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1

[Urinary calculi and infection].  

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Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete clearance of the stone must be achieved by primary surgical procedure and residual fragments should be extensively treated. In the case of persistent infection, conservative measures, such as acidification and urease inhibitors or citrate administration, should be adopted to minimize its effect on urinary saturation with respect to struvite. PMID:24874306

Trinchieri, Alberto

2014-01-01

2

CT findings of melamine caused urinary calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To analyze the CT findings of melamine induced urinary calculi. Methods: Nineteen children with a history of ingestion of melamine contaminated infant formula milk were studied, including 12 males and 7 females, age ranged from 50 days to 5 years. Results: CT demonstrated renal pelvic and ureteral stones in 13 cases, with urinary obstruction in 9 of them. The size of the stones ranged from 0.3 cm x 0.3 cm to stag-horn calculus. Tine density of the stones measured from a low of 40-70 HU up to a high of 410 HU with an average density of 160 HU. Conclusion: CT scan is an excellent modality in demonstrating urinary tract calculi caused by melamine. It is the method of choice when ultrasound examinations are equivocal. (authors)

3

Evaluation of Urinary Calculi by Infrared Spectroscopy  

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Purpose: To analyze urinary calculi composition and its relationship with gender, age, calculus weight, color, and location.

Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty one patients with urinary calculus, who had undergone open lithotomy from June 1999 to April 2001, were enrolled in this prospective study which was performed by Tehran and Oroomieh Medical Sciences Universities. The calculi compositions were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy in Bonn University. Statistical analyses were made by paired t test

Results: One hundred and forty five males with a mean age of 40.4 years and 96 females with a mean age of 42.5 years were enrolled in this study. Mean calculus weight was 4.28 gr. Mean calculus number was 4.33. Thirty four (14.1% calculi were pure (carbonate apatite: 2, brushite: 1, uric acid: 19, cystine: 3, weddellite: 6, mono-NH4-urate: 2, struvite: 1, 207(85.6% were mixed and none of them contained octa-ca-phosphate, apatite, newberyte, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, mono-Na-urate, or xanthine. Weddellite was found in 77% of calculi. It comprised more than 50% of them in 26% of cases. Whewellite crystals were found in 78% of calculi. It comprised more than 50% of them in 46% of cases. The most common pure calculus was uric acid and the most common component of calculi was whewellite followed by weddellite.

Conclusion: Although there is no comprehensive study on urolithiasis incidence and prevalence in Iran, it can be concluded that whewellite and weddellite may be the most common components of urolithiasis in Iran and uric acid calculi are the most common pure calculi. There was no significant difference in calculi composition in our study.

Abdolrasool Mehrsai

2004-06-01

4

Endoscopic treatment of continent urinary reservoir calculi.  

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Formation of calculi is a late complication of continent urinary diversions. The techniques of percutaneous and transstomal treatment of these stones are described. Three patients underwent percutaneous placement of a rigid nephroscope into three different types of continent reservoirs and fragmentation of stones (2-5 cm in size) using ultrasonic lithotripsy. Preoperative CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis with oral and intrareservoir contrast was essential in finding the safest location for percutaneous access. One patient, with small stones, underwent placement of a flexible cystoscope through the continent efferent limb and Holmium laser lithotripsy. There were no instances of reservoir perforation. There was minimal blood loss, with an average operative time of 165 min. Ultrasonic lithotripsy of large stones through a percutaneous approach and Holmium laser lithotripsy for smaller stones via a flexible cystoscope placed through the efferent limb are safe and effective ways to treat calculi within continent urinary diversions. PMID:9297774

Ramin, S A; Beaghler, M A; Ruckle, H C; McLaughlin, K P

1997-01-01

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Dried solidified blood calculi in the urinary tract of cats.  

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We have noted an increased number of calculi submitted to the Gerald V. Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory, University of California, Davis, that do not contain crystalline material but appear to be composed of dried solidified blood (DSB). Canine and feline laboratory records from 1986-2003 were reviewed for samples composed of >99% DSB. No calculi from dogs were found, but specimens from 49 cats were composed of >99% DSB, of which almost half (n = 22) had been submitted after 2001. The DSB calculi had been removed surgically or by postmortem examination from all areas of the upper and lower urinary tract. All samples were well formed and could be divided in half with Rongeur forceps. Detailed case information was available for 12 cats. Urinalyses were available for 9 of the 12 cats, and the mean specific gravity was 1.017 (range, 1.009-1.032). Red blood cells were reported in the sediment of all cats, with most containing >100 RBC/hpf. Ureteral obstructions but no radio-opaque calculi were visible by radiography, including radiographic contrast studies. Reports of ultrasound examinations were available for 10 cats, and discrete calculi were not recorded. In addition to polarized light microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis were performed on a subset (n = 6, DSB calculi; n = 3, control calculi) of samples. Significantly more carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur (P = .012, P = .02, and P = .012, respectively) were present in the elemental analysis of the DSB calculi than in the control calculi, suggesting that the DSB calculi are primarily formed from organic material. At this time, we are uncertain why these DSB calculi become solidified, and we recommend that samples be submitted both in formalin and preservative free to further investigate their etiology. PMID:16955804

Westropp, Jodi L; Ruby, Annette L; Bailiff, Nathan L; Kyles, Andrew E; Ling, Gerald V

2006-01-01

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Percutaneous retrieval of upper urinary tract foreign bodies and calculi  

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To determine, when extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is contraindicated, the usefulness and safety of percutaneous management in the removal from the upper urinary tract of foreign bodies and calculi, or small remnants of these, retained after percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Between January 1996 and May 2001, We attempted to retrieve foreign bodies or calculi from the upper urinary tract of 20 patients, using various percutaneous technique. There were eleven foreign bodies, namely fragmented nephrostomy catheters (n=2), migrated ureteric stents inaccessible to retrograde ureteroscopic management (n=8), and one metallic radiopaque marker which was separated from the pusher of the internal ureteral stent. Nine urinary tract calculi were present. These ranged in radiographically measured size from 4 to 8 mm in their largest diameter, and were found in the renal pelvis or calyx (n=5) and ureter (n=4). After percutaneous nephrostomy, all procedures involved the use of a 7-F to 14-F sheath, inserted under fluoroscopic guidance. Devices used for the retrieval of these objects include a stone basket retriever, loop snare, grasping forceps, and balloon catheter. In all cases except one, it was possible to retrieve calculi or other items from the upper urinary tract. No surgical procedure was required and no significant complications were encountered in any of the cases during or after the procedures. The percutaneous technique can be useful and safe in the management of foreign bodies or calculi present in the upper urinary tract.

Shin, Tae Beom; Seong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Yong Joo [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2002-07-01

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Raman spectroscopic investigation of urinary calculi and salivary stones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The capabilities and limitations of determining the composition of urinary calculi (34 patients) and salivary stones (27 patients) by Raman spectroscopy have been investigated by analysing Raman spectra obtained with 1064 nm laser excitation, and comparing them with Raman spectra both from specific reference substances and from a commercial Raman database. The composition results were also compared with those obtained by other analytical methods e.g. powder diffraction. Raman spectroscopy proves to be an analytical method which provides reliable results on the composition of urinary calculi and salivary stones quickly, non-destructively and without any need of sample preparation. (author)

8

Medical management of common urinary calculi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nephrolithiasis is a common condition affecting nearly 5 percent of U.S. men and women during their lifetimes. Recurrent calculi can be prevented in most patients by the use of a simplified evaluation, reasonable dietary and fluid recommendations, and directed pharmacologic intervention. Serum studies and 24-hour urine collections are the mainstays of metabolic investigation and usually are warranted in patients with recurrent calculi. Although some stones are the result of inherited conditions, most result from a complex interaction between diet, fluid habits, and genetic predisposition. Calcium-sparing diuretics such as thiazides often are used to treat hypercalciuria. Citrate medications increase levels of this naturally occurring stone inhibitor. Allopurinol can be helpful in patients with hyperuricosuria, and urease inhibitors can help break the cycle of infectious calculi. Aggressive fluid intake and moderated intake of salt, calcium, and meat are recommended for most patients. PMID:16848382

Pietrow, Paul K; Karellas, Michael E

2006-07-01

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Metabolic Factors Associated With Urinary Calculi in Children  

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Full Text Available Introduction. We aimed to identify metabolic and anatomical abnormalities present in children with urinary calculi. Materials and Methods. Metabolic evaluation was done in 142 pediatric calculus formers. Evaluation included serum biochemistry; measurement of daily excretion of urinary calcium, uric acid, oxalate, citrate, and magnesium (in older children; and measurement of calcium, uric acid, oxalate, and creatinine in random urine samples in nontoilet-trained patients. Urinary tests for cystinuria were also performed. All of the patients underwent renal ultrasonography. Results. Sixty-one patients (42.7% had metabolic abnormalities. Anatomical abnormalities were found in 12 patients (8.4%. Three children (2.1% had infectious calculi, and 3(2.1% had a combination of metabolic and anatomic abnormalities. In 66 children (46.2 % we did not find any reasons for calculus formation (idiopathic. Urinalysis revealed hypercalciuria in 25 (17.6%, hyperuricosuria in 23 (16.1%, hyperoxaluria in 17 (11.9%, cystinuria in 9 (6.3%, hypocitraturia in 3 (2.1%, and low urinary magnesium level in 1 (0.7% patients. Sixteen patients (11.2% had mixed metabolic abnormalities. Conclusions. Metabolic abnormalities are common in pediatric patients with urinary calculi. In our study, calcium and uric acid abnormalities were the most common, and vesicoureteral reflux seemed to be the most common urological abnormality which led to urinary stasis and calculus formation.

Mitra Naseri

2010-01-01

10

The location of urinary calculi using radionuclide imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of in vivo labelling urinary calculi with sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate is described. This enables a radionuclide image of the stones to be produced and permits their location at operation by means of a small scintillation detector. The degree of uptake of the radiopharmaceutical on renal stones appears to depend on a number of factors, particularly the chemical composition of the stones. (author)

11

The influence of internal stone structure upon the fracture behaviour of urinary calculi.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro extracoporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on different types of urinary calculi, in combination with microfocus x-ray and microphotography, illustrates the importance of the internal stone structure. Calculi with a rough surface layered structure (calcium oxalate monohydrate) and untextured calculi (cystine) are characterized by a low stone fragility, whereas coarse-grain calculi (calcium oxalate dihydrate, struvite), and calculi with a smooth surface layered structure (uric acid), are very fragile. Shell-like fragmentation in layered calculi, with smooth surface of the crystalline laminations, suggests that the stone matrix influenced the propagation of the shock wave energy inside the stone. PMID:7863569

Pittomvils, G; Vandeursen, H; Wevers, M; Lafaut, J P; De Ridder, D; De Meester, P; Boving, R; Baert, L

1994-01-01

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Instrumental neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five kinds of urinary stones from 42 patients were determined for a total of 19 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Of these elements, Ca, Mg, Sr, Na, and Cl are found to be present in the core of all kinds of stones. The differences in elemental composition among the different kinds of stones and across the layers of stone are statistically evaluated. (author)

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Non-contrast thin-section helical CT of urinary tract calculi in children  

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Background: Non-contrast thin-section helical CT has gained acceptance for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in adults, but experience with the technique in children is limited. Purpose: To evaluate the utility of non-contrast thin section helical CT for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in children. Materials and methods: Radiology databases at three pediatric institutions were searched to identify all pediatric patients evaluated by ''renal stone'' protocol CT scans (no oral or intravenous contrast, scans covering the entire urinary tract obtained in helical mode with narrow collimation (< 5 mm)). CT scans were reviewed for the primary finding of urinary tract calculi, for secondary signs of acute urinary tract obstruction and for evidence of alternative diagnoses. Medical records were reviewed to determine clinical presentation and to confirm the eventual diagnosis. Results: One hundred thirty-seven scans of 113 children (mean age: 11.2 years) were studied. Thirty-eight of 94 examinations (40%) performed on 82 children for acute pain and/or hematuria showed ureteral calculi. Alternative diagnoses were suggested by CT on 16 scans (17%). Twenty-eight scans were performed on 10 asymptomatic children with known calculus disease confirming renal stone burden on 21 scans (75%) and persistent ureteral calculi on 6 scans (21%). Upper tract calculi were demonstrated on 10 of 15 scans (67%) performed to evaluate for calculi in patients with known non-calculus genitourinary tract abnormalities. Conclusions: Non-contrast thin section helical CT is a useful method to diagnose urinary tract calculi in children. Radiation dose in this retrospective study may exceed the lowest possible radiation dose for diagnostic accuracy. Further research is needed to optimize CT imaging parameters, while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and minimizing radiation dose. (orig.)

Strouse, Peter J. [Section of Pediatric Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bates, Gregory D. [Department of Radiology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Bloom, David A. [Department of Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States); Goodsitt, Mitchell M. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2002-05-01

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Factors affecting urinary calculi treatment by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy  

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Full Text Available Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL is still the treatment of choice for most renal and upper ureteric stones; however the outcome depends on multiple factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stone density, as measured by Hounsfield Units (H.U by non-contrast Computerized Tomography (CT, stone size and stone location on ESWL treatment outcome of urinary calculi in Jordanian patients. 65 patients underwent clinical, biochemical and radiological assessments followed by ESWL treatment. Statistical analyses including chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA, correlation, regression were performed for statistical significance between ESWL treatment, stone fragmentation and stone density, size and location in the renal pelvis. ESWL success rate was high (94% for low density stones (< 500 Hounsfield units. In general CT densities of 750 Hounsfield units or less were almost always successfully treated by ESWL. An inverse association between ESWL treatment outcome and stone size was also documented. CT stone density and stone size combined account for nearly 73% of the variation in the number of shock waves required to attain fragmentation. Stones located in lower calyceal area had less success rates. In conclusion, stones with higher density, large size and lower location may better be managed by percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

Tarawneh Emad

2010-01-01

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Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm2 and 0.1 cm2 over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

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Family History and Age at the Onset of Upper Urinary Tract Calculi  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of family history on the age of urinary calculus formation and its relation with characteristics of the calculi and patients. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study in Tabriz, a total of 210 patients with upper urinary tract calculi were evaluated. Their demographics and clinical characteristics and detailed information on their family history were recorded. Results: Of the patients, 28.6% had a positive family history for urinary calculi. Siblings were the majority of the affected family members (71.1%. The rate of a positive family history was slightly higher in women than in men (30.0% versus 28.1%; P = .20. The mean age at the disease onset of the men with and without a positive family history was 37.2 years versus 39.3 years, respectively (P = .20. Such a difference was not detected in the female patients, either (P = .63. In general, the calculi were more detected on the left renal unit, but more prevalent on the right side in patients with a positive family history (P = .008. No relation was found between the number and size of the calculi and the family history. Conclusion: About one-third of the patients with urinary calculi had a positive family history too. Men with affected family members are slightly more susceptible to the disease at younger ages. There might be differences in the side of the calculi and family members with a history of disease that warrants further studies.

Kamaleddin Hasanzadeh

2007-02-01

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Dual-energy CT for the evaluation of urinary calculi: Image interpretation, pitfalls and stone mimics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Urolithiasis is a common disease with a reported prevalence between 4% and 20% in developed countries. Determination of urinary calculi composition is a key factor in preoperative evaluation, treatment, and stone recurrence prevention. Prior to the introduction of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), available methods for determining urinary stone composition were only available after stone extraction, and thereby unable to aid in optimized stone management prior to intervention. DECT utilizes the attenuation difference produced by two different x-ray energy spectra to quantify urinary calculi composition as uric acid or non-uric acid (with likely further classification in the future) while still providing the information attained with a conventional CT. Knowledge of DECT imaging pitfalls and stone mimics is important, as the added benefit of dual-energy analysis is the determination of stone composition, which in turn affects all aspects of stone management. This review briefly describes DECT principles, scanner types and acquisition protocols for the evaluation of urinary calculi as they relate to imaging pitfalls (inconsistent characterization of small stones, small dual-energy field of view, and mischaracterization from surrounding material) and stone mimics (drainage devices) that may adversely impact clinical decisions. We utilize our clinical experience from scanning over 1200 patients with this new imaging technique to present clinically relevant examples of imaging pitfalls and possible mechanisms for resolution

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Percutaneous Imaging-Guided Access for the Treatment of Calculi in Continent Urinary Reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To describe our long-term experience with percutaneous access to continent urinary reservoirs for calculus removal. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of 13 procedures in 10 patients was performed. In 2 of the 13 procedures, access and calculus removal was performed in a single session. In the other 11 procedures, initial access was obtained using ultrasonography,fluoroscopy, and/or computed tomography. The patients then returned ata later date for a second step where the access was dilated and the calculi were removed. Results: Access was achieved successfully in all cases with no complications. At mean follow-up time of 13.6 months (range 1-94 months) one patient had died of complications unrelated to her continent urinary reservoir. Another patient had been placed on suppressive antibiotics for recurrent calculi. The remaining patients were stone free and without late complication. Conclusions: Percutaneous removal of reservoir calculi can be performed safely, avoiding potential injury to the continence valve mechanism by a direct cystoscopic approach. We propose a two-stage procedure using CT guidance for initial access as the preferred technique

19

Trace element studies in urolithiasis; preliminary investigation on mixed calcium oxalate-struvite urinary calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study the levels of the trace elements copper , zinc, lead, iron, aluminum, nickel, chromium along with magnesium, sodium and potassium were estimated in fifteen mixed calcium oxalate-struvite (CaOx/STR) urinary stones. The mean values of the combined results were, copper 4.24, zinc 1302, zinc 1302.10, lead 23.25, iron 36.83,nickel 0.69, chromium 1.93, magnesium 4530441, sodium 54.13 and potassium 5.93 ng mg/sup -1/. It was observed that zinc, aluminum and potassium levels were higher than in calcium oxalate(CaOx) calculi 0.05>P>0.02 and potassium levels were higher than in mixed calcium oxalate-hydroxy appetite (CaOx/APA) calculi, P<0.01. A combination of all the results was also compared with similar data from South Africa, Turkey, Austria, India, U.S.A and Japan. (author)

20

Targeted dual-energy single-source CT for characterisation of urinary calculi: experimental and clinical experience  

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To assess the accuracy of targeted dual-energy single-source multi-detector CT (MDCT) for characterisation of urinary calculi. For proof of principle, 71 ex-vivo calculi underwent single-source 256-slice MDCT. Low-dose CT was performed in 154 patients with suspected urinary calculi. In 104 patients with urinary calculi targeted dual-energy imaging within one breath-hold was added. 46 patients with sufficient material for infrared-spectroscopy were analysed. Potential anatomical misregistrations between 80- and 140-kV{sub p}-images and HU-values were measured. DEIs (dual-energy-indices) were compared with the standard of reference. Effective doses were calculated. In 26 of 46 patients no misregistration was present. Mean deviations were 2.7 mm in the z-axis (16 patients) and 4.3 mm in the axial plane (10 patients). The DEIs were 0.018 {+-} 0.016 for uric acid (UA), 0.035 {+-} 0.015 for mixed UA and 0.102 {+-} 0.015 for calcified stones in-vitro and 0.017 {+-} 0.002 for UA, 0.050 {+-} 0.019 for mixed UA and 0.122 {+-} 0.024 for calcified calculi in-vivo. Significant differences were noted among calcium, mixed UA and UA stones (p < 0.05). For the low-dose examination mean effective dose was 3.11 mSv. Targeted dual-energy resulted in an extra dose of 1.84 mSv (additional 59.1%). Targeted dual-energy imaging within one breath-hold is feasible for characterisation of urinary calculi using single-source MDCT allowing minimal anatomical discordance. (orig.)

Eiber, Matthias; Holzapfel, Konstantin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Dobritz, Martin; Huber, Armin [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Frimberger, Markus; Straub, Michael [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany); Schneider, Heike [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Munich (Germany)

2012-01-15

 
 
 
 
21

Outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper urinary tract calculi  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative and financial outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper tract calculi in 44 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2004 and September 2006, 44 patients treated for upper tract stone with flexible ureteroscopic lithot [...] ripsy were evaluated. Renal stones were associated with collecting system obstruction in 15 (34%) patients, failed extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) occurred in 14 (32%) patients, unilateral multiple stones in 18 (41%) patients, and multiple bilateral stones in 3 (7%). In 29 (66%) patients, the stone was located in the inferior calyx. Perioperative and financial outcomes were also evaluated. RESULTS: 50 procedures were performed in 44 patients. The mean stone burden on preoperative CT scan was 11.5 ± 5.8 mm. The mean operative time was 61.3 ± 29.4 min. The stone free rate was 93.1% after one procedure and 97.7% after a second procedure, with overall complication rate of 8%. Therapeutic success occurred in 92% and 93% of patients with lower pole stones and SWL failure, respectively. Treatment failure of a single session was associated with presence of a stone size larger than 15 mm (p = 0.007), but not associated with inferior calyx location (p = 0.09). Surgical disposables were responsible for 78% of overall costs. CONCLUSION: Flexible ureteroscopy using holmium laser is a safe and effective option for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi. In addition, it can be considered an attractive option as salvage therapy after SWL failure or kidney calculi associated with ureteral stones. Stone size larger than 15 mm is associated with single session treatment failure.

Marcello, Cocuzza; Jose R., Colombo Jr; Antonio L., Cocuzza; Frederico, Mascarenhas; Fabio, Vicentini; Eduardo, Mazzucchi; Miguel, Srougi.

2008-03-01

22

Application of physico-chemical procedures in the analysis of urinary calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All physico-chemical techniques used in the analysis of urinary calculi have inherent advantages and limitations. Although x-ray powder diffraction can identify constituents unambiguously, certain minor components can be missed. Infrared spectroscopy is more sensitive but band assignment at low concentrations is difficult. Scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive x-ray analysis permits the simultaneous investigation of morphology and chemical microstructure. With the electron microprobe, minor constituents can be detected but tedious sample preparation procedures are required. Transmission electron microscopy is extremely useful in determining constituent inter-relationships and ultrastructure but ultramicrotomy is very difficult. Thermal gravimetric analysis gives quantitative information easily but does not satisfactorily distinguish between struvite and brushite. In an attempt to assess the accuracy of chemical analyses, 62 calculi were investigated applying several chemical tests. Those for Mg2+, PO4(3-), NH4+ and uric acid proved highly reliable while that for Ca2+ often yielded an incorrect result. The test for oxalate was totally unsatisfactory. Investigators of stone composition and structure should include x-ray diffraction (or infrared spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy as their methods of first choice. In addition, chemical or thermogravimetric analyses should be utilized in an auxiliary capacity

23

Struvite infection calculi in dogs: problems with urinary calculus identification, and the value of the results  

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Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Identifying the crystalline components of a urinary calculus is a valuable aid to correct diagnosis, and subsequent treatment of the underlying cause of the problem. Calculus formation is often an end product brought about by urine with a high concentration of insoluble material causing bladder irri [...] tation. This promotes bacterial infection by Proteus, which not only raises the pH in the bladder and generates ammonia, but also provides sites for mineral nucleation and crystal growth. Treating the infection and removing the stone will not necessarily cure the disorder. Correct identification of a calculus as struvite and even its potassium analogue can be critical in choice of curative protocols, but this is not always straightforward. Our experience with 'problem calculi' is described.

John, Dunlevey; Michael, Laing.

2008-12-01

24

Litiasis urinaria en adultos con mielomeningocele / Urinary calculi in myelomeningocele adults  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción y objetivos: Los avances en el tratamiento de los nacidos con mielomeningocele (MMC) han logrado un gran aumento en su supervivencia, permitiéndoles una longevidad nunca antes alcanzada, pero todavía son escasos los datos concernientes a los problemas urológicos que estos enfermos plant [...] ean durante su vida adulta. Hemos evaluado las características de la litiasis urinaria en adultos nacidos con MMC así como los tratamientos empleados en la misma. Material y métodos: Revisamos 52 pacientes nacidos con MMC de entre 18 y 40 años, atendidos durante los últimos 14 años en nuestro hospital, con una media de seguimiento de 6,7 años. Resultados: Se diagnosticaron de litiasis urinaria 10 pacientes (19,2%). Tres formaron cálculos renales (5,7%), y uno de ellos, junto con 7 pacientes más, desarrollaron cálculos vesicales (15,3%). El nivel neurológico fue S1 en otros dos. El tipo de disfunción neurógena del tracto urinario inferior fue de lesión múltiple pura de neurona motora inferior en 6 casos, de neurona motora superior en 1, lesión múltiple mixta en otro, no pudiéndose valorar en el restante. Dos pacientes tenían una ampliación vesical y uno de estos junto con otros 3 pacientes era portador de AMS-800 no funcionantes. La litiasis vesical se trató endoscopicamente en 14 ocasiones y mediante cistolitotomía suprapúbica en 4, junto a la retirada de AMS-800 en 3 de ellas. Un paciente expulsó un pequeño cálculo. En un paciente fueron necesarias 2 litotricias extracorpóreas y 2 nefrolitotomías percutáneas. Tres pacientes tuvieron múltiples recidivas. Conclusiones: La litiasis urinaria es frecuente en los adultos con MMC. Determinadas características de estos pacientes, junto con su configuración anatómica y algunos tratamientos empleados en ellos, ocasionan problemas de diagnostico, tratamiento y prevención de los cálculos que forman. Abstract in english Introduction and objectives: the improvements in the management of newborns with myelomeningocele (MMC) have obtained a big increase in survival, allowing them to get longevity like never before, but data regarding urologic diseases during adult age are still missing. We herein evaluate the features [...] of urinary lithiasis in adults born with MMC and the therapies used for its treatment. Material and method: we review 52 patients diagnosed at birth of MMC, between 18 and 40 years old, treated in our institution, with a mean follow-up of 6.7 years. Results: 10 patients (19.2%) were diagnosed of urolithiasis. Three developed kidney calculi and one of them, with 7 more patients, developed bladder calculi (15.3%). The neurological level was S1 in the other two. The type of neurogenic dysfunction of inferior urinary tract was multiple lesion of lower motor neurone in 6 cases, upper motor neurone in 1 case, multiple mixed lesion in 1 case and in case it was impossible to determine. Two patients had a bladder augmentation procedure and one of these with other 3 patients had a non-functional AMS-800 artificial urinary sphincter. Bladder stones were treated endoscopically in 14 procedures and by suprapubic cystolithotomy in 4 procedures, combined with removal of AMS-800 in 3 of them. One patient spontaneously passed a small stone. In one case, 2 ESWL and 2 percutaneous nephrolithotomies were needed. Three patients developed multiple recurrences during follow-up. Conclusions: urinary lithiasis is common in adults with MMC. Some distinct features of these patients, together with their anatomical configuration and some therapies used in them, cause diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylaxis issues for the calculi they may develop.

F., Verdú Tartajo; J., Salinas Casado; F., Herranz Amo; J.M., Díez Cordero; R., Durán Merino; C., Hernández Fernández.

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Scintigraphy and Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of obstructive urinary calculi  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Forty-seven patients with unilateral obstructive calculi (12 males and 35 females) were submitted to 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) or 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans for assessment of renal function. The scans revealed unilateral functional deficit in 68 and 66% of the [...] patients, respectively. A calculus size of 1.1 to 2.0 cm was significantly associated with deficit detected by DTPA, but duration of obstruction and calculus localization were not. After relief of the obstruction, the mean percent renal function of the affected kidney was found to be significantly increased from 25 ± 12% to 29 ± 12% in DTPA and from 21 ± 15% to 24 ± 12% in DMSA. Initial Doppler ultrasonography performed in 35 patients detected an increased resistive index in 10 (29%). In the remaining patients with a normal resistive index, ureteral urinary jet was observed, indicating partial obstruction. The high frequency of renal function impairment detected by DTPA and of tubulointerstitial damage detected by DMSA as well as the slight amelioration of unilateral renal function after relief of obstruction suggest that scintigraphy assessment may help evaluate the unilateral percentage of renal function and monitor renal function recovery when it occurs. The presence of a urinary jet detected by Doppler ultrasonography further indicates the severity of obstruction and the recovery prognosis.

L., Gandolpho; M., Sevillano; A., Barbieri; S., Ajzen; N., Schor; V., Ortiz; I.P., Heilberg.

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Scintigraphy and Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of obstructive urinary calculi  

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Full Text Available Forty-seven patients with unilateral obstructive calculi (12 males and 35 females were submitted to 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA or 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scans for assessment of renal function. The scans revealed unilateral functional deficit in 68 and 66% of the patients, respectively. A calculus size of 1.1 to 2.0 cm was significantly associated with deficit detected by DTPA, but duration of obstruction and calculus localization were not. After relief of the obstruction, the mean percent renal function of the affected kidney was found to be significantly increased from 25 ± 12% to 29 ± 12% in DTPA and from 21 ± 15% to 24 ± 12% in DMSA. Initial Doppler ultrasonography performed in 35 patients detected an increased resistive index in 10 (29%. In the remaining patients with a normal resistive index, ureteral urinary jet was observed, indicating partial obstruction. The high frequency of renal function impairment detected by DTPA and of tubulointerstitial damage detected by DMSA as well as the slight amelioration of unilateral renal function after relief of obstruction suggest that scintigraphy assessment may help evaluate the unilateral percentage of renal function and monitor renal function recovery when it occurs. The presence of a urinary jet detected by Doppler ultrasonography further indicates the severity of obstruction and the recovery prognosis.

Gandolpho L.

2001-01-01

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Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.  

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Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10?12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long?term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride?induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography?electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identi?ed in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol?3?O?rutinoside, kaempferol?3?O?glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that Urtica dioica has strong antiurolithiatic activity and may have potential as a natural therapeutic agent for various urological disorders. PMID:25310585

Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

2014-12-01

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Renal calculi in primary hyperaldosteronism.  

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Full Text Available Increased urinary calcium (Ca++ excretion and the presence of negative Ca++ balance is well documented in primary hyperaldosteronism. However, renal calculi as a major manifestation of this disorder is not previously described. This report describes probably the first patient who presented with renal calculi in association with primary hyperaldosteronism. We believe that primary hyperaldosteronism was a major pathogenetic factor in formation of renal calculi since increased urinary excretion of Ca++ and uric acid noted at the onset declined following short-term spironolactone administration and remission from renal calculi has persisted following initial nephrolithotomy and continued spironolactone therapy which also corrected hypertension and hyperkalemia, a hallmark of this disorder.

Kabadi U

1995-01-01

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[Application and research progress of element analysis of urinary calculi using modern instruments].  

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The analysis of elements of urinary stones can provide significant reference for the treatment and prevention of recurrence of urolithiasis. In the present paper, the application and research progress of element analysis of urinary stones by means of modern instruments were summarized. These techniques include X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), proton induced X-ray emission(PIXE), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and ion selective electrode, etc. PMID:16826927

Ouyang, Jian-Ming

2006-02-01

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In vitro studies of epithelium-associated crystallization caused by uropathogens during urinary calculi development.  

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Infectious urinary stones account for about 10% of all urinary stones. In 50% of cases urolithiasis is a recurrent illness, which can lead to the loss of a kidney if not properly treated. One of the reasons for recurrence of the disease may be the ability of bacteria to invade urothelial cells, persist in the host cells and serve as potential reservoirs for infection. Various uropathogens are associated with the formation of bacteria-induced urinary stones but Proteus mirabilis is the most commonly isolated (70%). An in vitro model was used in this study to analyze intracellular growth and crystallization in the presence of P. mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Human ureter (Hu 609) and bladder (HCV 29) epithelial cell lines were infected with bacteria and incubated (3-72 h) in the presence of synthetic urine and amikacin to prevent extracellular bacterial growth. During the incubation the number of bacteria (CFU/ml) inside epithelial cells and the intensity of crystallization were established. Crystallization was determined as an amount of a calcium radioisotope. The chosen strains of uropathogens were able to invade both types of epithelial cells but the Hu 609 cells were invaded to a higher extent. However, crystallization occurred only in the presence of P. mirabilis strains which were invasive and urease-positive. The highest intensity of cell-associated crystallization was observed when the number of bacteria within the urothelium remained stable during the time of incubation. These results show that P. mirabilis has an ability to form crystals inside the host cells. Under these conditions bacteria are protected from antibiotic killing, which leads to persistent and recurrent infections. We also suspect that this phenomenon may be an important stage of kidney stones formation. PMID:24803200

Torzewska, Agnieszka; Budzy?ska, Aleksandra; Bia?czak-Kokot, Magdalena; Ró?alski, Antoni

2014-01-01

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X-ray diffraction analysis of urinary calculi: need for heat treatment.  

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Although X-ray diffraction (XRD) is the most reliable method for analysis of urinary stones, it has its specific limitations. It fails to detect amorphous phases, cannot distinguish between chemically different phases having identical lattice geometry (e.g., brushite CaHPO4.2H2O and gypsum CaSO4.2H2O) and may miss some phases (e.g., apatite and calcium urates) due to peak overlaps. XRD of urinary stones was performed using a DRON 2.0 diffractometer with CuKalpha radiation and repeated after calcining the sample, preferably with weighing. XRD of the calcined samples enabled detection of amorphous magnesium phosphates, poor crystallized apatite mixed with struvite, weddellite and/or organic matter, hidden organic calcium salts mixed with uric acid; unambiguously discriminated between brushite and gypsum, struvite and its potassium analogue; confirmed presence of quartz in one stone. Statistical study of 341 samples from Rostov region has shown that three-phase mixtures are most frequent (32.3%). Redoing XRD phase analysis after heat treatment, preferably at 500 and/or 900 degrees C, considerably enhances capabilities of the method due to (i) avoiding peak overlaps; (ii) crystallization of amorphous phases; (iii) concentrating minority inorganic components in organic stones; (iv) different decomposition products from indistinguishable phases; (v) semi-quantitative information from the weight loss data. PMID:18766336

Nalbandyan, Vladimir B

2008-10-01

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Impact of obesity on ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of urinary tract calculi  

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Full Text Available Purpose: The treatment of urinary tract stones in obese patients may differ from the treatment of non-obese patients and their success rate varies. Our objective was to compare ureteroscopic treatment outcomes of ureteral and renal stones, stratified for stone size and location, between overweight, obese and non-obese patients. Materials and Methods: Charts were reviewed for 500 consecutive patients presenting at our institution for renal and ureteral stones. A total of 107 patients underwent flexible or semi-rigid ureteroscopy with Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy and met criteria for review and analysis. Results: Overall, initial stone-free rates were 91%, 97%, and 94% in normal, overweight and obese individuals respectively. When compared to non-obese patients, there were no significant differences (p value = 0.26; 0.50. For renal and proximal ureteral stones, the stone-free rate in overweight and obese individuals was 94% in both groups; and a stone-free rate of 100% was found for distal stones, also in both groups. Conclusions: Ureteroscopic treatment of stones in obese and overweight patients is an acceptable treatment modality, with success rates similar to non-obese patients.

Ricardo Natalin

2009-02-01

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Clinical characteristics and risk factors for septic shock in patients receiving emergency drainage for acute pyelonephritis with upper urinary tract calculi  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pyelonephritis (APN is a common complication of ureteral obstruction caused by urolithiasis, and it can be lethal if it progresses to septic shock. We investigated the clinical characteristics of patients undergoing emergency drainage and assessed risk factors for septic shock. Methods A retrospective study was performed of 98 patients (101 events requiring emergency drainage at our urology department for obstructive APN associated with upper urinary tract calculi from January 2003 to January 2011. Clinical characteristics were summarized, and risk factors for septic shock were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results Objective evidence of sepsis was found in 64 (63.4% events, and 21 events (20.8% were categorized as septic shock. Ninety-six patients recovered, but 2 patients died of septic shock. Multivariate analysis revealed that age and the presence of paralysis were independent risk factors for septic shock. Conclusions APN associated with upper urinary tract calculi is a severe disease that should be treated with caution, particularly when risk factors are present.

Yamamoto Yoshiyuki

2012-03-01

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Prostatic calculi.  

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The presence of calculi in 300 whole prostates from consecutive autopsies were investigated by the Faxitron imaging technique. Calculi were found in 99% of the prostates, their number and size increasing with age. They were mainly localized in the ducts in the borderzone between the middle lobes and the periferal prostate posterolaterally, but often some were also found anteriorly in the centreline. Calculi were never seen in the middle lobes. We found no statistically significant relation between the number, size or localization of calculi and other morphological or pathological parameters. Prostatic calculi seem to be a part of the normal process of aging, and do in only exceedingly rare cases assume any clinical importance. PMID:2440234

Søndergaard, G; Vetner, M; Christensen, P O

1987-05-01

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Functional calculi  

CERN Document Server

A functional calculus is a construction which associates with an operator or a family of operators a homomorphism from a function space into a subspace of continuous linear operators, i.e. a method for defining "functions of an operator". Perhaps the most familiar example is based on the spectral theorem for bounded self-adjoint operators on a complex Hilbert space.This book contains an exposition of several such functional calculi. In particular, there is an exposition based on the spectral theorem for bounded, self-adjoint operators, an extension to the case of several commuting self-adjoint

Swartz, Charles

2013-01-01

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Factors affecting calcium oxalate dihydrate fragmented calculi regrowth  

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Abstract Background The use of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) to treat calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) renal calculi gives excellent fragmentation results. However, the retention of post-ESWL fragments within the kidney remains an important health problem. This study examined the effect of various urinary conditions and crystallization inhibitors on the regrowth of spontaneously-passed post-ESWL COD calculi fragments. Methods Post-ESWL COD calculi ...

2006-01-01

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Por qué y cómo hemos de analizar los cálculos urinarios / Why and how we must analyse urinary calculi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Contexto: Existe una heterogeneidad de criterio sobre la utilidad del análisis del cálculo urinario, así como de cuál es la metodología más adecuada. En esta revisión se presenta el análisis de la litiasis mediante la técnica del estudio morfoconstitucional basada en la combinación de la microscopía [...] estereoscópica (MEST) con el estudio de infrarrojos (EIR). Resumen de la evidencia: Existen múltiples técnicas de análisis del cálculo: análisis químico, microscopía electrónica, difracción por rayos X, MEST y EIR. Mediante la revisión de cada una de estas técnicas y el estudio de varios casos clínicos, el presente trabajo muestra la utilidad clínica del análisis del cálculo, así como las ventajas e inconvenientes de cada uno de los citados métodos. Por otro lado, se evidencia cómo el análisis mediante el estudio morfoconstitucional es el que más información clínica de utilidad ofrece al urólogo. Asimismo, se presenta la clasificación de las litiasis basadas en este método y su correlación clínica con el paciente. Conclusiones: El análisis del cálculo mediante la técnica del estudio morfoconstitucional aporta más información que el resto de técnicas y permite establecer una clasificación del cálculo de gran utilidad clínica y diagnóstica. Abstract in english Context: There is heterogeneity of criteria on the utility of urinary stone analysis as well as on which is the most suitable methodology. This review presents the analysis of the lithiasis using the morphoconstitutional analysis technique based on the combination of the stereoscopic microscopy (SM) [...] with infrared study (IRS). Summary of the evidence: There are many techniques to analyze the stone: chemical analysis, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, SM and IRS. Reviewing each one of these techniques and through the study of several clinical cases, this review shows the usefulness of stone analysis and the pros and cons of each one of the mentioned techniques. Furthermore, it can be clearly seen how the morphoconstitutional analysis is the one that offers the most useful clinical information to the urologist. In addition, classification of the lithiasis based on this method and its clinical correlation with patients is presented. Conclusions: Using the morphoconstitutional study to analyze the stone offers more information than the other techniques and it makes it possible to establish a stone classification of important clinical and diagnostic utility.

S., Gràcia-Garcia; F., Millán-Rodríguez; F., Rousaud-Barón; R., Montañés-Bermúdez; O., Angerri-Feu; F., Sánchez-Martín; H., Villavicencio-Mavrich; A., Oliver-Samper.

2011-06-01

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Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urinary calculi. Results from the first 306 patients treated at the Copenhagen Municipal Stone Center with a second generation lithotriptor.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The first Danish experience with Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) using a second generation Lithotriptor (Siemens Lithostar) is reported. 306 patients underwent 392 treatments for 363 stones. There were 339 renal calculi including 5 staghorn calculi and 54 ureteral calculi. Treatments were performed under local analgesia (82%) or epidural or general anesthesia (18%) when invasive procedures had to be done in connection with the treatment. Stone fragmentation was achieved with 2487 +/- 1262 shocks. The first months stone clearance rate was 45%; 26% had fragments less than 6 mm; 29% had residual stones. Corresponding rates after 3 and 6 months were 58%, 24% and 18% and 70%, 21% and 9% respectively. Septicemia occurred in 4 patients and cardial arrhythmia in 34 patients (11%). No serious intra- or perirenal hematomas were registered. In 9% additional procedures were required and 11 patients had residual stones removed at open surgery. The used second generation lithotriptor with X-ray based stone localisation is effective for treatment of both renal calculi and ureteral calculi in situ in all three segments of the ureter.

Andersen, J T; Mogensen, P

1991-01-01

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Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy of symptomatic renal calculi in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy of upper urinary tract lithiasis is a well-established procedure in adults. We successfully applied this technique to completely remove symptomatic renal calculi in two children with idiopathic hypercalciuria. The procedure was well tolerated and no complications occurred. Both patients were discharged within 4 days of the lithotripsy. This method is an alternative to surgery for the removal of large or impacted calculi from the upper urinary tracts of pediatric patients. (orig.)

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Segmentation of Ureteric and Bladder Calculi in Ultrasound Images  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The framework for segmenting calculi in ureter and bladder using ultrasound images is proposed in this study. Calculi are due to abnormal collection of certain chemicals like oxalate, phosphate and uric acid. These calculi can be present in kidney, urethra or in urinary bladder. The extraction of calculi in medical images is a difficult task as no standard algorithms are available. This poses a serious a problem for successful diagnosis of calculi disease. The proposed technique is specific for the extraction of calculi in ureter and bladder. This constitutes the first stage in the successful treatment of calculi disease. Approach: An algorithm is proposed to detect calculus based on the shadow it casts in ultrasound image. Calculi are present in ultrasound images as bright spots. But noise in the image also can be bright spots. So it is easy to misinterpret the presence of noise as calculi. The proposed framework thus has two phases. In phase one, five standard algorithms are modified and are used to segment the bright spots present in the ultrasound images using the intensity profile. Calculi are having intensity in the range of 10-40. So all the potential calculi as well as the noise that appear as bright spots are segmented in phase one. In phase two,a validation procedure is used to validate the presence of calculi using its acoustic shadow property in the ultrasound images. Results: Ultrasound images of twenty-seven ureteric and bladder calculi patients are used for testing the framework. The detected calculi by the proposed framework are validated against a group of experts. The Performance of the proposed method is thoroughly investigated and the accuracy of the framework is determined. The framework incorporating automated seed selected region growing algorithm is able to detect the calculi with the efficiency of 78.57%. Conclusion: The extracted calculi can further be analyzed for taking decision about the treatment procedures. The proposed system is helpful for taking decision about the treatment procedures. The proposed system is helpful for clinicians as a decision support tool. This system can also be useful as educational aid for assisting or decision making in the treatment of calculus disease.

S. Sridhar

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Fictitious calculi and human calculi with foreign nuclei.  

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The correlative approach employing polarized light microscopy, x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis proves to be very useful in identifying fictitious calculi and genuine human calculi with foreign body nuclei. The common artifacts as reported in the literature and observed also by us were minerals, vegetable and plant seeds, cereals, sand grains and sea shell fragments. Two interesting cases involving foreign body nuclei have been reported: one urinary calculus containing a piece of plastic-coated titanium foil in the center; one nasal calculus with a nut as a nucleus. Another common cause for foreign body nucleation is iatrogenic: intrauterine devices, catheters, suture materials and even surgical staples have been reported in the literature to be potent nidi for calculus formation. These cases remind us of the important fact that our body fluids are supersaturated with respect to calcium phosphates and occasionally to other compounds. Hydroxyapatite crystals are readily nucleated by foreign bodies. Whitlockite is involved if the fluid Mg/Ca ratio is in a suitable range, brushite if the fluid is acidic and struvite if there is urea-splitting infection. In urine and other fluids, calcium oxalate and uric acid crystals contribute to the calculus growth. PMID:3433078

Cheng, P T; Pritzker, K P; Richards, J; Holmyard, D

1987-12-01

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Characteristics of patients with fluid extravasation during retrograde ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for renal calculi.  

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Reasonable selection of patients, effective control of upper urinary tract infection, routine ureteral access sheath placement, and controlling procedure duration help to decrease the incidence of fluid extravasation complications in retrograde ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for renal calculi.

Xiao-Min Luo

2011-12-01

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Posterior urethral calculi in patients without anatomical abnormalities: Case report  

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Full Text Available Urethral calculi are uncommon problem in urological practice. The incidence of these stones is reported to be lower than 0.3% in the literature. The majority of urethral calculi originates from upper urinary tract or bladder and migrates into the urethra. Native forms are generally associated with postsurgical changes or anatomic abnormalities such as strictures and urethral diverticula. In this paper, we discussed posterior urethral stones in three patients without any urethral anatomic abnormality who were admitted to our clinic over a period of 5 years.

Ömer Faruk Karata?

2008-01-01

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Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi  

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Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J. C.

2000-05-01

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Proof theory sequent calculi and related formalisms  

CERN Document Server

Although sequent calculi constitute an important category of proof systems, they are not as well known as axiomatic and natural deduction systems. Addressing this deficiency, Proof Theory: Sequent Calculi and Related Formalisms presents a comprehensive treatment of sequent calculi, including a wide range of variations. It focuses on sequent calculi for various non-classical logics, from intuitionistic logic to relevance logic, linear logic, and modal logic.In the first chapters, the author emphasizes classical logic and a variety of different sequent calculi for classical and intuitionistic lo

Bimbo, Katalin

2014-01-01

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Comparison of Computerized Spiral Tomography with Ultrasonography for Detection of Ureteral Calculi  

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Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to compare accuracy levels of ultrasonography and spiral computerized tomography for detection of the ureteral calculi in patients admitted to the emergency department with flank pain. Methods: The patients presented with either unilateral or bilateral flank pain to the emergency department over a four-month period and who were suspected to be renal colic were included into the study. All of the study patients with distended bladder after hydration had ultrasonography (USG and unhanced helical computerized tomography (UHCT performed by two independent radiologists. Results: Of the 76 patients with flank pain, CT detected ureteral calculi in 47 out of 48 patients (97.9% and USG detected ureteral calculi in 34 out of the 48 patients (70.83%. CT detected uretral calculi in 14 patients which was not detected by USG. CT also detected renal calculi in 7 patients which was not detected by USG. A kappa value of 0.62 (p<0.001 was determined, indicating a moderate concordance between CT and USG in detecting ureteral calculi. Also a kappa value of 0.65 (p<0.001 was determined in the overall diagnostic performance of the both imaging tools in detecting renal calculi. Conclusions: Computerized tomography is better than ultrasonography in detecting urinary calculus in patients presented to the emergency department with flank pain. However, as a bedside, non-invasive and non-ionized tool, USG should be preffered as the first line diagnostic choice in ED for detecting urinary calculus. CT should be used as an second choice in patients with negative USG exam in ED.

