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Sample records for urinary calculi

  1. Drug-Induced Urinary Calculi

    Matlaga, Brian R; Shah, Ojas D; Assimos, Dean G

    2003-01-01

    Urinary calculi may be induced by a number of medications used to treat a variety of conditions. These medications may lead to metabolic abnormalities that facilitate the formation of stones. Drugs that induce metabolic calculi include loop diuretics; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; and laxatives, when abused. Correcting the metabolic abnormality may eliminate or dramatically attenuate stone activity. Urinary calculi can also be induced by medications when the drugs crystallize and become the primary component of the stones. In this case, urinary supersaturation of the agent may promote formation of the calculi. Drugs that induce calculi via this process include magnesium trisilicate; ciprofloxacin; sulfa medications; triamterene; indinavir; and ephedrine, alone or in combination with guaifenesin. When this situation occurs, discontinuation of the medication is usually necessary. PMID:16985842

  2. Computed tomographic analysis of urinary calculi

    Newhouse, J.H.; Prien, E.L.; Amis, E.S. Jr.; Dretler, S.P.; Pfister, R.C.

    1984-03-01

    Excised urinary calculi were subjected to computed tomographic (CT) scanning in an attempt to determine whether CT attenuation values would allow accurate analysis of stone composition. The mean, maximum, and modal pixel densities of the calculi were recorded and compared; the resulting values reflected considerable heterogeneity in stone density. Although uric acid and cystine calculi could be identified by their discrete ranges on one or more of these criteria, calcium-containing stones of various compositions, including struvite, could not be distinguished reliably. CT analysis of stone density is not likely to be more accurate than standard radiography in characterizing stone composition in vivo.

  3. Neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi

    Urinary calculi resulting from disorders in the urinary system are mostly composed of uric acid, urates, calcium oxalate, alkaline earth phosphates (Ca and Mg), triple phosphate (magnesium ammonium phosphate), calcium carbonate, cystine, xanthine, and traces of proteins. The determination of these macro-constituents has been carried out by different analytical procedures. No attempts however, have been reported regarding the determination of trace elements in urinary stones, apart from that of Herring et al., who investigated the consumption of strontium by urolithiasis patients. The present work is a non-destructive neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi, to search the variation in concentration of certain trace elements with the chemical composition of the calculus

  4. CT findings of melamine caused urinary calculi

    Objective: To analyze the CT findings of melamine induced urinary calculi. Methods: Nineteen children with a history of ingestion of melamine contaminated infant formula milk were studied, including 12 males and 7 females, age ranged from 50 days to 5 years. Results: CT demonstrated renal pelvic and ureteral stones in 13 cases, with urinary obstruction in 9 of them. The size of the stones ranged from 0.3 cm x 0.3 cm to stag-horn calculus. Tine density of the stones measured from a low of 40-70 HU up to a high of 410 HU with an average density of 160 HU. Conclusion: CT scan is an excellent modality in demonstrating urinary tract calculi caused by melamine. It is the method of choice when ultrasound examinations are equivocal. (authors)

  5. Percutaneous retrieval of upper urinary tract foreign bodies and calculi

    To determine, when extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is contraindicated, the usefulness and safety of percutaneous management in the removal from the upper urinary tract of foreign bodies and calculi, or small remnants of these, retained after percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Between January 1996 and May 2001, We attempted to retrieve foreign bodies or calculi from the upper urinary tract of 20 patients, using various percutaneous technique. There were eleven foreign bodies, namely fragmented nephrostomy catheters (n=2), migrated ureteric stents inaccessible to retrograde ureteroscopic management (n=8), and one metallic radiopaque marker which was separated from the pusher of the internal ureteral stent. Nine urinary tract calculi were present. These ranged in radiographically measured size from 4 to 8 mm in their largest diameter, and were found in the renal pelvis or calyx (n=5) and ureter (n=4). After percutaneous nephrostomy, all procedures involved the use of a 7-F to 14-F sheath, inserted under fluoroscopic guidance. Devices used for the retrieval of these objects include a stone basket retriever, loop snare, grasping forceps, and balloon catheter. In all cases except one, it was possible to retrieve calculi or other items from the upper urinary tract. No surgical procedure was required and no significant complications were encountered in any of the cases during or after the procedures. The percutaneous technique can be useful and safe in the management of foreign bodies or calculi present in the upper urinary tract

