric acid, oxalate and citrate. Extensive metabolic evaluation includes simple protocol, determination of serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, thyroxin, magnesium. A 24-h collection of urine specimen is analysed for urea, creatinine, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, sodium, magnesium, oxalate and citrate. Extensive protocol includes specialized evaluation tests [5]. Urinary acidification test is important for detecting distal renal tubular acidosis. Two 24-h urine specimens are collected while the patient is on the regular diet. The patient is then placed on a restricted diet (400 mg of calcium and 100 mEq of sodium) for a week, and another 24-h urine sample is collected. After that fasting and calcium load tests are performed (Sheme 1). Fasting urinary calcium is used to detect renal calcium leak, and calciuric response to oral calcium load provides an indirect measure of intestinal calcium absorption. Diagnostic criteria for major forms of stone disease [8] are presented in Table 1. There are some still unsolved questions: does time after passage of stones or urological intervention influence the frequency of urine abnormalities that can be detected; are there differences in 24-h urine composition between weekdays and weekends: what is the prevalence of the most important urinary risk factors of recurrent idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis: do male patients differ from females with respect to urinary risk factors or recurrent idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis? [7]. PMID:9863414

Stojimirovi?, B

1998-01-01

68

Proof theory sequent calculi and related formalisms  

CERN Document Server

Although sequent calculi constitute an important category of proof systems, they are not as well known as axiomatic and natural deduction systems. Addressing this deficiency, Proof Theory: Sequent Calculi and Related Formalisms presents a comprehensive treatment of sequent calculi, including a wide range of variations. It focuses on sequent calculi for various non-classical logics, from intuitionistic logic to relevance logic, linear logic, and modal logic.In the first chapters, the author emphasizes classical logic and a variety of different sequent calculi for classical and intuitionistic lo

Bimbo, Katalin

2014-01-01

69

Ureteral fibroepithelial polyps with calculi: a case series  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fibroepithelial polyps of the ureter are benign tumors arising from the mesodermal tissue in the ureteral wall. Their etiology remains unknown. Hematuria and obstructive urinary symptoms are the most common findings. The treatment of choice is endoscopic resection, and the prognosis for patients with these lesions is excellent. Case presentation We present three cases of fibroepithelial polyps associated with calculi in the distal part of the ureter. The patients were all women, aged 20, 45 and 52 years. Two patients were suffering from flank pain and dysuria while one patient was asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. The patients were fully treated with endoscopic resection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fourth report of adult ureteral fibroepithelial polyps associated with ureteral calculi in the English literature. The etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of fibroepithelial polyps are discussed in this report. Conclusion Whenever polypoid lesions are detected especially at the distal part of the ureter, benign fibroepithelial polyps should be kept in mind for differential diagnosis. Additionally, although rarely seen, the co-existence of ureteral calculi with fibroepithelial polyps should be borne in mind.

Turunc Tahsin

2008-08-01

70

DIAGNÓSTICO DE LITÍASE ATRAVÉS DA CISTOGRAFIA COM DUPLO CONTRASTE EM CANINO / DIAGNOSIS OF CALCULI THROUGH CYSTOGRAPHY OF DOUBLE CONTRAST IN A DOG  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese RESUMO Relata-se um caso de cistolitíase em canino. Descreve-se a técnica utilizada para o exame radiológico, faz-se referência aos meios de contraste indicados, à composição química do cálculo e ao procedimento terapêutico. [...] Abstract in english SUMMARY A case of urinary bladder calculi in a dog is reported. The radiological technique, the contrast media, the chemical composition of the calculi and the therapeutical procedures are described. [...

Carmem Lice Buchmann de, Godoy; Juan Thomas, Wheeler; Luiz Carlos de, Pellegrini; Cândido Fontoura da, Silva.

1991-08-01

71

The feasibility of using microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography for detection and evaluation of renal calculi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Imaging of renal calculi is important for patients who suffered a urinary calculus prior to treatment. The available imaging techniques include plain x-ray, ultrasound scan, intravenous urogram, computed tomography, etc. However, the visualization of a uric acid calculus (radiolucent calculi) is difficult and often impossible by the above imaging methods. In this paper, a new detection method based on microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography was developed to detect the renal calculi. Thermoacoustic images of calcium oxalate and uric acid calculus were compared with their x-ray images. The microwave absorption differences among the calcium oxalate calculus, uric acid calculus and normal kidney tissue could be evaluated by the amplitude of the thermoacoustic signals. The calculi hidden in the swine kidney were clearly imaged with excellent contrast and resolution in the three orthogonal thermoacoustic images. The results indicate that thermoacoustic imaging may be developed as a complementary method for detecting renal calculi, and its low cost and effective feature shows high potential for clinical applications.

Cao Caijun; Nie Liming; Lou Cunguang; Xing Da, E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.c [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

2010-09-07

72

[Porphyrins in renal calculi (review)].  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed a review of the porphyrines content in a type of black, charcoal-like, renal calculi exhibiting infrared spectra (IRS) similar to those characteristic of "organic material" which has not yet been fully elucidate. Several other types of renal calculi, mainly those of small size, spontaneous passage renal stone, may also have diffuse or isolated dark charcoal components showing "organic material" IRS. After observing that haemoglobin has an "organic material" IRS, we studied, by a sensitive thin layer chromatography method, the presence of porphyrines in several types of dark or charcoal renal stones, since porphyrines are the physiological precursors of haemo group biosynthesis. We found two types of porphyrine content: coproporphyrin, in patients suffering from hepatopathy, and uroporphyrin and heptacarboxil-porphyrin in patients with some types of porphyria or with chronic renal failure. PMID:15881914

Traba Villameytide, Ma L

2005-02-01

73

In situ lithotripsy of ureteral calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over 7,000 kidneys and ureters have been treated with lithotripsy at the authors institution. Included among this group were 541 ureters containing single calculi that were treated in situ after retrograde manipulations had failed. One hundred thirty-five (25%) of these calculi were located in the distal ureter, below the superior border of the SI joint. The remainder were located in the middle or upper ureter. All but one of these calculi were successfully treated with lithotripsy and combined radiologic and urologic interventions. The number and type of interventions have been examined. In situ lithotripsy of ureteral calculi after unsuccessful retrograde manipulation has been shown to be feasible

74

Admissible Substitutions in Sequent Calculi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For first-order classical logic a new notion of admissible substitution is defined. This notion allows optimizing the procedure of the application of quantifier rules when logical inference search is made in sequent calculi. Our objective is to show that such a computer-oriented sequent technique may be created that does not require a preliminary skolemization of initial formulas and that is efficiently comparable with methods exploiting the skolemization. Some results on its...

Lyaletski, Alexander

2003-01-01

75

Verification of Stochastic Process Calculi  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stochastic process calculi represent widely accepted formalisms within Computer Science for modelling nondeterministic stochastic systems in a compositional way. Similar to process calculi in general, they are suited for modelling systems in a hierarchical manner, by explicitly specifying subsystems as well as their interdependences and communication channels. Stochastic process calculi incorporate both the quantified uncertainty on probabilities or durations of events and nondeterministic choices between several possible continuations of the system behaviour. Modelling of a system is often performed with the purpose to verify the system. In this dissertation it is argued that the verification techniques that have their origin in the analysis of programming code with the purpose to deduce the properties of the code's execution, i.e. Static Analysis techniques, are transferable to stochastic process calculi. The description of a system in the syntax of a particular stochastic process calculus can be analysed in a compositional way, without expanding the state space by explicitly resolving all the interdependencies between the subsystems which may lead to the state space explosion problem. In support of this claim we have developed analysis methods that belong to a particular type of Static Analysis { Data Flow / Pathway Analysis. These methods have previously been applied to a number of non-stochastic process calculi. In this thesis we are lifting them to the stochastic calculus of Interactive Markov Chains (IMC). We have devised the Pathway Analysis of IMC that is not only correct in the sense of overapproximating all possible behaviour scenarios, as is usual for Static Analysis methods, but is also precise. This gives us the possibility to explicitly decide on the trade-o between precision and complexity while post-processing the analysis results. Another novelty of our methods consists in the kind of properties that we can verify using the results of the Pathway Analysis. We can check both qualitative and quantitative properties of IMC systems. In particular, we have developed algorithms for constructing bisimulation relations, computing (overapproximations of) sets of reachable states and computing the expected time reachability, the last for a linear fragment of IMC. In all the cases we have the complexities of algorithms which are low polynomial in the size of the syntactic description of a system. The presented methods have a clear application in the areas of embedded systems, (randomised) protocols run between a fixed number of parties etc.

Skrypnyuk, Nataliya

2011-01-01

76

Efficacy of extra corporal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in upper and lower urinary tract calculi with reference to stone site, size shape and radio density according to age rule (abstract)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

50 patients having renal ureteral and vesical stones 5-20 mm and having age range 1 years with mean of 30.5 were studied. 70% (35/50) were male and 30% (15/50) female with 2.33:1 ratio 1,1,2,32,10,4 patients were of 0-2, 2-12, 12-18, 18-40, 40-55 and above 55 years age group respectively. Stone site, size, shape and radio density were seen by X-ray plain abdomen, IVU and ultrasound. At 4 months ESWL treatment was considered successful if the patients were stone free or had residual fragments 4 mm or less. Over all success rate was 64% in renal stones it was 62.7% (25/40), in ureteral 62.5% (5/8) and in vesical stone 100% (2/2). 5-10 mm, 11-15 mm and 16-20 mm stones had success rate of 76% (19/25), 61.1% (11/18) and 28.8% (2/7) respectively. Equi bone density, low density, high density and radiolucent stones had success rate of 57.1% (16/28), 92.85% (13/14). 16.6% (1/6) and 100% (2/2). Shape of stones is mere reflection of stone size. In conclusion, the liberal use of ESWL for every type of stone in terms of radio density equal to or less than bone and size up to 20 mm were amenable to ESWL monotherapy. Upper urinary tract stone 96% (48/50) and 18-40 years age group is the commonest. (author)

77

Analysis of renal calculi by X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe: a comparison of two methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyzed 48 renal calculi by X-ray powder diffraction and electron microprobe techniques. In 35 of these, the presence of a minor constituent, not detected by X-ray diffraction, was revealed--hydroxyapatite was found in 24 stones, struvite in 6, and calcium oxalate in 5. The results of this study, as well as others, show that incomplete assignment of the crystalline constituents of urinary calculi is an inherent risk of the X-ray method and that conclusions concerning total chemical composition should be based on X-ray diffraction analyses coupled with data obtained from other analytical procedures

78

Urinary stone detection and characterisation with dual-energy CT urography after furosemide intravenous injection: preliminary results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To investigate the added advantage of IV furosemide injection and the subsequent urine dilution in the detection of urinary calculi in the excretory phase of dual-source dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) urography, and to investigate the feasibility of characterising the calculi through diluted urine. Twenty-three urinary calculi were detected in 116 patients who underwent DECT urography for macroscopic haematuria with a split bolus two- or three-acquisition protocol, including a true unenhanced series and at least a mixed nephrographic excretory phase. Virtual unenhanced images were reconstructed from contrast-enhanced DE data. Calculi were recorded on all series and characterised based on their X-ray absorption characteristics at 100 kVp and 140 kVp in both true unenhanced and nephrographic excretory phase series. All calculi with a diameter more than 2 mm were detected in the virtual unenhanced phase and in the nephrographic excretory phase. Thirteen of these calculi could be characterised in the true unenhanced phase and in the mixed nephrographic excretory phase. The results were strictly identical for both phases, six of them being recognised as non-uric acid calculi and seven as uric acid calculi. Mixed nephrographic excretory phase DECT after furosemide administration allows both detection and characterisation of clinically significant calculi, through the diluted urine. (orig.)

Botsikas, Diomidis; Hansen, Catrina; Stefanelli, Salvatore; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospital, Radiology Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

2014-03-15

79

Urinary stone detection and characterisation with dual-energy CT urography after furosemide intravenous injection: preliminary results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the added advantage of IV furosemide injection and the subsequent urine dilution in the detection of urinary calculi in the excretory phase of dual-source dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) urography, and to investigate the feasibility of characterising the calculi through diluted urine. Twenty-three urinary calculi were detected in 116 patients who underwent DECT urography for macroscopic haematuria with a split bolus two- or three-acquisition protocol, including a true unenhanced series and at least a mixed nephrographic excretory phase. Virtual unenhanced images were reconstructed from contrast-enhanced DE data. Calculi were recorded on all series and characterised based on their X-ray absorption characteristics at 100 kVp and 140 kVp in both true unenhanced and nephrographic excretory phase series. All calculi with a diameter more than 2 mm were detected in the virtual unenhanced phase and in the nephrographic excretory phase. Thirteen of these calculi could be characterised in the true unenhanced phase and in the mixed nephrographic excretory phase. The results were strictly identical for both phases, six of them being recognised as non-uric acid calculi and seven as uric acid calculi. Mixed nephrographic excretory phase DECT after furosemide administration allows both detection and characterisation of clinically significant calculi, through the diluted urine. (orig.)

80

Giant salivary calculi of the submandibular gland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. A case of an unusually large sialolith arising in the submandibular gland is presented, along with a review of the management of giant salivary gland calculi.

Fowell, C.; Macbean, A.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Actor Network Procedures as Psi-calculi for Security Ceremonies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The actor network procedures of Pavlovic and Meadows are a recent graphical formalism developed for describing security ceremonies and for reasoning about their security properties. The present work studies the relations of the actor network procedures (ANP) to the recent psi-calculi framework. Psi-calculi is a parametric formalism where calculi like spi- or applied-pi are found as instances. Psi-calculi are operational and largely non-graphical, but have strong foundation b...

Prisacariu, Cristian

2014-01-01

82

Flow Logic for Process Calculi  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the ?-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction and adequacy results), and a Moore Family result showing that a least solution always exists, as well as providing insights on how to implement the analysis. We then show how to strengthen the analysis technology by introducing reachability components, interaction points, and localized environments, and finally, we extend it to a relational analysis. A Flow Logic is a program logic---in the same sense that a Hoare’s logic is. We conclude with an executive summary presenting the highlights of the approach from this perspective including a discussion of theoretical properties as well as implementation considerations. The electronic supplements present an application of the analysis techniques to a version of the ?-calculus incorporating distribution and code mobility; also the proofs of the main results can be found in the electronic supplements.

Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

2012-01-01

83

A criterion for separating process calculi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We introduce a new criterion, replacement freeness, to discern the relative expressiveness of process calculi. Intuitively, a calculus is strongly replacement free if replacing, within an enclosing context, a process that cannot perform any visible action by an arbitrary process never inhibits the capability of the resulting process to perform a visible action. We prove that there exists no compositional and interaction sensitive encoding of a not strongly replacement free calculus into any strongly replacement free one. We then define a weaker version of replacement freeness, by only considering replacement of closed processes, and prove that, if we additionally require the encoding to preserve name independence, it is not even possible to encode a non replacement free calculus into a weakly replacement free one. As a consequence of our encodability results, we get that many calculi equipped with priority are not replacement free and hence are not encodable into mainstream calculi like CCS and pi-calculus, that instead are strongly replacement free. We also prove that variants of pi-calculus with match among names, pattern matching or polyadic synchronization are only weakly replacement free, hence they are separated both from process calculi with priority and from mainstream calculi.

Federico Banti

2010-11-01

84

A criterion for separating process calculi  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a new criterion, replacement freeness, to discern the relative expressiveness of process calculi. Intuitively, a calculus is strongly replacement free if replacing, within an enclosing context, a process that cannot perform any visible action by an arbitrary process never inhibits the capability of the resulting process to perform a visible action. We prove that there exists no compositional and interaction sensitive encoding of a not strongly replacement free calculus into any strongly replacement free one. We then define a weaker version of replacement freeness, by only considering replacement of closed processes, and prove that, if we additionally require the encoding to preserve name independence, it is not even possible to encode a non replacement free calculus into a weakly replacement free one. As a consequence of our encodability results, we get that many calculi equipped with priority are not replacement free and hence are not encodable into mainstream calculi like CCS and pi-calculus, t...

Banti, Federico; Tiezzi, Francesco; 10.4204/EPTCS.41.2

2010-01-01

85

The value of ultrasound in diagnosis of ureteral calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the diagnostic value of ultrasound in patient with clinically suspected ureteral calculi, a prospective study was performed on 58 patients. Of these, 42 patients had 44 ureteral calculi and 16 patients had no calculi. The sonographic of a distal shadowign highly echogenic reflector along the ureter, with or without dilatation of the proximal ureter. Ultrasound correctly diagnosed 42 stones among 44 calculi and there was one false positive examination. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95% Ultrasonography appears to be a very useful adjunct for the diagnosis of ureteral calculi when excretory urography is equivocal or contraindicated. Also ultrasonography was valuable in monitoring passage of radiolucent ureteral stones

86

The value of ultrasound in diagnosis of ureteral calculi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the diagnostic value of ultrasound in patient with clinically suspected ureteral calculi, a prospective study was performed on 58 patients. Of these, 42 patients had 44 ureteral calculi and 16 patients had no calculi. The sonographic of a distal shadowign highly echogenic reflector along the ureter, with or without dilatation of the proximal ureter. Ultrasound correctly diagnosed 42 stones among 44 calculi and there was one false positive examination. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95% Ultrasonography appears to be a very useful adjunct for the diagnosis of ureteral calculi when excretory urography is equivocal or contraindicated. Also ultrasonography was valuable in monitoring passage of radiolucent ureteral stones

Woo, Seong Ku; Kim, J. S.; Suh, S. J.; Lee, S. J. [Seoul National University University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1990-12-15

87

AN UNASCENDED RIGHT KIDNEY WITH LEFT SIDED URETERIC CALCULI: A CADAVERIC CASE REPORT  

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Full Text Available Anomalies of the urinary system constitute approximately 30% of all the congenital malformations. There are various associated anomalies involving number, size, shape, position and vascularity of the kidneys. Unascended kidneys refers to a halt in the migration of the kidneys during their normal embryological development. Defect in the ascent of the kidneys are closely related with variations in the branching pattern of aorta. Here we report a case of an unilateral unascended right kidney in a male cadaver encountered during routine medical dissection. A left sided ureteric calculi was also seen as an incidental finding in the same cadaver. Ureterolithiasis occurs worldwide in all sets of population with 80% of the stones found in the male sex in the age group of 30- 60 years. There are various factors which favour the formation of ureteric calculi which includes geographical, socio-economical as well as the mineral content of water consumed and some general medical causes. An attempt has been made to document the causes for this variation and the preventive measures that can be adopted to prevent the formation of ureteric calculi.

Meril Ann Soman

2014-06-01

88

Ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy of impacted ureteral calculi  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This work evaluates the results of ureteroscopic treatment of impacted ureteral stones with a pneumatic lithotripter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 1997 to May 2002, 42 patients with impacted ureteral stones were treated by retrograde ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy. Twenty-eight patients were female and 14 were male. The stone size ranged from 5 to 20 mm. The ureteral sites of the stones were distal in 21, middle in 12 and proximal in 9. RESULTS: Considering stones with distal location in the ureter, 1 patient had ureteral perforation and developed a stricture in the follow-up (4.7%. As for stones in the middle ureter, 2 perforations and 1 stricture were observed (8.3% and regarding stones located in the proximal ureter, 5 perforations and 4 strictures occurred (44%. In the mid ureter, 1 ureteral avulsion was verified. In 34 patients without ureteral perforation, only 1 developed a stricture (2.9%. Of 8 patients who had perforation, 6 developed strictures. The overall incidence of stricture following treatment of impacted ureteral calculi was 14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Ureteroscopy for impacted ureteral calculi is associated with a higher incidence of ureteral perforation and stricture. Ureteroscopy of proximal ureteral calculi is associated with a high risk of perforation, when compared to mid or distal ureteral calculi. Ureteral perforation at the site of the stone seems to be the primary risk factor for stricture formation in these cases.

Artur H. Brito

2006-06-01

89

Ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy of impacted ureteral calculi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: This work evaluates the results of ureteroscopic treatment of impacted ureteral stones with a pneumatic lithotripter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 1997 to May 2002, 42 patients with impacted ureteral stones were treated by retrograde ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy. Twenty-eig [...] ht patients were female and 14 were male. The stone size ranged from 5 to 20 mm. The ureteral sites of the stones were distal in 21, middle in 12 and proximal in 9. RESULTS: Considering stones with distal location in the ureter, 1 patient had ureteral perforation and developed a stricture in the follow-up (4.7%). As for stones in the middle ureter, 2 perforations and 1 stricture were observed (8.3%) and regarding stones located in the proximal ureter, 5 perforations and 4 strictures occurred (44%). In the mid ureter, 1 ureteral avulsion was verified. In 34 patients without ureteral perforation, only 1 developed a stricture (2.9%). Of 8 patients who had perforation, 6 developed strictures. The overall incidence of stricture following treatment of impacted ureteral calculi was 14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Ureteroscopy for impacted ureteral calculi is associated with a higher incidence of ureteral perforation and stricture. Ureteroscopy of proximal ureteral calculi is associated with a high risk of perforation, when compared to mid or distal ureteral calculi. Ureteral perforation at the site of the stone seems to be the primary risk factor for stricture formation in these cases.

Artur H., Brito; Anuar I., Mitre; Miguel, Srougi.

2006-06-01

90

[XRD, FTIR and thermoluminescence spectra of different types of urinary stones].  

Science.gov (United States)

Using thermoluminescence spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the chemical compositions of four types of kidney stones were investigated. They are calcium oxalate, uric acid, calcium phosphate and magnesium ammonium phosphate calculi (struvite). Experimental results showed that in the 305 cases of stones, calculi oxalate stones were found to account for 63%, uric acid stones 22%, calcium phosphate stones 8%, struvite 5%, and the stones with other compositions 2%. There were significant differences in the thermoluminescence spectra among the 4 types of urinary stones, which can provide an important basis for the clinic diagnosis of urinary stone types. PMID:22007431

Yang, Jin; He, Jie-Yu; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

2011-08-01

91

Spectroscopic study of the inhibition of calcium oxalate calculi by Larrea tridentata  

Science.gov (United States)

The causes of urolithiasis include such influences as diet, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors which have been documented as sources that aggravate urinary calculi depositions and aggregations, and, implicitly, as causes of urolithiasis. This study endeavors to detail the scientific mechanisms involved in calcium oxalate calculi formation, and, more importantly, their inhibition under growth conditions imposed by the traditional medicinal approach using the herbal extract, Larrea tridentata. The calculi were synthesized without and with Larrea tridentata infusion by employing the single diffusion gel technique. A visible decrease in calcium oxalate crystal growth with increasing amounts of Larrea tridentata herbal infusion was observed in photomicrographs, as well as a color change from white-transparent for pure crystals to light orange-brown for crystals with inhibitor. Analysis of the samples, which includes Raman, infrared absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques, demonstrate an overall transition in morphology of the crystals from monohydrate without herbal extract to dihydrate with inhibitor. Furthermore, the resulting data from Raman and infrared absorption support the possibilities of the influences, in this complex process, of NDGA and its derivative compounds from Larrea tridentata, and of the bonding of the magnesium of the inhibitor with the oxalate ion on the surface of the calculi crystals. This assumption corroborates well with the micrographs obtained under higher magnification, which show that the separated small crystallites consist of darker brownish cores, which we attribute to the dominance of growth inhibition by NDGA, surrounded by light transparent thin shells, which possibly correspond to passivation of the crystals by magnesium oxalate. The SEM results reveal the transformation from the dominant monoclinic structure of the calcium oxalate crystals grown alone to the tetragonal dipyramidal crystal structure of the calcium oxalate crystals grown with Larrea tridentata. Comparison between XRD experimental and simulated data, besides corroborating with our previous results, show that each sample is a combination of different structures.

Pinales, Luis Alonso

92

A criterion for separating process calculi  

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We introduce a new criterion, replacement freeness, to discern the relative expressiveness of process calculi. Intuitively, a calculus is strongly replacement free if replacing, within an enclosing context, a process that cannot perform any visible action by an arbitrary process never inhibits the capability of the resulting process to perform a visible action. We prove that there exists no compositional and interaction sensitive encoding of a not strongly replacement free c...

Federico Banti; Rosario Pugliese; Francesco Tiezzi

2010-01-01

93

Relationship between the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi and surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi and the surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi was examined. Thirty-seven staghorn calculi in 35 cases, which were treated with percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) between 1995 and 2007 in Saga University Hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. The number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi was counted based on the radiographic findings of kidney ureter bladder (KUB), intravenous pyelography (IVP) and CT. The surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi were evaluated according to the number of PCNL sessions, the total number of surgical treatments including transurethral ureterolithotripsy (TUL) and shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), the hospitalization period, the stone-free rate and the residual stone rate. The average stone size was 45.1 mm (21-99 mm). The average number of PCNL sessions was 2.5 times. TUL and SWL were conducted in combination with PCNL in 4 and 25 cases, retrospectively. According to the increase in the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi, the number of PCNL sessions, the total number of surgical treatments and the hospitalization period all increased. In cases where staghorn calculi occupied 3 or more calyces, a lower stone-free rate and a higher residual stone rate were observed, compared with those cases where calculi occupied only 2 calyces. Evaluating the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi seems to be one of td by staghorn calculi seems to be one of the useful indicators for a preoperative assessment of surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi. (author)

94

Native and contrast-radiographic examination of the urinary tract  

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Full Text Available Introduction Plain x-rays and contrast urography are important for diagnosing urinary tract diseases. The first plain film of the urinary tract was made in 1896, and the first tests using contrasts started in 1904. Excretory urography has been used since 1930. Plain film of the urinary tract Plain films of the urinary tract are used in the kidney area, the area of the ureter and urinary bladder. They also show structures (lumbar and sacral spine and pelvis, muscles (m. iliopsoas as well as calculi. Excretory urography X-ray visualization of the urinary tract with contrast substances is intravenous urography. It is used for diagnosing diseases of the upper urinary system with symptoms such as: pain, colic, hydronephrosis, as well as acute cortical infections, urinary bladder tumors, etc. Retrograde urography Retrograde urography is a procedure recommended when either the pyelocalyx system or the ureter are not seen unilaterally or bilaterally. Cystography and urethrocystography Cystography is used to visualize the bladder. It is recommended in case of intravesical obstruction. Urethrocystography is a technique for investigation of the anterior and prostatic urethra as well as the neck of the urinary bladder. Conclusion Plain film of the urinary tract, excretory urography, retrograde pyelography, cystography and urethrocystography, used along with ultrasonography, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance, are useful diagnostic procedures which provide accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.

Govor?in Mira

2005-01-01

95

Success Factors of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL for Renal & Ureteric Calculi in Adult  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to define factors that have a significant impact on the stone-free rate after ESWL. Methods: A total of 417 patients harboring renal or ureteral stones underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL between October 2008 and July 2012. Eighty five patients were lost on follow up. The remaining (n = 332. All patients were >18 yr of age. Siemens and SLX-F2 electromagnetic machines were used to impart shock waves. Patients were stratified according to localization (pelvic, calyceal, or ureteral stones and stone size (up to 10 mm, 10 - 20 mm, and >20 mm. Result: The overall success rate was 251/332 (75.6% achieve stone free status. Repeated ESWL sessions were needed in 258 (61.9%. Of eleven variables were studied including age, sex, side, location (pelvic, calyx, ureter, ureteric stent, previous renal surgery, stone size, number of shock waves, opacity of stone, renal system state, and type of lithotripter, three variables were significantly affect the success rate namely stone size, number of shock waves and location of stone. Conclusions: ESWL remains one of the most commonly utilized treatments for patients with upper urinary tract calculi; Stone diameter, location, and number of shock waves, are the most important predictors determining stone clearance after ESWL of renal and ureteric calculi. To optimize treatment outcomes with ESWL the presence of treating urologist is essential to optimize the final result.

Ammar Fadil Abid

2014-03-01

96

The efficacy and safety of ureteroscopy for ureteral calculi in pregnancy: our experience in 32 patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of ureteroscopy (URS) in pregnant women. A retrospective analysis was performed on 32 pregnant patients referred to our center between April 2005 and November 2010 with hydronephrosis requiring surgical intervention. A semirigid URS of 9.5 F was used in all patients. The mean age of patients was 27.8 years (range 20-39), and the mean gestation duration was 24 weeks (15-34). The ultrasound findings were diagnostic of obstructive ureteral calculi in 16 (50%) patients and the mean stone diameter was 8 mm. Spinal anaesthesia was performed in 22 (68.8%) patients, while general anaesthesia was performed in 7 (21.8%) patients. Ureteric stones were found in 27 (84.3%) patients during endoscopy, 10 being distal, 9 middle and 8 proximal. There were no stones in five patients. The stones were fragmented with pneumatic lithotripsy in 8 patients and with holmium laser in 17 patients and the fragments were retracted with forceps. Of the 32 patients, 19 (59.4%) required JJ stent insertion peroperatively. There was no serious complication intraoperatively, while urinary tract infection developed in four and renal colic in two patients postoperatively. In one patient, sepsis developed postoperatively, and improved with appropriate treatment. All babies were born normally. Semirigid ureteroscopy for diagnosing and treating ureteral calculi by intracorporeal pneumatic or holmium laser lithotripsy is a safe and reasonable treatment option for pregnant patients. PMID:22215294

Bozkurt, Yasar; Penbegul, Necmettin; Soylemez, Haluk; Atar, Murat; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Y?ld?r?m, Kadir; Sak, Muhammet Erdal

2012-10-01

97

Diagnosis of ureteral calculi using ultrasonography, intravenous urography and unenhanced Helical Computed Tomography  

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Full Text Available Ultrasonography Ultrasonography is an efficient tool in the detection of calculi in the pyelocalyx system, but it may not be sufficient for the area of renal pelvis and ureter, as well as for the ureter and the ureterovesical junction. Intravenous urography Radiolucent stones, dilatation of the ureter and of the pyelocalyx system were identified on the urogram, which are common signs of ureter calctilosis. Defects in the contrast can be caused by blood clots and papillary or malignant tumors of the ureter, thus causing a differential diagnosis problem. Unenhanced Helical Computed Tomography Noncontrast spiral CT is useful for detection for calculi as small as 3mm. It can identify their localization and size without enlargements. The primary and secondary CT signs also confirm the established diagnosis. Conclusion The noncontrast spiral CT is a highly precise method for assessment of kidney pain. It is a reliable and rapid diagnostic modality for the detection of urinary stones which differentiates them from blood clots, tumors, air and other factors which create a differential diagnosis problem.

Govor?in Mira

2005-01-01

98

SEM and X-ray microanalysis of human prostatic calculi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Calculi removed from human prostates affected with nodular hyperplasia were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and EDAX system. The general spectrum was made up of Na, Al, Mg, S, P, Ca and Zn. Two types of stone were identified morphostructurally and microanalytically: calculi type I of nodular surface with high peaks of S, and calculi type II polyfaceted with high peaks of P and Ca. Their formation from corpora amylacea and/or exogenous constituents is discussed. The superficial deposit of Zn suggests its incorporation from the prostatic liquid and does not seem to play an important role in the genesis.

Vilches, J.; Lopez, A.; De Palacio, L.; Munoz, C.; Gomez, J.

1982-02-01

99

SEM and X-ray microanalysis of human prostatic calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculi removed from human prostates affected with nodular hyperplasia were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and EDAX system. The general spectrum was made up of Na, Al, Mg, S, P, Ca and Zn. Two types of stone were identified morphostructurally and microanalytically: calculi type I of nodular surface with high peaks of S, and calculi type II polyfaceted with high peaks of P and Ca. Their formation from corpora amylacea and/or exogenous constituents is discussed. The superficial deposit of Zn suggests its incorporation from the prostatic liquid and does not seem to play an important role in the genesis

100

99mTc-DTPA renography before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was undertaken to evaluate 99mTc-DTPA renography before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Twelve patients with renal calculi were examined in this study. In three patients, bilateral kidneys were treated with ESWL. Sequential renal images of the vascular phase, and the functional and excretory phases were taken using a gamma camera (ZLC 7500, Siemens), after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of 99mTc-DTPA. Renograms were generated using data stored every 10 seconds for a period of 30 minutes by computer (Scintipac-2400, Shimadzu). Some treated kidneys were enlarged and/or showed uniform retention of radioactivity on sequential images, within a week after ESWL. Renogram patterns after ESWL were varied in each patient. The renogram findings after ESWL seemed to be affected by the presence or absence of stone fragments in the urinary tract. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

Ureteral jets in patients with unilateral ureteral calculi: Using color doppler ultrasonography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sonographic detection of ureteral jets entering the urinary bladder is a well-known procedure. Color doppler ultrasound was used to image the ureteral jets in 28 patients with unilateral ureteral calculi proved by intravenous urography. Three major findings of ureteral jets were obtained in the affected ureter with a stone: less frequency (26 patients), weak reflection (20 patients), and lower grade in length (27 patients) that were significant different from the unaffected side in the same patient. No significant differences were found between the ureteral jets and the degree of hydronephrosis or the location of a stone. In conclusion, these results suggest that ureteral jets should be checked routinely during the procedure of color doppler ultrasonogram in patients with possible unilateral ureteral obstruction. Color doppler examination of ureteral jets may be an important adjunct in routine pelvic ultrasonogram especially in patients who have absolute or relative contraindications of intravenous urography

102

Calculi in a female urethral diverticulum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary stones are rarely seen in the urethra and are usually encountered in men with urethral stricture or diverticulum. The case of a 52-year-old woman presented, who consulted for weak stream associated with repeated urinary infections. The diverticulum was approached via vaginal route and the extraction was successful. The patient has been well, with no dysuria, dyspareunia, incontinence for 3-month follow-ups. PMID:21468288

Shim, Ji Sung; Oh, Mi Mi; Kang, Jae Il; Ahn, Sun Tae; Moon, Du Geon; Lee, Jeong Gu

2011-03-01

103

Calculi in a Female Urethral Diverticulum  

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Urinary stones are rarely seen in the urethra and are usually encountered in men with urethral stricture or diverticulum. The case of a 52-year-old woman presented, who consulted for weak stream associated with repeated urinary infections. The diverticulum was approached via vaginal route and the extraction was successful. The patient has been well, with no dysuria, dyspareunia, incontinence for 3-month follow-ups.

Shim, Ji Sung; Oh, Mi Mi; Kang, Jae Il; Ahn, Sun Tae; Moon, Du Geon; Lee, Jeong Gu

2011-01-01

104

Computerised tomography localisation of intrarenal calculi prior to nephrolithotomy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of the EMI CT 5005 scanner in patients with renal calculus disease is described. This investigation was found to be a useful aid in the accurate localisation of calculi within the renal collecting system prior to surgery. (author)

105

Crystal-matrix interrelations in brushite and uric acid calculi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brushite and uric acid calculi were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy with the partial dissolution method and transmission electron microscopy. Brushite calculi consist of radially oriented columnar crystals which have sheet-like substructure. The organic matrix is identified chiefly at the outside of the crystals but partly included between the substructure. The concentric matrix bands are often dislocated between the neighbouring crystals. Uric acid calculi also consist of radially oriented columnar crystals, and a fine meshwork of the organic matrix is incorporated within the crystals. The concentric matrix layers of different density are angled according to the crystal lattice. These findings indicate that the organic matrix arose from a mucinous surface coat, at least in the radially striated calculi. The crystals continued to grow in this gel-state milieu, either thrusting the matrix aside or incorporating it within the crystals. PMID:3944880

Iwata, H; Abe, Y; Nishio, S; Wakatsuki, A; Ochi, K; Takeuchi, M

1986-02-01

106

Nonlocal Operational Calculi for Dunkl Operators  

CERN Document Server

The one-dimensional Dunkl operator $D_k$ with a non-negative parameter $k$, is considered under an arbitrary nonlocal boundary value condition. The right inverse operator of $D_k$, satisfying this condition is studied. An operational calculus of Mikusinski type is developed. In the frames of this operational calculi an extension of the Heaviside algorithm for solution of nonlocal Cauchy boundary value problems for Dunkl functional-differential equations $P(D_k)u=f$ with a given polynomial $P$ is proposed. The solution of these equations in mean-periodic functions reduces to such problems. Necessary and sufficient condition for existence of unique solution in mean-periodic functions is found.

Dimovski, Ivan H; 10.3842/SIGMA.2009.030

2009-01-01

107

Shockwave lithotripsy in patients with renal calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to demonstrate the efficacy of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in the primary treatment of 1647 patients with renal calculi using a Dornier Doli U/50 lithotripter. One thousand six hundred forty-seven patients underwent SWL as day-cases at King Abdulaziz Hospital, Saudi Arabia between October 2001 and July 2007, using intravenous sedation (Pethidine 1mg/kg and Midazolam 5-10mg) for analgesia in 85.5% of the patients. The treatment outcome of 2241 renal calculi was analyzed and stratified according to the size and site of the stones. Recorded data included shock waves intensity, number of shocks, treatment time, analgesia stone related factors such as size, site, number, nature, composition and any related complications. The stones were grouped into 5 groups, according to the largest stone size in the kidney. Patients were followed up for 6-18 months, mean of 13 months. Complete clearance of the stones occurred in 2154 kidneys (89.5%). At 3-months follow-up, the overall treatment rate was 57.2% and for each group it was 132 (23.5%) for Group I, 254 (36.1%) for Group II, 473 (85.5%) for Group III, 278 (100%) for Group IV and 147 (100%) for Group V. Treatment failed in 87 patients with stone size of 30-39 mm. Fifty-six were solitary pelvic stones treated with ureteroscopy, while 31 were calyceal stoned treated by other modalities such as per-cutaneousnephro-lithotomy. The most common complication was pyelonephritis with or without obstruction. Shock wave lithoh or without obstruction. Shock wave lithotripsy treatment was a successful primary management of renal stones of variable sizes in 89.5% of the treated kidneys. (author)

108

Noncontrast multidetector-row computed tomography scanning for detection of radiolucent calculi in acute renal insufficiency caused by bilateral ureteral obstruction of ceftriaxone crystals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) has great advantage with higher sensitivity and more clear modalities in detecting urinary tract radiolucent calculi in patients with acute renal insufficiency (ARI) compared to other image diagnosis approaches. We report two cases (female, 28 years old; male, 39 years old) with persistent flank pain and acute anuria after the administration of ceftriaxone (4.0 g daily) for 2 days intravenously. No abnormality was found in the kidney-ureter- bladder (KUB) areas with plain abdomen X-rays. A diagnosis of bilateral hydronephrosis was made by ultrasound examination in both cases. Serum creatinine levels reached up to 257 and 810 ? mol/L (normal serum creatinine level is 40-130 ? mol/L), respectively. Vague density spots were noticed in the pelvis with noncontrast multidetector-row CT (MDCT) scanning. However, distinguishable clusters of high-density shadows were seen in pelvic areas with maximum intensity projections (MIP, CT values in 30-128 HU). Ceftriaxone crystal calculi were found on both sides of distal ureters under endoscopy. Renal function recovered in both patients after double-J ureteral stents were installed. Out results demonstrated that noncontrast MDCT scanning and MIP reconstruction as an effective diagnostic tool could provide clear images in detection of radiolucent calculi in urinary tract when conventional X-rays image are not suitable in the patients with obstructive anuria and ARI of unknown origin. PMID:22398584

Lu, Xiongbing; Wu, Rongpei; Huang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Yuanyuan

2012-01-01

109

TREATMENT WITH TAMSULOSIN IN PATIENTS WITH DISTAL URETERAL CALCULI  

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BackgroundSymptomatic ureteral calculi are one of the most important issues in urologist emergency clinical settings. Spontaneous passage of distal ureteral calculi is usually achieved with good hydration and spasmoanalgetic drugs. alpha-blocker therapy may facilitate and accelerate the spontaneous passage of ureteral stones.Patients and methodsIn retrospective study we analyzed patients with renal colic admitted to our department in 2006. All of them had clinical examination, urine and blood...