Sezgin SARIKAYA

2010-01-01

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Ureteral fibroepithelial polyps with calculi: a case series  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fibroepithelial polyps of the ureter are benign tumors arising from the mesodermal tissue in the ureteral wall. Their etiology remains unknown. Hematuria and obstructive urinary symptoms are the most common findings. The treatment of choice is endoscopic resection, and the prognosis for patients with these lesions is excellent. Case presentation We present three cases of fibroepithelial polyps associated with calculi in the distal part of the ureter. The patients were all women, aged 20, 45 and 52 years. Two patients were suffering from flank pain and dysuria while one patient was asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. The patients were fully treated with endoscopic resection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fourth report of adult ureteral fibroepithelial polyps associated with ureteral calculi in the English literature. The etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of fibroepithelial polyps are discussed in this report. Conclusion Whenever polypoid lesions are detected especially at the distal part of the ureter, benign fibroepithelial polyps should be kept in mind for differential diagnosis. Additionally, although rarely seen, the co-existence of ureteral calculi with fibroepithelial polyps should be borne in mind.

Turunc Tahsin

2008-08-01

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Management of Ureteric Calculi in Dhule City of North-western Maharashtra  

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Full Text Available Background: Urolithiasis, usually affecting people in the prime of life, causes significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Uretericstones account for 2/3rd of all urinary calculi brought to attention of doctors. The damaging effects of the calculi may result in obstruction with dilatation of the urinary tract, leading to stasis and severe infection. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate patients with urinary stones with regards to the incidence, age, sex,clinical presentation, site, size, side, management and their complications. Material and Methods:It was a prospective study carried out by Department of Surgery at Annasaheb Chudaman Patil Memorial Medical College, and Hospital Dhule for a period of two years. Patients were selected after they were diagnosed as having ureteric calculi. The patients were treated by conservative or surgical methods, and the outcome was monitored. Statistical analysis of the data was done for obtaining results.Result: The majority of the patients were males with peak age group in the second and third decade. Pain in abdomen or loin tenderness was the most common presenting symptom. Most of the patients were treated by conservative medical management. Endourological procedures were the most commonly performed surgical intervention. Conclusion: Most of the patients with ureteric calculi present with painin abdomen and majority can be treated by medical management. With the availability of better facilities the requirement for open surgery is decreasing and endourological procedures are becoming the means of surgical intervention.Complications are minimal with surgical expertise for endourological procedures.

Lokesh Patni

2013-01-01

49

Verification of Stochastic Process Calculi  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stochastic process calculi represent widely accepted formalisms within Computer Science for modelling nondeterministic stochastic systems in a compositional way. Similar to process calculi in general, they are suited for modelling systems in a hierarchical manner, by explicitly specifying subsystems as well as their interdependences and communication channels. Stochastic process calculi incorporate both the quantified uncertainty on probabilities or durations of events and nondeterministic choices between several possible continuations of the system behaviour. Modelling of a system is often performed with the purpose to verify the system. In this dissertation it is argued that the verification techniques that have their origin in the analysis of programming code with the purpose to deduce the properties of the code's execution, i.e. Static Analysis techniques, are transferable to stochastic process calculi. The description of a system in the syntax of a particular stochastic process calculus can be analysed in a compositional way, without expanding the state space by explicitly resolving all the interdependencies between the subsystems which may lead to the state space explosion problem. In support of this claim we have developed analysis methods that belong to a particular type of Static Analysis { Data Flow / Pathway Analysis. These methods have previously been applied to a number of non-stochastic process calculi. In this thesis we are lifting them to the stochastic calculus of Interactive Markov Chains (IMC). We have devised the Pathway Analysis of IMC that is not only correct in the sense of overapproximating all possible behaviour scenarios, as is usual for Static Analysis methods, but is also precise. This gives us the possibility to explicitly decide on the trade-o between precision and complexity while post-processing the analysis results. Another novelty of our methods consists in the kind of properties that we can verify using the results of the Pathway Analysis. We can check both qualitative and quantitative properties of IMC systems. In particular, we have developed algorithms for constructing bisimulation relations, computing (overapproximations of) sets of reachable states and computing the expected time reachability, the last for a linear fragment of IMC. In all the cases we have the complexities of algorithms which are low polynomial in the size of the syntactic description of a system. The presented methods have a clear application in the areas of embedded systems, (randomised) protocols run between a fixed number of parties etc.

Skrypnyuk, Nataliya

2011-01-01

50

Efficacy of extra corporal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in upper and lower urinary tract calculi with reference to stone site, size shape and radio density according to age rule (abstract)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

50 patients having renal ureteral and vesical stones 5-20 mm and having age range 1 years with mean of 30.5 were studied. 70% (35/50) were male and 30% (15/50) female with 2.33:1 ratio 1,1,2,32,10,4 patients were of 0-2, 2-12, 12-18, 18-40, 40-55 and above 55 years age group respectively. Stone site, size, shape and radio density were seen by X-ray plain abdomen, IVU and ultrasound. At 4 months ESWL treatment was considered successful if the patients were stone free or had residual fragments 4 mm or less. Over all success rate was 64% in renal stones it was 62.7% (25/40), in ureteral 62.5% (5/8) and in vesical stone 100% (2/2). 5-10 mm, 11-15 mm and 16-20 mm stones had success rate of 76% (19/25), 61.1% (11/18) and 28.8% (2/7) respectively. Equi bone density, low density, high density and radiolucent stones had success rate of 57.1% (16/28), 92.85% (13/14). 16.6% (1/6) and 100% (2/2). Shape of stones is mere reflection of stone size. In conclusion, the liberal use of ESWL for every type of stone in terms of radio density equal to or less than bone and size up to 20 mm were amenable to ESWL monotherapy. Upper urinary tract stone 96% (48/50) and 18-40 years age group is the commonest. (author)

51

Cartan calculi on the quantum superplane  

Science.gov (United States)

Cartan calculi on the extended quantum superplane are given. To this end, the noncommutative differential calculus on the extended quantum superplane is extended by introducing inner derivations and Lie derivatives.

?elik, Salih

2006-08-01

52

Analysis of renal calculi by X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe: a comparison of two methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyzed 48 renal calculi by X-ray powder diffraction and electron microprobe techniques. In 35 of these, the presence of a minor constituent, not detected by X-ray diffraction, was revealed--hydroxyapatite was found in 24 stones, struvite in 6, and calcium oxalate in 5. The results of this study, as well as others, show that incomplete assignment of the crystalline constituents of urinary calculi is an inherent risk of the X-ray method and that conclusions concerning total chemical composition should be based on X-ray diffraction analyses coupled with data obtained from other analytical procedures

53

Stochastic Simulation of Process Calculi for Biology  

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Biological systems typically involve large numbers of components with complex, highly parallel interactions and intrinsic stochasticity. To model this complexity, numerous programming languages based on process calculi have been developed, many of which are expressive enough to generate unbounded numbers of molecular species and reactions. As a result of this expressiveness, such calculi cannot rely on standard reaction-based simulation methods, which require fixed numbers o...

Andrew Phillips; Matthew Lakin; Loïc Paulevé

2010-01-01

54

Retrograde Flexible Ureteroscopic Approach for Pyelocaliceal Calculi  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Our goal was to investigate the efficacy of flexible ureteroscopy (FU in the treatment of pyelocaliceal calculi.Materials and Methods: Between September 2002 and December 2004, a total of 41 patients with multiple (23 cases, pelvic (7 cases, and inferior caliceal (11 cases SWL-resistant calculi underwent FU. We used a 7.5-F flexible ureteroscope with pressure irrigation and electro-hydraulic lithotripsy. The fragments were retrieved with triradiate graspers or tipless baskets. Results: A double J stent had been previously placed in 34% of the patients. Dilation of the ureteral orifice was necessary in 9.8%. The location of the calculi was renal pelvis, inferior calyx, and pelvis and calyxes in 7, 11, and 23 patients, respectively. The median operative time was 64 minutes for pyelocaliceal, 46 minutes for pelvic, and 39 minutes for inferior caliceal calculi. Complete stone clearance or good fragmentation (fragments less than 3 mm was obtained in 71% of patients (57% for pyelocaliceal, 87% for pelvic, and 71% for inferior caliceal calculi. A successful outcome was achieved in 78%, 72%, and 49% for calculi sized 10 mm or smaller, 11 mm to 20 mm, and greater than 20 mm, respectively. Two or more procedures were required in 11 patients (27%. The complication rate was 7.3% (hematuria, persistent renal colic, and hyperthermia. Conclusion: Our experience shows that FU can be an effective approach in selected patients, especially those with kidney calculi that are resistant to SWL. However, percutaneous approach is a better alternative for calculi greater than 20 mm.

Razvan Multescu

2006-03-01

55

Holmium laser lithotripsy of bladder calculi  

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Although the overall incidence of bladder calculi has been decreasing, it is still a significant disease affecting adults and children. Prior treatment options have included open cystolitholapaxy, blind lithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, and visual lithotripsy with ultrasonic or electrohydraulic probes. The holmium laser has been found to be extremely effective in the treatment of upper tract calculi. This technology has also been applied to the treatment of bladder calculi. We report our experience with the holmium laser in the treatment of bladder calculi. Twenty- five patients over a year and a half had their bladder calculi treated with the Holmium laser. This study was retrospective in nature. Patient demographics, stone burden, and intraoperative and post-operative complications were noted. The mean stone burden was 31 mm with a range of 10 to 60 mm. Preoperative diagnosis was made with either an ultrasound, plain film of the abdomen or intravenous pyelogram. Cystoscopy was then performed to confirm the presence and determine the size of the stone. The patients were then taken to the operating room and given a regional or general anesthetic. A rigid cystoscope was placed into the bladder and the bladder stone was then vaporized using the holmium laser. Remaining fragments were washed out. Adjunctive procedures were performed on 10 patients. These included transurethral resection of the prostate, transurethral incision of the prostate, optic internal urethrotomy, and incision of ureteroceles. No major complications occurred and all patients were rendered stone free. We conclude that the Holmium laser is an effective and safe modality for the treatment of bladder calculi. It was able to vaporize all bladder calculi and provides a single modality of treating other associated genitourinary pathology.

Beaghler, Marc A.; Poon, Michael W.

1998-07-01

56

Flow Logic for Process Calculi  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the ?-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction and adequacy results), and a Moore Family result showing that a least solution always exists, as well as providing insights on how to implement the analysis. We then show how to strengthen the analysis technology by introducing reachability components, interaction points, and localized environments, and finally, we extend it to a relational analysis. A Flow Logic is a program logic---in the same sense that a Hoare’s logic is. We conclude with an executive summary presenting the highlights of the approach from this perspective including a discussion of theoretical properties as well as implementation considerations. The electronic supplements present an application of the analysis techniques to a version of the ?-calculus incorporating distribution and code mobility; also the proofs of the main results can be found in the electronic supplements.

Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

2012-01-01

57

Stochastic Simulation of Process Calculi for Biology  

CERN Document Server

Biological systems typically involve large numbers of components with complex, highly parallel interactions and intrinsic stochasticity. To model this complexity, numerous programming languages based on process calculi have been developed, many of which are expressive enough to generate unbounded numbers of molecular species and reactions. As a result of this expressiveness, such calculi cannot rely on standard reaction-based simulation methods, which require fixed numbers of species and reactions. Rather than implementing custom stochastic simulation algorithms for each process calculus, we propose to use a generic abstract machine that can be instantiated to a range of process calculi and a range of reaction-based simulation algorithms. The abstract machine functions as a just-in-time compiler, which dynamically updates the set of possible reactions and chooses the next reaction in an iterative cycle. In this short paper we give a brief summary of the generic abstract machine, and show how it can be instant...

Phillips, Andrew; Paulevé, Loïc; 10.4204/EPTCS.40.1

2010-01-01

58

A criterion for separating process calculi  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a new criterion, replacement freeness, to discern the relative expressiveness of process calculi. Intuitively, a calculus is strongly replacement free if replacing, within an enclosing context, a process that cannot perform any visible action by an arbitrary process never inhibits the capability of the resulting process to perform a visible action. We prove that there exists no compositional and interaction sensitive encoding of a not strongly replacement free calculus into any strongly replacement free one. We then define a weaker version of replacement freeness, by only considering replacement of closed processes, and prove that, if we additionally require the encoding to preserve name independence, it is not even possible to encode a non replacement free calculus into a weakly replacement free one. As a consequence of our encodability results, we get that many calculi equipped with priority are not replacement free and hence are not encodable into mainstream calculi like CCS and pi-calculus, t...

Banti, Federico; Tiezzi, Francesco; 10.4204/EPTCS.41.2

2010-01-01

59

Urinary stone detection and characterisation with dual-energy CT urography after furosemide intravenous injection: preliminary results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the added advantage of IV furosemide injection and the subsequent urine dilution in the detection of urinary calculi in the excretory phase of dual-source dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) urography, and to investigate the feasibility of characterising the calculi through diluted urine. Twenty-three urinary calculi were detected in 116 patients who underwent DECT urography for macroscopic haematuria with a split bolus two- or three-acquisition protocol, including a true unenhanced series and at least a mixed nephrographic excretory phase. Virtual unenhanced images were reconstructed from contrast-enhanced DE data. Calculi were recorded on all series and characterised based on their X-ray absorption characteristics at 100 kVp and 140 kVp in both true unenhanced and nephrographic excretory phase series. All calculi with a diameter more than 2 mm were detected in the virtual unenhanced phase and in the nephrographic excretory phase. Thirteen of these calculi could be characterised in the true unenhanced phase and in the mixed nephrographic excretory phase. The results were strictly identical for both phases, six of them being recognised as non-uric acid calculi and seven as uric acid calculi. Mixed nephrographic excretory phase DECT after furosemide administration allows both detection and characterisation of clinically significant calculi, through the diluted urine. (orig.)

60

Stochastic Simulation of Process Calculi for Biology  

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Full Text Available Biological systems typically involve large numbers of components with complex, highly parallel interactions and intrinsic stochasticity. To model this complexity, numerous programming languages based on process calculi have been developed, many of which are expressive enough to generate unbounded numbers of molecular species and reactions. As a result of this expressiveness, such calculi cannot rely on standard reaction-based simulation methods, which require fixed numbers of species and reactions. Rather than implementing custom stochastic simulation algorithms for each process calculus, we propose to use a generic abstract machine that can be instantiated to a range of process calculi and a range of reaction-based simulation algorithms. The abstract machine functions as a just-in-time compiler, which dynamically updates the set of possible reactions and chooses the next reaction in an iterative cycle. In this short paper we give a brief summary of the generic abstract machine, and show how it can be instantiated with the stochastic simulation algorithm known as Gillespie's Direct Method. We also discuss the wider implications of such an abstract machine, and outline how it can be used to simulate multiple calculi simultaneously within a common framework.

Andrew Phillips

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
61

Efficacy and safety of Ho:YAG Laser Lithotripsy for ureteroscopic removal of proximal and distal ureteral calculi  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Laser lithotripsy is an established endourological modality. Ho:YAG laser have broadened the indications for ureteroscopic stone managements to include larger stone sizes throughout the whole upper urinary tract. Aim of current work is to assess efficacy and safety of Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy during retrograde ureteroscopic management of ureteral calculi in different locations. Methods 88 patients were treated with ureteroscopic Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy in our institute. Study endpoint was the number of treatments until the patient was stone-free. Patients were classified according to the location of their stones as Group I (distal ureteric stones, 51 patients) and group II (proximal ureteral stones, 37). Group I patients have larger stones as Group II (10.70 mm vs. 8.24 mm, respectively, P?=?0.020). Results Overall stone free rate for both groups was 95.8%. The mean number of procedures for proximal calculi was 1.1?±?0.1 (1–3) and for distal calculi was 1.0?±?0.0. The initial treatment was more successful in patients with distal ureteral calculi (100% vs. 82.40%, respectively, P?=?0.008). No significant difference in the stone free rate was noticed after the second laser procedure for stones smaller versus larger than 10 mm (100% versus 94.1%, P?=?0.13). Overall complication rate was 7.9% (Clavien II und IIIb). Overall and grade-adjusted complication rates were not dependant on the stone location. No laser induced complications were noticed. Conclusions The use of the Ho:YAG laser appears to be an adequate tool to disintegrate ureteral calculi independent of primary location. Combination of the semirigid and flexible ureteroscopes as well as the appropriate endourologic tools could likely improve the stone clearance rates for proximal calculi regardless of stone-size. PMID:25107528

2014-01-01

62

AN UNASCENDED RIGHT KIDNEY WITH LEFT SIDED URETERIC CALCULI: A CADAVERIC CASE REPORT  

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Full Text Available Anomalies of the urinary system constitute approximately 30% of all the congenital malformations. There are various associated anomalies involving number, size, shape, position and vascularity of the kidneys. Unascended kidneys refers to a halt in the migration of the kidneys during their normal embryological development. Defect in the ascent of the kidneys are closely related with variations in the branching pattern of aorta. Here we report a case of an unilateral unascended right kidney in a male cadaver encountered during routine medical dissection. A left sided ureteric calculi was also seen as an incidental finding in the same cadaver. Ureterolithiasis occurs worldwide in all sets of population with 80% of the stones found in the male sex in the age group of 30- 60 years. There are various factors which favour the formation of ureteric calculi which includes geographical, socio-economical as well as the mineral content of water consumed and some general medical causes. An attempt has been made to document the causes for this variation and the preventive measures that can be adopted to prevent the formation of ureteric calculi.

Meril Ann Soman

2014-06-01

63

Spectroscopic and ultrastructural comparative study of cystine calculi in humans and dogs.  

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The careful analysis of cystine calculi may be important to detect the presence of other urinary alterations (such as hyperuricosuria, hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria or bacterial infections) that coexist with cystinuria in many patients. For this reason, in the present study, 14 human and 17 canine cystine uroliths have been studied by infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). According to the infrared analysis, most of the human and canine stones were composed of nearly pure cystine. However, in these calculi of apparently pure cystine, the study by SEM and EDX showed in many cases the presence of small amounts of calcium apatite. The infrared study of several samples heated at 750 degrees C confirmed the presence of phosphate, when it was difficult to detect this component in the spectra of the original samples owing to band overlapping. Other components detected in varying proportions in cystine calculi were magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (struvite), calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (brushite), calcium oxalate (mono and/or dihydrate) and, in one case, a drug (oxolinic acid). PMID:10478954

Escolar, E; Bellanato, J

1999-01-01

64

Stones and urinary tract infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

The term infection stones refers to calculi that occur following urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by urease-producing gram-negative organisms. They consist of magnesium ammonium phosphate, carbonate apatite and monoammonium urate. Alkaline urine is most favorable to their formation. Urinary tract obstruction, neurogenic bladder, voiding dysfunction, temporary or indwelling urinary catheters, distal renal tubular acidosis and medullary sponge kidney are considered the main risk factors for developing infection stones. Urinalysis and urine culture are essential for diagnosis. A typical finding on imaging is a moderately radiopaque, staghorn or branched stone. Curative treatment is possible only by eliminating all of the stone fragments and by eradicating UTI. A variety of operative and pharmaceutical approaches is available. Metaphylactic treatment is mandatory to prevent recurrences. The relationship between urinary stones and UTIs is well known and shows two different clinical pictures: (1) stones that develop following UTIs (infection stones) which play a key role in stone pathogenesis, and (2) stones complicated by UTIs (stones with infection) which are metabolic stones that passively trap bacteria from coexistent UTIs and may consist of calcium or non-calcium. This article presents an overview of infection stones, analyzing the epidemiology, composition, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this type of calculi. PMID:17726350

Miano, Roberto; Germani, Stefano; Vespasiani, Giuseppe

2007-01-01

65

Spectroscopic study of the inhibition of calcium oxalate calculi by Larrea tridentata  

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The causes of urolithiasis include such influences as diet, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors which have been documented as sources that aggravate urinary calculi depositions and aggregations, and, implicitly, as causes of urolithiasis. This study endeavors to detail the scientific mechanisms involved in calcium oxalate calculi formation, and, more importantly, their inhibition under growth conditions imposed by the traditional medicinal approach using the herbal extract, Larrea tridentata. The calculi were synthesized without and with Larrea tridentata infusion by employing the single diffusion gel technique. A visible decrease in calcium oxalate crystal growth with increasing amounts of Larrea tridentata herbal infusion was observed in photomicrographs, as well as a color change from white-transparent for pure crystals to light orange-brown for crystals with inhibitor. Analysis of the samples, which includes Raman, infrared absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques, demonstrate an overall transition in morphology of the crystals from monohydrate without herbal extract to dihydrate with inhibitor. Furthermore, the resulting data from Raman and infrared absorption support the possibilities of the influences, in this complex process, of NDGA and its derivative compounds from Larrea tridentata, and of the bonding of the magnesium of the inhibitor with the oxalate ion on the surface of the calculi crystals. This assumption corroborates well with the micrographs obtained under higher magnification, which show that the separated small crystallites consist of darker brownish cores, which we attribute to the dominance of growth inhibition by NDGA, surrounded by light transparent thin shells, which possibly correspond to passivation of the crystals by magnesium oxalate. The SEM results reveal the transformation from the dominant monoclinic structure of the calcium oxalate crystals grown alone to the tetragonal dipyramidal crystal structure of the calcium oxalate crystals grown with Larrea tridentata. Comparison between XRD experimental and simulated data, besides corroborating with our previous results, show that each sample is a combination of different structures.

Pinales, Luis Alonso

66

Classification of bicovariant differential calculi on quantum groups  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Suppose that q is not a root of unity. We classify all bicovariant differential calculi of dimension greater than one on the quantum groups GLq(N), Oq(N) and Spq(N) for which the differentials duij of the matrix entries uij generate the left module of first order forms. Our first classification theorem asserts that there are precisely two one-parameter families of such calculi on GLq(N) for N?3. In the limit q ? 1 only two of these calculi give the ordinary differential calculus on GL(N). Our second main theorem states that apart from finitely many q there exist precisely two differential calculi with these properties on Oq(N) and Spq(N) for N?4. There are four such calculi on Oq(3). We introduce two new 4-dimensional bicovariant differential calculi on Oq(3). (orig.)

67

[Fissures in biliary calculi. Personal contribution (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

In a series of 70 patients suffering from biliary lithiasis, the roentgenologic findings of fissures in the calculi was observed in 5 cases examined by means of cholecystography and in 7 cases who underwent cholangiocholecystography. Fissures were demonstrated 11 times in calculi after surgery. The "Mercedes-Benz" sign was never observed at the abdominal examination without contrast medium. The presence of fissures may be an additional sign in the radiologic diagnosis of biliary calculi, but its value is not determinant. PMID:550199

Nano, M; Potenzoni, F; Camandona, M; Casalegno, P A

1979-04-01

68

More on differential calculi on bicrossproducts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We extend a previous classification of differentials and Cartan calculus on the bicrossproduct quantum group k(M)-blacktriangleright triangleleft-kG to its dual Hopf algebra H = kM-triangleright blacktriangleleft-k(G). It turns out that the usual bicovariant differential calculi on kM and on k(G) extend naturally to H. We explicitly work out the examples of kZ2-triangleright blacktriangleleft (Z3) and kZ6-triangleright 3). (author)

69

A case of parameatal urethral cyst with calculi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parameatal urethral cyst is very rare. Although 15 cases have been reported in Japan, no case of parameatal urethral cyst with calculi has previously been reported. We report the first case of parameatal urethral cyst with calculi in a 22-year-old female patient. PMID:8266865

Shibayama, T; Nakashima, J; Nakamura, S; Morinaga, S

1993-10-01

70

Generalized measure permutation formulas in Feynman's operational calculi  

Science.gov (United States)

Measure permutation formulas in Feynman's operational calculi for noncommuting operators give relationships between the two operators and . We develop generalized and iterated measure permutation formulas in the Jefferies-Johnson theory of Feynman's operational calculi. In particular, we apply our formulas to derive an identity for a function of the Pauli matrices.

Ahn, B. M.; Kim, B. S.; Yoo, I.

2014-04-01

71

SEM and X-ray microanalysis of human prostatic calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculi removed from human prostates affected with nodular hyperplasia were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and EDAX system. The general spectrum was made up of Na, Al, Mg, S, P, Ca and Zn. Two types of stone were identified morphostructurally and microanalytically: calculi type I of nodular surface with high peaks of S, and calculi type II polyfaceted with high peaks of P and Ca. Their formation from corpora amylacea and/or exogenous constituents is discussed. The superficial deposit of Zn suggests its incorporation from the prostatic liquid and does not seem to play an important role in the genesis

72

The microgenesis of some renal calculi.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied calcium oxalate stone formation in rats in which calculogenesis was induced by a diet deficient in pyridoxine (vitamin B6). We studied the sequence of stone formation using both a gross specimen transillumination technique, which is described, and histologic methods. A characteristic regional distribution of calculi is described and illustrated. Histologic studies reveal the interstitial site of calcium oxalate microlith formation. The progressive movement of these crystals through the tubular wall into the tubular lumen is described and illustrated. The formation of Randall's plaques is described and illustrated, as is a characteristic "geode" formation in the calyceal fornix. The significance of these findings is discussed and a new concept of stone formation proposed. PMID:7014516

Lilien, O M; Hammond, W S; Krauss, D J; Elbadawi, A; Schoonmaker, J E

1981-05-01

73

The efficacy and safety of ureteroscopy for ureteral calculi in pregnancy: our experience in 32 patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of ureteroscopy (URS) in pregnant women. A retrospective analysis was performed on 32 pregnant patients referred to our center between April 2005 and November 2010 with hydronephrosis requiring surgical intervention. A semirigid URS of 9.5 F was used in all patients. The mean age of patients was 27.8 years (range 20-39), and the mean gestation duration was 24 weeks (15-34). The ultrasound findings were diagnostic of obstructive ureteral calculi in 16 (50%) patients and the mean stone diameter was 8 mm. Spinal anaesthesia was performed in 22 (68.8%) patients, while general anaesthesia was performed in 7 (21.8%) patients. Ureteric stones were found in 27 (84.3%) patients during endoscopy, 10 being distal, 9 middle and 8 proximal. There were no stones in five patients. The stones were fragmented with pneumatic lithotripsy in 8 patients and with holmium laser in 17 patients and the fragments were retracted with forceps. Of the 32 patients, 19 (59.4%) required JJ stent insertion peroperatively. There was no serious complication intraoperatively, while urinary tract infection developed in four and renal colic in two patients postoperatively. In one patient, sepsis developed postoperatively, and improved with appropriate treatment. All babies were born normally. Semirigid ureteroscopy for diagnosing and treating ureteral calculi by intracorporeal pneumatic or holmium laser lithotripsy is a safe and reasonable treatment option for pregnant patients. PMID:22215294

Bozkurt, Yasar; Penbegul, Necmettin; Soylemez, Haluk; Atar, Murat; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Y?ld?r?m, Kadir; Sak, Muhammet Erdal

2012-10-01

74

Success Factors of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL for Renal & Ureteric Calculi in Adult  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to define factors that have a significant impact on the stone-free rate after ESWL. Methods: A total of 417 patients harboring renal or ureteral stones underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL between October 2008 and July 2012. Eighty five patients were lost on follow up. The remaining (n = 332. All patients were >18 yr of age. Siemens and SLX-F2 electromagnetic machines were used to impart shock waves. Patients were stratified according to localization (pelvic, calyceal, or ureteral stones and stone size (up to 10 mm, 10 - 20 mm, and >20 mm. Result: The overall success rate was 251/332 (75.6% achieve stone free status. Repeated ESWL sessions were needed in 258 (61.9%. Of eleven variables were studied including age, sex, side, location (pelvic, calyx, ureter, ureteric stent, previous renal surgery, stone size, number of shock waves, opacity of stone, renal system state, and type of lithotripter, three variables were significantly affect the success rate namely stone size, number of shock waves and location of stone. Conclusions: ESWL remains one of the most commonly utilized treatments for patients with upper urinary tract calculi; Stone diameter, location, and number of shock waves, are the most important predictors determining stone clearance after ESWL of renal and ureteric calculi. To optimize treatment outcomes with ESWL the presence of treating urologist is essential to optimize the final result.

Ammar Fadil Abid

2014-03-01

75

Diagnosis of ureteral calculi using ultrasonography, intravenous urography and unenhanced Helical Computed Tomography  

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Full Text Available Ultrasonography Ultrasonography is an efficient tool in the detection of calculi in the pyelocalyx system, but it may not be sufficient for the area of renal pelvis and ureter, as well as for the ureter and the ureterovesical junction. Intravenous urography Radiolucent stones, dilatation of the ureter and of the pyelocalyx system were identified on the urogram, which are common signs of ureter calctilosis. Defects in the contrast can be caused by blood clots and papillary or malignant tumors of the ureter, thus causing a differential diagnosis problem. Unenhanced Helical Computed Tomography Noncontrast spiral CT is useful for detection for calculi as small as 3mm. It can identify their localization and size without enlargements. The primary and secondary CT signs also confirm the established diagnosis. Conclusion The noncontrast spiral CT is a highly precise method for assessment of kidney pain. It is a reliable and rapid diagnostic modality for the detection of urinary stones which differentiates them from blood clots, tumors, air and other factors which create a differential diagnosis problem.

Govor?in Mira

2005-01-01

76

Shockwave lithotripsy in patients with renal calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to demonstrate the efficacy of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in the primary treatment of 1647 patients with renal calculi using a Dornier Doli U/50 lithotripter. One thousand six hundred forty-seven patients underwent SWL as day-cases at King Abdulaziz Hospital, Saudi Arabia between October 2001 and July 2007, using intravenous sedation (Pethidine 1mg/kg and Midazolam 5-10mg) for analgesia in 85.5% of the patients. The treatment outcome of 2241 renal calculi was analyzed and stratified according to the size and site of the stones. Recorded data included shock waves intensity, number of shocks, treatment time, analgesia stone related factors such as size, site, number, nature, composition and any related complications. The stones were grouped into 5 groups, according to the largest stone size in the kidney. Patients were followed up for 6-18 months, mean of 13 months. Complete clearance of the stones occurred in 2154 kidneys (89.5%). At 3-months follow-up, the overall treatment rate was 57.2% and for each group it was 132 (23.5%) for Group I, 254 (36.1%) for Group II, 473 (85.5%) for Group III, 278 (100%) for Group IV and 147 (100%) for Group V. Treatment failed in 87 patients with stone size of 30-39 mm. Fifty-six were solitary pelvic stones treated with ureteroscopy, while 31 were calyceal stoned treated by other modalities such as per-cutaneousnephro-lithotomy. The most common complication was pyelonephritis with or without obstruction. Shock wave lithotripsy treatment was a successful primary management of renal stones of variable sizes in 89.5% of the treated kidneys. (author)

77

Computerised tomography localisation of intrarenal calculi prior to nephrolithotomy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of the EMI CT 5005 scanner in patients with renal calculus disease is described. This investigation was found to be a useful aid in the accurate localisation of calculi within the renal collecting system prior to surgery. (author)

78

Ureteral jets in patients with unilateral ureteral calculi: Using color doppler ultrasonography  

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Sonographic detection of ureteral jets entering the urinary bladder is a well-known procedure. Color doppler ultrasound was used to image the ureteral jets in 28 patients with unilateral ureteral calculi proved by intravenous urography. Three major findings of ureteral jets were obtained in the affected ureter with a stone: less frequency (26 patients), weak reflection (20 patients), and lower grade in length (27 patients) that were significant different from the unaffected side in the same patient. No significant differences were found between the ureteral jets and the degree of hydronephrosis or the location of a stone. In conclusion, these results suggest that ureteral jets should be checked routinely during the procedure of color doppler ultrasonogram in patients with possible unilateral ureteral obstruction. Color doppler examination of ureteral jets may be an important adjunct in routine pelvic ultrasonogram especially in patients who have absolute or relative contraindications of intravenous urography.

Kwon, Hye Soo; Park, Hae Won; Oh, Won Ja [Seoul Koryo General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1993-05-15

79

New chemolysis for urological calcium phosphate calculi – a study in vitro  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in techniques have left very few indications for open surgical extraction of urinary stones currently. These advances notwithstanding, the search continues for medical approaches to urinary stone management. In this study, we perform an in vitro study analyzing the efficiency and prospect of two new complex solutions in urological calcium phosphate calculi dissolution. Methods Eighteen stones composed mainly of calcium phosphates were taken from patients who underwent kidney stone surgery. These stones were large enough (weight range 0.514–0.928 g to be fragmented and matched equally into six groups. Chemolysis of phosphate stones was done with six different solvents and was repeated 3 times with 6 stones for each solution. At 24, 48 and 72 h, reduction in weight, percentage weight change, and dissolution rate; the dissolution rates at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 8.5 for each solution, using different cations (Na+, K+ or Ca2+, according to different dilutions (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 of S1 and S2 were simultaneously determined. Results Calcium phosphate calculi were poorly dissolved by Phys and Art, and they had a low dissolution rate in pH 8.5 EDTA. The most effective solutions were S1, S2 and R, with 72 h mean dissolution rates: 5.75 ± 0.44 mg/hr (S1, 5.2 ± 0.63 mg/hr (S2, 4.55 ± 0.46 mg/hr (R ( ± s, p p ± s, p +, K+ or Ca2+ greatly reduced the dissolution rates of S1, S2. Conclusion Our data indicate that test solutions S1 and S2 are effective solvents in the chemolysis of calcium phosphate stones. At twice dilutions, these solutions are even more useful in the treatment of stone disease.

Jian-min Duan

2005-05-01

80

Existence families, functional calculi and evolution equations  

CERN Document Server

This book presents an operator-theoretic approach to ill-posed evolution equations. It presents the basic theory, and the more surprising examples, of generalizations of strongly continuous semigroups known as 'existent families' and 'regularized semigroups'. These families of operators may be used either to produce all initial data for which a solution in the original space exists, or to construct a maximal subspace on which the problem is well-posed. Regularized semigroups are also used to construct functional, or operational, calculi for unbounded operators. The book takes an intuitive and constructive approach by emphasizing the interaction between functional calculus constructions and evolution equations. One thinks of a semigroup generated by A as etA and thinks of a regularized semigroup generated by A as etA g(A), producing solutions of the abstract Cauchy problem for initial data in the image of g(A). Material that is scattered throughout numerous papers is brought together and presented in a fresh, ...

deLaubenfels, Ralph

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Aeromedical certification of aircrew and controllers with renal calculi.  

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Acute renal colic is an incapacitating condition. Advances in understanding the pathogenesis of calculi and their detection and treatment require a new approach to aeromedical risk assessment. Can this new information support the stratification of aeromedical risk into "High" and "Low" categories, and fulfill the paramount responsibility of the Civil Aviation Safety Authority, Australia's aviation regulator, which isthe maintenance of aviation safety? This article reviews the epidemiology of calculi and finds 2-10% annual risk of a symptomatic event following incidental detection of a calculus. While calculi 4 mm or less in size may not require surgical intervention, this does not equate to a pain-free passage. Similarly, calculus recurrence rates may vary in different anatomical locations, but no location can be considered "safe." The recognition of parenchymal calcification and Randall's plaques as precursors to the development of calculi places such individuals at elevated risk of developing calculi. More recently evidence has supported a link between metabolic syndrome and calculus formation. In an occupational group where there is potential for elevated radiation exposure, appropriate imaging is of particular importance. CT, X-ray, and ultrasound modalities are reviewed with recommendations presented for aeromedical assessment and surveillance based on identification of those at high risk of colic and minimization of investigational radiation exposure. PMID:24261061

Drane, A Michael C; Navathe, Pooshan; Clem, Peter

2013-10-01

82

Intracorporeal Lithotripsy for Ureteral Calculi Using Swiss Lithoclast : SKIMS Experience  

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Full Text Available At present the techniques available for performing intracorporeal lithotripsy include electrohydraulic,ultrasonic, laser, and ballistic lithotripsy. We present our experience with a unique technology forperforming intracorporeal lithotripsy, namely the Swiss lithoclast, which is a form of ballistic lithotripsy.This simple and inexpensive device uses compressed air to activate a solid probe in a manner similarto that of a jackhammer. We report the use of this lithoclast in 92 patients involving a total of 95ureteral calculi. The lithoclast successfully fragmented 81 of the 95 calculi, a success rate of 85.26%.There were no major complications directly related to the use of this device. The Swiss lithoclastseems to be a safe, effective and an inexpensive means of performing intracorporeal lithotripsy forureteral calculi

Arif Hamid, M. Saleem Wani, B. S. Wazir

2005-10-01

83

Urinary incontinence  

Science.gov (United States)

... you have diabetes, keep your blood sugar under good control. For more information about treating urinary incontinence, see also: Stress incontinence Urge incontinence When you have urinary incontinence If you have overflow incontinence ...

84

Biologically Inspired Process Calculi, Petri Nets and Membrane Computing  

CERN Document Server

This volume represents the proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi (MeCBIC 2011), held together with the 12th International Conference on Membrane Computing on 23rd August 2011 in Fontainebleau, France.

Ciobanu, Gabriel

2011-01-01

85

Ample Water, Avoiding Dehydration Can Prevent Renal Calculi  

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... comparable to, and perhaps even more painful than, natural childbirth, kidney stones—known as renal calculi—are solid, often sharp ... the stone through the bladder tube. If the surface of the stone is sharp or pointed, as is often the ...

86

Development of a urinary lithiasis localizer mechanism to couple ultrasound and extracorporeal lithotripsy equipment in canine model  

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INTRODUCTION: Due to the evolution of extracorporeal lithotripsy equipment (ESWL) and presently, the fact that most part of the equipment does not present ultrasound to localize urinary calculi, a system that allows adapting ultrasound equipment to ESWL equipment was developed, disposing only of fluoroscopy. Thus, this equipment was developed and was tested in urinary stones in canine models, to check its precision in relation to fluoroscopy. METHOD: Seven male dogs were utilized with the int...

Enrico Andrade; Gustavo Alarcon; Eduardo Pompeu; Archimedes Nardozza Jr; Claro, Joaquim A.; Valdemar Ortiz; Miguel Srougi

2006-01-01

87

Equivalence of Algebraic Lambda-Calculi - work in progress -  

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We examine the relationship between the algebraic lambda-calculus Lalg, a fragment of the differential lambda-calculus, and the linear-algebraic lambda-calculus Llin, a candidate lambda-calculus for quantum computation. Both calculi are algebraic: each one is equipped with an additive and a scalar-multiplicative structure, and the set of terms is closed under linear combinations. We answer the conjectured question of the simulation of Lalg by Llin and the reverse simulation of Llin by Lalg. Our proof relies on the observation that Llin is essentially call-by-value, while Lalg is call-by-name. The former simulation uses the standard notion of thunks, while the latter is based on an algebraic extension of the continuation passing style. This result is a step towards an extension of call-by-value / call-by-name duality to algebraic lambda-calculi.

Díaz-Caro, Alejandro; Tasson, Christine; Valiron, Benoît

2010-01-01

88

A Fully Abstract Symbolic Semantics for Psi-Calculi  

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Full Text Available We present a symbolic transition system and bisimulation equivalence for psi-calculi, and show that it is fully abstract with respect to bisimulation congruence in the non-symbolic semantics. A psi-calculus is an extension of the pi-calculus with nominal data types for data structures and for logical assertions representing facts about data. These can be transmitted between processes and their names can be statically scoped using the standard pi-calculus mechanism to allow for scope migrations. Psi-calculi can be more general than other proposed extensions of the pi-calculus such as the applied pi-calculus, the spi-calculus, the fusion calculus, or the concurrent constraint pi-calculus. Symbolic semantics are necessary for an efficient implementation of the calculus in automated tools exploring state spaces, and the full abstraction property means the semantics of a process does not change from the original.

Magnus Johansson

2010-02-01

89

Annotation-Free Sequent Calculi for Full Intuitionistic Linear Logic  

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Full Intuitionistic Linear Logic (FILL) is multiplicative intuitionistic linear logic extended with par. Its proof theory has been notoriously difficult to get right, and existing sequent calculi all involve inference rules with complex annotations to guarantee soundness and cut-elimination. We give a simple and annotation-free display calculus for FILL which satisfies Belnap?s generic cut-elimination theorem. To do so, our display calculus actually handles an extension of FILL, called Bi-In...

Clouston, Ranald; Dawson, Jeremy; Gore?, Rajeev; Tiu, Alwen

2013-01-01

90

Calculi in Hydrocele: Incidence and Results of Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis  

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Trauma, inflammation, or necrosis in the scrotal cavity may lead to depositing of organic material in hydrocele fluid with consecutive calcification if the fluid is oversaturated. During a period of 25 years, 2 scrotal calculi (calculous material in hydrocele fluid) in 2 of 42 patients (4.8%) were found during surgery on symptomatic hydroceles by the first author. In these symptomatic cases, infrared spectroscopy revealed carbonate apatite as the causative mineral. The appearance of scrotal c...

Vahlensieck, Winfried; Hesse, Albrecht

2010-01-01

91

The efficacy of tamsulosin in lower ureteral calculi  

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Full Text Available Context: There has been a paradigm shift in the management of ureteral calculi in the last decade with the introduction of new less invasive methods, such as ureterorenoscopy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. Aims: Recent studies have reported excellent results with medical expulsive therapy (MET for distal ureteral calculi, both in terms of stone expulsion and control of ureteral colic pain. Settings and Design: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting and MET with tamsulosin. Materials and Methods: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting (Group I and MET with tamsulosin (Group II in 60 patients, with a follow up of 28 days. Statistical Analysis: Independent ?t? test and chi-square test. Results: Group II showed a statistically significant advantage in terms of the stone expulsion rate. The mean number of episodes of pain, mean days to stone expulsion and mean amount of analgesic dosage used were statistically significantly lower in Group II (P value is 0.007, 0.01 and 0.007, respectively as compared to Group I. Conclusions: It is concluded that MET should be considered for uncomplicated distal ureteral calculi before ureteroscopy or extracorporeal lithotripsy. Tamsulosin has been found to increase and hasten stone expulsion rates, decrease acute attacks by acting as a spasmolytic, reduces mean days to stone expulsion and decreases analgesic dose usage.

Griwan M

2010-01-01

92

Ureteral calculi as a source of low back pain- a case report  

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Full Text Available This case report describes a 49 year old male with complaints of back pain that was diagnosed as degenerative low back pain and referred to the physical therapist. The mode of onset was insidious and the pain was intermittent with no relief from specific intervention as in rest, heat or analgesics. There was no report of changes in urinary frequency or color, and any vomiting sensation. This patient was appropriately screened by a physical therapist who suspected a pain origin that could potentially be of a viscerogenic origin. He was referred back to the primary care physician who ordered an ultrasound and a CT-KUB (Computerized Tomography-Kidney, Ureter, Bladder which revealed a 10.5 mm calculi in the left upper ureter. The patient was then referred to a urologist who confirmed the findings and performed a ureterorenoscopy (URS lithoclast fragmentation and J-J stenting under spinal anaesthesia. The result was an excellent symptomatic and functional outcome. The need for lateral thinking in the evaluation of non specific low back pain is enumerated. The treatment based classification system is a referenced model. The emerging role of the physical therapist in screening of back pain as a first contact practitioner and the responsibility therein, is described.

Satishkumar Anandan

2010-07-01

93

Diagnosis and surgical management of obstructive ureteral calculi in cats: 11 cases (1993-1996)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate diagnostic methods, surgical treatment, perioperative management, and renal function of cats with obstructive calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Retrospective case series. 11 cats that underwent surgery for removal of calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Medical records were reviewed, and the following information was recorded: signalment; results of physical examination, clinicopathologic analyses, and abdominal imaging; surgical procedure; postoperative management; and results of ureterolith quantitative analysis. Ureteroliths in the proximal portion of the ureter were removed from 5 cats (pyelotomy, 1 cat; unilateral ureterotomy, 2 cats; bilateral ureterotomies, 2 cats). Calculi in the middle and distal part of the ureter were removed by partial ureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy (6 cats). Ten cats recovered from surgery and were discharged from the hospital. One cat died from unknown causes 4 months after surgery, and 1 cat had a nephrectomy elsewhere 5 weeks after ureterolith removal. Eight cats were evaluated 12 to 20 months after surgery. Of these, 2 cats that were markedly azotemic before surgery improved after surgery, and 2 cats developed nephroliths after surgery. Also, of 5 cats that had nephroliths that were not removed at the time of surgery, 4 still had visible nephroliths. One cat had recurrent ureteral obstruction from a ureterolith and persistent urinary tract infection. Ureteroliths or ultrasonographic evidence of ureteral obstruction were not detected in other cats. A combination of microsurgical techniques and intensive postoperative care is necessary to minimize morbidity of cats after removal of a ureterolith. Renal function may improve or stabilize after removal of the ureteral obstruction

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Psi-calculi: a framework for mobile process calculi? : Cook your own correct process calculus - just add data and logic  

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A psi-calculus is an extension of the pi-calculus with nominal data types for data structures, logical assertions, and conditions. These can be transmitted between processes and their names can be statically scoped as in the standard pi-calculus. Expressiveness and therefore modelling convenience significantly exceed those of other formalisms: psi-calculi can capture the same phenomena as other extensions of the pi-calculus, and can be more general, e.g. by allowing structured channels, highe...

Johansson, Magnus

2010-01-01

95

Safety and efficacy of transurethral pneumatic lithotripsy for bladder calculi in children  

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Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of transurethral pneumatic lithotripsy for bladder calculi in children. Method: The study included 100 children up to 15 years of age undergoing pneumatic cystolithoclast for bladder stones. The descriptive study was conducted from September 2006 to February 2007 at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi. The inclusion criteria was children up to 15 years of age with a bladder stone of up to 3 cm, pre-operative negative urine culture, no coagulopathy and fit for general anaesthesia. An X-ray and ultrasound of Kidney and Urinary Bladder (KUB) was mandatory. The procedure was done under general anaesthesia with a single dose of pre-operative antibiotic. A mini-scope of 4 FR or a semi-rigid ureteroscope of 7/8.5 FR with pneumatic wolf lithoclast was used for the fragmentation of stones. Duration of procedure, any per-operative and post-operative complications and the duration of hospital stay were recorded. Post-operatively, the patient underwent ultrasound Kidney and Urinary Bladder at the first follow-up to assess stone clearance after one week. Result: Mean patients age was 4.95+-3.3 years. The male-to-female ratio was 11.5: 1 The mean hospital stay was 9.2 +- 2.5 hours. The mean operating time was 25 (10 -65) minutes. Ten (10%) patients developed minor complications out of which 5 (5%) developed haematuria and 4 (4%) developed difficulty in passing urine. One (1%) of the patients developed post-operative retention of urine. All the patients were stone free after the procedure. Conclusion: The transurethral pneumatic lithoclast is very effective and safe in children with bladder stones up to 3 cm. (author)

96

Urinary Diversion  

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... Prostatic Hyperplasia/Enlarged Prostate) C Cancer of the Ureter and Renal Pelvis Circumcision Cloacal Exstrophy Complete Blood Count (CBC) Conn's Syndrome Continent Urinary Diversion Contrast and Radionuclide ... Kidneys Ectopic Ureter ED: Non-Surgical Management (Erectile Dysfunction) ED: Penile ...