  6. Raman spectroscopic investigation of urinary calculi and salivary stones

    Full text: The capabilities and limitations of determining the composition of urinary calculi (34 patients) and salivary stones (27 patients) by Raman spectroscopy have been investigated by analysing Raman spectra obtained with 1064 nm laser excitation, and comparing them with Raman spectra both from specific reference substances and from a commercial Raman database. The composition results were also compared with those obtained by other analytical methods e.g. powder diffraction. Raman spectroscopy proves to be an analytical method which provides reliable results on the composition of urinary calculi and salivary stones quickly, non-destructively and without any need of sample preparation. (author)

  7. Dietary dissolution of urinary calculi in cats

    A young adult, castrated male DSH cat was admitted for pollakiuria, hematuria and dysuria. The cat was being fed a commercial dry grocery brand cat food. Radiographs demonstrated multiple radiodense cystic calculi and urinalysis showed hematuria but no crystalluria. A tentative diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis was made. The cat was fed s/d® Feline food exclusively. Clinical signs disappeared within a week and no calculi were visible radiographically within three weeks. s/d® Feline food was continued an additional two weeks. This case study shows that s/d® Feline therapeutic food can be used to successfully manage struvite urolithiasis in cats

  8. Disintegration of urinary calculi by laser beam: drilling experiment in extracted urinary stones.

    Tanahashi, Y; Orikasa, S; Chiba, R; Tahira, K; Fukatsu, T; Miyakawa, T

    1979-06-01

    Disintegration of urinary calculi was attempted by the use of laser beam. As a first step, drilling of extracted urinary stones was attempted using a continuous wave CO2 laser and a pulse ruby laser. Stones were drilled easily by either laser beam. The power around 10 W of continuous CO2 laser beam was sufficient to drill through the stone. PMID:462477

  9. Nondestructive analysis of urinary calculi using micro computed tomography

    Lingeman James E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro computed tomography (micro CT has been shown to provide exceptionally high quality imaging of the fine structural detail within urinary calculi. We tested the idea that micro CT might also be used to identify the mineral composition of urinary stones non-destructively. Methods Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were measured for mineral that was positively identified by infrared microspectroscopy (FT-IR. To do this, human urinary stones were sectioned with a diamond wire saw. The cut surface was explored by FT-IR and regions of pure mineral were evaluated by micro CT to correlate x-ray attenuation values with mineral content. Additionally, intact stones were imaged with micro CT to visualize internal morphology and map the distribution of specific mineral components in 3-D. Results Micro CT images taken just beneath the cut surface of urinary stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail that could be correlated with structure visible in the optical image mode of FT-IR. Regions of pure mineral were not difficult to find by FT-IR for most stones and such regions could be localized on micro CT images of the cut surface. This was not true, however, for two brushite stones tested; in these, brushite was closely intermixed with calcium oxalate. Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were collected for six minerals that could be found in regions that appeared to be pure, including uric acid (3515 – 4995 micro CT attenuation units, AU, struvite (7242 – 7969 AU, cystine (8619 – 9921 AU, calcium oxalate dihydrate (13815 – 15797 AU, calcium oxalate monohydrate (16297 – 18449 AU, and hydroxyapatite (21144 – 23121 AU. These AU values did not overlap. Analysis of intact stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail and could discriminate multiple mineral types within heterogeneous stones. Conclusions Micro CT gives excellent structural detail of urinary stones, and these results demonstrate the feasibility