Jagodic, K.; Bizjak, I.; Erklavec, M.; Poteko, S.; Korosec-jagodic, H.

2008-01-01

110

Nosocomial outbreak of Myroides odoratimimus urinary tract infection in a Tunisian hospital.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a nosocomial outbreak of urinary tract infection caused by Myroides odoratimimus, previously called Flavobacterium odoratum, in the urology unit of a Tunisian hospital. From May to November 2010, seven isolates of M. odoratimimus were recovered from urine. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clearly differentiated these isolates into two possibly related clones from two different periods. All patients but one had urinary calculi and underwent endourological surgery. All Myroides isolates were resistant to all antibiotics tested. Three patients were successfully treated with ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Clinicians should be aware that M. odoratimimus may induce serious and prolonged nosocomial outbreaks of urinary tract infections. PMID:22099498

Ktari, S; Mnif, B; Koubaa, M; Mahjoubi, F; Ben Jemaa, M; Mhiri, M N; Hammami, A

2012-01-01

111

Percutaneous Treatment of Bladder Calculi in Children: 5 Years Experience  

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Full Text Available Introduction: We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous cystolithotripsy in children.Materials and Methods: Thirty children (27 boys and 3 girls; mean age, 6.06 ± 2.64 years; range, 1.5 to 12 years with bladder calculi underwent percutaneous stone removal. The mean size of the largest diameters of the calculi was 24.8 ± 8.47 mm (range, 13 mm to 50 mm. Under general anesthesia, a 1-cm incision was made 1 to 2 cm above the pubic symphysis. A 26-F nephroscope was introduced into the bladder following tract dilation, and the calculi were removed. If the calculi were larger than 1 cm, fragmentation was performed. The procedure was done without fluoroscopy. Finally, a urethral catheter was placed for 48 hours.Results: All patients became stone free. The mean operative time was 23.13 ± 8.38 minutes (range, 12 to 40 minutes. All patients were discharged 24 hours after operation, except 1, who was hospitalized 2 more days for suprapubic pain and severe irritating symptoms. No significant intraoperative or postoperative complications were seen.Conclusion: Percutaneous suprapubic cystolithotripsy is an efficient and safe technique for treating bladder calculi in children. We recommend this technique for treating large bladder calculi (larger than 1 cm in children.

Mohammad Movarekh

2006-03-01

112

Análise do impacto do progresso tecnológico nos custos do tratamento hospitalar: o caso do tratamento para litíase urinária no Hospital Universitário de Brasília Analysis of the technological change impact in the costs in hospital treatment: the case study of the treatment for urinary calculi in hospital in university hospital of Brasília  

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Full Text Available O progresso tecnológico na área de saúde tem provocado a elevação dos custos da assistência médica, preocupando a população mundial, os agentes privados e os responsáveis pelas políticas públicas. Estetrabalho apresenta uma análise do impacto do progresso tecnológico - delimitado, neste estudo, à incorporação de equipamentos médicos - nos custos do tratamento hospitalar. Para cumprir o objetivo, foram escolhidos ostratamentos médicos para litíase urinária - litotripsia e cirurgia - devido ao histórico de relevantes avanços tecnológicos. O estudo de caso foi realizado no Serviço de Litotripsia e no Centro Cirúrgico do Hospital Universitário de Brasília (HUB, no período de 2001 a 2003. Foram comparados os custos e as receitas diferenciais das alternativas de tratamento para calculose urinária em quatro opções de decisão. Para testar a robustez dos resultados, foi incorporada a variável incerteza, por meio de simulações no sistema Crystall Ball, realizando 50.000 iterações. Os principais impactos do progresso tecnológico nos custos do tratamento paralitíase urinária são: aumento da capacidade instalada, geração de despesa com obsolescência e aumento das receitas.The technological progress in the field of health has been triggering rises of medical assistance costs, worrying the world-wide population, private agents and the responsible ones for public policies. This search presents an analysis of technological evolution impact - here, bounded to the medical equipments incorporation - on thehospital treatment costs. In order to accomplish the objective, the medical care for urinary lithiasis - lithotripsyand surgery - had been chosen due to the record of meaningful technological advances. The case study wascarried through at the Lithotripsy Service and Hospital Universitário de Brasília (HUB Surgical Center from 2001to 2003. The costs and incomes - differential items inherent to options for urinary calculosis treatment - were compared in four proposals. As a means to prove the results robustness the variable uncertainty wasincorporated through simulations at the Crystal Ball system, achieving 50.000 iterations. The main impacts from technological progress on the medical care for urinary lithiasis costs are: increase of the installed capacity, generation of expense with obsolescence and increase of revenues.

Patrícia de Souza Costa

2006-03-01

113

Salivary gland calculi - contemporary methods of imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sialolithiasis is the most common disorder of major salivary glands. The main site of salivary stones formation is submandibular gland, followed by parotid and sublingual gland. The aim of this article was to present current diagnostic imaging modalities carried out in patients suspected with salivary stones on the basis of own material and review of literature. Current diagnostic imaging tools used in the imaging of salivary stones were described and illustrated in this paper. These are: conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance sialography and sialoendoscopy. Digital subtraction sialography and ultrasonography are the methods of choice in the imaging of salivary gland calculi. Although sialography is a very old diagnostic method, still it is the best diagnostic tool in the imaging of subtle anatomy of salivary gland duct system. Digital subtraction sialography can show the exact location of salivary stone and enables imaging of salivary ducts pathology (e.g. stenoses), which is especially important when sialoendoscopy is planned. Sialography is also used as the treatment method, i.e. interventional sialography. Non enhanced computed tomography is recommended when multiple and tiny salivary stones are suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the evolving alternative diagnostic method. In this diagnostic modality there is no need for salivary ducts cannulation and administration of contrast material. Thus magnetic ation of contrast material. Thus magnetic resonance sialography can also be carried out in the acute sialoadenitis. In the future, sialoendoscopy may become one of the main diagnostic and treatment procedures for salivary duct disorders, especially in salivary stone cases. (authors)

114

Existence families, functional calculi and evolution equations  

CERN Document Server

This book presents an operator-theoretic approach to ill-posed evolution equations. It presents the basic theory, and the more surprising examples, of generalizations of strongly continuous semigroups known as 'existent families' and 'regularized semigroups'. These families of operators may be used either to produce all initial data for which a solution in the original space exists, or to construct a maximal subspace on which the problem is well-posed. Regularized semigroups are also used to construct functional, or operational, calculi for unbounded operators. The book takes an intuitive and constructive approach by emphasizing the interaction between functional calculus constructions and evolution equations. One thinks of a semigroup generated by A as etA and thinks of a regularized semigroup generated by A as etA g(A), producing solutions of the abstract Cauchy problem for initial data in the image of g(A). Material that is scattered throughout numerous papers is brought together and presented in a fresh, ...

deLaubenfels, Ralph

1994-01-01

115

Experiencia clínica y resultados en el tratamiento de 4402 pacientes con cálculos urinarios únicos con el litotritor extracorpóreo Dornier MFL-5000 / Clinical experience and results iun the treatment of 4402 patients with solitary urinary calculi with the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter Dornier MFL-500  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Presentamos la casuística de nuestro servicio en el tratamiento de la litíasis urinaria así como la efectividad del litotritor Dornier MFL-5000 Métodos: Tratamos en 12 años un total de 6602 pacientes con un número total de sesiones de litotricia de 17120. Realizamos el estudio del éxito de [...] l tratamiento de los 4402 pacientes que presentaban un cálculo, según el tamaño y la localización. Resultados: No hubo complicaciones mayores y apenas 43 pacientes tuvieron calle litiásica. Realizamos el tratamiento de 4402 cálculos. Para todos los cálculos independientemente de su localización y tamaño supone que 2615 (59,4%) se han tratado en una sesión, 801 (18,2%) en dos, 379 (8,6%) en tres, 213 (4,8%) en cuatro y 372 (8,4%) en cinco o más sesiones. Conclusiones: El litotritor MFL-5000 ha permitido el tratamiento de la litiasis urinaria en todas las edades, con unos porcentajes de retratamiento y un número de tratamientos por cálculo similar a otros autores, sin necesidad de analgesia ni medidas anestésicas, salvo en apenas aquellos pacientes de menor edad. Abstract in english Objectives: To report the series of our Urology Department in the treatment of urinary stone disease with extracorporeal lithotripsy as well as the effectiveness of the Dornier lithotripter MFL-5000. Methods: 6.602 patients were treated by extracorporeal lithotripsy during 12 years with a total of 1 [...] 7.120 sessions. We examined the treatment outcome of 4.402 patients with a solitary stone, accordingly to stone size and localization. Results: There were no major complications and only 43 patients experienced "calle litiásica". We treated 4.402 stones. For all stones, independently of size and localization, 2615 (59.4%) were treated in one session, 801 (18.2%) required two sessions, 379 (8.6%) 3 sessions, 213 (4.8%) 4 sessions and 373 (8.4%) 5 or more sessions. Conclusion: The Dornier MFL-5000 lithotripter successfully treated urinary stone disease in patients of all age groups with a retreatment rate and number of sessions per stone similar to other studies, without analgesia or anesthetic procedures, except in the younger age group.

Alberto, Palacios; Filipe, Rodrigues; Mário Jorge, Soares; Adérito, Morais; Apolinário, Mendes; Jorge, Pinheiro.

2007-08-01

116

Urinary surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes diagnosis, prognosis, pathophysiology, and methods to surgically correct abnormalities of the urinary system of ruminants. Surgery of the urinary system in ruminants most frequently is required to alleviate urethral obstruction or correct urinary bladder rupture. Several options for surgical management of those conditions are presented, but the prognosis for long-term survival or a return to reproductive function is poor if a urethrostomy is performed. Nephrectomy, translocation of ectopic ureters, removal of urachal remnants, and urethral extension to treat urovagina are performed less often in ruminants because animals requiring these procedures often are culled because of economic considerations or decreased productivity. Consequently, much of what has been described for ruminants is based on a limited number of cases or extrapolated from what has been learned from other species. PMID:7796337

Hooper, R N; Taylor, T S

1995-03-01

117

Intracorporeal Lithotripsy for Ureteral Calculi Using Swiss Lithoclast : SKIMS Experience  

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Full Text Available At present the techniques available for performing intracorporeal lithotripsy include electrohydraulic,ultrasonic, laser, and ballistic lithotripsy. We present our experience with a unique technology forperforming intracorporeal lithotripsy, namely the Swiss lithoclast, which is a form of ballistic lithotripsy.This simple and inexpensive device uses compressed air to activate a solid probe in a manner similarto that of a jackhammer. We report the use of this lithoclast in 92 patients involving a total of 95ureteral calculi. The lithoclast successfully fragmented 81 of the 95 calculi, a success rate of 85.26%.There were no major complications directly related to the use of this device. The Swiss lithoclastseems to be a safe, effective and an inexpensive means of performing intracorporeal lithotripsy forureteral calculi

Arif Hamid, M. Saleem Wani, B. S. Wazir

2005-10-01

118

Percutaneous Removal of Retained Calculi from the Abdomen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With rising pressure placed on health service resources minimally invasive techniques requiring only short hospital admissions are increasing in importance. We describe the techniques used to remove calculi from the peritoneal cavity which had been retained after surgery and continued to cause clinical problems. In both cases described the calculi lay within abscess cavities associated with fistulous tracks to the skin. The fistulae were dilated to allow passage of therapeutic radiologic and endoscopic equipment enabling manipulation and subsequent extraction of the stones. In both cases removal of the calculi allowed complete resolution of the fistulae and the patients made a full clinical recovery. Removal of gallstones which have escaped into the peritoneum at laparoscopic cholecystectomy leading to sepsis has been described; we describe the novel management of a patient in whom extraction had already been attempted, at another hospital, without success. Removal of an appendicolith, described herein another patient, does not appear to have been reported previously

119

Electrohydraulic lithotripsy of ureteral calculi: the Stony Brook experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have used electrohydraulic lithotripsy for the treatment of ureteral calculi in a total of 29 patients. By combining the use of a 3.0 Fr electrode and a 9.5 Fr rigid ureteroscope, we have been able to successfully treat the majority of our patients with ureteral calculi. Bypass stenting of obstructing ureteral stones aided in access and effectiveness of ureteroscopy and endoscopic lithotripsy. The success rate in our series of 30 primary treatments was 80%; failures were primarily related to stone composition. In summary, we have found electrohydraulic lithotripsy of ureteral calculi to be a safe and effective treatment modality and routinely used it for stones throughout the length of the ureter that were either impacted or too large to extract primarily. PMID:10148924

Ziegelbaum, M; Kandel, L B

1990-01-01

120

Generic Methods for Formalising Sequent Calculi Applied to Provability Logic  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe generic methods for reasoning about multiset-based sequent calculi which allow us to combine shallow and deep embeddings as desired. Our methods are modular, permit explicit structural rules, and are widely applicable to many sequent systems, even to other styles of calculi like natural deduction and term rewriting systems. We describe new axiomatic type classes which enable simplification of multiset or sequent expressions using existing algebraic manipulation facilities. We demonstrate the benefits of our combined approach by formalising in Isabelle/HOL a variant of a recent, non-trivial, pen-and-paper proof of cut-admissibility for the provability logic GL, where we abstract a large part of the proof in a way which is immediately applicable to other calculi. Our work also provides a machine-checked proof to settle the controversy surrounding the proof of cut-admissibility for GL.

Dawson, Jeremy E.; Goré, Rajeev

 
 
 
 
121

Labelled Lambda-calculi with Explicit Copy and Erase  

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Full Text Available We present two rewriting systems that define labelled explicit substitution lambda-calculi. Our work is motivated by the close correspondence between Levy's labelled lambda-calculus and paths in proof-nets, which played an important role in the understanding of the Geometry of Interaction. The structure of the labels in Levy's labelled lambda-calculus relates to the multiplicative information of paths; the novelty of our work is that we design labelled explicit substitution calculi that also keep track of exponential information present in call-by-value and call-by-name translations of the lambda-calculus into linear logic proof-nets.

Maribel Fernández

2010-03-01

122

Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review  

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Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone...

Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

2013-01-01

123

Differential calculi on quantum spaces determined by automorphisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If the bimodule of 1-forms of a differential calculus over an associative algebra A is the direct sum of 1-dimensional bimodules, a relation with automorphisms of A shows up. This happens for some familiar quantum-space calculi. (author)

124

Brown tumor and staghorn calculi in primary hyperparathyroidism.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of primary hyperparathyroidism with bilateral renal staghorn calculi and brown tumor right thumb is reported in these images, along with the appropriate sequential management. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)was done after management of hypercalcemia and after parathyroidectomy. This case highlights the need for urologists and general practitioners to have a holistic approach in patient management. PMID:23791214

Philip George, Arun Jacob; Banerji, John S

2013-08-01

125

/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renography before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi  

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This study was undertaken to evaluate /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renography before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Twelve patients with renal calculi were examined in this study. In three patients, bilateral kidneys were treated with ESWL. Sequential renal images of the vascular phase, and the functional and excretory phases were taken using a gamma camera (ZLC 7500, Siemens), after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. Renograms were generated using data stored every 10 seconds for a period of 30 minutes by computer (Scintipac-2400, Shimadzu). Some treated kidneys were enlarged and/or showed uniform retention of radioactivity on sequential images, within a week after ESWL. Renogram patterns after ESWL were varied in each patient. The renogram findings after ESWL seemed to be affected by the presence or absence of stone fragments in the urinary tract.

Ohtake, Eiji; Murata, Hajime; Kanemura, Mikio; Yokoyama, Masao

1988-09-01

126

Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation. PMID:25433503

Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

2014-11-30

127

Major Constituents, Free Amino Acids and Metal Levels in Renal Calculi from Multan Region  

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Full Text Available Renal calculi collected from adult male/female patients of Multan, Pakistan were analyzed for major constituents, free amino acids and metallic contents. Composition of calculi (whole powder was determined by chemical method using stone analysis kit. Thirteen distinct types of renal calculi were identified. Most of the calculi were compound in nature, however, some simple calculi containing calcium oxalate only were also found. Two dimensional descending paper chromatography was used to identify free amino acids in some prominent classes of renal calculi. Arginine, aspartinine, glycine, leucine, isoleucine and tryptophan were found in nearly all the calculi whereas glutamic acid, histidine, hydroxyproline, phenylalanine, threonine and tryosine occurred randomly. Analysis of major (Na, K, Ca and Mg and trace (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Mn elements in the calculi was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Elements such as Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn have shown their presence in nearly all the calculi however Pb, Ni, Mn and Cu levels were below the limit of detection. This study has revealed useful information about the chemical nature of renal calculi from Multan region. It will be helpful in adopting preventive strategies to minimize stone formation and their reoccurrence.

Muhammad Aslam Shad

2001-01-01

128

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy of Kidney Calculi in Horseshoe Kidney  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL in horseshoe kidneys with calculi. Materials and Methods: Between 1995 and 2005, we performed PCNL in 9 patients with horseshoe kidney. In 3 of them, there was a single calculus and the rest had multiple calculi in the pelvis and at least 1 in the calyxes. Ultrasonography, plain abdominal radiography, and intravenous urography (IVU were performed in all patients. We used fluoroscopy for entering the system and then, pneumatic or ultrasonic lithotripsy was used. Results: In all except 1 patient (88.9% we could access the system. Single calculi in 3 patients were removed. In 5 patients with multiple calculi, the calculus causing obstruction was removed, and in 3, the calculi located in the calyxes were removed too. Consequently, 66.7% were stone-free at the end of the procedure. In 2 patients, there were residual calculi in the calyxes and they underwent candidates for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Conclusion: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy can be used in patients with horseshoe kidney if the patient selection is appropriate and the surgeon is experienced enough. The success rate and complications are the same as the patients with normal anatomy. However, access to the lower calyx is more difficult due to its anatomic status.

Maryam Zolfaghari

2007-02-01

129

Safety and efficacy of transurethral pneumatic lithotripsy for bladder calculi in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of transurethral pneumatic lithotripsy for bladder calculi in children. Method: The study included 100 children up to 15 years of age undergoing pneumatic cystolithoclast for bladder stones. The descriptive study was conducted from September 2006 to February 2007 at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi. The inclusion criteria was children up to 15 years of age with a bladder stone of up to 3 cm, pre-operative negative urine culture, no coagulopathy and fit for general anaesthesia. An X-ray and ultrasound of Kidney and Urinary Bladder (KUB) was mandatory. The procedure was done under general anaesthesia with a single dose of pre-operative antibiotic. A mini-scope of 4 FR or a semi-rigid ureteroscope of 7/8.5 FR with pneumatic wolf lithoclast was used for the fragmentation of stones. Duration of procedure, any per-operative and post-operative complications and the duration of hospital stay were recorded. Post-operatively, the patient underwent ultrasound Kidney and Urinary Bladder at the first follow-up to assess stone clearance after one week. Result: Mean patients age was 4.95+-3.3 years. The male-to-female ratio was 11.5: 1 The mean hospital stay was 9.2 +- 2.5 hours. The mean operating time was 25 (10 -65) minutes. Ten (10%) patients developed minor complications out of which 5 (5%) developed haematuria and 4 (4%) developed difficulty in passing urine. One (1%) of the patients developed post-opere (1%) of the patients developed post-operative retention of urine. All the patients were stone free after the procedure. Conclusion: The transurethral pneumatic lithoclast is very effective and safe in children with bladder stones up to 3 cm. (author)

130

Ureteral stricture formation after ureteroscope treatment of impacted calculi: A prospective study  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose Urinary calculi is a familiar disease. A well-known complication of endourological treatment for impacted ureteral stones is the formation of ureteral strictures, which has been reported to occur in 14.2% to 24% of cases. Materials and Methods This was a prospective study. Ureterotripsy treatment was used on patients with impacted ureteral stones. Then, after 3 months and 6 months, the condition of these patients was assessed by means of a kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) ultrasound. If the KUB ultrasound indicated moderate to serious hydronephrosis, the patient was further assessed by means of a computed tomography intravenous urogram or retrograde pyelogram to confirm the occurrence of ureteral strictures. Results Of the 77 patients who participated in the study, 5 developed ureteral strictures. Thus, the stricture rate was 7.8%. An analysis of the intraoperative risk factors including perforation of the ureter, damage to the mucous membrane, and residual stone impacted within the ureter mucosa revealed that none of these factors contributed significantly to the formation of the ureteric strictures. The stone-related risk factors that were taken into consideration were stone size, stone impaction site, and duration of impaction. These stone factors also did not contribute significantly to the formation of the ureteral strictures. Conclusions This prospective study failed to identify any predictable factors for ureteral stricture formation. It is proposed that all patients undergo a simple postoperative KUB ultrasound screening 3 months after undergoing endoscopic treatment for impacted ureteral stones.

Singam, Praveen; Ho, Christopher Chee Kong; Sridharan, Radhika; Hod, Rozita; Bahadzor, Badrulhisham; Goh, Eng Hong; Tan, Guan Hee; Zainuddin, Zulkifli

2015-01-01

131

Sequent calculi with an efficient loop-check for BDI logics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sequent calculi for BDI logics is a research object of the thesis. BDI logics are widely used for agent system description and implementation. Agents are autonomous systems, those acts in some environment and aspire to achieve preassigned goals. Implementation of the decision making is the main and the most complicated part in agent systems implementation. Logic calculi may be used for the decision making implementation. In this thesis, there are researched sequent calculi for BDI logics. Seq...

Birs?tunas, Adomas

2010-01-01

132

Relating Sequent Calculi for Bi-intuitionistic Propositional Logic  

CERN Document Server

Bi-intuitionistic logic is the conservative extension of intuitionistic logic with a connective dual to implication. It is sometimes presented as a symmetric constructive subsystem of classical logic. In this paper, we compare three sequent calculi for bi-intuitionistic propositional logic: (1) a basic standard-style sequent calculus that restricts the premises of implication-right and exclusion-left inferences to be single-conclusion resp. single-assumption and is incomplete without the cut rule, (2) the calculus with nested sequents by Gore et al., where a complete class of cuts is encapsulated into special "unnest" rules and (3) a cut-free labelled sequent calculus derived from the Kripke semantics of the logic. We show that these calculi can be translated into each other and discuss the ineliminable cuts of the standard-style sequent calculus.

Pinto, Luís; 10.4204/EPTCS.47.7

2011-01-01

133

Measurement of the optical and thermal properties of biliary calculi using pulsed photothermal radiometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The optical absorption coefficients for biliary calculi are important in understanding the mechanism of laser-induced stone fragmentation. However, the heterogeneous composition of calculi and difficulties in producing optically thin samples prevent conventional spectrophotometric measurement techniques from being used. To overcome these limitations, we used a pulsed photothermal radiometry system to measure the optical absorption coefficients and thermal diffusivities of various biliary calculi. In the wavelength range examined (350-1,060 nm), there was strong optical absorption which was greater for pigment stones than for cholesterol stones. The data support the theory that the initiation of the plasma accompanying laser fragmentation of calculi is a thermal process. PMID:3431321

Long, F H; Nishioka, N S; Deutsch, T F

1987-01-01

134

Equivalences and calculi for formal verification of cryptographic protocols  

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Security protocols are essential to the proper functioning of any distributed system running over an insecure network but often have flaws that can be exploited even without breaking the cryptography. Formal cryptography, the assumption that the cryptographic primitives are flawless, facilitates the construction of formal models and verification tools. Such models are often based on process calculi, small formal languages for modelling communicating systems. The spi calculus, a process calcul...

Borgstro?m, Johannes

2008-01-01

135

Treatment of giant ureterocele calculi by Holmium Laser Lithotripsy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: Most ureteral stones pass spontaneously. But patients who have a calculi in an ureterocele could not pass their stone, because of narrow ureteral orifice. These stones may remain asymptomatic until hematuria or obstruction occurs.Materials and Methods: Holmium laser has many uses in urology, including soft tissue incision and calculus fragmentation. These properties are ideal for endoscopic management of the ureterocele calculusResults: We present a young patient who has no spesific and ...

Haluk Söylemez; Bülent Alt?noluk; Ug?ras?, Murat Y.

2009-01-01

136

IR analysis of CaOx kidney calculi  

Science.gov (United States)

IR absorption spectra of urea, urine without any deviation in composition and kidney oxalate calculi are studied. The shifting of stretching vibrations of carbonyl group C=O confirms that assert that the joining of calcium oxalate molecules and oxalate complexes join to urea molecules via oxygen atom of urea. The shifting of COOsymmetric stretching vibration frequencies may testify the presence of molecules and aggregates of calcium oxalates. Obtained results may be useful in developing new methods in early diagnostics of different diseases.

Bordun, O. M.; Drobchak, O. Z.

2009-07-01

137

Access control in mobile ambient calculi: A comparative view  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the most relevant calculi to describe and model mobile and distributed computations and focuses on the access control problem. In the security world every request for the access to a resource is honored if and only if the subject requiring the resource is an authorized user of the system and the request agrees with a given policy. Two examples have been chosen to illustrate these topics: the firewall and the communication by means of named channels.

Margaria, Ines Maria; Zacchi, Maddalena

2008-01-01

138

The efficacy of tamsulosin in lower ureteral calculi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Context: There has been a paradigm shift in the management of ureteral calculi in the last decade with the introduction of new less invasive methods, such as ureterorenoscopy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. Aims: Recent studies have reported excellent results with medical expulsive therapy (MET for distal ureteral calculi, both in terms of stone expulsion and control of ureteral colic pain. Settings and Design: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting and MET with tamsulosin. Materials and Methods: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting (Group I and MET with tamsulosin (Group II in 60 patients, with a follow up of 28 days. Statistical Analysis: Independent ?t? test and chi-square test. Results: Group II showed a statistically significant advantage in terms of the stone expulsion rate. The mean number of episodes of pain, mean days to stone expulsion and mean amount of analgesic dosage used were statistically significantly lower in Group II (P value is 0.007, 0.01 and 0.007, respectively as compared to Group I. Conclusions: It is concluded that MET should be considered for uncomplicated distal ureteral calculi before ureteroscopy or extracorporeal lithotripsy. Tamsulosin has been found to increase and hasten stone expulsion rates, decrease acute attacks by acting as a spasmolytic, reduces mean days to stone expulsion and decreases analgesic dose usage.

Griwan M

2010-01-01

139

Acute urinary retention as a late complication of subcutaneous liquid silicone injection: a case report  

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Full Text Available Acute urinary retention is characterized by a sudden interruption of urinary output; urine is retained in the bladder due to either functional or obstructive anatomic factors, and cannot be voided. The main causes of acute urinary obstruction are benign prostatic hyperplasia, constipation, prostate adenocarcinoma, urethral stenosis, clot retention, neurological disorders, following surgery, calculi, drugs, or urinary tract infections. A transvestite patient, aged 55 years, described having had liquid silicone subcutaneously injected in various parts of the body, the last one four years ago. He complained of absent urinary output during the last 14 hours. The physical examination revealed skin deformation due to migration of implants; a hard nodule (characterized as a foreign body was present in the preputium and a diagnosis of acute urinary retention was made; an unsuccessful attempt to exteriorize the glans for urinary catheterization, was followed by therapeutic cystostomy. Acute urinary retention has not been mentioned in the medical literature as a complication of liquid silicone subcutaneous injection.

Leandro Luongo de Matos

2009-12-01

140

Comparative study of minimally invasive endoscopic surgery and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL for proximal ureteral calculi in pilots  

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Full Text Available Objective?To observe and compare the therapeutic effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL and minimally invasive endoscopic surgery (URL/PCNL for proximal urinary calculi in pilots. Methods?A retrospective analysis was conducted for the clinical data of 115 pilots who had received ESWL, URL and PCNL for the treatment of proximal urinary tract calculi from Sep, 2005 to Sep, 2012. The patients were divided into two groups according to the way of treatment: ESWL group (n=83 and URL/PCNL group (n=32. In ESWL group, the patients received ESWL for a maximum of 3 times. In URL/PCNL group, the patients received URS or PCNL after ESWL for 3 times without lithecbole. Results?All the patients were male and the mean age was 36.1±9.1 years. The average diameter of the stones was 0.68±0.22cm in ESWL group and 0.78±0.25cm in URL/PCNL group. There was no significant difference in stone diameter between the two groups (P=0.526. The rate of qualification for flying was 68.7% in ESWL group and 81.3% in URL/PCNL group (URL 80.0%, PCNL 100%, showing a significant difference (P=0.002. In ESWL group, the rate of qualification for flying of pilots harboring renal and proximal ureteral stone, middle ureteral stone and distal ureteral stone was 64.3%, 88.9% and 33.3% respectively, with a significant difference (P=0.023. The rate of flying qualification of pilots harboring proximal ureteral stone, middle ureteral stone and distal ureteral stone was 71.4%, 86.7% and 87.5% respectively after URL, and there was no significant difference (P=0.174. Among the five patients who received URL but did not achieve satisfactory effect, two had stones retreated to the renal pelvis during the operation, and in two patients distal ureter was too narrow to allow passage of ureteroscope, and the ureteroscope was enveloped by inflammatory polyp in one patient. Conclusion?URL/PCNL maybe more effective than ESWL in the treatment of proximal urinary calculus in pilots, and it may enable them to fly again. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.12.14

He-qing GUO

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

On the Correspondence between Display Postulates and Deep Inference in Nested Sequent Calculi for Tense Logics  

CERN Document Server

We consider two styles of proof calculi for a family of tense logics, presented in a formalism based on nested sequents. A nested sequent can be seen as a tree of traditional single-sided sequents. Our first style of calculi is what we call "shallow calculi", where inference rules are only applied at the root node in a nested sequent. Our shallow calculi are extensions of Kashima's calculus for tense logic and share an essential characteristic with display calculi, namely, the presence of structural rules called "display postulates". Shallow calculi enjoy a simple cut elimination procedure, but are unsuitable for proof search due to the presence of display postulates and other structural rules. The second style of calculi uses deep-inference, whereby inference rules can be applied at any node in a nested sequent. We show that, for a range of extensions of tense logic, the two styles of calculi are equivalent, and there is a natural proof theoretic correspondence between display postulates and deep inference. ...

Gore, Rajeev; Tiu, Alwen

2011-01-01

142

Ultrasound findings of the urinary tract in patients with spinal cord injury: a study of 1005 cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Study design:Retrospective chart review.Objectives:To document urinary tract abnormalities (UTAs) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to assess demographic and clinical features associated with UTA detected via ultrasound (US).Setting:Turkish Armed Forces Rehabilitation Center, Ankara, Turkey.Methods:The medical and radiological records of all patients with SCI were screened. Variables in each patient with SCI, including age at the time of the US examination, gender, etiology, level and severity of SCI, time since injury, bladder management methods and findings of urinary tract US, were reviewed and analyzed.Results:Data were obtained from 1005 patients during the 6-year study period (2008-2013). The mean age was 35.67±14.79 years and the male-female ratio was 2.84:1. Trabeculated bladder (TB) was observed in 35.1% of the patients, bladder calculi in 6%, renal calculi in 6%, hydronephrosis in 5.5% and renal atrophy in 1.2%. Bladder calculi, renal calculi and renal atrophy were observed in patients with TB at higher rates than in those without TB (P=0.001, 0.036 and 0.004, respectively). The association of TB with hydronephrosis was very close to significance level (P=0.052).Conclusion:A large number of SCI patients had UTAs including TB, renal and bladder calculi, hydronephrosis and renal atrophy. The time since injury, level and severity of SCI and bladder management method may influence development of UTA. In addition, TB may be a helpful parameter for predicting UTA in SCI patients.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 4 November 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.201. PMID:25366534

Güzelküçük, U; Demir, Y; Kesikburun, S; Aras, B; Ya?ar, E; Tan, A K

2014-11-01

143

Value of MRCP combined with thin-sliced T2WI in diagnosis of biliary calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the value of MRCP and thin-sliced fat-saturated T2WI for diagnosing biliary calculi. Methods: MRI and MRCP were performed on 56 patients with suspected biliary calculi including thin-sliced fat-saturated T2WI in the area of interest. Compared with ERCP or surgical findings, diagnostic accordance rates before and after thin-sliced fat-saturated T2WI were calculated. Results: The diagnostic accordance rate for biliary calculi was significantly higher (P2WI. Conclusion: Thin-sliced fat-saturated T2WI depicts small biliary calculi and biliary tract malformation, thus reducing the incidence of biliary tract injury and residual calculi after surgery. (authors)

144

Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

2014-02-01

145

Urinary Bladder Adenocarcinoma  

Science.gov (United States)

... your surgeon performs a partial or radical (complete) cystectomy. (continued on next page) Urinary Bladder Cancer Urinary ... small tumors, a transurethral resection or partial/segmental cystectomy is performed to remove the cancerous tissue from ...

146

Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection  

Science.gov (United States)

Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and continue throughout ... Increased bacteria near the urethra can cause infection. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with ...

147

FT-IR spectroscopic, thermal analysis of human urinary stones and their characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, FT-IR, XRD, TGA-DTA spectral methods have been used to investigate the chemical compositions of urinary calculi. Multi-components of urinary calculi such as calcium oxalate, hydroxyl apatite, struvite and uric acid have been studied. The chemical compounds are identified by FT-IR spectroscopic technique. The mineral identification was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction patterns as compared with JCPDS reported values. Thermal analysis techniques are considered the best techniques for the characterization and detection of endothermic and exothermic behaviors of the urinary stones. The percentages of each hydrate (COM and COD) are present together, in the presences of MAPH or UA. Finally, the present study suggests that the Urolithiasis is significant health problem in children, and is very common in some parts of the world, especially in India. So that present study is so useful and helpful to the scientific community for identification of latest human health problems and their remedies using spectroscopic techniques.

Selvaraju, R.; Raja, A.; Thiruppathi, G.

2015-02-01

148

Radiologic contribution to the extracorporeal lithotripsy treatment of calyceal diverticular calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors reviewed the radiologic studies in 19 patients with calyceal diverticular calculi treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy (EL) in order to establish criteria predicting successful outcome. Pre-EL imaging was performed to evaluate the size of calculus in relation to the diverticular cavity, and the width of the connection of the diverticulum to the adjacent calyx. Post-EL studies were performed to assess fragmentation and passage of fragments. EL fragmented calculi in 15 diverticula with cavities larger than stone volume. Complete passage of fragments was shown in five patients and partial passage in two, all with wide diverticular necks. No passage was seen in eight diverticular with fragmented calculi, five of which had narrow or nondemonstrable necks. The radiologic demonstration of large diverticular correlates well with effective EL fragmentation, and a wide neck results in satisfactory fragment passage. Calculi in tight, narrowly communicating diverticula are unlikely to respond to EL

149

A Syntactic Correspondence between Context-Sensitive Calculi and Abstract Machines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a systematic construction of environment-based abstract machines from context-sensitive calculi of explicit substitutions, and we illustrate it with ten calculi and machines for applicative order with an abort operation, normal order with generalized reduction and call/cc, the lambda-mu-calculus, delimited continuations, stack inspection, proper tail-recursion, and lazy evaluation. Most of the machines already exist but have been obtained independently and are only indirectly related to the corresponding calculi. All of the calculi are new and they make it possible to directly reason about the execution of the corresponding machines. In connection with the functional correspondence between evaluation functions and abstract machines initiated by Reynolds, the present syntactic correspondence makes it possible to construct reduction-free normalization functions out of reduction-based ones, which was an open problem in the area of normalization by evaluation.

Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

2005-01-01

150

In-vivo labelling of renal calculi with technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of labelling renal calculi in-vivo with 99Tcsup(m) methylene diphosphonate is described. The way in which this enables the stones to be located both before and during surgical removal is discussed. (author)

151

Percutaneous intervention of large bladder calculi in neuropathic voiding dysfunction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report our results and rationale for treating large bladder calculi in patients with neuropathic voiding dysfunction (NVD using percutaneous cystolithalopaxy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with a previously diagnosed NVD presenting with a large stone burden were identified from our department database and a retrospective review of case notes and imaging was performed. RESULTS: Percutaneous access to remove bladder stones (range 8x7 to 3x2 cm had a mean surgery length of 150 min and blood loss of 23 mL. Six of the seven patients treated percutaneously were discharged on the day of surgery and suffered no complications, while one patient experienced poor suprapubic tube drainage and required overnight admission with discharge the following day. Transurethral removal of stone burden (range 4x4 to 4x3 cm had a mean surgery length of 111 min and blood loss of 8 mL. Each of these three patients were under our care for less than 23 hours, and one patient required a second attempt to remove 1x0.5 cm of stone fragments. There was no statistical difference between mean operative times and estimated blood loss, p = 0.5064 and p = 0.0944 respectively, for the two treatment methods. CONCLUSION: In this small series, percutaneous cystolithalopaxy was a safe, effective, and often preferred minimally invasive option for removal of large calculi in patients with NVD. We suggest possible guidelines for best endoscopic approach in this population, although a larger and prospectively randomized series will be ideal for definitive conclusions.

Chad P. Hubsher

2011-10-01

152

Porfirinas en Cálculos Renales (Revisión) / Porphyrins in renal calculi (Review)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Hemos realizado una revisión del contenido de porfirinas en una clase peculiar de cálculos renales. Estos son negros como el carbón y presentan un espectro infrarrojo (EIR) similar al conocido como "materia orgánica", el cual no indica la clase de sustancia a la que corresponde. Otros tipos de cálcu [...] los renales, principalmente de pequeño tamaño y eliminados espontáneamente, pueden tener un compuesto oscuro o negro de forma difusa o aislada y presentan un espectro de IR similar al de "materia orgánica". Después de observar que la hemoglobina presentaba un espectro de IR de "materia orgánica", estudiamos, por cromatografía en capa fina, un método sensible para la determinación de porfirinas, la presencia de porfirinas en diversos tipos de cálculos renales negros y oscuros, ya que las porfirinas son los precursores del grupo hemo. Este trabajo ha puesto de manifiesto dos tipos de porfirinas: la coproporfirina, en pacientes que padecen hepatopatías, y la uroporfirina y heptacarboxilporfirina en pacientes con algún tipo de porfiria o bien con fracaso renal crónico. Abstract in english We performed a review of the porphyrines content in a type of black, charcoal-like, renal calculi exhibiting infrarred spectra (IRS) similar to those characteristic of "organic material" which has not yet been fully elucidate. Several other types of renal calculi, mainly those of small size, spontan [...] eous passage renal stone, may also have diffuse or isolated dark charcoal components showing "organic material" IRS. After observing that haemoglobin has an "organic material" IRS, we studied, by a sensitive thin layer chromatography method, the presence of porphyrines in several types of dark or charcoal renal stones, since porphyrines are the physiological precursors of haemo group biosynthesis. We found two types of porphyrine content: coproporphyrin, in patients suffering from hepatopathy, and uroporphyrin and heptacarboxil-porphyrin in patients with some types of porphyria or with chronic renal failure.

MªL., Traba Villameytide.