97

A new method of urinary stone analysis by batik histochemical staining of thin sections.  

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Thin sections of urinary calculi are prepared by petrographic methods using Araldite as the mounting medium. By covering the remaining part of the section with wax, an exposed segment of the section is stained by a histochemical technique. By the process of dewaxing and rewaxing, successive adjacent segments are stained by GBHA, Von Kossa, Schultz, and titan yellow methods for calcium oxalate, apatite, uric acid and urates, and magnesium in magnesium ammonium phosphate, respectively. If desired, matrix in additional segments is stained with PAS and aqueous toluidine blue. Microscopic examination of each layer through all the stained segments of a stone section reveals its chemical nature. Thus the chemical composition, morphology, and spatial distribution of the crystalline and matrix constituents of thin sections of urinary calculi are simultaneously revealed in situ. PMID:91241

Kabra, V; Kabra, S G

1979-05-01

98

Combined electrohydraulic and holmium: YAG laser ureteroscopic nephrolithotripsy of large (>2 cm) renal calculi  

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Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCL) is a standard treatment for renal calculi >2 cm. Modern flexible ureteroscopes and accessories employing the complementary effects of electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) and Ho:YAG laser lithotrites can treat these renal calculi in a minimally invasive fashion with similar or superior results.

Mariani, Albert J.

2008-01-01

99

Classification of bicovariant differential calculi on quantum groups of type A, B, C and D  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the assumptions that q is not a root of unity and that the differentials duij of the matrix entries span the left module of first order forms, we classify bicovariant differential calculi on quantum groups An-1, Bn, Cn and Dn. We prove that apart one dimensional differential calculi and from finitely many values of q, there are precisely 2n such calculi on the quantum group An-1 = SLq(n) for n ? 3. All these calculi have the dimension n2. For the quantum groups Bn, Cn and Dn we show that except for finitely many q there exist precisely two N2-dimensional bicovariant calculi for N ? 3, where N = 2n + 1 for Bn and N = 2n for Cn, Dn. The structure of these calculi is explicitly described and the corresponding ad-invariant right ideals of ker ? are determined. In the limit q ? 1 two of the 2n calculi for An-1 and one of the two calculi for Bn, Cn and Dn contain the ordinary classical differential calculus on the corresponding Lie group as a quotient. (orig.)

100

The composition of urinary stones in central sindh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine chemical analysis of urinary stones of central sindh. Study design: Prospective and randomized study. Setting: Department of Surgery and Pathology of Peoples University of Medical and Health Sciences Nawabshah. Duration of study: Three years from May 2008 to May 2011. Material and Methods: Total 106 urolith patients who underwent open stone surgery were included in the study. EDTA Titration used for determination of calcium ions and determination of oxalate, phosphate, magnesium, ammonia, uric acid and cystine stones was carried out using spectrophotometer. These patients were asked to fill out a proforma with parameters of age, sex, radiological location of stone and chemical composition of surgically recovered stones. The stone analysis findings were reviewed and compared with other reported series Results: In this study 75(70.75%) patients were male and 31 (29.25%) female. Male to female ratio was of 2.41:1. The age ranged from 1 to 70 years with the mean of 22.69 years. The peak incidence of upper urinary tract stone in 20-30 years and lower urinary tract stones in both sexes was under 10 years. Anatomical location of stone showed 48(45.29%) renal, 13(12.26%) ureteric and 45(42.45%) bladder calculi. Chemical analysis revealed 56(52.8%) calcium oxalate, 7(6.6%) calcium phosphate, 11(10.3%) ammonium urate, 18(16.9%) uric acid, 13(12.2%) Sturvite and 1(0.9%) cystine calculi. Conclusion: It was concluded that urolithiasis is predominantly male disease. No age group was spared to stone disease. Calcium oxalate, uric acid, ammonium urate and mixed calculi are the main types in our study due to poor nutritional status, poverty and inadequate health facilities. Considering that knowledge of stone composition is of utmost importance to modify the incidence of urolithiasis. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

Comparative study of minimally invasive endoscopic surgery and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL for proximal ureteral calculi in pilots  

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Full Text Available Objective?To observe and compare the therapeutic effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL and minimally invasive endoscopic surgery (URL/PCNL for proximal urinary calculi in pilots. Methods?A retrospective analysis was conducted for the clinical data of 115 pilots who had received ESWL, URL and PCNL for the treatment of proximal urinary tract calculi from Sep, 2005 to Sep, 2012. The patients were divided into two groups according to the way of treatment: ESWL group (n=83 and URL/PCNL group (n=32. In ESWL group, the patients received ESWL for a maximum of 3 times. In URL/PCNL group, the patients received URS or PCNL after ESWL for 3 times without lithecbole. Results?All the patients were male and the mean age was 36.1±9.1 years. The average diameter of the stones was 0.68±0.22cm in ESWL group and 0.78±0.25cm in URL/PCNL group. There was no significant difference in stone diameter between the two groups (P=0.526. The rate of qualification for flying was 68.7% in ESWL group and 81.3% in URL/PCNL group (URL 80.0%, PCNL 100%, showing a significant difference (P=0.002. In ESWL group, the rate of qualification for flying of pilots harboring renal and proximal ureteral stone, middle ureteral stone and distal ureteral stone was 64.3%, 88.9% and 33.3% respectively, with a significant difference (P=0.023. The rate of flying qualification of pilots harboring proximal ureteral stone, middle ureteral stone and distal ureteral stone was 71.4%, 86.7% and 87.5% respectively after URL, and there was no significant difference (P=0.174. Among the five patients who received URL but did not achieve satisfactory effect, two had stones retreated to the renal pelvis during the operation, and in two patients distal ureter was too narrow to allow passage of ureteroscope, and the ureteroscope was enveloped by inflammatory polyp in one patient. Conclusion?URL/PCNL maybe more effective than ESWL in the treatment of proximal urinary calculus in pilots, and it may enable them to fly again. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.12.14

He-qing GUO

2014-01-01

102

Comparative spectroscopic analysis of urinary calculi inhibition by Larrea Tridentata infusion and NDGA chemical extract  

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In the present comparative spectroscopic study we try to understand calcium oxalate kidney stone formation as well as its inhibition by using a traditional medicine approach with Larrea Tridentata (LT) herbal extracts and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), which is a chemical extract of the LT bush. The samples were synthesized without and with LT or NDGA using a simplified single diffusion gel growth technique. While the use of infusion from LT decreases the sizes of calcium oxalate crystals and also changes their structure from monohydrate for pure crystals to dihydrate for crystals grown with different amounts of inhibitor, both Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopic techniques, which are the methods of analysis employed in this work, reveal that NDGA is not responsible for the change in the morphology of calcium oxalate crystals and does not contribute significantly to the inhibition process. The presence of NDGA slightly affects the structure of the crystals by modifying the strength of the C-C bonds as seen in the Raman data. Also, the current infrared absorption results demonstrate the presence of NDGA in the samples through a vibrational line that corresponds to the double bond between carbon atoms of the ester group of NDGA.

Manciu, Felicia

2012-10-01

103

Laparoscopic Management of Ureteral Calculi: A Report of 123 Cases  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic surgery for the management of ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods: We performed 123 laparoscopic calculus removal in 103 men and 31 women. Indications for the procedure were extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy or transureteral lithotomy failure and large calculus. The mean age of the patients was 39.6 ± 13.8 years. The calculi were between 1 and 5.6 cm and located in the upper, middle, and lower ureter in 90 (73.2%, 20 (16.3%, and 13 (10.5% patients, respectively. Ureteral stent was used in 52 (42.3% patients. We used 3 ports for camera and instruments. Intraperitoneal approach was used in 104 (84.6% and extraperitoneal in 19 (15.4%. Results: The mean operative time was 143.2 ± 60.5 minutes. One hundred and nineteen patients (96.7% became stone free. Minor complications occurred in 14 (11.4% patients. Conversion to open surgery was required in 1 patient due to migration of the calculus to the peritoneum after removal from the ureter. Intra-abdominal hematoma led to reoperation 1 day after the surgery in 1 patient. Operative time was different significantly between extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal approaches (171.3 ± 91.3 minutes and 137.3 ± 52.2 minutes, respectively; P = .02. Conclusion: Our results confirm the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic removal of ureteral calculi in selected groups of patients, taking the advantage of this minimally invasive procedure such as better cosmetic results and patient’s satisfaction.

Farhat Farrokhi

2007-02-01

104

PCNL in the Management of Lower Pole Caliceal Calculi  

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Full Text Available

Purpose: Several therapeutic methods are used in the management of lower pole caliceal calculi. This survey has been conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the management of lower pole calculi.

Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients, 43 males and 12 females with a mean age of 41.5 (range 11 to 75 years, who had suffered from lower pole caliceal calculi and treated by standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL between 1997 and 2001, were enrolled in this study. The stones were classified as follows: small (less than 25 mm, intermediate (25 to 34 mm and large (more than 35 mm. Mean follow-up was 6.2 months (range 2 weeks to 34 months.

Results: The stones were completely extracted by one session PCNL in 43 patients (79%. Repeat PCNL was needed in one patient and another method was used for stone extraction in another patient. Regarding the size of stone, 88%, 79%, and 74% of small, intermediate, and large stones were completely extracted, respectively. No major complication was noted.

Conclusion: PCNL has high success rate in patients with stones larger than 2 cm and its morbidity would be low, provided that it is performed by skilled surgeons.

Seyed Amir Mohsen Ziaee

2004-06-01

105

Differential calculi on some quantum prehomogeneous vector spaces  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is devoted to study of differential calculi over quadratic algebras, which arise in the theory of quantum bounded symmetric domains. We prove that in the quantum case dimensions of the homogeneous components of the graded vector spaces of k-forms are the same as in the classical case. This result is well known for quantum matrices. The quadratic algebras, which we consider in the present paper, are q-analogs of the polynomial algebras on prehomogeneous vector spaces of commutative parabolic type. This enables us to prove that the de Rham complex is isomorphic to the dual of a quantum analog of the generalized Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand resolution [Lie Goups and Their Representations (Summer School of the Bolyai Janos Mathematical Society), edited by I. M. Gelfand (Halsted, New York, 1975), pp. 21-64].

Sinel'shchikov, S.; Stolin, A.; Vaksman, L.

2007-07-01

106

Arithmetical proofs of strong normalization results for symmetric lambda calculi  

CERN Document Server

We give arithmetical proofs of the strong normalization of two symmetric $\\lambda$-calculi corresponding to classical logic. The first one is the $\\bar{\\lambda}\\mu\\tilde{\\mu}$-calculus introduced by Curien & Herbelin. It is derived via the Curry-Howard correspondence from Gentzen's classical sequent calculus LK in order to have a symmetry on one side between "program" and "context" and on other side between "call-by-name" and "call-by-value". The second one is the symmetric $\\lambda \\mu$-calculus. It is the $\\lambda \\mu$-calculus introduced by Parigot in which the reduction rule $\\mu'$, which is the symmetric of $\\mu$, is added. These results were already known but the previous proofs use candidates of reducibility where the interpretation of a type is defined as the fix point of some increasing operator and thus, are highly non arithmetical.

David, René

2009-01-01

107

Porfirinas en Cálculos Renales (Revisión) / Porphyrins in renal calculi (Review)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Hemos realizado una revisión del contenido de porfirinas en una clase peculiar de cálculos renales. Estos son negros como el carbón y presentan un espectro infrarrojo (EIR) similar al conocido como "materia orgánica", el cual no indica la clase de sustancia a la que corresponde. Otros tipos de cálcu [...] los renales, principalmente de pequeño tamaño y eliminados espontáneamente, pueden tener un compuesto oscuro o negro de forma difusa o aislada y presentan un espectro de IR similar al de "materia orgánica". Después de observar que la hemoglobina presentaba un espectro de IR de "materia orgánica", estudiamos, por cromatografía en capa fina, un método sensible para la determinación de porfirinas, la presencia de porfirinas en diversos tipos de cálculos renales negros y oscuros, ya que las porfirinas son los precursores del grupo hemo. Este trabajo ha puesto de manifiesto dos tipos de porfirinas: la coproporfirina, en pacientes que padecen hepatopatías, y la uroporfirina y heptacarboxilporfirina en pacientes con algún tipo de porfiria o bien con fracaso renal crónico. Abstract in english We performed a review of the porphyrines content in a type of black, charcoal-like, renal calculi exhibiting infrarred spectra (IRS) similar to those characteristic of "organic material" which has not yet been fully elucidate. Several other types of renal calculi, mainly those of small size, spontan [...] eous passage renal stone, may also have diffuse or isolated dark charcoal components showing "organic material" IRS. After observing that haemoglobin has an "organic material" IRS, we studied, by a sensitive thin layer chromatography method, the presence of porphyrines in several types of dark or charcoal renal stones, since porphyrines are the physiological precursors of haemo group biosynthesis. We found two types of porphyrine content: coproporphyrin, in patients suffering from hepatopathy, and uroporphyrin and heptacarboxil-porphyrin in patients with some types of porphyria or with chronic renal failure.

MªL., Traba Villameytide.

2005-02-01

108

Percutaneous intervention of large bladder calculi in neuropathic voiding dysfunction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To report our results and rationale for treating large bladder calculi in patients with neuropathic voiding dysfunction (NVD) using percutaneous cystolithalopaxy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with a previously diagnosed NVD presenting with a large stone burden were identified from ou [...] r department database and a retrospective review of case notes and imaging was performed. RESULTS: Percutaneous access to remove bladder stones (range 8x7 to 3x2 cm) had a mean surgery length of 150 min and blood loss of 23 mL. Six of the seven patients treated percutaneously were discharged on the day of surgery and suffered no complications, while one patient experienced poor suprapubic tube drainage and required overnight admission with discharge the following day. Transurethral removal of stone burden (range 4x4 to 4x3 cm) had a mean surgery length of 111 min and blood loss of 8 mL. Each of these three patients were under our care for less than 23 hours, and one patient required a second attempt to remove 1x0.5 cm of stone fragments. There was no statistical difference between mean operative times and estimated blood loss, p = 0.5064 and p = 0.0944 respectively, for the two treatment methods. CONCLUSION: In this small series, percutaneous cystolithalopaxy was a safe, effective, and often preferred minimally invasive option for removal of large calculi in patients with NVD. We suggest possible guidelines for best endoscopic approach in this population, although a larger and prospectively randomized series will be ideal for definitive conclusions.

Chad P., Hubsher; Joseph, Costa.

109

Porfirinas en Cálculos Renales (Revisión) / Porphyrins in renal calculi (Review)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Hemos realizado una revisión del contenido de porfirinas en una clase peculiar de cálculos renales. Estos son negros como el carbón y presentan un espectro infrarrojo (EIR) similar al conocido como "materia orgánica", el cual no indica la clase de sustancia a la que corresponde. Otros tipos de cálcu [...] los renales, principalmente de pequeño tamaño y eliminados espontáneamente, pueden tener un compuesto oscuro o negro de forma difusa o aislada y presentan un espectro de IR similar al de "materia orgánica". Después de observar que la hemoglobina presentaba un espectro de IR de "materia orgánica", estudiamos, por cromatografía en capa fina, un método sensible para la determinación de porfirinas, la presencia de porfirinas en diversos tipos de cálculos renales negros y oscuros, ya que las porfirinas son los precursores del grupo hemo. Este trabajo ha puesto de manifiesto dos tipos de porfirinas: la coproporfirina, en pacientes que padecen hepatopatías, y la uroporfirina y heptacarboxilporfirina en pacientes con algún tipo de porfiria o bien con fracaso renal crónico. Abstract in english We performed a review of the porphyrines content in a type of black, charcoal-like, renal calculi exhibiting infrarred spectra (IRS) similar to those characteristic of "organic material" which has not yet been fully elucidate. Several other types of renal calculi, mainly those of small size, spontan [...] eous passage renal stone, may also have diffuse or isolated dark charcoal components showing "organic material" IRS. After observing that haemoglobin has an "organic material" IRS, we studied, by a sensitive thin layer chromatography method, the presence of porphyrines in several types of dark or charcoal renal stones, since porphyrines are the physiological precursors of haemo group biosynthesis. We found two types of porphyrine content: coproporphyrin, in patients suffering from hepatopathy, and uroporphyrin and heptacarboxil-porphyrin in patients with some types of porphyria or with chronic renal failure.

MªL., Traba Villameytide.

110

Modeling of laser ablation and fragmentation of human calculi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The large-scale radiation-hydrodynamics computer code LASNEX, has been used to model experimental results in the laser ablation and fragmentation of renal and biliary calculi. Recent experiments have demonstrated laser ablation and fragmentation of human calculi in vitro and in vivo. In the interaction, laser light incident upon the calculus is of sufficient intensity to produce a plasma (a hot ionized gas). The physical picture which emerges is as follows. The plasma couples to acoustic and shear waves which then propagate through the dense stone material, causing spall and fracture by reflection from material discontinuities or boundaries. Experiments have thus far yielded data on the interaction against which models can be tested. Data on the following have been published: (1) light emission, (2) absorption and emission spectra, (3) fragmentation efficiency, (4) cavitation bubble dynamics and (5) mass removal. We have performed one dimensional simulations of the laser-matter interaction to elucidate the important physical mechanisms. We find that good quantitative fits between simulation and experiment are obtained for visible light emission, electron temperature, electron density, plasma pressure and cavitation bubble growth. With regard to mass removal, experiment and simulation are consistent with each other and give an excellent estimate of the ablation threshold. The modeling indicates that a very small ablation layer at the surface of the calculus is responsible for significant mass loss by fragmentation within the bulk of the calculus. With such quantitative fits in hand, we believe this type of modeling can now be applied to the study of other procedures involving plasma formation of interest to the medical community. 25 refs., 7 figs.

Gitomer, S.; Jones, R.D.; Howsare, C.

1989-01-01

111

Medical devices used for ureteroscopy for renal calculi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary stone disease is a problem as old as human civilization. In this article, a brief history of stone disease and the current status of urinary stone disease treatment will be discussed. This review will focus primarily on the newest technology and devices associated with flexible ureteropyeloscopy for the treatment of upper tract urinary stones. In addition to defining the cutting-edge technology that is newly available, this review will glimpse at what technologic advances are expected in the near future. Reference articles that do a good job of defining the current state of flexible ureteropyeloscopy technology and urinary stone disease treatment will be highlighted, along with a reiteration of the major points of the article. PMID:16359254

Weiland, Derek; Canales, Benjamin K; Monga, Manoj

2006-01-01

112

Urinary Incontinence in Women  

Science.gov (United States)

... Bladder Control for Women : Urinary Incontinence in Women Urinary Incontinence in Women On this page: What are the ... the coughing spells cease. [ Top ] The Types of Urinary Incontinence Stress Leakage of small amounts of urine during ...

113

Acute urinary retention as a late complication of subcutaneous liquid silicone injection: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acute urinary retention is characterized by a sudden interruption of urinary output; urine is retained in the bladder due to either functional or obstructive anatomic factors, and cannot be voided. The main causes of acute urinary obstruction are benign prostatic hyperplasia, constipation, prostate adenocarcinoma, urethral stenosis, clot retention, neurological disorders, following surgery, calculi, drugs, or urinary tract infections. A transvestite patient, aged 55 years, described having had liquid silicone subcutaneously injected in various parts of the body, the last one four years ago. He complained of absent urinary output during the last 14 hours. The physical examination revealed skin deformation due to migration of implants; a hard nodule (characterized as a foreign body was present in the preputium and a diagnosis of acute urinary retention was made; an unsuccessful attempt to exteriorize the glans for urinary catheterization, was followed by therapeutic cystostomy. Acute urinary retention has not been mentioned in the medical literature as a complication of liquid silicone subcutaneous injection.

Leandro Luongo de Matos

2009-12-01

114

Inflammatory and fibrotic proteins proteomically identified as key protein constituents in urine and stone matrix of patients with kidney calculi.  

Science.gov (United States)

To uncover whether urinary proteins are incorporated into stones, the proteomic profiles of kidney stones and urine collected from the same patients have to be explored. We employed 1D-PAGE and nanoHPLC-ESI-MS/MS to analyze the proteomes of kidney stone matrix (n=16), nephrolithiatic urine (n=14) and healthy urine (n=3). We identified 62, 66 and 22 proteins in stone matrix, nephrolithiatic urine and healthy urine, respectively. Inflammation- and fibrosis-associated proteins were frequently detected in the stone matrix and nephrolithiatic urine. Eighteen proteins were exclusively found in the stone matrix and nephrolithiatic urine, considered as candidate biomarkers for kidney stone formation. S100A8 and fibronectin, representatives of inflammation and fibrosis, respectively, were up-regulated in nephrolithiasis renal tissues. S100A8 was strongly expressed in infiltrated leukocytes. Fibronectin was over-expressed in renal tubular cells. S100A8 and fibronectin were immunologically confirmed to exist in nephrolithiatic urine and stone matrix, but in healthy urine they were undetectable. Conclusion, both kidney stones and urine obtained from the same patients greatly contained inflammatory and fibrotic proteins. S100A8 and fibronectin were up-regulated in stone-baring kidneys and nephrolithiatic urine. Therefore, inflammation and fibrosis are suggested to be involved in the formation of kidney calculi. PMID:24333391

Boonla, Chanchai; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana; Spittau, Björn; Schlosser, Andreas; Pimratana, Chaowat; Krieglstein, Kerstin

2014-02-15

115

Transureteral Lithotripsy of Ureteral Calculi in Children with Holmium: Yttrium Aluminium Garnet Laser  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Surgical management of pediatric urinary calculi evolved dramatically over the past two decades. However, with the miniaturization of equipment and with improvisation of endourologic techniques, access to the entire pediatric urinary system is possible. Ho: YAG laser provides more maneuverability during transuretereal lithotripsy (TUL than the pneumatic system which uses a metal probe, especially when used in pediatrics urinary systems. In this study, we report our experience about treatment of pediatric ureteral stone with HO: YAG laser.METHODS: Between 2008 -2011, 41 children ? 12 years of age with ureteral stones were included in our study. Using K.U.B, sonography, and intravenous urogram, diagnoses were established for all patients. 6F or 8F wolf semi rigid ureteroscope was used for ureteroscopy under general anesthesia and stone fragmentation was implemented by Ho: YAG laser. For the evaluation of stone free rate, we used the following day & week confirmatory KUB, and sonograms additional to the direct visualization of the ureter during ureteroscopy. The patients were scheduled to be followed by control sonograms 2 weeks and 2 months after the operation to rule out past operational ureteral stenosis.RESULTS: From our 40 patients whose ages were in the range of 8 months and twelve years of old with a mean age 3.5 years, 18 patients (45% had distal ureteral stones, ten (25% in mid ureter, and twelve of them (30% had the stone in their proximal ureter. The mean diameter of stones was 9.3 mm (3.5-11 mm. Three patients had encrusted double j stents (DJS. Our overall stone free rate was 89.35% at the end of 1 week. The complications were fever in 5 patients (12.5% and ureteral stricture due to ureteral perforation in one patient, while one patient had long hospital stay due to refractory pain and nausea. The mean time of post-surgical hospital stay was 42 hours, while for only 20% of patients (8 patients and in the rest of patients (30 patients this period was only 24hours.DISCUSSION: Endoscopic lithotripsy in children has gradually become a major technique for the treatment of ureteral stones. This progression has been on the basis of the development of appropriate endoscopes and effective working instruments. The stone-free rate following urteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteral stones has been reported in as high as 98.5-100%. In this study, overall stone free rate was 89.35%. The complications after ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy are uncommon and usually related to passage of the ureteroscope than from laser action. Fever was the most common complication which occurred in 5 (12.5% of our patients despite the fact that all patients were hospitalized the day before the procedure and were under parenteral antibiotic therapy. Postoperative stenting after ureteroscopic lithotripsy remained controversial. Most children were able to tolerate the attached string and the stent could be removed 5-7 days after without the use of an additional anesthetic. We used suitable ureteral catheters for 24 hours in all patients.CONCLUSION: Although HO: YAG laser lithotripsy is safe in children, we need more controlledtrials to show the best method of lithotripsy in pediatric ureteral stones.

Farzin Sheikh Monazzah

2012-02-01

116

Spin Geometry on Quantum Groups via Covariant Differential Calculi  

CERN Document Server

Let A be a cosemisimple Hopf *-algebra with antipode S and let $\\Gamma$ be a left-covariant first order differential *-calculus over A such that $\\Gamma$ is self-dual and invariant under the Hopf algebra automorphism S^2. A quantum Clifford algebra $\\Cl(\\Gamma,\\sigma,g)$ is introduced which acts on Woronowicz' external algebra $\\Gamma^\\wedge$. A minimal left ideal of $\\Cl(\\Gamma,\\sigma,g)$ which is an A-bimodule is called a spinor module. Metrics on spinor modules are investigated. The usual notion of a linear left connection on $\\Gamma$ is extended to quantum Clifford algebras and also to spinor modules. The corresponding Dirac operator and connection Laplacian are defined. For the quantum group SL_q(2) and its bicovariant $4D_\\pm$-calculi these concepts are studied in detail. A generalization of Bochner's theorem is given. All invariant differential operators over a given spinor module are determined. The eigenvalues of the Dirac operator are computed. Keywords: quantum groups, covariant differential calcul...

Heckenberger, I

2000-01-01

117

In vitro comminution of model renal calculi using histotripsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) suffers from the fact that it can produce residual stone fragments of significant size (>2 mm). Mechanistically, cavitation has been shown to play an important role in the reduction of such fragments to smaller debris. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using cavitationally-based pulsed ultrasound therapy (histotripsy) to erode kidney stones. Previous work has shown that histotripsy is capable of mechanically fractionating soft tissue into fine, acellular debris. Here, we investigated the potential for translating this technology to renal calculi through the use of a commonly accepted stone model. Stone models were sonicated using a 1-MHz focused transducer, with 5-cycle pulses delivered at a rate of 1 kHz. Pulses having peak negative pressures ranging from 3 to 21 MPa were tested. Results indicate that histotripsy is capable of effectively eroding the stone model, achieving an average stone erosion rate of 26 mg/min at maximum treatment pressure; substantial stone erosion was only observed in the presence of a dense cavitational bubble cloud. Sequential sieving of residual stone fragments indicated that debris produced by histotripsy was smaller than 100 ?m in size, and treatment monitoring showed that both the cavitational bubble cloud and model stone appear as hyperechoic regions on B-mode imaging. These preliminary results indicate that histotripsy shows promise in its use for stone comminution, and an optimized erosion process may provide a potential adjunct to conventional SWL procedures. PMID:21622053

Duryea, Alexander P; Maxwell, Adam D; Roberts, William W; Xu, Zhen; Hall, Timothy L; Cain, Charles A

2011-05-01

118

Shock wave therapy for the destruction of renal calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using focussed shock waves, kidney stones can be disintegrated without having recourse to surgical measures, so that the concrements can be excreted via the urinary tract. The success of this therapy strongly depends on an exact adjustment of the target by the aid of radiography. The method applied is explained in this article, and the experience gained with 400 patients is summarized. (orig.)

119

[Percutaneous nephrolithotomy and litholapaxy. Endoscopic destruction and removal of kidney calculi].  

Science.gov (United States)

With the development of the ultrasonically guided punction of the kidney it has become possible nowadays to achieve direct access to the kidney without much difficulty. The puncture tract can be widened and used for the entrance of the so-called nephroscope, which enables the sitting and extraction of renal calculi, which are not able to drain away by themselves. The calculi are removed through the shaft by small forceps. Larger calculi are chiefly removed by means of ultrasonic probes or electro-hydraulic shock waves. This method of percutaneous lithotripsy or litholapaxy is also suitable for the extraction of calculi from kidneys with impaired drainage. Since the procedure can be carried out in a large proportion of patients with local anaesthesia, there are hardly any contraindications--except in cases of complete staghorn calculi. In contrast to the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy little apparatus is needed and it is not too expensive; therefore, it is also suitable for smaller hospitals and departments. The percutaneous lithotripsy represents a safe method of renal calculus extraction with little stress for the patients. PMID:6489901

Baumüller, A; Schmeller, N T; Hofstetter, A G

1984-09-27

120

Proceedings Fourth Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi 2010  

CERN Document Server

The 4th Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi (MeCBIC 2010) is organized in Jena as a satellite event of the Eleventh International Conference on Membrane Computing (CMC11). Biological membranes play a fundamental role in the complex reactions which take place in cells of living organisms. The importance of this role has been considered in two different types of formalisms introduced recently. Membrane systems were introduced as a class of distributed parallel computing devices inspired by the observation that any biological system is a complex hierarchical structure, with a flow of biochemical substances and information that underlies their functioning. The modeling and analysis of biological systems has also attracted considerable interest of the process algebra research community. Thus the notions of membranes and compartments have been explicitly represented in a family of calculi, such as ambients and brane calculi. A cross fertilization of these two research areas has ...

Ciobanu, Gabriel; 10.4204/EPTCS.40

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Redundancies in Dependently Typed Lambda Calculi and Their Relevance to Proof Search  

CERN Document Server

Dependently typed lambda calculi such as the Logical Framework (LF) are capable of representing relationships between terms through types. By exploiting the "formulas-as-types" notion, such calculi can also encode the correspondence between formulas and their proofs in typing judgments. As such, these calculi provide a natural yet powerful means for specifying varied formal systems. Such specifications can be transformed into a more direct form that uses predicate formulas over simply typed lambda-terms and that thereby provides the basis for their animation using conventional logic programming techniques. However, a naive use of this idea is fraught with inefficiencies arising from the fact that dependently typed expressions typically contain much redundant typing information. We investigate syntactic criteria for recognizing and, hence, eliminating such redundancies. In particular, we identify a property of bound variables in LF types called "rigidity" and formally show that checking that instantiations of ...

Snow, Zachary; Nadathur, Gopalan

2010-01-01

122

Classification of Left-Covariant Differential Calculi on the Quantum Group $\\SLq 2$  

CERN Document Server

For transcendental values of q the quantum tangent spaces of all left-covariant first order differential calculi of dimension less than four on the quantum group $\\SLq 2$ are given. All such differential calculi $\\Gamma $ are determined and investigated for which the left-invariant differential one-forms $\\omega (u^1_2)$, $\\omega (u^2_1)$ and $\\omega (u^1_1-u^2_2)$ generate $\\Gamma $ as a bimodule and the universal higher order differential calculus has the same dimension as in the classical case. Important properties (cohomology spaces, *-structures, braidings, generalized Lie brackets) of these calculi are examined as well. Keywords: quantum groups, noncommutative differential calculus, quantum tangent space

Heckenberger, I

2000-01-01

123

Litiasis prostática: cálculos silentes / Prostatic calculi: silent stones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción y objetivos: En la práctica urológica se encuentran con frecuencia cálculos prostáticos durante la resección transuretral de la próstata. Nuestro objetivo era demostrar las propiedades físicas y químicas de los cálculos prostáticos, así como determinar la posible relación entre la infla [...] mación de la próstata y los cálculos prostáticos. Métodos: Se incluyó en el estudio a pacientes consecutivos (excluidos los sujetos con PSA>4ng/ml y urolitiasis) sometidos a resección transuretral de la próstata (RTUP) en quienes se observaron cálculos prostáticos. Se analizó la composición química de los cálculos prostáticos obtenidos de cada paciente durante la RTUP, que se observaron también al microscopio electrónico (MEB) para determinar su estructura y morfología superficial. El uroanatomopatólogo valoró las muestras para emitir el diagnóstico definitivo y determinar la existencia y el grado de la inflamación. Resultados: Se incluyó en el estudio a cinco pacientes. Se obtuvieron de cada paciente al menos tres (de 3-8) muestras de cálculos (con un diámetro de 1-5mm). Los cálculos tenían una composición mixta de fosfato cálcico y carbonato cálcico. En la MEB se observó que los cálculos tenían una superficie lobular formada por pequeñas esferas. El examen histopatológico de las muestras de RTUP reveló hiperplasia prostática benigna acompañada de inflamación entre leve e intensa. Conclusiones: Los cálculos prostáticos son cálculos de calcio precipitados concéntricamente situados dentro de los conductillos prostáticos con una morfología granular arracimada. Estos cálculos prostáticos parecen ir acompañados de inflamación histopatológica. Abstract in english Introduction: Introduction and Objectives Prostate stones are frequently encountered during transurethral resection of the prostate in urology practice. We aimed to demonstrate the physical and chemical properties of prostate stones. We also aimed to determine possible relationship between inflammat [...] ion of prostate gland and prostate stones. Methods: The consecutive patients (excluding subjects with PSA>4ng/ml and urolithiasis), who underwent TURP operation and who were observed to have prostatic calculi during TURP, were included in the study. The prostatic stones obtained from each patient during TURP were analysed for chemical composition and observed under electron microscopy (SEM) for structure and surface morphology. The pathological specimens were assessed by the uropathologist for the final diagnosis and existence and degree of inflammation. Results: Five patients were included in the study. From each patient at least three (range 3-8) samples of stones (diameter varying from 1mm up to 5mm) were obtained. The stones were made of mixed composition of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. The stones were found to have lobular surface made up of small spheres under SEM. Histopathological examination of the TURP specimens revealed being prostatic hyperplasia accompanied with inflammation of mild to severe degree. Conclusions: Prostatic stones are concentrically precipitated calcium stones within the prostatic ductuli with granular grape like morphology. Histopathological inflammation seems to be associated with these prostatic calculi.

H., Köseoglu; G., Aslan; B.H., Sen; B., Tuna; K., Yörükoglu.

124

Analytical scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microdiffractometry of renal calculi using etched plastic sections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe the technique and illustrate results of renal calculi analyses utilizing correlative analytical scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microdiffractometry on the same 100 micrometer Spurr embedded sections. Essential to the technique is the employment of an extremely sensitive x-ray microdiffractometer, and for morphological analysis, pretreatment of the sections with a sodium ethoxide etching solution. This technique facilitates more precise identification of crystalline constituents especially calcium apatite and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (struvite). Further, the technique permits detection and mapping of both crystalline and amorphous constituents within calculi.

Cheng, P.T.; Pritzker, K.P.; Tausch, J.; Pittaway, A.; Millard, J.

1981-01-01

125

A vesicocutaneous fistula secondary to bladder calculi in a patient with spina bifida  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a rare case of a vesicocutaneous fistula secondary to two large bladder calculi in a patient with spina bifida. A 62 year old lady presented with swelling of her right thigh and a calcified mass protruding through the subcutaneous tissues of her right groin. Urine was seen to be draining from around the area and plain radiographs and a computed topography (CT scan confirmed the presence of two bladder calculi with a vesicocutaneous fistula. Vesicolithotomy was performed and the fistula tract left to close spontaneously. Worldwide this is only the fourth case of a bladder calculus causing a vesicocutaneous fistula.

Jonathan D Horsnell

2010-08-01

126

Analytical scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microdiffractometry of renal calculi using etched plastic sections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe the technique and illustrate results of renal calculi analyses utilizing correlative analytical scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microdiffractometry on the same 100 micrometer Spurr embedded sections. Essential to the technique is the employment of an extremely sensitive x-ray microdiffractometer, and for morphological analysis, pretreatment of the sections with a sodium ethoxide etching solution. This technique facilitates more precise identification of crystalline constituents especially calcium apatite and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (struvite). Further, the technique permits detection and mapping of both crystalline and amorphous constituents within calculi

127

Urinary schistosomiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schistosomiasis is the second most common socio-economically devastating parasitic disease after malaria, affecting about 240 million residents of developing countries. In Africa, it predominantly manifests as urogenital disease, and the main infective agent is Schistosoma hematobium. Endemicity is propagated by poor socio-economic status and environmental degradation due to rapid urbanization. Recreational swimming is a potent medium for the spread of disease in children and adolescents. Most affected individuals are asymptomatic. The male and female worms are equipped with an extraordinary capacity for immune evasion and are able to co-habit for several decades within the pelvic venous plexus. Eggs deposited in the bladder wall resist elimination by type 1 T lymphocytes. Instead, they are sustained by pro-fibrogenic encapsulation (as modulated by type 2 helper cells). Progressive bladder disease results in obstructive uropathy and predisposes to (mostly) squamous cell carcinoma. Schistosomal glomerulopathy manifests as a clinical spectrum of asymptomatic proteinuria, nephrosis and/or nephritic syndrome. Findings on renal biopsy may be influenced by co-morbidity with Salmonella bacteria, amyloidosis and hepatitis C infection. Potentially fatal Katayama fever and spinal radiculopathy may ensue in tourists visiting an endemic zone. Early detection by urine microscopy is hampered by low urinary excretion rates of the parasite eggs. Although useful in travelers with newly acquired disease, the results of the serological antibody assay may be false positive in residents of an endemic zone. Cystoscopy, however, may be invaluable. Due to its safety, effectiveness and once-daily dosing, praziquantel is the drug of choice. An integrated approach that includes mass chemotherapy, environmental health programs and public health education is the most cost-effective preventive strategy. PMID:24469437

Bamgbola, Oluwatoyin F

2014-11-01

128

Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection  

Science.gov (United States)

Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and continue throughout life? There are two ... To protect the kidneys from damage By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) By identifying and treating vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). ...

129

Urinary incontinence products  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many products to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which product to choose based ... clean and dry your skin. WHERE TO BUY URINARY INCONTINENCE PRODUCTS You can find most products at your ...

130

Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension  

Science.gov (United States)

... may be because other problems are causing your urinary incontinence. Over time, some or all of the leakage ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

131

[Study of a intestinal enteroliths in human patient with colon adenocarcinoma. Is it similar to renal calculi?].  

Science.gov (United States)

This work shows the study performance to intestinal enterolithis from a 91 year old patient with multiple enterolithiasis confirmed by abdominal X-ray and TAC analyses showing the presence of intestinal, renal and bile stones. This enterolithis is associated with colon adenocarcinoma. The enteroliths were obtained by hemicolectomia and were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (IR), giving non-stoichiometry carbonate apatite whitloquite-like with, possibly, organic material. By atomic emission spectroscopy we found Ca, Mg, K, Na and K (mg/100 mg of calculi) and Zn, Ba, Mn, Fe, Cu, Si, Ti and Br in minor proportion (microg/100 mg of calculi). Because of calculi morphology and the IR spectra (non-stoichiometry carbonate apatite) we carried out analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and found coproporphyrin (about microg/g of calculi) and uroporphyrin, protoporphyrin and heptacarboxy-porphyrin in minor extent. Calculi were also studied by scanning electronic microscopy and EDX and X-ray diffraction giving crystals of CaP4O11. All these results show that intestinal enteroliths composition are similar to renal calculi although its morphology differs from renal calculi. PMID:16700212

Traba Villameytide, M L; Orts Costa, J A; Morell, M

2006-02-01

132

Elementos no frecuentes en cálculos renales / Unusual elements in renal calculi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizó un grupo de 54 cálculos expulsados espontáneamente después de padecer un cólico nefrítico. Dos grupos de cálculos fueron encontrados: papilares y no papilares. Todos los cálculos fueron analizados por espectroscopia infrarroja y por microscopia electrónica de barrido y EDAX. Al ser analiz [...] ados los cálculos por EDAX se detectaron los siguientes elementos químicos; C, N, O, Na, S, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn. El posible origen de estos elementos es analizado en este trabajo. Abstract in english A group of 54 renal calculi were spontaneously passed renal stone after a nephritic colic. Two groups of calculi were found: papillary and non-papillary calculi. All calculi were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and electronic microscopy scan (EMS) and EDAX. When the stones were analyzed with EDAX, [...] elements such as C, N, O, Na, S, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn were detected. The possible origin of these elements is discussed in this work.

J.L., Rodríguez-Miñón Cifuentes; E., Salvador; MªL., Traba Villameytide.

2006-01-01

133

Renal colic: comparison of spiral CT, US and IVU in the detection of ureteral calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of our study was to compare noncontrast spiral CT, US and intravenous urography (IVU) in the evaluation of patients with renal colic for the diagnosis of ureteral calculi. During a period of 17 months, 112 patients with renal colic were examined with spiral CT, US and IVU. Fifteen patients were lost to follow-up and excluded. The remaining 97 patients were defined to be either true positive or negative for ureterolithiasis based on the follow-up data. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and accuracy of spiral CT, US and IVU were determined, and secondary signs of ureteral stones and other pathologies causing renal colic detected with these modalities were noted. Of 97 patients, 64 were confirmed to have ureteral calculi based on stone recovery or urological interventions. Thirty-three patients were proved not to have ureteral calculi based on failure to recover a stone and diagnoses unrelated to ureterolithiasis. Spiral CT was found to be the best modality for depicting ureteral stones with a sensitivity of 94 % and a specificity of 97 %. For US and IVU, these figures were 19, 97, 52, and 94 %, respectively. Spiral CT is superior to US and IVU in the demonstration of ureteral calculi in patients with renal colic, but because of its high cost, higher radiation dose and high workload, it should be reserved for cases where US and IVU do not show the cause of symptoms. (orig.)

134

Duodenal diverticula demonstrated by endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) : their relationship to biliary calculi and gastrooesophageal reflux  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In 24 patients with duodenal diverticula, demonstrated by ERCP, food-stimulated gastrooesophageal reflux was demonstrated in 33% of the patients and biliary tract calculi in 81%. This is in contrast to a previous study in patients with duodenal diverticula demonstrated by barium examination where gastroesophageal reflux occurred in 81% and biliary tract calculi in 38% of the patients. Differences in clinical selection are believed to be the underlying cause to these varying results.

Thorsen, B; Christiansen, T

1987-01-01

135

Duodenal diverticula demonstrated by endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) - their relationship to biliary calculi and gastrooesophageal reflux  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 24 patients with duodenal diverticula, demonstrated by ERCP, food-stimulated gastrooesophageal reflux was demonstrated in 33% of the patients and biliary tract calculi in 81%. This is in contrast to a previous study (3) in patients with duodenal diverticula demonstrated by barium examination where gastrooesophageal reflux occurred in 81% and biliary tract calculi in 38% of the patients. Differences in clinical selection are believed to be the underlying cause to these varying results.

Thorsen, B.; Christiansen, T.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Thommesen, P.

1987-03-01

136

Duodenal diverticula demonstrated by endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) - their relationship to biliary calculi and gastrooesophageal reflux  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 24 patients with duodenal diverticula, demonstrated by ERCP, food-stimulated gastrooesophageal reflux was demonstrated in 33% of the patients and biliary tract calculi in 81%. This is in contrast to a previous study (3) in patients with duodenal diverticula demonstrated by barium examination where gastrooesophageal reflux occurred in 81% and biliary tract calculi in 38% of the patients. Differences in clinical selection are believed to be the underlying cause to these varying results. (orig.)

137

Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalyses of the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalyses in the study of dental calculus showed that such studies provided confirmatory and supplementary data on the morphological features of human dental calculi but gave only limited information on the identity of the crystalline or inorganic components. This study aimed to explore the potential of combined SEM and microanalyses in the identification of the crystalline components of the human and animal dental calculi. Human and animal calculi were analyzed. Identification of the crystalline components were made based on the combined information of the morphology (SEM) and Ca/P molar ratios of the crystals with the morphology and Ca/P molar ratio of synthetic calcium phosphates (brushite or DCPD; octacalcium phosphate, OCP; Mg-substituted whitlockite, beta-TCMP; CO3-substituted apatite, (CHA); and calcite. SEM showed similarities in morphological features of human and animal dental calculi but differences in the forms of crystals present. Microanalyses and crystal morphology data suggested the presence of CaCO3 (calcite) and CHA in the animal (cat, dog, tiger) and of OCP, beta-TCMP and CHA in human dental calculi. X-ray diffraction and infrared (IR) absorption analyses confirmed these results. This exploratory study demonstrated that by taking into consideration what is known about the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi, combined SEM and microanalyses can provide qualitative identification

138

Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Urinary Risk Factors for Calculus Formation  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;} Introduction.  Even though dehydration could aggravate formation of urinary calculi, the effects of fluid and food restriction on calculus formation is not thoroughly defined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of fluid and food restriction in Ramadan fasting on urinary factors in kidney and urinary calculus formation. Materials and Methods. Fifty-seven men aged 30 to 55 years old, including 37 recurrent calcium calculus formers and 20 with no history of kidney calculi were evaluated for blood tests, ultrasonography investigations, urinalysis, urine culture, and also 24-hour urine collection test. Metabolites including calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, sodium, and creatinine were measured before and during Ramadan fasting. The values of calculus-precipitating solutes as well as inhibitory factors were documented thoroughly.   Results. Total excretion of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium in 24-hour urine and also urine volume during fasting were significantly lower than those in the nonfasting period. Urine concentration of calcium during fasting was significantly lower than nonfasting (P Conclusions. Fasting during Ramadan has different effects on total excretion and concentrations of urinary precipitate and inhibitory factors contributing to calculus formation. We did not find enough evidence in favor of increased risks of calculus formation during Ramadan fasting.

Amir Hossein Miladipour

2012-01-01

139

Primary Giant Cell Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Kidney with Staghorn Calculi  

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Full Text Available Malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFH as primary renal tumours are rare, with less than 50 cases described in the literature. We report a case of primary renal MFH of giant cell type in a 56-year-old man, who presented with bilateral dull flank pain, intermittent gross haematuria and body weight loss (6 kg in 3 months. Intravenous urography, computerized tomography (CT and magnetic resonance image (MRI showed right ureteral stones with mild hydronephrosis, and a solid mass at the lower pole of the left kidney associated with staghorn calculi, as well as tumour thrombi in the left renal vein and inferior vena cava. Left radical nephrectomy and evacuation of tumour thrombi from the left renal vein and inferior vena cava were performed. Histopathologic examination revealed malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH of giant cell type. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of primary renal MFH associated with staghorn calculi.

Chen C

2003-01-01

140

Swapping: a natural bridge between named and indexed explicit substitution calculi  

CERN Document Server

This article is devoted to the presentation of lambda_rex, an explicit substitution calculus with de Bruijn indexes and a simple notation. By being isomorphic to lambda_ex - a recent formalism with variable names -, lambda_rex accomplishes simulation of beta-reduction (Sim), preservation of beta-strong normalization (PSN) and meta-confluence (MC), among other desirable properties. Our calculus is based on a novel presentation of lambda_dB, using a swap notion that was originally devised by de Bruijn. Besides lambda_rex, two other indexed calculi isomorphic to lambda_x and lambda_xgc are presented, demonstrating the potential of our technique when applied to the design of indexed versions of known named calculi.

Mendelzon, Ariel; Ziliani, Beta; 10.4204/EPTCS.49.1

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Continuation-Passing Style and Strong Normalisation for Intuitionistic Sequent Calculi  

CERN Document Server

The intuitionistic fragment of the call-by-name version of Curien and Herbelin's lambda-mu-mu-tilde-calculus is isolated and proved strongly normalising by means of an embedding into the simply-typed lambda-calculus. Our embedding is a continuation-and-garbage-passing style translation, the inspiring idea coming from Ikeda and Nakazawa's translation of Parigot's lambda-mu-calculus. The embedding strictly simulates reductions while usual continuation-passing-style transformations erase permutative reduction steps. For our intuitionistic sequent calculus, we even only need "units of garbage" to be passed. We apply the same method to other calculi, namely successive extensions of the simply-typed lambda-calculus leading to our intuitionistic system, and already for the simplest extension we consider (lambda-calculus with generalised application), this yields the first proof of strong normalisation through a reduction-preserving embedding. The results obtained extend to second and higher-order calculi.