  10. Association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi: a population-based case-control study.

    Shih-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have been demonstrated to have higher overall morbidity and all-cause mortality rates from general medical conditions. However, little attention has been given to the urinary system of people with schizophrenia. As no direct evidence has been reported demonstrating a link between schizophrenia and urinary calculi, this study utilized a population-based case-control study design to investigate the possibility of an association between schizophrenia and the occurrence of urinary calculi. METHOD: This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Cases consisted of 53,965 urinary calculi patients newly diagnosed between 2002 and 2008. In total, 269,825 controls were randomly selected and matched with the cases in terms of age and sex. Each person was traced to discern whether he had previously received a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Conditional logistic regression models were performed for the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,119 (1.0% subjects had been diagnosed with schizophrenia prior to the index date. This included 0.7% of the patients with urinary calculi, and 1.0% of the controls. A prior diagnosis of schizophrenia was independently associated with a 30% decrease (95% CI = 0.62-0.76 in the occurrence of urinary calculi. The reduction was even more remarkable in males (38%, 95% CI = 0.55-0.71 and in elder individuals independent of gender (48% in those aged >69, 95% CI = 0.36-0.77. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an inverse association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which schizophrenia negatively associates with urinary calculi.

  11. Non-contrast thin-section helical CT of urinary tract calculi in children

    Background: Non-contrast thin-section helical CT has gained acceptance for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in adults, but experience with the technique in children is limited. Purpose: To evaluate the utility of non-contrast thin section helical CT for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in children. Materials and methods: Radiology databases at three pediatric institutions were searched to identify all pediatric patients evaluated by ''renal stone'' protocol CT scans (no oral or intravenous contrast, scans covering the entire urinary tract obtained in helical mode with narrow collimation (< 5 mm)). CT scans were reviewed for the primary finding of urinary tract calculi, for secondary signs of acute urinary tract obstruction and for evidence of alternative diagnoses. Medical records were reviewed to determine clinical presentation and to confirm the eventual diagnosis. Results: One hundred thirty-seven scans of 113 children (mean age: 11.2 years) were studied. Thirty-eight of 94 examinations (40%) performed on 82 children for acute pain and/or hematuria showed ureteral calculi. Alternative diagnoses were suggested by CT on 16 scans (17%). Twenty-eight scans were performed on 10 asymptomatic children with known calculus disease confirming renal stone burden on 21 scans (75%) and persistent ureteral calculi on 6 scans (21%). Upper tract calculi were demonstrated on 10 of 15 scans (67%) performed to evaluate for calculi in patients with known non-calculus genitourinary tract abnormalities. Conclusions: Non-contrast thin section helical CT is a useful method to diagnose urinary tract calculi in children. Radiation dose in this retrospective study may exceed the lowest possible radiation dose for diagnostic accuracy. Further research is needed to optimize CT imaging parameters, while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and minimizing radiation dose. (orig.)

  12. Non-contrast thin-section helical CT of urinary tract calculi in children

    Strouse, Peter J. [Section of Pediatric Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bates, Gregory D. [Department of Radiology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Bloom, David A. [Department of Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States); Goodsitt, Mitchell M. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Background: Non-contrast thin-section helical CT has gained acceptance for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in adults, but experience with the technique in children is limited. Purpose: To evaluate the utility of non-contrast thin section helical CT for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in children. Materials and methods: Radiology databases at three pediatric institutions were searched to identify all pediatric patients evaluated by ''renal stone'' protocol CT scans (no oral or intravenous contrast, scans covering the entire urinary tract obtained in helical mode with narrow collimation (< 5 mm)). CT scans were reviewed for the primary finding of urinary tract calculi, for secondary signs of acute urinary tract obstruction and for evidence of alternative diagnoses. Medical records were reviewed to determine clinical presentation and to confirm the eventual diagnosis. Results: One hundred thirty-seven scans of 113 children (mean age: 11.2 years) were studied. Thirty-eight of 94 examinations (40%) performed on 82 children for acute pain and/or hematuria showed ureteral calculi. Alternative diagnoses were suggested by CT on 16 scans (17%). Twenty-eight scans were performed on 10 asymptomatic children with known calculus disease confirming renal stone burden on 21 scans (75%) and persistent ureteral calculi on 6 scans (21%). Upper tract calculi were demonstrated on 10 of 15 scans (67%) performed to evaluate for calculi in patients with known non-calculus genitourinary tract abnormalities. Conclusions: Non-contrast thin section helical CT is a useful method to diagnose urinary tract calculi in children. Radiation dose in this retrospective study may exceed the lowest possible radiation dose for diagnostic accuracy. Further research is needed to optimize CT imaging parameters, while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and minimizing radiation dose. (orig.)