2005-02-01

153

[Application of alpha1-adrenoblockers in treatment of ureteral calculi].  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of evaluation of the efficacy of alpha1-adrenoblockers in treatment of ureteral calculi are presented. Comparative, prospective, placebo-uncontrolled nonrandomized single-center study was performed, which included 118 patients with solitary diagnosed calculi in various parts of ureter. After the pain relief, all the patients underwent conservative therapy aimed at spontaneous discharge of concretions. The maximum duration of conservative treatment was 28 days. Ultrasound monitoring was performed every week in all patients. The control group of patients received only Drotaverinum 40 mg three times a day, and analgesics. The main group received alpha1-adrenoblocker tamsulosin at a standard dose of 0.4 mg once a day along with Drotaverinum and analgesics. The overall probability of a discharge of concrements localized in the distal ureter was significantly (P = 0.02) higher in the patients treated with alpha1-adrenoblockers. Treatment regimen in main group of patients allowed better control of pain during all periods of observation, even if the discharge of concretions was not registered. The overall probability of migration of concrements from the proximal to the distal ureter in main group of patients was 52% versus 32% in controls (P = 0.17). The frequency of adverse effects was comparable in both groups. Vertigo, postural hypotension, and weakness were significantly more frequent in the main group of patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the proportional hazards model have demonstrated that the administration of alpha1-adrenoblocker increased the likelihood of a discharge of concrement from the distal ureter. It is shown that the nature of the applied therapy has directly influence on the risk of an earlier discharge of concretions. Inclusion of alpha1-adrenoblockers in the treatment scheme increased the probability of discharge of concrements at 4.11 times. PMID:23342609

Dutov, V V; Popov, D V; Rumiantsev, A A; Pashchenko, V B

2012-01-01

154

Holmium laser lithotripsy (HoLL) of ureteral calculi  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness and side effects of ureteroscopic HoLL of ureteral stones should be evaluated. In 63 patients (17 female, 46 males) a total of 75 stones of 3-20 mm diameter were treated with ureteroscopic HoLL. 18.7 percent of stones were located in the proximal third, 24.0 percent in the middle third and 57.3 percent in the distal third of the ureter. HoLL was performed with small diameter semirigid and flexible ureteroscopes, 220 or 365 nm flexible laser fibers and a holmium:YAG laser at a power of 5-15 W (0.5-1.0 J, 10- 15 Hz). 47 of 63 patients (74.6 percent) were immediately free of stones, and 8 others (12.6 percent) lost their residual fragments spontaneously within two weeks. Another 2 patients received additional chmolitholysis for uric acid stone fragments, i.e. 90.5 percent of patients were stone free by one sitting of ureterscopic HoLL. Of the remaining 6 patients (9.5 percent) who still had residual calculi 4 weeks after HoLL, 2 asymptomatic patients refused any additional treatment, 2 patients preferred treatment with ESWL, and 2 patients had a successful second HoLL, thereby raising the success rate of ureteroscopic HoLL to 93.7 percent. 2 patients showed contrast medium extravasation on retrograde ureterograms, due to guide wire perforation. No ureteral stricture occurred. In conclusion, transurethral ureteroscopic HoLL proved to be a safe and successful minimal invasive treatment of ureteral calculi.

Kuntz, Rainer M.; Lehrich, Karin; Fayad, Amr

2001-05-01

155

Proceedings Third Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi 2009  

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This volume contains the accepted papers at the third Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi, held in Bologna on 5th September 2009. The papers are devoted to both membrane computing and biologically inspired process calculi, as well as to other related formalisms. The papers of this volume are selected by the programme committee due to their quality and relevance; they have defined an exciting programme highlighting interesting problems and...

Ciobanu, Gabriel

2009-01-01

156

Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy versus ureteroscopy for distal ureteric calculi: efficacy and patient satisfaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and ureteroscopy (URS) for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi with respect to patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND MHETODS: This is a prospective study where a total of 212 patients with solitary, radiopaque distal ureteral calculi were treated with ESWL (n = 92) using Dornier lithotriptor S (MedTech Europe GmbH) or URS (n = 120). Patient and stone characteristics, treatment parameters, clinical outcomes,...

Ghalayini, Ibrahim F.; Al-ghazo, Mohammed A.; Khader, Yousef S.

2006-01-01

157

Stone expulsion rate of small distal ureteric calculi could be predicted with plasma C-reactive protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ureteral stones tend to induce inflammatory lesions in the ureteric wall; such lesions may interfere with the probability of spontaneous ureteral stone passage. Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase protein whose serum level is increases in response to inflammation, as in ureteric inflammatory disorders induced by stone impaction. Patients with distal ureteric stones were included in this study. All patients were subjected to history taking KUB, urinary tract ultrasound, Non-contrast CT (NC-CTKUB) scan, and plasma CRP estimation. All patients received medical expulsive therapy. Patients were examined weekly using KUB and urinary tract ultrasound until spontaneous stone passage or intervention after 4 weeks. Patients who failed to expel the stone within 4 weeks underwent ureteroscopy. Spontaneous stone expulsion within 4 weeks was recorded in 129 patients (54.9 %), while 106 patients (45.1 %) underwent ureteroscopy for stone extraction. Patients with spontaneous stone expulsion had significantly lower serum CRP levels (16.45 + 2.58) than those who failed to pass the stone spontaneously (39.67 + 6.30). Receiver operator characteristic curve is used to determine CRP cut-off point for prediction of spontaneous ureteric stone expulsion. A cut-off point of 21.9 mg/L for CRP yielded appeared optimal for prediction of spontaneous ureteric stone expulsion. Medical expulsive therapy success for management of small distal ureteric calculi could be predicted with plasma CRP. Patients with CRP >21.9 mg/L have low stone expulsion rate and should directly be subjected for an immediate, minimally invasive ureteroscopy. PMID:23468212

Aldaqadossi, Hussein A

2013-06-01

158

Components of the Urinary System  

Science.gov (United States)

The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The kidneys form the urine and account for the other functions attributed to the urinary system. The ureters carry the urine away from kidneys ...

159

Transureteral Lithotripsy of Ureteral Calculi in Children with Holmium: Yttrium Aluminium Garnet Laser  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Surgical management of pediatric urinary calculi evolved dramatically over the past two decades. However, with the miniaturization of equipment and with improvisation of endourologic techniques, access to the entire pediatric urinary system is possible. Ho: YAG laser provides more maneuverability during transuretereal lithotripsy (TUL than the pneumatic system which uses a metal probe, especially when used in pediatrics urinary systems. In this study, we report our experience about treatment of pediatric ureteral stone with HO: YAG laser.METHODS: Between 2008 -2011, 41 children ? 12 years of age with ureteral stones were included in our study. Using K.U.B, sonography, and intravenous urogram, diagnoses were established for all patients. 6F or 8F wolf semi rigid ureteroscope was used for ureteroscopy under general anesthesia and stone fragmentation was implemented by Ho: YAG laser. For the evaluation of stone free rate, we used the following day & week confirmatory KUB, and sonograms additional to the direct visualization of the ureter during ureteroscopy. The patients were scheduled to be followed by control sonograms 2 weeks and 2 months after the operation to rule out past operational ureteral stenosis.RESULTS: From our 40 patients whose ages were in the range of 8 months and twelve years of old with a mean age 3.5 years, 18 patients (45% had distal ureteral stones, ten (25% in mid ureter, and twelve of them (30% had the stone in their proximal ureter. The mean diameter of stones was 9.3 mm (3.5-11 mm. Three patients had encrusted double j stents (DJS. Our overall stone free rate was 89.35% at the end of 1 week. The complications were fever in 5 patients (12.5% and ureteral stricture due to ureteral perforation in one patient, while one patient had long hospital stay due to refractory pain and nausea. The mean time of post-surgical hospital stay was 42 hours, while for only 20% of patients (8 patients and in the rest of patients (30 patients this period was only 24hours.DISCUSSION: Endoscopic lithotripsy in children has gradually become a major technique for the treatment of ureteral stones. This progression has been on the basis of the development of appropriate endoscopes and effective working instruments. The stone-free rate following urteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteral stones has been reported in as high as 98.5-100%. In this study, overall stone free rate was 89.35%. The complications after ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy are uncommon and usually related to passage of the ureteroscope than from laser action. Fever was the most common complication which occurred in 5 (12.5% of our patients despite the fact that all patients were hospitalized the day before the procedure and were under parenteral antibiotic therapy. Postoperative stenting after ureteroscopic lithotripsy remained controversial. Most children were able to tolerate the attached string and the stent could be removed 5-7 days after without the use of an additional anesthetic. We used suitable ureteral catheters for 24 hours in all patients.CONCLUSION: Although HO: YAG laser lithotripsy is safe in children, we need more controlledtrials to show the best method of lithotripsy in pediatric ureteral stones.

Farzin Sheikh Monazzah

2012-02-01

160

Renoscintigram in urinary stones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventy six patients who suffered from urinary stones on either side of the upper urinary tract were reviewed. The 99m-Tc DTPA renoscintigram was analyzed to examine whether stasis presented on the contralateral side of the urinary stone retrospectively. Though excretory urogram showed neither apparant stasis nor other abnormalities on the contralateral sides, 55 of these 76 cases showed stasis to some degree in the renoscintigram. Thirty five of these 55 cases also showed elongation of T1/2 in the ROI curve. Since 72.4% showed urinary stasis on the contralateral side of the urinary stone, we suggest the possibility that stasis can well be a cause of stone formation. In addition we warn of the possibility of future stone formation on the now healthy contralateral side. (author)

 
 
 
 
161

O que há de novo no diagnóstico e tratamento da litíase urinária? What's new in the diagnosis and management of urinary lithiasis?  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Atualizar aspectos do diagnóstico e do tratamento da litíase urinária. MÉTODOS. Uma revisão dos principais artigos publicados sobre o tema em revistas indexadas no "Medline" entre 1979 e 2009. RESULTADOS. A ocorrência de cálculos é maior em pacientes com IMC > 30. A TC sem contraste promove o diagnóstico correto em até 98% dos casos. O uso de bloqueadores alfa-adrenérgicos aumenta a eliminação de cálculos ureterais menores que 8 mm em 29%. O índice de pacientes livres de cálculo após LEOC varia entre 35% e 91%, conforme seu tamanho e localização. Cálculos renais maiores que 2 cm são eliminados pela NLPC entre 60% e 100% dos casos. Cálculos de ureter distal são tratados com sucesso em até 94% dos casos pela ureteroscopia semirrígida contra 74% da LEOC. Já para cálculos de ureter superior as taxas de sucesso situam-se entre 77% e 91% para ureteroscopia e 41% e 82% para a LEOC. CONCLUSÃO. A associação da calculose urinária com obesidade e Diabetes mellitus está bem estabelecida. A TC sem contraste é atualmente o padrão-ouro no diagnóstico da litíase urinária. A LEOC é o método de eleição em nosso meio para tratamento de cálculos renais menores que 2 cm e com densidade tomográfica OBJECTIVE. To review developments in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary lithiasis. METHODS. A review of the most important articles on the subject published in Medline indexed periodicals between 1979 and 2009.RESULTS. Stones occur with greater frequency among people with BMI > 30. Computerized tomography without contrast provides the correct diagnosis in up to 98% of cases. Alpha-adrenergic blockers increase elimination of ureteral calculi smaller than 8 mm by 29%. The proportion of patients free from calculi after ESWL varies from 35% to 91%, depending on size and location. In between 60% and 100% of cases, renal calculi larger than 2 cm are eliminated with PCNL. Calculi of the distal ureter are successfully treated in up to 94% of cases using semi-rigid ureteroscopy, compared to 74% using ESWL. For calculi of the upper ureter success rates are around 77% and 91% for ureteroscopy and 41% and 82% for ESWL. CONCLUSION. The association between urinary lithiasis and Diabetes mellitus, is well-established. Computerized tomography without contrast is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of urinary lithiasis. In Brazil, ESWL is the method of choice for treating renal calculi smaller than 2 cm and with tomographic density < 1000 HU, except those of the lower pole, where the ideal limit for treatment is 1 cm. Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy is the best method of treating renal calculi larger than 2 cm and semi-rigid ureteroscopy is the best treatment for calculi of the distal ureter. Flexible ureteroscopy is an option for calculi of the upper ureter and renal calculi smaller than 1.5 cm that do not respond to ESWL or where PCNL is contraindicated.

Eduardo Mazzucchi

2009-01-01

162

O que há de novo no diagnóstico e tratamento da litíase urinária? / What's new in the diagnosis and management of urinary lithiasis?  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO. Atualizar aspectos do diagnóstico e do tratamento da litíase urinária. MÉTODOS. Uma revisão dos principais artigos publicados sobre o tema em revistas indexadas no "Medline" entre 1979 e 2009. RESULTADOS. A ocorrência de cálculos é maior em pacientes com IMC > 30. A TC sem contraste promov [...] e o diagnóstico correto em até 98% dos casos. O uso de bloqueadores alfa-adrenérgicos aumenta a eliminação de cálculos ureterais menores que 8 mm em 29%. O índice de pacientes livres de cálculo após LEOC varia entre 35% e 91%, conforme seu tamanho e localização. Cálculos renais maiores que 2 cm são eliminados pela NLPC entre 60% e 100% dos casos. Cálculos de ureter distal são tratados com sucesso em até 94% dos casos pela ureteroscopia semirrígida contra 74% da LEOC. Já para cálculos de ureter superior as taxas de sucesso situam-se entre 77% e 91% para ureteroscopia e 41% e 82% para a LEOC. CONCLUSÃO. A associação da calculose urinária com obesidade e Diabetes mellitus está bem estabelecida. A TC sem contraste é atualmente o padrão-ouro no diagnóstico da litíase urinária. A LEOC é o método de eleição em nosso meio para tratamento de cálculos renais menores que 2 cm e com densidade tomográfica Abstract in english OBJECTIVE. To review developments in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary lithiasis. METHODS. A review of the most important articles on the subject published in Medline indexed periodicals between 1979 and 2009.RESULTS. Stones occur with greater frequency among people with BMI > 30. Computerized [...] tomography without contrast provides the correct diagnosis in up to 98% of cases. Alpha-adrenergic blockers increase elimination of ureteral calculi smaller than 8 mm by 29%. The proportion of patients free from calculi after ESWL varies from 35% to 91%, depending on size and location. In between 60% and 100% of cases, renal calculi larger than 2 cm are eliminated with PCNL. Calculi of the distal ureter are successfully treated in up to 94% of cases using semi-rigid ureteroscopy, compared to 74% using ESWL. For calculi of the upper ureter success rates are around 77% and 91% for ureteroscopy and 41% and 82% for ESWL. CONCLUSION. The association between urinary lithiasis and Diabetes mellitus, is well-established. Computerized tomography without contrast is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of urinary lithiasis. In Brazil, ESWL is the method of choice for treating renal calculi smaller than 2 cm and with tomographic density

Eduardo, Mazzucchi; Miguel, Srougi.

163

Development of a urinary lithiasis localizer mechanism to couple ultrasound and extracorporeal lithotripsy equipment in canine model  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Due to the evolution of extracorporeal lithotripsy equipment (ESWL and presently, the fact that most part of the equipment does not present ultrasound to localize urinary calculi, a system that allows adapting ultrasound equipment to ESWL equipment was developed, disposing only of fluoroscopy. Thus, this equipment was developed and was tested in urinary stones in canine models, to check its precision in relation to fluoroscopy. METHOD: Seven male dogs were utilized with the introduction, in the bladder through the ureteral route, of chalkstones, with initial localization by fluoroscopy, with a further ultrasound coincidence check localization of the vesical stones, being submitted to ESWL with a 3-hour, 21 days and 60 days follow-up after the procedure. RESULTS: Success of localization in all animals was verified presenting elimination of stones in the first micturitions, after ESWL. No complications were verified in those animals for 60 days. CONCLUSION: We verified that this equipment can lead to an update of the equipment that use only fluoroscopy, increasing in this way, their technical capacity in the treatment of urinary calculi, mainly in cases of non-radiopaque stones.

Enrico Andrade

2006-10-01

164

Analytical investigation of salivary calculi, by mid-infrared spectroscopy.  

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Sialolithiasis is common in salivary glands, especially in the submandibular and parotid ducts. X-Ray diffractometry was the principal technique used for their analysis, sometimes associated with scanning electron microscopy. Hydroxyapatite was the most frequently described constituent, in association with whitlockite and other calcium phosphates as brushite or octocalcium phosphate. Proteic matter was detected, as mucoproteins, albumin, nucleoproteins or as degenerative bacterial matter. This study presents the identification of constituents by mid-infrared spectrometry of 74 sialoliths. Their successive layers are analyzed from their crust to the nucleus, using absorbance measurements. Spectra are compared with reference mixtures of two or more constituents. Approximately 99% of sialoliths are constituted of calcium phosphates, under carbonated forms. More than three-quarters contain proteins, in which mucins represent the majority and albumin is found in 10% of all the specimens. Only 7% calculi are an association of two constituents, 66% are made of three and 27% have four or more components. For the 74 studied sialoliths, no specimen contains hydroxyapatite; but they are composed of carbonate apatites with irregular microcrystallized forms, even if proteins are present. Some of them have a pure protein nucleus, surrounded by carbonate apatite layers; the other stones are made of internal layers of apatites and covered with a dense and varnished crust of proteins. PMID:22416268

Sabot, Jean-François; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Delahougue, Katia; Faure, Frédéric; Machon, Christelle; Hartmann, Daniel-Jean

2012-05-01

165

Origin of Urinary Oxalate  

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Urinary oxalate is mostly derived from the absorption of ingested oxalate and endogenous synthesis. The breakdown of vitamin C may also contribute small amounts to the urinary oxalate pool. The amount of oxalate absorbed is influenced by the oxalate content of the diet, the concentrations of divalent cations in the gut, the presence of oxalate-degrading organisms, transport characteristics of the intestinal epithelium, and other factors associated with the intestinal environment. Knowledge of pathways associated with endogenous oxalate synthesis is limited. Urinary oxalate excretion can be modified using strategies that limit dietary oxalate absorption and the ingestion of oxalogenic substrates such as hydroxyproline.

Holmes, Ross P.; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

2007-04-01

166

Urinary tract infection - adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... 625-63. Jepson RG, Williams G, Craig JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database of ...

167

Urinary Tract Infections  

Science.gov (United States)

... get urinary tract infections much more frequently than guys, most likely due to differences in the shape ... of the urethra. Girls have shorter urethras than guys, and the opening lies closer to the rectum ...

168

Adenocarcinoma following urinary diversion  

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The use of bowel segments in urinary diversions has been associated with an increased risk of neoplasia. This report describes three cases of intestinal adenocarcinoma following urinary diversion. In the first case, a 73-year-old woman developed moderately-differentiated colonic adenocarcinoma in her Indiana pouch 10.5 years after cystectomy. The second case involved a 77-year-old man with well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in his Indiana pouch 9 years after radical cystoprostatectomy and en ...

Jian, Peter Yicum; Godoy, Guilherme; Coburn, Michael; Lynch, Garrett; Ro, Jae Y.; Zhai, Qihui “jim”; Nishino, Michiya; Lerner, Seth P.

2012-01-01

169

Genito-urinary tuberculosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tuberculosis continues to be one of the most frequently recurring specific infectious diseases. In this context, genito-urinary tuberculosis, followed by lymph node tuberculosis, presents itself as the most important extrapulmonary organ manifestation. Due to its steady incidence rate, an often insidious disease process as well as the increasing number of immunosuppressed patients, it is more important than ever to focus our clinical attention on the knowledge of epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy of genito-urinary tuberculosis. (orig.)

170

Urinary incontinence during pregnancy  

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Objectives: To investigate incidence and prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy, and associated risk factors.

Method: The data collection was conducted as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We present questionnaire data about urinary incontinence obtained from 43,279 women (response rate 45%) by week 30. We report data on any incontinence in addition to type, frequency and amount of incontinence. Pote...

Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Rørtveit, Guri; Bø, Kari; Hunska?r, Steinar

2007-01-01

171

URINARY MELATONIN IN DEPRESSION  

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This report is based on a study of 12 cases of depression (8 endogenous, 4 neurotic) with a view to explore the possible association between urinary melatonin and the illness prior to and following treatment. While cases of endogenous depression had low 24 hour as well as nocturnal urinary melatonin levels, the neurotic depressives showed higher than normal levels. A rise in the 24 hour melatonin levels occurred in all cases of endogenous depression though this did not apply, to the nocturnal...

Rao, A. Venkoba; Devi, S. Parvathi; Srinivasan, V.

1983-01-01

172

Fasting and Urinary Stones  

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Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted ...

Ali Shamsa

2013-01-01

173

Proceedings Fourth Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi 2010  

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The 4th Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi (MeCBIC 2010) is organized in Jena as a satellite event of the Eleventh International Conference on Membrane Computing (CMC11). Biological membranes play a fundamental role in the complex reactions which take place in cells of living organisms. The importance of this role has been considered in two different types of formalisms introduced recently. Membrane systems were introduced as a class of distributed parallel computing devices inspired by the observation that any biological system is a complex hierarchical structure, with a flow of biochemical substances and information that underlies their functioning. The modeling and analysis of biological systems has also attracted considerable interest of the process algebra research community. Thus the notions of membranes and compartments have been explicitly represented in a family of calculi, such as ambients and brane calculi. A cross fertilization of these two research areas has ...

Ciobanu, Gabriel; 10.4204/EPTCS.40

2010-01-01

174

Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with the Chiba needle in patients with biliary calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a prospective study, 276 consecutive patients were evaluated using percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) with a Chiba needle prior to surgery for cholestasis. Biliary calculi were diagnosed in 109 patients. The success rate was 92.4% overall, 93.6% among patients with biliary calculi, 83.3% in those with cholelithiasis, 97.3% in those with choledocholithiasis, and 100.0% in those with intrahepatic stones. The overall morbidity rate was 4.6%, including hemoperitoneum in 1.8% and bile leakage in 2.8%. There were no deaths. This technique offers a more definitive diagnosis than noninvasive procedures, especially with small calculi, but is also more traumatic. PTC may play an important role when noninvasive methods are inconclusive or in difficult cases, particularly following surgery on the common bile duct

175

Solo Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Management of Upper Ureteral Calculi With Hydronephrosis  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL outcomes as a solo therapy in patients with upper ureteral calculi and varying degrees of hydronephrosis.Materials and Methods: Eighty patients with upper ureteral calculi and a body mass index between 19.5 kg/m2 and 22.5 kg/m2 were included. They were categorized into 4 groups according to the severity of hydronephrosis as seen on ultrasonography and intravenous urography: group 1, no dilatation; group 2, mild dilatation; group 3, moderate dilatation; and group 4, severe dilatation of the pyelocaliceal system. The size of calculi, time to calculus clearance, success rate of solo SWL, and the need for additional therapeutic methods were recorded and compared between the four groups of patients. Results: The median size of the calculi was 13.5 mm, and the mean time to calculus clearance was 56.0 ± 24.2 days. In 71.3% of the patients, solo SWL was successful in the treatment of the calculi. Twenty-three patients required other therapies including double-J stenting, ureteroscopy, and nephrolithotomy. The patients without hydronephrosis and those with severe hydronephrosis (groups 1 and 4 showed a significant difference in the days to clearance of the calculus (mean, 31.7 days versus 85.6 days; P Conclusion: Patients with upper ureteral calculi and mild hydronephrosis can be effectively treated with solo SWL therapy. In those with moderate hydronephrosis, clearance takes longer or requires secondary interventions. In patients with severe hydronephrosis, we recommend alternative/adjunctive procedures.

Govindaiyah Girish

2008-06-01

176

A vesicocutaneous fistula secondary to bladder calculi in a patient with spina bifida  

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Full Text Available We present a rare case of a vesicocutaneous fistula secondary to two large bladder calculi in a patient with spina bifida. A 62 year old lady presented with swelling of her right thigh and a calcified mass protruding through the subcutaneous tissues of her right groin. Urine was seen to be draining from around the area and plain radiographs and a computed topography (CT scan confirmed the presence of two bladder calculi with a vesicocutaneous fistula. Vesicolithotomy was performed and the fistula tract left to close spontaneously. Worldwide this is only the fourth case of a bladder calculus causing a vesicocutaneous fistula.

Jonathan D Horsnell

2010-08-01

177

Role of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction in formation of biliary calculi  

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Full Text Available Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progression of biliary and pancreatic diseases. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction can be classified into two categories: anatomical abnormality and functional disorder. Studies have found that sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is closely associated with duodenal-biliary reflux and formation of biliary calculi. The classification of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction and its relationship with formation of biliary calculi are reviewed and summarized. It is thought that intervention and regulation for Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction may be of great significance in guiding the prevention and treatment of cholelithiasis.

SU Yang

2013-12-01

178

Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer implant calcification mimicking distal ureteral calculi on ultrasound.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report 2 patients with a history of vesicoureteral reflux who were treated with intraureteral and/or subtrigonal injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer; they later developed calcification within the region of injection, as seen on ultrasound, which mimicked ureterovesical junction calculi. The radiologist reporting the studies suggested the presence of a distal ureteric calculus in the first case and a distal ureteric calcification in the second case. The ultrasound findings were incidental with no hydronephrosis and both patients were asymptomatic without hematuria. Follow-up ultrasound studies remained unchanged. Calcification of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer implants may mimic distal ureteral calculi, and careful initial observation is recommended. PMID:19683806

Clark, Aaron T D; Guerra, Luis; Leonard, Michael

2010-05-01

179

US and MDCT findings in a caudal blind ending bifid ureter with calculi  

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Full Text Available Herein we present a rare ureteric duplication anomaly; blind ending bifid ureter with calculi which is asymptomatic unless complicated by infection, reflux, calculi or malignancy. The diagnosis is often missed at intravenous urography (IVU and US because the ipsilateral ureter and kidney are grossly normal. In this case the diagnosis was established with ultrasound (US and mainly with multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT imaging using multiplanar reformats and 3-D reconstructions which were unique to this case. MDCT scans not only revealed the exact diagnosis and anatomic relationships but also ruled out other pathologies included in the differential diagnosis as well, such as ureter and bladder diverticula.

Caglar Uzun

2011-09-01

180

US and MDCT findings in a caudal blind ending bifid ureter with calculi  

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Full Text Available Herein we present a rare ureteric duplication anomaly; blind ending bifid ureter with calculi which is asymptomatic unless complicated by infection, reflux, calculi or malignancy. The diagnosis is often missed at intravenous urography (IVU and US because the ipsilateral ureter and kidney are grossly normal. In this case the diagnosis was established with ultrasound (US and mainly with multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT imaging using multiplanar reformats and 3-D reconstructions which were unique to this case. MDCT scans not only revealed the exact diagnosis and anatomic relationships but also ruled out other pathologies included in the differential diagnosis as well, such as ureter and bladder diverticula.

Caglar Uzun

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Analytical scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microdiffractometry of renal calculi using etched plastic sections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe the technique and illustrate results of renal calculi analyses utilizing correlative analytical scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microdiffractometry on the same 100 micrometer Spurr embedded sections. Essential to the technique is the employment of an extremely sensitive x-ray microdiffractometer, and for morphological analysis, pretreatment of the sections with a sodium ethoxide etching solution. This technique facilitates more precise identification of crystalline constituents especially calcium apatite and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (struvite). Further, the technique permits detection and mapping of both crystalline and amorphous constituents within calculi

182

Is continent urinary diversion feasible in children under five years of age?  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To review our clinical experience with urinary continent catheterizable reservoir in children under five years of age. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 patients (16 males, 7 females with a median age of 3.64 years were evaluated. Among these, 6 (26.08% had a posterior urethral valve, 9 (39.13% myelomeningocele, 4 (17.39% bladder exstrophy, 2 (8.69% genitourinary rabdomyosarcoma, 1 (4.34% had spinal tumor and 1 (4.34% an ano-rectal anomaly. Results: Perioperative complications were observed in four patients consisting of one febrile urinary tract infection, one partial operative wound dehiscence, one partial stomal dehiscence and one vesico-cutaneous fistula after a secondary exstrophy repair. The overall long-term complications rate was 40.90% and consisted of two stomal stenoses (9.09%, one neobladder mucosal extrusion (4.54%, three neobladder calculi (13.63% and persistence of urinary incontinence in three patients (13.63%. The overall surgical revision was 36.36% and final continence rate was 95.45% with mean follow-up of 39.95 months Conclusion: Continent urinary diversion is technically feasible even in small children, with acceptable rates of complications.

Luiz L. Barbosa

2009-08-01

183

Drinking Water Composition and Incidence of Urinary Calculus: Introducing a New Index  

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Full Text Available Introduction. We searched for a pathophysiologically based feature of major water electrolytes, which may define water quality better than the water hardness, respecting urinary calculus formation.Materials and Methods. Utilizing a multistage stratified sampling, 2310 patients were diagnosed in the imaging centers of the provincial capitals in Iran between 2007 and 2008. These were composed of 1755 patients who were settled residents of 24 provincial capitals. Data on the regional drinking water composition, obtained from an accredited registry, and their relationships with the region’s incidence of urinary calculi were evaluated by metaregression models. The stone risk index (defined as the ratio of calcium to magnesium-bicarbonate product in drinking water was used to assess the risk of calculus formation.Results. No correlation was found between the urinary calculus incidence and the amount of calcium, bicarbonate, or the total hardness of the drinking water. In contrast, water magnesium had a marginally significant nonlinear inverse relationship with the incidence of the disease in the capitals (R2 = 26%, P = .05 for a power model. The stone risk index was associated nonlinearly with the calculus incidence (R2 = 28.4%, P = .04.Conclusions. Urinary calculus incidence was inversely related with drinking water magnesium content. We introduced a new index constructed on the foundation of a pathophysiologically based formula; the stone risk index had a strong positive association with calculus incidence. This index can have therapeutic and preventive applications, yet to be confirmed by clinical trials.

Abbas Basiri

2010-12-01

184

Fasting and Urinary Stones  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

Ali Shamsa

2013-11-01

185

Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence  

Science.gov (United States)

... following risks are associated with any type of surgery for SUI: • Injury to the bladder, bowel, blood vessels, or nerves • Bleeding • Infection of the urinary tract or wound infections • Urinary problems after the procedure (difficulty urinating or urgency symptoms) • Problems ...

186

Epidural anesthesia is effective for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of pancreatic and biliary calculi  

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Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of thoracic epidural analgesia for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL.METHODS: ESWL is an effective, non-invasive technique for the treatment of difficult pancreatic and large bile duct calculi. The procedure is often painful and requires large doses of analgesics. Many different anesthetic techniques have been used. Patients with either large bile duct calculi or pancreatic duct calculi which could not be extracted by routine endoscopic methods were selected. Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA was routinely used in all the subjects unless contraindicated. Bupivacaine 0.25% with or without clonidine was used to block the segments D6 to D12. The dose was calculated depending on the age, height and weight of the patient. It was usually 1-2 mL per segment blocked.RESULTS: Ninety eight percent of the 1509 patients underwent ESWL under TEA. The subjects selected were within American Society of Anesthesiologists grade?I?to?III. ESWL using EA permitted successful elimination of bile duct or pancreatic calculi with minimal morbidity. The procedure time was shorter in patients with TEA than in those who underwent ESWL under total intravenous anesthesia.CONCLUSION: Almost all patients undergoing ESWL with EA had effective blocks with a single catheter insertion and local anesthetic injection.

Santosh Darisetty

2010-05-01

187

Proceedings 6th Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi  

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This volume contains the papers presented at the 6th Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi (MeCBIC 2012), a satellite workshop of the 23rd International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR) held on 8th September 2012 in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Ciobanu, Gabriel

2012-01-01

188

Feline porphyria associated with anemia, severe hepatic disease, and renal calculi  

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A 13-year-old, neutered male domestic cat presented with signs of weight loss, anemia, and hepatomegaly. Pathognomonic signs of porphyria were identified. Charcoal-like renal calculi and severe liver changes were observed, neither of which has been previously reported in association with feline porphyria.

Schnier, Jonathan J.; Hanna, Paul

2010-01-01

189

Ureteropyeloscopy and homium: YAG laser lithotripsy for treatment of ureteral calculi (report of 356 cases)  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of holmium YAG laser lithotripsy for the treatment of ureteral calculi. Methods: A total of 356 patients underwent ureteropyeloscopic lithotripsy using holmium YAG laser with a semirigid uretesopyeloscope, 93 upper, 135 middle, and 128 lower ureteral stones were treated. Results: The overall successful fragmentation rate for all ureteral stones in a single session achieved 98% (349/356). The successful fragmentation rate stratified by stone location was 95% 88/93 in the upper ureter, 99% (134/135) in the mid ureter , and 99%(127/128) in the distal ureter. 12 cases with bilateral ureteral stones which caused acute renal failure and anuria were treated rapidly and effectively by the holmium YAG laser lithotripsy. No complications such as perforation and severe trauma were encountered during the operations. 2 weeks 17months (with an average of 6.8 month ) follow up postoperatively revealed that the overall stone-free rate was 98%(343/349) and no ureteral stenosis was found. Conclusions Holmium YAG laser lithotripsy is a highly effective, minimally invasive and safe therapy for ureteral calculi. It is indicated as a first choice of treatment for patients with ureteral calculi, especially for the ones with mid- lower levels of ureteral calculi.

Wu, Zhong; Din, Qiang; Jiang, Hao-wen; Zen, Jing-cun; Yu, Jiang; Zhang, Yuanfang

2005-07-01

190

Distal ureteral calculi: the usefulness of transrectal ultrasound and comparison with intravenous urography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the usefulness of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and to compare TRUS with intravenous urography (IVU) in the evaluation of distal ureteral calculi. TRUS and IVU were performed in 24 patients with distal ureteral calculi. Using TRUS, we evaluated the presence and size of calculus, type of ureteral jet at the affected site and diameter of ureter proximal to calculus, and using IVU evaluated the presence and size of calculus, degree of ureteral obstruction, and degree of hydroureter. TRUS and IVU findings, were compared. In each patient, TRUS detected calculus of the distal ureter;in only 18 cases (75%), were the calculi demonstrated with IVU. In 18 cases where calculi were detected by both modalities, average calculus size was 4.5x3.0mm (longest and shortest dimensions) by IVU, and 6.1x3.7mm by TRUS. Between TRUS and IVU(p0.05). TRUS appears to be a useful adjunctive method for the evaluation of distal ureteral calculusuation of distal ureteral calculus

191

Elementos no frecuentes en cálculos renales / Unusual elements in renal calculi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizó un grupo de 54 cálculos expulsados espontáneamente después de padecer un cólico nefrítico. Dos grupos de cálculos fueron encontrados: papilares y no papilares. Todos los cálculos fueron analizados por espectroscopia infrarroja y por microscopia electrónica de barrido y EDAX. Al ser analiz [...] ados los cálculos por EDAX se detectaron los siguientes elementos químicos; C, N, O, Na, S, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn. El posible origen de estos elementos es analizado en este trabajo. Abstract in english A group of 54 renal calculi were spontaneously passed renal stone after a nephritic colic. Two groups of calculi were found: papillary and non-papillary calculi. All calculi were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and electronic microscopy scan (EMS) and EDAX. When the stones were analyzed with EDAX, [...] elements such as C, N, O, Na, S, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn were detected. The possible origin of these elements is discussed in this work.

J.L., Rodríguez-Miñón Cifuentes; E., Salvador; MªL., Traba Villameytide.

2006-01-01

192

[Recurrent urinary tract infections].  

Science.gov (United States)

Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are a frequent clinical problem in sexually active young women, pregnant or postmenopausal women and in patients with underlying urological abnormalities. The present chapter reviews RUTI based on their classification: relapses, which usually occur early (cystitis, continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, postcoital antibiotic prophylaxis, topical vaginal estrogens, Lactobacillus, cranberry juice, intravesical administration of non-virulent E. coli strains and vaccines, among others. Several diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms are included. These algorithms are based on the type of urinary infection (relapse-reinfection), on the type of patient (young, postmenopausal, or pregnant women) and on the number of episodes of RUTI. PMID:16854356

Pigrau-Serrallach, Carlos

2005-12-01

193

Urinary Tract Infections in Children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in childre...

Mustafa Taskesen; Aysun Karabay Bayazit

2009-01-01

194

[Pathophysiology, diagnosis and conservative therapy in calcium kidney calculi].  

Science.gov (United States)

Annual incidences of kidney stones are about 0.1-0.4% of the population, and lifetime prevalences in the USA and Europe range between 8 and 15%. Kidney stones occur more frequently with increasing age and among men. Within ten years, the disease usually recurs in more than 50% of patients. Nowadays, about 85% of all kidney stones contain calcium salts (calcium oxalate and/or calcium phosphate) as their main crystalline components. Because human urine is commonly supersaturated with respect to calcium salts as well as to uric acid, crystalluria is very common, i.e. healthy people excrete up to ten millions of microcrystals every day. Recurrent stone formers appear to excrete lower amounts or structurally defective forms of crystallization inhibitors which allows for the formation of large crystal aggregates as precursors of stones. Alternatively, crystal adhesion to urothelial surfaces may be enhanced in stone formers. Medical treatment of renal colic is based on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, because prostaglandins appear to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of pain during ureteral obstruction. In addition, centrally acting analgesics such as pethidine-HCl may be required in many cases. The administration of high amounts (3-4 liters/day) of intravenous fluids should be abandoned, since it may raise intraureteral pressure whereby pain increases and kidney pelvis or fornices may rupture. All first-stone formers should undergo a simple basic evaluation, including stone analysis (x-ray diffraction or infrared spectrometry), serum values of ionized calcium (alternatively: total calcium and albumin) and creatinine, urinalysis and repeated measurements of fasting urine pH in order to detect urinary acidification disorders or low urine pH. In high-risk patients with as first stone episode (i.e. strongly positive family history, inflammatory bowel disease, short-bowel syndrome, nephrocalcinosis, bilateral stones, hypercalcemia, renal tubular acidosis, airline pilots) as well as in all recurrent stone formers, an extended metabolic evaluation should be performed. Two 24-hurines should be collected on free-choice diet not prior to three months after stone passage or urological intervention. Analysis includes measurements of volume, creatinine, calcium, oxalate, uric acid and citrate; sodium and urea as markers of salt and protein consumption are optional but clinically very helpful. Since hypercalciuria is of much less importance than increases in urinary oxalate, therapeutic efforts should primarily focus on lowering urinary oxalate excretion. Sufficient calcium intake, i.e. 1200 mg per day, is crucial, because it allows for binding of oxalate at the intestinal level whereby increases of urinary oxalate (reciprocal hyperoxaluria) can be avoided. Excess intake of flesh protein (meat, fish, poultry) is lithogenic since it increases urinary calcium, oxalate and uric acid, and lower citrate. On the other hand, a diet rich in alkali (vegetables, fruit) is associated with a lower risk of stone formation. A "common sense diet" containing sufficient amounts of fluids, 1200 mg of calcium per day and reduced amounts of flesh protein as well as salt is able to reduce the 5-year stone recurrence rate in calcium stone formers by 50%. The scientific evidence for drug treatment (thiazides, alkali citrate) is rather poor: the most widely quoted randomized thiazide trial included only 42 patients of whom 36% left the protocol prematurely, whereas 36-48% of patients included in three randomized studies with alkali citrate suffered from undesirable side-effects; nevertheless, citrate therapy reduced the stone recurrence rate by 38%, compared with 22% in patients on placebo treatment (p < 0.0005). PMID:12649986

Hess, B

2003-02-01

195

Distal ureteral calculi: the usefulness of transrectal ultrasound and comparison with intravenous urography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the usefulness of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and to compare TRUS with intravenous urography (IVU) in the evaluation of distal ureteral calculi. TRUS and IVU were performed in 24 patients with distal ureteral calculi. Using TRUS, we evaluated the presence and size of calculus, type of ureteral jet at the affected site and diameter of ureter proximal to calculus, and using IVU evaluated the presence and size of calculus, degree of ureteral obstruction, and degree of hydroureter. TRUS and IVU findings, were compared. In each patient, TRUS detected calculus of the distal ureter;in only 18 cases (75%), were the calculi demonstrated with IVU. In 18 cases where calculi were detected by both modalities, average calculus size was 4.5x3.0mm (longest and shortest dimensions) by IVU, and 6.1x3.7mm by TRUS. Between TRUS and IVU(p<0.05) there was a statistically significant difference in the longest dimension of calculi. Color Doppler imaging revealed three patterns of ureteral jets in TRUS:normal periodic jet (7 cases);continuous low-level flow (8 cases); and no detectable jet (9 cases). There was a positive correlation between type of ureteral jets on TRUS and between degree of obstruction on IVU (r=0.59, p<0.05). There was, however, no significant correlation between diameter of ureter proximal to calculus on TRUS and degree of hydroureter on IVU (r=0.32, p>0.05). TRUS appears to be a useful adjunctive method for the evaluation of distal ureteral calculus.