Santo, Jose Espirito; Pinto, Luis

2009-01-01

142

Proceedings Third Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi 2009  

CERN Document Server

This volume contains the accepted papers at the third Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi, held in Bologna on 5th September 2009. The papers are devoted to both membrane computing and biologically inspired process calculi, as well as to other related formalisms. The papers of this volume are selected by the programme committee due to their quality and relevance; they have defined an exciting programme highlighting interesting problems and stimulating the search for novel ways of describing related biological phenomena. In addition, we had an invited talk given by Luca Cardelli on a spatial process algebra for developmental biology. Membrane systems were introduced as a class of distributed parallel computing devices inspired by the observation that any biological system is a complex hierarchical structure, with a flow of materials and information that underlies their functioning. The emphasis is on the computational properties of the model, and it makes use of automata, la...

Ciobanu, Gabriel

2009-01-01

143

Development of a urinary lithiasis localizer mechanism to couple ultrasound and extracorporeal lithotripsy equipment in canine model  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Due to the evolution of extracorporeal lithotripsy equipment (ESWL and presently, the fact that most part of the equipment does not present ultrasound to localize urinary calculi, a system that allows adapting ultrasound equipment to ESWL equipment was developed, disposing only of fluoroscopy. Thus, this equipment was developed and was tested in urinary stones in canine models, to check its precision in relation to fluoroscopy. METHOD: Seven male dogs were utilized with the introduction, in the bladder through the ureteral route, of chalkstones, with initial localization by fluoroscopy, with a further ultrasound coincidence check localization of the vesical stones, being submitted to ESWL with a 3-hour, 21 days and 60 days follow-up after the procedure. RESULTS: Success of localization in all animals was verified presenting elimination of stones in the first micturitions, after ESWL. No complications were verified in those animals for 60 days. CONCLUSION: We verified that this equipment can lead to an update of the equipment that use only fluoroscopy, increasing in this way, their technical capacity in the treatment of urinary calculi, mainly in cases of non-radiopaque stones.

Enrico Andrade

2006-10-01

144

El artefacto de centelleo en la caracterización de los cálculos urinarios / Role of twinkling artifact in characterization of urinary calculi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La caracterización de los cálculos renales está cada vez cobrando mayor importancia como paso previo a la toma de decisiones terapéuticas tales como la nefrolitotomía percutánea (NLP) y la litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque (LEOC). En algunos estudios se ha publicado que el a [...] rtefacto de centelleo (artefacto de ecografía de flujo en color) puede ser de utilidad en la detección de piedras en el riñón. En este estudio se pretende dilucidar si la presencia o ausencia del artefacto de centelleo tendría alguna relación con la composición química de los cálculos. Material y método: En un estudio prospectivo se incluyó a pacientes con cálculos renales de > 0,5cm. Se examinó a 70 pacientes mediante rayos X, pielografía intravenosa, tomografía computarizada sin contraste y ecografía doppler espectral y a color. El artefacto se consideró de grado 1 si sólo ocupaba una parte de la sombra acústica, considerándose de grado 2 si ocupaba la totalidad de la sombra. Se trató a los pacientes con cálculos de menos de 2cm con LEOC, y a aquellos con piedras de mayor tamaño se les derivó a tratamiento con NLP. Resultados: No se detectó artefacto alguno (grado 0) en 11 sujetos, detectándose el grado 1 en 25 y el grado 2 en 24. Se encontró una relación significativa entre el aumento en artefactos de centelleo y tamaño del cálculo (p Abstract in english Introduction: Stone characterization is becoming important before decision of treatment such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Some studies have reported that the twinkling artifact (color-flow ultrasonography artifact) may be useful to detect u [...] rinary stones. This study aims to determine whether the presence or absence of the twinkling artifact is correlated with the chemical composition of the stones. Material and method: Patients with renal stones > 0.5cm were included in a prospective study. Sixty patients were examined with x-ray film, intravenous pyelography, non-contrast computerized tomography, and color and spectral doppler ultrasonography. The artifact was considered grade 1 when occupied only one portion of the acoustic shadowing and when the artifact occupied the entire acoustic shadowing was considered grade 2. Patients with stones smaller than 2 cm were treated with SWL and patients with stones larger than 2cm were treated with PCNL. Results: No artifact (grade 0) was detected in 11 subjects, grade 1 in 25 and grade 2 in 24. Significant relationship was found between the increase in twinkling artifact and stone size (p

C., Alan; H., Koçoglu; S., Kosar; O., Karatag; A., Resit Ersay; A., Erhan.

2011-08-01

145

The Comparison of Ultrasonography and Non Enhanced Helical Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Ureteral Calculi  

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Full Text Available Intravenous urography, ultrasonography, and non-contrast spiral computed tomography have been used to diagnose ureteral calculi. We aimed to compare the accuracy of non-contrast spiral computed tomography with ultrasonography in the evaluation of patients with renal colic.Fourty-one patients with flank pain were examined with both computed tomography and ultrasonography over a period of 11 months. Findings of ultrasonography and computed tomography of 28 patients in whom üreteral stones were confirmed by standart methods were comparedUreteral calculi were diagnosed in 28 of 41 patients. Ureteral stones could be demonstrated in 18 patients by ultrasonography and in 27 patients by computed tomography. Ultrasonography showed 64.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity in the diagnosis of ureterolithiasis; computed tomography showed 96.4% and 100%, respectively. Spiral computed tomography is superior to ultrasonography in the demonstration of ureteral calculi in patients with renal colic. But because of higher cost and higher radiation dose, it should be reserved for symptomatic cases in whom ultrasonography is non-diagnostic.

?lhan K?l?nç

2007-01-01

146

Endometriosis localized to urinary bladder wall mimicking urinary bladder carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although endometriosis is a common disease in women of reproductive age, urinary system endometriosis is an exceedingly rare disease that may cause important clinical problems. In this paper we discussed a 42-year-old woman who had urinary bladder endometriosis misdiagnosed as urinary bladder tumor in imaging modalities. The diagnosis of endometriosis was made by histopathological examination of the operative material after partial resection of the urinary bladder. Urinary bladder endometriosis causes nonspecific signs and symptoms in many patients. In female patients presenting with unexplained urinary symptoms the differential diagnosis should include urinary bladder endometriosis that may mimic urinary bladder cancer and lead to difficulties in making definitive preoperative diagnosis. PMID:25308596

Genç, Mine; Genç, Berhan; Karaarslan, Serap; Solak, Aynur; Saraçoglu, Musa

2014-09-01

147

Diagnosis of urinary bladder diverticula  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficacy of various examination techniques in diagnosis of urinary bladder diverticula was studied. The most informative diagnostic techniques in urinary bladder diverticula are ultrasound and computed tomography

148

Transureteral Lithotripsy Versus Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Management of Upper Ureteral Calculi: A Comparative Study  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: Our aim was to compare transureteral lithotripsy (TUL and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL in the management of upper ureteral calculi larger than 5 mm in diameter. Materials and Methods: Patients who had upper ureteral calculi greater than 5 mm in diameter were enrolled in this clinical trial. The calculi had not responded to conservative or symptomatic therapy. Semirigid ureteroscopy and pneumatic lithotripsy were used for TUL in 52 patients and SWL was performed in 48. Analysis of the calculi compositions was done and the patients were followed up by plain abdominal radiography and ultrasonography 3 month postoperatively. Results: The stone-free rates were 76.9% in the patients of the TUL group and 68.8% in the patients of the SWL group. These rates in the patients with mild or no hydronephrosis were 85.7% and 59.1% for the SWL and TUL groups, respectively. In the TUL group, half of the patients with no hydronephrosis developed upward calculus migration. The stone-free rates were 75.0% and 89.3% for the patients with moderate hydronephrosis and 70.0% and 100.0% for those with severe hydronephrosis in the SWL and TUL groups, respectively. All of the failed cases were treated by double-J stenting and TUL or SWL successfully. There were no serious complications. Upward calculus migration after TUL was more frequent in cases with no hydronephrosis or mild hydronephrosis (41.0%. Conclusion: Upper ureteral calculi smaller than 1 cm can be safely and effectively managed using semirigid ureteroscopy and pneumatic lithotripsy. However, the SWL approach has still its role if an experienced endourologist is not available.

Abdolrasoul Mehrsai

2007-02-01

149

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy and Transureteral Lithotripsy in the Treatment of Impacted Lower Ureteral Calculi  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL with ureteroscopy followed by transureteral lithotripsy (TUL for the treatment of impacted distal ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 patients with solitary impacted distal ureteral calculi were assigned into 2 groups of treatment with SWL (42 patients and TUL (54 patients with a 6.9-F semirigid ureteroscope. Characteristics of the patients and the calculi, treatment parameters, clinical outcomes, and patients’ satisfaction were assessed for each group as well as efficiency quotient. Results: Demographic characteristics of the patients in the 2 groups were similar as well as the sizes of the calculi. The stone-free rate, 2 months postoperatively, was 71.4% in the patients of the SWL group and 88.9% in those of the TUL group. The efficiency quotient was 56% and 81% for the SWL and TUL groups, respectively (P = .004. Retreatment rate was 26.2% (11 patients and 9.3% (5 patients for the SWL and TUL groups, respectively (P = .027. Thirty patients in the SWL group (71.4% and 52 in the TUL group (96.3% were satisfied with their treatment (P = .001. There were no major complications in neither of the groups. Minor complications (pain and hematuria were more common in the TUL group. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, TUL seems to be more effective than SWL in the treatment of impacted lower ureteral calculi sized smaller than 12 mm, and patients are more satisfied with this treatment method.

Armin Iranpour

2006-03-01

150

Drinking Water Composition and Incidence of Urinary Calculus: Introducing a New Index  

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Full Text Available Introduction. We searched for a pathophysiologically based feature of major water electrolytes, which may define water quality better than the water hardness, respecting urinary calculus formation.Materials and Methods. Utilizing a multistage stratified sampling, 2310 patients were diagnosed in the imaging centers of the provincial capitals in Iran between 2007 and 2008. These were composed of 1755 patients who were settled residents of 24 provincial capitals. Data on the regional drinking water composition, obtained from an accredited registry, and their relationships with the region’s incidence of urinary calculi were evaluated by metaregression models. The stone risk index (defined as the ratio of calcium to magnesium-bicarbonate product in drinking water was used to assess the risk of calculus formation.Results. No correlation was found between the urinary calculus incidence and the amount of calcium, bicarbonate, or the total hardness of the drinking water. In contrast, water magnesium had a marginally significant nonlinear inverse relationship with the incidence of the disease in the capitals (R2 = 26%, P = .05 for a power model. The stone risk index was associated nonlinearly with the calculus incidence (R2 = 28.4%, P = .04.Conclusions. Urinary calculus incidence was inversely related with drinking water magnesium content. We introduced a new index constructed on the foundation of a pathophysiologically based formula; the stone risk index had a strong positive association with calculus incidence. This index can have therapeutic and preventive applications, yet to be confirmed by clinical trials.

Abbas Basiri

2010-12-01

151

Urinary tract infection - children  

Science.gov (United States)

UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW III, Schor NF, Behrman RE. Urinary tract infections. In: Kliegman RM, ...

152

Comparison of pyelolithotomy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with pelvis renalis calculi  

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Full Text Available Objective: To compare, retrospectively, results of cases undergoing pyelolithotomy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL for pelvis renalis (PR calculi in our clinic. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients had undergone PNL between December 2004-June 2006 and 46 patients undergone pyelolithotomy between January 2005-August 2006 for PR calculi. Percutaneous intervention was performed under C-armed ?ouroscopy on patients in prone position. A subcostal ?ank approach was used for pyelolithotomy. Results: Mean age was 44±11 and 42±8 years for PNL and pyelolithotomy groups, respectively. Mean operative time was 140.6 minutes in PNL group. Stone-free rate was 93.33% and when residual fragments<4mm accepted clinically insignificant increased to 98.33% in PNL group. Differences between pre and postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit were 1.34 gr/dl and 4.22, respectively. Blood transfusion required in 3 (5% patients during early postoperative period. A postoperative fever of 39.5°C occured in one patient. Mean operative time was 165.3 minutes in pyelolithotomy group. Stone-free rate was 100%. Differences between pre and postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit were 1.17 gr/dl and 3.42, respectively. Blood transfusion during early postoperative period required in 2 (4.35% patients. A double-j catheter was inserted in 19 patients. Mean duration for nephrostomy removal and mean hospital stay in PNL group were 2.30 and 3.50 days, respectively. Mean duration for drain removal and mean hospital stay in pyelolithotomy group were 3.45 and 5.20 days, respectively. Conclusion: Indications of open stone surgery have been changed and it became to be used only for difficult cases. Our results show that PNL is successful in treatment of PR calculi.

Volkan Tu?cu

2008-01-01

153

Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy versus ureteroscopy for distal ureteric calculi: efficacy and patient satisfaction  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL and ureteroscopy (URS for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi with respect to patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND MHETODS: This is a prospective study where a total of 212 patients with solitary, radiopaque distal ureteral calculi were treated with ESWL (n = 92 using Dornier lithotriptor S (MedTech Europe GmbH or URS (n = 120. Patient and stone characteristics, treatment parameters, clinical outcomes, and patient satisfaction were assessed for each group. RESULTS: The 2 groups were comparable in regard to patient age, sex, stone size, and side of treatment. The stone-free status for ESWL and URS at 3 months was 81.5% and 97.5%, respectively (p < 0.0001. In addition, 88% of patients who underwent ESWL versus 20% who underwent URS were discharged home the day of procedure. Minor complications occurred in 3.3% and 8.3% of the ESWL and URS groups, respectively (p = 0.127. No ureteral perforation or stricture occurred in the URS group. Postoperative flank pain and dysuria were more severe in the URS than ESWL group, although the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.16. Patient satisfaction was high for both groups, including 94% for URS and 80% for ESWL (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: URS is more effective than ESWL for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi. ESWL was more often performed on an outpatient basis, and showed a trend towards less flank pain and dysuria, fewer complications and quicker convalescence. Patient satisfaction was significantly higher for URS according to the questionnaire used in this study.

Ibrahim F. Ghalayini

2006-12-01

154

Cavitation microjets as a contributory mechanism for renal calculi disintegration in ESWL.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rarefaction shock wave produced by an extracorporeal shockwave lithotripter can result in liquid failure at numerous discrete sites near the second focus. When the liquid fails, vapor-filled cavities can grow to relatively large sizes and subsequently collapse with enormous violence. This phenomenon, called acoustic cavitation, has been shown to cause severe erosion in materials exposed to cavitation fields. It is proposed in this paper that ESWL devices generate acoustic cavitation in vivo and that the high speed liquid microjets produced during cavitation bubble collapse play an important role in renal calculi disintegration. PMID:3057239

Crum, L A

1988-12-01

155

Differential calculi of Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt type on universal enveloping algebras  

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Differential calculi of Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt type on universal enveloping algebras of Lie algebras g are defined. This definition turns out to be independent of the basis chosen in g. The role of automorphisms of g is explained. It is proved that no differential calculus of Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt type exists on semi-simple Lie algebras. Examples are given, namely gl_n, Abelian Lie algebras, the Heisenberg algebra, the Witt and the Virasoro algebra. Completely treated are the 2-dimensional solvable Lie algebra, and the 3-dimensional Heisenberg algebra.

Martini, R; Kersten, P H M

1995-01-01

156

Studies on the function of upper urinary tract, 13  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to clarify the changes of the ureteral function after ureterolithotomy, 131I-Hippuran renograms were recorded at 3 times before, immediately after (i.e. 1 - 2 days after) and 10 days after the lithotomy in 52 patients. The influences of preoperative hydronephrosis or urinary tract infection upon the postoperative renogram patterns were studied. The following results were obtained. 1. In the renogram findings of the preoperative 52 cases, 28 delayed excretion types, 15 obstructive types and 9 standard types were shown. 2. The postoperative renogram patterns showed a tendency of increased obstruction immediately after the operation (56.9%) irrespective of the location of the calculi in the ureter, and the recovering excretion phases became visible on the 10th postoperative day (51.1%). 3. In the findings on the postoperative renograms, a tendency of increased obstruction was noted in many of the patients of the non-hydronephrotic group than the hydronephrotic group immediately after the operation, but no statistically significant difference was noted. On the 10th postoperative day, slightly more patients of the hydronephrotic group tended to show improvements of obstruction than those of the non-hydronephrotic group, but with no statistically significant difference. 4. In the relationship between the hydronephrosis and urinary tract infection, the infection rate was 26.9% (7 out of 26) in the non-hydronephrotic group and 52.4% (11 out of 21) in the hydronephrotic group. 5. In the findings on the renograms viewed from presence of urinary tract infection, slightly more cases of increased obstruction were found out immediately after the operation in the non-infected group than in the infected group. On the 10th postoperative day, slightly more cases of improvements of obstruction were noted in the infected group than in the non-infected group, but no statistically significant difference was seen between the two groups at either of the two points. (author)

157

Solubility and dissolution kinetics of calcium oxalate renal calculi in solutions containing L-arginine: In-vitro experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

The kinetics of dissolution of calcium oxalate (CaOX) calculi in physiological solutions containing L-arginine at different concentrations were studied using the change in the Archimedean weight of samples immersed in the solution. It was faound that arginine, which is a normal constituent of human urine, acts at increased concentrations as a dissolving agent with respect to CaOX calculi. The possible effect of L-arginine as a natural regulator of CaOX supersaturation and crystalization in human urine is also disscused.

Atanassova, S.

2010-06-01

158

Pediatric urinary tract infection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs

159

Fasting and Urinary Stones  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

Ali Shamsa

2013-11-01

160

Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi (MeCBIC 2011)  

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This volume represents the proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi (MeCBIC 2011), held together with the 12th International Conference on Membrane Computing on 23rd August 2011 in Fontainebleau, France.

Ciobanu, Gabriel

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Cases of polycystic kidney associated with right renal calculi and right perirenal abscess diagnosed preoperably by computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computed tomography (CT) was used in 2 patients with polycystic kidney associated with right renal calculi and right perirenal abscess and definitive diagnostic informations were obtained preoperably. Therefore, CT was proved to be very valuable with its diagnostic accuracy and less complications compared with other diagnostic methods in recent urologic fields. (author)

162

Drug-induced MR urography: the effects of furosemide and intravenous saline injection on MR urography of obstructed and non-obstructed urinary tract  

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To determine the usefulness of MR urography technique for the evaluation of urinary systems in patients with obstructed urinary tract and normal volunteers with non-obstructed urinary tract after intravenous normal saline and diuretic injection. Three normal volunteers and 12 patients with urinary tract obstruction [ureteral calculi (n=8), extraurinary mass (n=1), ureteral tumor invasion (n=3)] underwent MR urography using a 1.0T scanner and a 2D non-breath-hold heavily T2-weighted fast spin-cho sequence. These acquisition were post-processed with a maximum intensity projection (MIP) algorithm. Two acquisitions were performed, the first prior to saline solution infusion following standard MR urography procedures, and the second, within 2-3 minutes of the infusion of 250 ml saline solution followed by 20 mg of Lasix administered intravenously. For this latter, drug-induced MR urography procedures were followed. In healthy volunteer (n=3) and those experiencing partial obstruction (n=4) by a urinary stone, drug-induced MR urography provided better images of the urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those in whom a urinary stone or tumor had caused complete obstruction (n=8), standard MR urography provided good images, as did drug-induced MR urography. In patients with a partially or non-obstructed urinary tract, drug-induced MR urography provided better anatomic and functional details of the kidney and urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those experiencing complete obstruction of the urinary tract, however, standard or drug-induced MR urography permitted very adequate evaluation of the tract, and drug-induced MR urography was unnecessary.

Park, Jeong Ha; Lee, Myung Jun; Lee, Chang Joon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2001-10-01

163

Drug-induced MR urography: the effects of furosemide and intravenous saline injection on MR urography of obstructed and non-obstructed urinary tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the usefulness of MR urography technique for the evaluation of urinary systems in patients with obstructed urinary tract and normal volunteers with non-obstructed urinary tract after intravenous normal saline and diuretic injection. Three normal volunteers and 12 patients with urinary tract obstruction [ureteral calculi (n=8), extraurinary mass (n=1), ureteral tumor invasion (n=3)] underwent MR urography using a 1.0T scanner and a 2D non-breath-hold heavily T2-weighted fast spin-cho sequence. These acquisition were post-processed with a maximum intensity projection (MIP) algorithm. Two acquisitions were performed, the first prior to saline solution infusion following standard MR urography procedures, and the second, within 2-3 minutes of the infusion of 250 ml saline solution followed by 20 mg of Lasix administered intravenously. For this latter, drug-induced MR urography procedures were followed. In healthy volunteer (n=3) and those experiencing partial obstruction (n=4) by a urinary stone, drug-induced MR urography provided better images of the urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those in whom a urinary stone or tumor had caused complete obstruction (n=8), standard MR urography provided good images, as did drug-induced MR urography. In patients with a partially or non-obstructed urinary tract, drug-induced MR urography provided better anatomic and functional details of the kidney and urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those experiencing complete obstruction of the urinary tract, however, standard or drug-induced MR urography permitted very adequate evaluation of the tract, and drug-induced MR urography was unnecessary

164

Urinary Tract Infections in Adults  

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... urinary tract? The urinary tract is the body's drainage system for removing wastes and extra water. The ... histo-blood group secretor status. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1992;90;965–972. 8 Sharma JB, Aggarwal S, ...

165

When you have urinary incontinence  

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You have urinary incontinence. This is when you are not able to keep urine from leaking from your urethra, the tube that ... urine out of your body from your bladder. Urinary incontinence may occur as your age or after a ...

166

Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures  

Science.gov (United States)

... are types of surgeries that help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ... Vaginal sling procedures are done to treat stress urinary incontinence. Before discussing surgery, your doctor will have you ...

167

Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge  

Science.gov (United States)

... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al; Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ... EB, Kobashi KC. Minimally invasive treatment of stress urinary incontinence and vaginal prolapse. Urol Clin North Am . 2007; ...

168

Artifical urinary sphincters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A small selected group of patients with urinary incontinence can be treated effectively with an artificial urinary sphincter. Since the fluid in the hydraulic system of this device is radiopaque, radiography is useful in its evaluation. An immediate postoperative radiogram should be performed to control the position and integrity of the system. It also serves as a useful baseline study in case of later complications. It should include radiograms both in the deactivated and activated state. A few cases of tube kinking may be overlooked when exposures in only one projection are used. Experience with 110 implanted sphincters is presented. (orig.)

169

Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence  

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What is stress urinary incontinence (SUI)? SUI is a type of urinary incontinence . With SUI, a woman leaks urine when she coughs, laughs, or ... Obstetricians and Gynecologists f AQ • What is stress urinary incontinence (SUI)? • What causes SUI? • What nonsurgical treatment options ...

170

Urinary Tract Infections  

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... vaginal bacteria. Avoid using these items, if possible. Menopause can also cause changes in vaginal bacteria that increase your risk for urinary tract infection. Taking estrogen usually corrects this problem, but may not be for everyone. Diagnosis & Tests What type of tests will I need to ...

171

In vitro studies on the role of glycosaminoglycans in crystallization intensity during infectious urinary stones formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteus mirabilis cause urinary tract infections which are recurrent and can lead to formation of urinary calculi. Both bacterial and the host factors are involved in the development of urolithiasis. To determine the impact of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the formation of P. mirabilis-induced urinary stones, we investigated the in vitro crystallization, aggregation and adhesion of crystals in the presence of GAGs naturally appearing in urine. Crystallization experiments were performed in synthetic urine infected with P. mirabilis in the presence of: hyaluronic acid (HA), heparan sulfate (HS), chondroitin sulfate A, B and C (ChSA, ChSB, ChSC). The intensity of crystallization and aggregation were established by counting particles and phase-contrast microscopy. To analyze the adhesion of crystals, we used normal urothelium and (45)Ca isotope-labeled crystals. In the presence of ChSC, both the size of the crystals formed and their number were higher compared with the control. GAGs increased crystals adhesion to the cells, but only for ChSA this effect was significant. Chondroitin sulfates, which accelerate the first stages of infection-induced stones formation, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of infectious urolithiasis. PMID:24164670

Torzewska, Agnieszka; Ró?alski, Antoni

2014-06-01

172

Goodwillie Calculi  

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The Goodwillie tower is based on the idea of approximating a functor F by a series of functors satisfying the strong property of "n-excision". In this dissertation, we study a weaker property of "n-additivity" and compare the two. Theorem 9.1, one of the main results in this dissertation, establishes that if $F$ is reasonably good, there is a fibration sequence with the fiber being the realization of a simplicial space built from a cotriple made of iterated cross effects and...

Mauer-oats, Andrew

2013-01-01

173

Ureteroscopic and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Rather Large Renal Pelvis Calculi  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the results and complications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL plus retrograde ureteroscopic lithotripsy using laser and pneumatic lithotriptors with SWL monotherapy for renal pelvic calculi between 2 cm and 3 cm. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 patients with 2- to 3-cm pelvic calculi were assigned into groups 1 and 2, including 22 and 33 patients, respectively. Patients in group 1 first underwent laser pneumatic lithotripsy and insertion of a double-J ureteral catheter and then underwent SWL 2 to 4 weeks thereafter. In group 2, the patients underwent SWL after double-J ureteral catheter insertion. The stone-free rate, complications, and cost effectiveness were evaluated 3 months postoperatively. Results: Five patients (22.7% in group 1, had their calculi completely fragmented after ureteroscopy and retrograde lithotripsy without any need for further SWL. In 9 patients (40.9%, after a single session of SWL, and in 3 (13.6%, after 2 sessions, fragmentation was completed. In group 2, successful treatment was achieved after 1 and 2 SWL sessions in 6 (18.2% and 8 (24.2% patients, respectively. The stone-free rate was significantly higher in the patients of group1 than those in group 2 (77.3% versus 42.4%, respectively; P = .01. The period of anesthesia was 23.1 minutes (during ureteroscopy in group 1 and 13.2 minutes in group 2 (during cystoscopy or ureteroscopy and insertion of ureteral catheter. No significant complication was reported in neither of the groups. The mean costs of the treatment were US $ 400 and US $ 370 in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: Ureteroscopic lithotripsy before SWL is a rational method for the treatment of the rather large renal pelvic calculi with fairly acceptable costs.

Mehri Baghban Haghighi

2007-02-01

174

Upper and midureteral calculi: Percutaneous extraction with an occlusion balloon catheter  

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In 44 patients with one or more calculi in the upper two-thirds of the ureter, single-stage percutaneous nephrolithotomy was performed through a middle or upper calyceal nephrostomy after cystoscopic placement of an occlusion balloon catheter distal to the calculus; in 42, the procedure was successful. The occlusion balloon catheter permitted retrograde opacification of all systems for enhanced renal puncture. In the last 30 patients an attempt was made either to push the calculus upward mechanically or to flush it upward into the renal pelvis with carbon dioxide or dilute contrast material. This was successful in 24 of these patients. Prior overnight occlusion of the ureter by means of ureteral dilatation further facilitates dislodgement of the calculus, which was successful in 12 of 13 patients.

Beckmann, C.F.; Roth, R.A.; Luedke, M.D.

1986-06-01

175

Tratamiento no quirúrgico de la litiasis biliar Non-Surgical treatment of biliary calculi  

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Full Text Available

Se describen diversos procedimientos para el tratamiento no quirúrgico de la colelitiasis: la administración de ácidos billares orales, la litotripsia extracorpórea, la colecistostomía percutánea, la escleroterapia de la vesícula y la litotripsia mecánica; se consignan las indicaciones, ventajas, desventajas y limitaciones de cada uno de ellos.

Several procedures are described for non-surgical treatment of biliary calculi, namely: oral administration of bile acids, extracorporeal shock-wave lithotrypsy I percutaneous cholecystostomy I gallbladder sclerotherapy

and mechanicallithotrypsy. lndications, advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each procedure are discussed.

Felipe Franco

1992-01-01

176

Multislice computed tomography urography in the diagnosis of urinary tract diseases  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Multislice computed tomography (MSCT has triggered considerable changes in uroradiological imaging. The aim of this study was to establish the place of MSCT urography (MSCTU in comparison with intravenous urography (IVU and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of MSCT in the evaluation of urothelial abnormalities. Methods. This prospective study included 120 patients with a high clinical suspicion of urinary tract diseases divided into two groups. The group I consisted of 60 patients with macroscopic hematuria, bladder carcinoma and malignant pelvic tumors after radiotherapy or operation. They underwent both IVU and MSCTU. The group II included 60 patients (? 40 years old with retroperitoneal and malignant pelvic tumors, complicated pyelonephritis, microscopic hematuria, acute urinary tract obstruction (without visible calculi on unenhanced scans, and they were submitted to computed tomography with additional scan phase enabling MSCTU. Results. Compared with IVU, MSCTU is more sensitive for the detection of urinary tract diseases (parenchymal changes, renal tumors, urolithiasis, fibrosis and extraurinary processes. MSCTU is more specific than IVU for renal parenchymal abnormalities, tumors of the excretory system, urolithiasis, bladder tumors, fibrosis and extraurinary diseases. MSCTU is equally sensitive, but more specific for hydronephrosis compared to MSCT. The diagnosis made by the use of MSCTU in patients with macroscopic and microscopic hematuria and with obstruction not caused by stones, perfectly comply with operative findings and histological diagnosis. Conclusion. The obtained results support MSCTU to be the modality of choice in the diagnostic algorithm of patients with macroscopic hematuria and in the evaluation of microscopic hematuria and unexplained obstruction of the urinary tract. The only remaining role for IVU in our institution is imaging of the upper urinary tract in patients with hematuria under the age of 40.

Nikoli? Olivera

2011-01-01

177

Factors affecting treatment success of staghorn calculi: stone burden or stone locations  

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Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the results and comlications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL treatment in patients with staghorn calculi.Materials and methods: We performed multi-access PCNL in 54 patients with staghorn stones in our department between 2004 to 2007. Of these patients, 2 access tracts were used for 41, 3 access tracts for 8, and 4 access tracts for 5 patients. The mean stone burden was 10.7 cm2 for 2 access group, 11.7 cm2 for 3 access group, and 11.2 cm2 for 4 access group. Preoperative data including stone surface area, stone locations, and patient demograghics were recorded. Access number, transfusion rate, and operative duration were recorded intraoperatively. Stone-free rates and need for opioids were determined postoperatively.Results: Transfusion rate was 24.3% in 2 access group, 37.5% in 3 access group, and 80% in 4 access group. The mean operative duration was 145, 157, and 189 sec in 2, 3, and 4 access groups, respectively. Stone-free rate was 63.4%, 50%, and 20%; need of opioids was 4.8%, 25%, and 60% in three groups. Two A-V fistulas, one in 3 access group and the other in 4 access group, were treated by chemoembolisation.Conclusion: Stone burden is not the most important factor for stone-free rates in complex and branched renal calculi. Different caliceal locations of stones is more predictive for stone-free rates for staghorn stones. Increased access number is associated with more blood transfusion, long operative duration, more complications, and more opioid needs.

M. Bahad?r Can Balc?

2011-09-01

178

Ibn-Sina's Life and Contributions to Medicinal Therapies of Kidney Calculi  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Ibn-Sina (commonly known as Avicenna is one of the most famous and influential scientists in the history of medicine. The Canon of Medicine, which is his most celebrated book in medicine, presents a summary of all the medical knowledge of his time. Ibn-Sina wrote a complete section about kidney calculi in his book. Totally, 65 herbal, 8 animal, and 4 mineral medicines are mentioned in the Canon of Medicine as beneficial drugs for destructing, expelling, and preventing kidney calculi. Ibn-Sina introduced very advanced drug designing based on drug delivery, targeting the organ, deposition in the site of action, pain control, wound healing, clearance after action, and supporting the organ. Using Ibn-Sina's ideas help scientists to choose better drugs with a historical background to reduce the cost of therapies and research projects.

Pouya Faridi

2012-09-01

179

Urinary incontinance in childhood  

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Full Text Available Most common cause of childhood incontinence is enuresis nocturna which is characterized with spontaneus resolution and physiologically normal voiding. Although most cases are not related to any structural or neurological abnormality, it is important to properly diagnose a child who presents with wetting. A thorough medical history will delineate the pattern of incontinence and additional investigations are indicated in only selected patients. If the physician can identify the voiding disorder and treat the cause not the symptom, will minimize the effects of the condition on the child's social development and also prevent the possible injuries to upper urinary tract. Therefore, this review will mostly focus on differential diagnosis of the causes of urinary incontinence. (Turk Arch Ped 2009; 44 Suppl: 90-3

Sibel Tiryaki

2010-05-01

180

Urolitíase no alotransplante renal / Urinary lithiasis in renal allografts  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: A litíase urinária é uma complicação incomum no alotransplante renal, a incidência varia de 0,02 a 3,4%. A maioria dos cálculos forma-se após o transplante, porém alguns podem ser transferidos junto com o enxerto para o hospedeiro. O tratamento desta complicação está baseado em alguns caso [...] s descritos na literatura. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de relatar a incidência da litíase renal no paciente com transplante renal, assim como a conduta adotada no HCFMRPUSP. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 953 pacientes submetidos a transplante renal no HCFMRPUSP, de fevereiro 1968 a maio de 2003. A idade média foi de 47,2 anos (35 a 63 anos). Em 09 pacientes, o rim foi proveniente de doador cadáver e apenas 01 doador vivo. RESULTADOS:Foram diagnosticados 10 casos de litíase (1,05%). Em 02 pacientes (20%) o cálculo foi diagnosticado no intraoperatório, em 01 (10%) no peri-operatório (5º. dia), os 07 restantes (70%) no pós-operatório tardio. Em 04 pacientes (57%) não havia sintomatologia específica, 02 (29%) apresentaram ITU, em 03 (43%) ocorreu elevação da creatinina sérica. De 8 pacientes com litíase no pós-operatorio, em 06 os cálculos estavam localizados no rim e 02 no ureter. Dos pacientes com cálculos renais, 02 foram observados, 02 submetidos a LECO, 01 a nefrolitripsia percutânea, 01 à pielolitotomia. Em 01 paciente com cálculo ureteral foi realizada pielovesicostomia (cálculo + estenose), no outro paciente foi feita a ureterorrenoscopia retrógrada. CONCLUSÃO: A urolitíase é complicação rara no transplante renal, a conduta terapêutica no pós-operatório tardio é semelhante à da população geral. Abstract in english Purpose: Urinary lithiasis is an uncommon complication in recipient of kidney allografts. The prevalence varies from 0.02 to 3.4%. The majority of calculi arises de novo in the recipient, however some of them are transferred with the transplanted kidney. The treatment relies on few reports published [...] previously. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of lithiasis as well as the treatment in an university hospital. METHODS: We analyzed 953 recipients of renal transplant undertaken in Hospital das Clínicas - FMRP-USP, from February of 1968 to May of 2003. The mean age of patients bearing lithiasis was 47.2 years (range 35 to 63 years). RESULTS: The prevalence of lithiasis was 10/953 (1.0%). Nine patients received kidneys from cadaver donor and 1 from living donor. The diagnosis occurred during the surgery in 2 (20%), within few days after transplantation in 1 (10%) and in the late postoperative period in 7 (70%). Seven patients had no complains, 2 had associated urinary tract infection and 1 a rise in serum creatinine. Of 8 cases with lithiasis in the postoperative period, the stones were localized in the kidney in 6 and in the ureter in 2. Renal calculi were managed as follows: watchful-waiting - 2, extracorporeal lithotrypsy - 2, percutaneous nepholithotrypsy - 1 and open pyelolithomy - 1. One patient with ureteric lithiasis associated ureteral stenosis underwent a pyelo-vesicostomy. The other patient with ureteric lithiasis was treated by retrograde endoscopic ureterolithothrypsy. CONCLUSION: Urinary lithiasis is rare in transplanted kidneys and can be managed as to the general population.

Adauto José, Cologna; Antonio Carlos Pereira, Martins; Haylton Jorge, Suaid; Silvio, Tucci Júnior; Rodolfo Borges dos, Reis; Ricardo Mesquita, Paschoal; André Luis Alonso, Domingos; Lucy Vieira da, Silva-Lima.

 
 
 
 
181

Urolitíase no alotransplante renal Urinary lithiasis in renal allografts  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A litíase urinária é uma complicação incomum no alotransplante renal, a incidência varia de 0,02 a 3,4%. A maioria dos cálculos forma-se após o transplante, porém alguns podem ser transferidos junto com o enxerto para o hospedeiro. O tratamento desta complicação está baseado em alguns casos descritos na literatura. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de relatar a incidência da litíase renal no paciente com transplante renal, assim como a conduta adotada no HCFMRPUSP. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 953 pacientes submetidos a transplante renal no HCFMRPUSP, de fevereiro 1968 a maio de 2003. A idade média foi de 47,2 anos (35 a 63 anos. Em 09 pacientes, o rim foi proveniente de doador cadáver e apenas 01 doador vivo. RESULTADOS:Foram diagnosticados 10 casos de litíase (1,05%. Em 02 pacientes (20% o cálculo foi diagnosticado no intraoperatório, em 01 (10% no peri-operatório (5º. dia, os 07 restantes (70% no pós-operatório tardio. Em 04 pacientes (57% não havia sintomatologia específica, 02 (29% apresentaram ITU, em 03 (43% ocorreu elevação da creatinina sérica. De 8 pacientes com litíase no pós-operatorio, em 06 os cálculos estavam localizados no rim e 02 no ureter. Dos pacientes com cálculos renais, 02 foram observados, 02 submetidos a LECO, 01 a nefrolitripsia percutânea, 01 à pielolitotomia. Em 01 paciente com cálculo ureteral foi realizada pielovesicostomia (cálculo + estenose, no outro paciente foi feita a ureterorrenoscopia retrógrada. CONCLUSÃO: A urolitíase é complicação rara no transplante renal, a conduta terapêutica no pós-operatório tardio é semelhante à da população geral.Purpose: Urinary lithiasis is an uncommon complication in recipient of kidney allografts. The prevalence varies from 0.02 to 3.4%. The majority of calculi arises de novo in the recipient, however some of them are transferred with the transplanted kidney. The treatment relies on few reports published previously. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of lithiasis as well as the treatment in an university hospital. METHODS: We analyzed 953 recipients of renal transplant undertaken in Hospital das Clínicas - FMRP-USP, from February of 1968 to May of 2003. The mean age of patients bearing lithiasis was 47.2 years (range 35 to 63 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of lithiasis was 10/953 (1.0%. Nine patients received kidneys from cadaver donor and 1 from living donor. The diagnosis occurred during the surgery in 2 (20%, within few days after transplantation in 1 (10% and in the late postoperative period in 7 (70%. Seven patients had no complains, 2 had associated urinary tract infection and 1 a rise in serum creatinine. Of 8 cases with lithiasis in the postoperative period, the stones were localized in the kidney in 6 and in the ureter in 2. Renal calculi were managed as follows: watchful-waiting - 2, extracorporeal lithotrypsy - 2, percutaneous nepholithotrypsy - 1 and open pyelolithomy - 1. One patient with ureteric lithiasis associated ureteral stenosis underwent a pyelo-vesicostomy. The other patient with ureteric lithiasis was treated by retrograde endoscopic ureterolithothrypsy. CONCLUSION: Urinary lithiasis is rare in transplanted kidneys and can be managed as to the general population.

Adauto José Cologna

2003-01-01

182

Symptomatic small non-obstructing lower ureteric calculi: comparison of ureteroscopy and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the success, efficacy and complications of ureteroscopy (URS and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL for the treatment of symptomatic small non obstructing lower ureteric calculi. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective non-randomised study was conducted simultaneously at two urological referral centres, included 280 patients with symptomatic small (4-10 mm lower ureteric calculi (situated below the sacroiliac joint, with good renal function on intravenous urography. Patients were offered both the treatment options. One hundred and sixty patients chose ureteroscopy, whereas 120 patients were treated by ESWL. Standard techniques of ureteroscopy and ESWL were employed. Patients were followed-up to assess the success rates and complications of the two procedures. RESULTS: Ureteroscopy achieved complete stone clearance in one session in 95% of patients. In six patients ureteroscopy had failed initially and was later accomplished in second session improving the success rate to 98.7%. Two patients had a proximal migration of calculus that needed ESWL. Of the 120 patients treated by ESWL, 90% achieved stone free status at three months. Ureteroscopy was needed for twelve patients (10% where ESWL failed to achieve stone clearance. There were no significant ESWL related complications. ESWL was administered on outpatient basis, while patients needed hospitalisation and anaesthesia for ureteroscopy. CONCLUSION: ESWL can be the primary mode of treatment for symptomatic small non-obstructing lower ureteric calculi as it is minimally invasive and safe. Ureteroscopy can be offered to patients who demand immediate relief or when ESWL fails.

Andankar M

2001-07-01

183

Application of fast-track surgery concept in perioperative patients with biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis: a prospective study  

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Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the advantage and safety of the concept of fast-track surgery (FTS applied in perioperative patients with biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis. MethodsFifty-two patients undergoing operation for biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis from January 2011 to September 2013 were included in this study. These patients were randomly divided into FTS group (n = 30 and control group (n = 22. Patients in the FTS group received perioperative care measures guided by FTS concept, while patients in the control group received traditional perioperative management measures. The intraoperative situation of patients, time to postoperative recovery of intestinal function, length of postoperative hospital stay, total medical expenses during hospitalization, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Continuous data and categorical data were compared by t-test and ?2 test, respectively. ResultsAs compared with the control group, the FTS group had significantly time to postoperative recovery of intestinal function (t = 2.239, P = 0.045, a significantly shortened length of postoperative stay (t = 4.246, P = 0.038, and significantly reduced total medical expenses during hospitalization (t = 3.045, P = 0.033. No significant difference in postoperative complications was observed between the two groups (P?0.05. ConclusionThe concept of FTS can be safely and effectively applied in perioperative patients with biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis, which can accelerate rehabilitation without increasing the risk of surgery.

WANG Hua

2014-11-01

184

Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections  

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... What can patients do to help prevent a CAUTI? Resources for healthcare professionals What is a urinary ... What is a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI)? A catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) occurs ...

185

Minimally Invasive Radiologically Guided Intervention for the Treatment of Salivary Calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To describe the technique and examine the value of salivary stone extraction using a minimally invasive, radiologically guided approach as an alternative to salivary gland surgery for the treatment of benign salivary gland obstruction. Methods: Eighty-six cases of sialolithiasis (83 patients) were treated by stone removal using a Dormia basket under local anesthesia and fluoroscopic guidance. Postoperative assessment was made clinically at review, by sialogram and by questionnaire. Results: Of 86 cases of sialolithiasis treated, in 55 (64%)it was possible to remove all stones. In 12 cases (14%) part of a stone or some of a number of calculi were removed and in 19 cases (22%) the procedure failed. The commonest reason for failure was fixation of the stone within the duct. Symptoms at review (range 1-49 months, mean 17 months) were relieved in 55 of 67 (82%) of cases where a stone or portion of stone was removed. Conclusions:Stone removal from the salivary duct system by radiologically guided,minimally invasive approach is a simple procedure with low morbidity and high patient acceptance when appropriate selection criteria are applied. These criteria are considered and recommendations made

186

A combined transport-kinetics model for the growth of renal calculi  

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Renal stone disease is not only a concern on the Earth but could conceivably pose a serious risk to the astronauts' health and safety in Space. In this study, a combined transport-kinetics model for the growth of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals is presented. The model is used to parametrically investigate the growth of renal calculi in urine with a focus on the coupled effects of transport and surface reaction on the ionic concentrations at the surface of the crystal and their impact on the resulting growth rates. It is shown that under nominal conditions of low solution supersaturation and low Damköhler number that typically exist on the Earth, the surface concentrations of calcium and oxalate approach their bulk solution values in the urine and the growth rate is most likely limited by the surface reaction kinetics. But for higher solution supersaturations and large Damköhler numbers that may be prevalent in the microgravity environment of Space, the calcium and oxalate surface concentrations tend to shift more towards their equilibrium or saturation values and thus the growth process may be limited by the transport through the medium. Furthermore, it is shown that as the crystal size increases a shift towards a transport-limited growth process is likely. In this situation beyond a critical radius that is a function of the physiochemical parameters of the renal environment, the growth rate will not be independent of the radius as in a reaction-limited situation but will decrease as the crystal size increases.

Kassemi, Mohammad; Brock, Robert; Nemeth, Noel

2011-10-01

187

The Beneficial Effect of CynodonDactylonFractionson Ethylene Glycol-Induced Kidney Calculi in Rats  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the beneficial effect of different fractions of Cynodondactylon (C. dactylon on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided intocontrol, ethylene glycol, curative, and preventive groups. The control group received tap drinking water for 35 days. Ethylene glycol, curative, and preventive groups received 1% ethylene glycol for induction of calcium oxalate (CaOx calculus formation. Preventive and curative subjects also received different fractions of C. dactylon extract in drinking water at 12.8mg/kg, since day 0 and day 14, respectively. After 35 days, the kidneys were removed and examined for histopathological findings and counting the CaOx deposits in 50 microscopic fields. Results: In curative protocol, treatment of rats with C. dactylonN-butanol fraction and N-butanol phase remnant significantly reduced the number of the kidney CaOx deposits compared to ethylene glycol group. In preventive protocol, treatment of rats with C. dactylonethyl acetate fraction significantly decreased the number of CaOx deposits compared to ethylene glycol group. Conclusion: Fractions of C. dactylon showed a beneficial effect on preventing and eliminating CaOx deposition in the rat kidney. These results provide ascientific rational for preventive and treatment roles of C. dactylonin human kidney stone disease.

Abolfazl Khajavi Rad

2011-09-01

188

Anti-Urolithiatic Effect of Cow Urine Ark on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Calculi  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Purpose To investigate the anti-urolithiatic effect of cow urine ark (medicinal distilled cow urine) on ethylene glycol (EG) induced renal calculi. Materials and Methods 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups. Group I animals served as vehicle control and received distilled [...] water for 28 days. Group II to VI animals received 1% v/v EG in distilled water for 28 days. Group II served as EG control. Group III and IV (preventive groups) received cow urine ark orally for 28 days in doses of 1 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg, respectively. Group V and VI (treatment groups) received 1 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg cow urine ark orally, respectively from 15th to 28th days. 24-hour urine samples were collected on day 0 and 28. Urine volume and oxalate levels were measured. On day 28, blood was collected for biochemical parameters. Animals were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested, weighed and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. To calculate the percentage of inhibition of mineralization, simultaneous flow static in-vitro model was used. Results EG significantly increased urine oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea level; kidney weight and CaOx deposits. Provision of cow urine ark resulted in significantly lower levels of urine oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea and CaOx depositions as compared to Group II. (p value

A.B, Shukla; D.R, Mandavia; M.J, Barvaliya; S.N, Baxi; C.B, Tripathi.