  13. Usefulness of reversed display of soft-copy abdominal radiographs for urinary calculi detection

    PURPOSE: To determine the usefulness of reversed display of soft-copy abdominal radiographs for urinary calculi detection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty radiographs with a single urinary calculus less than 5 mm in the long diameter (15 in the kidney; 15 in the proximal ureter; 15 in the mid-ureter, 15 in the distal ureter) and 15 radiographs without calculi were evaluated. Four readers blinded to the presence or absence of urinary calculi on each radiograph reviewed the radiographs in the conventional display, reversed display, and combination of conventional and reversed displays at 1-week intervals. All images were evaluated in random order and the presence or absence of urinary calculi was interpreted using the confidence score from 1 to 5. RESULTS: Multireader analysis for calculi in all locations showed a greater area under the receiver operating curve for combination of the two displays (0.764) than for the conventional display alone (0.655) (P=0.031). In the single-reader analysis for calculi in all locations, the third reader showed a greater area under the receiver operating curve for the reversed display (0.784) than for the conventional display (0.622) (P=0.027). Multireader analysis of the calculi in the kidney showed a greater area under the receiver operating curve for combination of the two displays (0.824) than for the conventional display alone (0.703) (P=0.043). CONCLUSION: The reversed display of soft-copy abdominal radiographs may be useful for urinary calculi detection

  14. Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients

    Ciudin, Alexandru; Luque Galvez, Maria Pilar; Franco de Castro, Agustin; Garcia-Cruz, Eduardo; Alcover Garcia, Juan; Alvarez-Vijande Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Alcaraz Asensio, Antonio [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Urology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Salvador Izquierdo, Rafael; Nicolau, Carlos [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm{sup 2} and 0.1 cm{sup 2} over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

  15. Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients

    To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm2 and 0.1 cm2 over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

  16. "THE ROLE OF HARDNESS OF POTABLE WATER IN THE FORMATION OF URINARY CALCULI IN UROMIEH, Iran"

    K.Imandel

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of renal and urinary calculi is not due to a single cause but occurs as a multifactor entity, by which some of them still are unknown. Three theories of Stones formation including nucleation, stone matrix and inhibition of crystallization do not accuse water hardness as a main cause of the formation of urinary calculi 120 patients suffering from renal and urinary calculi and the same number of control persons were studied in the city of Uromieh. The analysis of uroliths and water samples fulfilled the laboratory Standard methods Chi-square test was done on the results obtained The results of water analyses showed that the total hardness of Calcium and Magnesium were 300, 69, 32 mg/I as CaCo3 , TDS , 410 mg/I, electrical conductivity 600 us/cm and water classified as very hard. The abundance of uroliths were, oxalate, cystjne, uric acid infectious respectively, There was no statistical significant association between water hardness and urinary calculi of patients under study with respect to age and sex. The abundance blood groups in patients were A , 0 , AB and B respectively and the occurrence of 3 renal calculi mentioned above were more in men than Women The formation of renal stones were most occurred in summer season. The most abundant was calcium oxalate, the incidence was between the ages 30 to 50 years old and calcium stones were 2.7 times more in men than woman.

  17. Dual-energy CT for the evaluation of urinary calculi: Image interpretation, pitfalls and stone mimics

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with a reported prevalence between 4% and 20% in developed countries. Determination of urinary calculi composition is a key factor in preoperative evaluation, treatment, and stone recurrence prevention. Prior to the introduction of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), available methods for determining urinary stone composition were only available after stone extraction, and thereby unable to aid in optimized stone management prior to intervention. DECT utilizes the attenuation difference produced by two different x-ray energy spectra to quantify urinary calculi composition as uric acid or non-uric acid (with likely further classification in the future) while still providing the information attained with a conventional CT. Knowledge of DECT imaging pitfalls and stone mimics is important, as the added benefit of dual-energy analysis is the determination of stone composition, which in turn affects all aspects of stone management. This review briefly describes DECT principles, scanner types and acquisition protocols for the evaluation of urinary calculi as they relate to imaging pitfalls (inconsistent characterization of small stones, small dual-energy field of view, and mischaracterization from surrounding material) and stone mimics (drainage devices) that may adversely impact clinical decisions. We utilize our clinical experience from scanning over 1200 patients with this new imaging technique to present clinically relevant examples of imaging pitfalls and possible mechanisms for resolution