Choi, Moon Hae; Yoon, Dae Young; Shim, Joo Eun; Kim, Ho Chul; Yi, Jeong Geun; Choi, Chul Sun; Bae, Sang Hoon; Kim, Ha Young [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Chunchon (Korea, Republic of)

1996-07-01

196

Kidneys and urinary system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies

197

Urinary Tract Infections  

Science.gov (United States)

... Physician April 01, 1998, http://www.aafp.org/afp/980401ap/ahmed2.html) Urinary Tract Infections During Pregnancy ... Physician February 01, 2000, http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000201/713.html) Written by familydoctor.org editorial ...

198

Imaging of transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary tracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common urothelial neoplasm to involve the upper urinary tract and bladder. Prognosis significantly worsens with deeper invasion. The role of imaging is to detect the tiniest urothelial neoplasms while still potentially resectable and curable. In case of advance disease, imaging should identify the extent of disease. Intravenous or retrograde urography, ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging have been used for diagnosis of TCC. The diagnostic performances of these imaging modalities differ from each other. A recent review regarding imaging of TCC by Razavi et al states that the retrieved sensitivity/specificity for the detection of TCC of upper urinary tract for CT urography (CTU), MR urography, excretory urography, and retrograde urography were 96%/99%, 69%/97%, 80%/81%, and 96%/96%, respectively. For detecting bladder cancer, the retrieved sensitivity/specificity for CT cystography, MR cystography, and ultrasonography were 94%/98%, 91%/95%, and 78%/96%, respectively. They conclude that CT urography is the best imaging technique for confirming or excluding malignancy in the upper urinary tract, whereas CT cystography has the best diagnostic performance for diagnosing bladder cancer. While cystoscopy is still considered by most to be the gold-standard for evaluation of the urinary bladder, CTU is playing an increasing role in the detection of urinary bladder urothelial neoplasms. As wirinary bladder urothelial neoplasms. As with the upper urinary tract, bladder urothelial neoplasms typically present as a filling defect, a focal mass, or an area of abnormal focal wall thickening. Magnetic resonance imaging is superior for evaluation of the depth of tumour invasion into the bladder wall, but this knowledge may not ultimately affect treatment as feasibility for radical cystectomy depends on staging by a combination of clinical, histopathological and imaging findings. Radical cystectomy may include resection of adjacent organs and regional lymph nodes. The current purpose of CT or MR imaging is to detect T3b disease or higher and, especially, locoregional lymph node metastases. Upper tract urothelial neoplasms commonly present as a single or as multiple irregular filling defects on CTU. Focal urinary tract wall thickening is another finding that can suggest the presence of urothelial neoplasm. CTU is accepted as a gold standard for the diagnosis and staging of upper urinary tract TCC by European Association of Urology. The multicentric nature of TCC makes assessment of the entire urothelium essential before treatment. Vigilant urologic and radiologic follow-up is warranted to assess for metachronous lesions and recurrence. The emerging technique of CT urography allows detection of urinary tract tumors and calculi, assessment of perirenal tissues, and staging of lesions; it may offer the opportunity for one-stop evaluation in the initial assessment of hematuria and in follow-up of TCC

199

Drug-induced MR urography: the effects of furosemide and intravenous saline injection on MR urography of obstructed and non-obstructed urinary tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the usefulness of MR urography technique for the evaluation of urinary systems in patients with obstructed urinary tract and normal volunteers with non-obstructed urinary tract after intravenous normal saline and diuretic injection. Three normal volunteers and 12 patients with urinary tract obstruction [ureteral calculi (n=8), extraurinary mass (n=1), ureteral tumor invasion (n=3)] underwent MR urography using a 1.0T scanner and a 2D non-breath-hold heavily T2-weighted fast spin-cho sequence. These acquisition were post-processed with a maximum intensity projection (MIP) algorithm. Two acquisitions were performed, the first prior to saline solution infusion following standard MR urography procedures, and the second, within 2-3 minutes of the infusion of 250 ml saline solution followed by 20 mg of Lasix administered intravenously. For this latter, drug-induced MR urography procedures were followed. In healthy volunteer (n=3) and those experiencing partial obstruction (n=4) by a urinary stone, drug-induced MR urography provided better images of the urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those in whom a urinary stone or tumor had caused complete obstruction (n=8), standard MR urography provided good images, as did drug-induced MR urography. In patients with a partially or non-obstructed urinary tract, drug-induced MR urography provided better anatomic and functional details of the kidney and urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those exhan did standard MR urography. In those experiencing complete obstruction of the urinary tract, however, standard or drug-induced MR urography permitted very adequate evaluation of the tract, and drug-induced MR urography was unnecessary

200

Drug-induced MR urography: the effects of furosemide and intravenous saline injection on MR urography of obstructed and non-obstructed urinary tract  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the usefulness of MR urography technique for the evaluation of urinary systems in patients with obstructed urinary tract and normal volunteers with non-obstructed urinary tract after intravenous normal saline and diuretic injection. Three normal volunteers and 12 patients with urinary tract obstruction [ureteral calculi (n=8), extraurinary mass (n=1), ureteral tumor invasion (n=3)] underwent MR urography using a 1.0T scanner and a 2D non-breath-hold heavily T2-weighted fast spin-cho sequence. These acquisition were post-processed with a maximum intensity projection (MIP) algorithm. Two acquisitions were performed, the first prior to saline solution infusion following standard MR urography procedures, and the second, within 2-3 minutes of the infusion of 250 ml saline solution followed by 20 mg of Lasix administered intravenously. For this latter, drug-induced MR urography procedures were followed. In healthy volunteer (n=3) and those experiencing partial obstruction (n=4) by a urinary stone, drug-induced MR urography provided better images of the urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those in whom a urinary stone or tumor had caused complete obstruction (n=8), standard MR urography provided good images, as did drug-induced MR urography. In patients with a partially or non-obstructed urinary tract, drug-induced MR urography provided better anatomic and functional details of the kidney and urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those experiencing complete obstruction of the urinary tract, however, standard or drug-induced MR urography permitted very adequate evaluation of the tract, and drug-induced MR urography was unnecessary.

Park, Jeong Ha; Lee, Myung Jun; Lee, Chang Joon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2001-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

Metabolic changes after urinary diversion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary diversion is performed on a regular basis in urological practice. Surgeons tend to underestimate the metabolic effects of any type of diversion. From the patient's perspective, diarrhea is the most bothersome complaint after urinary diversion. This might be accompanied by malabsorption syndromes, such as vitamin B12 deficiency. Electrolyte abnormalities can occur frequently such as hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, or less frequently such as hypokalemia, hypocalcaemia, and hypomagnesaemia. Bone health is at risk in patients with urinary diversion. Some patients might benefit from vitamin D and calcium supplementation. Many patients are also subject to urinary calculus formation, both at the level of the upper urinary tract as in intestinal reservoirs. Urinary diversion can affect hepatic metabolism, certainly in the presence of urea-splitting bacteria. The kidney function has to be monitored prior to and lifelong after urinary diversion. Screening for reversible causes of renal deterioration is an integral part of the followup. PMID:21687576

Van der Aa, Frank; Joniau, Steven; Van Den Branden, Marcel; Van Poppel, Hein

2011-01-01

202

Probabilistic Models and Process Calculi for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Due to the wide use of communicating mobile devices, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have gained in popularity in recent years. In order that the devices communicate properly, many protocols have been proposed working at different levels. Devices in an MANET are not stationary but may keep moving, thus the network topology may undergo constant changes. Moreover the devices in an MANET are loosely connected not depending on pre-installed infrastructure or central control components, they exchange messages via wireless connections which are less reliable compared to wired connections. Therefore the protocols for MANETs are usually more complicated and error-prone. In this thesis we discuss different models and their underlying theories which will facilitate the verification of protocols for MANETs. Process calculi have been used successfully as a formal method to verify and analyze functional behaviors of concurrent systems e.g. free of deadlock, and they also have been extended with probability to verify quantitative properties e.g. “the sent message will arrive at the destination in 5 seconds with probability no less than 0.99”. In this thesis we extend the framework to deal with special issues in MANETs e.g. mobility and unreliable connections. Specially speaking, 1. We first propose a discrete probabilistic process calculus with which we can model in an MANET that the wireless connection is not reliable, and the network topology may undergo changes. We equip each wireless connection with a probability, and moreover we allow these probabilities to be changed according to some mobility rule to model the changes of the network topology. 2. Secondly we extend the discrete probabilistic process calculus in several directions: i) Generalize the notions of mobility rules which allow to change part of a network topology depending on an exponentially distributed random delay and a network topology constraint. ii) Introduce stochastic time behavior for processes running at network nodes. iii) A novel abstraction is proposed where several broadcasts may be simulated by one. 3. Various behavioral equivalences and their logical characterizations have been proposed to combat the infamous states space explosion problem of PAs, but unfortunately it is well known that the behavioral equivalences are strictly stronger than the logical equivalences induced by PCTL or PCTL*. We address this problem in this thesis by introducing a sequence of strong bisimulations, which will converge to the PCTL or PCTL* equivalence eventually. This work is then extended to CTMDPs. 4. Recently, MAs have been proposed as a compositional behavior model supporting both probabilistic transitions and exponentially distributed random delays. In this thesis, we introduce both early and late semantics for MAs based on which we define the early and late weak bisimulation respectively. We also show that the early weak bisimulation coincides with the previous variants while the late weak bisimulation is strictly coarser than them.

Song, Lei

2012-01-01

203

Duodenal diverticula demonstrated by endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) : their relationship to biliary calculi and gastrooesophageal reflux  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In 24 patients with duodenal diverticula, demonstrated by ERCP, food-stimulated gastrooesophageal reflux was demonstrated in 33% of the patients and biliary tract calculi in 81%. This is in contrast to a previous study in patients with duodenal diverticula demonstrated by barium examination where gastroesophageal reflux occurred in 81% and biliary tract calculi in 38% of the patients. Differences in clinical selection are believed to be the underlying cause to these varying results.

Thorsen, B; Christiansen, T

1987-01-01

204

Duodenal diverticula demonstrated by endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) - their relationship to biliary calculi and gastrooesophageal reflux  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 24 patients with duodenal diverticula, demonstrated by ERCP, food-stimulated gastrooesophageal reflux was demonstrated in 33% of the patients and biliary tract calculi in 81%. This is in contrast to a previous study (3) in patients with duodenal diverticula demonstrated by barium examination where gastrooesophageal reflux occurred in 81% and biliary tract calculi in 38% of the patients. Differences in clinical selection are believed to be the underlying cause to these varying results. (orig.)

205

Robust detection of renal calculi from non-contract CT images using TV-flow and MSER features  

Science.gov (United States)

Renal calculi are one of the most painful urologic disorders causing 3 million treatments per year in the United States. The objective of this paper is the automated detection of renal calculi from CT colonography (CTC) images on which they are one of the major extracolonic findings. However, the primary purpose of the CTC protocols is not for the detection of renal calculi, but for screening of colon cancer. The kidneys are imaged with significant amounts of noise in the non-contrast CTC images, which makes the detection of renal calculi extremely challenging. We propose a computer-aided diagnosis method to detect renal calculi in CTC images. It is built on three novel techniques: 1) total variation (TV) flow to reduce image noise while keeping calculi, 2) maximally stable extremal region (MSER) features to find calculus candidates, 3) salient feature descriptors based on intensity properties to train a support vector machine classifier and filter false positives. We selected 23 CTC cases with 36 renal calculi to analyze the detection algorithm. The calculus size ranged from 1.0mm to 6.8mm. Fifteen cases were selected as the training dataset, and the remaining eight cases were used for the testing dataset. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values were 0.92 in the training datasets and 0.93 in the testing datasets. The testing dataset confidence interval for AUC reported by ROCKIT was [0.8799, 0.9591] and the training dataset was [0.8974, 0.9642]. These encouraging results demonstrated that our detection algorithm can robustly and accurately identify renal calculi from CTC images.

Liu, Jianfei; Wang, Shijun; Linguraru, Marius George; Summers, Ronald M.

2013-03-01

206

Recurrent Urinary Bladder Paraganglioma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 39-year-old male presented with recurrent attacks of painless haematuria. The patient has a history of partial cystectomy for bladder paraganglioma 10 years prior to the presentation. Imaging study and cystoscopic examination revealed a small anterior wall bladder tumor. The histological examination of the lesion confirmed that it was a urinary paraganglioma. Partial cystectomy was performed to this recurrent lesion. This case report stresses the importance of life-long follow-up of these l...

Al-zahrani, Ali A.

2010-01-01

207

Urinary tract infection related to urinary catheterization: literature integrative review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: to analyze, through literature, the knowledge produced on Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) related to catheterization, especially in-dwelling urinary catheter (IUC). Methodology: this is an integrative literature review. The review was conducted on the Internet in the BDENF, LILACS, SciELO and MEDLINE databases, using the following keywords: urinary system, catheters delay and hospital infection. We selected: Brazilian studies, from the years 1999 to 2008. Results: 19 studies were sel...

Pe?tala Tuani Candido Oliveira Salvador, Kisna Yasmin Andrade Alves

2010-01-01

208

Toward the classification of differential calculi on $\\kappa$-Minkowski space and related field theories  

CERN Document Server

Classification of differential forms on $\\kappa$-Minkowski space, particularly, the classification of all bicovariant differential calculi of classical dimension is presented. By imposing super-Jacobi identities we derive all possible differential algebras compatible with the $\\kappa$-Minkowski algebra. Embedding into the super-Heisenberg algebra is constructed using non-commutative (NC) coordinates and one-forms. Particularly, a class of differential calculi with an undeformed exterior derivative and one-forms is considered. NC differential calculus and twist leading to $\\kappa$-Poincar\\'e Hopf algebra for light-like deformation are proposed. Corresponding super-algebra and deformed super-Hopf algebra, as well as the symmetries of differential algebras are presented and elaborated. Using the NC differential calculus, we analyze NC field theory, modified dispersion relations, and discuss further physical applications.

Juric, Tajron; Pikutic, Danijel; Strajn, Rina

2015-01-01

209

Proceedings Third Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi 2009  

CERN Document Server

This volume contains the accepted papers at the third Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi, held in Bologna on 5th September 2009. The papers are devoted to both membrane computing and biologically inspired process calculi, as well as to other related formalisms. The papers of this volume are selected by the programme committee due to their quality and relevance; they have defined an exciting programme highlighting interesting problems and stimulating the search for novel ways of describing related biological phenomena. In addition, we had an invited talk given by Luca Cardelli on a spatial process algebra for developmental biology. Membrane systems were introduced as a class of distributed parallel computing devices inspired by the observation that any biological system is a complex hierarchical structure, with a flow of materials and information that underlies their functioning. The emphasis is on the computational properties of the model, and it makes use of automata, la...

Ciobanu, Gabriel

2009-01-01

210

Primary Giant Cell Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Kidney with Staghorn Calculi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFH as primary renal tumours are rare, with less than 50 cases described in the literature. We report a case of primary renal MFH of giant cell type in a 56-year-old man, who presented with bilateral dull flank pain, intermittent gross haematuria and body weight loss (6 kg in 3 months. Intravenous urography, computerized tomography (CT and magnetic resonance image (MRI showed right ureteral stones with mild hydronephrosis, and a solid mass at the lower pole of the left kidney associated with staghorn calculi, as well as tumour thrombi in the left renal vein and inferior vena cava. Left radical nephrectomy and evacuation of tumour thrombi from the left renal vein and inferior vena cava were performed. Histopathologic examination revealed malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH of giant cell type. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of primary renal MFH associated with staghorn calculi.

Chen C

2003-01-01

211

Cystic calculi removal in African spurred Tortoise (Geochelone sulcata using transplstron coeliotomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present report was carried out to manage a case of calculi in the bladder of African spurred tortoise. A 6 year old African spurred tortoise presented with history of anorexia and whitish discharged from the vent. Upon physical examination, the tortoise were 10% dehydrated, hindlegs muscle wasting and whitish materials came out from the vent. Plain radiograph revealed increased radiopacity in the bladder and also both right and left kidney. Contrast gastrointestinal radiograph showed less possibility of foreign body. Inconclusive radiological findings required the decision to proceed with exploratory transplastron coeliotomy by using dental burr. About 4 cm solid, hard whitish mass was removed from the bladder and both kidney was congested with whitish material. The findings were suggestive for urates crystal calculi based on histology result. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 489-492

Azlan Che' Amat

212

Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy versus ureteroscopy for distal ureteric calculi: efficacy and patient satisfaction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and ureteroscopy (URS) for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi with respect to patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND MHETODS: This is a prospective study where a total of 212 patients with solitary, radiopaque dis [...] tal ureteral calculi were treated with ESWL (n = 92) using Dornier lithotriptor S (MedTech Europe GmbH) or URS (n = 120). Patient and stone characteristics, treatment parameters, clinical outcomes, and patient satisfaction were assessed for each group. RESULTS: The 2 groups were comparable in regard to patient age, sex, stone size, and side of treatment. The stone-free status for ESWL and URS at 3 months was 81.5% and 97.5%, respectively (p

Ibrahim F., Ghalayini; Mohammed A., Al-Ghazo; Yousef S., Khader.

2006-12-01

213

Proceedings Fourth Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi 2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 4th Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi (MeCBIC 2010) is organized in Jena as a satellite event of the Eleventh International Conference on Membrane Computing (CMC11). Biological membranes play a fundamental role in the complex reactions which take place in cells of living organisms. The importance of this role has been considered in two different types of formalisms introduced recently. Membrane systems were introduced as a class of ...

Ciobanu, Gabriel; Koutny, Maciej

2010-01-01

214

On the Expressiveness and Decidability of Higher-Order Process Calculi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In higher-order process calculi the values exchanged in communications may contain processes. A core calculus of higher-order concurrency is studied; it has only the operators necessary to express higher-order communications: input prefix, process output, and parallel composition. By exhibiting a nearly deterministic encoding of Minsky machines, the calculus is shown to be Turing complete and therefore its termination problem is undecidable. Strong bisimilarity, however, is shown to be decida...

Lanese, Ivan; Pere?z, Jorge; Sangiorgi, Davide; Schmitt, Alan

2008-01-01

215

Treatment outcomes of semirigid ureterorenoscopy and intracorporeal lithotripsy in pregnant women with obstructive ureteral calculi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study is to evaluate the outcomes of semirigid ureterorenoscopy and intracorporeal lithotripsy as a definitive treatment in pregnant women with obstructive ureteral calculi. A retrospective analysis was performed of 16 pregnant patients referred to gynecology department with ureteral obstruction from 2007 to 2009. The mean age was 25 years, and mean gestation period was 30 weeks. Of the 16 patients; 50% had fever, 100% flank pain, 56% dysuria, 25% gross hematuria, 50% positive urine culture, and 75% pyuria and microscopic hematuria. Abdominal ultrasonography was the principle diagnostic test used. The mean stone size was 9.45 mm. Eleven of the 16 patients, 54% had stones located in the distal ureter and 46% proximal ureter. The stones were fragmented using a swiss pneumatic lithoclast through 9.5 F semirigid ureteroscope by 0.035 mm safety guidewire with the patient under general anesthesia. Eleven patients had obstruction due to the ureteral calculi. Eight of 11 patients had complete fragmentation of the calculi by ureteroscopy as a primary treatment. Push-back was performed in the other three patients. By applying Dj catheter, and performing eswl after giving birth, the patient became stone-free. Dj catheter was applied peroperative to all 16 patients. No complications were recorded, and all patients completed the full term of pregnancy. The results of our study have shown that semirigid ureteroscopy to diagnose ureteral calculi and treat them with intracorporeal pneumatic lithotripsy and ureteral stent insertion, as indicated, is the most efficient and definitive treatment modality in pregnant women. PMID:21448707

Polat, Fazl?; Ye?il, Süleyman; K?raç, Mustafa; Biri, Hasan

2011-12-01

216

Telocytes in the urinary system  

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Abstract Background Telocytes, a new type of interstitial cells, have been identified in many organs in mammals. The present studies aimed at investigating the ultrastructure, distribution and interactions of telocytes with surrounding cells in the urinary system of rats, to confirm the existence of telocytes in kidneys, ureter and urinary bladder. Methods Samples of kidney, ureter, or urinary bladder were harvested for the ultrastructure by the electron microsc...

Zheng Yonghua; Zhu Tongyu; Lin Miao; Wu Duojiao; Wang Xiangdong

2012-01-01

217

Urinary infection after orthopedic procedures  

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We have investigated prospectively the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in 5320 orthopaedic patients. There were 74 UTIs (1.39%). Enterobacteriaceae was the most frequent etiological agent. Each infection increased the length of stay in hospital by more than 8 days. Statistically independent risk factors for the development of urinary infection were a preoperative stay of more than 4 days, inadequate preoperative preventive measures, central venous catheterization and urinary cath...

Herruzo-cabrera, R.; Lo?pez-gime?nez, R.; Cordero, J.; Munuera, L.

2001-01-01

218

The Comparison of Ultrasonography and Non Enhanced Helical Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Ureteral Calculi  

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Full Text Available Intravenous urography, ultrasonography, and non-contrast spiral computed tomography have been used to diagnose ureteral calculi. We aimed to compare the accuracy of non-contrast spiral computed tomography with ultrasonography in the evaluation of patients with renal colic.Fourty-one patients with flank pain were examined with both computed tomography and ultrasonography over a period of 11 months. Findings of ultrasonography and computed tomography of 28 patients in whom üreteral stones were confirmed by standart methods were comparedUreteral calculi were diagnosed in 28 of 41 patients. Ureteral stones could be demonstrated in 18 patients by ultrasonography and in 27 patients by computed tomography. Ultrasonography showed 64.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity in the diagnosis of ureterolithiasis; computed tomography showed 96.4% and 100%, respectively. Spiral computed tomography is superior to ultrasonography in the demonstration of ureteral calculi in patients with renal colic. But because of higher cost and higher radiation dose, it should be reserved for symptomatic cases in whom ultrasonography is non-diagnostic.

?lhan K?l?nç

2007-01-01

219

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi, experience of first 100 cases at Jinnah Hospital, Lahore  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), where available, has become the preferred treatment modality for majority of renal calculi. Nevertheless because of low morbidity and strong patient endorsement there is a natural tendency of over using it. We report the experience of first 100 patients of renal calculi treated at Lithotripsy Center, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore between November 1993 and October 1995.. All patients were treated on an out patients basis. In this prospective study patients were divided into three groups depending upon the initial stone size (Group 1 2.1 to 3 cm). Twenty-eight patients were lost to follow-up. Analysis of data revealed a success rate of 89.5%, 65.8% and 33.3% in Group-I, II and III respectively at the end of 3 months follow-up. Morbidity was directly procedures to stone burden, while success was inversely related to stone burden. Complications requiring auxiliary procedures were seen in none of the patients of Group-I while in 17.1% and 25% of the patients of Group-II and III respectively. Failure of the procedure demanding for an open intervention was seen in none of the patients of Group II and III respectively. We concluded that selection of patients is key to successful management of the renal calculi with ESWL. (author)

220

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy and Transureteral Lithotripsy in the Treatment of Impacted Lower Ureteral Calculi  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL with ureteroscopy followed by transureteral lithotripsy (TUL for the treatment of impacted distal ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 patients with solitary impacted distal ureteral calculi were assigned into 2 groups of treatment with SWL (42 patients and TUL (54 patients with a 6.9-F semirigid ureteroscope. Characteristics of the patients and the calculi, treatment parameters, clinical outcomes, and patients’ satisfaction were assessed for each group as well as efficiency quotient. Results: Demographic characteristics of the patients in the 2 groups were similar as well as the sizes of the calculi. The stone-free rate, 2 months postoperatively, was 71.4% in the patients of the SWL group and 88.9% in those of the TUL group. The efficiency quotient was 56% and 81% for the SWL and TUL groups, respectively (P = .004. Retreatment rate was 26.2% (11 patients and 9.3% (5 patients for the SWL and TUL groups, respectively (P = .027. Thirty patients in the SWL group (71.4% and 52 in the TUL group (96.3% were satisfied with their treatment (P = .001. There were no major complications in neither of the groups. Minor complications (pain and hematuria were more common in the TUL group. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, TUL seems to be more effective than SWL in the treatment of impacted lower ureteral calculi sized smaller than 12 mm, and patients are more satisfied with this treatment method.

Armin Iranpour

2006-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

Transureteral Lithotripsy Versus Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Management of Upper Ureteral Calculi: A Comparative Study  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: Our aim was to compare transureteral lithotripsy (TUL and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL in the management of upper ureteral calculi larger than 5 mm in diameter. Materials and Methods: Patients who had upper ureteral calculi greater than 5 mm in diameter were enrolled in this clinical trial. The calculi had not responded to conservative or symptomatic therapy. Semirigid ureteroscopy and pneumatic lithotripsy were used for TUL in 52 patients and SWL was performed in 48. Analysis of the calculi compositions was done and the patients were followed up by plain abdominal radiography and ultrasonography 3 month postoperatively. Results: The stone-free rates were 76.9% in the patients of the TUL group and 68.8% in the patients of the SWL group. These rates in the patients with mild or no hydronephrosis were 85.7% and 59.1% for the SWL and TUL groups, respectively. In the TUL group, half of the patients with no hydronephrosis developed upward calculus migration. The stone-free rates were 75.0% and 89.3% for the patients with moderate hydronephrosis and 70.0% and 100.0% for those with severe hydronephrosis in the SWL and TUL groups, respectively. All of the failed cases were treated by double-J stenting and TUL or SWL successfully. There were no serious complications. Upward calculus migration after TUL was more frequent in cases with no hydronephrosis or mild hydronephrosis (41.0%. Conclusion: Upper ureteral calculi smaller than 1 cm can be safely and effectively managed using semirigid ureteroscopy and pneumatic lithotripsy. However, the SWL approach has still its role if an experienced endourologist is not available.

Abdolrasoul Mehrsai

2007-02-01

222

Urinary fistula and incontinence.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is estimated that as many as 3.5 million women worldwide suffer from obstetric urinary fistula. This public health tragedy is a result of obstructed labor and inadequate access to health care, and its eradication lies in prevention and treatment. Efforts at prevention should be made through targeted education and public intervention for improved nutrition, access to health care, and women's social status. Diagnosis and treatment in limited resource settings can occur, and there are specific recommendations regarding nonsurgical and surgical approaches to care. Treatment success may be complicated by social, psychological, and clinical factors, with reintegration a primary concern for this group of women. PMID:25565512

Hampton, Brittany Star; Kay, Allison; Pilzek, Anna

2015-01-01

223

Urinary Tract Infections in Children  

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Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

Mustafa Taskesen

2009-04-01

224

Urolitíase no alotransplante renal / Urinary lithiasis in renal allografts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: A litíase urinária é uma complicação incomum no alotransplante renal, a incidência varia de 0,02 a 3,4%. A maioria dos cálculos forma-se após o transplante, porém alguns podem ser transferidos junto com o enxerto para o hospedeiro. O tratamento desta complicação está baseado em alguns caso [...] s descritos na literatura. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de relatar a incidência da litíase renal no paciente com transplante renal, assim como a conduta adotada no HCFMRPUSP. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 953 pacientes submetidos a transplante renal no HCFMRPUSP, de fevereiro 1968 a maio de 2003. A idade média foi de 47,2 anos (35 a 63 anos). Em 09 pacientes, o rim foi proveniente de doador cadáver e apenas 01 doador vivo. RESULTADOS:Foram diagnosticados 10 casos de litíase (1,05%). Em 02 pacientes (20%) o cálculo foi diagnosticado no intraoperatório, em 01 (10%) no peri-operatório (5º. dia), os 07 restantes (70%) no pós-operatório tardio. Em 04 pacientes (57%) não havia sintomatologia específica, 02 (29%) apresentaram ITU, em 03 (43%) ocorreu elevação da creatinina sérica. De 8 pacientes com litíase no pós-operatorio, em 06 os cálculos estavam localizados no rim e 02 no ureter. Dos pacientes com cálculos renais, 02 foram observados, 02 submetidos a LECO, 01 a nefrolitripsia percutânea, 01 à pielolitotomia. Em 01 paciente com cálculo ureteral foi realizada pielovesicostomia (cálculo + estenose), no outro paciente foi feita a ureterorrenoscopia retrógrada. CONCLUSÃO: A urolitíase é complicação rara no transplante renal, a conduta terapêutica no pós-operatório tardio é semelhante à da população geral. Abstract in english Purpose: Urinary lithiasis is an uncommon complication in recipient of kidney allografts. The prevalence varies from 0.02 to 3.4%. The majority of calculi arises de novo in the recipient, however some of them are transferred with the transplanted kidney. The treatment relies on few reports published [...] previously. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of lithiasis as well as the treatment in an university hospital. METHODS: We analyzed 953 recipients of renal transplant undertaken in Hospital das Clínicas - FMRP-USP, from February of 1968 to May of 2003. The mean age of patients bearing lithiasis was 47.2 years (range 35 to 63 years). RESULTS: The prevalence of lithiasis was 10/953 (1.0%). Nine patients received kidneys from cadaver donor and 1 from living donor. The diagnosis occurred during the surgery in 2 (20%), within few days after transplantation in 1 (10%) and in the late postoperative period in 7 (70%). Seven patients had no complains, 2 had associated urinary tract infection and 1 a rise in serum creatinine. Of 8 cases with lithiasis in the postoperative period, the stones were localized in the kidney in 6 and in the ureter in 2. Renal calculi were managed as follows: watchful-waiting - 2, extracorporeal lithotrypsy - 2, percutaneous nepholithotrypsy - 1 and open pyelolithomy - 1. One patient with ureteric lithiasis associated ureteral stenosis underwent a pyelo-vesicostomy. The other patient with ureteric lithiasis was treated by retrograde endoscopic ureterolithothrypsy. CONCLUSION: Urinary lithiasis is rare in transplanted kidneys and can be managed as to the general population.

Adauto José, Cologna; Antonio Carlos Pereira, Martins; Haylton Jorge, Suaid; Silvio, Tucci Júnior; Rodolfo Borges dos, Reis; Ricardo Mesquita, Paschoal; André Luis Alonso, Domingos; Lucy Vieira da, Silva-Lima.

225

Urolitíase no alotransplante renal Urinary lithiasis in renal allografts  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A litíase urinária é uma complicação incomum no alotransplante renal, a incidência varia de 0,02 a 3,4%. A maioria dos cálculos forma-se após o transplante, porém alguns podem ser transferidos junto com o enxerto para o hospedeiro. O tratamento desta complicação está baseado em alguns casos descritos na literatura. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de relatar a incidência da litíase renal no paciente com transplante renal, assim como a conduta adotada no HCFMRPUSP. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 953 pacientes submetidos a transplante renal no HCFMRPUSP, de fevereiro 1968 a maio de 2003. A idade média foi de 47,2 anos (35 a 63 anos. Em 09 pacientes, o rim foi proveniente de doador cadáver e apenas 01 doador vivo. RESULTADOS:Foram diagnosticados 10 casos de litíase (1,05%. Em 02 pacientes (20% o cálculo foi diagnosticado no intraoperatório, em 01 (10% no peri-operatório (5º. dia, os 07 restantes (70% no pós-operatório tardio. Em 04 pacientes (57% não havia sintomatologia específica, 02 (29% apresentaram ITU, em 03 (43% ocorreu elevação da creatinina sérica. De 8 pacientes com litíase no pós-operatorio, em 06 os cálculos estavam localizados no rim e 02 no ureter. Dos pacientes com cálculos renais, 02 foram observados, 02 submetidos a LECO, 01 a nefrolitripsia percutânea, 01 à pielolitotomia. Em 01 paciente com cálculo ureteral foi realizada pielovesicostomia (cálculo + estenose, no outro paciente foi feita a ureterorrenoscopia retrógrada. CONCLUSÃO: A urolitíase é complicação rara no transplante renal, a conduta terapêutica no pós-operatório tardio é semelhante à da população geral.Purpose: Urinary lithiasis is an uncommon complication in recipient of kidney allografts. The prevalence varies from 0.02 to 3.4%. The majority of calculi arises de novo in the recipient, however some of them are transferred with the transplanted kidney. The treatment relies on few reports published previously. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of lithiasis as well as the treatment in an university hospital. METHODS: We analyzed 953 recipients of renal transplant undertaken in Hospital das Clínicas - FMRP-USP, from February of 1968 to May of 2003. The mean age of patients bearing lithiasis was 47.2 years (range 35 to 63 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of lithiasis was 10/953 (1.0%. Nine patients received kidneys from cadaver donor and 1 from living donor. The diagnosis occurred during the surgery in 2 (20%, within few days after transplantation in 1 (10% and in the late postoperative period in 7 (70%. Seven patients had no complains, 2 had associated urinary tract infection and 1 a rise in serum creatinine. Of 8 cases with lithiasis in the postoperative period, the stones were localized in the kidney in 6 and in the ureter in 2. Renal calculi were managed as follows: watchful-waiting - 2, extracorporeal lithotrypsy - 2, percutaneous nepholithotrypsy - 1 and open pyelolithomy - 1. One patient with ureteric lithiasis associated ureteral stenosis underwent a pyelo-vesicostomy. The other patient with ureteric lithiasis was treated by retrograde endoscopic ureterolithothrypsy. CONCLUSION: Urinary lithiasis is rare in transplanted kidneys and can be managed as to the general population.

Adauto José Cologna

2003-01-01

226

Major Odorants Released as Urinary Volatiles by Urinary Incontinent Patients  

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In this study, volatile urinary components were collected using three different types of samples from patients suffering from urinary incontinence (UI): (1) urine (A); (2) urine + non-used pad (B); and (3) urine + used pad (C). In addition, urine + non-used pad (D) samples from non-patients were also collected as a reference. The collection of urinary volatiles was conducted with the aid of a glass impinger-based mini-chamber method. Each of the four sample types (A through D) was placed in a...

In Young Sa; Soo Yeon Oh; Si On Choi; Sudhir Kumar Pandey; Ki-Hyun Kim

2013-01-01

227

Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy versus ureteroscopy for distal ureteric calculi: efficacy and patient satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL and ureteroscopy (URS for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi with respect to patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND MHETODS: This is a prospective study where a total of 212 patients with solitary, radiopaque distal ureteral calculi were treated with ESWL (n = 92 using Dornier lithotriptor S (MedTech Europe GmbH or URS (n = 120. Patient and stone characteristics, treatment parameters, clinical outcomes, and patient satisfaction were assessed for each group. RESULTS: The 2 groups were comparable in regard to patient age, sex, stone size, and side of treatment. The stone-free status for ESWL and URS at 3 months was 81.5% and 97.5%, respectively (p < 0.0001. In addition, 88% of patients who underwent ESWL versus 20% who underwent URS were discharged home the day of procedure. Minor complications occurred in 3.3% and 8.3% of the ESWL and URS groups, respectively (p = 0.127. No ureteral perforation or stricture occurred in the URS group. Postoperative flank pain and dysuria were more severe in the URS than ESWL group, although the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.16. Patient satisfaction was high for both groups, including 94% for URS and 80% for ESWL (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: URS is more effective than ESWL for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi. ESWL was more often performed on an outpatient basis, and showed a trend towards less flank pain and dysuria, fewer complications and quicker convalescence. Patient satisfaction was significantly higher for URS according to the questionnaire used in this study.

Ibrahim F. Ghalayini

2006-12-01

228

Pseudospirochaetosis of the urinary bladder.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes an elderly patient with urinary symptoms who showed surface colonisation of the transitional mucosa of the bladder by an unusual haematoxophilic microorganism superficially resembling the "blue fuzz" seen in colonic biopsies showing intestinal spirochaetosis. Special stains showed that the organisms were Gram and Giemsa positive, weakly argyrophilic, and Ziehl-Nielsen negative. Immunostains were negative for Helicobacter pylori and electron microscopy revealed curious curved bodies, which were difficult to classify. Therefore, this condition was described as pseudospirochaetosis of the urinary bladder. The urinary symptoms regressed on treatment with ciprofloxacin. The clinicopathological relevance of these findings is discussed in the report. PMID:15790716

Chitale, S; Burgess, N; Barker, T H W; Roberts, P F

2005-04-01

229

Solubility and dissolution kinetics of calcium oxalate renal calculi in solutions containing L-arginine: In-vitro experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

The kinetics of dissolution of calcium oxalate (CaOX) calculi in physiological solutions containing L-arginine at different concentrations were studied using the change in the Archimedean weight of samples immersed in the solution. It was faound that arginine, which is a normal constituent of human urine, acts at increased concentrations as a dissolving agent with respect to CaOX calculi. The possible effect of L-arginine as a natural regulator of CaOX supersaturation and crystalization in human urine is also disscused.

Atanassova, S.

2010-06-01

230

Classification of Bicovariant Differential Calculi on the Quantum Groups $SL_q(n+1)$ and $Sp_q(2n)$  

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For transcendental values of $q$ all bicovariant first order differential calculi on the coordinate Hopf algebras of the quantum groups $SL_q(n+1)$ and $Sp_q(2n)$ are classified. It is shown that the irreducible bicovariant first order calculi are determined by an irreducible corepresentation of the quantum group and a complex number $\\zeta$ such that $\\zeta^{n+1}=1$ for $SL_q(n+1)$ and $\\zeta^2=1$ for $Sp_q(2n)$. Any bicovariant calculus is inner and its quantum Lie algebra...

Heckenberger, I.; Schmuedgen, K.

1997-01-01

231

Multiple submandibular duct (Wharton’s duct) calculi of unusual size and shape  

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Salivary gland stones are most common in the ductal system of submandibular glands and are calcified. A rare case of multiple submandibular duct (Wharton’s duct) calculi of unusual size and shape in a 42-year-old male patient, who presented with pain and swelling in the region of submandibular gland and hence reported. Sometimes a small stone comes out into the mouth on its own or with gentle probing. However in this case a small intra-oral procedure was needed to remove the stones.

Krishnappa, B. D.

2010-01-01

232

Genital and Urinary Tract Defects  

Science.gov (United States)

... treated? Common genital and urinary tract defects include: Ambiguous genitals. In this condition, a baby’s genitals outside ... 4,500 babies (less than 1 percent) has ambiguous genitals. Ambiguous genitals are a common sign of ...