2013-07-01

189

Urinary tract trauma  

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From a practical point of view, a woman who has blunt injury to the pelvic area with hematuria from the lower urinary tract, has a contused or ruptured bladder. In a man, such a situation calls for retrograde urethrography to determine if the injury is in the urethra or the bladder because the two organs are investigated differently. In both sexes, such injuries are usually associated with pelvic fractures. Massive bladder displacement and severe hemorrhage should alert one to the need for pelvic angiography to find and embolize the bleeding site within the first 24 hours after injury. For blunt trauma to the upper urinary tract an intravenous urogram with tomography is still the main examination. However, a normal intravenous urogram does not exclude serious injury. Therefore, if signs or symptoms persist, a computerized tomographic (CT) examination should be performed if available. Otherwise, a radionuclide study is advisable. Non-excretion on intravenous urography with tomography calls for selective renal arteriography to delineate the etiology. There can be serious renal trauma in the absence of hematuria, which may occur with renal pedicle injury or avulsion of the ureter. Minor forniceal ruptures may occasionally mask severe posterior renal lacerations

190

Urinary Tract Infections in Children  

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Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

Mustafa Taskesen

2009-04-01

191

Acute Urinary Retention in Children  

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Full Text Available Purpose: Acute urinary retention in children is a relatively rare entity. There are a variety of causes that are poorly defined in the literature. We review our cases of acute urinary retention in children at three major pediatrics centers in Iran. Materials and Methods: Between 1996 and 2003, children (up to 14 years old who had been referred due to acute urinary retention were examined. Urinary retention was defined as inability to empty the bladder volitionally for more than 12 hours with a urine volume greater than expected for age or a palpably distended bladder. All data from the patients’ past medical history, physical examination, and laboratory and radiographic assessments were collected. Also, cystourethroscopy and urodynamic procedures had been carried out according to patient’s conditions. Patients with secondary urinary retention, including those with surgical history, immobility or chronic neurological disorders, mental retardation, and drugs or narcotics consumption were excluded from study. Results: There were 86 patients meeting the inclusion criteria, consisting of 58 males with a median age of 4 years (range 1 month to 14 years and 58 females with a median age of 4 years (range 4 month to 14 years. Etiologies were lower urinary tract stone in 27.9%, neurological disorders in 10.4%, trauma in 10.4%, local inflammatory causes in 9.1%, urinary tract infection in 7.4%, ureterocele in 7.4%, benign obstructing lesions in 5.8%, iatrogenic in 5.8%, constipation in 4.6%, imperforated hymen in 3.5%, and large prostate utricle, urethral foreign body, and rhabdomyosarcoma each in 1 case (1.1%. Conclusion: The most common cause of acute urinary retention was lower urinary tract stone in our pediatric cases. Ureterocele and stone were the main findings in girls and boys, respectively, and urinary retention in boys was twice as prevalent as that in girls.

Alireza Zare

2005-05-01

192

Litotricia extracorpórea en litiasis en pacientes con derivación urinaria / Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urolithiasis in patients with urinary diversion  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Exponemos nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento de litiasis en pacientes con derivación urinaria. Hemos tratado 5 pacientes con litiasis en el tracto urinario superior tras cistectomía y derivación urinaria. El tratamiento se ha hecho con monoterapia por ondas de choque con el litotritor Lithostar M [...] odularis de Siemens. El tamaño medio de las litiasis fue de 1,95 cm (rango 1 a 3,5 cm). El número medio de sesiones ha sido 2,6, con 3961 ondas de choque de media por sesión. Hemos conseguido un 100% de pacientes libres de litiasis, indicando que la litotricia extracorpórea tiene unos buenos resultados en el tratamiento de las litiasis en pacientes con derivación urinaria, siendo el tratamiento de elección en estos pacientes, con muy baja morbilidad y alta eficacia, comparable a los pacientes sin derivación urinaria. Abstract in english We evaluate the efficacy of ESWL in the management of calculi in patients with urinary diversion. We treated 5 patients who suffered from urinary lithiasis after urinary diversion post cistectomy. We managed the patients with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in monotherapy with a Siemens Lithos [...] tar Modularis device. Mean stone size (long axis) was 1.95 cm (range 1 to 3.5 cm). The mean shockwave number per session was 2.6 per patient. Stone free result was 100%. We conclude that ESWL technique can provide acceptable results in patients with urinary diversion and can be used as first choice treatment in these type of patients due to its minimal morbidity and excellent results, equivalent to those achieved in patients without urinary diversion.

A., Vega Vega; D., García Alonso; L., Parra Muntaner; J.M., Sánchez Merino; J., García Alonso.

2004-05-01

193

Litotricia extracorpórea en litiasis en pacientes con derivación urinaria / Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urolithiasis in patients with urinary diversion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Exponemos nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento de litiasis en pacientes con derivación urinaria. Hemos tratado 5 pacientes con litiasis en el tracto urinario superior tras cistectomía y derivación urinaria. El tratamiento se ha hecho con monoterapia por ondas de choque con el litotritor Lithostar M [...] odularis de Siemens. El tamaño medio de las litiasis fue de 1,95 cm (rango 1 a 3,5 cm). El número medio de sesiones ha sido 2,6, con 3961 ondas de choque de media por sesión. Hemos conseguido un 100% de pacientes libres de litiasis, indicando que la litotricia extracorpórea tiene unos buenos resultados en el tratamiento de las litiasis en pacientes con derivación urinaria, siendo el tratamiento de elección en estos pacientes, con muy baja morbilidad y alta eficacia, comparable a los pacientes sin derivación urinaria. Abstract in english We evaluate the efficacy of ESWL in the management of calculi in patients with urinary diversion. We treated 5 patients who suffered from urinary lithiasis after urinary diversion post cistectomy. We managed the patients with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in monotherapy with a Siemens Lithos [...] tar Modularis device. Mean stone size (long axis) was 1.95 cm (range 1 to 3.5 cm). The mean shockwave number per session was 2.6 per patient. Stone free result was 100%. We conclude that ESWL technique can provide acceptable results in patients with urinary diversion and can be used as first choice treatment in these type of patients due to its minimal morbidity and excellent results, equivalent to those achieved in patients without urinary diversion.

A., Vega Vega; D., García Alonso; L., Parra Muntaner; J.M., Sánchez Merino; J., García Alonso.

194

Efect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Hypericum Perforatum L. Leaves on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Kidney Calculi in Rats  

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PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) leaves on the kidney calculi in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Groups 2, 3, and 4 received ethylene glycol (EG) 1% + ammonium chloride (0.5%)-added drinking water as a stone inducer. The H. Perforatum solution was fed at the same time of EG application and was repeated once for two days until the end of the experimental period....

Mohsen Khalili; Mohammad Reza Jalali; Mohammad Mirzaei-Azandaryani

2012-01-01

195

Technologies for Managing Urinary Incontinence.  

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The case study describes the problem of urinary incontinence and its costs to the medical care system and society as a whole. Effectiveness of alternative approaches to the management of this major health problem are outlined, with particular emphasis on ...

J. Ouslander, R. Kane, S. Vollmer, M. Menezes

1985-01-01

196

Ureteral calculi as a source of low back pain- a case report  

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This case report describes a 49 year old male with complaints of back pain that was diagnosed as degenerative low back pain and referred to the physical therapist. The mode of onset was insidious and the pain was intermittent with no relief from specific intervention as in rest, heat or analgesics. There was no report of changes in urinary frequency or color, and any vomiting sensation. This patient was appropriately screened by a physical therapist who suspected a pain origin that could pote...

Satishkumar Anandan; Deepak Sebastian

2010-01-01

197

[Urinary incontinence and obesity].  

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Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than or equal to 30kg/m(2), promotes pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence (UI) and genital prolapse. Datas from cohort studies found an association between high BMI and the onset of UI. This association seems to be predominant with for mixed UI and stress UI. For the urge UI and overactive bladder syndrome, the analysis of the literature found a weaker association. The weight is therefore the only modifiable risk factor. Thus, the weight loss by a hypocaloric diet associated with pelvic floor muscle training should be the front line treatment in the obese patient suffering from UI. Bariatric surgery can be discussed in the most obese patient, even if the risk/benefit balance should be weighed because of significant morbidity of this surgery. The results of sub urethral sling (by retropubic tension-free vaginal tape or transobturator sling) in obese patients appear to be equivalent to those obtained in patients of normal weight. Datas on per- and postoperative complications for suburethral slings are reassuring. PMID:22516035

Legendre, G; Fritel, X; Capmas, P; Pourcelot, A-G; Fernandez, H

2012-06-01

198

Trans-Ureteral Ureterolithotripsy of Ureteral Calculi:Which is the Best; Pneumatic or Holmium Laser Technique?  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Our aim was compare of two types of lithotripter include holmium: YAG laser and pneumatic one in transurethral ureterolithotripsy (TUL for the management of ureteral calculi ?1 cm.METHODS: 112 patients with ureteral calculi more than 1 cm were selected in randomized order for pneumatic or holmium: YAG laser transurethral ureterolithotripsy (56 patients in each group. Ultrasonography and intravenous urography were performed for all patients before surgery. Complete clearance and success was defined as the absence of any fragments on post operation KUB and ultrasonography images.RESULTS: Success rate was 85.7% in pneumatic group and 100% in holmium: YAG laser group (p =0.003. Stone migration up in the pelvicalyceal system was observed only in 8 cases of pneumatic group. No statically differences were observed in terms of patient’s age, hospital stay, and complications between two groups.CONCLUSION: According to our experience, for ureteral stone larger than 1 Cm treatment with ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy is a preferring approach with favorable operation time and hospital admission, and no more significant complication.

Reza Mohammadi

2011-06-01

199

Clinical characteristics and risk factors for septic shock in patients receiving emergency drainage for acute pyelonephritis with upper urinary tract calculi  

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Abstract Background Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is a common complication of ureteral obstruction caused by urolithiasis, and it can be lethal if it progresses to septic shock. We investigated the clinical characteristics of patients undergoing emergency drainage and assessed risk factors for septic shock. Methods A retrospective study was performed of 98 patients (101 events) requiring emergency drainage at our urology department for obstructive APN associated wi...

2012-01-01

200

La incontinencia urinaria / Urinary incontinence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La incontinencia urinaria, entendida como cualquier pérdida involuntaria de orina, constituye un problema médico y social importante. Puede clasificarse en incontinencia urinaria de esfuerzo, incontinencia urinaria de urgencia e incontinencia urinaria mixta, principalmente. Las proporciones de estos [...] tres tipos principales de incontinencia urinaria son difíciles de establecer y varían notablemente según las fuentes, pero, podrían estar en torno a 40, 33 y 20%, respectivamente. Su diagnóstico requiere una correcta historia clínica y exploración física, junto con algunas exploraciones complementarias. El primer escalón terapéutico lo constituyen las medidas higiénico-dietéticas y las técnicas de modificación de la conducta. El tratamiento farmacológico es específico para cada tipo de incontinencia urinaria, utilizándose anticolinérgicos e inhibidores de la recaptación de serotonina. Por último, las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas tienen su papel ante el fracaso de los tratamientos conservadores o frente a incontinencia urinaria severa. Abstract in english Urinary incontinence, understood as any involuntary loss of urine, constitutes an important medical and social problem. It can be classified as stress urinary incontinence, urgent urinary incontinence or mixed urinary incontinence. The proportions of these three types of urinary incontinence are dif [...] ficult to establish and vary notably between sources, but they might be about 40, 33 and 20% respectively. Its diagnosis requires a correct clinical history and physical exploration, together with some complementary explorations. The first therapeutic step consists of hygienic-dietary measures and behaviour modification techniques. Pharmacological treatment is specific for each type of urinary incontinence, using anticholinergics and inhibitors of serotonin reuptake. Finally, different surgical techniques have a role in cases where conservative treatments fail or when dealing with severe urinary incontinence.

J. E., Robles.

2006-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

La incontinencia urinaria Urinary incontinence  

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Full Text Available La incontinencia urinaria, entendida como cualquier pérdida involuntaria de orina, constituye un problema médico y social importante. Puede clasificarse en incontinencia urinaria de esfuerzo, incontinencia urinaria de urgencia e incontinencia urinaria mixta, principalmente. Las proporciones de estos tres tipos principales de incontinencia urinaria son difíciles de establecer y varían notablemente según las fuentes, pero, podrían estar en torno a 40, 33 y 20%, respectivamente. Su diagnóstico requiere una correcta historia clínica y exploración física, junto con algunas exploraciones complementarias. El primer escalón terapéutico lo constituyen las medidas higiénico-dietéticas y las técnicas de modificación de la conducta. El tratamiento farmacológico es específico para cada tipo de incontinencia urinaria, utilizándose anticolinérgicos e inhibidores de la recaptación de serotonina. Por último, las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas tienen su papel ante el fracaso de los tratamientos conservadores o frente a incontinencia urinaria severa.Urinary incontinence, understood as any involuntary loss of urine, constitutes an important medical and social problem. It can be classified as stress urinary incontinence, urgent urinary incontinence or mixed urinary incontinence. The proportions of these three types of urinary incontinence are difficult to establish and vary notably between sources, but they might be about 40, 33 and 20% respectively. Its diagnosis requires a correct clinical history and physical exploration, together with some complementary explorations. The first therapeutic step consists of hygienic-dietary measures and behaviour modification techniques. Pharmacological treatment is specific for each type of urinary incontinence, using anticholinergics and inhibitors of serotonin reuptake. Finally, different surgical techniques have a role in cases where conservative treatments fail or when dealing with severe urinary incontinence.

J. E. Robles

2006-08-01

202

Ethanolic Extract of Nigella Sativa L Seeds on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Kidney Calculi in Rats  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa L (NS seeds on kidney calculi in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group A received tap drinking water for 30 days (intact control. Groups B, C, and D received 1% ethylen glycol for induction of calcium oxalate calculus formation. As the preventive, and treatment subjects, rats in groups C and D received ethanolic extract of NS, 250 mg/kg, in drinking water since day 0 and day 14, respectively. Urine was collected on days 0, 7, 14, and 30 of the study period. After 30 days, the kidneys were removed and prepared for histologic evaluation of calcium oxalate deposits. Urine calcium oxalate concentrations were determined by atomic absorption. Results: The number of CaOx deposits was significantly greater in group B (P = .001. Calcium oxalate concentrations in the urine on days 14 and 30 increased significantly in group B and were higher than those in group C (P = .006 and P = .002, respectively. Urine oxalate concentration in group D decreased on day 30 and was lower than that in group B (P = .04. Conclusion: Treatment of rats with ethanolic extract of NS reduced the number of calcium oxalate deposits in a group of rats that received ethanolic extract of NS. The NS could also lower the urine concentration of calcium oxalate. We suggest further studies on the therapeutic and preventive effects of the NS on kidney calculus formation in human.

Mohammadreza Parizady

2007-02-01

203

Urinary biomarkers for secondhand smoke.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of a biomarker is mandatory for quantitative analysis of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). This article summarizes urinary biomarkers of smoke exposure which can be now quantified. The most reliable urinary biomarkers to assess the exposure to SHS are NNAL 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and NNAL-Glucuronides, which is metabolites of tobacco-specific nitrosamine. These substances were detected even in 50% of children who had undetectable level of cotinine (Urinary cotinine, which is determined by a highly sensitive competing enzyme immunoassay, is also a useful biomarker. However, individual variability of CYP2A6 allele,in which nicotine is catalyzed to cotinine, affects the level of urinary cotinine. Approximately 20% of Japanese subjects have homozygotes or heterozygotes of the CYP2A6*4 allele, which has impaired nicotine metabolism and subsequently may underestimate the actual exposure to SHS. In assessing the exposure to SHS, therefore, individual variability of CYP2A6 gene polymorphism should be taken into consideration. The combination of urinary cotinine measurement and self-report of parents' smoking seems to be accurate to assess the exposure to SHS in mass screening. PMID:21919071

Ino, Toshihiro; Ohtani, Tetsuya; Yoshimi, Itsuro

2011-01-01

204

FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection  

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FAQs (frequently asked questions) “Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection” about What is “catheter-associated urinary tract infection”? A urinary tract infection (also called “UTI”) is an infection in the urinary system, ...

205

A Surprising Attempt for Urinary Incontinence  

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Full Text Available Although there are various treatment types, majority of women with urinary incontinence do not seek care for that disorder. We present a case of woman who used a walnut for the treatment of urinary incontinence by herself.

Ahmet Tunçk?ran

2012-01-01

206

Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape  

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... vaginal tape is surgery to help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

207

Urinary incontinence - what to ask your doctor  

Science.gov (United States)

You have urinary incontinence. This means that you are not able to keep urine from leaking from your urethra, the tube that ... urine out of your body from your bladder. Urinary incontinence may occur as you get older. It can ...

208

Radiology of continent urinary diversions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Continent urinary diversions are gaining wide acceptance as alternatives to the ideal conduit following cystectomy. Clean intermittent catheterization of the pouch at regular intervals obviates the inconvenience of an external stomal appliance. A variety of surgical techniques have been described for continent pouches. These use the small bowel alone or a combination of the cecum and the terminal ileum. The optimum pouch protects upper tracts by preventing reflux, provides urinary continence, and has sufficient capacity to require infrequent catheterization. Simplified construction techniques for the common pouches are graphically presented, and methods are suggested for identification and study of continent diversions

209

Urinary incontinence in Norwegian nursing home residents  

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Full Text Available Urinary incontinence is a multi-factorial condition that has a high impact on older persons living in nursing homes. While urinary incontinence is common, only a small percentage of nursing home residents have an official diagnosis. Factors influencing urinary incontinence in this population are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of urinary incontinence in Norwegian nursing home residents and to study the factors associated with urinary incontinence in this population. Residents from six different nursing homes were included in this study. Data on sex, age, medication, comorbid illnesses, urinary incontinence and the use of absorbent pads was collected. Barthel`s Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADL was used to estimate residents’ functional levels. Post-voiding residual urine was measured by means of a portable ultrasound. A questionnaire was completed by the nursing staff for each of the residents. In total, 173 residents participated in the study. One hundred and twenty-two residents (69% were incontinent for urine and 144 used absorbent pads (83%. Fourteen percent of residents used absorbent pads ‘just to make sure’. They did not have a history of urinary incontinence. Low ADL score, dementia and urinary tract infection were significantly associated with incontinence for urine. The prevalence of urinary incontinence in Norwegian nursing homes is high. Absorbent products are frequently used without a history of urinary incontinence. Physical impairment, dementia and urinary tract infections are significantly associated with urinary incontinence.

Ove Hellzèn

2012-06-01

210

Infections and urinary stone disease.  

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The relationship between urinary infections and stone formation has been recognized since antiquity and it has been over a century since bacterial degradation of urea was postulated to cause struvite stones. Specific therapy for urease-producing bacteria, such as urease-inhibitors and antibiotics, has allowed for treatment for this subset of urinary stones. Future directions for research include development of novel urease-inhibitors and chemicals to enhance the protective glycosaminoglycan layer. An improved understanding of the pathogenesis of calcium-based stones has led to the discovery of potential roles for nanobacteria and Oxalobacter formingenes. Methods of altering intestinal regulation of oxalate by reintroduction of lactic acid bacteria may significantly impact the treatment of calcium oxalate stones. The use of catheters, both urethral and ureteral, is common in the urinary tract and is associated with significant morbidity, primarily from associated infections. Catheters to prevent bacterial colonization and formation of biofilms have been created using various coatings, including ciprofloxacin, hydrogel, and silver. Use of these types of catheters may minimize infections and encrustation inherent with their placement in the urinary tract. PMID:12678863

Rahman, Nadeem U; Meng, Maxwell V; Stoller, Marshall L

2003-01-01

211

Managing urinary incontinence: what works?  

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Abstract Urinary incontinence is a common condition, which, although not life-threatening, impairs the health-related quality of life of affected individuals. All women complaining of incontinence require a basic assessment and those with complex or refractory symptoms may benefit from urodynamic studies. Initial treatment includes lifestyle advice, behavioral modifications, bladder retraining and pelvic floor muscle training. For those women with persistent stress urinary incontinence following conservative therapy, surgical management might be considered. The development of the minimally invasive, retropubic, synthetic, mid-urethral sling procedures has revolutionized stress incontinence surgery and reduced the popularity of 'traditional' procedures, such as colposuspension and autologous fascial sling. In an attempt to reduce further the morbidity, transobturator and single-incision slings have been introduced. While antimuscarinic agents are the mainstay of the current medical management of urgency urinary incontinence, a recently developed selective ?3-adrenergic receptor agonist (mirabegron) offers an alternative pharmacological option. Modalities such as intravesical botulinum toxin and neuromodulation (peripheral or sacral) are available to women with refractory urgency incontinence. Finally, when all other options have been explored and proven unsuccessful, inappropriate or not feasible, reconstructive surgery or catheter insertion might be considered as a last resort. The aim of this paper is to review conservative, medical and surgical management for urinary incontinence by using the best available evidence in the literature. PMID:25196507

Giarenis, I; Cardozo, L

2014-12-01

212

[Urinary incontinence in the elderly].  

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Urinary incontinence affects approximately three million women in France. Its frequency increases with age. It impacts quality of life. Interrogation and clinical examination usually allow understanding its mechanism, but some additional explorations may be necessary. When a curative treatment is not possible, absorbent pads or a penile sheath in males improve patient comfort. PMID:25373265

Mahamdia, Rachid; Beguin, Anne-Marie; Daniel, Marie-Christine; Le Quintrec, Jean-Laurent

2014-01-01

213

Predictors of Success for Stone Fragmentation and Stone-Free Rate After Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy in the Treatment of Upper Urinary Tract Stones  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate factors affecting the success rate of stone fragmentation and stone-free rate after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL in treatment of upper urinary tract stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 121 patients with upper urinary tract calculi underwent SWL treatment. RESULTS: Success rate of stone fragmentation after SWL was 73.6% (89/121. In 89 patients who had success of breaking stones, 71 patients were followed up for the assessment of stone-free status, of whom 51 (71.8% patients were stone-free at 3-month follow-up. Among four prognostic factors, including body mass index (BMI, stone size, stone position, and hydronephrosis, BMI and stone position had a significant impact on the success rate of stone fragmentation (P = .04 and U1: P = .0108, respectively. Among five prognostic factors of BMI, stone size, stone position, hydronephrosis, and times of SWL treatments, stone size was the only factor with significant impact on the stone-free rate (middle: P = .0229. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that stone fragmentation and stone-free rate after SWL treatment for upper urinary tract stones can be predicted.

Kiyoshi Takahara

2012-08-01

214

Urinary zinc excretion in infancy.  

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In view of the conflicting data on urinary Zn excretion in infancy we investigated the possible influence of contamination, collecting methods, nutrition (human milk versus formula) and longitudinal changes during the first 16 weeks of life. Methodical investigation showed that special attention is necessary to avoid contamination due to the use of Zn-containing baby creams in the genital region. The sampling device for collection should include the smallest area of skin possible and the use of Zn-containing baby creams has to be avoided both during the collection and at least 24 hours prior to urine collection. Previous fractional urine sampling of the collecting method to be evaluated proves that erroneously high values are not obtained at the beginning of collection. Midstream urinary samples reduce the possibility of contamination. Increased urinary excretion was shown in pre-term infants under theophylline or coffeine medication. The median daily urinary Zn excretion in healthy breast-fed term infants declined significantly from 0.063 (0.027-0.111) mg per kg body weight at the age of 2 weeks to 0.018 (0.004-0.059) mg per kg body weight at the age of 16 weeks. Comparable values for formula-fed term infants were 0.029 (0.025-0.063) mg per kg body weight initially and 0.025 (0.007-0.059) mg per kg body weight at the end of the study. These values can be used as reference values for the urinary Zn excretion of healthy infants. PMID:2135955

Sievers, E; Oldigs, H D; Dörner, K; Schaub, J

1990-03-01

215

Use of traditional Chinese medicine in the management of urinary stone disease  

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Full Text Available Objective: To assess the evidence-based literature supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine Kampo herbal and Acupuncture in stone disease management. Materials and Methods: Four of the most commonly used herbal components of Kampo medicine in the treatment of stone disease are described according to their in vitro and in vivo effects. We also reviewed the role of Acupuncture in urologic clinical setting as well as its proposed mechanisms of action and results. Medline database was assessed using isolated and conjugated key words (Chinese Medicine, Kampo, Chinese Herbal, Calculi, Stone Disease, Kidney, Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine. Articles were reviewed and summarized. Results: Herbal medicine has been proven to be free from side-effects and therefore suitable for long term use therapy. Its antilithic beneficial effects include increased urinary volume, increased magnesium excretion (Takusya, inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate aggregation (Takusya, Wulingsan and Desmodyum styracyfolium, inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation and hydroxyapatite internalization (Wulingsan. In contrast, acupuncture, has shown to be effective as a pre-treatment anxiolytic and analgesic during colic pain and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment, reducing the need for complementary sedative drugs. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine is promising as regards its role in stone prevention. An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each procedure differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics. Similarly, standardization of Kampo formulations and acceptable clinical endpoints (imaging vs. symptomatic events is needed.

Ricardo Miyaoka

2009-08-01

216

Correlations Between the Composition of Moroccan Urinary Stones and the Risk Factors (Food Habit  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize and to analyze the likely factors to influence the composition of the Morocco urinary calculi, we took a study between July 2002 and June 2007 with 283 lithiasis patients that gave their sample (stone for analyzes by infrared spectroscopy and replied to the questionnaire. Different informations were recorded: epidemiological characteristic (sex, age, residence zone and profession, food habits (tea; rich products in calcium, oxalate, animal proteins and spicy meals and consumption. The results show: a strong liaison between the different studied factors and the stone mainly composed of Weddelite, Whewellite and uric acid; the age effect on the stone mainly composed of Weddelite and uric acid was confirmed. Significant correlations were noted, positive between the stone mainly composed of Weddelite and the consumption of oxalate and negative between the stone mainly composed of calcium phosphate or magnesium ammonium phosphate and tea and spicy meals. This research shows equally that the consumption of the rich products in oxalate is frequents and that the consumption of the rich products in calcium is weak. This nutrition type would be responsible to the preponderance of the stone calcium oxalate (Whewellite, Weddelite observed in our country.

Laziri Fatiha

2009-01-01

217

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the urinary bladder: a report of 11 cases.  

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Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to the urinary bladder is rarely seen. Herein, we report the histologic subtypes, immunohistochemical characteristics, and prognosis of 11 patients with metastatic RCC to the urinary bladder. The mean age at the time of diagnosis of metastatic RCC to the bladder was 66 years (range, 58 to 79 y). There were 9 male and 2 female patients. Four patients presented with hematuria, 2 with urinary retention/obstruction, and 1 with bladder calculi. Four patients were asymptomatic and presented for surveillance cystoscopy, wherein they were found to have bladder masses. Nine patients had prior histories of RCC. The remaining 2 patients presented with metastatic clear cell RCC to the bladder and were subsequently found to have renal masses. The average time between nephrectomy and metastasis to the bladder was 20.7 months (range, 0 to 87 mo). Of the 10 patients with radical/partial nephrectomy, 7 cases were clear cell (2 with sarcomatoid features), 2 papillary, and 1 chromophobe with histologic fidelity between the primary and metastasis. Of cases with available data, the primaries' ISUP nucleolar grades were 2 (n=2), 3 (n=4), and 4 for the 2 cases with sarcomatoid features. In 8 cases, the bladder RCC undermined overlying urothelium with extensive urothelial denudation, and in 3 cases the RCC was free floating without attachment to the urothelium. The 1 chromophobe RCC metastasized with pagetoid spread to a preexisting urothelial papilloma. PAX8 immunohistochemistry was used to confirm the diagnosis in 2 cases. Three patients have no evidence of disease (7, 9, and 13 mo). Two are alive with disease after chemotherapy (30, 37 mo). Six patients are dead of disease with multiorgan metastases; 4 are dead after therapy (5, 8, 25, 28 mo), and two died without radiation or chemotherapy at 10 and 71 months. Metastatic RCC to the urinary bladder is uncommon, with most cases clear cell RCC. In some cases, evidence supports "drop metastases" as the mechanism of spread and patients have relatively long survival. However, in other cases spread to the bladder is in the setting of metastases to other sites, and these patients tended to die relatively shortly after their bladder metastases. PMID:25140895

Zhang, Miao; Wah, Cheuk; Epstein, Jonathan I

2014-11-01

218

Biomarkers for lower urinary tract dysfunction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lower urinary tract dysfunction is highly prevalent, but has relatively low persistence and compliance with therapy because of poor efficacy. Although urodynamic study is the gold standard for detailed evaluation of lower urinary tract dysfunction, urodynamic study has limitations as a biomarker, such as invasiveness and a lack of reproducibility of symptoms. Thus, many investigations about new biomarkers for lower urinary tract dysfunction have been carried out and reported. For imaging biomarkers, bladder and prostate parameters assessed by ultrasonography have been used to evaluate lower urinary tract dysfunction. For urinary biomarkers, neurotrophins, such as nerve growth factor and brain derived neurotrophics factor, prostaglandins and cytokines, have been analyzed and evaluated. Among these, nerve growth factor is considered one of the key factors in the pathophysiology of lower urinary tract dysfunction, and is researched in various ways. Serum markers have suggested that C-reactive protein and sex hormones have a relationship with lower urinary tract dysfunction. The possibility of genetic biomarkers in lower urinary tract dysfunction has also been raised. Nevertheless, as yet these biomarkers have not shown enough evidence to reflect lower urinary tract dysfunction and require further investigation. This review will discuss promising and potential biomarkers in lower urinary tract dysfunction to date. PMID:23113734

Cho, Kang Jun; Kim, Joon Chul

2013-01-01

219

A history of urinary stone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary stone was well known to the ancient Greeks, as the reference to it in the Oath of Hippocrates shows. The oldest renal stone on record actually comes from an Egyptian mummy. For obvious reasons our forefathers were better acquainted with bladder stones than renal stones until the advent of radiography. Interesting aspects of the story are the gradual decline in the incidence of bladder stones and their apparent replacement by renal stones. PMID:6999641

Modlin, M

1980-10-18

220

Primary amyloidosis of urinary bladder  

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Full Text Available Primary amyloidosis of the bladder is a rare pathologicalcondition, which the etiology is unknown. The signsand symptoms suggests bladder tumor. In some patients,lower urinary tract symptoms such as lower abdominalpain, frequent urination, dysuria and complaints of grosspainless hematuria occur. In this study, a case of primarylocalized amyloidosis of the bladder in a 66 years oldfemale who had gross painless hematuria as the initialsymptom is described.Key words: Amyloidosis, bladder, hematuria

Basri Çak?ro?lu

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

Effects of urinary volume on urinary concentrations of lead, delta-aminolaevulinic acid, coproporphyrin, creatinine, and total solutes.  

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Urinary volume was related to urinary concentrations of lead, delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), coproporphyrin (COPRO), creatinine, and total solutes in nine lead workers. On a log scale, linear relationships were found between urinary volume and the urinary concentrations. There was a certain difference in the extent of the effects of urinary volume on the urinary concentrations. For example, the concentration of creatinine was more affected by urinary volume than those of lead, ALA, and tot...

Araki, S.

1980-01-01

222

E.A.E.S. multicenter prospective randomized trial comparing two-stage vs single-stage management of patients with gallstone disease and ductal calculi.  

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BACKGROUND: The current management of patients with gallstone disease and ductal calculi consists of endoscopic stone extraction (ESE) followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Following the advent of techniques of laparoscopic ductal stone clearance, an alternative single-stage laparoscopic treatment was introduced for these patients. The European Association of Endoscopic Surgery (E.A. E.S.) set up a ductal stone trial to compare the relative efficacy and outcome of these two managemen...

Morino, Mario

1999-01-01

223

A novel ureter dilatation method for replacing hydromantic perfusion pump during ureteroscopic lithotripsy in patients with ureteral calculi and ibroepithelial polyps.  

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This study aimed to evaluate the clinical value of a novel ureter dilatation method during ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy in patients with ureteral calculi and polyps. Clinical information of 86 patients with ureter calculi and polyps who underwent ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy was reviewed. A cavity-distention machine was used in 44 cases to inject normal saline for keeping clear operation view (cavity-distention machine-assisted group). A high handled water bag with artificial water injection (traditional pneumatic lithotripsy group) was used in 42 cases. The total operation time, time of stone removal, stone clearance rate and surgery complications were compared between two groups. All operations were successful with no patients transferred to open surgery. No ureter breakage or avulsion occurred in two groups. Two patients in traditional pneumatic lithotripsy group suffered from ureter perforation. In cavity-distention machine-assisted group and traditional pneumatic lithotripsy group, the total operation time was 30.1±4.8 min and 36.2±6.0 min, respectively (t=-5.22, Pureter stone immigrated to the renal pelvis in 2, and extraorgan shock wave lithotripsy was performed), respectively. Thus, intraoperative infusion of saline with a cavity-distention machine may replace the hydromantic perfusion pump to maintain a clear operation view and favor the stone removal in lesser time. This method has important clinical value in the treatment of ureteral calculi and polyps. PMID:24753755

Li, Tengcheng; Fang, Youqiang; Wu, Jieying; Zhou, Xiangfu

2014-01-01

224

Recurrent Multifocal Primary Amyloidosis of Urinary Bladder  

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Full Text Available Primary localized amyloidosis of bladder is rare. We report a case of recurrence of multifocal primary amyloidosis of urinary bladder. Cystoscopy revealed a diffuse left lateral wall lesion with normal surrounding mucosa. Histopathological examination of the specimen revealed urinary bladder amyloidosis with negative surgical margins. Recurrent urinary bladder amyloidosis was confirmed 3 months after the first resection. Close follow-up is recommended.

Patel S

2008-01-01

225

Lower urinary tract symptoms: thinking beyond the urinary tract.  

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We present a case of a 54-year-old man with progressive lower urinary tract symptoms over 12 months. Physical examination, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and ultrasound of the renal tract were all unremarkable. Flexible cystoscopy was normal. Urodynamic assessment revealed an overactive bladder of unknown aetiology. The patient went on to have an MRI of the lumbosacral spine which showed a spinal cord tumour of the conus medullaris. The patient underwent a laminectomy and resection of the tumour. Histology showed myxopapillary ependymoma of the spinal cord. This case highlights the need to consider the full spectrum of causes, urological and non-urological, in assessing a patient with voiding dysfunction. PMID:25035441

Ashrafi, Akbar; Winkle, David

2014-01-01

226

[Investigation of typical melamine urinary stones using infrared spectra].  

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A typical melamine kidney stone confirmed by some medicine expert was collected from the first people's hospital of Yunnan. The kidney stone was adequately determined by PE corporation spectra 100(with resolution of 1 cm(-1)). The stone samples for FTIR analysis were prepared using the KBr pellet technique, where 2 mg of the pretreated stone powder was mixed with 200 mg of analytical grade KBr using an agate pestle and mortar. The digital spectrum was then scanned in the mid-infrared region from 4 000 to 400 cm(-1) at room temperature. The appearing bands between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 487, 3 325, 3 162 and 2 788 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 694, 1 555, 1 383, 1 340, 1 189 and 1 122 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 782, 748, 709, 624, 585, 565 and 476 cm(-1). It was found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with cat kidney stone, which was from cats that died after consuming the contaminated food, and confirmed that these deposits were primarily composed of melamine and cyanuric acid compared to the IR spectra of calculi in literature. It was also found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with popular kidney stone by comparison with the IR spectra of calculi in literature. The spectrum of calculi was 50% respectively similar with melamine and uric acid as compared with the IR spectrum. It was found that the main constituent of calculi was melamine itself and uric acid as compared with the IR spectra of calculi and melamine: (1 : 1), because the spectrum of calculi was 83. 3% similar to melamine and uric acid (1 : 1). The appearing bands of melamine and uric acid (1 : 1) between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 469, 3 419, 3 333, 3 132, 3 026, 2 827 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 696, 1 656, 1 555, 1 489, 1 439, 1 350, 1 311, 1 198, 1 124 and 1 028 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 878, 814, 784, 745, 708, 619, 577 and 475 cm(-1). PMID:20384125

Si, Min-Zhen; Li, Qing-Yun; Liu, Ren-Ming; Kang, Yi-Pu; Wang, Kun-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Guo

2010-02-01

227

What I Need to Know about Urinary Tract Infections  

Science.gov (United States)

... to know about Urinary Tract Infections What I need to know about Urinary Tract Infections On this ... problems with the body’s natural defense system who need a tube to drain their bladder with urinary ...

228

21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system...Test Systems § 862.1340 Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system...

2010-04-01

229

A meta-analysis of the efficacy of ureteroscopic lithotripsy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on ureteral calculi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To re-evaluated the clinic efficacy of ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URS) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on ureteral calculi with Cochrane systematic reviews in this paper. METHODS: We searched clinical randomized controlled trials and prospective controlled trials in d [...] atabases such as Cochrane library, Medline, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, PubMed. Pooled estimate of risk ratios (RRs), standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as measure of effect sizes. Summary effect estimates were also stratified by sample size, study design and study region. The overall effect sizes were derived using a random-effects model or fixed-effects model when appreciated, and meta-analysis were conducted with software RewMan 5.0. RESULTS: The meta-analysis suggested that there were significant differences of post-treatment stone free rate, repeat treatment rate, patients' satisfaction, incidence of postoperative complications, operation time and hospital stays between ESWL treatment cases and URS treatment cases. But in the sample sizes analysis, there were no significant differences of the post-treatment stone free rate and repeat treatment rate when the sample sizes were less than 100. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the ureteroscopic lithotripsy treatment, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment provided a significantly lower post-treatment stone free rate, but it also obviously brought out less postoperative complications, shorter operation time and hospital stays.

Yahong, Xu; Yi, Lu; Jian, Li; Shunwen, Luo; Yang, Liu; Zhigang, Jia; Ping, Chen; Yu, Guo; Qihua, Zhao; Xiaoping, Ma; Shufang, Jia.

230

A meta-analysis of the efficacy of ureteroscopic lithotripsy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on ureteral calculi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To re-evaluated the clinic efficacy of ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URS) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on ureteral calculi with Cochrane systematic reviews in this paper. METHODS: We searched clinical randomized controlled trials and prospective controlled trials in d [...] atabases such as Cochrane library, Medline, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, PubMed. Pooled estimate of risk ratios (RRs), standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as measure of effect sizes. Summary effect estimates were also stratified by sample size, study design and study region. The overall effect sizes were derived using a random-effects model or fixed-effects model when appreciated, and meta-analysis were conducted with software RewMan 5.0. RESULTS: The meta-analysis suggested that there were significant differences of post-treatment stone free rate, repeat treatment rate, patients' satisfaction, incidence of postoperative complications, operation time and hospital stays between ESWL treatment cases and URS treatment cases. But in the sample sizes analysis, there were no significant differences of the post-treatment stone free rate and repeat treatment rate when the sample sizes were less than 100. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the ureteroscopic lithotripsy treatment, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment provided a significantly lower post-treatment stone free rate, but it also obviously brought out less postoperative complications, shorter operation time and hospital stays.

Yahong, Xu; Yi, Lu; Jian, Li; Shunwen, Luo; Yang, Liu; Zhigang, Jia; Ping, Chen; Yu, Guo; Qihua, Zhao; Xiaoping, Ma; Shufang, Jia.

2014-05-01

231

URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANCY  

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Full Text Available Urinary tract infections frequently affect pregnant mothers. This problem causes significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Three common clinical manifestations of UTIs in pregnancy are: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli remains the most frequent organism isolated in UTIs. All pregnant mothers should be screened for UTIs in pregnancy and antibiotics should be commenced without delay. Urine culture and sensitivity is the gold standard in diagnosing UTIs. Without treatment, asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, maternal hypertension, pre-eclampsia and anaemia. Acute pyelonephritis can lead to maternal sepsis. Recurrent UTIs in pregnancy require prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

N Sivalingam

2007-01-01

232

URINARY TRACT OBSTRUCITON FOLLOWING ESWL  

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Full Text Available Among 2379 patients with upper urinary tract stones who underwent ESWL (Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy at Sina Hospitál using the Siemens Lithostar, 638 developed Stone Street (SteinStrasse. Of these, 516 (81% passed all of the stone fragments spontaneously and no treatment was required, 90 cases (14% had more ESWL sessions to complete the treatment, and 30 (4.7% required further interventional procedures. Only two cases (0.3% needed an open ureterolithotomy."nIn this paper, we report the results of our experience in treating Stein Strasse as a complication of the ESWL.

Gholamreza Pourmand

1994-06-01

233

A rare urinary bladder tumour.  

Science.gov (United States)

This case report describes a 54-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician with low back pain. During his workup, an incidental finding of a bladder mass was diagnosed. He underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumour and the resulting pathology was consistent with extra nodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Presentation of MALT lymphoma in the urinary bladder is rare. This malignancy is more commonly found in the stomach. The prognosis for this rare tumour is excellent. Our patient showed no sign of recurrence with transurethral excision and radiation alone. PMID:24835803

Haddad-Lacle, Judella Edwina Maria; Haddad, Charles Joseph; Villas, Bruce

2014-01-01

234

21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (a) Identification. A urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to measure glucosuria (glucose in urine). Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) measurements are used in the diagnosis and...

2010-04-01

235

Urinary tract infection in children - aftercare  

Science.gov (United States)

Symptoms of urinary tract infection should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days. ... If diagnosed with a urinary tract infection (UTI), your child will take antibiotic medicines by mouth at home. These may come as pills, capsules, or a liquid. ...

236

Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because…

Griebling, Tomas L.

2009-01-01

237

Urinary tract infection due to Enterobacter sakazakii  

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Full Text Available Enterobacter sakazakii is a rare but important cause of necrotizing enterocolitis, bloodstream infection and central nervous system infections in humans, with mortality rates of 40-80%. It has not been reported to cause urinary tract infection. We report a case of urinary tract infection due to E. sakazakii in a 63-year-old lady with chronic renal failure.

Bhat Gopalkrishna

2009-07-01

238

Hypercalciuria in children with urinary tract symptoms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We performed this prospective study to determine the urinary calcium to creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr in children with different urinary symptoms. We studied 523 children in our neph-rology clinic with an age range of 3 to 14 years (mean= 8 and male to female ratio of 0.61. All the children had at least one of the urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, frequency, urgency, abdo-minal and/or flank pain, diurnal incontinence or enuresis, microscopic hematuria, urinary tract infection or urolithiasis. Fasting urine was collected for measuring calcium and creatinine and the results were compared to the values for the normal Iranian children. Ca/Cr ratio of more than 0.2 (mg/mg was considered as hypercalciuria. Of all the patients, 166 (31.3% were hypercalciuric. Urine Ca/Cr ratio was significantly higher in all the subgroups with one or more of the urinary symptoms (P< 0.001. We conclude that urine Ca/Cr ratio is significantly increased in children with all types of urinary symptoms. We recommend measuring urinary calcium in all children with urinary tract symptoms, especially if unexplained.

Fallahzadeh M

2010-01-01

239

Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   "nIn the name of God. Dear colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great honor to be here. Bladder dysfunction is serious enough to seek serious help. If you may know I am working in a private clinic which it is impossible to follow the patients so this lecture is based on unusual and rare cases who came to me. Bladder dysfunction (BD is common among 30% of young and old people who are suffering from it, however it is more common in old ages. According to a research, women are more involved as in men which prostate has a role is more common. The usual cases were: "n1. A young girl, aged 20, who had to wake up five times during the night to micturate. "n2. Also a lady said when I roll in bed I wet myself. "n3. A young lady who always had to use a pad. "n4. A man said I can’t use underground. "n5. I cannot go out since I have to micturate every hour. "n6. One said I have to wake up every hour at night. "n7. Young people say we have to micturate 3-4 times at night. "n8. A young man said as soon as I feel to micturate I empty my bladder before I’ve reached the WC and I wet myself to the ankle, how could I have a job? "n9. Some women wet themselves when they cough. "nIn order to know and diagnosis, the physiology of bladder function must be known. "nThe bladder is divided into two parts: "nThe Dom, which is innervated by Beta-Adrenergic. It relaxes the bladder in order to comply the urine. "nFrom the orifice of the urether and posterior ridge of the trigon to the bladder neck or internal sphincter. The prostatic urethra plays a major role in conti- nence. It has two parts,   "n1: From the bladder neck to V.M. this is enclaved by extension of detrusor muscles like a sleeve. These muscles contract during ejaculation to prevent retrograde ejaculation. "nDistal urethra from V.M. to the external sphincter which is covered by voluntary muscles. "nThe internal pressure of the urethra is higher than the bladder. If the pressure of the bladder rises, the internal pressure of the urethra should also increase. In women, the internal pressure of the urethra is short, and even if it has poorly developed they wet themselves when they cough. "nThe causes of BD: "nAs you see there are 17 causes, which 11 are related to the bladder. The bladder is responsible for retaining the urine and voiding. "nPathophysiology: "nThe bladder and sphincter should work in a coordinated manner: "nDuring the course of a day, an average person will void approximately 4-8 times. The urinary bladder is in storage mode for most of the day, allowing an individual to engage in more important activities than urination. "nNormal bladder function consists of 2 phases—filling and emptying. The normal micturition cycle requires the urinary bladder and the urethral sphincter working together as a coordinated unit to store and empty urine. During urinary storage, the bladder acts as a low-pressure receptacle, while the urinary sphincter maintains high resistance to urinary flow to keep the bladder outlet closed. During urine elimination, the bladder contracts to expel urine while the urinary sphincter opens (low resistance to allow unobstructed urinary flow and bladder emptying. "nFilling phase: "nDuring the filling phase, the bladder accumulates increasing volumes of urine while the pressure inside the bladder remains low. The pressure within the bladder must be lower than the urethral pressure during the filling phase. If the bladder pressure is greater than the urethral pressure (resistance, urine will leak out. "nThe filling of the urinary bladder depends on the intrinsic viscoelastic properties of the bladder and the inhibition of the parasympathetic nerves. Thus, bladder filling is primarily a passive event. "nSympathetic nerves also facilitate urine storage in the following ways: "nSympathetic nerves inhibit the parasympathetic nerves from triggering bladder contractions. "

F. faizi

2009-01-01

240

Overview on the lower urinary tract.  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter overviews our current knowledge on the subject of the urinary tract, whose fundamental role is to transport urine from the kidneys and then store it at low pressure in the lower urinary tract until it can be voided at a socially convenient time. Current understanding of lower urinary tract function and dysfunction is summarized, with reference to anatomy, innervation, and function. The importance of the neurological system in the normal function of the lower urinary tract is emphasized, with a brief overview of the consequence of neural injury at different levels within the central nervous system. The role of urodynamics in the evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms is discussed with particular reference to the currently recommended terminology advocated by the International Continence Society and The International Urogynaecological Association. PMID:21290219

Chapple, Christopher

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Urinary calprotectin and posttransplant renal allograft injury  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144 incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r?=?-0.33; P<0.001). Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98; specificity, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.66). Higher urinary calprotectin concentrations predicted impaired kidney function 4 weeks after transplantation, as well as 6 months and 12 months after transplantation. When data were analyzed using the urinary calprotectin/creatinine-ratio similar results were obtained. Urinary calprotectin was superior to current use of absolute change of plasma creatinine to predict allograft function 12 months after transplantation. Urinary calprotectin predicted an increased risk both in transplants from living and deceased donors. Multivariate linear regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation.