  18. Trace element studies in urolithiasis; preliminary investigation on mixed calcium oxalate-struvite urinary calculi

    In this study the levels of the trace elements copper , zinc, lead, iron, aluminum, nickel, chromium along with magnesium, sodium and potassium were estimated in fifteen mixed calcium oxalate-struvite (CaOx/STR) urinary stones. The mean values of the combined results were, copper 4.24, zinc 1302, zinc 1302.10, lead 23.25, iron 36.83,nickel 0.69, chromium 1.93, magnesium 4530441, sodium 54.13 and potassium 5.93 ng mg/sup -1/. It was observed that zinc, aluminum and potassium levels were higher than in calcium oxalate(CaOx) calculi 0.05>P>0.02 and potassium levels were higher than in mixed calcium oxalate-hydroxy appetite (CaOx/APA) calculi, P<0.01. A combination of all the results was also compared with similar data from South Africa, Turkey, Austria, India, U.S.A and Japan. (author)

  19. Chemical analysis of human urinary and renal calculi by Raman laser fiber-optics method

    Hong, Nguyen T. D.; Phat, Darith; Plaza, Pascal; Daudon, Michel; Dao, Nguyen Q.

    1991-11-01

    The Raman laser fiberoptics (RLFO) method using Raman spectroscopy for determination of chemical composition and optical fibers allowing multiplex, in situ, and remote possibilities, enabled chemical analysis of various human urinary and renal calculi. Raman spectra of about 40 constituents (synthetic or natural) in the authors''s possession and its 437 various binary and ternary mixtures are recorded using 1.06 micrometers radiation of a Nd:YAG laser and a FT Raman interferometer. These spectra--most of them are fluorescence free--constituted the calculi library. In the presence of urine, unknown stones can then be identified by RLFO method using an automatic computer procedure (at the present time, the Bruker IR search program is used). The results obtained for the identification of the stones are satisfactory. Major constituents of a complex calculus (

  20. Outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper urinary tract calculi

    Marcello Cocuzza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative and financial outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper tract calculi in 44 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2004 and September 2006, 44 patients treated for upper tract stone with flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy were evaluated. Renal stones were associated with collecting system obstruction in 15 (34% patients, failed extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL occurred in 14 (32% patients, unilateral multiple stones in 18 (41% patients, and multiple bilateral stones in 3 (7%. In 29 (66% patients, the stone was located in the inferior calyx. Perioperative and financial outcomes were also evaluated. RESULTS: 50 procedures were performed in 44 patients. The mean stone burden on preoperative CT scan was 11.5 ± 5.8 mm. The mean operative time was 61.3 ± 29.4 min. The stone free rate was 93.1% after one procedure and 97.7% after a second procedure, with overall complication rate of 8%. Therapeutic success occurred in 92% and 93% of patients with lower pole stones and SWL failure, respectively. Treatment failure of a single session was associated with presence of a stone size larger than 15 mm (p = 0.007, but not associated with inferior calyx location (p = 0.09. Surgical disposables were responsible for 78% of overall costs. CONCLUSION: Flexible ureteroscopy using holmium laser is a safe and effective option for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi. In addition, it can be considered an attractive option as salvage therapy after SWL failure or kidney calculi associated with ureteral stones. Stone size larger than 15 mm is associated with single session treatment failure.

  1. Application of physico-chemical procedures in the analysis of urinary calculi

    Rodgers, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    All physico-chemical techniques used in the analysis of urinary calculi have inherent advantages and limitations. Although x-ray powder diffraction can identify constituents unambiguously, certain minor components can be missed. Infrared spectroscopy is more sensitive but band assignment at low concentrations is difficult. Scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive x-ray analysis permits the simultaneous investigation of morphology and chemical microstructure. With the electron microprobe, minor constituents can be detected but tedious sample preparation procedures are required. Transmission electron microscopy is extremely useful in determining constituent inter-relationships and ultrastructure but ultramicrotomy is very difficult. Thermal gravimetric analysis gives quantitative information easily but does not satisfactorily distinguish between struvite and brushite. In an attempt to assess the accuracy of chemical analyses, 62 calculi were investigated applying several chemical tests. Those for MgS , PO4(T ), NHU and uric acid proved highly reliable while that for CaS often yielded an incorrect result. The test for oxalate was totally unsatisfactory. Investigators of stone composition and structure should include x-ray diffraction (or infrared spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy as their methods of first choice. In addition, chemical or thermogravimetric analyses should be utilized in an auxiliary capacity.