233

In vitro crystallization, characterization and growth-inhibition study of urinary type struvite crystals  

Science.gov (United States)

The formation of urinary stones, known as nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis, is a serious, debilitating problem throughout the world. Struvite—NH4MgPO4·6H2O, ammonium magnesium phosphate hexahydrate, is one of the components of urinary stones (calculi). Struvite crystals with different morphologies were grown by in vitro single diffusion gel growth technique with different growth parameters. The crystals were characterized by powder XRD, FT-IR, thermal analysis and dielectric study. The powder XRD results of struvite confirmed the orthorhombic crystal structure. The FT-IR spectrum proved the presence of water of hydration, metal-oxygen bond, N-H bond and P-O bond. For thermal analysis TGA, DTA and DSC were carried out simultaneously. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of dehydration/decomposition process were calculated. Vickers micro-hardness and related mechanical parameters were also calculated. The in vitro growth inhibition studies of struvite by the juice of Citrus medica Linn as well as the herbal extracts of Commiphora wightii, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn and Rotula aquatica Lour were carried out and found potent inhibitors of struvite.

Chauhan, Chetan K.; Joshi, Mihir J.

2013-01-01

234

Urinary stone size estimation: a new segmentation algorithm-based CT method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The size estimation in CT images of an obstructing ureteral calculus is important for the clinical management of a patient presenting with renal colic. The objective of the present study was to develop a reader independent urinary calculus segmentation algorithm using well-known digital image processing steps and to validate the method against size estimations by several readers. Fifty clinical CT examinations demonstrating urinary calculi were included. Each calculus was measured independently by 11 readers. The mean value of their size estimations was used as validation data for each calculus. The segmentation algorithm consisted of interpolated zoom, binary thresholding and morphological operations. Ten examinations were used for algorithm optimisation and 40 for validation. Based on the optimisation results three segmentation method candidates were identified. Between the primary segmentation algorithm using cubic spline interpolation and the mean estimation by 11 readers, the bias was 0.0 mm, the standard deviation of the difference 0.26 mm and the Bland-Altman limits of agreement 0.0±0.5 mm. The validation showed good agreement between the suggested algorithm and the mean estimation by a large number of readers. The limit of agreement was narrower than the inter-reader limit of agreement previously reported for the same data. (orig.)

235

Urinary stone size estimation: a new segmentation algorithm-based CT method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The size estimation in CT images of an obstructing ureteral calculus is important for the clinical management of a patient presenting with renal colic. The objective of the present study was to develop a reader independent urinary calculus segmentation algorithm using well-known digital image processing steps and to validate the method against size estimations by several readers. Fifty clinical CT examinations demonstrating urinary calculi were included. Each calculus was measured independently by 11 readers. The mean value of their size estimations was used as validation data for each calculus. The segmentation algorithm consisted of interpolated zoom, binary thresholding and morphological operations. Ten examinations were used for algorithm optimisation and 40 for validation. Based on the optimisation results three segmentation method candidates were identified. Between the primary segmentation algorithm using cubic spline interpolation and the mean estimation by 11 readers, the bias was 0.0 mm, the standard deviation of the difference 0.26 mm and the Bland-Altman limits of agreement 0.0{+-}0.5 mm. The validation showed good agreement between the suggested algorithm and the mean estimation by a large number of readers. The limit of agreement was narrower than the inter-reader limit of agreement previously reported for the same data. (orig.)

Liden, Mats; Geijer, Haakan [Oerebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Oerebro (Sweden); Oerebro University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oerebro (Sweden); Andersson, Torbjoern [Oerebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Oerebro (Sweden); Broxvall, Mathias [Oerebro University, Centre for Modelling and Simulation, Oerebro (Sweden); Thunberg, Per [Oerebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Oerebro (Sweden); Oerebro University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Oerebro (Sweden)

2012-04-15

236

Controversies in urinary iodine determinations  

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Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limit...

Soldin, Offie Porat

2002-01-01

237

Telocytes in the urinary system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Telocytes, a new type of interstitial cells, have been identified in many organs in mammals. The present studies aimed at investigating the ultrastructure, distribution and interactions of telocytes with surrounding cells in the urinary system of rats, to confirm the existence of telocytes in kidneys, ureter and urinary bladder. Methods Samples of kidney, ureter, or urinary bladder were harvested for the ultrastructure by the electron microscope. The primary culture of telocytes was performed to investigate the dynamic alterations. Results Telocytes mainly located in the sub-capsular space of kidney, or between smooth muscle bundles and in the lamina propria of ureter and urinary bladder. Telocytes established numerous contacts with macrophages in the sub-capsular space of kidney, or with smooth muscle cells, nerve endings as well as blood capillaries in the ureter and urinary bladder. The complete morphology of telocytes with telopodes was observed clearly through the primary cell culture from the kidney tissues of rats. Conclusions Our data evidenced the existence of telocytes in the urinary system, which may contribute to the tissue reparation and regeneration.

Zheng Yonghua

2012-09-01

238

Problems and Prospects of Neglected Renal Calculi in Pakistan Can This Tragedy be Averted?  

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Full Text Available Materials and Methods: From January 2010 to December 2010, a total of 2838 new patients withstone disease were treated at a tertiary care center. The medical files of 278 patients presenting withstone disease and renal failure were reviewed and compared with a cohort of 878 patients withnormal renal functions. Their demographic and clinicopathological parameters were noted andanalyzed.Results: Of 2838 patients, 278 presented with acute and chronic renal failure, 40 (1.4% withunilateral non-functioning kidneys, and 25 (0.8% with pyonephrosis and perinephric abscess.Management in 278 (9.7% subjects was divided into initial relief of obstruction by percutaneousnephrolithotomy and double-J stents followed by definitive management in the form of open surgery,percutaneous nephrolithotomy, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, and ureterorenoscopyto make these patients stone-free. Results of treatment showed that 72% of patients either recoveredtheir renal functions or became dialysis-free at the end of the follow-up period.Conclusion: Complications of renal calculi in the era of modern treatment can be prevented bypublic education and organizing courses for family physicians as well as opening new stone clinicsin the rural areas of the country equipped with modern treatment facilities and strategies forprevention of renal calculi.

Manzoor Hussain

2013-06-01

239

Binary Sequent Calculi for Truth-invariance Entailment of Finite Many-valued Logics  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we consider the class of truth-functional many-valued logics with a finite set of truth-values. The main result of this paper is the development of a new \\emph{binary} sequent calculi (each sequent is a pair of formulae) for many valued logic with a finite set of truth values, and of Kripke-like semantics for it that is both sound and complete. We did not use the logic entailment based on matrix with a strict subset of designated truth values, but a different new kind of semantics based on the generalization of the classic 2-valued truth-invariance entailment. In order to define this non-matrix based sequent calculi, we transform many-valued logic into positive 2-valued multi-modal logic with classic conjunction, disjunction and finite set of modal connectives. In this algebraic framework we define an uniquely determined axiom system, by extending the classic 2-valued distributive lattice logic (DLL) by a new set of sequent axioms for many-valued logic connectives. Dually, in an autoreferential ...

Majkic, Zoran

2011-01-01

240

Litotricia extracorpórea en litiasis en pacientes con derivación urinaria / Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urolithiasis in patients with urinary diversion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Exponemos nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento de litiasis en pacientes con derivación urinaria. Hemos tratado 5 pacientes con litiasis en el tracto urinario superior tras cistectomía y derivación urinaria. El tratamiento se ha hecho con monoterapia por ondas de choque con el litotritor Lithostar M [...] odularis de Siemens. El tamaño medio de las litiasis fue de 1,95 cm (rango 1 a 3,5 cm). El número medio de sesiones ha sido 2,6, con 3961 ondas de choque de media por sesión. Hemos conseguido un 100% de pacientes libres de litiasis, indicando que la litotricia extracorpórea tiene unos buenos resultados en el tratamiento de las litiasis en pacientes con derivación urinaria, siendo el tratamiento de elección en estos pacientes, con muy baja morbilidad y alta eficacia, comparable a los pacientes sin derivación urinaria. Abstract in english We evaluate the efficacy of ESWL in the management of calculi in patients with urinary diversion. We treated 5 patients who suffered from urinary lithiasis after urinary diversion post cistectomy. We managed the patients with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in monotherapy with a Siemens Lithos [...] tar Modularis device. Mean stone size (long axis) was 1.95 cm (range 1 to 3.5 cm). The mean shockwave number per session was 2.6 per patient. Stone free result was 100%. We conclude that ESWL technique can provide acceptable results in patients with urinary diversion and can be used as first choice treatment in these type of patients due to its minimal morbidity and excellent results, equivalent to those achieved in patients without urinary diversion.

A., Vega Vega; D., García Alonso; L., Parra Muntaner; J.M., Sánchez Merino; J., García Alonso.

2004-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

[Urinary incontinence and obesity].  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than or equal to 30kg/m(2), promotes pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence (UI) and genital prolapse. Datas from cohort studies found an association between high BMI and the onset of UI. This association seems to be predominant with for mixed UI and stress UI. For the urge UI and overactive bladder syndrome, the analysis of the literature found a weaker association. The weight is therefore the only modifiable risk factor. Thus, the weight loss by a hypocaloric diet associated with pelvic floor muscle training should be the front line treatment in the obese patient suffering from UI. Bariatric surgery can be discussed in the most obese patient, even if the risk/benefit balance should be weighed because of significant morbidity of this surgery. The results of sub urethral sling (by retropubic tension-free vaginal tape or transobturator sling) in obese patients appear to be equivalent to those obtained in patients of normal weight. Datas on per- and postoperative complications for suburethral slings are reassuring. PMID:22516035

Legendre, G; Fritel, X; Capmas, P; Pourcelot, A-G; Fernandez, H

2012-06-01

242

Neonatal urinary prostanoid excretion.  

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Urinary excretion of prostanoids prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), PGE-M (7alpha-hydroxy-5,11-diketo-2,3,4,5,20-penta-19-carboxyprostano ic acid), 6-keto-PGF1alpha, 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1alpha, thromboxane B2 (TxB2) 2,3-dinor-TxB2 and 11-dehydro-TxB2 was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in preterm and term infants to show that there is an age-dependent excretion rate of the above prostanoids in infants this young. Group I included premature children with normal postnatal development, Groups II and III included term children who were admitted in the neonatal period for observation because of feeding problems but who were subsequently found to be completely healthy. We present normal data of three primary prostanoids and four prostanoid metabolites. In Group I, excretion rates of 2,3-dinor-TxB2 were significantly lower than in Group II (P = 0.04) and in Group III (P = 0.05). Furthermore, the excretion rate of 11-dehydro-TxB2 in group I was significantly lower than in Group II (P = 0.05). We found no significant age-dependent differences between the three groups in excretion rates of PGE2, PGE-M, 6-keto-PGF1alpha, 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1alpha, and TxB2. PMID:10680771

Hoch, B; Bernhard, M; Seyberth, H W; Watzer, B; Schweer, H

2000-01-01

243

Urinary incontinence and bladder endometriosis: conservative management.  

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Bladder endometriosis causes urinary symptoms including frequency, dysuria, cyclic haematuria and non-urinary pain symptoms. To our knowledge, the association of bladder endometriosis with urinary incontinence has not been described. We present the first case of bladder endometriosis that caused urinary symptoms including mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). A 34-year-old nulliparous woman was referred to our urogynaecology clinic with a 18-month history of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). A diagnosis of bladder endometriosis was performed on the basis of symptoms and imaging. The patient refused surgery and dienogest was prescribed. At the 12-month follow-up, all endometriosis-related symptoms and questionnaire scores had significantly improved, and there was resolution of the abnormal urodynamic findings. In reproductive-aged women suffering pain symptoms, bladder endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of urinary incontinence and treatment with dienogest may lead to improvement of both urinary and pain symptoms. PMID:25182151

Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Ferrero, Simone; Salvatore, Stefano

2015-01-01

244

Catheter associated urinary tract infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributable to these infections. Catheter-acquired urinary infection is the source for about 20% of episodes of health-care acquired bacteremia in acute care facilities, and over 50% in long term care facilities. The most important interventions to prevent bacteriuria and infection are to limit indwelling catheter use and, when catheter use is necessary, to discontinue the catheter as soon as clinically feasible. Infection control programs in health care facilities must implement and monitor strategies to limit catheter-acquired urinary infection, including surveillance of catheter use, appropriateness of catheter indications, and complications. Ultimately, prevention of these infections will require technical advances in catheter materials which prevent biofilm formation. PMID:25075308

Nicolle, Lindsay E

2014-01-01

245

Urinary biomarkers of oxidative status.  

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Oxidative damage produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the etiology and pathology of many health conditions, including a large number of chronic diseases. Urinary biomarkers of oxidative status present a great opportunity to study redox balance in human populations. With urinary biomarkers, specimen collection is non-invasive and the organic/metal content is low, which minimizes the artifactual formation of oxidative damage to molecules in specimens. Also, urinary levels of the biomarkers present intergraded indices of redox balance over a longer period of time compared to blood levels. This review summarizes the criteria for evaluation of biomarkers applicable to epidemiological studies and evaluation of several classes of biomarkers that are formed non-enzymatically: oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, DNA, and allantoin, an oxidative product of uric acid. The review considers formation, metabolism, and exertion of each biomarker, available data on validation in animal and clinical models of oxidative stress, analytical approaches, and their intra- and inter-individual variation. The recommended biomarkers for monitoring oxidative status over time are F?-isoprostanes and 8-oxodG. For inter-individual comparisons, F?-isoprostanes are recommended, whereas urinary 8-oxodG levels may be confounded by differences in the DNA repair capacity. Promising urinary biomarkers include allantoin, acrolein-lysine, and dityrosine. PMID:22683781

Il'yasova, Dora; Scarbrough, Peter; Spasojevic, Ivan

2012-10-01

246

[Urinary incontinence and genital prolapse].  

Science.gov (United States)

Prolapse commonly coexists with lower urinary tract dysfunction. If symptomatic stress urinary incontinence is often described by patients with low stage pelvic organ prolapse, obstructive symptoms are common in patients with stage 3 or 4 prolapse. Positive preoperative reduction testing in stress continent women planning prolapse repair is associated with a higher risk for postoperative leakage and clearly identify a high risk population. To date it has not been proven that urodynamic testing may provide more precise data than physical examination to advocate an additional stress urinary surgery at the time of prolapse repair. A systematic prophylactic Burch colposuspension significantly reduces the risk of postoperative SUI. In patients with occult SUI, a concomitant TVT at the time of vaginal prolapse surgery significantly reduces the risk of postoperative SUI. In patients without leakage during reduction testing, there is no evidence for performing a concurrent TVT. PMID:20141922

Fatton, B; Nadeau, C

2009-12-01

247

Urinary tract infection in older adults.  

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Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults. PMID:24391677

Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

2013-10-01

248

Urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick in acute pancreatitis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results.

Andersen, Anders MØller; Novovic, Srdan

2010-01-01

249

Urinary cholesterol in cancer screening  

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Cholesterol determinations in morning urine samples were taken in 235 selected patients with a positive test for microscopic hematuria. Values ranged from 0.2 to 76.0 mg (median 5.5) in 23 patients with urologic malignancies and from 0.1 to 33.4 mg (median 1.1) in 38 patients with various benign diseases of the kidney or urogenital tract. In the 28 patients with urinary tract infections and 146 subjects without evidence of disorders of the kidney and the urogenital system, urinary cholesterol...

Ju?ngst, Dieter; Osterholzer, Margarete; Tauber, Roland; Karl, Hans Josef

1982-01-01

250

[Urinary incontinence in the aged].  

Science.gov (United States)

Urine incontinence in elderly patients can be observed in about 7% of men and 12% of women. Short review of the anatomy of the urinary bladder, continence mechanism, micturation and bladder innervation. Description of urodynamic examination and the various forms of incontinence with differentiation between extrasphincteric urinary leakage (ectopic ureter, fistula) and incontinence due to weakness of the sphincter or detrusor dysfunction. Discussion of the detrusor function in "neurogenic bladder" as cause of incontinence in many diseases of elderly people (apoplexia, M. Parkinson, diabetes etc.). Briefing of the therapeutic possibilities. PMID:6485483

Haschek, H

1984-01-01

251

Upper and midureteral calculi: Percutaneous extraction with an occlusion balloon catheter  

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In 44 patients with one or more calculi in the upper two-thirds of the ureter, single-stage percutaneous nephrolithotomy was performed through a middle or upper calyceal nephrostomy after cystoscopic placement of an occlusion balloon catheter distal to the calculus; in 42, the procedure was successful. The occlusion balloon catheter permitted retrograde opacification of all systems for enhanced renal puncture. In the last 30 patients an attempt was made either to push the calculus upward mechanically or to flush it upward into the renal pelvis with carbon dioxide or dilute contrast material. This was successful in 24 of these patients. Prior overnight occlusion of the ureter by means of ureteral dilatation further facilitates dislodgement of the calculus, which was successful in 12 of 13 patients.

Beckmann, C.F.; Roth, R.A.; Luedke, M.D.

1986-06-01

252

Commutator Representations of Differential Calculi on the Quantum Group $SU_{q}(2)$  

CERN Document Server

Let (\\Gamma,d) be the 3D-calculus or the 4D_{\\pm}-calculus on the quantum group SU_q(2). We describe all pairs (\\pi, F) of a *-representation \\pi of O(SU_q(2)) and of a symmetric operator F on the representation space satisfying a technical condition concerning its domain such that there exist a homomorphism of first order differential calculi which maps dx into the commutator [iF,\\pi(x)] for x\\in O(SU_q(2)). As an application commutator representations of the 2-dimensional left-covariant calculus on Podles' quantum 2-sphere S^2_{qc} with c=0 are given.

Schmüdgen, K

1998-01-01

253

Factors affecting treatment success of staghorn calculi: stone burden or stone locations  

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Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the results and comlications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL treatment in patients with staghorn calculi.Materials and methods: We performed multi-access PCNL in 54 patients with staghorn stones in our department between 2004 to 2007. Of these patients, 2 access tracts were used for 41, 3 access tracts for 8, and 4 access tracts for 5 patients. The mean stone burden was 10.7 cm2 for 2 access group, 11.7 cm2 for 3 access group, and 11.2 cm2 for 4 access group. Preoperative data including stone surface area, stone locations, and patient demograghics were recorded. Access number, transfusion rate, and operative duration were recorded intraoperatively. Stone-free rates and need for opioids were determined postoperatively.Results: Transfusion rate was 24.3% in 2 access group, 37.5% in 3 access group, and 80% in 4 access group. The mean operative duration was 145, 157, and 189 sec in 2, 3, and 4 access groups, respectively. Stone-free rate was 63.4%, 50%, and 20%; need of opioids was 4.8%, 25%, and 60% in three groups. Two A-V fistulas, one in 3 access group and the other in 4 access group, were treated by chemoembolisation.Conclusion: Stone burden is not the most important factor for stone-free rates in complex and branched renal calculi. Different caliceal locations of stones is more predictive for stone-free rates for staghorn stones. Increased access number is associated with more blood transfusion, long operative duration, more complications, and more opioid needs.

M. Bahad?r Can Balc?

2011-09-01

254

Recurrent Multifocal Primary Amyloidosis of Urinary Bladder  

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Primary localized amyloidosis of bladder is rare. We report a case of recurrence of multifocal primary amyloidosis of urinary bladder. Cystoscopy revealed a diffuse left lateral wall lesion with normal surrounding mucosa. Histopathological examination of the specimen revealed urinary bladder amyloidosis with negative surgical margins. Recurrent urinary bladder amyloidosis was confirmed 3 months after the first resection. Close follow-up is recommended.

Patel S; Trivedi A; Dholaria P; Dholakia M; Devra A; Gupta B; Shah S

2008-01-01

255

Laboratory coherent-scatter analysis of intact urinary stones with crystalline composition: a tomographic approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge of urinary stone composition and structure provides important insights in guiding treatment and preventing recurrence. No current method can successfully provide information relating structure and composition of intact stones. We are developing a tomographic technique that uses measures of coherently scattered diagnostic x-rays to yield stone composition. Coherent-scatter (CS) properties depend on molecular structure and are, therefore, sensitive to material composition. Powdered, amorphous or polycrystalline materials with no significant orientation produce circularly symmetric CS patterns. However, in materials with preferred crystallite orientation, like urinary stones, bright spots in CS patterns are observed. This compromises a composition analysis based on comparing CS measurements from calculi to a library of CS signatures from powdered chemicals. We show that a computed tomographic reconstruction of CS measurements using filtered backprojection (CSCT) effectively eliminates bright spots and yields CS patterns equivalent to powdered materials. This allows for direct comparison with a powdered chemical reference library to establish composition. Validation is achieved through a tomographic CS analysis of an aluminium (Al) rod phantom. Much like calculi, CS patterns from a solid polycrystalline Al rod exhibit diffraction spots, absent in the ring-like Al powder CS pattern. We show that the reconstructed Al CS cross-section is equivalent to its powdered oss-section is equivalent to its powdered counterpart and results in clearly defined composition images. The potential of CSCT to identify stone composition is demonstrated through images of intact stones deemed chemically pure by infrared spectroscopy. Computed tomographic reconstruction of CS signals allowed the generation of composition maps, showing the distribution of stone components. These images provide strong evidence that current laboratory techniques risk missing critical stone components due to inadequate sampling. This is of particular importance since follow-up treatments are based on these composition analyses. CS analysis can distinguish common stone components and can provide topographic composition maps of intact stones. Such details offer invaluable clinical information regarding stone formation, treatment and follow-up, and thus support the development of CS analysis as a laboratory stone analysis technique

256

Pitfalls in urinary complement measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Local activation of the complement system has been associated with ischemia/reperfusion injury following kidney transplantation and tubular injury under proteinuric conditions. The soluble terminal complement complex sC5b-9 is a stable end-product of the complement cascade, and as such a promising urinary biomarker. In the early post-transplant period we found high urinary levels of sC5b-9, significantly correlating with the degree of proteinuria, suggesting activation of filtered complement components at the tubular epithelial surface of the kidney. However, when mimicking proteinuria in vitro by exposing serum (or blood) to urine (both negative for sC5b-9), we found extensive generation of sC5b-9 in urine. This process was inhibited by EDTA, confirming activation of the complement system. In conclusion, although sC5b-9 is an attractive urinary biomarker, one should be aware of the risk of extra-renal complement activation independent of a renal contribution. This may be of special interest when measuring urinary sC5b-9 following kidney transplantation in which procedure-related (microscopic) hematuria and proteinuria are common. PMID:22709941

van der Pol, Pieter; de Vries, Dorottya K; van Gijlswijk, Daniëlle J; van Anken, Gerritje E; Schlagwein, Nicole; Daha, Mohamed R; Aydin, Zeynep; de Fijter, Johan W; Schaapherder, Alexander F M; van Kooten, Cees

2012-08-01

257

Aeromonas popoffii Urinary Tract Infection  

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Aeromonas popoffii is a recently described species isolated mainly from freshwater. An isolate of Aeromonas popoffii was found to be responsible for a urinary tract infection in a 13-year-old boy suffering from spina bifida with enterocystoplasty. This is the first reported case of human infection attributed to this species.

Hua, Huy Thong; Bollet, Claude; Tercian, Stephane; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

2004-01-01

258

Managing urinary incontinence: what works?  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary incontinence is a common condition, which, although not life-threatening, impairs the health-related quality of life of affected individuals. All women complaining of incontinence require a basic assessment and those with complex or refractory symptoms may benefit from urodynamic studies. Initial treatment includes lifestyle advice, behavioral modifications, bladder retraining and pelvic floor muscle training. For those women with persistent stress urinary incontinence following conservative therapy, surgical management might be considered. The development of the minimally invasive, retropubic, synthetic, mid-urethral sling procedures has revolutionized stress incontinence surgery and reduced the popularity of 'traditional' procedures, such as colposuspension and autologous fascial sling. In an attempt to reduce further the morbidity, transobturator and single-incision slings have been introduced. While antimuscarinic agents are the mainstay of the current medical management of urgency urinary incontinence, a recently developed selective ?3-adrenergic receptor agonist (mirabegron) offers an alternative pharmacological option. Modalities such as intravesical botulinum toxin and neuromodulation (peripheral or sacral) are available to women with refractory urgency incontinence. Finally, when all other options have been explored and proven unsuccessful, inappropriate or not feasible, reconstructive surgery or catheter insertion might be considered as a last resort. The aim of this paper is to review conservative, medical and surgical management for urinary incontinence by using the best available evidence in the literature. PMID:25196507

Giarenis, I; Cardozo, L

2014-12-01

259

The Sound and Complete R-Calculi with Respect to Pseudo-Revision and Pre-Revision  

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Full Text Available The AGM postulates ([1] are for the belief revision (revision by a single belief, and the DP postulates ([2] are for the iterated revision (revision by a finite sequence of beliefs. Li [3] gave an R-calculus for R-configurations ?|?, where ? is a set of literals, and ? is a finite set of formulas. We shall give two R-calculi such that for any consistent set ? and finite consistent set ? of formulas in the propositional logic, in one calculus, there is a pseudo-revision ? of ? by ? such that   is provable and  and in another calculus, there is a pre-revision ? of ? by ? such that  is provable,  and  for some pseudo-revision ?; and prove that the deduction systems for both the R-calculi are sound and complete with the pseudo-revision and the pre-revision, respectively.

Wei Li

2013-04-01

260

Symptomatic small non-obstructing lower ureteric calculi: comparison of ureteroscopy and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the success, efficacy and complications of ureteroscopy (URS and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL for the treatment of symptomatic small non obstructing lower ureteric calculi. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective non-randomised study was conducted simultaneously at two urological referral centres, included 280 patients with symptomatic small (4-10 mm lower ureteric calculi (situated below the sacroiliac joint, with good renal function on intravenous urography. Patients were offered both the treatment options. One hundred and sixty patients chose ureteroscopy, whereas 120 patients were treated by ESWL. Standard techniques of ureteroscopy and ESWL were employed. Patients were followed-up to assess the success rates and complications of the two procedures. RESULTS: Ureteroscopy achieved complete stone clearance in one session in 95% of patients. In six patients ureteroscopy had failed initially and was later accomplished in second session improving the success rate to 98.7%. Two patients had a proximal migration of calculus that needed ESWL. Of the 120 patients treated by ESWL, 90% achieved stone free status at three months. Ureteroscopy was needed for twelve patients (10% where ESWL failed to achieve stone clearance. There were no significant ESWL related complications. ESWL was administered on outpatient basis, while patients needed hospitalisation and anaesthesia for ureteroscopy. CONCLUSION: ESWL can be the primary mode of treatment for symptomatic small non-obstructing lower ureteric calculi as it is minimally invasive and safe. Ureteroscopy can be offered to patients who demand immediate relief or when ESWL fails.

Andankar M

2001-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

Application of fast-track surgery concept in perioperative patients with biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis: a prospective study  

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Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the advantage and safety of the concept of fast-track surgery (FTS applied in perioperative patients with biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis. MethodsFifty-two patients undergoing operation for biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis from January 2011 to September 2013 were included in this study. These patients were randomly divided into FTS group (n = 30 and control group (n = 22. Patients in the FTS group received perioperative care measures guided by FTS concept, while patients in the control group received traditional perioperative management measures. The intraoperative situation of patients, time to postoperative recovery of intestinal function, length of postoperative hospital stay, total medical expenses during hospitalization, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Continuous data and categorical data were compared by t-test and ?2 test, respectively. ResultsAs compared with the control group, the FTS group had significantly time to postoperative recovery of intestinal function (t = 2.239, P = 0.045, a significantly shortened length of postoperative stay (t = 4.246, P = 0.038, and significantly reduced total medical expenses during hospitalization (t = 3.045, P = 0.033. No significant difference in postoperative complications was observed between the two groups (P?0.05. ConclusionThe concept of FTS can be safely and effectively applied in perioperative patients with biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis, which can accelerate rehabilitation without increasing the risk of surgery.

WANG Hua

2014-11-01

262

Urinary tract infection related to urinary catheterization: literature integrative review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to analyze, through literature, the knowledge produced on Urinary Tract Infection (UTI related to catheterization, especially in-dwelling urinary catheter (IUC. Methodology: this is an integrative literature review. The review was conducted on the Internet in the BDENF, LILACS, SciELO and MEDLINE databases, using the following keywords: urinary system, catheters delay and hospital infection. We selected: Brazilian studies, from the years 1999 to 2008. Results: 19 studies were selected. The time dimension of the publications ranged from 1999 to 2008, with higher incidence in the year 2007 (5 items = 26%. The studied productions provided some considerations on the following priority topics: the incidence of nosocomial UTI; predominant agent; risk factors; pharmacological treatment and chemoprophylaxis; and prophylactic mechanisms. Conclusion: it was the importance of the issue of ITU for the health / disease process of users and for the finances of the Health System, being essential na embodiment of a new view on the subject by the subject components of health services, especially the hospital to provide care that will allow the accumulation of health.

Pétala Tuani Candido de Oliveira Salvador, Kisna Yasmin Andrade Alves, Rodrigo Assis Neves Dantas, Daniele Vieira Dantas

2010-05-01

263

Major odorants released as urinary volatiles by urinary incontinent patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, volatile urinary components were collected using three different types of samples from patients suffering from urinary incontinence (UI): (1) urine (A); (2) urine + non-used pad (B); and (3) urine + used pad (C). In addition, urine + non-used pad (D) samples from non-patients were also collected as a reference. The collection of urinary volatiles was conducted with the aid of a glass impinger-based mini-chamber method. Each of the four sample types (A through D) was placed in a glass impinger and incubated for 4 hours at 37 °C. Ultra pure air was then passed through the chamber, and volatile urine gas components were collected into Tedlar bags at the other end. These bag samples were then analyzed for a wide range of VOCs and major offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), carbonyls, trimethylamine (TMA), ammonia, etc.). Among the various odorants, sulfur compounds (methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide) and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, butylaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde) were detected above odor threshold and predicted to contribute most effectively to odor intensity of urine incontinence. PMID:23823973

Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Si On; Sa, In Young; Oh, Soo Yeon

2013-01-01

264

Major Odorants Released as Urinary Volatiles by Urinary Incontinent Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, volatile urinary components were collected using three different types of samples from patients suffering from urinary incontinence (UI: (1 urine (A; (2 urine + non-used pad (B; and (3 urine + used pad (C. In addition, urine + non-used pad (D samples from non-patients were also collected as a reference. The collection of urinary volatiles was conducted with the aid of a glass impinger-based mini-chamber method. Each of the four sample types (A through D was placed in a glass impinger and incubated for 4 hours at 37 °C. Ultra pure air was then passed through the chamber, and volatile urine gas components were collected into Tedlar bags at the other end. These bag samples were then analyzed for a wide range of VOCs and major offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs, carbonyls, trimethylamine (TMA, ammonia, etc.. Among the various odorants, sulfur compounds (methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, butylaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde were detected above odor threshold and predicted to contribute most effectively to odor intensity of urine incontinence.

In Young Sa

2013-07-01

265

Effects of urinary volume on urinary concentrations of lead, delta-aminolaevulinic acid, coproporphyrin, creatinine, and total solutes.  

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Urinary volume was related to urinary concentrations of lead, delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), coproporphyrin (COPRO), creatinine, and total solutes in nine lead workers. On a log scale, linear relationships were found between urinary volume and the urinary concentrations. There was a certain difference in the extent of the effects of urinary volume on the urinary concentrations. For example, the concentration of creatinine was more affected by urinary volume than those of lead, ALA, and tot...

Araki, S.

1980-01-01

266

Management of ureteral calculi and medical expulsive therapy in emergency departments  

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Full Text Available Introduction : Ureteral stones are a common problem in daily emergency department practice. Patients may be offered medical expulsive therapy (MET1 to facilitate stone expulsion and this should be offered as a treatment for patients with distal ureteral calculi, who are amenable to waiting management. Emergency department clinicians and family practitioners are often in the front line regarding the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic nephrolithiasis and this commentary is dedicated to them because their decisions directly influence the outcome of the acute stone episode and appropriate referral patterns. Materials and Methods : The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to understand the role of MET in the treatment of obstructing ureteral calculi. A bibliographic search covering the period from January 1980 to March 2010 was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE. The searches were restricted to publications in English. This analysis is based on the 21 studies that fulfilled the predefined inclusion criteria. Results : A metaregression analysis of expulsion time showed a statistically significant advantage in the experimental group, in which the mean expulsion time was 6.2 days compared to 10.3 days in controls. The treatment effect on expulsion rate (P = 0.53 was partially lost as the size of the stones decreased because of the high spontaneous expulsion rate of small stones and the expulsion time was not influenced by pharmacological treatment (P = 0.76 if the stone size was smaller than 5 mm. Analysis of the tamsulosin database : A total of 1283 participants were included in the 17 studies. These studies showed that compared to standard therapy or placebo, tamsulosin had significant benefits, being associated with both a higher stone expulsion rate (P < 0.001 and reduction of the expulsion time (P = 0.02. Reductions in the need for analgesic therapy, hospitalization and surgery are also shown. Analysis of the nifedipine database : The number of participants in each trial ranged from 25 to 70. Compared to standard therapy, the use of nifedipine significantly improved the spontaneous stone expulsion rate (P < 0.001. The mean expulsion time was slightly, but not statistically significantly, different (P = 0.19 between the treatment and control groups. A possible benefit of nifedipine, in terms of significantly reducing the doses of analgesics required, was reported in three studies. There was no difference between the tamsulosin- and nifedipine-treated groups with regard to expulsion time (P = 0.17 or expulsion rate (P = 0.79. Conclusions : Despite all its advantages, MET is rarely used, representing a failure of the translation of medical science into practice. These data raise concerns not only about the quality of care of patients who could benefit from resolution of stones without anaesthetic and surgical risks but also with regard to potential cost savings. MET should be offered as a treatment for patients with distal ureteral calculi who are amenable to a waiting management.

Stefano Picozzi C

2011-01-01

267

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Prone and Supine Positions for Patients with Upper Ureteral Calculi  

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Full Text Available

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment of upper ureteral calculi with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL in the supine and prone positions.

Materials and Methods: A total of 68 patients with upper ureteral calculi underwent SWL. In 35 patients, the procedure was performed in the supine position (group 1, while in the 33 remainders, it was performed in the prone position (group 2. The stone-free rate, the number of SWL sessions required, and the number of shocks per treatment session were compared between the 2 groups.

Results: The mean calculus size was 12.4 ± 3.1 mm and 12.2 ± 2.9 mm in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The stone-free rate was 81.8% in group 1 and 82.9% in group 2 (P = .91. The number of sessions for achieving the stone-free status was similar in the patients of the 2 groups (1.9 ± 0.8 in group 1 versus 1.9 ± 0.8 in group 2; P = .79. The mean number of shock waves per treatment session was not significantly different between the 2 groups. No major complications were seen and none of the patients required hospitalization, placement of a ureteral catheter, or a double-J stent.

Conclusion: Our study showed that in the prone position, treatment of the upper ureteral calculi by SWL is as safe and effective as the supine position.

Anahita Tavoosi

2006-02-01

268

Urinary tract changes in obstetric vesico-vaginal fistulae: a report of 216 cases studied by intravenous urography.  

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Intravenous urographies carried out routinely on 216 cases of vesico-vaginal fistulae were reviewed. All the patients had suffered from urinary incontinence following obstructed labour for periods varying from immediate post-partum period to as long as 35 years with the majority (48%) presenting in the first year of the disease. One hundred and eleven patients (51-4%) showed no urinary tract abnormality. Calyceal abnormality was graded from 1-5 in ascending order of severity. The most frequent abnormality was Grade 1 (or minimal calyceal blunting) found in 75 (71%) of 105 cases showing lesions. Ten patients had non-functioning kidneys. There was no correlation of severity of calyceal grading with duration of the disease. Other notable changes were hydroureter in 75 (34%), medial deviation of the terminal ureters in 21 (9-7%) and bladder calculi in four. The study reveals a high risk of morbidity to the kidneys in patients with vesico-vaginal fistulae and the predominant role of fibrous itssue in tis genesis is postulated. PMID:1000897

Lagundoye, S B; Bell, D; Gill, G; Ogunbode, O

1976-10-01

269

A unique presentation, and management, of acute urinary retention in a young boy with underlying vesicoureteral reflux  

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Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) affects ?1% of children. We present an unusual case of urinary retention secondary to an obstructing urethral stone, underlying reflux, and its management. A 7-year-old boy presenting with acute urinary retention had a palpable penile shaft swelling and patent urethral meatus on examination. Cysto-urethroscopy with a 6.6Fr ureteroscope, due to unavailability of paediatric instruments, revealed an obstructing calculus impacted in the navicular fossa. This was laser fragmented and extracted. Cystoscopy revealed multiple bladder calculi with a patulous right ureteric orifice. Post-operative investigations revealed a small, scarred right kidney (ultrasound), bilateral ureteric reflux (micturating-cystourethrogram), 4 cm by 0.8 cm right ureteric calculus (CT-KUB) and 4% right split renal function (DMSA). Right laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was subsequently performed. Our case highlights the variety with which VUR can present and the effectiveness of a ureteroscope in an emergency setting as an alternative to a paediatric cystoscope to visualize the urethra and the bladder. PMID:24963900

Patel, Chirag; Modgil, Vaibhav; Luscombe, Christopher; Liu, Samson

2013-01-01

270

Bedside Diagnosis Of Urinary Incontinence  

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Urinary incontinence usually presents as stress incontinence, unstable bladder, incontinence of psychomotor impairment, or neurogenic bladder. While diagnosis may sometimes require specialist investigation, it is often possible on clinical grounds. The otherwise well woman with a long history of incontinence will have either stress incontinence or an unstable bladder; the differences are defined. The ill patient with a short history of incontinence associated with impaired alertness or mobili...

Lewis, John

1985-01-01

271

Pseudospirochaetosis of the urinary bladder  

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This report describes an elderly patient with urinary symptoms who showed surface colonisation of the transitional mucosa of the bladder by an unusual haematoxophilic microorganism superficially resembling the “blue fuzz” seen in colonic biopsies showing intestinal spirochaetosis. Special stains showed that the organisms were Gram and Giemsa positive, weakly argyrophilic, and Ziehl-Nielsen negative. Immunostains were negative for Helicobacter pylori and electron microscopy revealed curiou...

Chitale, S.; Burgess, N.; Barker, T. H. W.; Roberts, P. F.

2005-01-01

272

Approach to urinary tract infections  

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Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomati...

Aggarwal, S.; Singh, H.

2009-01-01

273

Acute urinary retention: which catheter?  

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There is no scientific data on which is the best method and catheter to use in acute urinary retention in males. We therefore compared the efficiency of a size 12 G latex rubber balloon catheter with a similar calibre but more expensive catheter made of polyvinyl-chloride (PVC). A total of 50 patients was studied and a 100% successful catheterisation rate was recorded at first attempt with both catheters, with no significant complications. The importance of the correct management of acute uri...

Allardice, J. T.; Standfield, N. J.; Wyatt, A. P.

1988-01-01

274

Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen  

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Objectives: The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998) classification.Methods: This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30t...

Abdullah Saleh Al-Samawi; Saleh Mansoor Aulaqi

2013-01-01

275

Primary amyloidosis of urinary bladder  

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Primary amyloidosis of the bladder is a rare pathologicalcondition, which the etiology is unknown. The signsand symptoms suggests bladder tumor. In some patients,lower urinary tract symptoms such as lower abdominalpain, frequent urination, dysuria and complaints of grosspainless hematuria occur. In this study, a case of primarylocalized amyloidosis of the bladder in a 66 years oldfemale who had gross painless hematuria as the initialsymptom is described.Key words: Amyloidosis, bladder, hematuria

Basri Çak?ro?lu; Lora Ate?; Ramazan Gözüküçük; Mustafa Güçlü

2013-01-01

276

Primary amyloidosis of urinary bladder  

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Full Text Available Primary amyloidosis of the bladder is a rare pathologicalcondition, which the etiology is unknown. The signsand symptoms suggests bladder tumor. In some patients,lower urinary tract symptoms such as lower abdominalpain, frequent urination, dysuria and complaints of grosspainless hematuria occur. In this study, a case of primarylocalized amyloidosis of the bladder in a 66 years oldfemale who had gross painless hematuria as the initialsymptom is described.Key words: Amyloidosis, bladder, hematuria

Basri Çak?ro?lu

2013-03-01

277

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the urinary bladder: a report of 11 cases.  