Tepel, Martin; Borst, Christoffer

2014-01-01

242

Urinary catheterization in medical wards  

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Full Text Available Aims : The study aims to determine the: 1. frequency of inappropriate catheterization in medical wards and the reasons for doing it. 2. various risk factors associated with inappropriate catheterization, catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI and bacterial colonization on Foley?s catheters (BCFC. Settings and Design: Hospital-based prospective study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty five patients admitted consecutively in the medical wards of a tertiary care hospital, who underwent catheterization with a Foley?s catheter, at admission, have been included in the study. Patient profiles were evaluated using the following parameters: age, sex, diagnosis, functional status, mental status, indication, duration and place of catheterization, development of BCFC and CAUTI. Statistical tests used: Chi-square test. Results: Thirty-six out of 125 (28.8% patients included were inappropriately catheterized. BCFC developed in 52.8% and 22.4% were diagnosed with a CAUTI. The most frequent indication for inappropriate catheterization was urinary incontinence without significant skin breakdown (27.8%. The risk factors for inappropriate catheterization were female sex (RR=1.29, 95% CI=0.99, 1.69, P< 0.05 and catheterization in the emergency (RR=0.74, 95% CI=0.61, 0.90, P< 0.05. The risk factors for developing a BCFC were age>60 years (RR=0.65, 95% CI=0.48, 0.89, P< 0.05, non-ambulatory functional status (RR=0.57, 95% CI=0.39, 0.84, P< 0.01, catheterization in the emergency (RR=2.01, 95% CI=1.17, 3.46, P< 0.01 and duration of catheterization>3 days (RR=0.62, 95% CI=0.43, 0.89, P< 0.01. The risk factors for acquiring a CAUTI were age>60 years (RR=0.47, 95% CI=0.25, 0.90, P< 0.05, impaired mental status (RR=0.37, 95% CI=0.18, 0.77, P< 0.01 and duration of catheterization>3 days (RR=0.24, 95% CI=0.10, 0.58, P< 0.01. Conclusions : Inappropriate catheterization is highly prevalent in medical wards, especially in patients with urinary incontinence. The patients catheterized in the medical emergency and female patients in particular are at high risk. Careful attention to these factors can reduce the frequency of inappropriate catheterization and unnecessary morbidity.

Bhatia Nirmanmoh

2010-01-01

243

Risk Factors for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections  

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Full Text Available To evaluate risk factors associated with recurrent urinary tract infections,we conducted a case- control study comparing 400 patients referred to aninfectious diseases outpatient clinic who had a history of recurrent urinary tractinfections (case patients with 400 age, sex-matched control patients without ahistory of urinary tract infections. The distribution of 400 case patients to thegroups; 200 were women, 100 were men and 100 were children. 100 womenwere from 18 through 40 years of age (premenopausal and 100 of them wereover 40 years of age (menopausal.Each patient completed a questionnaire providing an earlier history ofurinary tract infections, frequency of repeat episodes of urinary tract infections,having maternal history of urinary tract infections, recent antibiotic use,urogenital surgery history, marriage status and hygienic measures. In addition,physical examination of genitourinary system and laboratory investigation wasdone.In conclusion; our data support the view that some common factorsimportantly influence the incidence of recurrent urinary tract infections amongdifferent groups such as premenopausal, menopausal, men and childrengroups. These factors are; history of urinary tract infections, having urinarytract infections under the age of 15, recent antibiotic use in last one yearsperiod, urogenital surgery history and inappropriate hygienic measures.

Serda Gülsün

2004-01-01

244

Use of traditional Chinese medicine in the management of urinary stone disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective: To assess the evidence-based literature supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine Kampo herbal and Acupuncture in stone disease management. Materials and Methods: Four of the most commonly used herbal components of Kampo medicine in the treatment of stone disease are described ac [...] cording to their in vitro and in vivo effects. We also reviewed the role of Acupuncture in urologic clinical setting as well as its proposed mechanisms of action and results. Medline database was assessed using isolated and conjugated key words (Chinese Medicine, Kampo, Chinese Herbal, Calculi, Stone Disease, Kidney, Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine). Articles were reviewed and summarized. Results: Herbal medicine has been proven to be free from side-effects and therefore suitable for long term use therapy. Its antilithic beneficial effects include increased urinary volume, increased magnesium excretion (Takusya), inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate aggregation (Takusya, Wulingsan and Desmodyum styracyfolium), inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation and hydroxyapatite internalization (Wulingsan). In contrast, acupuncture, has shown to be effective as a pre-treatment anxiolytic and analgesic during colic pain and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment, reducing the need for complementary sedative drugs. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine is promising as regards its role in stone prevention. An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each procedure differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics. Similarly, standardization of Kampo formulations and acceptable clinical endpoints (imaging vs. symptomatic events) is needed.

Ricardo, Miyaoka; Manoj, Monga.

2009-08-01

245

Use of traditional Chinese medicine in the management of urinary stone disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective: To assess the evidence-based literature supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine Kampo herbal and Acupuncture in stone disease management. Materials and Methods: Four of the most commonly used herbal components of Kampo medicine in the treatment of stone disease are described ac [...] cording to their in vitro and in vivo effects. We also reviewed the role of Acupuncture in urologic clinical setting as well as its proposed mechanisms of action and results. Medline database was assessed using isolated and conjugated key words (Chinese Medicine, Kampo, Chinese Herbal, Calculi, Stone Disease, Kidney, Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine). Articles were reviewed and summarized. Results: Herbal medicine has been proven to be free from side-effects and therefore suitable for long term use therapy. Its antilithic beneficial effects include increased urinary volume, increased magnesium excretion (Takusya), inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate aggregation (Takusya, Wulingsan and Desmodyum styracyfolium), inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation and hydroxyapatite internalization (Wulingsan). In contrast, acupuncture, has shown to be effective as a pre-treatment anxiolytic and analgesic during colic pain and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment, reducing the need for complementary sedative drugs. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine is promising as regards its role in stone prevention. An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each procedure differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics. Similarly, standardization of Kampo formulations and acceptable clinical endpoints (imaging vs. symptomatic events) is needed.

Ricardo, Miyaoka; Manoj, Monga.

246

Development of a Prosthesis for Urinary Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Report describes development and marketing of prosthetic sphincter for urinary control. With prosthetic device, patients void bladder every 3 to 4 hours. Periodic voiding keeps bladder muscles exercised and healthy and avoids bladder infections and kidney damage.

Tenney, J. B.; Rabinowitz, R.; Tomkiewicz, Z.; Harrison, H. N.; Rogers, D. W.

1986-01-01

247

State of the Science on Urinary Incontinence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite widely disseminated guidelines for urinary incontinence (UI), it remains underreported and underdiagnosed. To raise awareness about UI and to develop a nursing agenda for research and clinical practice an invitational symposium for nurse researche...

M. H. Palmer

2002-01-01

248

[Non-neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction].  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional bladder disorders in children are a common condition and they are observed in 5-15% of pediatric population. Recent observations of bladder function of the healthy newborns have changed our viewpoint on its behaviour in older children. By the age of 4 years, many if not most children have matured their urinary tract function and developed an adult pattern of urinary control. They are generally dry during the day and the night. The adult pattern is characterized during bladder filling by an absence of unstable or uninhibited (involuntary) detrusor contractions. Urodynamic studies have confirmed that even at bladder capacity and when the desire to void is strong, detrusor contraction will not occur unless it is voluntarily initiated. The voiding symptoms and urinary incontinence or urinary infection and are thought to be caused by behavioral factors that affect toilet training and prevent successful transition from the infantile to the adult pattern of urinary control. These syndromes of dysfunctional elimination differ greatly in manifestation, prognosis, and pathophysiology and comprise a clinical spectrum that varies widely. At the severe end of the spectrum are a small group of patients with Hinman's syndrome, also termed the non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder, dysfunctional voiding, or occult neuropathic bladder. Less severe uropathology is observed in the large group of children who present with refractory and often severe symptoms that reflect incomplete toilet training with diminished urinary control. Their obstruction is caused by an incoordination between bladder and sphincter that occurs only during bladder filling in the presence of unstable bladder contractions and is, therefore, of less potential risk to the urinary tract. Unstable bladder, the most common pattern of urinary dysfunction in childhood, occurs in up to 57% of symptomatic children aged 3 to 14 years. Voluntary constriction of the urinary sphincter during unstable bladder contractions produces urinary obstruction with high intravesical pressures. The assessment of children with lower urinary tract disorders should consist of a detailed history, a frequency/volume chart and a physical examination. Uroflowmetry and ultrasound examination can be added. Treatment of functional bladder disorders in children can be divided in urotherapy, consisting of standard therapy and some specialized types of urotherapy like biofeedback, neuromodulation, pharmacotherapy and botulinum toxin injections. PMID:18924526

Skobejko-W?odarska, Lidia

2008-01-01

249

An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

uced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: ? Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. ? We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. ? The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. ? Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. ? Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

250

Urinary phytoestrogens and postmenopausal breast cancer risk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phytoestrogens are defined as plant substances that are structurally or functionally similar to estradiol. We report the associations of two major phytoestrogens, genistein and enterolactone, with breast cancer risk, using urinary specimens collected 1-9 years before breast cancer was diagnosed. The subjects were 88 breast cancer cases and 268 controls, selected from a cohort of postmenopausal women (n = 14,697) who participated in a breast cancer screening program. Mean levels of urinary gen...

Tonkelaar, I.; Keinan-boker, L.; Veer, P.; Arts, C. J. M.; Adlercreutz, H.; Thijssen, J. H. H.; Peeters, H. M.

2001-01-01

251

Late radiation injuries of the urinary tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 400 patients with late radiation injuries of the organs of the small pelvis were examined. Urinary dysfunction was found in 115 of them. Radionuclide renography with 131I-hippuran, excretory urography and ultrasound scanning were employed for their investigation. The principal cause of urinary dysfunction was the development of ultrapelvic radiation fibrosis with ureteral compression and direct radiation injury of the ureter

252

A radioimmunoassay for urinary tetrahydroaldosterone determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radioimmunoassay for urinary tetrahydroaldosterone is described. An antiserum, elicited by a 3-carboxy-methyloxime 18-21 aldosterone diacetate conjugated to bovine serumalbumine, with which tetrahydroaldosterone cross reacts, is used. The method is specific, sensitive (10 pg/tube), accurate, reproducible (7%), thus allowing sufficient reliability for clinical applications. In 19 normal adults subjects under unrestricted sodium intake, the urinary tetrahydroaldosterone averaged 59,8+-29,4 ?g/24 h

253

An Unusual Case of Urinary Incontinence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urinary incontinence and hematuria are frequent complaints evaluated by urologists often with readily identifiable etiologies. Occasionally, an unlikely source is found. We present an unusual case of urinary incontinence and hematuria in an elderly female. Evaluation revealed that the complaints were due to a large cyst emanating from her right hip which was the result of a previous right hip arthroplasty in 1970 with three subsequent revisions. Her symptoms resolved spontaneously and the cyst has remained unchanged.

Eric R. Anderson

2011-02-01

254

Radioimmunoassay of human urinary kallikrein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a human urinary kallikrein, purified by means of Trasylol sepharose, it has been possible to develop a radioimmunoassay of kallikrein capable of detecting the substance down to a concentration of 0.5 ng/ml. The specific activity of the tracer labelled with 125-iodine using the Chloramine-T method was 30-70 nCi/ng of kallikrein. The antiserum titres for the antikallikrein serum were 1:20.000 up to 1:50.000. Human urine, submandibular and parotid salivae as well as pancreatic secretion in this RIA reacted in the same manner as the kallikrein standard solution. The kallikrein content in urine, as determined by the RIA was between 0 and 300 ng/ml, in the saliva between 400 and 2.000 ng/ml, and in the pancreatic juice between 300 and 12.000 ng/ml. Using human serum, only an incomplete immunological cross-reaction could be achieved. In human liquor as well as in animal preparation, no cross-reacting substances could be detected. (orig.)

255

Treatment of stress urinary incontinence.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This review presents reported cure and improvement rates of stress urinary incontinence in women obtained by different treatment modalities. Apart from the urodynamic findings, histological and histochemical changes of the pelvic floor may be clinically relevant to treatment in the future. Long-term cure and improvement rates achieved by non-surgical treatment (physiotherapy, biofeedback, bladder training, electrostimulation) are commented on. These rates range from 40-60% for physiotherapy and electrostimulation but are considerably less after biofeedback and bladder training. Pharmacotherapy is unlikely to offer more than a placebo effect. Studies of a single surgical procedure usually report high cure rates. In making the appropriate choice of operation the best guidelines are the cure rates from comparative or prospective randomized reports. From such studies an abdominal retropubic suspension operation (cure rates after five years 57-78 %) is more likely to help the patient than an anterior colporrhaphy (cure rates 31-70 %) or a transvaginal needle bladder neck suspension (cure rates 39-61 %). In selected patients sling procedures or the use of artificial sphincters may produce excellent results (70-80 %). To estimate the results of different treatments urine loss should be assessed objectively and physical restrictions and hygienic and social implications taken into account. A method of pre- and post-treatment "performance scores" should be developed.

Fischer-Rasmussen, W

1990-01-01

256

Urinary Peptide Levels in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Peptide levels in urine are found to be decreased in renal failure. In the current study urinary peptide levels were determined in chronic renal failure (CRF patients. Method: 86 CRF patients and 80 healthy controls were selected for the study. Urinary proteins and peptide levels were determined by spectrophotometer based Lowry and Bradford methods. Urinary creatinine levels were determined by clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: There was significant decrease in urinary peptide levels in CRF patients and Urinary % peptides were significantly decreased in CRF patients as compared to healthy controls. Urinary % peptides correlated negatively with proteinuria. Conclusion: we have found decrease in urinary peptides and % urinary peptides in CRF patients and possibly measurement of % urinary peptides may possibly serve as better indicator in early detection of impairment in renal function.

Mungli Prakash

2010-10-01

257

Urinary incontinence, catheters, and urinary tract infections: an overview of CMS tag F 315.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of nursing home residents experience some type of urinary incontinence. Other bladder-related disorders (eg, urinary retention and urinary tract infection) also are common in long-term care facilities. Efforts to manage urological conditions such as the use of indwelling catheters and absorbent products, perineal hygiene and care, toileting, and bladder rehabilitation are areas of concern and have become the subject of revised regulations. The intent of recent changes to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services surveyor guidance for incontinence and urinary catheters is to ensure that: 1) incontinent residents are identified, assessed, and provided appropriate treatment, 2) indwelling catheters are not used without medical justification and removed as soon as clinically warranted, and 3) residents receive appropriate care to prevent urinary tract infections. Nursing homes must implement policies, procedures, and programs to help restore bladder function and continence in order to improve quality-of-life for nursing home residents. PMID:17204825

Newman, Diane K

2006-12-01

258

Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p <0.01). Four patients had incomplete renal tubular acidiosis (iRTA), 3 had hypercalciuria, and 5 patients had hypocitraturia. The 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium was increased in the females with MSK (5.23 +/- 0.78 mmol) compared to the healthy females (3.49 +/- 0.29 mmol) (p <0.02), and increased in MSK patients with iRTA (7.32 +/- 1.45 mmol) compared to patients with normal urinary acidification (3.83 +/- 0.12 mmol) (p <0.01). The patients with iRTA had reduced levels of plasma standard bicarbonate (20.5 +/- 1.0) after fasting compared to patients with normal urinary acidification (23.8 +/- 0.8) and healthy women (22.7 +/- 0.6) (p <0.01), and reduced levels of 24-hour urinary excretion of citrate (0.93 +/- 0.25 mmol) compared to patients with normal urinary acidification (3.58 +/- 0.51) and healthy women (2.78 +/- 0.49) (p <0.005). A positive correlation was found between the degree of acidosis during ammonium chloride loading and urinary excretion of calcium (r = 0.71, p = 0.02), and a negative correlation between the degree of acidosis during ammonium chloride loading and urinary citrate excretion (r = 0.87, p = 0.001). The results suggest that defective urinary acidification might play an important role in the mechanism of hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia in patients with medullary sponge kidney.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle

1994-01-01

259

Urinary tract injuries in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As shown by literature data, abdominal trauma in children is responsible for 14% of deaths, whereas in adults for 10%. Although abdominal traumas in children can be severe and lead to massive blood loss, most children die because of accompanying traumas of the thorax and head. It validates the surgical rule concerning abdominal traumas 'investigate aggressively, manage conservatively'. Posttraumatic injury of the urinary system is not frequent in children and its specificity (compared with adults), depends on greater susceptibility to external aggressive factors. Blunt trauma is the cause of renal parenchyma injury and acceleration/deceleration injury affects the excretory system and vessels. Extension mechanism is the cause of ureter avulsion and/or thrombus formation in stretched renal vessels- it is characteristic in children with non-accidental traumas. Bladder and urethra injuries are rare in children. During car accidents, a rupture of full bladder (seat belt injury) or bladder perforation by fractured bones of the pelvis is possible. We analyzed all hospitalizations of abdominal trauma in our surgical ward in the year 2004 (70 cases). Renal injuries were found in 6 children (8.6%). Thanks to five-year clinical experience of our hospital, on the average only 1-2 cases per annum needed operation. The management of renal injuries involves first of all conservative treatment. This publication has educational character and may serve as a valuable reminder of the useful knowledge in daily cooperation between the emergency room, radiology department and surgical ward. Based on available literature from recent few years, we quote suggested renal injuries classifications and procedures.This publication contains only images from our department of radiology archives. Clinical symptoms are often not appropriate for blunt abdominal traumas diagnosis. Owing to clinical status, which is difficult to interpret, fast and complete radiological diagnosis is necessary for proper treatment of children after abdominal trauma. Further complications of renal injuries may affect the further growth of the child. (author)

260

Serum and Urinary NGAL in Septic Newborns  

Science.gov (United States)

Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is postulated to be a potentially new and highly specific/sensitive marker of acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of inflammation on serum and urine NGAL in newborns that were treated due to infection. We determined serum and urine NGAL concentrations in 73 infants (51 with sepsis; 22 with severe sepsis) admitted to the Intensive Care Unit in the first month of life, for three consecutive days during the course of treatment for infection. 29 neonates without infection served as the control group. Septic patients, in particular, severe sepsis patients, had increased serum and urinary NGAL levels in the three subsequent days of observation. Five septic patients who developed AKI had elevated serum and urinary NGAL values to a similar extent as septic neonates without AKI. A strong correlation was found between the concentration of serum and urinary NGAL and inflammatory markers, such as CRP and procalcitonin. Serum and urinary NGAL levels were also significantly associated with NTISS (neonatal therapeutic intervention scoring system) values. We conclude that increased serum and urinary NGAL values are not solely a marker of AKI, and more accurately reflect the severity of inflammatory status. PMID:24579085

Suchojad, Anna; Majcherczyk, Malgorzata; Jadamus-Niebroj, Danuta; Owsianka-Podlesny, Teresa; Brzozowska, Aniceta

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Lower urinary tract development and disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Urinary Tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomalies such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUV). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, bladder, and urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, bladder and urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the post-genomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

2013-01-01

262

Lower urinary tract development and disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital anomalies of the lower urinary tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder, and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomaliesc such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUVs). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease, and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, the bladder, and the urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, the bladder and the urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the postgenomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

2013-01-01

263

Urinary infections in children: main radiological alterations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors present 120 cases of urinary tract infection in children. Radiological evaluation of every child with urinary tract infection included both excretory urography and voiding cyst urethrography. Fifty eight percent of the children were found to have urinary anomalies. Reflux was present in 26.6% of the cases and congenital anomalies in 25%. Among the latter, duplication of collecting system and pyeloureteral and ureterovesical stenosis were the more frequent findings. Hypo tony of the collecting systems, loss of cortical renal tissue and irregularities of the renal contour were the main radiological signs. The delay in performing the radiological evaluation (46% of the children presenting radiological abnormalities were examined only one year after the beginning of the symptoms) contributed to a greater incidence of irreversible lesions, showing therefore that it should be done immediately. A scheme for radiological investigation is also proposed. (author)

264

Differences in urinary trichloroethylene metabolites of animals.  

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Full Text Available Differences in urinary excretion of trichloroethylene were studied in rabbits, rats and mice. Trichloretylene (1 m mole/kg was injected intra-peritoneally, then urinary trichloroacetic acid and trichloroethanol glucuronide were measured. The results were: 1. The ratio of total excretion of trichloroethylene metabolites to the administered trichloroethylene decreased in the order of mice, rats and rabbits. 2. The ratio of total trichloroethanol to trichloroacetic acid in urine decreased in the order of rabbits (69.2, mice (12.8 and rats (2.3. The high ratio in rabbits was due to the extremely small amount of trichloroacetic acid in the urine. 3. Differences in these two urinary metabolites in the three kinds of animals and in human subjects were discussed.

Ogata,Masana

1979-12-01

265

Herbs In Treatment Of Urinary Tract Infections  

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Full Text Available It is known that urinary tract is very common source of infection and UTIs are second most common reason people visit their doctors each year. Escherichia coli is responsible for large majority of UTIs. UTIs is most commonly diagnosed bacterial infection in woman. Population at risk of complication include older woman, pregnant woman. Continuous antibiotics prophylaxis are used to treat and prevent recurrent urinary tract infections, frequent antibiotic use can result in vaginal and intestinal dysbiosis as well as antibiotic resistance. Thus, it is desirable to seek alternative methods of prevention and treatment of simple UTIs. Few herbal antimicrobial agents Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry, Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry; Blueberry, Berberine, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (Bearberry are proved to be very effective in preventing and treating urinary tract infections.

Manish Wasamwar

2012-10-01

266

MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

267

Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

Science.gov (United States)

... Urinary Tract Infections Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: With each of the bladder or urinary tract ... you use (for example, a diaphragm, spermicide)? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...

268

Radiology of trauma to kidney and lower urinary tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents are trauma to kidney, imaging of kidney trauma, management of renal trauma, delayed complications, trauma to the lower urinary tract, trauma to urinary bladder, radiologic diagnosis, ethiology of blunt bladder injury, urethal injury (6 refs.)

269

Binary Vegetative Management of the Lower Urinary Tract Function  

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Full Text Available In this article, we review the neurophysiology of the bladder and the lower urinary tract function and discuss logical concepts for the development of novel drug therapy for patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

Vadim B. Berdichevskii

2013-09-01

270

Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

271

Urinary tract infection by chromobacterium violaceum.  

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Chromobacterium violaceum, a facultative anaerobic proteobacterium, is particularly isolated from water and soil in tropical areas and has been implicated in few infections like septicemia, visceral abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, meningitis and diarrhea. But urinary tract infection caused by it is very rare. Limited awareness about this pathogen and inappropriate antibiotic therapy contribute to a high mortality rate. Here, we describe an unusual case of urinary tract infection by Chromobacterium violaceum in a young immuno-competent male which was managed aggressively with proper antibiotics as per the culture sensitivity report. PMID:25302195

Swain, Bichitrananda; Otta, Sarita; Sahu, Kundan Kumar; Panda, Kirtika; Rout, Subhrajita

2014-08-01

272

Urinary Tract Infection By Chromobacterium Violaceum  

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Chromobacterium violaceum, a facultative anaerobic proteobacterium, is particularly isolated from water and soil in tropical areas and has been implicated in few infections like septicemia, visceral abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, meningitis and diarrhea. But urinary tract infection caused by it is very rare. Limited awareness about this pathogen and inappropriate antibiotic therapy contribute to a high mortality rate. Here, we describe an unusual case of urinary tract infection by Chromobacterium violaceum in a young immuno-competent male which was managed aggressively with proper antibiotics as per the culture sensitivity report.

Otta, Sarita; Sahu, Kundan Kumar; Panda, Kirtika; Rout, Subhrajita

2014-01-01

273

Imaging of the urinary tract in adults  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses the indications for imaging of the urinary tract from the general practitioners' point of view. Urography should be used in the control of patients with previous attacks of ureteral colic, in patients presenting macroscopic hematuria and as a preoperative investigation prior to extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Ultrasound should be chosen in patients with microscopic hematuria and non-specific abdominal pain. Computerized tomography should be used in cases with non-specific findings using urography and ultrasound. There are no indications for imaging in women with recurrent urinary tract infection, in men with benign prostatic hypertrophy and in the evaluation of hypertension. 14 refs., 5 tabs

274

Current Trends in the Management of Difficult Urinary Catheterizations  

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Routine urinary catheter placement may cause trauma and poses a risk of infection. Male catheterization, in particular, can be difficult, especially in patients with enlarged prostate glands or other potentially obstructive conditions in the lower urinary tract. Solutions to problematic urinary catheterization are not well known and when difficult catheterization occurs, the risk of failed catheterization and concomitant complications increase. Repeated and unsuccessful attempts at urinary ca...

Willette, Paul A.; Coffield, Scott K.

2012-01-01

275

Scintigraphic detection of urinary leakage after kidney transplantation  

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Urinary leakage after kidney transplantation is a serious complication. In a retrospective study we analyzed 8 relevant cases of 14 patients with urinary leakage. In these eight patients kidney scintigraphy indicated the presence of urinary extravasation. Compared with other imaging modalities such as IV urography, cystography and ultrasound, scintigraphy seems to be an easy and safe method to detect urinary leakage. Moreover scintigraphic examination may suggest leakage, while this may not be clinically evident or suspected. (orig.)

276

Current practices in the management of patients with ureteral calculi in the emergency room of a university hospital  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Urinary lithiasis is a common disease. The aim of the present study is to assess the knowledge regarding the diagnosis, treatment and recommendations given to patients with ureteral colic by professionals of an academic hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five physicians were interviewed about previous experience with guidelines regarding ureteral colic and how they manage patients with ureteral colic in regards to diagnosis, treatment and the information provided to the patients. RESULTS: Thirty-six percent of the interviewed physicians were surgeons, and 64% were clinicians. Forty-one percent of the physicians reported experience with ureterolithiasis guidelines. Seventy-two percent indicated that they use noncontrast CT scans for the diagnosis of lithiasis. All of the respondents prescribe hydration, primarily for the improvement of stone elimination (39.3%. The average number of drugs used was 3.5. The combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids was reported by 54% of the physicians (i.e., 59% of surgeons and 25.6% of clinicians used this combination of drugs (p = 0.014. Only 21.3% prescribe alpha blockers. CONCLUSION: Reported experience with guidelines had little impact on several habitual practices. For example, only 21.3% of the respondents indicated that they prescribed alpha blockers; however, alpha blockers may increase stone elimination by up to 54%. Furthermore, although a meta-analysis demonstrated that hydration had no effect on the transit time of the stone or on the pain, the majority of the physicians reported that they prescribed more than 500 ml of fluid. Dipyrone, hyoscine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opioids were identified as the most frequently prescribed drug combination. The information regarding the time for the passage of urinary stones was inconsistent. The development of continuing education programs regarding ureteral colic in the emergency room is necessary.

Oliver Rojas Claros

2012-01-01

277

Childhood Urinary Tract Infection May Bring Lasting Harm to Kidneys  

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... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Childhood Urinary Tract Infection May Bring Lasting Harm to Kidneys But researchers ... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Children's Health Kidney Diseases Urinary Tract Infections TUESDAY, Aug. 5, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Urinary tract ...

278

Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review  

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Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

Farzana Hamid

2013-07-01

279

Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder  

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Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

Christoph von Klot

2012-04-01

280

Primary localized amyloidosis of the urinary bladder  

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We report a rare case of localized form of primary amyloidosis (amyloidoma) of the urinary bladder with CT and MR findings. Clinically, it is difficult to distinguish from invasive transitional cell carcinoma and inflammatory lesion. We think that the MR intensity on T2-weighted images is helpful in making the diagnosis. (orig.)

Kato, H.; Toei, H.; Furuse, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Jichi Medical School and Hospital, Tochigi (Japan); Suzuki, K. [Dept. of Urology, Jichi Medical School and Hospital, Tochigi (Japan); Hironaka, M.; Saito, K. [Dept. of Pathology, Jichi Medical School and Hospital, Tochigi (Japan)

2003-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Primary localized amyloidosis of the urinary bladder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a rare case of localized form of primary amyloidosis (amyloidoma) of the urinary bladder with CT and MR findings. Clinically, it is difficult to distinguish from invasive transitional cell carcinoma and inflammatory lesion. We think that the MR intensity on T2-weighted images is helpful in making the diagnosis. (orig.)

282

Minimally Invasive Management of Urinary Incontinence  

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... Self-Examination (TSE) Testicular Torsion Testicular Trauma U Ultrasound Imaging Undescended Testis Upper Urinary Tract Cancer Urachal Abnormalities ... joins the urethra. Acting on signals from the brain, bladder neck muscles can either tighten ... cancer, a tumor that has grown into the bladder wall. ions: ...

283

Arsenic and urinary bladder cell proliferation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that a close association exists between the elevated levels of arsenic in drinking water and the incidence of certain cancers, including transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. We have employed in vitro and in vivo models to examine the effects of sodium arsenite on the urinary bladder epithelium. Mice exposed to 0.01% sodium arsenite in drinking water demonstrated hyperproliferation of the bladder uroepithelium within 4 weeks after initiating treatment. This occurred in the absence of amorphous precipitates and was accompanied by the accumulation of trivalent arsenite (iAs3+), and to a lesser extent dimethylarsenic (DMA), arsenate (iAs5+), and monomethylarsenic (MMA) in bladder tissue. In contrast to the bladder, urinary secretion was primarily in the form of DMA and MMA. Arsenic-induced cell proliferation in the bladder epithelium was correlated with activation of the MAP kinase pathway, leading to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase activity, AP-1 activation, and expression of AP-1-associated genes involved in cell proliferation. Activation of the MAP kinase pathway involved both epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-dependent and -independent events, the latter involving Src activation. Studies summarized in this review suggest that arsenic accumulates in urinary bladder epithelium causing activation of specific signaling pathways that lead to chronic increased cell proliferation. This may play a non-epigenetic role in carcinogenesis by increasing the proliferation of initiated cells or increasing the mutational rate

284

[Ketamine-associated urinary tract damage].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ketamine is widely used as an anesthetic during surgical procedures in both animals and humans. As its unique effects of inducing the dissociative hallucinatory,vivid dreams, out-of-body experiences, and delirium, it has diverted from legitimate uses to the illicit drug market, and abusing ketamine has become a serious social problem. The abusers may use ketamine alone or mixe it with other drugs to get an intense pleasure. There are case reports from all over the world in recent years that abusing ketamine may induce severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and a variety of anatomical and functional lesions can be found in the urinary tract if further examinations are administrated. There is no universally recognized treatment protocols for this syndrome. Ketamine cessation or even reduction is the most effective treatment to prevent deterioration of the urinary tract, and intravesical instillation of hyaluranic acid (cystitstat) and oral pentosan polysulphate (elmiron) may take effect. The pathogenesis of ketamine-associated urinary tract destruction is unclear, and further study is needed. PMID:21844983

Chen, Wei-hao; Guan, Zhi-chen

2011-08-18

285

Urinary Incontinence: Causes and Methods of Evaluation  

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This article presents the third of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. Here, the author introduces the types and physiology of urinary incontinence. The author also…

Griebling, Tomas L.

2008-01-01

286

Effects of microgravity on urinary osteopontin  

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Increased risk of renal stone formation during space flight has been linked primarily to increased calcium excretion from bone demineralization induced by space flight. Other factors contributing to increased risk include increased urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation, while urinary citrate, magnesium and volume are all decreased. The aim of this study was to increase the predictive value of stone risk profiles for crew members during space flight by evaluating the excretion of urinary protein inhibitors of calcium crystallization so that more comprehensive stone risk profiles could relate mineral saturation to the concentrations of inhibitor proteins. Levels of urinary osteopontin (uropontin) are reported in a series of 14 astronauts studied before, during, and after space flights. During space flight, a compensatory increase in uropontin excretion was not observed. However, the uropontin excretion of a majority of astronauts was increased during the period after space flight and was maximal at 2 wk after landing. The downward shift in the molecular size of uropontin observed in samples obtained during space flight was shown to result from storage at ambient temperature during flight, rather than an effect of microgravity on uropontin synthesis.

Hoyer, J. R.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Liu, H.; Whitson, P. A.

1999-01-01

287

Measuring Morbidity Associated with Urinary Schistosomiasis: Assessing Levels of Excreted Urine Albumin and Urinary Tract Pathologies  

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Urinary schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease caused by a parasitic worm that dwells in the blood vessels, particularly those surrounding the human bladder wall. Although not directly associated with high patient mortality, this disease is linked to both short-term morbidity, e.g. visible blood in urine (acute), as well as long-term sequelae, e.g. urinary tract pathologies (chronic). Numerous control programmes based upon chemotherapy have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa in an atte...

Sousa-figueiredo, Jose? C.; Basa?n?ez, Mari?a-gloria; Khamis, I. Simba; Garba, Amadou; Rollinson, David; Stothard, J. Russell

2009-01-01

288

Mechanisms of pain from urinary tract infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pain response to urinary tract infection is largely uncharacterized, but the symptomatic response to urinary tract infection contrasts with the lack of pain response among individuals with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Quantifying pelvic pain in a murine urinary tract infection model, uropathogenic Escerichia?coli induces transient pelvic pain, whereas an asymptomatic bacteriuria E.?coli isolate causes no pain, thus recapitulating the spectrum of clinical responses to intravesical E.?coli. These differential pain responses are not correlated with bladder colonization or inflammation, but instead are intrinsic to E.?coli lipopolysaccharide and dependent on the lipopolysaccharide receptor, TLR4. Epidemiological data suggest a link between interstitial cystitis and a history of urinary tract infection, so it was evaluated whether repetitive uropathogenic E.?coli instillation would result in chronic pain through central sensitization. Although repeated infection with wild type uropathogenic E.?coli results in only transient episodes of acute pain, a uropathogenic E.?coli mutant lacking O-antigen causes chronic, post-urinary tract infection pelvic pain. Similarly, a K-12 E.?coli strain lacking O-antigen induces chronic pain that persisted long after bacterial clearance, and expressing O-antigen nullified the pain phenotype. Spinal cords isolated from mice with post-urinary tract infection chronic pain showed deficits in short-term depression consistent with central sensitization. Deleting O-antigen gene complex from a uropathogenic E.?coli strain and subsequent heterologous expression of O-antigen gene clusters shows that a single bacterial isolate can exhibit pain phenotypes ranging from a null phenotype, an acute pain phenotype, to a chronic pain phenotype. Post-urinary tract infection chronic pain is also associated with voiding dysfunction and anxious/depressive behavior. These effects are also mediated by TRPV1 at the level of pain establishment and CCR2 at the level of pain maintenance. Together, these findings show that transient infection with E.?coli might result in chronic visceral pain with the hallmarks of neuropathic pain. This pattern of behaviors mimics the spectrum of interstitial cystitis symptoms, thus supporting the possibility of an infectious etiology of interstitial cystitis. PMID:24807489

Rosen, John M; Klumpp, David J

2014-04-01

289

Ultrasound-guided urinary bladder biopsy through a urinary catheter in a bitch.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 34.4 kg 5 yr old spayed female mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of a urinary bladder mass. The dog had a recent onset of hematuria and stranguria but otherwise appeared to be healthy. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a mass in the urinary bladder. The dog was sedated and a 10-French rubber catheter that had the blunt end removed was passed from the urethra to the urinary bladder. Using ultrasound guidance, ellipsoid cup biopsy forceps were advanced through the rubber catheter to the urinary bladder mass and biopsies were successfully obtained. The dog was discharged from the hospital a few hours after the procedure. Histopathology of the mass was consistent with polypoid cystitis. Follow-up surgical removal of the polyp was uneventful, and histopathology confirmed the presurgical biopsy diagnosis. Procurement of urinary bladder biopsies through a urinary catheter with ultrasound guidance was used as a minimally invasive alternative to either cystoscopy or surgery in a bitch. Use of this technique achieved a diagnosis without the need for specialized endoscopic equipment, anesthesia, or surgery. PMID:25251433

Lopez, Julio; Norman, Brian C

2014-01-01

290

Urinary Tract Infection in South Jordanian Population  

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Full Text Available Urinary tract infections were investigated in order to screen for the linked causative bacterial agent. One hundred seventy patients with clinical symptoms of urinary tract infections were examined. It was found that 119 of the patients had actual laboratory evidence for urinary tract infections. One hundred and nine of them were discovered by the routine work and the remaining 10 patients were detected by the filtration of 50 mL of urine through a filter paper and culturing the filter paper due to the low counts of bacteria in their samples. The result of different examination test suggest that the Escherichia coli is responsible for the large proportion of infection (53.24%, followed by other strains like Enterococcus faecalis (24.05%, Proteus sp. (19.537%, Staphylococcus aureus (19.206%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (7.8%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (13.2%, Klebsiella sp. (11.96%, Enterobacter sp. (5.128%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.4%, Citrobacter sp. 1.92% and Serratia marcescens (0.8%. The most spreaded bacteria in female was Escherichia coli, while the most spreaded bacteria in male was Proteus sp. The proportion of urinary tract infections in female was 81%, while the proportion in male was 19%. The proportion of infection in married male was 10%, while in single male was 9%, compared with a proportion of 55% in married female and 26% in single female. For the treatment of urinary tract infection the antibiotic Ciprofloxacin (5 ?g disk-1 was found to be most effective antimicrobial agents against all isolated bacteria strains, while Oxacillin (1 ?g disk-1 was found to be the least effective.

Khaled M. Khleifat

2006-01-01

291

Cold stress induces lower urinary tract symptoms.  

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Cold stress as a result of whole-body cooling at low environmental temperatures exacerbates lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary urgency, nocturia and residual urine. We established a model system using healthy conscious rats to explore the mechanisms of cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In this review, we summarize the basic findings shown by this model. Rats that were quickly transferred from room temperature (27 ± 2°C) to low temperature (4 ± 2°C) showed detrusor overactivity including increased basal pressure and decreased voiding interval, micturition volume, and bladder capacity. The cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity is mediated through a resiniferatoxin-sensitve C-fiber sensory nerve pathway involving ?1-adrenergic receptors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels, which are sensitive to thermal changes below 25-28°C, also play an important role in mediating the cold stress responses. Additionally, the sympathetic nervous system is associated with transient hypertension and decreases of skin surface temperature that are closely correlated with the detrusor overactivity. With this cold stress model, we showed that ?1-adrenergic receptor antagonists have the potential to treat cold stress-exacerbated lower urinary tract symptoms. In addition, we showed that traditional Japanese herbal mixtures composed of Hachimijiogan act, in part, by increasing skin temperature and reducing the number of cold sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channels in the skin. The effects of herbal mixtures have the potential to treat and/or prevent the exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms by providing resistance to the cold stress responses. Our model provides new opportunities for utilizing animal disease models with altered lower urinary tract functions to explore the effects of novel therapeutic drugs. PMID:23441811

Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu

2013-07-01

292

Fungus ball pieloureteral en pacientes con litiasis urinaria: Tratamiento con ureterorrenoscopia / Pyelo-ureteral fungus ball in patients with urinary lithiasis: Ureterorrenoscopic management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: C. albicans es el hongo que con mayor frecuencia produce infecciones oportunistas del tracto urinario. Cuando las hifas se aglutinan alrededor de un núcleo de tejido necrótico (necrosis papilar), hebras mucosas, restos de suturas quirúrgicas y/o material litiásico, se forma una pelota [...] fúngica que puede obstruir cualquier tramo del tracto urinario. CASOS CLÍNICOS: Presentamos dos pacientes formadores crónicos de cálculos que en ausencia de otros factores de riesgo para las infecciones fúngicas oportunistas, desarrollan fungus balls en el tracto urinario superior dilatado por una litiasis ureteral obstructiva. La paciente 1 tuvo afectación bilateral y en ningún momento hubo manifestaciones sistémicas. El tratamiento consistió en ureterorrenoscopia con extracción de las bolas fúngicas, derivación bilateral y anfotericina B sistémica y en irrigaciones tópicas. El paciente 2, en el contexto de una sepsis candidiásica, se trató con anfotericina B sistémica, desobstrucción mediante ureterorrenoscopia con extracción de un cálculo ureteral y de pelotas fúngicas, y colocación de catéter JJ y nefrostomía con irrigaciones de anfotericina B. DISCUSIÓN: La litiasis urinaria constituye por sí sola un factor de riesgo para la infección fúngica del tracto urinario superior, en ausencia de otros factores favorecedores de las infecciones fúngicas oportunistas. El mecanismo por el cual el cálculo favorece el crecimiento de los hongos es, por un lado, la obstrucción pieloureteral con éstasis retrógrado y, por otro lado, la nucleación alrededor de una matriz de material cálcico sobre la que crecen, se agregan y se ramifican los micelios. La vía de infección es probablemente ascendente y puede complicarse con funguemia y sepsis. Los antimicóticos sistémicos, la derivación con catéteres ureterales o de nefrostomía que permitan irrigación local con antifúngicos, y las técnicas endourológicas, constituyen los tres pilares básicos del tratamiento. La ureterorrenoscopia juega aquí un papel importante al ser una técnica diagnóstica y al mismo tiempo terapéutica al permitir la desobstrucción litiásica y la limpieza de las masas fúngicas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: C. albicans is the most frequent fungus causing opportunist infections of the urinary tract. Agglutination of necrotic tissue nucleus (papilar necrosis), mucosus debri and chirurgic or lithiasic debri, originates a fungus ball, which can obstruct the urinary tract at any level. CLINICA [...] L DATA: We present 2 patients with obstructive urinary lithiasis developing fungus ball in the dilated upper urinary tract. Patient 1 was bilaterally affected and never had systemic symptoms. Treatment consisted of uretherorrenoscope for removal of fungus ball, bilateral urinary diversion and anphotericine B irrigations and systemic. Patient 2 developed a candidemia and was treated with systemic liposomal anphotericine B, uretherorrenoscopy with removal of ureteric calculus and fungus ball, and placement of a double J catheter and nephrostomy tube for anphotericine B irrigation. DISCUSSION: Urinary lithiasis is a risk factor for fungal infection of the upper urinary tract, provided there is no other predisponent factor for opportunistic fungal infections. Calculi facilitates fungal growth by means of obstruction and subsequent retrograde estasis and creating a nucleus for growth, aggregation and ramification of mycelium. The infection pathway is probably ascendent and may turn into fungemia and septicaemia. Systemic antimicotics, urinary diversion and local irrigations with antimicotics, and endourologic technics, are the three basic items in the treatment. Ureterorrenoscopy plays an important roll as a diagnostic and terapeutic tool as it may solve the obstruction and allows removal of fungus ball.

J.P., Burgués Gasión; J.M., Alapont Alacreu; F., Oliver Amorós; A., Benedicto Redón; F., Boronat Tormo; J.F., Jiménez Cruz.

293

Urinary excretion of copper and zinc among cigarette smokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The urinary levels of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) were measured among 11 adult male non-smokers and 38 adult male cigarette smokers to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the urinary excretion of Zn and Cu in relation to urinary Cd level. The results indicated that among non-smokers, the urinary levels of Cd, Zn, and Cu were: 1.17-5.24 (3.73 +/- 1.23) microg Cd/gm urinary creatinine, 66.73-156.13 (109.28 +/- 30.27) microg Zn/gm urinary creatinine, 83.17-195.65 (126.72 +/- 41.46) microg Cu/gm urinary creatinine, respectively. The cigarette smokers were classified into two groups according to the level of urinary Cd. The first group contains 13 cases with urinary Cd levels within the normal range of non-smokers, and the urinary levels of both Zn and Cu were observed to be also within the normal range of non-smokers (2.14-4.98 (3.85 +/- 0.97) microg Cd/gm urinary creatinine, 69.40-150.59 (97.61 +/- 21.39) microg Zn/gm urinary creatinine, 85.33-137.42 (96.11 +/- 13.60) microg Cu/gm urinary creatinine, respectively]. The second group contains 25 cases with elevated urinary Cd levels (5.44-40.37 (14.08 +/- 9.69 microg Cd/gm urinary creatinine]. The latter group was further subdivided into two subgroups according to the urinary levels of Zn and Cu. The first subgroup contains 15 cases with urinary levels of both Zn and Cu within the normal range of non-smokers [5.44-13.58 (7.74 +/- 2.11) microg Cd/gm urinary creatinine, 69.54-133.46 (96.95 +/- 22.91) microg Zn/gm urinary creatinine, 93.06-191.90 (133.7 +/- 32.80) microg Cu/gm urinary creatinine, respectively]. The second subgroup contains 10 cases with elevated urinary levels of Zn and/or Cu [13.81-40.37 (23.57 +/- 8.74) microg Cd/gm urinary creatinine, 141.53-511.11 (284.76 +/- 132.45) microg Zn/gm urinary creatinine, 193.06-705.48 (388.49 +/- 158.66) microg Cu/gm urinary creatinine, respectively). In the latter subgroup it was noted that only one case showed elevated levels of urinary Cd and Zn but not Cu, while another case showed increased urinary Cd and Cu levels but not Zn. The results of the present investigation suggest that urinary Cd, at a certain level, may be accompanied by increased urinary excretion of both Zn and Cu among cigarette smokers. PMID:17265623

El-Safty, I A; Shouman, A E

1997-01-01

294

Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women  

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Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative approaches is effective in reducing urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered as a first line treatment for overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence.Keywords: urinary incontinence, obesity, women

Whitcomb EL

2011-08-01

295

Segmental Urethral Dosimetry and Urinary Toxicity in Patients With No Urinary Symptoms Before Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To determine whether segmental urethral dosimetry is predictive for the degree of urinary morbidity after prostate brachytherapy in patients with no urinary symptoms before prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between May 2000 and November 2005, 1,107 patients underwent iodine-125 monotherapy with urethral sparing techniques. A total of 166 patients fulfilled the selection criteria: baseline (International Prostate Symptom Score) IPSS ?5, no androgen deprivation therapy, and prostate ultrasound planning volumes (PUTV) <45 mL. The median follow-up was 44 months. Urinary morbidity was defined by maximum increase in IPSS, time to IPSS resolution, maximum Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score, time to RTOG resolution, and urinary retention. Surrogate deviated urethra was contoured and doses calculated at the base, mid-prostate, apex, and urogenital diaphragm. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to evaluate urethral and prostate dosimetry, age, PUTV, and number of needles for their association with urinary morbidity. Results: Urethral dose was fairly constant in all urethra segments except prostate base, where the variation in does was large. On multivariate analysis, higher urethral base D50, V100, and larger PUTV were predictive for higher maximum increase in IPSS. Higher urethral base V100 and larger PUTV predicted for prolonged IPSS resolution. Higher urethral base D50 and larger needle number predicted for longer RTOG resolution. Higher urethral base V100 predicted for RTOG ?2 toxicity. Conclusions: Radiation dose to the urethral base, larger PUTV, and needle number, predicted for increased urinary toxicity after prostate brachytherapy. Correlation between urinary morbidity and urethral base dosimetry may reflect a large variation in urethral dose observed at the prostate base

296

Effect of BMI and urinary pH on urolithiasis and its composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urolithiasis is a common urological disease predominantly affecting males. The lifetime risk of urolithiasis varies from 1% to 5% in Asia, 5% to 9% in Europe, 10% to 15% in the USA and 20% to 25% in the middle-east; lowest prevalence is reported from Greenland and Japan. Such differences have been explained on the basis of race, diet and climate factors. Furthermore, changing socio-economic conditions have generated changes in the prevalence, incidence and distribution for age, sex and type of lithiasis in terms of both the site and the chemical as well as the physical composition of the calculi. The aim of our study was to determine the association between body mass index (BMI) and urine pH in patients with urolithiasis and the influence of body size, as reflected by the BMI, on the composition. The study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, on urolithiatic patients. The data included patient's age, sex, BMI, urine pH, serum calcium, serum uric acid, serum creatinine and stone composition. Data from 100 patients, 70 men (70%) and 30 women (30%), were analyzed, with 28 patients having normal weight, 38 patients being overweight and 34 patients being obese. The mean age of the patients was 36.58 ± 9.91 years in group I, 40.47 ± 14.48 years in group II and 37.85 ± 12.46 years in group III (P > 0.05). The stone composition was calcium oxalate (CaOx) in 66 patients, calcium phosphate (CaP) in 60 patients, uric acid (UA) in 38 patients, combined calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in 28 patients and three stones in 10 patients. The urinary pH levels (mean ± SD) were 7.78 ± 1.49 in group I, 7.15 ± 1.11 in group II and 6.29 ± 1.14 in group III patients (P = 0.0001). Urine pH showed a stepwise decrease with increasing BMI (inverse correlation). Urine pH is inversely related to BMI among patients with urolithiasis, as is the occurrence of urate, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones. Similarly, the serum creatinine increased as the BMI and number of stones increased among the study population. PMID:23354193

Najeeb, Qazi; Masood, Imran; Bhaskar, Neeru; Kaur, Harnam; Singh, Jasbir; Pandey, Rajesh; Sodhi, K S; Prasad, Suvarna; Ishaq, Sheikh; Mahajan, Ruhi

2013-01-01

297

Urinary deoxycytidine levels in radioprotected rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of some radioprotectors on the urinary deoxycitidine (CdR) excretion during first 24 hr after 7 Gy whole body ?-irradiation was studied in rats. The marked increase in CdR excretion due to the 5 Gy irradiation was effectively brought down to a sufficiently low level by pretreatments with (1) combination of hydroxytryptophan (HT) and ?-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG), (2) combination of HT and small dose of 2-aminoethylisothiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET) and (3) optimum radioprotecting dose of AET. Pretreatments with MPG, HT and the low dose of AET all given singly also lowered the CdR excretion to smaller extents. None of the radioprotectors by themselves had any effect on urinary CdR excretion. The study also confirmed the earlier observation that CdR excretion in urine increased with the dose of whole body irradiation upto 6 Gy. (author)

298

Current Staging Procedures in Urinary Bladder Cancer  

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Full Text Available Currently computed tomography (CT represents the most widely used standard imaging modality in muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer. Visualization of local tumor or depth of invasion as well as lymph node staging, however, is often impaired. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with diffusion-weighted sequences, determination of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values or utilization of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles potentially exhibits advantages in the assessment of local tumor or lymph node involvement and therefore might play a role in routine staging of urinary bladder cancer in the future. Likewise, positron emission tomography (PET with the currently utilized tracers 18F-FDG, 11C-choline and 11C-acetate is investigated in bladder cancer patients—mostly in combination with diagnostic CT. Although promising results could be obtained for these PET/CT examinations in smaller series, their true value cannot be determined at present.