  2. Dual-energy CT for the characterization of urinary calculi: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a low-dose scanning protocol

    Thomas, C. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Patschan, O.; Nagele, U.; Stenzl, A. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Urology, Tuebingen (Germany); Ketelsen, D.; Tsiflikas, I.; Reimann, A.; Brodoefel, H.; Claussen, C.; Kopp, A.; Heuschmid, M.; Schlemmer, H.P. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Buchgeister, M. [University of Tuebingen, Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The efficiency and radiation dose of a low-dose dual-energy (DE) CT protocol for the evaluation of urinary calculus disease were evaluated. A low-dose dual-source DE-CT renal calculi protocol (140 kV, 46 mAs; 80 kV, 210 mAs) was derived from the single-energy (SE) CT protocol used in our institution for the detection of renal calculi (120 kV, 75 mAs). An Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with thermoluminescence dosimeters and examined by CT with both protocols. The effective doses were calculated. Fifty-one patients with suspected or known urinary calculus disease underwent DE-CT. DE analysis was performed if calculi were detected using a dedicated software tool. Results were compared to chemical analysis after invasive calculus extraction. An effective dose of 3.43 mSv (male) and 5.30 mSv (female) was measured in the phantom for the DE protocol (vs. 3.17/4.57 mSv for the SE protocol). Urinary calculi were found in 34 patients; in 28 patients, calculi were removed and analyzed (23 patients with calcified calculi, three with uric acid calculi, one with 2,8-dihyxdroxyadenine-calculi, one patient with a mixed struvite calculus). DE analysis was able to distinguish between calcified and non-calcified calculi in all cases. In conclusion, dual-energy urinary calculus analysis is effective also with a low-dose protocol. The protocol tested in this study reliably identified calcified urinary calculi in vivo. (orig.)

  3. Dual-energy CT for the characterization of urinary calculi: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a low-dose scanning protocol

    The efficiency and radiation dose of a low-dose dual-energy (DE) CT protocol for the evaluation of urinary calculus disease were evaluated. A low-dose dual-source DE-CT renal calculi protocol (140 kV, 46 mAs; 80 kV, 210 mAs) was derived from the single-energy (SE) CT protocol used in our institution for the detection of renal calculi (120 kV, 75 mAs). An Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with thermoluminescence dosimeters and examined by CT with both protocols. The effective doses were calculated. Fifty-one patients with suspected or known urinary calculus disease underwent DE-CT. DE analysis was performed if calculi were detected using a dedicated software tool. Results were compared to chemical analysis after invasive calculus extraction. An effective dose of 3.43 mSv (male) and 5.30 mSv (female) was measured in the phantom for the DE protocol (vs. 3.17/4.57 mSv for the SE protocol). Urinary calculi were found in 34 patients; in 28 patients, calculi were removed and analyzed (23 patients with calcified calculi, three with uric acid calculi, one with 2,8-dihyxdroxyadenine-calculi, one patient with a mixed struvite calculus). DE analysis was able to distinguish between calcified and non-calcified calculi in all cases. In conclusion, dual-energy urinary calculus analysis is effective also with a low-dose protocol. The protocol tested in this study reliably identified calcified urinary calculi in vivo. (orig.)