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Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to the urinary bladder is rarely seen. Herein, we report the histologic subtypes, immunohistochemical characteristics, and prognosis of 11 patients with metastatic RCC to the urinary bladder. The mean age at the time of diagnosis of metastatic RCC to the bladder was 66 years (range, 58 to 79 y). There were 9 male and 2 female patients. Four patients presented with hematuria, 2 with urinary retention/obstruction, and 1 with bladder calculi. Four patients were asymptomatic and presented for surveillance cystoscopy, wherein they were found to have bladder masses. Nine patients had prior histories of RCC. The remaining 2 patients presented with metastatic clear cell RCC to the bladder and were subsequently found to have renal masses. The average time between nephrectomy and metastasis to the bladder was 20.7 months (range, 0 to 87 mo). Of the 10 patients with radical/partial nephrectomy, 7 cases were clear cell (2 with sarcomatoid features), 2 papillary, and 1 chromophobe with histologic fidelity between the primary and metastasis. Of cases with available data, the primaries' ISUP nucleolar grades were 2 (n=2), 3 (n=4), and 4 for the 2 cases with sarcomatoid features. In 8 cases, the bladder RCC undermined overlying urothelium with extensive urothelial denudation, and in 3 cases the RCC was free floating without attachment to the urothelium. The 1 chromophobe RCC metastasized with pagetoid spread to a preexisting urothelial papilloma. PAX8 immunohistochemistry was used to confirm the diagnosis in 2 cases. Three patients have no evidence of disease (7, 9, and 13 mo). Two are alive with disease after chemotherapy (30, 37 mo). Six patients are dead of disease with multiorgan metastases; 4 are dead after therapy (5, 8, 25, 28 mo), and two died without radiation or chemotherapy at 10 and 71 months. Metastatic RCC to the urinary bladder is uncommon, with most cases clear cell RCC. In some cases, evidence supports "drop metastases" as the mechanism of spread and patients have relatively long survival. However, in other cases spread to the bladder is in the setting of metastases to other sites, and these patients tended to die relatively shortly after their bladder metastases. PMID:25140895

Zhang, Miao; Wah, Cheuk; Epstein, Jonathan I

2014-11-01

278

Use of traditional Chinese medicine in the management of urinary stone disease  

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Full Text Available Objective: To assess the evidence-based literature supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine Kampo herbal and Acupuncture in stone disease management. Materials and Methods: Four of the most commonly used herbal components of Kampo medicine in the treatment of stone disease are described according to their in vitro and in vivo effects. We also reviewed the role of Acupuncture in urologic clinical setting as well as its proposed mechanisms of action and results. Medline database was assessed using isolated and conjugated key words (Chinese Medicine, Kampo, Chinese Herbal, Calculi, Stone Disease, Kidney, Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine. Articles were reviewed and summarized. Results: Herbal medicine has been proven to be free from side-effects and therefore suitable for long term use therapy. Its antilithic beneficial effects include increased urinary volume, increased magnesium excretion (Takusya, inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate aggregation (Takusya, Wulingsan and Desmodyum styracyfolium, inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation and hydroxyapatite internalization (Wulingsan. In contrast, acupuncture, has shown to be effective as a pre-treatment anxiolytic and analgesic during colic pain and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment, reducing the need for complementary sedative drugs. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine is promising as regards its role in stone prevention. An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each procedure differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics. Similarly, standardization of Kampo formulations and acceptable clinical endpoints (imaging vs. symptomatic events is needed.

Ricardo Miyaoka

2009-08-01

279

Correlations Between the Composition of Moroccan Urinary Stones and the Risk Factors (Food Habit  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize and to analyze the likely factors to influence the composition of the Morocco urinary calculi, we took a study between July 2002 and June 2007 with 283 lithiasis patients that gave their sample (stone for analyzes by infrared spectroscopy and replied to the questionnaire. Different informations were recorded: epidemiological characteristic (sex, age, residence zone and profession, food habits (tea; rich products in calcium, oxalate, animal proteins and spicy meals and consumption. The results show: a strong liaison between the different studied factors and the stone mainly composed of Weddelite, Whewellite and uric acid; the age effect on the stone mainly composed of Weddelite and uric acid was confirmed. Significant correlations were noted, positive between the stone mainly composed of Weddelite and the consumption of oxalate and negative between the stone mainly composed of calcium phosphate or magnesium ammonium phosphate and tea and spicy meals. This research shows equally that the consumption of the rich products in oxalate is frequents and that the consumption of the rich products in calcium is weak. This nutrition type would be responsible to the preponderance of the stone calcium oxalate (Whewellite, Weddelite observed in our country.

Laziri Fatiha

2009-01-01

280

Risk Factors for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections  

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To evaluate risk factors associated with recurrent urinary tract infections,we conducted a case- control study comparing 400 patients referred to aninfectious diseases outpatient clinic who had a history of recurrent urinary tractinfections (case patients) with 400 age, sex-matched control patients without ahistory of urinary tract infections. The distribution of 400 case patients to thegroups; 200 were women, 100 were men and 100 were children. 100 womenwere from 18 through 40 years of age (...

Serda Gülsün; Pa?a Gökta?

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention  

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Full Text Available Lower urinary tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent urinary tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are available, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower urinary tract infections, including in vitro studies and clinical trials.

Marcelo Hisano

2012-01-01

282

Computed tomography of the urinary bladder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Out of one hundred cases of the urinary bladder abnormalities examined by this method, CT staging and pathological correlations were investigated in 61 cases of the urinary bladder neoplasms. Accuracy of CT staging was 87% in this series with possible exception of 6 cases involving the bladder base and dome. CT scan using this method is the most reliable procedure to determine the treatment modalities of the urinary bladder tumors. (author)

283

Leiomyoma as a cause of urinary retention  

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Urinary retention is uncommon in reproductive age women. The frequent causes for obstructive retention are pelvic masses and a history of surgery. We report a case of intermittent urinary retention caused by a leiomyoma. A 47-year old patient with voiding difficulties for the past four months was referred to the gynecology outpatient clinic. She had urinary retention and had been catheterized several times for bladder emptying. She had been evaluated by the urology clinic and a cystoscopy was...

Kemal Sarsmaz; Asli Goker; Naci Kemal Kuscu

2013-01-01

284

Recurrent Multifocal Primary Amyloidosis of Urinary Bladder  

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Full Text Available Primary localized amyloidosis of bladder is rare. We report a case of recurrence of multifocal primary amyloidosis of urinary bladder. Cystoscopy revealed a diffuse left lateral wall lesion with normal surrounding mucosa. Histopathological examination of the specimen revealed urinary bladder amyloidosis with negative surgical margins. Recurrent urinary bladder amyloidosis was confirmed 3 months after the first resection. Close follow-up is recommended.

Patel S

2008-01-01

285

Use of urinary gram stain for detection of urinary tract infection in childhood.  

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In this study, urinary culture, urinary Gram stain, and four tests within the urinalysis, leukocyte esterase, nitrite, microscopyfor bacteria, and microscopyforpyuria, were examined in 100 children with symptoms suggesting urinary tract infection. Our purpose was to determine the validity of the urinary Gram stain compared with a combination of pyuria plus Gram stain and overall urinalysis (positiveness of nitrite, leukocyte esterase, microscopy for bacteria, or microscopy for white blood cel...

Arslan, Su?kru?; Caksen, Hu?seyin; Rastgeldi, Levent; Uner, Abdurrahman; Oner, Ahmet Faik; Odabas?, Dursun

2002-01-01

286

Minimally Invasive Radiologically Guided Intervention for the Treatment of Salivary Calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To describe the technique and examine the value of salivary stone extraction using a minimally invasive, radiologically guided approach as an alternative to salivary gland surgery for the treatment of benign salivary gland obstruction. Methods: Eighty-six cases of sialolithiasis (83 patients) were treated by stone removal using a Dormia basket under local anesthesia and fluoroscopic guidance. Postoperative assessment was made clinically at review, by sialogram and by questionnaire. Results: Of 86 cases of sialolithiasis treated, in 55 (64%)it was possible to remove all stones. In 12 cases (14%) part of a stone or some of a number of calculi were removed and in 19 cases (22%) the procedure failed. The commonest reason for failure was fixation of the stone within the duct. Symptoms at review (range 1-49 months, mean 17 months) were relieved in 55 of 67 (82%) of cases where a stone or portion of stone was removed. Conclusions:Stone removal from the salivary duct system by radiologically guided,minimally invasive approach is a simple procedure with low morbidity and high patient acceptance when appropriate selection criteria are applied. These criteria are considered and recommendations made

287

Distinguishing pelvic phleboliths from distal ureteral calculi: thin-slice CT findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective is to evaluate the appearance of phleboliths and distal ureteral stones by determining their roundness and presence of central lucency on thin-slice CT. Seventy-seven patients with pelvic radioopacities at unenhanced CT were selected. Those patients consequently underwent thin-slice CT with 1-mm collimation, a FOV of 10 cm, a pitch of 1:1 and a bone reconstruction algorithm. Three radiologists reviewed all images for roundness and the presence of central radiolucency. No calculi showed central lucency on either imaging technique used. Thin-slice CT revealed central lucency in 60% of phleboliths with 100% specificity. Three of 40 ureteral stones showed round contour. Thin-slice CT revealed a round contour in 97% of phleboliths with 93% specificity. Central lucency is a characteristic finding of pelvic phleboliths on thin-slice CT. This finding can therefore be used in combination with roundness as a problem-solving tool in differentiating phleboliths from distal ureteral stones. (orig.)

288

Distinguishing pelvic phleboliths from distal ureteral calculi: thin-slice CT findings  

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The objective is to evaluate the appearance of phleboliths and distal ureteral stones by determining their roundness and presence of central lucency on thin-slice CT. Seventy-seven patients with pelvic radioopacities at unenhanced CT were selected. Those patients consequently underwent thin-slice CT with 1-mm collimation, a FOV of 10 cm, a pitch of 1:1 and a bone reconstruction algorithm. Three radiologists reviewed all images for roundness and the presence of central radiolucency. No calculi showed central lucency on either imaging technique used. Thin-slice CT revealed central lucency in 60% of phleboliths with 100% specificity. Three of 40 ureteral stones showed round contour. Thin-slice CT revealed a round contour in 97% of phleboliths with 93% specificity. Central lucency is a characteristic finding of pelvic phleboliths on thin-slice CT. This finding can therefore be used in combination with roundness as a problem-solving tool in differentiating phleboliths from distal ureteral stones. (orig.)

Arac, Mehmet; Celik, Halil; Oner, A.Yusuf; Gultekin, Serap; Gumus, Terman; Kosar, Sule [Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

2005-01-01

289

Fetal MRI of the urinary system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assessment of the urinary system is typically performed by ultrasound. Nevertheless, an ultrasound may be inconclusive in fetuses with renal diseases that result in anhydramnios or oligohydramnios. In such cases, and in other cases in which ultrasound is limited, further investigation with MR should be considered. In the following article, we will provide an overview of the most commonly encountered disorders of the urinary system and their appearance on fetal MR imaging. Fetal MR imaging can accurately diagnose a wide variety of urinary tract disorders and must be seen as a valuable complementary tool to ultrasound in the assessment of the urinary system, particularly in cases of inconclusive ultrasound findings

290

Fetal MRI of the urinary system  

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The assessment of the urinary system is typically performed by ultrasound. Nevertheless, an ultrasound may be inconclusive in fetuses with renal diseases that result in anhydramnios or oligohydramnios. In such cases, and in other cases in which ultrasound is limited, further investigation with MR should be considered. In the following article, we will provide an overview of the most commonly encountered disorders of the urinary system and their appearance on fetal MR imaging. Fetal MR imaging can accurately diagnose a wide variety of urinary tract disorders and must be seen as a valuable complementary tool to ultrasound in the assessment of the urinary system, particularly in cases of inconclusive ultrasound findings.

Hoermann, Marcus [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: marcus.hoermann@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Balassy, Csilla [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

2006-02-15

291

21 CFR 862.1785 - Urinary urobilinogen (nonquantitative) test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Urinary urobilinogen...nonquantitative) test system. 862.1785...862.1785 Urinary urobilinogen...nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary urobilinogen...nonquantitative) test system is a...

2010-04-01

292

21 CFR 862.1377 - Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system.  

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...2010-04-01 false Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1377...862.1377 Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system is a...

2010-04-01

293

21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.  

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...2010-04-01 false Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1340... § 862.1340 Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system is a device...

2010-04-01

294

21 CFR 862.1560 - Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system.  

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...2010-04-01 false Urinary phenylketones...nonquantitative) test system. 862.1560...862.1560 Urinary phenylketones...nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary phenylketones...nonquantitative) test system is a...

2010-04-01

295

[Endoscopic and percutaneous treatment of purulent retention caused by obstructive calculi of the upper urinary tract. Observations apropos of 6 case reports].  

Science.gov (United States)

On the basis of 6 cases of pyonephrosis due to renal stones successfully treated without surgery over a period of one year, the authors define their current therapeutic approach which consists of 2 phases: --1st phase: salvage of the kidney by ultrasound guided percutaneous nephrostomy under local anaesthesia. No hasty endoscopic procedures in an attempt to insert a ureteric catheter into the kidney; --2nd phase: elimination of the obstructing stone (on average, 8 days after the 1st phase), by percutaneous nephrolithotomy, descending ureteroscopy or ascending ureteroscopy. PMID:3221099

Viville, C; Giron, J P

1988-01-01

296

Urinary Angiotensinogen as a Biomarker of Nephropathy in Childhood  

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While most circulating angiotensinogen (AGT) is synthesized in the liver, the kidneys also produce AGT. Recently, we reported that urinary AGT is mainly originated from AGT. Using newly developed human AGT ELISA, we measured urinary AGT levels in chronic glomerulonephritis (GN) patients and patients with type 1 diabetes in childhood. Urinary AGT level was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, urinary albumin, urinary protein levels, and urinary occult blood in chronic GN patien...

Urushihara, Maki; Kagami, Shoji

2011-01-01

297

Retención urinaria aguda por cálculo prostático: a propósito de un caso / Debut endometriosis with urinary manifestations: report of two cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: los cálculos prostáticos son frecuentes después de los 50 años presentando infecciones urinarias y dificultad miccional cuando son de gran tamaño. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de un paciente con un cálculo prostático de gran tamaño que provocó retención urinaria aguda, al examen dig [...] ital rectal apareció una próstata de consistencia firme que impresionaba crepitar a la palpación. Resultados: se le realiza extracción del cálculo prostático a través de incisión longitudinal de la cápsula prostática y vejiga en el Hospital Docente de Oncología María Curie de Camagüey, en agosto del 2014. El paciente egresó a los 7 días después del tratamiento quirúrgico, con seguimiento por consulta externa. Conclusiones: la litiasis prostática de gran tamaño puede ser causa de retención urinaria aguda, aunque su presentación no sea frecuente. Abstract in english Background: prostatic calculi are frequent after 50 years old and cause urinary infections and urination difficulty when they are large. Clinical case: the case of a patient with a large prostatic calculus which caused acute urinary retention is presented. When making the digital rectal exam, a pros [...] tate of firm consistency that impressed because it felt crepitant at touching, could be perceived. Results: the extraction of the prostatic calculus was made through the longitudinal incision of the capsule of prostate and the bladder in the Maria Curie Teaching Oncological Hospital of Camagüey, in August, 2014. The patient was discharged seven days after the surgical treatment. A follow-up care was established. Conclusions: a large prostatic lithiasis can be the cause of acute urinary retention, although its presentation is infrequent.

Fernando S., Fernández Marichal; Rafael, Toirán García; Ahimara, Varela Álvarez; Orlando, Segura Roque.

2015-02-01

298

Defective urinary crystallization inhibition and urinary stone formation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Nephrocalcin (NC) is a glycoprotein produced in the kidney and inhibits calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has been separated into 4 isoforms (A, B, C, and D) and found that (A + B) are more abundant than (C + D) in urine of healthy subjects, but the reverse is seen in human urine o [...] f kidney stone patients. To further examine the role of this protein in inhibition of urinary crystallization, nephrocalcin isoforms were purified from 2 genetically pure dog species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied healthy Beagles, known to be non-stone forming dogs, and Mini-Schnauzers, known to be calcium oxalate stone formers. NC was isolated and purified from each group. Urinary biochemistry and calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibition were measured. RESULTS: Specific crystal growth inhibition activity was significantly higher in non-stone forming dogs (9.79 ± 2.25 in Beagles vs. 2.75 ± 1.34 of Mini-Schnauzers, p

Mauricio, Carvalho; Jody P., Lulich; Carl A., Osborne; Yasushi, Nakagawa.

2006-06-01

299

[Urinary schistosomiasis in ancient Egypt].  

Science.gov (United States)

First described by Theodor Bilharz in 1851, Schistosoma haematobium, the worm responsible for urinary schistosomiasis, was a major health problem along the Nile Valley until the present days. Haematuria, the main symptom of this parasitic disease, was known and treated in Egyptian medical papyri since 1550 B.C. A relationship between haematuria and the god Seth was envisaged. Sir Marc Armand Ruffer, pioneer of paleopathology, found (1910) calcified Schistosoma eggs in Egyptian mummies of the xxth dynasty, establishing that bilharzia plagued ancient Egypt people. The ELISA method demonstrated the Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen in 45% of mummies studied. PMID:19617021

Ziskind, Bernard

2009-12-01

300

Urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion in urolithiasis  

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Urinary glycosaminoglycan (GAG) excretion was measured in children with idiopathic urolithiasis (15 girls and 10 boys; mean (SD) age 6.2 (2.4) years) and in healthy controls (10 girls and 14 boys; mean (SD) age 6.8 (3.8) years). GAG excretion was expressed as a GAG/creatinine (mg/g) ratio and was evaluated using dimethylmethylene blue. In healthy control children, the mean (SD) GAG/creatinine ratio was 31.67 (12.76) and it was similar in girls and boys. The children with idi...

Akcay, T.; Konukoglu, D.; Dincer, Y.

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Hypercalciuria in children with urinary tract symptoms  

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Full Text Available We performed this prospective study to determine the urinary calcium to creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr in children with different urinary symptoms. We studied 523 children in our neph-rology clinic with an age range of 3 to 14 years (mean= 8 and male to female ratio of 0.61. All the children had at least one of the urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, frequency, urgency, abdo-minal and/or flank pain, diurnal incontinence or enuresis, microscopic hematuria, urinary tract infection or urolithiasis. Fasting urine was collected for measuring calcium and creatinine and the results were compared to the values for the normal Iranian children. Ca/Cr ratio of more than 0.2 (mg/mg was considered as hypercalciuria. Of all the patients, 166 (31.3% were hypercalciuric. Urine Ca/Cr ratio was significantly higher in all the subgroups with one or more of the urinary symptoms (P< 0.001. We conclude that urine Ca/Cr ratio is significantly increased in children with all types of urinary symptoms. We recommend measuring urinary calcium in all children with urinary tract symptoms, especially if unexplained.

Fallahzadeh M

2010-01-01

302

Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence  

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Full Text Available   "nIn the name of God. Dear colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great honor to be here. Bladder dysfunction is serious enough to seek serious help. If you may know I am working in a private clinic which it is impossible to follow the patients so this lecture is based on unusual and rare cases who came to me. Bladder dysfunction (BD is common among 30% of young and old people who are suffering from it, however it is more common in old ages. According to a research, women are more involved as in men which prostate has a role is more common. The usual cases were: "n1. A young girl, aged 20, who had to wake up five times during the night to micturate. "n2. Also a lady said when I roll in bed I wet myself. "n3. A young lady who always had to use a pad. "n4. A man said I can’t use underground. "n5. I cannot go out since I have to micturate every hour. "n6. One said I have to wake up every hour at night. "n7. Young people say we have to micturate 3-4 times at night. "n8. A young man said as soon as I feel to micturate I empty my bladder before I’ve reached the WC and I wet myself to the ankle, how could I have a job? "n9. Some women wet themselves when they cough. "nIn order to know and diagnosis, the physiology of bladder function must be known. "nThe bladder is divided into two parts: "nThe Dom, which is innervated by Beta-Adrenergic. It relaxes the bladder in order to comply the urine. "nFrom the orifice of the urether and posterior ridge of the trigon to the bladder neck or internal sphincter. The prostatic urethra plays a major role in conti- nence. It has two parts,   "n1: From the bladder neck to V.M. this is enclaved by extension of detrusor muscles like a sleeve. These muscles contract during ejaculation to prevent retrograde ejaculation. "nDistal urethra from V.M. to the external sphincter which is covered by voluntary muscles. "nThe internal pressure of the urethra is higher than the bladder. If the pressure of the bladder rises, the internal pressure of the urethra should also increase. In women, the internal pressure of the urethra is short, and even if it has poorly developed they wet themselves when they cough. "nThe causes of BD: "nAs you see there are 17 causes, which 11 are related to the bladder. The bladder is responsible for retaining the urine and voiding. "nPathophysiology: "nThe bladder and sphincter should work in a coordinated manner: "nDuring the course of a day, an average person will void approximately 4-8 times. The urinary bladder is in storage mode for most of the day, allowing an individual to engage in more important activities than urination. "nNormal bladder function consists of 2 phases—filling and emptying. The normal micturition cycle requires the urinary bladder and the urethral sphincter working together as a coordinated unit to store and empty urine. During urinary storage, the bladder acts as a low-pressure receptacle, while the urinary sphincter maintains high resistance to urinary flow to keep the bladder outlet closed. During urine elimination, the bladder contracts to expel urine while the urinary sphincter opens (low resistance to allow unobstructed urinary flow and bladder emptying. "nFilling phase: "nDuring the filling phase, the bladder accumulates increasing volumes of urine while the pressure inside the bladder remains low. The pressure within the bladder must be lower than the urethral pressure during the filling phase. If the bladder pressure is greater than the urethral pressure (resistance, urine will leak out. "nThe filling of the urinary bladder depends on the intrinsic viscoelastic properties of the bladder and the inhibition of the parasympathetic nerves. Thus, bladder filling is primarily a passive event. "nSympathetic nerves also facilitate urine storage in the following ways: "nSympathetic nerves inhibit the parasympathetic nerves from triggering bladder contractions. "

F. faizi

2009-01-01

303

Imaging in urinary tract infection.  

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The relationship of vesicoureteric reflex (VUR) and renal scarring was studied in 94 children (188 kidneys) with proved urinary tract infection in a district general hospital. There were 61 girls and 33 boys, with nine girls and 17 boys aged less than 1 year, 31 girls and nine boys aged between 1 and 5 years, the remaining 28 children were over 5 years of age. All children had a micturating cystourethrogram and a 99mTc (technetium) dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan. Forty two of the 188 kidneys were scarred and 70 of the kidneys had VUR. Only 37.1% of the kidneys with reflux were scarred but 61.9% of the scarred kidneys had VUR. In children of less than 1 year, 48% of kidneys with VUR were scarred whereas 70.6% of scarred kidneys had reflux. In children between 1 and 5 years of age only 36.4% of kidneys with VUR were scarred but 63.2% of scarred kidneys had VUR. There is good correlation between the detection of a scarred kidney on DMSA and the presence of vesicoureteric reflux. However the detection of reflux particularly in children over 1 year of age shows poor correlation with renal scarring. This suggests that the primary imaging in children over 1 year of age presenting with a urinary tract infection should be of the kidney: a cystogram should be performed only if the DMSA scan is abnormal. PMID:1661570

Gleeson, F V; Gordon, I

1991-11-01

304

Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine and Modern Urology: Part II: Bladder Calculi  

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Full Text Available

In the previous issue of the Urology Journal, a comparison of Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine with modern urologic findings was done in part I of this article, addressing bladder anatomy and physiology and bladder calculi. In part II of this review, the remaining chapters of the Canon of Medicine on bladder calculi are reviewed. Avicenna points to perineal urethrostomy (preineostomy, which is today performed as the last therapeutic line or as a temporary remedy before surgical treatment. He also describes surgery via transperineal route and warns the surgeon of the proximity of vasa deferentia, prostate gland, and neurovascular bundle and their exposure in this position. Usage of grasping forceps for removal of bladder calculus and emphasis on removing all calculus fragments are the interesting points of this chapter. Avicenna explains a technique similar to the use of a babcock for prevention of calculus migration. Complications of bladder calculus surgery and cystostomy are also addressed with scientific precision in the Canon.

Sayed Mohammad Ali Madineh

2009-02-01

305

Urinary Tract Infections Associated with Candida albicans  

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ABSTRACT Objectives: Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen which causes urinary tract candidiasis in humans. In this research, we tried to find out the frequency of the Urinary Tract Infections associated with Candida albicans in patients who referred to Central Laboratory of Dr. Shariati Hospital, during 2 years (April 2006- April 2008). Materials and Methods: According to the archived recorded data, the questionnaires were filled out. At the end of this retrospective research, the statistical tests of Chi Square were operated through SPSS software version 15. Outcomes: The results showed that, the Urinary Tract Infections associated with Candida albicans included 6.8% of patients. The remaining 93.2% of Urinary Tract Infections had related to bacterial pathogens. Conclusions: The statistical analyses confirmed the significant association between Urinary Tract Infections caused by Candida albicans and female gender (P<0.05). PMID:21977170

Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham; Yazdanbod, Hodjjat; Aghapour, Roghiyyeh; Akbari Cheshmeh, Mahboubeh; Salehian Omran, Djaafar

2010-01-01

306

Urinary calprotectin and posttransplant renal allograft injury  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144 incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r?=?-0.33; P<0.001). Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98; specificity, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.66). Higher urinary calprotectin concentrations predicted impaired kidney function 4 weeks after transplantation, as well as 6 months and 12 months after transplantation. When data were analyzed using the urinary calprotectin/creatinine-ratio similar results were obtained. Urinary calprotectin was superior to current use of absolute change of plasma creatinine to predict allograft function 12 months after transplantation. Urinary calprotectin predicted an increased risk both in transplants from living and deceased donors. Multivariate linear regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation.

Tepel, Martin; Borst, Christoffer

2014-01-01

307

Urinary catheterization in medical wards  

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Full Text Available Aims : The study aims to determine the: 1. frequency of inappropriate catheterization in medical wards and the reasons for doing it. 2. various risk factors associated with inappropriate catheterization, catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI and bacterial colonization on Foley?s catheters (BCFC. Settings and Design: Hospital-based prospective study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty five patients admitted consecutively in the medical wards of a tertiary care hospital, who underwent catheterization with a Foley?s catheter, at admission, have been included in the study. Patient profiles were evaluated using the following parameters: age, sex, diagnosis, functional status, mental status, indication, duration and place of catheterization, development of BCFC and CAUTI. Statistical tests used: Chi-square test. Results: Thirty-six out of 125 (28.8% patients included were inappropriately catheterized. BCFC developed in 52.8% and 22.4% were diagnosed with a CAUTI. The most frequent indication for inappropriate catheterization was urinary incontinence without significant skin breakdown (27.8%. The risk factors for inappropriate catheterization were female sex (RR=1.29, 95% CI=0.99, 1.69, P< 0.05 and catheterization in the emergency (RR=0.74, 95% CI=0.61, 0.90, P< 0.05. The risk factors for developing a BCFC were age>60 years (RR=0.65, 95% CI=0.48, 0.89, P< 0.05, non-ambulatory functional status (RR=0.57, 95% CI=0.39, 0.84, P< 0.01, catheterization in the emergency (RR=2.01, 95% CI=1.17, 3.46, P< 0.01 and duration of catheterization>3 days (RR=0.62, 95% CI=0.43, 0.89, P< 0.01. The risk factors for acquiring a CAUTI were age>60 years (RR=0.47, 95% CI=0.25, 0.90, P< 0.05, impaired mental status (RR=0.37, 95% CI=0.18, 0.77, P< 0.01 and duration of catheterization>3 days (RR=0.24, 95% CI=0.10, 0.58, P< 0.01. Conclusions : Inappropriate catheterization is highly prevalent in medical wards, especially in patients with urinary incontinence. The patients catheterized in the medical emergency and female patients in particular are at high risk. Careful attention to these factors can reduce the frequency of inappropriate catheterization and unnecessary morbidity.

Bhatia Nirmanmoh

2010-01-01

308

Risk Factors for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections  

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Full Text Available To evaluate risk factors associated with recurrent urinary tract infections,we conducted a case- control study comparing 400 patients referred to aninfectious diseases outpatient clinic who had a history of recurrent urinary tractinfections (case patients with 400 age, sex-matched control patients without ahistory of urinary tract infections. The distribution of 400 case patients to thegroups; 200 were women, 100 were men and 100 were children. 100 womenwere from 18 through 40 years of age (premenopausal and 100 of them wereover 40 years of age (menopausal.Each patient completed a questionnaire providing an earlier history ofurinary tract infections, frequency of repeat episodes of urinary tract infections,having maternal history of urinary tract infections, recent antibiotic use,urogenital surgery history, marriage status and hygienic measures. In addition,physical examination of genitourinary system and laboratory investigation wasdone.In conclusion; our data support the view that some common factorsimportantly influence the incidence of recurrent urinary tract infections amongdifferent groups such as premenopausal, menopausal, men and childrengroups. These factors are; history of urinary tract infections, having urinarytract infections under the age of 15, recent antibiotic use in last one yearsperiod, urogenital surgery history and inappropriate hygienic measures.

Serda Gülsün

2004-01-01

309

Urinary proteomic analysis of chronic allograft nephropathy.  

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The pathogenesis of progressive renal allograft injury, which is termed chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), remains obscure and is currently defined by histology. Prospective protocol-biopsy trials have demonstrated that clinical and standard laboratory tests are insufficiently sensitive indicators of the development and progression of CAN. The study aim was to determine if CAN could be characterized by urinary proteomic data and identify the proteins associated with disease. The urinary proteome of 75 renal transplant recipients and 20 healthy volunteers was analyzed using surface enhanced laser desorption and ionization MS. Patients could be classified into subgroups with normal histology and Banff CAN grades 2-3 with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 92% by applying the classification algorithm Adaboost to urinary proteomic data. Several urinary proteins associated with advanced CAN were identified including ?1-microglobulin, ?2-microglobulin, prealbumin, and endorepellin, the antiangiogenic C-terminal fragment of perlecan. Increased urinary endorepellin was confirmed by ELISA and increased tissue expression of the endorepellin/perlecan ratio by immunofluoresence analysis of renal biopsies. In conclusion, analysis of urinary proteomic data has further characterized the more severe CAN grades and identified urinary endorepellin, as a potential biomarker of advanced CAN. PMID:21136903

O'Riordan, Edmond; Orlova, Tatyana N; Mendelev, Natalia; Patschan, Daniel; Kemp, Rowena; Chander, Praveen N; Hu, Rena; Hao, Gang; Gross, Steven S; Iozzo, Renato V; Delaney, Veronica; Goligorsky, Michael S

2008-07-01

310

Ureteroscopy and holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy: an emerging definitive management strategy for symptomatic ureteral calculi in pregnancy  

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Objectives: Symptomatic urolithiasis in pregnancy that does not respond to conservative measures has traditionally been managed with ureteral stent insertion or percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN). Holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser lithotripsy using state-of-the-art ureteroscopes represents an emerging strategy for definitive stone management in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to review the results of holmium laser lithotripsy in a cohort of patients who presented with symptomatic urolithiasis in pregnancy. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted at 2 tertiary stone centers from January 1996 to August 2001 to identify pregnant patients who were treated with ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for symptomatic urolithiasis or encrusted stents. Eight patients with a total of 10 symptomatic ureteral calculi and 2 encrusted ureteral stents were treated. Mean gestational age at presentation was 22 weeks. Mean stone size was 8.1 mm. Stones were located in the proximal ureter/ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) (3), mid ureter (1), and distal ureter (6). Results: Complete stone fragmentation and/or removal of encrusted ureteral stents were achieved in all patients using the holmium:YAG laser. The overall procedural success rate was 91%. The overall stone-free rate was 89%. No obstetrical or urological complications were encountered. Conclusions: Ureteroscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy can be performed safely in all stages of pregnancy providing definitive management of symptomatic ureteral calculi. The procedure can be done with minimal or no fluoroscopy and avoids the undesirable features of stents or nephrostomy tubes.

Watterson, James D.; Girvan, Andrew R.; Beiko, Darren T.; Nott, Linda; Wollin, Timothy A.; Razvi, Hassan A.; Denstedt, John D.

2003-06-01

311

Trans-Ureteral Ureterolithotripsy of Ureteral Calculi:Which is the Best; Pneumatic or Holmium Laser Technique?  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Our aim was compare of two types of lithotripter include holmium: YAG laser and pneumatic one in transurethral ureterolithotripsy (TUL for the management of ureteral calculi ?1 cm.METHODS: 112 patients with ureteral calculi more than 1 cm were selected in randomized order for pneumatic or holmium: YAG laser transurethral ureterolithotripsy (56 patients in each group. Ultrasonography and intravenous urography were performed for all patients before surgery. Complete clearance and success was defined as the absence of any fragments on post operation KUB and ultrasonography images.RESULTS: Success rate was 85.7% in pneumatic group and 100% in holmium: YAG laser group (p =0.003. Stone migration up in the pelvicalyceal system was observed only in 8 cases of pneumatic group. No statically differences were observed in terms of patient’s age, hospital stay, and complications between two groups.CONCLUSION: According to our experience, for ureteral stone larger than 1 Cm treatment with ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy is a preferring approach with favorable operation time and hospital admission, and no more significant complication.

Reza Mohammadi

2011-06-01

312

Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen  

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Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998 classification.Methods: This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30th April 2009. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and categorized according to WHO/ISUP 1998 classification.Results: Out of 316 urinary bladder cancers, 248 (78% were urothelial neoplasms, 53 (17% were squamous cell carcinoma, 7 (2% were adenocarcinoma, and 3 (1% were rhabdomyosarcoma. The remaining cases were metastatic carcinomas (n=3, small cell carcinoma (n=1, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1. The urothelial neoplasms observed were carcinoma in situ 4 (2%, papilloma 7 (3%, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential 26 (11%, papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade 107 (43%, papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 18 (7%, and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 85 (34%, with 60 years mean age for males and 58 years for females; along with a male to female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was observed in the 61-70 years age group.Conclusion: This study documents a high frequency of urothelial neoplasms, mostly papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade with male preponderance and peak incidence in 6th decade of age.

Abdullah Saleh Al-Samawi

2013-09-01

313

Deregulation of the p16-cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4-retinoblastoma pathway involved in the rat bladder carcinogenesis induced by terephthalic acid-calculi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prolonged cell proliferation in response to irritation by calculi may itself evoke malignant transformation of the urothelium. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate cell cycle regulatory mechanisms in bladder carcinogenesis induced by bladder calculi. Six-week-old Wistar rats were consecutively fed a diet containing 5% terephthalic acid (TPA), 5% TPA plus 4% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)), 4% NaHCO(3), or basal diet for 48 weeks. Animals were killed at weeks 12, 24, and 48. Treatment with 5% TPA caused high incidences of bladder calculi, preneoplastic lesions, and neoplastic lesions. Immunohistochemical examination revealed overexpression of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), retinoblastoma (Rb), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in bladder preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. In contrast, p16 expression was reduced or absent. These results were confirmed by immunoblotting analysis. Quantitation of mRNA by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed a significant increase in cyclin D1 and PCNA mRNA in tumor cells. None of the 16 transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) had ras mutations as examined by PCR-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. These results suggested that deregulation of p16-cyclin D1/Cdk4-Rb pathway, but not oncogenic activation of ras, plays a crucial role in bladder tumorigenesis induced by bladder calculi. PMID:16896691

Cui, Lunbiao; Shi, Yuan; Qian, Jie; Dai, Guidong; Wang, Yubang; Xia, Yankai; Chen, Jianfeng; Song, Ling; Wang, Shouling; Wang, Xinru

2006-10-01

314

Common Problems in the Elderly: Urinary Incontinence, Pain, Immobilization  

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In this review, urinary incontinence, pain and immobilization problems in elderly people have been discussed. Urinary incontinence is a growing medical, social and economic health problem for the elderly people. Urge urinary incontinence and stress urinary incontinence are the most common forms of incontinence and they both affect the quality of life of the elderly. Assessment and treatment of urinary incontinence will significantly influence the elder’s quality of life. Many older adults c...

Ye?im Akkoç; Jale ?rdesel; Kaz?m ?enel

2009-01-01

315

Recurrence of urinary retention secondary to retroverted gravid uterus  

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Background: Although urinary retention caused by the retroverted gravid uterus is uncommon, acute urinary retention is an emergency condition. Cases: We present here two cases of acute urinary retention at 12 weeks’ gestation secondary to retroverted gravid uterus. Although some preventive measures were suggested to the patients, recurrences of urinary retention occurred during the following 2-3 weeks and in their next pregnancies. Conclusion: In cases that urinary retention due to re...

Shuichi Ono; Shunji Suzuki

2009-01-01

316

[Urinary tract infections in diabetic patients].  

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Urinary tract infections occur more frequently in diabetic patients than in the general population, with a relative risk ranging from 1.5 to 4, depending on the type of infection. The reasons underlying this higher susceptibility have not been established with certainty; urine glucose excression (which could facilitate bacterial urinary proliferation), immunodeficiency, a modified urothelium (resulting in a higher bacterial adhesion), and chronic neurologic bladder dysfunction have been advocated. Clinical presentation, bacterial epidemiology, and treatment of urinary tract infections in diabetic patients are similar to that of the general population. Accordingly, diabetes mellitus has recently been withdrawn from the list of criteria which define an urinary tract infection as complicated. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is particularly frequent in diabetic patients and should be checked routinely as it constitutes an important risk for subsequent symptomatic infection. PMID:25362787

Tourret, Jérôme; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard; Denamur, Erick

2014-09-01

317

A review of urinary stone analysis techniques.  

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Knowledge of the chemical composition and structure of urinary stones is of great value in the choice of treatment and prevention of recurrence. This is a brief review and a comparative study of the principles and practical application of various chemical and physical techniques used for urinary stone analysis. The different methods of classifying and grouping urinary stones by results of chemical analytic techniques are, also, compared and evaluated. In addition to reviewing various techniques used for the in-vitro analysis of removed stone samples, the newly emerging physical and radiological techniques for the in-vivo intact-stone analysis are, also, evaluated. These in-vivo techniques, particularly the rapidly advancing unenhanced spiral CT scanning, represent an important step forward towards the notion of non- destructive analysis of urinary stones while still in situ before the choice of treatment modality.

Rabie E. Abdel-Halim

2006-10-01

318

Leiomyoma as a cause of urinary retention  

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Full Text Available Urinary retention is uncommon in reproductive age women. The frequent causes for obstructive retention are pelvic masses and a history of surgery. We report a case of intermittent urinary retention caused by a leiomyoma. A 47-year old patient with voiding difficulties for the past four months was referred to the gynecology outpatient clinic. She had urinary retention and had been catheterized several times for bladder emptying. She had been evaluated by the urology clinic and a cystoscopy was performed with normal findings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a pelvic mass at the anterior uterine wall with a diameter of 10 cm. Her physical examination confirmed the MRI findings. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed with a complete resolution of the patient’s complaints. Women with urinary retention should be consultated with a gynecologist in order to rule out pelvic masses.