Ambros J. Beer

2013-06-01

299

Urinary lipid bodies in polycystic kidney disease.  

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Urinary doubly refractile lipid bodies (oval fat bodies) are observed most frequently in patients with heavy proteinuria resulting from glomerular disease. We observed doubly refractile lipid bodies (DRLB) in the urine sediment of 60% of 35 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). All patients had clinical courses typical of ADPKD, and none exhibited the features of a second, unrelated renal disease. DRLB in the urine were correlated with a urine dipstick protein reading exceeding trace. Age, sex, BP, and serum creatinine concentration were not associated with the presence of DRLB in the urine. Examination of cyst fluid obtained from kidneys of six ADPKD patients revealed DRLB in 80% of cyst fluid samples that contained degraded blood (so-called chocolate cysts). The DRLB in cyst fluid were morphologically indistinguishable from those observed in urine, and DRLB from both sources were stained with oil red O. We conclude that urinary DRLB are a clinical feature of ADPKD. PMID:3966470

Duncan, K A; Cuppage, F E; Grantham, J J

1985-01-01

300

Urinary continence across the life course.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spina bifida is the most common defect of the central nervous system. It is a congenital malformation of the spine with abnormal neural tube closure occurring between the third and fourth weeks of gestation, and most frequently affecting the lumbar and sacral regions. Most children with spina bifida have a normal urinary tract at birth, although renal damage and renal failure are among the most severe complications of spina bifida. Before ventricular shunting, survival rates for children with spina bifida were low, but most patients can now be expected to live into adulthood, thus prevention of urologic complications and promotion of continence have become critical. This article reviews the literature regarding urinary continence, and discusses issues across the lifespan, and implications for clinical practice and the pediatrician's role in the urologic care of children with spina bifida. PMID:20883888

Smith, Kathryn; Mizokawa, Stacey; Neville-Jan, Ann; Macias, Kristy

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
301

Can Urinary Nitrite Results Be Used to Conduct Antimicrobial Option for Urinary Tract Infection in Children?  

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Full Text Available Objective: This study was performed to determine the relationship between urinary nitrite results and bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs in urinary tract infection of children.Methods: In a cross-section study 119 children younger than 12 years with urinary tract infection were evaluated in Qazvin children's hospital. Patients were divided into negative and positive nitrite groups depending on urinary nitrite test result. Rates of antibiotic resistance in the two groups were compared.Findings: Sixty seven patients were in the negative nitrite group and 52 in the positive nitrite group. Resistance rates to ceftriaxone, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, gentamicin, amikacin, nalidixic acid, cephalothin and nitrofurantoin in the nitrite negative group were 7.5%, 31.3%, 50.7%, 11.9%, 9%, 3%, 14.9% and 11.9%, respectively. These values in the nitrite positive group were 21.2%, 28.8%, 63.5%, 7.7%, 5.8%, 1.9%, 9.6%, and 3.8%, respectively (P>0.05.Conclusion: This study showed that there is no correlation between urinary nitrite results and bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, it seems that physicians should not adjust antibiotic therapy for UTI based on nitrite results.

Abolfazl Mahyar

2012-06-01

302

Incontinencia urinaria post-prostatectomía: El esfinter artificial / Urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy: Urinary artificial sphinter  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El esfínter artificial (EA) es actualmente el tratamiento considerado como "gold standard" en el tratamiento de la incontinencia urinaria post prostatectomía radical. La incontinencia de orina post prostatectomía radical es una complicación que se presenta en un 5-25% de los pacientes sometidos a es [...] te tratamiento. Esta complicación genera en los pacientes un deterioro importante en cuanto a su calidad de vida. Tratamientos conservadores y mínimamente invasivos han sido utilizados sin éxito, como por ejemplo los ejercicios de Kegel, el uso de absorbentes, farmacoterapia y electroestimulación o cirugía menor como los inyectables. Esta revisión resume las ventajas y complicaciones del esfínter artificial y su efectividad en el manejo de la incontinencia urinaria tras una prostatectomía radical. Abstract in english Urinary artificial sphincter (UAS) is currently the gold standard treatment for urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. 5-25% of the patients undergoing radical prostatectomy develop urinary incontinence. This complication generates important deterioration in the quality of life of these p [...] atients. Conservative and minimally invasive treatments, such as Kegel exercises, use of pads, drugs, and electrostimulation, or minor surgery have been used without success. This review summarizes the advantages and complications of the urinary artificial sphincter and its efficacy in the management of urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy.

Fernando, Rodríguez Escobar; Pedro, Arañó Bertrán.

2009-12-01

303

Incontinencia urinaria post-prostatectomía: El esfinter artificial / Urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy: Urinary artificial sphinter  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El esfínter artificial (EA) es actualmente el tratamiento considerado como "gold standard" en el tratamiento de la incontinencia urinaria post prostatectomía radical. La incontinencia de orina post prostatectomía radical es una complicación que se presenta en un 5-25% de los pacientes sometidos a es [...] te tratamiento. Esta complicación genera en los pacientes un deterioro importante en cuanto a su calidad de vida. Tratamientos conservadores y mínimamente invasivos han sido utilizados sin éxito, como por ejemplo los ejercicios de Kegel, el uso de absorbentes, farmacoterapia y electroestimulación o cirugía menor como los inyectables. Esta revisión resume las ventajas y complicaciones del esfínter artificial y su efectividad en el manejo de la incontinencia urinaria tras una prostatectomía radical. Abstract in english Urinary artificial sphincter (UAS) is currently the gold standard treatment for urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. 5-25% of the patients undergoing radical prostatectomy develop urinary incontinence. This complication generates important deterioration in the quality of life of these p [...] atients. Conservative and minimally invasive treatments, such as Kegel exercises, use of pads, drugs, and electrostimulation, or minor surgery have been used without success. This review summarizes the advantages and complications of the urinary artificial sphincter and its efficacy in the management of urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy.

Fernando, Rodríguez Escobar; Pedro, Arañó Bertrán.

304

Ureteral fibroepithelial polyp causing urinary obstruction  

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Ureteral polyps are rare causes of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction, particularly in children. We report a nine year-old boy with UPJ obstruction initially suggestive of an obstructive urinary stone. CT showed intraureteral calcification at the UPJ and hydronephrosis. A retrograde pyelogram showed narrowing at the UPJ and partial obstruction that was found to be a ureteral polyp. This case illustrates a rare cause of UPJ obstruction that should be considered when the imaging findings ...

Shive, Melissa L.; Baskin, Laurence S.; Harris, Catherine R.; Bonham, Michael; Mackenzie, John D.

2012-01-01

305

Management of urinary incontinence in women.  

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Control of micturition is a complex physiological and anatomical process which often fails in women. The sequelae of urinary incontinence in women range from inconvenience to social and psychological stigmatization. Surprisingly, many women are tolerant of often quite severe sequelae, despite a range of management techniques that exist to alleviate or cure incontinence. Some of the more successful techniques are well suited to general practice management and can be carried out by the patient ...

O Dowd, T. C.

1993-01-01

306

Factors associated with urinary incontinence in women.  

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Possible aetiological factors for urinary incontinence were examined in a prevalence study among a random sample of 1000 women aged 18 and over. Infective factors were not markedly associated with incontinence but mechanical factors such as parity and obesity were. No association was found, however, between a history of perineal damage at childbirth and incontinence. Women with incontinence had on average a higher score for a 'neuroticism' trait elicited by questionnaire than women without th...

Yarnell, J. W.; Voyle, G. J.; Sweetnam, P. M.; Milbank, J.; Richards, C. J.; Stephenson, T. P.

1982-01-01

307

Transurethral Resection in Superficial Urinary Bladder Carcinoma  

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Retrospective analysis of 112 cases of superficial carcinoma of urinary bladder treated withtransllretb.ral resection was done and the success rate of this modal ity of treatment was analysed.Out of 112 patients there were 95 males and 17 females. Oldest patient was 80 year old and theyoungest was 40 year old. Chiefpresenting complaint was haematuria. Average duration ofhaematuriawas 9 months. Transurethral resection was done in these patients. The five year survival was 84% instage A-I, 81 %...

Satish Sharma, R. Nagar

2000-01-01

308

The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis was performed in two hundred and five patients at the Clinical Hospital of the University of de State of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), in the period of 1962 to 1982. Clinical, radiological and pathological findings of ten cases of pionephrosis submitted to nephrectomy, and two cases of vesical enlargement by coloncystoplasty were related. Excretory urograms constitutes the most important radiological exam in reaching a diagnosis, followed by retrograde urograms. (author)

309

Multistage carcinogenesis in the urinary bladder.  

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The induction of cancer of the urinary bladder is a multi-stage process involving multiple exogenous and endogenous factors. Based on the classical initiation-promotion model, we have used N-[4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]formamide (FANFT) as initiator and sodium saccharin (SAC) or tryptophan as promoters. These latter chemicals have the properties expected of promoters: induction of hyperplasia, reversibility and nonmutagenicity. Also, tumors were induced whether the promoter was administe...

Cohen, S. M.; Greenfield, R. E.; Ellwein, L. B.

1983-01-01

310

Twinkling Artifact in Patients with Urinary Stones  

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Full Text Available Background/Objective: To determine the usefulness of twinkling artifact in detecting urinary stones by sonography according to stone characteristics and sonographic features."nPatients and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 60 urinary stones which had been detected by KUB, IVP or CT scan. First of all, gray scale sonography was performed using 3.5-5 MHz phased array and data including stone size, location and posterior shadow were registered. Then, presence or absence of twinkling artifact and its intensity with re-spect to different filters (0-3, pulse repetition frequencies (PRF (244, 1563, and 4864 Hz, and focal zones (at the level of the stone, lower and higher was assessed using color Doppler sonography. Finally and in the case of artifact presence, spectral Doppler sonographywas performed. For data analysis, ?2 and independent t test was used ."nResults: The prevalence of twinkling artifact was 78.3%. Artifact presence in a PRF value of 1563 Hz was significantly related to the echo difference between stone and adjacent tissues (p= 0.001."nConclusion: The above findings together with the fact that twinkling artifact was strongly present in more than half the cases, indicates the sufficiency in detecting urinary stone

H. Rokni Yazdi

2010-06-01

311

Recurrent urinary tract infections in females  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uncomplicated Urinary tract infections are common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, with mean annual incidence of 15% and 10% in those aged 15-39 and 40-79 years, respectively. Urinary tract infection (UTI), with its diverse clinical syndromes and affected host groups, remains one of the most common but widely misunderstood and challenging infectious diseases encountered in clinical practice. Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) present a significant problem for women and a challenge for the doctors who care for them. The diagnosis of uncomplicated UTI can be achieved best by a thorough assessment of patient symptoms with or without the addition of a urine dipstick test. Treatment should be based on the most recent guidelines, taking into account resistance patterns in the local community. The patient who suffers from recurrent UTIs can be treated safely and effectively with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital therapy, or self-initiated treatment. This review article covers the latest trends in the management of recurrent UTI among women. Further research is needed regarding rapid diagnosis of UTI, accurate presumptive identification of patients with resistant pathogens, and development of new antimicrobials for drug-resistant UTI. (author)

312

Lower urinary tract symptoms in men.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a highly prevalent and costly condition that affects older men worldwide. Many affected men develop lower urinary tract symptoms, which can have a negative impact on their quality of life. In the past, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was the mainstay of treatment. However, several efficacious drug treatments have been developed, which have transformed BPH from an acute surgical entity to a chronic medical condition. Specifically, multiple clinical trials have shown that ? adrenoceptor antagonists can significantly ameliorate lower urinary tract symptoms. Moreover, 5? reductase inhibitors, alone or combined with an ? adrenoceptor antagonist, can reverse the natural course of BPH, reducing the risk of urinary retention and the need for surgical intervention. Newer medical regimens including the use of antimuscarinic agents or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, have shown promise in men with predominantly storage symptoms and concomitant erectile dysfunction, respectively. For men who do not adequately respond to conservative measures or pharmacotherapy, minimally invasive surgical techniques (such as transurethral needle ablation, microwave thermotherapy, and prostatic urethral lift) may be of benefit, although they lack the durability of TURP. A variety of laser procedures have also been introduced, whose improved hemostatic properties abrogate many of the complications associated with traditional surgery. PMID:25125424

Hollingsworth, John M; Wilt, Timothy J

2014-01-01

313

Mirabegron for male lower urinary tract symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men. Patients with BPH often present with a combination of obstructive and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. It is postulated that bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) from BPH results in concomitant OAB symptoms through ischemic induced variations in the response to neurotransmitters of both the detrusor and the urothelium. This altered response leads to the pathologic activation of the micturition reflex, generating sensory dysfunction and involuntary bladder contractions. Alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonists (alpha-blockers) and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) are commonly used to treat the BOO caused by BPH. Anticholinergic agents are frequently used to treat concurrently OAB symptoms caused by the BOO. Unfortunately, anticholinergic medications demonstrate bothersome side effects and a theoretical risk of urinary retention. Basic science and clinical research has led to the development of a new class of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of overactive bladder with diminished risk of urinary retention and lacking many anticholinergic side effects. This novel compound, mirabegron (Mybertriq, Astellas Pharma US, Inc.), is a ??-adrenoceptor agonist and represents a promising new class of oral agents designed for the treatment of OAB symptoms, with minimal effect on voiding. PMID:23913200

Suarez, Oscar; Osborn, David; Kaufman, Melissa; Reynolds, W Stuart; Dmochowski, Roger

2013-12-01

314

Genetics of human congenital urinary bladder disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lower urinary tract and/or kidney malformations are collectively the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in children, and they are also likely to account for a major subset of young adults requiring renal replacement therapy. Advances have been made regarding the discovery of the genetic causes of human kidney malformations. Indeed, testing for mutations of key nephrogenesis genes is now feasible for patients seen in nephrology clinics. Unfortunately, less is known about defined genetic bases of human lower urinary tract anomalies. The focus of this review is the genetic bases of congenital structural and functional disorders of the urinary bladder. Three are highlighted. First, prune belly syndrome, where mutations of CHRM3, encoding an acetylcholine receptor, HNF1B, encoding a transcription factor, and ACTA2, encoding a cytoskeletal protein, have been reported. Second, the urofacial syndrome, where mutations of LRIG2 and HPSE2, encoding proteins localised in nerves invading the fetal bladder, have been defined. Finally, we review emerging evidence that bladder exstrophy may have genetic bases, including variants in the TP63 promoter. These genetic discoveries provide a new perspective on a group of otherwise poorly understood diseases. PMID:23584850

Woolf, Adrian S; Stuart, Helen M; Newman, William G

2014-03-01

315

Urinary ?-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in 1126 female subjects.  

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?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its metabolic precursor ?-butyrolactone (GBL) are often implicated in cases of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), although definitive confirmation of GHB/GBL ingestion is complicated by GHB's endogenous nature and rapid elimination following ingestion. Multiple studies have attempted to establish a discriminant limit (generally 10 mg/L) above which urinary GHB concentrations can be considered consistent with GHB/GBL consumption. To supplement the currently available data, a rapid gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the analysis of GHB (following acidic conversion to GBL) and used to analyze urine samples collected from 1126 women (mean = 0.84 mg/L, median = 0.68 mg/L, range = 0.00-5.5 mg/L). GHB concentrations were shown to be independent of urinary pH (within the range 4.6-9.3), age (within the range 18-35 years), body mass index (within the range 13.8-36.3), and race. Adjusting GHB concentrations with respect to urinary specific gravity had little effect on the mean value (0.91 mg/L) and range (0.0-7.76 mg/L), although a statistically significant trend of increasing GHB concentration with specific gravity could be observed. Our results can be taken to offer further support for the 10 mg/L discriminant limit for GHB administration in antemortem urine samples. PMID:21073808

Brailsford, Alan D; Cowan, David A; Kicman, Andrew T

2010-11-01

316

A multivariate analysis of lower urinary tract ageing and urinary symptoms: the role of fibrosis.  

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An investigative trial including 72 patients who underwent open surgery for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) induced urinary symptoms was carried out with the purpose to obtain a deeper insight in the pathophysiology of this clinical picture. Prostate weight, stroma to parenchyma ratio, bladder wall fibrosis, I-PSS score, residual urine and uroflow obtained from these patients were processed by statistical multivariate analysis. The results point out the pivotal impact of prostate and bladder wall fibrosis in conditioning biological and chronological ageing of the lower urinary tract and relative symptoms. PMID:10673792

Bercovich, E; Barabino, G; Pirozzi-Farina, F; Deriu, M

1999-12-01

317

Predictors of Urinary Morbidity in Cs-131 Prostate Brachytherapy Implants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Cesium-131 is a newer radioisotope being used in prostate brachytherapy (PB). This study was conducted to determine the predictors of urinary morbidity with Cs-131 PB. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 159 patients underwent PB with Cs-131 at our institution and were followed by using Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) surveys to determine urinary morbidity over time. EPIC scores were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at 2 and 4 weeks, and 3 and 6 months. Different factors were evaluated to determine their individual effect on urinary morbidity, including patient characteristics, disease characteristics, treatment, and dosimetry. Multivariate analysis of covariance was carried out to identify baseline determinants affecting urinary morbidity. Factors contributing to the need for postoperative catheterization were also studied and reported. Results: At 2 weeks, patient age, dose to 90% of the organ (D90), bladder neck maximum dose (Dmax), and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) predicted for worse function. At 4 weeks, age and EBRT continued to predict for worse function. At the 3-month mark, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck Dmax, and EBRT predicted for worse urinary morbidity. At 6 months, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck Dmax, and EBRT were predictive of increased urinary problems. High bladder neck Dmax and poor preoperative urinary function predicted for the need for catheterization. Conclusions: The use of EBRT plus Cs-131 PB predicts for worse urinary toxicity at all time points studied. Patients should be cautioned about this. Age was a consistent predictor of worsened morbidity immediately following Cs-131 PB, while bladder Dmax was the only consistent dosimetric predictor. Paradoxically, patients with better preoperative urinary function had worse urinary morbidity at 3 and 6 months, consistent with recently published literature.

318

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced urinary incontinence  

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PURPOSE: Irrespective of its cause, urinary incontinence is a medical condition seriously affecting quality of life and is increasingly recognized. In this study, we examined the association between the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and urinary incontinence. METHODS: A retrospective follow-up study among starters with an SSRI was performed to estimate the relative and absolute risk for urinary incontinence associated with SSRI use. Data came from the PHARMO database, ...

Movig, K. L. L.; Leufkens, H. G. M.; Belitser, S.; Lenderink, A. W.; Egberts, A. C. G.

2002-01-01

319

Urinary Tract Infection-A Survey of Local Population  

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Urinary Tract Infection, commonly known as UTI, affects as many as 50% women at least once during their lifetime. All individuals are susceptible to Urinary Tract Infection (UTI); however the prevalence of infection differs with age, sex and certain predisposing factors. With the above background in mind we conducted a survey of the local population (women of 3 age groups) to compare the urinary tract microbial community of control individuals with the UTI positive patients. Attempts were mad...

Shaon Ray Chaudhuri; Ashoke Ranjan Thakur; Poulomi Nandy; Santanu Samanta

2008-01-01

320

Estudio de un cálculo intestinal en un paciente con adenocarcinoma de colón: ¿es similar a los cálculos renales? / Study of a intestinal enteroliths in human patient with colon adenocarcinome: Is it similar to renal calculi?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo muestra el estudio realizado a enterolitos intestinales procedentes de un paciente de 91 años que padecía una enterolitiasis múltiple confirmada por estudio radiológico abdominal y TAC, mostrando cálculos en el tracto intestinal, renal y biliar. Además esta enterolitiasis estaba asociad [...] a a un adenocarcinoma de colon. Los enterolitos analizados proceden de una intervención quirúrgica en la que se practicó una hemicolectomía derecha. Los enterolitos se sometieron a un análisis por espectrometría de infrarrojos (IR) observándose un espectro de carbonato apatita no-estequiométrica, tipo whitloquita, posiblemente con materia orgánica. Con el fin de estudiar el posible contenido de diversos elementos químicos, se practicó un análisis por espectrometría de emisión atómica encontrándose, fundamentalmente, los iones Ca, Mg, K, Na y K (del orden de mg/100 mg de cálculo) y Zn, Ba, Mn, Fe, Cu, Si, Ti y Br en menor proporción (del orden de µg/100 mg de cálculo). Dada la morfología del cálculo y su espectro de IR (carbonato apatita no estequiométrica) se determinó la posible presencia de porfirinas por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC) encontrándose, fundamentalmente, coproporfirina (µg/g de cálculo) y en menor proporción uroporfirina, protoporfirina y hepta-carboxi porfirina. El estudio se completó con el análisis de los enterolitos mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido y EDX. El análisis por difracción de rayos X detectó la presencia de CaP4O11. Los resultados obtenidos de los diferentes análisis muestran que la composición de los enterolitos es similar a la de los cálculos renales, aunque su morfología difiera de estos. Abstract in english This work shows the study performance to intestinal enterolithis from a 91 year old patient with multiple enterolithiasis confirmed by abdominal X-ray and TAC analyses showing the presence of intestinal, renal and bile stones. This enterolithis is associated with colon adenocarcinoma. The enterolith [...] s were obtained by hemicolectomia and were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (IR), giving nonstoichiometry carbonate apatite whitloquite-like with, possibly, organic material. By atomic emission spectroscopy we found Ca, Mg, K, Na y K (mg/100 mg of calculi) and Zn, Ba, Mn, Fe, Cu, Si, Ti and Br in minor proportion (µg/100 mg of calculi). Because of calculi morphology and the IR spectra (non-stoichiometry carbonate apatite) we carried out analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and found coproporphyrin (about µg/g of calculi) and uroporphyrin, protoporphyrin and heptacarboxy-porphyrin in minor extent. Calculi were also studied by scanning electronic microscopy and EDX and X-ray diffraction giving crystals of CaP4O11. All these results show that intestinal enteroliths composition are similar to renal calculi although its morphology differs from renal calculi.

M.L., Traba Villameytide; J.A., Orts Costa; M., Morell.

2006-02-01

 
 
 
 
321

Estudio de un cálculo intestinal en un paciente con adenocarcinoma de colón: ¿es similar a los cálculos renales? / Study of a intestinal enteroliths in human patient with colon adenocarcinome: Is it similar to renal calculi?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo muestra el estudio realizado a enterolitos intestinales procedentes de un paciente de 91 años que padecía una enterolitiasis múltiple confirmada por estudio radiológico abdominal y TAC, mostrando cálculos en el tracto intestinal, renal y biliar. Además esta enterolitiasis estaba asociad [...] a a un adenocarcinoma de colon. Los enterolitos analizados proceden de una intervención quirúrgica en la que se practicó una hemicolectomía derecha. Los enterolitos se sometieron a un análisis por espectrometría de infrarrojos (IR) observándose un espectro de carbonato apatita no-estequiométrica, tipo whitloquita, posiblemente con materia orgánica. Con el fin de estudiar el posible contenido de diversos elementos químicos, se practicó un análisis por espectrometría de emisión atómica encontrándose, fundamentalmente, los iones Ca, Mg, K, Na y K (del orden de mg/100 mg de cálculo) y Zn, Ba, Mn, Fe, Cu, Si, Ti y Br en menor proporción (del orden de µg/100 mg de cálculo). Dada la morfología del cálculo y su espectro de IR (carbonato apatita no estequiométrica) se determinó la posible presencia de porfirinas por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC) encontrándose, fundamentalmente, coproporfirina (µg/g de cálculo) y en menor proporción uroporfirina, protoporfirina y hepta-carboxi porfirina. El estudio se completó con el análisis de los enterolitos mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido y EDX. El análisis por difracción de rayos X detectó la presencia de CaP4O11. Los resultados obtenidos de los diferentes análisis muestran que la composición de los enterolitos es similar a la de los cálculos renales, aunque su morfología difiera de estos. Abstract in english This work shows the study performance to intestinal enterolithis from a 91 year old patient with multiple enterolithiasis confirmed by abdominal X-ray and TAC analyses showing the presence of intestinal, renal and bile stones. This enterolithis is associated with colon adenocarcinoma. The enterolith [...] s were obtained by hemicolectomia and were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (IR), giving nonstoichiometry carbonate apatite whitloquite-like with, possibly, organic material. By atomic emission spectroscopy we found Ca, Mg, K, Na y K (mg/100 mg of calculi) and Zn, Ba, Mn, Fe, Cu, Si, Ti and Br in minor proportion (µg/100 mg of calculi). Because of calculi morphology and the IR spectra (non-stoichiometry carbonate apatite) we carried out analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and found coproporphyrin (about µg/g of calculi) and uroporphyrin, protoporphyrin and heptacarboxy-porphyrin in minor extent. Calculi were also studied by scanning electronic microscopy and EDX and X-ray diffraction giving crystals of CaP4O11. All these results show that intestinal enteroliths composition are similar to renal calculi although its morphology differs from renal calculi.

M.L., Traba Villameytide; J.A., Orts Costa; M., Morell.

322

Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

2014-09-01

323

A prospective study of urinary tract infection during pelvic radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The frequency of urinary tract infection before and during pelvic radiotherapy was studied prospectively in 172 patients who were not catherised and had not had instrumentation for at least 4 weeks prior to radiotherapy. The incidence of urinary tract infection prior to radiotherapy was 17% and a further 17% of patients develped a urinary tract infection during radiotherapy. Mid-stream specimens of urine (MSU) should be examined for infection on a weekly basis during pelvic radiotherapy not only to identify this additional 17% of patients but also to detect those patients who have persistent urinary tract infection in spite of treatment with appropriate antibiotics. (author). 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

324

21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...glucose in urine). Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolism disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia. (b) Classification. Class...

2010-04-01

325

Update on duloxetine for the management of stress urinary incontinence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maya Basu, Jonathan RA DuckettDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medway Maritime Hospital, Gillingham, Kent, UKAbstract: Duloxetine is a relatively balanced serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI, which is the first drug with widely proven efficacy to have been licensed for the medical treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI. Despite favorable results from randomized controlled trials, surgical management continues to be the mainstay of treatment for SUI. In this review we explore the pharmacology of duloxetine in the nervous system and lower urinary tract, and the evidence for its use in the management of women with urinary incontinence.Keywords: duloxetine, stress urinary incontinence, overactive bladder

Maya Basu

2008-11-01

326

Extraordinary cause of complete colonic obstruction in children: urinary retention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complete colonic obstruction in children may occur secondary to congenital, and acquired factors related to the gastrointestinal system. Herein, we report an extraordinary presentation of complete colonic obstruction due to extensive urinary retention in a 3-year-old boy. The possible underlying mechanism was detected as urinary infection in a child with horseshoe kidney. The treatment of the bladder symptoms and urinary infection relieved the obstruction of the colon. To our knowledge, especially in children, colonic obstruction due to urinary retention has not been reported in the literature. PMID:24894928

Kilincaslan, Huseyin; Silay, Mesrur Selcuk; Erdem, Mehmet Remzi; Donmez, Tugrul; Bilici, Mustafa; Erenberk, Ufuk

2014-06-01

327

Determination of uric acid in urine, saliva and calcium oxalate renal calculi by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A very simple and direct method for determination of uric acid, in various biological matrices, based on high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry is described. Chromatographic separations were performed with a stationary phase Zorbax Sax Column, an anion exchange resin, with 50% sodium citrate 1 mM at pH 6.5 and 50% acetonitrile as mobile phase delivered at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The detector counted negative ions by monitoring m/z 167.1, which corresponds to the urate anion. The method does not use an internal standard but quality control samples were used. Intra-day precision ranged between 1.1 and 1.5%, whereas inter-day precision was between 1.3 and 2.8% (n=5) working with some selected standards. Recovery tests of added standard have been successfully performed in urine and saliva samples, thus showing an appropriate accuracy of the method. The limit of quantitation found was 70 microg/l. Different urine and saliva samples were analyzed using an alternative analytical methodology based on an enzymatic reaction and photometric detection at 520 nm, resulting both methods comparable at a 95% confidence level. The method has been also applied to the determination of trace amounts of uric acid in the core of some selected calcium oxalate renal calculi. PMID:16061429

Perelló, Joan; Sanchis, Pilar; Grases, Félix

2005-09-25

328

The correlation between urinary and liver taurine levels and between pre-dose urinary taurine and liver damage.  

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Analysis of data from several studies has shown that urinary taurine levels are highly significantly correlated with liver taurine concentration in control rats. Furthermore, urinary taurine levels measured before dosing with various hepatotoxic agents are significantly correlated with serum AST and ALT values measured after dosing with hepatotoxicants. That is, animal with low urinary taurine values and therefore low liver taurine concentrations tend to show greater hepatic damage. These dat...

Waterfield, C. J.; Turton, J. A.; Scales, M. D. C.; Timbrell, J. A.

1993-01-01

329

Effects of urinary bladder distention on location of the urinary bladder and urethra of healthy dogs and cats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaluation of the anatomic location of the distended and empty urinary bladders and urethras of healthy adult male and female dogs and cats by retrograde urethrocystography revealed substantial variations. In 15 dogs in lateral recumbency with empty bladder lumens, the caudal portion of the urinary bladder was within the pelvic canal in 5 of 7 male and 5 of 8 female dogs. In female dogs examined in ventrodorsal recumbency, only 4 of 8 had the empty urinary bladders in part within the pelvic canal. After luminal distention, 3 of 7 male and 3 of 8 female dogs, while in lateral recumbency, had the urinary bladders in part intrapelvically. However, when female dogs were placed in ventrodorsal recumbency, only 1 of 7 urinary bladders was in part within the pelvis. The urinary bladders of 14 cats were consistently within the abdominal cavity, irrespective of whether the bladder lumen was distended or empty. Urethral flexures occurred in dogs with intrapelvic bladders that were distended or empty. Urethral flexures were not found in cats. The urethras of dogs and cats in lateral recumbency were generally closer to the floor of the pelvis after urinary bladder distention than when the bladder was empty. The urethra of the dogs and cats in ventrodorsal recumbency was to the left or right of or on the midsagittal plane, whether the urinary bladder was empty or distended. A greater degree of lateral displacement was encountered in ventrodorsal recumbency after urinary bladder distention

330

Non-Surgical Treatments for Urinary Incontinence: A Review of the Research for Women  

Science.gov (United States)

... Summary – Apr. 9, 2012 Non-surgical Treatments for Urinary Incontinence: A Review of the Research for Women Formats ... best for you. Understanding Your Condition What is urinary incontinence? Urinary incontinence or UI is a condition where ...

331

Assessment of infective urinary tract disorders  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Urinary tracts infection (UTI) is common in children, particularly in the youngest age groups. There is a risk for progressive deterioration of renal function in these children if aggravating factors such as gross reflux and/or outflow obstruction of the urinary tract are present. In this review the pros and cons of available scintigrafic and radiological imaging techniques for the work-up of these children are presented. Ultrasound can be used in the acute phase to exclude obstruction but can not reliably show transient or permanent parenchymal lesions. The presence of reflux can be established with X-ray or direct nuclide cystography. The X-ray technique gives good morphological information and has a grading system with prognostic relevance. Both techniques are invasive and great care must be taken to keep the radiation burden down with the X-ray technique. Indirect nuclide cystography following a renographic study is non-invasive but has a lower sensitivity than direct techniques. More experience is needed with the indirect technique to evaluate the consequences of its apparently low sensitivity. Urography has a limited place in the acute work-up of urinary tract infection but can be used to look for renal scarring 1-2 years after an acute pyelonephritis. The {sup 99m}Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan can be used during the acute UTI to show pyelonephritic lesions with good accuracy and/or during the follow-up after six months to show permanent lesions. The acute DMSA scan can be omitted.

Sixt, R.; Stokland, E. [Goteborg, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital/Ostra (Sweden). Dept. of Pediatric Clinical Physiology and Dept. of Pediatric Radiology

1998-06-01

332

Urinary calcium excretion in healthy children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: Measurement of calcium/creatinine ratio in spot urine sample is a practical screening method for hypercalciuria. This study aimed to identify age related reference percentile values for urinary calcium/creatinine ratio in healthy children and to determine the frequency of hypercalciuria. Material and Method: A total of 614 children were included. Second morning urine samples were collected and calcium/creatinine ratio (mg/mg was calculated. Results were examined for the following six age groups: Group 1, 1-6 months; Group 2, 7-12 months; Group 3, 13 months-2 years; Group 4, 25 months-6 years; Group 5, 7-12 years; and Group 6, 13-16 years.Results: The mean±SD values for calcium/creatinine ratios of the age groups were as follows: Group 1, 0.33±0.10; Group 2, 0.23±0.06; Group 3, 0.15±0.08; Group 4, 0.13±0.08; Group 5, 0.09±0.07; and Group 6, 0.08±0.07, respectively. Corresponding 95th percentile values for the age groups 1 to 6 were 0.57, 0.40, 0.32, 0.26, 0.23, and 0.23, respectively. Hypercalciuria prevalence was found as 4.7% in our area. Urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was negatively correlated with age and body mass index.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that age of the child, 95th percentile values and geographical differences should be taken into account in detecting the reference values for urinary calcium/creatinine ratio. (Turk Arch Ped 2009; 44: 131-4

Osman Dönmez

2009-12-01

333

Assessment of infective urinary tract disorders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Urinary tracts infection (UTI) is common in children, particularly in the youngest age groups. There is a risk for progressive deterioration of renal function in these children if aggravating factors such as gross reflux and/or outflow obstruction of the urinary tract are present. In this review the pros and cons of available scintigrafic and radiological imaging techniques for the work-up of these children are presented. Ultrasound can be used in the acute phase to exclude obstruction but can not reliably show transient or permanent parenchymal lesions. The presence of reflux can be established with X-ray or direct nuclide cystography. The X-ray technique gives good morphological information and has a grading system with prognostic relevance. Both techniques are invasive and great care must be taken to keep the radiation burden down with the X-ray technique. Indirect nuclide cystography following a renographic study is non-invasive but has a lower sensitivity than direct techniques. More experience is needed with the indirect technique to evaluate the consequences of its apparently low sensitivity. Urography has a limited place in the acute work-up of urinary tract infection but can be used to look for renal scarring 1-2 years after an acute pyelonephritis. The 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan can be used during the acute UTI to show pyelonephritic lesions with good accuracy and/or during the follow-up after six months to show permanent lesions. Ter six months to show permanent lesions. The acute DMSA scan can be omitted

334

Microtomographic Analysis of Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal obstruction of the lower urinary tract may result in megacystis, with subsequent development of hydro-ureter, hydronephrosis, and renal damage. Oligo- or anhydramnios, pulmonary hypoplasia, and prune belly syndrome are lethal consequences. Causes and mechanisms responsible for obstruction remain unclear but might be clarified by anatomic study at autopsy. To this end, we employed 2 methods of tomographic imaging—optical projection tomography and contrast-enhanced microCT scanning—to elucidate the anatomy of the intact urinary bladder and urethra in 10 male fetuses with lower urinary tract obstruction. Images were compared with those from 9 age-matched controls. Three-dimensional images, rotated and sectioned digitally in multiple planes, permitted thorough examination while preserving specimens for later study. Both external and internal features of the bladder and urethra were demonstrated; small structures (ie, urethral crest, verumontanum, prostatic utricle, ejaculatory ducts) were seen in detail. Types of obstruction consisted of urethral atresia (n = 5), severe urethral stenosis (n = 2), urethral diaphragm (n = 2), or physical kinking (n = 1); classic (Young type I) posterior urethral valves were not encountered. Traditional light microscopy was then used to verify tomographic findings. The prostate gland was hypoplastic or absent in all cases; in 1, prostatic tissue was displaced inferior to the verumontanum. Findings support previous views that dissection may produce valve-like artifacts (eg, bisection of an obstructing diaphragm) and that deformation of an otherwise normal urethra may result in megacystis. The designation “posterior urethral valves” should not be used as a generic expression of urethral obstruction unless actual valves are demonstrated. PMID:23977847

Siebert, Joseph R.; Smith, Kenneth J.; Cox, Liza L.; Glass, Ian A.; Cox, Timothy C.

2014-01-01

335

Microtomographic analysis of lower urinary tract obstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal obstruction of the lower urinary tract may result in megacystis, with subsequent development of hydroureter, hydronephrosis, and renal damage. Oligo- or anhydramnios, pulmonary hypoplasia, and prune belly syndrome are lethal consequences. Causes and mechanisms responsible for obstruction remain unclear but might be clarified by anatomic study at autopsy. To this end, we employed 2 methods of tomographic imaging-optical projection tomography and contrast-enhanced microCT scanning-to elucidate the anatomy of the intact urinary bladder and urethra in 10 male fetuses with lower urinary tract obstruction. Images were compared with those from 9 age-matched controls. Three-dimensional images, rotated and sectioned digitally in multiple planes, permitted thorough examination while preserving specimens for later study. Both external and internal features of the bladder and urethra were demonstrated; small structures (ie, urethral crest, verumontanum, prostatic utricle, ejaculatory ducts) were seen in detail. Types of obstruction consisted of urethral atresia (n ?=? 5), severe urethral stenosis (n ?=? 2), urethral diaphragm (n ?=? 2), or physical kinking (n ?=? 1); classic (Young type I) posterior urethral valves were not encountered. Traditional light microscopy was then used to verify tomographic findings. The prostate gland was hypoplastic or absent in all cases; in 1, prostatic tissue was displaced inferior to the verumontanum. Findings support previous views that dissection may produce valve-like artifacts (eg, bisection of an obstructing diaphragm) and that deformation of an otherwise normal urethra may result in megacystis. The designation "posterior urethral valves" should not be used as a generic expression of urethral obstruction unless actual valves are demonstrated. PMID:23977847

Siebert, Joseph R; Smith, Kenneth J; Cox, Liza L; Glass, Ian A; Cox, Timothy C

2013-01-01

336

Urinary Side Effects of Duloxetine in the Treatment of Depression and Stress Urinary Incontinence.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of duloxetine, a dual reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine at the recommended starting dose, have been demonstrated in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in men and women and in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. Since the mechanism of action of duloxetine in the treatment of SUI is believed to be related to enhanced urethral closure forces, it is important to clarify the risk of acute urinary retention. METHOD: The relationship between duloxetine and obstructive voiding symptoms was examined in 8 double-blind, 8- to 9-week, placebo-controlled studies and 1 open-label study in men and women treated for MDD with duloxetine 40 to 120 mg/day and in 4 double-blind, 12-week, placebo-controlled studies and 4 ongoing open-label studies in women treated for SUI with duloxetine 80 mg/day. RESULTS: In 378 men and 761 women with MDD treated in placebo-controlled trials, 0.4% (4/1139; 3 men and 1 woman) of those treated with active medication reported subjective urinary retention versus none (0/777) of those treated with placebo (p =.15). In 958 women with SUI treated with duloxetine in placebo-controlled trials, none reported subjective urinary retention. Overall, in the duloxetine placebo-controlled clinical studies in the treatment of MDD and SUI, obstructive voiding symptoms (reported either as subjective urinary retention or other obstructive voiding symptoms) occurred more often in patients receiving duloxetine (1.0%, 20/2097) than in patients receiving placebo (0.4%, 6/1732) (p <.05). Of the 4719 MDD and SUI patients treated with duloxetine in placebo-controlled and ongoing open-label studies, 2 men and 1 woman discontinued because of obstructive voiding symptoms. Although such an evaluation was not required by protocol, no cases of objective acute urinary retention with postvoid residual urine verified with a bladder scan or requiring catheterization were reported in patients treated with duloxetine. CONCLUSION: Duloxetine treatment in women and men with depression and in women with SUI was rarely associated with obstructive voiding symptoms, and no subjects had objective acute urinary retention requiring catheterization. PMID:15254599

Viktrup, Lars; Pangallo, Beth A.; Detke, Michael J.; Zinner, Norman R.