  4. Scintigraphy and Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of obstructive urinary calculi

    L. Gandolpho

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-seven patients with unilateral obstructive calculi (12 males and 35 females were submitted to 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA or 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scans for assessment of renal function. The scans revealed unilateral functional deficit in 68 and 66% of the patients, respectively. A calculus size of 1.1 to 2.0 cm was significantly associated with deficit detected by DTPA, but duration of obstruction and calculus localization were not. After relief of the obstruction, the mean percent renal function of the affected kidney was found to be significantly increased from 25 ± 12% to 29 ± 12% in DTPA and from 21 ± 15% to 24 ± 12% in DMSA. Initial Doppler ultrasonography performed in 35 patients detected an increased resistive index in 10 (29%. In the remaining patients with a normal resistive index, ureteral urinary jet was observed, indicating partial obstruction. The high frequency of renal function impairment detected by DTPA and of tubulointerstitial damage detected by DMSA as well as the slight amelioration of unilateral renal function after relief of obstruction suggest that scintigraphy assessment may help evaluate the unilateral percentage of renal function and monitor renal function recovery when it occurs. The presence of a urinary jet detected by Doppler ultrasonography further indicates the severity of obstruction and the recovery prognosis.

  5. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  6. Unique ability of the Proteus mirabilis capsule to enhance mineral growth in infectious urinary calculi.

    Dumanski, A J; Hedelin, H; Edin-Liljegren, A; Beauchemin, D; McLean, R J

    1994-07-01

    Struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O) calculi are a common complication of Proteus mirabilis urinary tract infections. Although urease is a major virulence factor in calculus formation, the polysaccharide capsule (CPS) of this organism also enhances struvite crystallization and growth in vitro (L. Clapham, R. J. C. McLean, J. C. Nickel, J. Downey, and J. W. Costerton, J. Crystal Growth 104:475-484, 1990). We obtained purified CPS, of known structure and varying anionic character, from P. mirabilis ATCC 49565 and several other organisms. Artificial urine was added to CPS, and the pH was elevated from 5.8 to 8.5 by the addition of urease or titration with 0.25 M NH4OH to induce struvite crystallization. Crystallization was measured by particle counting (Coulter counter), and the morphology (crystal habit) was examined by phase-contrast microscopy. In the presence of partially anionic P. mirabilis CPS, struvite formation occurred at a lower pH than in the absence of CPS or in the presence of other neutral, partially anionic, or anionic CPS. At pH 7.5 to 8.0, significantly more struvite crystals formed in the presence of P. mirabilis CPS than under other experimental conditions. With the exception of one polymer (curdlan) which did not bind Mg2+, enhancement of struvite formation by CPS polymers was inversely proportional to their Mg2+ binding ability. We speculate that the structure and partial anionic nature of P. mirabilis CPS enable it to enhance struvite formation by weakly concentrating Mg2+ ions during struvite crystal formation. This illustrates a new virulence aspect of bacterial CPS during infection. PMID:8005688

  7. Helical CT evaluation of the chemical composition of urinary tract calculi with a discriminant analysis of CT-attenuation values and density

    Bellin, Marie-France; Meric, Jean-Baptiste [AP-HP, Department of Radiology, Hopital Paul-Brousse, Villejuif Cedex (France); Renard-Penna, Raphaelle; Grenier, Philippe [AP-HP, Department of Radiology, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Conort, Pierre; Richard, Francois [AP-HP, Department of Urology, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Bissery, Anne; Mallet, Alain [AP-HP, Department of Biostatistics, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Daudon, Michel [AP-HP, Department of Biochemistry, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of helical CT using a combination of CT-attenuation values and visual assessment of stone density as well as discriminant linear analysis to predict the chemical composition of urinary calculi. One hundred human urinary calculi were obtained from a stone-analysis laboratory and placed in 20 excised pig kidneys. They were scanned at 80, 120 and 140 kV with 3-mm collimation. Average, highest and lowest CT-attenuation values and CT variability were recorded. The internal calculus structure was assessed using a wide window setting, and visual assessment of stone density was recorded. A stepwise discriminant linear analysis was performed. The following three variables were discriminant: highest CT-attenuation value, visual density, and highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio, all at 80 kV. The probability of correctly classifying stone composition with these three variables was 0.64, ranging from 0.54 for mixed calculi to 0.69 for pure calculi. The probabilities of correctly classifying calculus composition were: 0.91 for calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite, 0.89 for cystine, 0.85 for uric acid, 0.11 for calcium oxalate dihydrate, 0.10 for hydroxyapatite, and 0.07 for struvite calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, 81% of the calculi were correctly classified. Assessment at 80 kV of the highest CT-attenuation value, visual density and the highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio accurately predicts the chemical composition of 64-81% of urinary calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, all cystine, calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite calculi were correctly classified. (orig.)