Kemal Sarsmaz

2013-06-01

319

Urinary Dysfunctions Associated With Spinal Cord Injury  

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After the Second World War, urinary dysfunctions due to spinal cord injury had gained more importance and the life expectancy and quality of life of the patients had increased due to the improvements in this field. The management and follow-up period of urinary dysfunctions can be examined in three stages: initial stage after the injury, rehabilitation stage and long-term follow-up stage. Urodynamic and videourodynamic evaluations are the gold standards in the diagnosis. Bladder filling press...

Koc?er, Serdar; Erhan, Belgin

2012-01-01

320

An Unusual Case of Urinary Incontinence  

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Full Text Available Urinary incontinence and hematuria are frequent complaints evaluated by urologists often with readily identifiable etiologies. Occasionally, an unlikely source is found. We present an unusual case of urinary incontinence and hematuria in an elderly female. Evaluation revealed that the complaints were due to a large cyst emanating from her right hip which was the result of a previous right hip arthroplasty in 1970 with three subsequent revisions. Her symptoms resolved spontaneously and the cyst has remained unchanged.

Eric R. Anderson

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
321

Urinary oxalate excretion in urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis  

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AIMS—To investigate urinary oxalate excretion in children with urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis and to classify hyperoxaluria (HyOx).?METHODS—A total of 106 patients were screened. In those in whom the oxalate: creatinine ratio was increased, 24 hour urinary oxalate excretion was measured. Liver biopsy and/or genomic analysis was performed if primary hyperoxaluria (PH) was suspected. Stool specimens were examined for Oxalobacter formigenes in HyOx not related to...

Neuhaus, T.; Belzer, T.; Blau, N.; Hoppe, B.; Sidhu, H.; Leumann, E.

2000-01-01

322

[Mechanisms of urinary tract sterility maintenance].  

Science.gov (United States)

Physiologically, urine and the urinary tract are maintained sterile because of physical and chemical properties of urine and the innate immune system's action. The urinary tract is constantly exposed to the invasion of microorganisms from the exterior environment, also because of the anatomical placement of the urethra, in the vicinity of the rectum. Particularly vulnerable to urinary tract infections (UTI) are women (an additional risk factor is pregnancy), but also the elderly and children. The main pathogens causing UTI are bacteria; in 70-95% of cases it is the bacterium Escherichia coli. Infections caused by viruses and fungi are less common and are associated with decreased immunity, pharmacotherapy, or some diseases. Bacteria have evolved a number of factors that facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract: the cover and cell membrane antigens O and K1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), fimbriae, pile and cilia. On the other hand, the human organism has evolved mechanisms to hinder colonization of the urinary tract: mechanisms arising from the anatomical structure of the urinary tract, the physicochemical properties of the urine and the activity of the innate immune system, also known as non-specific, which isolates and destroys pathogens using immunological processes, and the mechanisms for release of antimicrobial substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, mucopolysaccharides, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, lactoferrin, lipocalin, neutrophils, cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. This review aims to analyze the state of knowledge on the mechanisms to maintain the sterility of the urinary tract used by the human organism and bacterial virulence factors to facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract. PMID:24934526

Okr?g?a, Emilia; Szychowska, Katarzyna; Wolska, Lidia

2014-01-01

323

Preputial condition and urinary tract infections.  

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Recently, an increase in incidences of urinary tract infections in uncircumcised male infants has been reported. However, determining what is the best management for the prepuce of newborns and infants is still to be solved. I investigated prospectively how much foreskins are retracted with age and what correlations it has with urinary tract infection in 122 males children below 15 years of age. Under 6 months of age, the majority of the foreskins were unretractable. As they got older, over 3...

Kim, K. K.

1996-01-01

324

Endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract.  

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Herein, we report a second case of endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract presenting 17 years after hysterectomy for high grade adenocarcinoma of ovary. A 51-year-old nullipara presented to us with a complaint of hematuria. After complete work up, she underwent right radical nephro-ureterectomy with bladder cuff excision. The histology showed endometrioid carcinoma of upper urinary tract without any evidence of endometriosis. PMID:21358108

Kulkarni, Jagdeesh N; Gorasia, Tejal K; Choudhary, Jayashree P; Mahajan, Pravin P

2010-01-01

325

Endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract  

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Full Text Available Herein, we report a second case of endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract presenting 17 years after hysterectomy for high grade adenocarcinoma of ovary. A 51-year-old nullipara presented to us with a complaint of hematuria. After complete work up, she underwent right radical nephro-ureterectomy with bladder cuff excision. The histology showed endometrioid carcinoma of upper urinary tract without any evidence of endometriosis.

Kulkarni Jagdeesh

2010-01-01

326

Urinary tract infections in surgical patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are common in surgical patients. CAUTI are associated with adverse patient outcomes, and negatively affects public safety reporting and reimbursement. Inappropriate catheter use and prolonged catheter duration are major risk factors for CAUTI. CAUTI pathogenesis and treatment are complicated by the presence of biofilms. Prevention strategies include accurate identification and tracking of CAUTIs, and the development of institutional guidelines for the appropriate use, duration, alternatives, and removal of indwelling urinary catheters. PMID:25440128

Ramanathan, Rajesh; Duane, Therese M

2014-12-01

327

Neuropeptides in Lower Urinary Tract (LUT) Function  

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Numerous neuropeptide/receptor systems including vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, neurokinin A, bradykinin, and endothelin-1 are expressed in the lower urinary tract (LUT) in both neural and non-neural (e.g., urothelium) components. LUT neuropeptide immunoreactivity is present in afferent and autonomic efferent neurons innervating the bladder and urethra and in the urothelium of the urinary bla...

Arms, Lauren; Vizzard, Margaret A.

2011-01-01

328

Nosocomial urinary tract infections: A review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nosocomial urinary tract infections are a common complication in healthcare systems worldwide. A review of the literature was performed in June 2014 using the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) database, through either PubMed or Ovid as a search engine, to identify publications regarding nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs) definition, epidemiology, etiology and treatment.According to current definitions, more than 30% of nosocomial infections are urinary tract infections (UTIs). A UTI is defined 'nosocomial' (NUTI) when it is acquired in any healthcare institution or, more generally, when it is related to patient management. The origin of nosocomial bacteria is endogenous (the patient's flora) in two thirds of the cases. Patients with indwelling urinary catheters, those undergoing urological surgery and manipulations, long-stay elderly male patients and patients with debilitating diseases are at high risk of developing NUTIs. All bacterial NUTIs should be treated, whether the patient is harboring a urinary catheter or not. The length of treatment depends on the infection site. There is abundance of important guidance which should be considered to reduce the risk of NUTIs (hand disinfection with instant hand sanitizer, wearing non-sterile gloves permanently, isolation of infected or colonized catheterized patients). Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria can generally be treated initially with catheter removal or catheter exchange, and do not necessarily need antimicrobial therapy. Symptomatic patients should receive antibiotic therapy. Resistance of urinary pathogens to common antibiotics is currently a topic of concern. PMID:25451882

Iacovelli, Valerio; Gaziev, Gabriele; Topazio, Luca; Bove, Pierluigi; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico

2014-12-23

329

FEMALE URINARY INCONTINENCE IN CANADA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Canada, Urinary Incontinence (UI is a significant medical and social problem which can be devastating to a women’s physical, social and emotional well being. As in other developed countries our population is aging. In 1993, 11.8 per cent of all Canadians were over age 65; by the year 2011, the proportion of this age group will be 14.0 per cent; by 2031, it will be 21.7 per cent (1. It is estimated that between 1.5 to 2.0 million Canadians (out of a population of just over 30 million suffer from UI, yet only 1:12 will seek medical attention for this problem. UI is now the commonest cause of admission to long-term institutionalized centers in the United States and Canada. In Canada, we now spend over 1.5 billion dollars annually on this health care problem. At the Baycrest Geriatric Center (BGC in Toronto, where we have a urogynecology branch of the unit at Mount Sinai Hospital (MSH, recent budget figures indicate that the hospital spends $320,000 (Cadanian annually on adult diapers (2.

Harold P. Drutz

2010-07-01

330

Urinary excretion of cyanidin glycosides.  

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Anthocyanins, which are natural plant pigments from the flavonoid family, represent substantial constituents of the human diet. Several fruits (blackcurrant, blue berries, red grape and elderberry) are rich sources of these efficient antioxidant compounds. The present study was designed to determine the potential bioavailability in humans of the anthocyanins of elderberry, mainly cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside, and the influence of the simultaneous ingestion of sucrose on the absorption of anthocyanins. Urinary samples from 16 healthy volunteers--8 women and 8 men--were collected before and over a period of 6 h with intervals of 1 h after the ingestion of 11 g elderberry concentrate (containing 1.9 g of anthocyanins equivalent to 235 ml of fresh juice) 1 day diluted with water, the other day with 30 g sucrose. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, it was possible to quantify the two main anthocyanins of elderberry excreted unchanged in the urine (0.003-0.012% of the oral dose). The ingestion of sucrose led to a reduced excretion of anthocyanins. PMID:12406587

Mülleder, Ursula; Murkovic, Michael; Pfannhauser, Werner

2002-01-01

331

A heterotopic autoinnervated urinary neosphincter.  

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Twenty-six female adult New Zealand white rabbits underwent surgical denervation of a gracilis muscle to study the possibility of developing an autologous neosphincter innervated by the pudendal nerve. The study was conducted in 2 phases. In both Phase I and Phase II, the study group had the motor nerve to the gracilis, a branch of the obturator nerve and the pudendal nerve coapted in the perineum. The control group was left denervated. In Phase I, all muscle flaps were wrapped around the urogenital sinus. In Phase II, the muscle flaps were returned to their anatomic location. With bulbocavernosus reflex testing, 89% of the reinnervated group and 60% of the denervated group from Phase I and 86% of the reinnervated group and none of the denervated group from Phase II had a contractile response in the muscle flap. In Phase II, histologic examination of the gracilis muscle was suggestive of an early change in muscle myofiber physiology from fast twitch to slow twitch in the reinnervated group only. In the rabbit, a transplanted vascularized muscle flap, cross-innervated by the pudendal nerve has a reproducible response to bulbocavernosus reflex testing. This suggests that a transplanted muscle might be able to assume some of the characteristics of the voluntary urinary sphincter. The rabbit is a useful model in which to investigate the potential of the heterotopic neosphincter. PMID:7752385

Vukovich, J G; McKenna, P H; Grice, G P; Docimo, S G

1995-06-01

332

Treatment of stress urinary incontinence.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This review presents reported cure and improvement rates of stress urinary incontinence in women obtained by different treatment modalities. Apart from the urodynamic findings, histological and histochemical changes of the pelvic floor may be clinically relevant to treatment in the future. Long-term cure and improvement rates achieved by non-surgical treatment (physiotherapy, biofeedback, bladder training, electrostimulation) are commented on. These rates range from 40-60% for physiotherapy and electrostimulation but are considerably less after biofeedback and bladder training. Pharmacotherapy is unlikely to offer more than a placebo effect. Studies of a single surgical procedure usually report high cure rates. In making the appropriate choice of operation the best guidelines are the cure rates from comparative or prospective randomized reports. From such studies an abdominal retropubic suspension operation (cure rates after five years 57-78 %) is more likely to help the patient than an anterior colporrhaphy (cure rates 31-70 %) or a transvaginal needle bladder neck suspension (cure rates 39-61 %). In selected patients sling procedures or the use of artificial sphincters may produce excellent results (70-80 %). To estimate the results of different treatments urine loss should be assessed objectively and physical restrictions and hygienic and social implications taken into account. A method of pre- and post-treatment "performance scores" should be developed.

Fischer-Rasmussen, W

1990-01-01

333

Modulators of urinary stone formation.  

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Urine contains compounds that modulate the nucleation, growth and aggregation of crystals as well as their attachment to renal epithelial cells. These compounds may function to protect the kidneys against: 1, the possibility of crystallization in tubular fluid and urine, which are generally metastable with respect to calcium salts, 2, crystal retention within the kidneys thereby preventing stone formation and 3, possibly against plaque formation at the nephron basement membrane. Since oxalate is the most common stone type, the effect of various modulators on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization has been examined in greater details. Most of the inhibitory activity resides in macromolecules such as glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans while nucleation promotion activity is most likely sustained by membrane lipids. Nephrocalcin, Tamm-Horsfall protein, osteopontin, urinary prothrombin fragment 1, and bikunin are the most studied inhibitory proteins while chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparan sulfate (HS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) are the best studied glycosaminoglycans. Crystallization modulating macromolecules discussed here are also prominent in cell injury, inflammation and recovery. Renal epithelial cells on exposure to oxalate and CaOx crystals produce some of the inflammatory molecules such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) with no apparent role in crystal formation. In addition, macrophages surround the CaOx crystals present in the renal interstitium. These observations indicate a close relationship between inflammation and nephrolithiasis. PMID:14977559

Khan, Saeed R; Kok, Dirk J

2004-05-01

334

Evaluation of Urinary Stones Ex Vivo With Micro-Computed Tomography: Preliminary Results of an Investigational Technique  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the ultrastructural features of the urinary stonesremoved with endoscopic stone surgery, using micro computed tomography(micro-CT.Materials and Methods: Patients who had endoscopic surgery for renalor ureteral stones removal were included in this study. After surgery, thestones were classified into three groups and investigated with Skyscan 1174micro-CT. Group I underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL withultrasonic lithotripsy; group II had ureteroscopic stone surgery (USS withpneumatic lithotripsy; and group III (the control group had stone removalwith USS or PNL without lithotripsy. Stone homogeneity, voids, and theinternal structure of the stones were evaluated. Chi-square test was used toevaluate the difference statistically. P values less than .05 were consideredstatistically significant.Results: A total of 24 “calcium oxalate monohydrate” stones from 24patients were scanned with micro-CT. Stones treated with ultrasoniclithotripsy (group I were more fragile, fragmented, and cracked than thosetreated with the pneumatic lithotripsy (group II; P = .01. Stones in groupII were more homogeneous and smooth than those in group I and resembled those of the control group (P = .02. Homogeneous, non-fragile stones andheterogeneous, fragile calculi were seen in all groups.Conclusion: The stone fragility could be confirmed by micro-CTinvestigation. Ultrasonic lithotripters increase the stone fragility, which isdemonstrated with increased heterogeneity by micro-CT.

Emre Huri

2011-09-01

335

Urine cytology to evaluate urinary urothelial damage of shock-wave lithotripsy.  

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Our aim is to study the prospective trial where urine cytology was used to detect the acute urothelial mucosal damage in patients who undergo extracorporeal shock waves lithotripsy (SWL). The study included 48 consecutive patients (28 male, 20 female) with mean age of 49.02 years (range 18-66) who were treated with SWL due to renal stones (30 patients) or upper ureter stones (18 patients). The mean calculi diameter was 12.44 mm (range 5-20). Urinary cytologic examinations were done for all patients immediately before and after SWL therapy and 10 days latter. The average numbers of transitional cells, red blood cells and myocytes were counted under 40 × magnification. In overall patients the average numbers of transitional cells at the cytologic examinations done immediately before and after SWL therapy were 1.6 and 7.53 cell/field, respectively (p = 0.001). The increment in transitional cells at cytologic examination after SWL was significantly influenced only by number of shock waves applied (p = 0.003). No muscle cell was detected in all cytologic examinations. The cytologic examinations which were done after 10 days of SWL therapy showed recovery from all cytologic abnormalities. The acute increment in number of transitional cells after the SWL is not clinically important and it is a temporary change. Urothelial lesion is limited to mucosal layer and there is no evidence of damage to basal membrane or deeper muscle layer. SWL safety on urothelial and muscular layer was demonstrated. However, evaluation of larger series with use of other lithotripters is necessary before reaching any definitive conclusions. PMID:21063696

Mustafa, Mahmoud; Pancaroglu, Kuddusi

2011-06-01

336

Use of traditional Chinese medicine in the management of urinary stone disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective: To assess the evidence-based literature supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine Kampo herbal and Acupuncture in stone disease management. Materials and Methods: Four of the most commonly used herbal components of Kampo medicine in the treatment of stone disease are described ac [...] cording to their in vitro and in vivo effects. We also reviewed the role of Acupuncture in urologic clinical setting as well as its proposed mechanisms of action and results. Medline database was assessed using isolated and conjugated key words (Chinese Medicine, Kampo, Chinese Herbal, Calculi, Stone Disease, Kidney, Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine). Articles were reviewed and summarized. Results: Herbal medicine has been proven to be free from side-effects and therefore suitable for long term use therapy. Its antilithic beneficial effects include increased urinary volume, increased magnesium excretion (Takusya), inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate aggregation (Takusya, Wulingsan and Desmodyum styracyfolium), inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation and hydroxyapatite internalization (Wulingsan). In contrast, acupuncture, has shown to be effective as a pre-treatment anxiolytic and analgesic during colic pain and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment, reducing the need for complementary sedative drugs. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine is promising as regards its role in stone prevention. An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each procedure differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics. Similarly, standardization of Kampo formulations and acceptable clinical endpoints (imaging vs. symptomatic events) is needed.

Ricardo, Miyaoka; Manoj, Monga.

2009-08-01

337

Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p <0.01). Four patients had incomplete renal tubular acidiosis (iRTA), 3 had hypercalciuria, and 5 patients had hypocitraturia. The 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium was increased in the females with MSK (5.23 +/- 0.78 mmol) compared to the healthy females (3.49 +/- 0.29 mmol) (p <0.02), and increased in MSK patients with iRTA (7.32 +/- 1.45 mmol) compared to patients with normal urinary acidification (3.83 +/- 0.12 mmol) (p <0.01). The patients with iRTA had reduced levels of plasma standard bicarbonate (20.5 +/- 1.0) after fasting compared to patients with normal urinary acidification (23.8 +/- 0.8) and healthy women (22.7 +/- 0.6) (p <0.01), and reduced levels of 24-hour urinary excretion of citrate (0.93 +/- 0.25 mmol) compared to patients with normal urinary acidification (3.58 +/- 0.51) and healthy women (2.78 +/- 0.49) (p <0.005). A positive correlation was found between the degree of acidosis during ammonium chloride loading and urinary excretion of calcium (r = 0.71, p = 0.02), and a negative correlation between the degree of acidosis during ammonium chloride loading and urinary citrate excretion (r = 0.87, p = 0.001). The results suggest that defective urinary acidification might play an important role in the mechanism of hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia in patients with medullary sponge kidney.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle

1994-01-01

338

Recurrence of urinary retention secondary to retroverted gravid uterus  

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Full Text Available Background: Although urinary retention caused by the retroverted gravid uterus is uncommon, acute urinary retention is an emergency condition. Cases: We present here two cases of acute urinary retention at 12 weeks’ gestation secondary to retroverted gravid uterus. Although some preventive measures were suggested to the patients, recurrences of urinary retention occurred during the following 2-3 weeks and in their next pregnancies. Conclusion: In cases that urinary retention due to retroverted gravid uterus once occurred, we have to pay attention to the recurrence of urinary retention during the next pregnancies.

Shuichi Ono

2009-07-01

339

Efect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Hypericum Perforatum L. Leaves on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Kidney Calculi in Rats  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum leaves on the kidney calculi in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Groups 2, 3, and 4 received ethylene glycol (EG 1% + ammonium chloride (0.5%-added drinking water as a stone inducer. The H. Perforatum solution was fed at the same time of EG application and was repeated once for two days until the end of the experimental period. Group 1 (control; n = 10 was provided free access to food and normal drinking water. Group 2 (EG; n = 12 received EG-ammonium chloride-added drinking water and was fed with normal chow. Groups 3 and 4 (n = 15, as EG-treatment groups, received H. Perforatum in low (300 mg/kg and high (500 mg/kg doses, respectively. After 28 days, the kidneys were removed and prepared for histologic evaluation of calcium oxalate deposits. RESULTS: Urine level of free calcium in groups EG and EG + H. perforatum (300 mg/kg and phosphorous in EG + H. perforatum (500 mg/kg significantly decreased compared to controls (P < .01; P < .05; and P < .05, respectively. Treatment of the rats with high dose of H. Perforatum (500 mg/kg markedly reduced decrementing effect of EG on serum level of free calcium (P < .05. Histological experiments showed that chronic feeding of H. perforatum (300 and 500 mg/kg, orally could significantly reduce the size and number of calcium oxalate deposits in EG group. CONCLUSION: Chronic treatment of rats with hydroalcoholic extract of H. perforatum reduced the size and number of calcium oxalate deposits in EG-induced calculi.

Mohsen Khalili

2012-05-01

340

Cranberry and urinary tract infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary tract infection (UTI) refers to the presence of clinical signs and symptoms arising from the genitourinary tract plus the presence of one or more micro-organisms in the urine exceeding a threshold value for significance (ranges from 102 to 103 colony-forming units/mL). Infections are localized to the bladder (cystitis), renal parenchyma (pyelonephritis) or prostate (acute or chronic bacterial prostatitis). Single UTI episodes are very common, especially in adult women where there is a 50-fold predominance compared with adult men. In addition, recurrent UTIs are also common, occurring in up to one-third of women after first-episode UTIs. Recurrences requiring intervention are usually defined as two or more episodes over 6 months or three or more episodes over 1 year (this definition applies only to young women with acute uncomplicated UTIs). A cornerstone of prevention of UTI recurrence has been the use of low-dose once-daily or post-coital antimicrobials; however, much interest has surrounded non-antimicrobial-based approaches undergoing investigation such as use of probiotics, vaccines, oligosaccharide inhibitors of bacterial adherence and colonization, and bacterial interference with immunoreactive extracts of Escherichia coli. Local (intravaginal) estrogen therapy has had mixed results to date. Cranberry products in a variety of formulations have also undergone extensive evaluation over several decades in the management of UTIs. At present, there is no evidence that cranberry can be used to treat UTIs. Hence, the focus has been on its use as a preventative strategy. Cranberry has been effective in vitro and in vivo in animals for the prevention of UTI. Cranberry appears to work by inhibiting the adhesion of type I and P-fimbriated uropathogens (e.g. uropathogenic E. coli) to the uroepithelium, thus impairing colonization and subsequent infection. The isolation of the component(s) of cranberry with this activity has been a daunting task, considering the hundreds of compounds found in the fruit and its juice derivatives. Reasonable evidence suggests that the anthocyanidin/proanthocyanidin moieties are potent antiadhesion compounds. However, problems still exist with standardization of cranberry products, which makes it extremely difficult to compare products or extrapolate results. Unfortunately, most clinical trials have had design deficiencies and none have evaluated specific key cranberry-derived compounds considered likely to be active moieties (e.g. proanthocyanidins). In general, the preventive efficacy of cranberry has been variable and modest at best. Meta-analyses have established that recurrence rates over 1 year are reduced approximately 35% in young to middle-aged women. The efficacy of cranberry in other groups (i.e. elderly, paediatric patients, those with neurogenic bladder, those with chronic indwelling urinary catheters) is questionable. Withdrawal rates have been quite high (up to 55%), suggesting that these products may not be acceptable over long periods. Adverse events include gastrointestinal intolerance, weight gain (due to the excessive calorie load) and drug-cranberry interactions (due to the inhibitory effect of flavonoids on cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism). The findings of the Cochrane Collaboration support the potential use of cranberry products in the prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs in young and middle-aged women. However, in light of the heterogeneity of clinical study designs and the lack of consensus regarding the dosage regimen and formulation to use, cranberry products cannot be recommended for the prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs at this time. PMID:19441868

Guay, David R P

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Urinary tract injuries in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As shown by literature data, abdominal trauma in children is responsible for 14% of deaths, whereas in adults for 10%. Although abdominal traumas in children can be severe and lead to massive blood loss, most children die because of accompanying traumas of the thorax and head. It validates the surgical rule concerning abdominal traumas 'investigate aggressively, manage conservatively'. Posttraumatic injury of the urinary system is not frequent in children and its specificity (compared with adults), depends on greater susceptibility to external aggressive factors. Blunt trauma is the cause of renal parenchyma injury and acceleration/deceleration injury affects the excretory system and vessels. Extension mechanism is the cause of ureter avulsion and/or thrombus formation in stretched renal vessels- it is characteristic in children with non-accidental traumas. Bladder and urethra injuries are rare in children. During car accidents, a rupture of full bladder (seat belt injury) or bladder perforation by fractured bones of the pelvis is possible. We analyzed all hospitalizations of abdominal trauma in our surgical ward in the year 2004 (70 cases). Renal injuries were found in 6 children (8.6%). Thanks to five-year clinical experience of our hospital, on the average only 1-2 cases per annum needed operation. The management of renal injuries involves first of all conservative treatment. This publication has educational character and may serve as a valuable reminder of the useay serve as a valuable reminder of the useful knowledge in daily cooperation between the emergency room, radiology department and surgical ward. Based on available literature from recent few years, we quote suggested renal injuries classifications and procedures.This publication contains only images from our department of radiology archives. Clinical symptoms are often not appropriate for blunt abdominal traumas diagnosis. Owing to clinical status, which is difficult to interpret, fast and complete radiological diagnosis is necessary for proper treatment of children after abdominal trauma. Further complications of renal injuries may affect the further growth of the child. (author)

342

Lower urinary tract development and disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital anomalies of the lower urinary tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder, and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomaliesc such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUVs). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease, and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, the bladder, and the urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, the bladder and the urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the postgenomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

2013-01-01

343

Human urinary exosomes as innate immune effectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles, approximately 50 nm in diameter, derived from the endocytic pathway and released by a variety of cell types. Recent data indicate a spectrum of exosomal functions, including RNA transfer, antigen presentation, modulation of apoptosis, and shedding of obsolete protein. Exosomes derived from all nephron segments are also present in human urine, where their function is unknown. Although one report suggested in vitro uptake of exosomes by renal cortical collecting duct cells, most studies of human urinary exosomes have focused on biomarker discovery rather than exosome function. Here, we report results from in-depth proteomic analyses and EM showing that normal human urinary exosomes are significantly enriched for innate immune proteins that include antimicrobial proteins and peptides and bacterial and viral receptors. Urinary exosomes, but not the prevalent soluble urinary protein uromodulin (Tamm-Horsfall protein), potently inhibited growth of pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli and induced bacterial lysis. Bacterial killing depended on exosome structural integrity and occurred optimally at the acidic pH typical of urine from omnivorous humans. Thus, exosomes are innate immune effectors that contribute to host defense within the urinary tract. PMID:24700864

Hiemstra, Thomas F; Charles, Philip D; Gracia, Tannia; Hester, Svenja S; Gatto, Laurent; Al-Lamki, Rafia; Floto, R Andres; Su, Ya; Skepper, Jeremy N; Lilley, Kathryn S; Karet Frankl, Fiona E

2014-09-01

344

Urinary infection before and after prostatectomy  

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Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of pre and post prostatectomy related urinary tract in-fection and its correlation with peri-operative events, we studied 120 patients who underwent pros-tatectomy due to benign prostatic hypertrophy from September 2005 to September 2006. Urine cultures were performed before the operations, after a week, and three months later. Data including prostate volume, prostatic specific antigen (PSA, post voiding residue (PVR and histopathological reports as well as the duration of urinary leak, bladder irrigation, hospitalization, and catheterization were studied. The mean age of the studied patients was 70.5 ± 8 years. Significant preoperative bac-teriuria was revealed in 18 (15% patients of whom 14(77% patients developed negative cultures following the operation. Postoperative bacteriuria was detected in 9(7.5% patients who negative urine cultures preoperatively. Pre and post operative micro-organisms were different in the majority of the cases. The mean PSA was higher in patients with a positive history of infection. Following prostatectomy, patients with positive urine cultures had significantly longer urinary leakage, cathe-terization, and hospital stays compared with those who remained culture negative. We conclude that the incidence of positive urine culture pri-prostatectomy for BPH can be improved by appropriate antibiotic therapy, and the risk factors for postoperative urinary infection include preoperative infec-tion, prolonged urinary leakage, catheterization, and hospital stay. The elevated PSA may be a risk factor.

Pourmand Gholamreza

2010-01-01

345

Radiodiagnosis of anomalies, diseases and injuries of urinary bladder in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problems of radiodiagnosis of such urinary bladder diseases as ureter and urinary bladder anomalies, congenital fistulae, urinary bladder calcicosis, calculuses, foreign bodies and injuries of urinary bladder tuberculosis and tumors neurogenic disorder of urination in children are considered

346

Validity of urinary monoamine assay sales under the “spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model”  

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Full Text Available Marty Hinz1, Alvin Stein2, Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, Neuro Research Clinics Inc, Cape Coral, FL; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL; 3Laboratory, Fairview Regional Medical Center-Mesabi, Hibbing, MN, USAAbstract: Spot baseline urinary monoamine assays have been used in medicine for over 50 years as a screening test for monoamine-secreting tumors, such as pheochromocytoma and carcinoid syndrome. In these disease states, when the result of a spot baseline monoamine assay is above the specific value set by the laboratory, it is an indication to obtain a 24-hour urine sample to make a definitive diagnosis. There are no defined applications where spot baseline urinary monoamine assays can be used to diagnose disease or other states directly. No peer-reviewed published original research exists which demonstrates that these assays are valid in the treatment of individual patients in the clinical setting. Since 2001, urinary monoamine assay sales have been promoted for numerous applications under the “spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model”. There is no published peer-reviewed original research that defines the scientific foundation upon which the claims for these assays are made. On the contrary, several articles have been published that discredit various aspects of the model. To fill the void, this manuscript is a comprehensive review of the scientific foundation and claims put forth by laboratories selling urinary monoamine assays under the spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model.Keywords: monoamine, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, urine, urinary

Hinz M

2011-07-01

347

Infezioni delle vie urinarie: appropriatezza in antibioticoterapia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adequacy of antimicrobial therapy in urinary tract infections (UTI)Urinary tract infections are one of the most common reasons for antimicrobial prescriptions, however urine cultures are often unavailable and the choice of antibiotics is therefore empiric. The ideal antimicrobial agent must have specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics and an adequate spectrum of activity in order to obtain the potential eradication of the pathogen from the site of infection, minimizing the risk of recurrences and ensuring the best safety profile. There are several factors to be considered in the therapy choice: the type of infection, the increasing presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria showing resistance to most antibiotics and the problem of the bacterial internalization, that is a frequent cause of treatment failure and early recurrences. Prulifloxacin is a recent oral fluoroquinolone antibiotic approved in several European countries for the treatment of lower urinary tract infections and shows some interesting advantages in comparison with other antibiotics. PMID:25451876

Bassetti, Matteo; Carnelutti, Alessia

2014-12-01

348

Herbs In Treatment Of Urinary Tract Infections  

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Full Text Available It is known that urinary tract is very common source of infection and UTIs are second most common reason people visit their doctors each year. Escherichia coli is responsible for large majority of UTIs. UTIs is most commonly diagnosed bacterial infection in woman. Population at risk of complication include older woman, pregnant woman. Continuous antibiotics prophylaxis are used to treat and prevent recurrent urinary tract infections, frequent antibiotic use can result in vaginal and intestinal dysbiosis as well as antibiotic resistance. Thus, it is desirable to seek alternative methods of prevention and treatment of simple UTIs. Few herbal antimicrobial agents Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry, Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry; Blueberry, Berberine, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (Bearberry are proved to be very effective in preventing and treating urinary tract infections.

Manish Wasamwar

2012-10-01

349

Radiology of trauma to kidney and lower urinary tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents are trauma to kidney, imaging of kidney trauma, management of renal trauma, delayed complications, trauma to the lower urinary tract, trauma to urinary bladder, radiologic diagnosis, ethiology of blunt bladder injury, urethal injury (6 refs.)

350

Binary Vegetative Management of the Lower Urinary Tract Function  

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Full Text Available In this article, we review the neurophysiology of the bladder and the lower urinary tract function and discuss logical concepts for the development of novel drug therapy for patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

Vadim B. Berdichevskii

2013-09-01

351

Regulation of urinary thromboxane B2 in man: influence of urinary flow rate and tubular transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thromboxane B2 (TxB) is excreted in human urine, but the mechanism of renal excretion and the quantitative relationship of urinary TxB to the active parent compound, thromboxane A2, of renal or extrarenal origin is not established. To determine the effects of vasoactive hormones, uricosuric agents and urinary flow rate on TxB excretion, urinary TxB was measured by radioimmunoassay and mass spectrometry, and renal metabolism of blood TxB was determined by radiochromatography of urine after i.v. [3H]-TxB infusions. Basal TxB was 6.7 +/- 1.1 ng/h during an oral water load, and TxB fell with s.g. antidiuretic hormone (to 3.4 +/- 0.4 ng/h, P less than 0.01) and with fluid restriction (to 2.6 +/- 0.5 ng/hr, P . 0.001) in parallel with urinary volume. Urinary excretion of unmetabolized [3H]-TxB also fell (by 56%) with fluid restriction, implicating altered metabolism rather than synthesis as the mechanism of the urinary flow effect. Angiotensin II infusions slightly reduced both TxB and urine volume, consistent with a flow effect. In contrast, probenecid did not alter urine volume, but increased urinary uric acid (by 244%), TxB (from 5.6 +/- 0.9 to 11.1 +/- 2.9 ng/h) and urinary excretion of blood [3H]-TxB (by 243%) by similar amounts (all P less than 0.05), suggesting that TxB is actively reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, similarly to uric acid. Thus, urinary excretion of TxB of renal and extrarenal origin is regulated by proximal and distal tubule factorsand distal tubule factors

352

MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

353

Urinary fistulae after partial nephrectomy  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To report the risk factors and natural history of urinary fistula (UF) after partial nephrectomy (PN), as their incidence has been reported to be 3–6% in large series of PN but there are few reports of the risk factors associated with the development of UF after PN, and the natural history of UF in a large group of patients. Patients and Methods This was a retrospective review of 1118PN at one tertiary-care institution. Most patients had a drain placed in the perinephric space after surgery. Fifty-two patients were identified as having a UF if they had persistent flank drainage for >14 days after surgery, or presented with evidence of a UF after the drain had been removed. Risk factors for development and the course of the UF are reported. Results Fifty-two patients developed a UF after PN (4.4%, 95% confidence interval, CI, 3.5–6.1%) The rate of a persistent urine leak (defined as drain fluid consistent with urine for >2 weeks after surgery) was 4.0 (95% CI 2.9–5.3)%. The overall rate of delayed UF presentation was only 0.4 (0.09–0.9)%. Patients who developed a UF had larger tumours (3.5 vs 2.6cm, P = 0.03), a higher estimated blood loss (400 vs 300mL, P 2.5cm were twice as likely to develop a UF than patients with tumours of <2.5cm (P = 0.02). Most patients were managed conservatively with a percutaneous drain until the UF resolved, if they were asymptomatic. Overall, in 36 patients (69%) the fistula resolved with no intervention, while 16 (31%) required intervention. Stenting was the commonest intervention (15%). No patient required re-operative open surgery. Conclusion The rate of development of UF after PN is low. Tumour size, blood loss and ischaemia time were all associated with the development of a UF. In most patients with a urine leak immediately after surgery the UF will resolve with no intervention, and can be managed conservatively with patience, in the absence of clinical symptoms. PMID:20230384

Kundu, Shilajit D.; Thompson, R. Houston; Kallingal, George J.; Cambareri, Gina; Russo, Paul

2015-01-01

354

Urinary Bladder Hemangioma –A Rare Urinary Bladder Tumor in a Child  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary bladder hemangiomas are rare, accounting for 0.6% of the urinary bladder tumors. Hemangioma is considered arising from embryonic stem cells of an angioblastic lineage. A 3-year old boy presented with hematuria. He had past operative history of excision of extensive lymphatic malformation involving retroperitoneum, pelvis and upper thigh. Computed tomography scan of abdomen and pelvis with contrast revealed a large soft tissue mass arising from the dome of the bladder. Partial cystectomy was done. Histopathology confirmed the mass as cavernous hemangioma of urinary bladder. PMID:25628995

Sanklecha, Vandana; Valand, Arvind

2015-01-01

355

Genito-urinary cancer in Saudi Arabia.  

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ABSTRACT The incidence of Genito-urinary cancer (GUC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) increases with age and is 5-fold higher in men than in women. Genito-urinary cancer accounts for only 9.2% of all cancers in KSA, while the rate in the United States of America (USA) is as high as 24.1%. An epidemiological search on GUC in KSA revealed a relatively low incidence compared to developed countries. This is more evident in prostatic cancer, which is 50 times lower ...

Abomelha, Mohammed S.

2004-01-01

356

Pseudosarcomatous lesions of the urinary bladder.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical, microscopical, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural features of five cases of benign mesenchymal proliferative lesions of the urinary bladder, mimicking sarcoma, are presented. Four of the five patients are alive and disease-free following diagnosis, an interval ranging from 9 months to 9 years, mean 4 years. A fifth patient, who had a pseudosarcomatous stromal response adjacent to a urinary transitional cell carcinoma, now has invasive transitional cell carcinoma. The lesions revealed a striking microscopical, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural similarity to nodular fasciitis, suggesting the lesions represented a bizarre mesenchymal proliferative response to inflammation. PMID:1707395

Hughes, D F; Biggart, J D; Hayes, D

1991-01-01

357

Urinary incontinence: medical and psychosocial aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recognition has been growing over the past two decades that urinary incontinence is a rather widespread condition among older adults. Prevalence rates of about 30% for any incontinence and about 5% for severe incontinence among older adults were suggested by several European studies and have recently been confirmed by American studies. The rates are typically higher among women than men. Despite these findings, much about the true distribution of urinary incontinence remains to be firmly established. The proportion of different types and the differences between sexes, ages, and races need to be confirmed using representative population samples and valid measures of incontinence. These distributions cannot be accurately described using clinical populations. Perhaps because urinary incontinence is viewed as highly embarrassing, it has not been a focus of media coverage or public discussion. More attention by the media and by health-care professionals would build public awareness of the condition. Older adults and their caregivers need to know that urinary incontinence is common and treatable, so that they will identify it promptly and bring it to their physicians' attention. Health-care providers and social workers must also be alert to the possibility of incontinence among their clients. They should be prepared to ask older patients directly, because many patients may disregard urine loss or be too embarrassed to mention it. Currently, much of the management of urinary incontinence appears to be self-devised. Many incontinent persons have not talked to a physician about their problem. The largest proportion of those who attempt to control their urine loss use absorbent products or try to avoid loss by awareness of toilet locations and frequent toileting. Reliance on these methods is unfortunate because much progress has been made in developing diagnostic and treatment procedures for urinary incontinence. For example, surgical procedures to rectify an incompetent sphincter have been shown to be effective and are generally accepted. There are a number of medications effective for controlling detrusor instability. Further, various behavioral techniques appear to be promising as noninvasive initial interventions for many patients. We are on weaker ground regarding the prevention of and early intervention in urinary incontinence. The existing epidemiological data on the development of incontinence are poor. We do not know the proportion of urinary incontinence that is transient and the proportion that is chronic or established. Nor do we know the risk factors for onset and progression of the condition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2514773

Herzog, A R; Diokno, A C; Fultz, N H

1989-01-01

358

Models of Inflammation of the Lower Urinary Tract  

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Inflammation of the lower urinary tract occurs frequently in people. The causes remain obscure, with the exception of urinary tract infection. Animal models have proven useful for investigating and assessing mechanisms underlying symptoms associated with lower urinary tract inflammation and options for suppressing these symptoms. This review will discuss various animal models of lower urinary tract inflammation, including feline spontaneous (interstitial) cystitis, neurogenic cystitis, autoim...