2004-01-01

337

Urinary metabolites of busulfan in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

After ip administration of 15 mg/kg [1,4-14C]busulfan to rat, the urinary excretion was 70% of the total radioactivity after 72 hr. Three major metabolites were isolated and quantified by HPLC. Of the total radioactivity in the urine, unchanged busulfan was excreted as a minor amount (6%) and the following metabolites were identified as: 3-hydroxysulfolane (39%), tetrahydrothiophene 1-oxide (20%), and sulfolane (13%) using GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of busulfan and its major metabolites was examined using a V79 Chinese hamster cell line. PMID:2886318

Hassan, M; Ehrsson, H

1987-01-01

338

Effect of ionizing radiation on urinary bladder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the effect of radiation on urinary bladder. A significant proportion of tumors occur in the pelvis. During the treatment of malignancies in pelvis by external radiation beam, the urinary bladder may be within the irradiated volume. The experiment was carried out on mice to measure the loss of elasticity of the urinary bladder wall following irradiation to the pelvis. The analysis describe both early and late responses. Subacute response can be seen within 4-12 months following irradiation but most late reactions are seen between 1-4 years following successful radiotherapy for the primary cancer. Contracted bladders may occur within 1-5 years following radiotherapy. . The mice of 80-100 days of age were used. For irradiation, each group containing four mice was anesthetized with Phenobarbital (50 mg/kg ). Only urinary bladders of the mice were irradiated keeping the other parts of the body under lead shielding. The radiation dose to the bladder was measured by placing TLD-700 (LiF (MN)) chips at the ventral and dorsal surface of the bladder. The total dose given to the five groups of mice were 15 Gy (Gray), 30 Gy, 45 Gy, 60 Gy and 70 Gy at the rate of 300 cGy per fraction. Another four groups were irradiated with the total dose of 17.5 Gy, 35 Gy, 52.5 Gy and 70 Gy at the rate of 350 cGy per fraction. One group of mice was not irradiated and treated as control. As the total dose increases, the stiffness increases, reaching a maximum value and then falls as the bladder wall begins to rupture and the bladder loses its elasticity, presumably fibrosis is a major reason. Bladder contraction and urination frequency are known to increase with radiation dose. The maximum force for the respective displacement increased with the increase of total dose as well as fractionated dose, indicating the loss of elasticity of the bladder wall. The effect of dose per fraction was higher at all total doses for fraction size of 350 cGy as compared with the fraction size of 300 cGy. It was also observed that the maximum force F(g) at all doses were significantly greater than the control with no radiation treatment. 4 refs., 13 figs

339

Radionuclide imaging of the upper urinary tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this chapter is to provide a relatively concise review of the applications of radionuclide imaging techniques to the evaluation of the common pathologic changes of upper urinary tract. The principal topics addressed are congenital anomalies, space-occupying lesions, obstructive uropathy, vascular disorders, inflammatory disorders, trauma, and transplantation evaluation. Where appropriate, pediatric conditions are also incorporated into these discussions. Summary remarks on the application of radionuclide imaging to the pediatric population are included. Where possible, clinical settings and pathologic findings are presented, since these are frequently essential to the correct interpretations of the imaging data

340

Ureteral fibroepithelial polyp causing urinary obstruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Ureteral polyps are rare causes of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction, particularly in children. We report a nine year-old boy with UPJ obstruction initially suggestive of an obstructive urinary stone. CT showed intraureteral calcification at the UPJ and hydronephrosis. A retrograde pyelogram showed narrowing at the UPJ and partial obstruction that was found to be a ureteral polyp. This case illustrates a rare cause of UPJ obstruction that should be considered when the imaging findings and presentation are atypical for more common etiologies of ureteral obstruction. PMID:23365709

Shive, Melissa L.; Baskin, Laurence S.; Harris, Catherine R.; Bonham, Michael; MacKenzie, John D.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Introital ultrasonography in female urinary incontinence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the usefulness of introital ultrasonography in the assessment of female urinary incontinence. Introital ultrasonography was performed in fifteen with stress urinary incontinence(mean age 50) and six patients without symptoms of incontinence(mean age 37). Using a sagittal section of the anterior pelvis in the plane of the symphysis pubis the posterior urethrovesical angle, the pubourethral distance and the pubo-yregrak abgle were measured at rest and during stress(Valsalva's maneuver state). The student T-test and the ANOVA test were used in statistical analysis. The posterior urethrovesical angels of the controls were 125.3 deg (±10.9) at rest and 125.7 deg (±7.6) during stress. In the patients, the corresponding angles were135.3 deg (±11.3) and 139.6 deg(±10.8). The posterior urethrovesical angles increased 0.3 deg (±4.7) in the controls and 5.6 deg (±4.0) in the patients(p=0.018). In the controls, the pubo-urethral distances were 21.8 mm(±5.8) at rest and 18.2 mm(±7.1) during stress, while in the patients these distances were 18.4 mm(±3.9) and 12.6 mm(±4.4). The pubo-urethral distance decreased 3.5 mm (±1.5) in the controls and 5.8 mm (±2.3) in the patients(p=0.039). In the patients with mild incontinence(Grade I), the posterior urethrovesical angles increased 3.4 deg (±2.8) : 132.3 deg (±12.5) at rest and 135.6 deg (12.8) during stress. In the patients with moderate incontinence(Grade II), the angles increased 8.1 deg(±3.8) : 136.0 deg(±6.5) at rest and 144.1 deg((±5.9) during stress. The change of the posterior urethrovesical angle was related to the grade of urinary incontinence in the patients(p<0.05). There was no statistical significancy in the pubo-urethral angle (p=0.315). Introital ultrasonography may be useful for assessment of stress urinary incontinence

342

Introital ultrasonography in female urinary incontinence  

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To evaluate the usefulness of introital ultrasonography in the assessment of female urinary incontinence. Introital ultrasonography was performed in fifteen with stress urinary incontinence(mean age 50) and six patients without symptoms of incontinence(mean age 37). Using a sagittal section of the anterior pelvis in the plane of the symphysis pubis the posterior urethrovesical angle, the pubourethral distance and the pubo-yregrak abgle were measured at rest and during stress(Valsalva's maneuver state). The student T-test and the ANOVA test were used in statistical analysis. The posterior urethrovesical angles of the controls were 125.3 deg ({+-}10.9) at rest and 125.7 deg ({+-}7.6) during stress. In the patients, the corresponding angles were 135.3 deg ({+-}11.3) and 139.6 deg({+-}10.8). The posterior urethrovesical angles increased 0.3 deg ({+-}4.7) in the controls and 5.6 deg ({+-}4.0) in the patients(p=0.018). In the controls, the pubo-urethral distances were 21.8 mm({+-}5.8) at rest and 18.2 mm({+-}7.1) during stress, while in the patients these distances were 18.4 mm({+-}3.9) and 12.6 mm({+-}4.4). The pubo-urethral distance decreased 3.5 mm ({+-}1.5) in the controls and 5.8 mm ({+-}2.3) in the patients(p=0.039). In the patients with mild incontinence(Grade I), the posterior urethrovesical angles increased 3.4 deg ({+-}2.8) : 132.3 deg ({+-}12.5) at rest and 135.6 deg (12.8) during stress. In the patients with moderate incontinence(Grade II), the angles increased 8.1 deg({+-}3.8) : 136.0 deg({+-}6.5) at rest and 144.1 deg({+-}5.9) during stress. The change of the posterior urethrovesical angle was related to the grade of urinary incontinence in the patients(p<0.05). There was no statistical significancy in the pubo-urethral angle (p=0.315). Introital ultrasonography may be useful for assessment of stress urinary incontinence.

Weon, Young Cheol; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Lee, Jin Seong; Choi, Sang Hee; Kim, Keon Seok; Choo, Myung Soo [Ulsan Univ. Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1996-06-01

343

Urinary polyomavirus infections in neurodevelopmental disorders  

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Full Text Available We have recently reported enhanced frequencies of polyomavirus infection in post-mortem brain tissue of autistic patients compared to controls. To further explore potential contributions to neurodevelopmental disorders by polyomaviruses, we have employed specie-specific TaqMan assays to assess the prevalence and titres of BKV, JCV and SV40 inthe urines of 87 patients with autism spectrum disorder, 84 controls matched by sex and age with the autistic sample, 15 subjects with Down syndrome and 13 fragile X individuals. Prevalence rates of urinary BKV infection were significantly greater in Down syndrome and fragile X patients compared to autistic and control individuals (P

Ivan Gentile

2013-04-01

344

[Tumors of the upper urinary tract. Apropos 35 cases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-five cases of upper urinary tract tumors treated by the authors in an interval of 10 years (1979-1988) are presented. After a detailed analysis of the cases some general considerations on the anatomopathologic forms of upper urinary tract tumors, stage classification, symptoms and clinical and laboratory diagnosis, therapeutical indications are made. PMID:1823437

Filimon, C; Novac, C; Dorneanu, G H; Gheorghiu, V; Suditu, N; Cordun-T?r?bu??, G; R?dulescu, D; Mihailovici, S; Roznovanu, S; G?le?anu, M R

1991-01-01

345

Non-invasive localization of urinary tract infection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New methods to localize the source of bacteriuria were evaluated in monkeys with experimental urinary tract infection. A high level of diagnostic accuracy was obtained with the combined study of antibody-coated urinary bacteria by immunofluorescence, 131I hippuran scintiphotos in the hydropenic state and 67gallium citrate scintiphotos. Unique patterns were found, which differentiate cystitis, ureteritis, pyelonephritis and renal or perinephric abscesses

346

Biomaterials in urinary incontinence and treatment of their complications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biomaterials integrate with the anatomy and provide support to the weakened area. They are generally synthetic, but natural substances are also used. These substances are being increasingly used in stress urinary incontinence. This article discusses the various biomaterials, minimally invasive techniques, and recent advances for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. In addition, their complications and subsequent management are explored.

Sangster, Philippa; Morley, Roland

2010-01-01

347

Carcinosarcoma of the Ureter and Urinary Bladder: A Case Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carcinosarcoma is biphasic neoplasm with distinct carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. Carcinosarcoma arising from the urinary system is extremely rare and only 14 such cases of the ureteral carcinosarcoma have been reported in the medical literature. We experienced a case of surgically proven carcinosarcoma of the ureter and urinary bladder and we report here on the computed tomography findings of this rare neoplasm

348

Carcinosarcoma of the Ureter and Urinary Bladder: A Case Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carcinosarcoma is biphasic neoplasm with distinct carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. Carcinosarcoma arising from the urinary system is extremely rare and only 14 such cases of the ureteral carcinosarcoma have been reported in the medical literature. We experienced a case of surgically proven carcinosarcoma of the ureter and urinary bladder and we report here on the computed tomography findings of this rare neoplasm

Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kang, Mi Jin; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Soung Hee; Cho, Hyun Sun; Jeong, Myeong Ja [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-12-15

349

Weight Loss Surgery May Help Ease Urinary Incontinence  

Science.gov (United States)

... enable JavaScript. Weight Loss Surgery May Help Ease Urinary Incontinence Nearly two-thirds of women had significant improvement ... 2014) Wednesday, July 23, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Urinary Incontinence Weight Loss Surgery Women's Health WEDNESDAY, July 23, ...

350

Urinary excretion of proteins among metal welders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Joining of metals by welding confer an exposure of dust particulates containing several toxic substances. Chromium, nickel and manganese is absorbed in the lungs and may adversely affect the renal function. We compared biological markers of glomerular filtration (Kampmann clearance) and tubular function (post-shift urine spot sample concentration of respectively albumin, immunoglobulin G, transferrin, orosomucoid and beta 2-microglobulin) among 102 ever-welders and 33 never-welders (mostly electricians). The welders were subdivided into groups of stainless steel welders (n = 35), mild steel welders (n = 46) and ex-welders (n = 21). Each group was separately referenced with never-welders. The Kampmann clearance was within normal limits in all workers and not related to welding exposure. However, the urinary concentration of the majority of proteins was 1.5 to 3.0 times higher in both stainless steel and mild steel welders. The number of welding years taken as a measure of cumulative welding exposure was not related to levels of proteins in urine when adjusting for the effect of age. In addition, no alteration of urinary proteins was found among the ex-welders apart from slightly elevated albumin. This indicates that the apparent effect of welding on renal tubular function may at least partially be reversible. In conclusion, this study is in support of the hypothesis that metal welding may adversely affect renal tubular function, but it is questionable whether welding exposure has bearings as to occurrence of clinical significant kidney disease. PMID:8845202

Bonde, J P; Vittinghus, E

1996-01-01

351

Urinary bladder rupture during voiding cystourethrography  

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Full Text Available Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux with urinary tract infection or congenital renal diseases in children. The procedure is relatively simple and cost-effective, and complications are very rare. The iatrogenic complication of VCUG range from discomfort, urinary tract infection to bacteremia, as well as bladder rupture. Bladder rupture is a rare complication of VCUG, and only a few cases were reported. Bladder rupture among healthy children during VCUG is an especially uncommon event. Bladder rupture associated with VCUG is usually more common in chronically unused bladders like chronic renal failure. Presented is a case of bladder rupture that occurred during a VCUG in a healthy 9-monthold infant, due to instilled action of dye by high pressure. This injury completely healed after 7 days of operation, and it was confirmed with a postoperative cystography. The patient’s bladder volume, underlying disease, velocity of the contrast media instilled, catheter size, and styles of instillation are important factors to prevent bladder rupture during VCUG. Management of bladder rupture should be individualized, but the majority of infants are treated with the operation. In conclusion, bladder rupture is a rare complication, however, delicate attention is needed in order to prevent more dire situations.

Kyong Ok Lee

2012-05-01

352

Candida urinary tract infections--treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many instances a report from the clinical laboratory indicating candiduria represents colonization or procurement contamination of the specimen and not invasive candidiasis. Even if infection of the urinary tract by Candida species can be confirmed, antifungal therapy is not always warranted. Further investigation may reveal predisposing factors, which if corrected or treated, result in the resolution of the infection. For those with symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs), the choice of antifungal agent will depend upon the clinical status of the patient, the site of infection, and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the agent. Because of its safety, achievement of high concentrations in the urine, and availability in both an oral and intravenous formulation, fluconazole is preferred for the treatment of Candida UTIs. Flucytosine is concentrated in urine and has broad activity against Candida spp, but its use requires caution because of toxicity. Low-dose amphotericin B may be useful for Candida UTIs in selected patients. The role of echinocandins and azoles that do not achieve measurable concentrations in the urine is not clear. Small case series note some success, but failures have also occurred. Irrigation of the bladder with antifungal agents has limited utility. However, with fungus balls, irrigation of the renal pelvis through a nephrostomy tube can be useful in combination with systemic antifungal agents. PMID:21498839

Fisher, John F; Sobel, Jack D; Kauffman, Carol A; Newman, Cheryl A

2011-05-01

353

Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done according to age-group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates. A total of 803 urine culture positive patients were studied of whom 81.6% were females and 18.4% were males. The common micro-organisms isolated were E. coli (78.58%), Klebsiella (5.48%), Proteus and Staphylococcus. About 89% of the E. coli isolated showed sensitivity to cephtizoxin, 83.9% to gentamycin and 83.2% to ciprofloxacin; the highest resistance was shown to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Surveys of this nature will give a clear idea about the bacteriologic profile in a given institution as well their antibiotic sensitivity profile. This will act as a guide to commencing empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary infections until such time culture reports are available. (author)

354

Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done according to age-group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates. A total of 803 urine culture positive patients were studied of whom 81.6% were females and 18.4% were males. The common micro-organisms isolated were E. coli (78.58%, Klebsiella (5.48%, Proteus and Staphylococcus. About 89% of the E. coli isolated showed sensitivity to cephtizoxin, 83.9% to gentamycin and 83.2% to ciprofloxacin; the highest resistance was shown to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole. Surveys of this nature will give a clear idea about the bacteriologic profile in a given institution as well their antibiotic sensitivity profile. This will act as a guide to commencing empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary infections until such time culture reports are available.

Khameneh Zakieh

2009-01-01

355

[Kidney and urinary tract diseases in pregnancy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Management of urologic disorders in pregnant patients often increases the anxiety of all involved. Based on a thorough understanding of the physiologic changes seen in various organ systems the urologist has to assume the responsibility for the well-being of the mother and the fetus. Apart from the urinary tract infection, which occurs as frequent as in non-pregnant patients but has a significantly higher risk of acute bacterial pyelonephritis, it is mainly the pregnancy-associated symptomatic hydronephrosis and the urolithiasis which are complicating approximately 1 of every 1000-1500 pregnancies. Urinary tract infections should be treated in any case by antibiotics according to a antibiogram. High risk patients with history of vesicoureteral reflux or recurrent pyelonephritis should be treated prophylactically. Following parturition these patients should be investigated urologically to exclude structural abnormalities of the genitourinary system. In case of symptomatic hydronephrosis and calculous disease the first approach should be a watchful conservatism with symptomatic relief. If the symptoms persist insertion of a double-J-stent or in case of live-threatening situations (e.g. urosepsis) when urgent decompression and rapid evacuation is mandatory a percutaneous nephrostomy can be brought in place under sonographic monitoring completely thereby avoiding any radiation exposure. PMID:10549230

Sulser, T; John, H; Zimmermann, R

1999-10-01

356

Genito-urinary tuberculosis; Die Urogenitaltuberkulose  

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Tuberculosis continues to be one of the most frequently recurring specific infectious diseases. In this context, genito-urinary tuberculosis, followed by lymph node tuberculosis, presents itself as the most important extrapulmonary organ manifestation. Due to its steady incidence rate, an often insidious disease process as well as the increasing number of immunosuppressed patients, it is more important than ever to focus our clinical attention on the knowledge of epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy of genito-urinary tuberculosis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Noch immer zaehlt die Tuberkulose zu den am haeufigsten auftretenden spezifischen Infektionskrankheiten. In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland stellt die Urogenitaltuberkulose (UGT) die zweithaeufigste und neben der Lymphknotentuberkulose damit bedeutendste extrapulmonale Organmanifestation dar. Sowohl Maenner als auch Frauen erkranken rein statistisch gesehen etwa gleich oft an der UGT, wobei der Altersgipfel heute zwischen dem 30. und 55. Lebensjahr liegt und bei beiden Geschlechtern die Urotuberkulose ueberwiegt. Die aus verschiedensten Gruenden abnehmende Kenntnis ueber dieses Krankheitsbild ist Anlass, anhand eines von mehreren Faellen aus der juengsten Vergangenheit unserer Klinik aktuell ueber die UGT zu berichten. (orig.)

Dietrich, H. [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Urologie; Protzel, C. [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Urologie; Klebingat, K.J. [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Urologie

1997-05-02

357

The innate immune response during urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite its proximity to the fecal flora, the urinary tract is considered sterile. The precise mechanisms by which the urinary tract maintains sterility are not well understood. Host immune responses are critically important in the antimicrobial defense of the urinary tract. During recent years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune homeostasis of the kidney and urinary tract. Dysfunctions in these immune mechanisms may result in acute disease, tissue destruction and overwhelming infection. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the innate immune response in the urinary tract in response to microbial assault. In doing so, we focus on the role of antimicrobial peptides-a ubiquitous component of the innate immune response. PMID:23732397

Spencer, John David; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Becknell, Brian; Watson, Joshua; Hains, David S

2014-07-01

358

Quality of life in women with urinary incontinence  

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Full Text Available Aim To determine the characteristics of urinary incontinence and its impact on the quality of life in adult women with urinary incontinence who presented to a tertiary care clinic of Vojvodina from September 2008 to May 2009 for treatment Methods We used a prospective case-control study. Cases were defined as patients (47 with urinary incontinence symptoms. Controls(50 were defined as patients without urinary incontinence who presented to a tertiary care gynecology clinic for other reasons. Both, cases and controls, completed two questionnaires recommended for the evaluation of symptoms, The Urinary Distress Inventory, and quality of life impact The Urinary Impact Questionnaire. Results There was a significant correlation between aging(r=0.614; p<0.01, body mass index (r=0.357; p<0.01 and menopause(r= -0.572; p<0.01 and urinary incontinence. All patients had symptoms of stress incontinence, 61.7% had urge incontinence symptoms, 21.3% voiding difficulty and 85.1% dysuria. Ninety-four patients believed that urinary incontinence impaired their quality of life: 50% of patients reported an impaired ability to do household activities, 59.1% avoided social activities, 70.4% reported an impaired ability to travel more than 30 minutes by car or bus, 88.6% avoided leisure activities, 45.5% of patients had impaired emotional health and 34% felt frustrated. Conclusion The dominant type of urinary incontinence in more than half of the respondents was a mixed type, with moderate to very severe problems. Symptoms of urinary incontinence interfere with the performance of everyday household and social activities, causing the appearance of anxiety, depression and frustration, and in more than 50% of women leads to reduced quality of life.

DraLjiljana Mladenovi? Segedi

2011-08-01

359

Urinary incontinence after vaginal delivery or cesarean section  

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Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence, urge incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence among women residing in the city of Jundiaí (São Paulo, Brazil, and the relation between the type of incontinence and the obstetric history of these women. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted. A total of 332 women were interviewed; they were seen for whatever reason at the public primary healthcare units of the city of Jundiaí, from March 2005 to April 2006. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered and consisted of questions used in the EPINCONT Study (Epidemiology of Incontinence in the County of Nord-Trondelag. Statistical analysis was carried out using the ?2 test and odds ratio (95%CI. Results: Urinary incontinence was a complaint for 23.5% of the women interviewed. Stress urinary incontinence prevailed (50%, followed by mixed urinary incontinence (35% and urge incontinence (15%. Being in the age group of 35-64 years, having a body mass index of 30 or greater and having had only vaginal delivery or cesarean section, with uterine contraction, regardless of the number of pregnancies, were factors associated with stress urinary incontinence. However, being in the age group of 55 or older, having a body mass index of 30 or greater and having had three or more pregnancies, only with vaginal deliveries, were factors associated with mixed urinary incontinence. Conclusions: One third of the interviewees complained of some type of urinary incontinence, and half of them presented stress urinary incontinence. Cesarean section, only when not preceded by contractions, was not associated with stress urinary incontinence. The body mass index is only relevant when the stress factor is present.

João Bosco Ramos Borges

2010-06-01

360

Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Urinary Epithelial Cancer with Upper Urinary Tract Obstruction: Preliminary Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background: Various malignant tumors of the body show high signal intensity on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). In the genitourinary region, DWI is expected to have a role in detecting urinary epithelial cancer noninvasively. Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of DWI for the diagnosis of urinary epithelial cancer with upper urinary tract obstruction. Material and Methods: Twenty upper urinary tract cancers in 16 patients were evaluated by high-b-value DWI (b=800s/mm2). The signal intensity was visually evaluated, and the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were measured. Results: All urinary epithelial cancers showed high signal intensity on DWI. The ADC in cancerous lesions was 1.31{+-}0.27 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, which was significantly lower than that of the lumens of the ureter or renal pelvis (3.32{+-}0.44 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; P<0.001). Maximum intensity projection images of DWI in combination with static-fluid MR urography provided three-dimensional entire urinary tract imaging with the extension of tumors. Conclusion: DWI is useful in the tumor detection and in evaluating the tumor extension of urinary epithelial cancer in patients with upper urinary tract obstruction.

Takeuchi, M.; Matsuzaki, K.; Kubo, H.; Nishitani, H. [Dept. of Radiology and Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Univ. of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan)

2008-12-15

 
 
 
 
361

Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Urinary Epithelial Cancer with Upper Urinary Tract Obstruction: Preliminary Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background: Various malignant tumors of the body show high signal intensity on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). In the genitourinary region, DWI is expected to have a role in detecting urinary epithelial cancer noninvasively. Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of DWI for the diagnosis of urinary epithelial cancer with upper urinary tract obstruction. Material and Methods: Twenty upper urinary tract cancers in 16 patients were evaluated by high-b-value DWI (b=800s/mm2). The signal intensity was visually evaluated, and the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were measured. Results: All urinary epithelial cancers showed high signal intensity on DWI. The ADC in cancerous lesions was 1.31+-0.27 x 10-3 mm2/s, which was significantly lower than that of the lumens of the ureter or renal pelvis (3.32+-0.44 x 10-3 mm2/s; P<0.001). Maximum intensity projection images of DWI in combination with static-fluid MR urography provided three-dimensional entire urinary tract imaging with the extension of tumors. Conclusion: DWI is useful in the tumor detection and in evaluating the tumor extension of urinary epithelial cancer in patients with upper urinary tract obstruction

Takeuchi, M.; Matsuzaki, K.; Kubo, H.; Nishitani, H. (Dept. of Radiology and Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Univ. of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan))

2008-12-15

362

Litotricia por ondas de choque extracorpóreas como tratamiento de los cálculos del conducto pancreático principal / Extracorporeal shock- wave lithotripsy as a treatment of the calculi of the main pancreatic duct  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las ondas de choque extracorpóreas se utilizan desde hace varios años con buenos resultados en la fragmentación de cálculos vesiculares y de las vías biliares en pacientes seleccionados. Cuando los cálculos del conducto pancreático principal no pueden extraerse endoscópicamente está indicada esta va [...] riante no quirúrgica. Se presentan 4 pacientes del sexo masculino, entre 41 y 55 años de edad, con antecedentes de alcoholismo y el diagnóstico de pancreatitis crónica con litiasis en el conducto principal, 3 de ellos con más de 1 cálculo, que recibieron ondas de choque generadas por el principio electromagnético. Todos fragmentaron. El paciente con cálculo único eliminó los fragmentos espontáneamente, mientras que en los 3 restantes fue necesario asociar la endoscopia para obtener la limpieza total de Wirsung . Durante el seguimiento de más de 5 años se constató la regresión de los síntomas, fundamentalmente del dolor, sin recidivas Abstract in english The extracorporeal shock waves have been used for several years with good results in the fragmentation of calculi of the gallbladder and of the biliary tract in selected patients. When the calculi of the main pancreatic duct cannot be endoscopically removed, this non-surgical variant is indicated. 4 [...] male patients aged 41-55 with alcoholism history and the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis with lithiasis in the main duct are presented. 3 of them with more than a calculus received shock waves generated by electromagnetic principle. All the calculi were fragmented. The patient with only one calculus eliminated the fragments spontaneously, whereas in the other 3 it was necessary to associate endoscopy to obtain Wirsung's total cleaning. During the follow-up of more than 5 years it was proved the regression of the symptoms, mainly pain, without relapses

Domingo, Pérez González; Carlos, Scorza Sánchez; Nancy, de León Rubio; Hermidio, Hernández Mulet; Javier, Pérez Palenzuela.

363

Urinary Tract Infections in Renal Transplantation Patient  

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Full Text Available Urinary Tract Infection (UTI can be associated with significant morbidity after renal transplantation. While, the use of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis has dramatically reduced the incidence of UTI after renal transplantation over the past decades, rates of serious complications associated with UTI, such as bacterial septicemia, remain high for post transplantation patients even in the modern era. However, late post transplantation UTI has been widely considered as benign based on relatively small studies. The majority of transplant centers administers prophylactic antibiotics post transplantation, but most generally stop antibiotic prophylaxis 6 months after transplantation. However, emerging concepts from recent studies suggest that UTI, even if late after renal transplantation, has definite risks, suggesting that this clinical entity may not be as "benign" as previously supposed. A total of 185 midstream urine samples were collected in sterile containers from patient with kidney transplantation. With standard calibrated loop delivering 0.01 mL of urine was inoculated on Blood agar and EMB agar and incubated aerobically at 37°C for 24-48 h. Urinary tract infection was diagnosed by growth of at least 100000 colony-forming units of a urinary tract pathogen per milliliter in a culture of a midstream urine sample. Any specimen containing high colony counts with more than one species of bacteria in asymptomatic patient was considered contamination. Identification of bacterial pathogens was made on the basis of gram reactions, morphology and biochemical characteristics. Total 185 kidney transplantation patient studied, of whom 52 (28.10% were identified to have asymptomatic bacteriuria. In present study, the most common isolate was E. coli 33 (56.89%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 13 (22.41%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5 (8.62%, Proteus mirabilis 3 (5.17%, Citrobacter freundii 3 (5.17% and Staphylococcus aureus 1(1.72%. UTIs are a frequent problem after kidney transplantation. In the long-term, UTIs should be considered as a potential risk for poorer graft outcomes. In this study, the incidence of UTIs was 31.35% among renal transplant recipients, with E coli as the most common cause. While ureteral double-J catheter and female gender were the risk factors for UTI, female gender was the only independent risk factor.

2008-01-01

364

Imaging studies of the urinary tract in children with acute urinary tract infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The aims were to evaluate the occurrence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children, to assess the frequency of significant ultrasonography (US) abnormalities and to study whether abandoning the use of voiding cystourethrographies (VCUG) is safe in children with urinary tract infection (UTI). We analysed reports on US and VCUG in a consecutive series of 406 paediatric patients and in a large population-based group of 2036 children with UTI. Based on the urine culture data, we...

Hannula, Annukka

2012-01-01

365

The management of childhood urinary incontinence.  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Children's Continence Society (ICCS) has undertaken an enormous effort to standardize both the terminology and management of various aspects of incontinence in children, including enuresis, bladder overactivity, dysfunctional voiding and psychological comorbidities. A number of guidelines have been published to aid those involved in the care of children with lower urinary tract symptoms. This review addresses a number of recommended diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, including urotherapy and pharmacological treatment, with emphasis on a focused medical history, information acquired from bladder diaries and uroflow evaluations. The major role of urotherapy is underlined with supportive pharmacotherapy, when indicated. The article provides both a summary of ICCS guidelines and a brief review of recently published papers related to the contemporary management of childhood incontinence, a health issue still underestimated by both the child's caregivers and healthcare providers. PMID:24615564

Maternik, Michal; Krzeminska, Katarzyna; Zurowska, Aleksandra

2015-01-01

366

Urinary stones in pediatric age group  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presenting symptoms of stone disease in children are rather different than the adult patients.US, direct urinary X-ray exam or/and computarized tomography are the diagnostic tools of choice.In case of obstruction,infection,or in the presence of larger stones prone to obstructive signs are the candidates of surgical intervention. In case of acute conditions insertion of JJ stents or percutaneous nephrostomy can be a solution.Asymptomatic and small stones should be treated by minimal invazive procedures such as. ESWL, URS or PNL. According to the results of biochemical analysis, medical treatment or/and dietary recommendations ar very important for the long term prophylaxis. (Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45 Suppl: 104-9

Abdurrahman Önen

2010-05-01

367

Imaging in lower urinary tract infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

In epididymo-orchitis, a sonogram shows a non-homogenous and hypertrophied epididymis and testis, with increased vascularisation seen on a Doppler sonogram. Abscesses must be investigated using sonography so that a necrotic tumour is not misdiagnosed. In prostatitis, sonography is indicated to investigate urine retention and where treatment has failed (to look for a blockage, an abscess, or pyelonephritis). Endorectal sonography is the best imaging modality for analysing the parenchyma, but otherwise has limited value. Chronic prostatitis is the main differential diagnosis from prostate cancer; the two may be distinguished using diffusion MRI. In cases of cystitis, imaging is indicated when a patient has recurrent cystitis (to investigate what the causative factors might be), or an infection with a less common bacterium (to look for calcifications, emphysema, any involvement of the upper urinary tract), and in cases of cystitis with pseudotumour. PMID:22521178

Schull, A; Monzani, Q; Bour, L; Barry-Delongchamps, N; Beuvon, F; Legmann, P; Cornud, F

2012-06-01

368

[Lower urinary tract symptoms in men].  

Science.gov (United States)

Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are frequently encountered in clinical practice, especially in older men. The main focus in the primary treatment of men with complaints of violation of urination should be paid to assessing their severity on the basis of IPSS questionnaire. It is important to identify the predominant symptoms that determine treatment. In the absence of absolute indications for surgical treatment of clinical forms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), the drug treatment should be used. In cases of the prevalence of obstructive LUTS, first-line treatment is the use of alpha-adrenoblockers. In case of progression of BPH (prostate volume > or = 40 cm3, PSA > 1,5 ng/ml), it is useful to combine the alpha-adrenoblockers with 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. Combined medication in the form of alpha-adrenoblockers and M- cholinergic antagonists is justified in irritative LUTS in men with BPH. PMID:24772775

Krivoborodov, G G

2014-01-01

369

Urinary calcium creatinine ratio and hypercalciuria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Random urine samples of 352 children in the age group of 5-12 yrs were studied for urinary calcium-creatinine ratio (Uca/Ucr mg/mg). None had any predisposing factor for secondary hypercalciuria. Calcium and creatinine both were estimated by colorimetric method. We observed that Uca/Ucr in the general pediatric population was skewed, the pattern was similar to that described in western children and it was independent of age and sex. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of Uca/Ucr was 0.10 +/- 0.094. Considering mean +2SD as the upper limit of normal, which was 0.29 in this series, the prevalence of hypercalciuria was 6.5%. PMID:7896367

Rath, B; Aggarwal, M K; Mishra, T K; Talukdar, B; Murthy, N S; Kabi, B C

1994-03-01

370

Factors determining the aggregation of urinary mucoprotein.  

Science.gov (United States)

The factors determining aggregation of Tamm-Horsfall urinary mucoprotein have been examined using the technique of light-scattering photometry, which has allowed the study to be performed at the concentrations of the mucoprotein in which it occurs in the urine in vivo. The tendency to formation of aggregates is enhanced by increases in concentration of the mucoprotein, by increases in electrolyte concentration within physiological limits, and by lowering of the pH within the physiological range. The effects of 1:2 and 2:1 electrolytes are somewhat different from those of 1:1 electrolytes. The data suggest that the isoelectric point of Tamm-Horsfall protein is higher than previously thought. PMID:5929342

McQueen, E G; Engel, G B

1966-07-01

371

Placenta percreta with urinary bladder involvement.  

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A 37-year-old Pakistani lady, who had previously undergone one cesarean delivery and one uterine curettage, was admitted to the labor ward at 29 weeks of gestation with history of a sudden severe painless vaginal bleeding from a sonographically diagnosed placenta previa. An immediate cesarean section was performed and a live male infant was delivered. The placenta was morbidly adherent to the lower uterine segment and attempts at removal caused torrential bleeding, necessitating cesarean hysterectomy. In addition, attempts to dissect the bladder from the lower uterine segment were unsuccessful and, hence, the diagnosis of placenta percreta with involvement of the urinary bladder was made. A modified posterior approach to the hysterectomy was carried out, with subsequent good recovery.

Eftekhar H. Al-Ojaimi

2004-04-01

372

Placenta percreta with urinary bladder involvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 37-years old Pakistani lady, who had previously undergone one cesarean delivery and one uterine curettage, was admitted to the labor ward at 29 weeks of gestation with history of sudden severe painless vaginal bleeding from a sonographically diagnosed placenta pervia. An immediate cesarean was performed and a live male infant was delivered. The placenta was morbidly adherent to the lower uterine segment and attempts at removal caused torrential bleeding, necesstiating cesarean hysterectomy. In addition, attempts to dissect the bldder from lower uterine segment was unsuccessful and, hence, the diagnosis of placenta percreta with involvement of urinary bladder was made. A modified posterior approach to the hyterectomy was carried out, with subsequent good recovery. (author)

373

Transurethral Resection in Superficial Urinary Bladder Carcinoma  

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Full Text Available Retrospective analysis of 112 cases of superficial carcinoma of urinary bladder treated withtransllretb.ral resection was done and the success rate of this modal ity of treatment was analysed.Out of 112 patients there were 95 males and 17 females. Oldest patient was 80 year old and theyoungest was 40 year old. Chiefpresenting complaint was haematuria. Average duration ofhaematuriawas 9 months. Transurethral resection was done in these patients. The five year survival was 84% instage A-I, 81 % in stage A-II. It was however 54% in A-III. Recurrence rate was 20% 26% and52% in A-I, A-II and A-III respectively. Transurethral resection is ihus an excellent ap~roach forthe treatment of superficial bladder carcinoma.

Satish Sharma, R.Nagar, Kuldeep Singh, Sunil Gupta, C.L.Gupta

2000-01-01

374

Derivaciones urinarias laparoscópicas / Laparoscopic urinary diversions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El tratamiento del cáncer vesical infiltrante y el carcinoma superficial de alto grado recidivante está claramente establecido en la cistectomía radical y linfadenectomía pelviana. Uno de los campos que más dudas plantea en su abordaje por vía laparoscópica es el tratamiento radical de [...] l cáncer vesical, que exige experiencia en cirugía laparoscópica pelviana y en el que la derivación urinaria presenta grandes dificultades técnicas a su abordaje laparoscópico. Objetivos: El objetivo fundamental de este artículo es comunicar nuestros resultados con las derivaciones urinarias tras cistectomía radical laparoscópica en las que hemos llevado a cabo las anastomosis ureteroileales por vía laparoscópica. Material y Métodos: Desde enero del 2005 hasta diciembre 2007 hemos completado 67 cistectomías radicales laparoscópicas. Hemos realizado un total de 28 derivaciones urinarias laparoscópicas según nuestra técnica, siendo en 7 pacientes enterocistoplastias de sustitución con una edad media de 54,85 años y en 21 pacientes ureteroileostomía cutánea con una edad media de 69,15 años. Resultados: El tiempo quirúrgico medio de la enterocistoplastia con anastomosis uretral y ureteral laparoscópicas es de 5 h y 30 min. Para la ureteroileostomía cutánea con anastomosis ureteral laparoscópica el tiempo quirúrgico medio ha sido de 4hs. y 30 min. Hemos tenido 1 caso de fuga urinaria en las neovejigas laparoscópicas y 3 casos en los conductos ileales laparoscópicos (14%). No hemos tenido ningún caso de dehiscencia intestinal ni de estenosis ureteroileal. La estancia media de las neovejigas es de 13,6 días para el 85% de los casos y de 11,8 días para el 77,7% de las ureteroileostomías laparoscópicas. Discusión: La cistectomía radical laparoscópica constituye un procedimiento todavía relegado a centros con gran experiencia en cirugía laparoscópica. El procedimiento más aceptado por la mayoría de los grupos incluye realizar la cistectomía por vía laparoscópica y la derivación urinaria por vía abierta. No existen evidencias sobre las posibles ventajas de las derivaciones urinarias por vía laparoscópica. En cualquier caso, son necesarios estudios comparativos para definir claramente el papel de la cirugía laparoscópica en las derivaciones urinarias. Abstract in english Introduction: The treatment of the invasive bladder cancer and the recurrent T1G3 is clearly established in radical cystectomy and pelvic linphadenectomy. One of the fields where the laparoscopic approach implies more doubts is the treatment of bladder cancer, because it requires experience enough i [...] n pelvic laparoscopic surgery and the urinary diversion implies great technical difficulties to the laparoscopic approach. Objetives: The main goal of this article is to report our results with the urinary diversion after laparoscopic radical cystectomy where the ureteral anastomosis has been performed by a laparoscopic approach. Methods: From January 2005 to December 2007 we have performed 67 laparoscopic radical cistectomies. We conducted 28 laparoscopic urinary diversions with our technique: 7 neobladder with an average age of 54,85 years and 21 ileal conduit with an average age of 69,15 years. Results: The averagesurgical time for enterocistoplasty with laparoscopic urethral and ureteral anastomosis is of 5 hours and 30 minutes. For the cutaneous ureteroileostomy with laparoscopic ureteral anastomosis the average surgical time has been of 4 hours and 30 minutes. We have had 1 case of urinary leakage in the laparoscopic neobladder and 3 cases in the laparoscopic ileal conduit (14%). We have not intestinal dehiscence nor ileal-ureteric stenosis. The average hospital stay for laparoscopic neobladder is for the 85% of cases of 13,6 days , and of 11,8 days for the 77,7% ofileal ureteric laparoscopies. Discussion: The laparoscopic radical cystectomy is still a procedure reserved for groups with great experience in laparoscopic surgery.

S., Alonso y Gregorio; M., Álvarez Maestro; P.M., Cabrera Castillo; A., Tabernero Gómez; R., Cansino Alcaide; J., Cisneros Ledo; J.J., De la Peña Barthel.

2008-10-01

375

Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100 Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans to compare the intake and metabolism. Dietary determinants of lignan intake and their urinary excretion were also determined. The mean intake of lignans was 1224 (sd 539) mug/d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intakeof water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4 % by the intake of lariciresinol. Although the assessed intake of lignans corresponded well with the urinary excretion of lignans, the enterolactone production in the human body depended more on the dietary sources of lignans than the absolute intake of lignans.

Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko

2010-01-01

376

Evaluation of a behavioral treatment for female urinary incontinence  

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Full Text Available Marta Santacreu, Rocío Fernández-BallesterosBiological and Health Psychology, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Urinary incontinence is a medical, psychological, social, economic, and hygienic problem. Although it is difficult to state its prevalence, all authors agree that it is related to age and gender. This study aimed to carry out a urinary incontinence behavioral treatment in order to reduce urine leakages in 14 participants recruited from a senior center. The program consists of daily training of the pelvic floor muscles with a weekly control by a supervisor during a 2-month period and follow-up of results 2 months after the last control session. Urinary incontinence episodes were reduced by 75.67% after program completion. It appears that pelvic floor muscles training, carried out under controlled and constant supervision, significantly reduces urinary leakage. Moreover, maintaining this improvement after treatment depends on the continuation of the exercises as well as on the urinary leakage frequency baseline and the urinary leakage frequency during the last treatment session.Keywords: urinary incontinence, pelvic floor muscle training, quasi-experimental design

Santacreu M

2011-06-01

377

Urinary incontinence in the bitch: an update.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary incontinence (UI), defined as the involuntary loss of urine during the filling phase of the bladder (Abrams et al. 2002), is a commonly seen problem in veterinary practice. Urinary sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) after spaying is the most common micturition disorder, and its medical treatment is normally successful, even though the underlying pathophysiological mechanism is not fully understood. Hormonal changes inducing structural and functional alterations in the bladder, as well as in the urethra composition, are discussed. To manage incontinent patients successfully, possible underlying abnormalities besides USMI should be ruled out. In the majority of cases, history, physical examination and simple tests including urinalysis and urine bacterial culture lead to a presumed aetiology. If USMI is the most likely cause, then the advantage of further diagnostic tests should be discussed with the owner before starting a trial therapy with alpha-adrenergic drugs. Potential side effects of this therapy have to be mentioned even though they rarely occur. It is important to thoroughly evaluate the success of the initial treatment. Its failure should lead to further diagnostic testing. Specialized clinical assessments may provide an aetiological diagnosis, and this could serve as a basis for discussing further treatment options. Surgical procedures, which may in rare cases cause irreversible side effects, may be instituted. If incontinence reoccurs after initial treatment was successfully performed, the diagnostic work-up including urinalysis should always be repeated. As results of urinalysis did not correlate well with results of bacterial culture, a urine culture is recommended (Comer and Ling 1981). Cystocentesis is the preferred method of urine collection (Bartges 2004). Equivocal results of quantitative cultures of urine samples obtained during midstream voiding or by catheterization require repeat collection by cystocentesis (Comer and Ling 1981). PMID:24947864

Reichler, I M; Hubler, M

2014-06-01

378

[A case of urinary retention caused by true phimosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of urinary retention caused by true phimosis in a 67-year-old man with untreated diabetes mellitus. The patient could not void in a stream, and urine dropped out of the external urethral orifice with manual compression of the penis. Subsequently, he visited our hospital due to urinary retention. Ultrasonography revealed right hydronephrosis and ballooning of the foreskin. An emergency dorsal slit was performed, and hydronephrosis showed immediate improvement. Histopathologically, fibrosis and inflammation of the foreskin were observed. The mechanisms responsible for urinary retention in this case are discussed. PMID:18634440

Minagawa, Tomonori; Murata, Yasushi

2008-06-01

379

Urinary sludge caused by ceftriaxone in a young boy  

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Full Text Available It is known that ceftriaxone administration is associated with biliary pseudolithiasis, although the development of urolithiasis has been rarely reported. We encountered a young male with bacterial meningitis complicated by urinary precipitates composed of ceftriaxonecalcium salt which is confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography. This patient suggested that ceftriaxone significantly increased urinary excretion of calcium, which may be linked to ceftriaxone-related urolithiasis or sludge. It is therefore worthwhile to monitor the levels of urinary calcium to creatinine ratio in patients on ceftriaxone, as they may be at greater risk for developing large stones and renal damage.

Minoru Kino

2012-01-01

380

Analysis of glycosuria in okapi (Okapia johnstoni): Examination of urinary N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the urinary excretion of glucose and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) in six okapis (Okapia johnstoni) in captivity to investigate the cause of their urinary sugar excretion. The urinary glucose-positive okapi had significantly higher urinary NAG indices than the urinary glucose-negative okapi. There was also a positive correlation between urinary glucose levels and urinary NAG indices. These results suggest that the proximal tubular function of the glycosuric okapi may have been obstructed, which impaired glucose reabsorption. PMID:24841561

Kawasaki, Ryuta; Azumano, Akinori; Ueda, Miya; Tanaka, Souhei; Yokota, Aya; Katoh, Kazuo; Hagino, Akihiko

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
381

Investigations into the effects of various hepatotoxic compounds on urinary and liver taurine levels in rats.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of various hepatotoxicants on urinary taurine and urinary creatine has been studied in the rat. Several hepatotoxic agents, carbon tetrachloride, thioacetamide, galactosamine and allyl alcohol which all caused hepatic necrosis (sometimes accompanied by steatosis), resulted in a rise in urinary taurine and in some cases creatine, when administered to rats. Ethionine and hydrazine also raised urinary taurine but caused only steatosis and did not raise urinary creatine. Therefore urin...

Waterfield, C. J.; Turton, J. A.; Scales, M. D. C.; Timbrell, J. A.

1993-01-01

382

Urinary trypsin inhibitor: An experimental and clinical study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) is an acid stable proteinase inhibitor present in blood and urine. It was purified from urine using affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Two forms of UTI were present in urine, A and ...

B. M. Berling

1991-01-01

383

Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type: a rare case  

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Full Text Available Primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare disease. It occurs in 0.5-2% of all bladder cancers and is discussed as the malignant counterpart of nephrogenic adenomas. We report a 46-year-old white female presented with gross hematuria for clinical examination. Histopathology revealed pT2, Pn1, L1, G2 adenocarcinoma of the bladder and carcinoma in situ according to the TNM classification. Computed tomography scan diagnostic was unremarkable. Patients with adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder should be treated vigorously and without time delay. Only 7 cases of adenocarcinoma in the urinary bladder (mesonephroid have been described until now. We present a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type that early diagnosed and till now 3 months after the cystectomy without symptoms and without complications.

Mahmoud Abbas

2013-02-01

384

Urinary tract infections and related symptoms in patients with gynecological  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genitourinary symptoms and the risk of urinary tract infections in patients with gynecological malignancy treated with radiotherapy. METHODS: Mid-stream specimens of urine were collected and urine cultures were performed in 45 patients with gynecological malignancy; genitourinary symptoms were recorded during pelvic radiotherapy. RESULTS: Before the treatment, urinary tract infections were detected in four patients, while during the treatment seven patients had positive urine cultures. Dysuria was recorded in five patients before radiotherapy, and at the end of treatment, 40 cases experienced grade 1 or 2 dysuria. No significant relationship was detected between urinary tract infection and clinical genitourinary symptoms. CONCLUSION: The most effective method to define urinary tract infection in patients with gynecologic malignancies is urine culture during the treatment. Routine prophylactic antibiotherapy is not recommended because of the low risk of infection during radiotherapy.

Zeynep ÖZSARAN

2008-01-01

385

MPH Urinary Practicum : Breeze Training Transcript: Feb 20 07  

Science.gov (United States)

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE SURVEILLANCE, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND END RESULTS (SEER) PROGRAM BREEZE SESSION Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules—Renal Pelvis, Ureter, Bladder and Other Urinary Sites Practicum February

386

MPH Urinary Rules: Breeze Training Transcript: Feb 16 07  

Science.gov (United States)

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE SURVEILLANCE, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND END RESULTS (SEER) PROGRAM Breeze Session Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules—Renal Pelvis, Ureter and Bladder and Other Urinary Sites February 16, 2007

387

Management of urinary tract emergencies in small animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on some of the most commonly seen urinary tract emergencies in dogs and cats, with emphasis on basic pathophysiology, diagnosis, and emergency management of these cases. PMID:23747263

Balakrishnan, Anusha; Drobatz, Kenneth J

2013-07-01

388

Relationship between pinworm and urinary tract infections in young girls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary tract infection is particularly common in young girls and Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is one of the most prevalent worms found in children worldwide. Young girls, with or without urinary tract infection, were examined for pinworms in order to explore a possible relationship between these two problems. Of the 55 young girls with urinary tract infection, 20 (36.4%) had pinworm eggs in the perianal and/or perineal region monitored using the cellophane tape method, while 9 (16.4%) of 55 young girls who had never previously had a urinary tract infection were found to have Enterobius eggs in at least one of the cellophane tape tests, and the difference was found to be significant (pcellulose tape should be applied to both the perianal and the perineal regions on at least three consecutive occasions. PMID:10335951

Ok, U Z; Ertan, P; Limoncu, E; Ece, A; Ozbakkaloglu, B

1999-05-01

389

Bulbourethral Sling in Men with Stress Urinary Incontinence  

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Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated  the efficacy and safety of  the bulbourethral sling in male urinary incontinence. Materials and methods: This case series was conducted in  Imam Khomeini hospital-Tehran , between April 2001 to December 2006. Bulbourethral sling was implanted in 7  patients with stress urinary incontinence after prostate surgery. The patients were monitored and evaluated in a prospective manner. The average follow up period was 24 months. Treatment was considered to be successful if the patient stopped wearing any kind of pad and improved if the patient  was wearing only one pad daily.Results: Five patients were completely dry. One patient weared one pad daily and the last patient suffered from treatment failure. All patients who were completely dry or had improvement were satisfied and presented no obstructive or irritative urinary symptoms. Urethral erosion was not reported. The overall success rate was 85%.  Conclusion: The bulbourethral sling in men has satisfying results to treat urinary incontinence.

Mohsen Ayati

2007-06-01

390

Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03 with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body.

Rao A Venket

2008-11-01

391

Cranberry in prevention of urinary tract Infections in pregnancy  

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Full Text Available The urinary infection tract is the most common infectious complication in pregnancy.The aim was to conduct a literature review of the evidence on effectiveness, safetyand cost effectiveness of cranberry products in preventing urinary tract infection inpregnancy. Studies suggest a potential protective effect of cranberry products againsturinary tract infection in pregnancy and there is no documented evidence of danger orcontraindication in pregnancy or lactation. The cost effectiveness of cranberry productsin pregnancy has not been evaluated.

Miranda-Machado Pablo Andrés

2011-12-01