Bjorling, Dale E.; Wang, Zun-yi; Bushman, Wade

2011-01-01

359

Evaluation of urinary abnormalities in nephrolithiasis patients from Marathwada region  

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Urinary abnormalities were evaluated in 100 renal stone patients with first episode of renal stone having age 22 to 45 years from both sex and compared to 100 normal healthy control group having same age group from both sex. Twenty-four hours urinary oxalate, calcium, uric acid, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus and citrate were estimated. The urinary pH was also determined. In stone formers urinary oxalate, calcium, sodium and uric acid excretions were significantly higher when compared with con...

Deshmukh, Sharda R.; Khan, Zia H.

2006-01-01

360

How Family Physicians Manage Urinary Tract Infection in Women  

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Physicians vary in their approaches to urinary tract infections in females. We studied 198 women with symptoms suggesting urinary tract infection. Computer analysis failed to identify any clusters of symptoms, signs or significant historical data which would predict significant bacteriuria with acceptable accuracy. Routine culturing of all symptomatic women is not recommended. Risk factors causing complications of urinary tract infection are reviewed.

Woolnough, K. V.; Domovitch, E.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Urinary Excretion of Thiol Compounds in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

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The objective of the present study was to assess the excretion of urinary thiol compounds in patients with active and inactive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Urinary thiol compounds were measured by the method of Kokonov (M. T. Kokonov, Lab. Delo 5:273–276, 1965) in 51 outpatients with active and inactive RA. Those with active disease had significantly higher levels of urinary thioamine excretion.

Rojkovich, Bernadette; Nagy, Eszter; Pro?hle, Tama?s; Poo?r, Gyula; Gergely, Pe?ter

1999-01-01

362

Long-term outcomes of urinary tract reconstruction in patients with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction  

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The advent of specialized spinal units and better understanding of the pathophysiology of neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction has made long-term survival of these patients a reality. This has, in turn, led to an increase in quality and choice of management modalities offered to these patients including complex anatomic urinary tract reconstructive procedures tailored to the unique needs of each individual with variable outcomes. We performed a literature review evaluating the long-term outco...

Johnson, E. U.; Singh, Gurpreet

2013-01-01

363

Urinary excretion of iopamidol following intrathecal administration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

No iodinated compound other than Iopamidol was found in the urine of subjects who received intrathecal injection of 10 ml of Iopamiro '300'. The compound was neither metabolized nor altered chemically and urinary iodide content was always in the normal range. Between 72 and 85% of injected Iopamidol was excreted within 72 h of injection. (orig.)

364

Pyoderma gangrenosum and urinary tract infection  

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Full Text Available A case of pyoderma gangrenosum is reported in a 52 - year - old man who had skin lesions without any association. On investigation urinary tract infection was detected. Treatment of UTI led to spontaneous healing of the lesions in short period thus avoiding the need of oral corticosteroids.

Chopra A

2001-09-01

365

Antimicrobial Stewardship and Urinary Tract Infections  

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Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections encountered in ambulatory and long-term care settings in the United States. Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories and many such cultures are collected from patients who have no or questionable urinary symptoms. Unfortunately, antimicrobials are often prescribed inappropriately in such patients. Antimicrobial use, whether appropriate or inappropriate, is associated with the selection for antimicrobial-resistant organisms colonizing or infecting the urinary tract. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms are associated with higher rates of treatment failures, prolonged hospitalizations, increased costs and mortality. Antimicrobial stewardship consists of avoidance of antimicrobials when appropriate and, when antimicrobials are indicated, use of strategies to optimize the selection, dosing, route of administration, duration and timing of antimicrobial therapy to maximize clinical cure while limiting the unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity and selection of resistant microorganisms. This article reviews successful antimicrobial stewardship strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections.

Lilian M. Abbo

2014-05-01

366

Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review  

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Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

Farzana Hamid

2013-07-01

367

Constipation and reversible urinary tract abnormalities.  

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Urinary tract anomalies were prospectively investigated with ultrasound in 29 children with functional constipation. These children were compared before and after treatment with 451 age matched healthy controls without constipation. The bladder residue and upper renal tract dilatation after micturition were significantly increased in the group with constipation and improved after treatment.

Dohil, R.; Roberts, E.; Jones, K. V.; Jenkins, H. R.

1994-01-01

368

Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder  

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Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

Alexander Gabuev

2012-04-01

369

Living with an indwelling urinary catheter.  

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Despite 450,000 people in the U.K. using long-term catheters, there is very little information available about the experience. This study aimed to gain an understanding of patients' perspectives of living with an indwelling urinary catheter.

Prinjha, S.; Chapple, A.

2013-01-01

370

Urinary biomarkers in prenatally diagnosed unilateral hydronephrosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The introduction of prenatal ultrasonography as a screening method entails an increasing number of infants diagnosed with prenatal hydronephrosis. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction accounts for 35% of prenatal hydronephrotic cases. Urinary tract obstruction that occurs during early kidney development affects renal morphogenesis, maturation and growth, and in the most severe cases this will ultimately cause renal insufficiency. A major challenge in the clinical management of these patients is to preserve renal function by selection of the 15%-20% who require early surgical intervention, leaving those for whom watchful waiting may be appropriate because of spontaneous resolution/stabilization without significant loss of renal function. Today, this requires medical surveillance, including repetitive invasive diuretic renograms relying on arbitrary threshold values, and therefore there is a need for non-arbitrary, non-invasive urinary biomarkers that may be used as predictors for renal structural changes and/or decreasing renal function, and thereby provide the surgeon with more clear indications for surgical intervention. In this review, we summarize the currently well-known facts about urinary biomarkers in ureteropelvic junction obstruction concerning renal function, and we also suggest potential novel urinary biomarkers.

Madsen, Mia Gebauer; NØrregaard, Rikke

2011-01-01

371

Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with prostatitis  

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Approximately 50% to 60% of men with chronic prostatitis experience troublesome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Individual interventions yield statistically significant but minimally important improvements in clinical trials. Research has shown that categorizing patients with prostatitis by phenotype is an effective way to rationally select therapy and maximize the impact on symptom reduction and improve quality of life.

Nickel, J. Curtis

2012-01-01

372

Arsenic and urinary bladder cell proliferation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that a close association exists between the elevated levels of arsenic in drinking water and the incidence of certain cancers, including transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. We have employed in vitro and in vivo models to examine the effects of sodium arsenite on the urinary bladder epithelium. Mice exposed to 0.01% sodium arsenite in drinking water demonstrated hyperproliferation of the bladder uroepithelium within 4 weeks after initiating treatment. This occurred in the absence of amorphous precipitates and was accompanied by the accumulation of trivalent arsenite (iAs3+), and to a lesser extent dimethylarsenic (DMA), arsenate (iAs5+), and monomethylarsenic (MMA) in bladder tissue. In contrast to the bladder, urinary secretion was primarily in the form of DMA and MMA. Arsenic-induced cell proliferation in the bladder epithelium was correlated with activation of the MAP kinase pathway, leading to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase activity, AP-1 activation, and expression of AP-1-associated genes involved in cell proliferation. Activation of the MAP kinase pathway involved both epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-dependent and -independent events, the latter involving Src activation. Studies summarized in this review suggest that arsenic accumulates in urinary bladder epithelium causing activation of specific signaling pathways that lead to chronic increased cell proliferat lead to chronic increased cell proliferation. This may play a non-epigenetic role in carcinogenesis by increasing the proliferation of initiated cells or increasing the mutational rate

373

Effects of microgravity on urinary osteopontin  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased risk of renal stone formation during space flight has been linked primarily to increased calcium excretion from bone demineralization induced by space flight. Other factors contributing to increased risk include increased urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation, while urinary citrate, magnesium and volume are all decreased. The aim of this study was to increase the predictive value of stone risk profiles for crew members during space flight by evaluating the excretion of urinary protein inhibitors of calcium crystallization so that more comprehensive stone risk profiles could relate mineral saturation to the concentrations of inhibitor proteins. Levels of urinary osteopontin (uropontin) are reported in a series of 14 astronauts studied before, during, and after space flights. During space flight, a compensatory increase in uropontin excretion was not observed. However, the uropontin excretion of a majority of astronauts was increased during the period after space flight and was maximal at 2 wk after landing. The downward shift in the molecular size of uropontin observed in samples obtained during space flight was shown to result from storage at ambient temperature during flight, rather than an effect of microgravity on uropontin synthesis.

Hoyer, J. R.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Liu, H.; Whitson, P. A.

1999-01-01

374

[Lower urinary tract infections in urogynaecology].  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary tract infections belong among the most common infectious diseases in adult women. Sporadic infection is usually not a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Recurrent lower urinary tract infections significantly decrease the quality of life of the affected women. Colonisation of the vagina, vulva and the perineum by the uropathogens is the main risk factor of any urinary infection, but only concomitant action of some other factor (e.g. immunosuppression, urethral stenosis, urolithiasis, urethral diverticulum, diabetes and urinary incontinence) can induce the recurrent infection. Correct primary treatment and proper used preventive method is highly advantageous not only from the individual but also from the global point of view (high diagnostic and therapeutic expenses, increase of resistance and imminent success decrease of the modern treatment). Continuous low dose antimicrobial treatment is the most common prophylactic modality. Postcoital antimicrobial prophylaxis and immunomodulative therapy are the other used modalities. Local vaginal estrogen therapy is recommended in postmenopausal women. Estrogens improve the symptoms of the urogenital atrophy and decrease the vaginal pH, which is very important in prevention of the pathological bacterial colonisation of the vagina. Decision about the individual therapy and prophylaxis must be preceded by the evaluation of the risk factors with positives and negatives of the used drug. PMID:15945485

Novácková, M; Vlk, R; Horcicka, L

2005-01-01

375

Primary localized amyloidosis of the urinary bladder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a rare case of localized form of primary amyloidosis (amyloidoma) of the urinary bladder with CT and MR findings. Clinically, it is difficult to distinguish from invasive transitional cell carcinoma and inflammatory lesion. We think that the MR intensity on T2-weighted images is helpful in making the diagnosis. (orig.)

376

Primary localized amyloidosis of the urinary bladder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report a rare case of localized form of primary amyloidosis (amyloidoma) of the urinary bladder with CT and MR findings. Clinically, it is difficult to distinguish from invasive transitional cell carcinoma and inflammatory lesion. We think that the MR intensity on T2-weighted images is helpful in making the diagnosis. (orig.)

Kato, H.; Toei, H.; Furuse, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Jichi Medical School and Hospital, Tochigi (Japan); Suzuki, K. [Dept. of Urology, Jichi Medical School and Hospital, Tochigi (Japan); Hironaka, M.; Saito, K. [Dept. of Pathology, Jichi Medical School and Hospital, Tochigi (Japan)

2003-12-01

377

Is Streptococcus bovis a urinary pathogen?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Streptococcus bovis group (SBG) comprises several microorganisms associated with human infections. They have been associated with bacteremia, endocarditis, biliary tract infection, meningitis, and colorectal cancer, but their role as urinary pathogens is not well known. The objective of this investigation was to discover the incidence and clinical significance of the bacteriuria associated with this complex. A retrospective analysis of all adult patients with bacteriuria caused by SBG during the period 1995-2012 was carried out. During the study period, SBG was isolated in 153 adult patients, who had a mean age of 67 years, most of them being women (80 %). Most of our patients (65 %) had some underlying disease, with urologic disease being the most common (37 %), followed by diabetes mellitus (27 %) and neurologic disease (25 %). Among the 88 patients in whom we were able to correctly assess symptoms, 45 % had asymptomatic bacteriuria, 35 % had lower urinary tract infection, and 20 % had upper urinary tract infection. In 14 cases (9 %), SBG was also isolated in blood cultures. Most of the isolates of SBG (72 %) were S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, 98 % to nitrofurantoin, and 77 % to fosfomycin. Although SBG bacteriuria is uncommon, it should not always be taken as a contaminant, mainly when S. pasteurianus is isolated, because it may cause urinary tract infections and, occasionally, sepsis, whereas when S. gallolyticus is isolated from urine, it may be a marker of underlying endocarditis and colorectal cancer. PMID:25416160

Matesanz, M; Rubal, D; Iñiguez, I; Rabuñal, R; García-Garrote, F; Coira, A; García-País, M J; Pita, J; Rodriguez-Macias, A; López-Álvarez, M J; Alonso, M P; Corredoira, J

2014-11-22

378

Large impacted upper ureteral calculi: A comparative study between retrograde ureterolithotripsy and percutaneous antegrade ureterolithotripsy in the modified lateral position  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: The treatment for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial, especially at institutions with limited resources. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare and to evaluate the outcome and complications of two main treatment procedures for impacted proximal ureteral calculi, retrograde ureterolithotripsy (URS), and percutaneous antegrade ureterolithotripsy (Perc-URS). Settings and Design: Our inclusion criteria were solitary, radiopaque calculi, >15 mm in size in a functioning renal unit. Only those patients in whom the attempt at passing a guidewire or catheter beyond the calculus failed were included in this study. Patients and Methods: Between January 2007 and July 2011, a total of 52 patients (13 women and 39 men) with large impacted upper-ureteral calculi >15 mm and meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. Of these, Perc-URS was done in 22 patients (group 1) while retrograde ureteroscopy was performed in 30 patients (group 2). We analyzed operative time, incidence of complications during and after surgery, the number of postoperative recovery days, median total costs associated per patient per procedure, and the stone-free rate immediately after 5 days and after 1 month. Statistical Analysis Used: Bivariate analysis used the Student t-test and the Mann-Whitney test to compare two means and Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests to compare two percentages. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results: The mean age was 42.3 years (range 22-69). The mean stone sizes (mm) were 34 ± 1.2 and 29.3 ± 1.8 mm in group 1 and 2, respectively. In the Perc-URS group, 21 patients (95.45%) had complete calculus clearance through a single tract in one session of percutaneous surgery, whereas in the URS group, only 20 patients (66.7%) had complete stone clearance (P = 0.007). The mean operative time was higher in the Perc-URS group compared to group 2 (66.5 ± 21.7 vs. 52.13 ± 17.3 min, respectively; P = 0.013). Complications encountered in group 1 included transient postoperative fever (2 pts) and simple urine outflow (2 pts). Ten patients (33%) of group 2 experienced failure: Migration to the kidney (3 pts), ureteral perforation (2 pts), tortuosity of the ureter (2 pts), and epithelial polyps (2 patients). Group 1 patients had an average visual analog (VAS) pain score of 47 mm compared with 31 mm in group 2 patients. The mean hospital stay (days) in group 1 was higher than the group 2 (2.27 ± 0.8 vs. 1.67 ± 0.6, respectively; P = 0.01). The mean analgesia requirement for group 1 (paracetamol chlorhydrate + codeine 12 ± 3 g) was significantly more compared with group B (6.8 ± 2 g) (P 0.05). After 1 month, the stone free-rate remained higher in group 1 (95.5% vs. 66.7%, respectively; P = 0.012). Conclusions: In our series, Perc-URS is a safe and efficient treatment option for proximal ureteral stone, especially when the stone size is superior to 15 mm with the presence of moderate or severe hydronephrosis. PMID:24049373

Moufid, Kamal; Abbaka, Najib; Touiti, Driss; Adermouch, Latifa; Amine, Mohamed; Lezrek, Mohammed

2013-01-01

379

Mechanisms of pain from urinary tract infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pain response to urinary tract infection is largely uncharacterized, but the symptomatic response to urinary tract infection contrasts with the lack of pain response among individuals with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Quantifying pelvic pain in a murine urinary tract infection model, uropathogenic Escerichia?coli induces transient pelvic pain, whereas an asymptomatic bacteriuria E.?coli isolate causes no pain, thus recapitulating the spectrum of clinical responses to intravesical E.?coli. These differential pain responses are not correlated with bladder colonization or inflammation, but instead are intrinsic to E.?coli lipopolysaccharide and dependent on the lipopolysaccharide receptor, TLR4. Epidemiological data suggest a link between interstitial cystitis and a history of urinary tract infection, so it was evaluated whether repetitive uropathogenic E.?coli instillation would result in chronic pain through central sensitization. Although repeated infection with wild type uropathogenic E.?coli results in only transient episodes of acute pain, a uropathogenic E.?coli mutant lacking O-antigen causes chronic, post-urinary tract infection pelvic pain. Similarly, a K-12 E.?coli strain lacking O-antigen induces chronic pain that persisted long after bacterial clearance, and expressing O-antigen nullified the pain phenotype. Spinal cords isolated from mice with post-urinary tract infection chronic pain showed deficits in short-term depression consistent with central sensitization. Deleting O-antigen gene complex from a uropathogenic E.?coli strain and subsequent heterologous expression of O-antigen gene clusters shows that a single bacterial isolate can exhibit pain phenotypes ranging from a null phenotype, an acute pain phenotype, to a chronic pain phenotype. Post-urinary tract infection chronic pain is also associated with voiding dysfunction and anxious/depressive behavior. These effects are also mediated by TRPV1 at the level of pain establishment and CCR2 at the level of pain maintenance. Together, these findings show that transient infection with E.?coli might result in chronic visceral pain with the hallmarks of neuropathic pain. This pattern of behaviors mimics the spectrum of interstitial cystitis symptoms, thus supporting the possibility of an infectious etiology of interstitial cystitis. PMID:24807489

Rosen, John M; Klumpp, David J

2014-04-01

380

Native and contrast-radiographic examination of the urinary tract  

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Introduction Plain x-rays and contrast urography are important for diagnosing urinary tract diseases. The first plain film of the urinary tract was made in 1896, and the first tests using contrasts started in 1904. Excretory urography has been used since 1930. Plain film of the urinary tract Plain films of the urinary tract are used in the kidney area, the area of the ureter and urinary bladder. They also show structures (lumbar and sacral spine and pelvis), muscles (m. iliopsoas) as well as ...

Govor?in Mira; Hadna?ev Dušan; Stojanovi? Sanja; Lu?i? Zorka; Luka? Ilona

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative approaches is effective in reducing urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered as a first line treatment for overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence.Keywords: urinary incontinence, obesity, women

Whitcomb EL

2011-08-01

382

Segmental Urethral Dosimetry and Urinary Toxicity in Patients With No Urinary Symptoms Before Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To determine whether segmental urethral dosimetry is predictive for the degree of urinary morbidity after prostate brachytherapy in patients with no urinary symptoms before prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between May 2000 and November 2005, 1,107 patients underwent iodine-125 monotherapy with urethral sparing techniques. A total of 166 patients fulfilled the selection criteria: baseline (International Prostate Symptom Score) IPSS ?5, no androgen deprivation therapy, and prostate ultrasound planning volumes (PUTV) <45 mL. The median follow-up was 44 months. Urinary morbidity was defined by maximum increase in IPSS, time to IPSS resolution, maximum Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score, time to RTOG resolution, and urinary retention. Surrogate deviated urethra was contoured and doses calculated at the base, mid-prostate, apex, and urogenital diaphragm. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to evaluate urethral and prostate dosimetry, age, PUTV, and number of needles for their association with urinary morbidity. Results: Urethral dose was fairly constant in all urethra segments except prostate base, where the variation in does was large. On multivariate analysis, higher urethral base D50, V100, and larger PUTV were predictive for higher maximum increase in IPSS. Higher urethral base V100 and larger PUTV predicted for prolonged IPSS resolution. Higher urethral base D50 and larger needle number predicted for longer RTOG resolution.er predicted for longer RTOG resolution. Higher urethral base V100 predicted for RTOG ?2 toxicity. Conclusions: Radiation dose to the urethral base, larger PUTV, and needle number, predicted for increased urinary toxicity after prostate brachytherapy. Correlation between urinary morbidity and urethral base dosimetry may reflect a large variation in urethral dose observed at the prostate base

383

Holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy versus pneumatic lithotripsy for treatment of distal ureteral calculi: a meta-analysis.  

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The objective of this study was to estimate the treatment effect of Pneumatic Lithotripsy (PL) versus holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy (LL) in the treatment of distal ureteric calculi. A bibliographic search covering the period from 1990 to April 2012 was conducted using search engines such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library. Data were extracted and analyzed with RevMan5.1 software. A total of 47 studies were scant, and 4 independent studies were finally recruited. Holmium: YAG LL conveyed significant benefits compared with PL in terms of early stone-free rate [odds ratio (OR)=4.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.14, 17.16), p=0.03], delayed stone-free rate [OR=4.42, 95%CI (1.58, 12.37), p=0.005], mean operative time [WMD=-16.86, 95%CI (-21.33, -12.39), pureteral perforation rate according to this meta-analysis. Precise estimates on larger sample size and trials of high quality may provide more uncovered outcomes in the future. PMID:23016622

Yin, Xiangrui; Tang, Ziwei; Yu, Bei; Wang, Yarong; Li, Yuehua; Yang, Qi; Tang, Wei

2013-04-01

384

Role of combined use of potassium citrate and tamsulosin in the management of uric acid distal ureteral calculi.  

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In this article, we investigated the effect of the combined use of tamsulosin and potassium citrate (Uralyt-U(®)) for the treatment of uric acid stones in the distal ureter. The study was designed as a prospective, double blind randomized controlled trial. A total of 191 adult patients with radiolucent distal ureteral calculi were recruited. We included patients with solitary stones ?5 mm with mild or moderate hydronephrosis and a normal contralateral tract. The patients were randomized into four equal groups (the placebo, tamsulosin, Uralyt-U(®), and the combined treatment groups). The patients were treated for a maximum duration of 4 weeks or until stone expulsion. The stone size in all groups ranged from 5 to 11 mm (7.69 ± 1.7 mm). The total expulsion rate of the stones was significantly lower in the control group (26.1%) compared with that of any of the other three groups (68.8, 58.7, and 84.8% respectively) (P 8 mm as a separate subgroup to find the effect of the used drugs on the relatively large stones, we detected that the expulsion rate of these stones was significantly higher in the patients who received the combined treatment in comparison with any of the other three groups (P distal ureteral uric acid stones especially those of 8-11 mm. PMID:21858663

El-Gamal, Osama; El-Bendary, Mohamed; Ragab, Maged; Rasheed, Mohamed

2012-06-01

385

Does a Retrograde Pyelography prior to Ureteroscopy Influence Stone-Free Rates and Complication Rates in Ureteral Calculi.  

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Objectives: To evaluate the impact of retrograde pyelography (RPG) in patients treated with ureteroscopy (URS) for ureteral calculi. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients treated with and without RPG prior to URS at a single institution from 2010 to 2013. Assessment of stone-free rates and intraoperative complications. Results: Out of 469 URS, 211 (45%) were done with and 258 (55%) without RPG. Complete stone removal was achieved in 86.8% without RPG compared to 73% with RPG (p = 0.0001). Partial stone removal rates were similar in both groups (p = 0.77). Stone removal was not achieved in 9.3 vs. 22.7% (p = 0.0001), with concordant findings in the distal (7.4 vs. 16.9%, p = 0.007) and the proximal ureter (14.5 vs. 38.6%, p = 0.002). Patients with RPG had a threefold higher chance of an unsuccessful URS (OR 3.05, 1.71-5.43, p URS had significantly inferior stone-free rates. RPG was identified as an independent risk factor for inferior results. RPG neither facilitates nor diminishes complication rates during URS. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25170788

Seklehner, Stephan; Heißler, Ortwin; Engelhardt, Paul F; Riedl, Claus

2014-08-23

386

A meta-analysis of the efficacy of ureteroscopic lithotripsy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on ureteral calculi  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To re-evaluated the clinic efficacy of ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URS) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on ureteral calculi with Cochrane systematic reviews in this paper. METHODS: We searched clinical randomized controlled trials and prospective controlled trials in d [...] atabases such as Cochrane library, Medline, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, PubMed. Pooled estimate of risk ratios (RRs), standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as measure of effect sizes. Summary effect estimates were also stratified by sample size, study design and study region. The overall effect sizes were derived using a random-effects model or fixed-effects model when appreciated, and meta-analysis were conducted with software RewMan 5.0. RESULTS: The meta-analysis suggested that there were significant differences of post-treatment stone free rate, repeat treatment rate, patients' satisfaction, incidence of postoperative complications, operation time and hospital stays between ESWL treatment cases and URS treatment cases. But in the sample sizes analysis, there were no significant differences of the post-treatment stone free rate and repeat treatment rate when the sample sizes were less than 100. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the ureteroscopic lithotripsy treatment, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment provided a significantly lower post-treatment stone free rate, but it also obviously brought out less postoperative complications, shorter operation time and hospital stays.

Yahong, Xu; Yi, Lu; Jian, Li; Shunwen, Luo; Yang, Liu; Zhigang, Jia; Ping, Chen; Yu, Guo; Qihua, Zhao; Xiaoping, Ma; Shufang, Jia.

2014-05-01

387

Urinary metal concentrations among female welders.  

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As part of a Canada-wide study of women entering non-traditional trades [Women's Health in Apprenticeship Trades - Metalworkers and Electricians (WHAT-ME)], we examined spot urine samples from women welders in Alberta to determine whether urinary metal concentrations exceeded those of the general population, to compare levels to previously published urinary concentrations in male welders and to examine the relationship with welding tasks. Women mailed-in urine samples collected close to the time of completing a detailed exposure questionnaire, including welding tasks on their most recent day welding at work. Of 53 welders working in their trade, 45 had urinary creatinine >0.3-?3.0g l(-1) and were included in analyses. Seven metals were examined for which both population and male welder urinary concentrations were available: cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, manganese, nickel, and zinc. Principal component analysis was used to extract three components from natural log transformed creatinine-corrected metal concentrations. Of the 45 women, 17 reported more than one main task. Overall two thirds worked in fabrication, a third on pipe welding, and smaller numbers on repair, in construction or other tasks: manual metal arc welding was reported by 62%, semi-automatic arc welding by 47%, and arc welding with a tungsten electrode by 15%. In multiple regression analyses, little relation was found between urinary metals and task or type of welding, except for cadmium where lower levels were seen in those reporting semi-automatic manual welding (after adjustment for age and smoking). The proportion of women welders exceeding the selected general population 95th percentile was high for manganese (96%) and chromium (29%). Urinary metal concentrations were similar to those reported for male welders with only manganese, with a geometric mean in women of 1.91 µg g(-1) creatinine, and perhaps copper (11.8 µg g(-1) creatinine), consistently lower in male welders. Although not evident from the task analysis reported here, differences in exposure by sex may be explained by type of welding or by other work practices. A closely comparable cohort of male welders would be necessary to examine this hypothesis more fully. PMID:25359273

Arrandale, Victoria H; Beach, Jeremy; Cembrowski, George S; Cherry, Nicola M

2015-01-01

388

Clinical observation of radiation urinary bladder disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: Clinical characteristic, diagnosis and treatment of radiation urinary bladder disease induced by radiation therapy for cancers in the pelvis were inquired into for providing diagnostic basis. Methods: Statistical analysis for the clinical cases was carried out. Results: The incidence of radiation bladder diseases induced by radiation therapy of cervix cancer are about 0.8%-2.96%, with an average of 2.14%. Radiation bladder disease is divided into acute radiation cystitis, chronic radiation cystitis and radiation vesical fistula. Chronic radiation cystitis is seen most often in the clinic and its main clinical symptom is painless macroscopic hematuria, which is again subdivided into slight and severe degrees. Diagnosis should include history of exposure to radiation, which dose exceed the dose threshold, and typical clinical characteristics. Conclusion: The characteristics, types and diagnostic basis of radiation urinary bladder disease analyzed in this study can provide the reference for drawing up diagnostic standard

389

The cranberry and the urinary tract.  

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Cranberry products have been heralded as natural treatments for urinary tract infections (UTIs) and have been widely used for this purpose. Current evidence favours an antibacterial role for the cranberry's natural polyphenols or tannins. Although limited species- and strain-specific direct inhibition has been determined in vitro, it has been suggested that a key mechanism of inhibition, especially for the abundant uropathogenic E. coli, relies on anti-adhesion properties. Many studies of prevention have been complicated due to the enrollment of patients who have had complicated urinary tracts, and outcomes have not been consistently favourable. In contrast, significant prevention has been shown for acute cystitis among high-risk young females. While reasonably well tolerated and deplete from side effects, further scientific work is required to better place the role of cranberry products in the management of UTIs. Progress in this area has set the stage for further hypothesis testing studies. PMID:17694340

Cimolai, N; Cimolai, T

2007-11-01

390

Current Staging Procedures in Urinary Bladder Cancer  

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Full Text Available Currently computed tomography (CT represents the most widely used standard imaging modality in muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer. Visualization of local tumor or depth of invasion as well as lymph node staging, however, is often impaired. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with diffusion-weighted sequences, determination of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values or utilization of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles potentially exhibits advantages in the assessment of local tumor or lymph node involvement and therefore might play a role in routine staging of urinary bladder cancer in the future. Likewise, positron emission tomography (PET with the currently utilized tracers 18F-FDG, 11C-choline and 11C-acetate is investigated in bladder cancer patients—mostly in combination with diagnostic CT. Although promising results could be obtained for these PET/CT examinations in smaller series, their true value cannot be determined at present.

Ambros J. Beer

2013-06-01

391

[Urinary tract infection in elderly patients].  

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Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the elderly are common. The pathophysiology of increased susceptibility is multifactorial. Age-related changes include a decline in cell-mediated immunity, neurogenic bladder dysfunction, structural urinary tract abnormalities (e.g., benign prostatic hyperplasia), systemic diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus) and increased incidence of urethral catheter placement. Catheter-associated bacteriuria is the most common hospital-acquired infection. Many elderly patients, including those with catheter-associated bacteriuria, are asymptomatic. Escherichia coli remains the most common uropathogen. However, polymicrobial infection is more common among the elderly. The use of antimicrobial agents needs to be guided by current surveillance studies of targeted uropathogenic bacteria before being implemented. However, UTIs in the elderly may lead to severe renal infections. Therefore surgical intervention may be needed in these infections. PMID:21301153

Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato

2010-01-01

392

Endoscopic surgery of the lower urinary tract.  

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Endoscopic Surgery of the lower urinary tract was popularised in Singapore about a decade ago. Since then it has been established as the treatment of choice not only for obstructing prostates, but also for stones, carcinoma of the urinary bladder and management of neurogenic bladder, haemorrhagic chronic radiation cystitis, ureteric obstruction and urethral strictures. The main advantages of endoscopic surgery are lack of post-operative pain and minimum morbidity and mortality. Patients' recovery is rapid thus saving much needed hospital beds. However, endoscopic surgery requires special training and special equipment to get good results. If not properly done serious complications including the death of patients can occur. A plea is made for the setting up of a special division or department of Urology in Singapore to carry out this work and to train our young surgeons in this field. PMID:6084972

Foo, K T; Tan, E C; Tung, K H

1984-10-01

393

Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Urinary Bladder  

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Introduction. Primary melanoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. As far as we know, 19 cases have been reported worldwide, usually as case reports. Case Presentation. We present a 71-year-old male patient presented with a 2-month history of hematuria. Ultrasonography revealed a 5-cm-size mass located in the bladder trigone. A transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) revealed a malignant melanoma. Evaluation for metastatic disease was negative. The patient deceased five months later before radical treatment could be performed. Conclusion. This is one more reported case of primary melanoma of the urinary bladder. The previously reported cases of bladder melanoma are reviewed. Therapy and prognosis are discussed. PMID:22606629

El Ammari, Jalal Eddine; Ahallal, Youness; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

2011-01-01

394

An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk ofuced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: ? Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. ? We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. ? The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. ? Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. ? Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

395

Fungus ball pieloureteral en pacientes con litiasis urinaria: Tratamiento con ureterorrenoscopia / Pyelo-ureteral fungus ball in patients with urinary lithiasis: Ureterorrenoscopic management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: C. albicans es el hongo que con mayor frecuencia produce infecciones oportunistas del tracto urinario. Cuando las hifas se aglutinan alrededor de un núcleo de tejido necrótico (necrosis papilar), hebras mucosas, restos de suturas quirúrgicas y/o material litiásico, se forma una pelota [...] fúngica que puede obstruir cualquier tramo del tracto urinario. CASOS CLÍNICOS: Presentamos dos pacientes formadores crónicos de cálculos que en ausencia de otros factores de riesgo para las infecciones fúngicas oportunistas, desarrollan fungus balls en el tracto urinario superior dilatado por una litiasis ureteral obstructiva. La paciente 1 tuvo afectación bilateral y en ningún momento hubo manifestaciones sistémicas. El tratamiento consistió en ureterorrenoscopia con extracción de las bolas fúngicas, derivación bilateral y anfotericina B sistémica y en irrigaciones tópicas. El paciente 2, en el contexto de una sepsis candidiásica, se trató con anfotericina B sistémica, desobstrucción mediante ureterorrenoscopia con extracción de un cálculo ureteral y de pelotas fúngicas, y colocación de catéter JJ y nefrostomía con irrigaciones de anfotericina B. DISCUSIÓN: La litiasis urinaria constituye por sí sola un factor de riesgo para la infección fúngica del tracto urinario superior, en ausencia de otros factores favorecedores de las infecciones fúngicas oportunistas. El mecanismo por el cual el cálculo favorece el crecimiento de los hongos es, por un lado, la obstrucción pieloureteral con éstasis retrógrado y, por otro lado, la nucleación alrededor de una matriz de material cálcico sobre la que crecen, se agregan y se ramifican los micelios. La vía de infección es probablemente ascendente y puede complicarse con funguemia y sepsis. Los antimicóticos sistémicos, la derivación con catéteres ureterales o de nefrostomía que permitan irrigación local con antifúngicos, y las técnicas endourológicas, constituyen los tres pilares básicos del tratamiento. La ureterorrenoscopia juega aquí un papel importante al ser una técnica diagnóstica y al mismo tiempo terapéutica al permitir la desobstrucción litiásica y la limpieza de las masas fúngicas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: C. albicans is the most frequent fungus causing opportunist infections of the urinary tract. Agglutination of necrotic tissue nucleus (papilar necrosis), mucosus debri and chirurgic or lithiasic debri, originates a fungus ball, which can obstruct the urinary tract at any level. CLINICA [...] L DATA: We present 2 patients with obstructive urinary lithiasis developing fungus ball in the dilated upper urinary tract. Patient 1 was bilaterally affected and never had systemic symptoms. Treatment consisted of uretherorrenoscope for removal of fungus ball, bilateral urinary diversion and anphotericine B irrigations and systemic. Patient 2 developed a candidemia and was treated with systemic liposomal anphotericine B, uretherorrenoscopy with removal of ureteric calculus and fungus ball, and placement of a double J catheter and nephrostomy tube for anphotericine B irrigation. DISCUSSION: Urinary lithiasis is a risk factor for fungal infection of the upper urinary tract, provided there is no other predisponent factor for opportunistic fungal infections. Calculi facilitates fungal growth by means of obstruction and subsequent retrograde estasis and creating a nucleus for growth, aggregation and ramification of mycelium. The infection pathway is probably ascendent and may turn into fungemia and septicaemia. Systemic antimicotics, urinary diversion and local irrigations with antimicotics, and endourologic technics, are the three basic items in the treatment. Ureterorrenoscopy plays an important roll as a diagnostic and terapeutic tool as it may solve the obstruction and allows removal of fungus ball.

J.P., Burgués Gasión; J.M., Alapont Alacreu; F., Oliver Amorós; A., Benedicto Redón; F., Boronat Tormo; J.F., Jiménez Cruz.

2003-01-01

396

[Laparoscopy of the upper urinary tract].  

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The upper urinary tract is a wide field for using of laparoscopy. The aim of this work was to analyze retrospectively our experience in the development of laparoscopic techniques of surgical treatment of upper urinary tract pathology. 137 patients with pathology of the upper urinary tract were operated laparoscopically in our department during three years (July 2010 - July 2013). There were performed: nephrectomy--75 (54.7%, nephroureterectomy--3, 2.2%, partial nephrectomy--12 (8.7%), adrenalectomy--11 (8%), resection of the adrenal gland--2 (1.5%), cystectomy--10 : (7.3%) ureterolithotomy--15 (11%) pelviolithotomy--3 (2.2%), pyeloplasty--4 (2.9%) nephropexy--2 (14%). The results were evaluated by the comparative analysis of laparoscopic surgery and similar open interventions that were performed in our clinic. The mean operative time after laparoscopic nephrectomy was 180 min (80-220), the mean blood loss during surgery was 150 ml (50-370). The patients discharged at 4-5 days after operation. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy was performed at an average tumor size 2.7 cm (1.5-3.5). We used warm ischemia in 75% of cases. Its average time was 27 min (9-39), which was significantly greater than in the open resection--17 min (10-27). At the beginning of the development of laparoscopic adrenalectomy the average operative time was 140 min (110-270). In the future, as we got experience, it declined to 70 min (60-90) min. The mean blood loss was 70 ml (range 20-400). After laparoscopic cystectomy, ureterolithotomy, pelviolithotomy and pyeloplastic the patients discharged at 2-3 days. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were not noted. Laparoscopic surgery for treatment of pathology of the upper urinary tract is an alternative to the operations performed by the open approach. The oncological outcomes, functional results and complication rates are comparable for both types of surgery. PMID:25286605

Stepushkin, S P; Chebanov, K O; Cha?kovski?, V P; Sokolenko, R V; Novikov, S P; Novikov, V O

2014-01-01

397

Intermittent catheterisation for neuropathic urinary incontinence.  

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Eighty six children with neuropathic urinary incontinence who had been treated by clean intermittent catheterisation for more than five years were reviewed. Eighty five had congenital lesions, and one traumatic paraplegia. During the day, 72 (84%) patients were dry or had minor stress incontinence only, 11 were damp but controlled with pads, and only three were continuously wet. Eleven abandoned clean intermittent catheterisation, five because of poor control, four by choice despite good cont...

La Hunt, M. N.; Deegan, S.; Scott, J. E.

1989-01-01

398

Urinary Tract Infection in Postmenopausal Women  

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Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it i...

Raz, Raul

2011-01-01

399

Biocide activity against urinary catheter pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antimicrobial effects of essential oils against bacteria associated with urinary catheter infection was assessed. Tests were performed on 14 different bacterial species cultured either planktonically or as biofilms. Biofilms were found to be up to 8-fold more tolerant of the test agents. Higher antimicrobial tolerance was also evident in tests conducted in artificial urine. Eugenol exhibited higher antimicrobial effects against both planktonic cells and biofilms than did terpinen, tea tree oil, and cineole. PMID:24247129

Malic, Sladjana; Jordan, Rachael P C; Waters, Mark G J; Stickler, David J; Williams, David W

2014-01-01

400

Animal Models of Stress Urinary Incontinence  

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Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common health problem significantly affecting the quality of life of women worldwide. Animal models that simulate SUI enable the assessment of the mechanism of risk factors for SUI in a controlled fashion, including childbirth injuries, and enable preclinical testing of new treatments and therapies for SUI. Animal models that simulate childbirth are presently being utilized to determine the mechanisms of the maternal injuries of childbirth that lead to S...

Jiang, Hai-hong; Damaser, Margot S.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens  

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Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Str...

Khameneh Zakieh; Afshar Ali

2009-01-01

402

The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis was performed in two hundred and five patients at the Clinical Hospital of the University of de State of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), in the period of 1962 to 1982. Clinical, radiological and pathological findings of ten cases of pionephrosis submitted to nephrectomy, and two cases of vesical enlargement by coloncystoplasty were related. Excretory urograms constitutes the most important radiological exam in reaching a diagnosis, followed by retrograde urograms. (au