  8. Analyses of 99Tcm-DTPA dynamic kidney imaging on 346 patients of upper urinary tract calculi

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of 99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging in evaluating renal function of the patients with upper urinary tract calculi. Methods: The results of 99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), intravenous pyelography (IVP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) in 346 patients with upper urinary tract calculi diseases were analyzed retrospectively. These 346 patients were divided into four groups according to their total GFR value. Results: (1) The renal dynamic imaging in 346 patients could accurately reflect the function of the two kidneys. GFR was negatively related to the serum BUN and SCr levels (r=-0.458, P=0.000 and r=-0.542, P=0.000). (2) The BUN and SCr levels showed significant difference among the four groups (F=49.23, P=0.000 and F=80.66, P=0.000). There were no significant difference of the BUN and SCr levels found between group 1 and group 2 (P=0.119, P=0.088, respectively), while significant difference of the BUN and SCr levels found among the other groups (P99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging, the mean GFR was (21.89±12.81)ml/min. Conclusion: 99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging is valuable to early evaluate the renal function, especially for the sick renal function in IVP detection failed patients. (authors)

  9. Scintigraphy and Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of obstructive urinary calculi

    Gandolpho L.; Sevillano M.; Barbieri A; Ajzen S.; Schor N; Ortiz V; Heilberg I.P.

    2001-01-01

    Forty-seven patients with unilateral obstructive calculi (12 males and 35 females) were submitted to 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) or 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans for assessment of renal function. The scans revealed unilateral functional deficit in 68 and 66% of the patients, respectively. A calculus size of 1.1 to 2.0 cm was significantly associated with deficit detected by DTPA, but duration of obstruction and calculus localization were not. After relief of...

  10. Infrared analysis of urinary calculi by a single reflection accessory and a neural network interpretation algorithm

    Volmer, M; de Vries, JCM; Goldschmidt, HMJ

    2001-01-01

    Background: Preparation of KBr tablets, used for Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis of urinary calculus composition, is time-consuming and often hampered by pellet breakage. We developed a new F:T-IR method for urinary calculus analysis. This method makes use of a Golden Gate Single Refecti

  11. Unenhanced low-dose versus standard-dose CT localization in patients with upper urinary calculi for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL)

    Jiang Licheng; Fan Yidong; Wang Ping; Yan Keqiang; Wang Xueting; Zhang Yingchen; Gao Lei; Ding Jiyang; Xu Zhonghua

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: With the ethical concern about the dose of CT scan and wide use of CT in protocol of suspected renal colic, more attention has been paid to low dose CT. The aim of the present study was to make a comparison of unenhanced low-dose spiral CT localization with unenhanced standard-dose spiral CT in patients with upper urinary tract calculi for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) treatment. Methods: Twenty eight patients with ureter and renal calcul...

  12. Investigation of the microstructure and mineralogical composition of urinary calculi fragments by synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography: a feasibility study

    Kaiser, J.; Holá, M.; Galiová, M.; Novotný, K.; Kanický, V.; Martinec, Petr; Ščučka, Jiří; Brun, F.; Sodini, N.; Tromba, G.; Mancini, L.; Kořistková, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 4 (2011), s. 259-267. ISSN 0300-5623 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/1394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : computed microtomography * synchrotron radiation * urinary calculi Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.233, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/y244643574072rk3/fulltext.pdf

  13. In vitro studies of epithelium-associated crystallization caused by uropathogens during urinary calculi development.

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Budzyńska, Aleksandra; Białczak-Kokot, Magdalena; Różalski, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Infectious urinary stones account for about 10% of all urinary stones. In 50% of cases urolithiasis is a recurrent illness, which can lead to the loss of a kidney if not properly treated. One of the reasons for recurrence of the disease may be the ability of bacteria to invade urothelial cells, persist in the host cells and serve as potential reservoirs for infection. Various uropathogens are associated with the formation of bacteria-induced urinary stones but Proteus mirabilis is the most commonly isolated (70%). An in vitro model was used in this study to analyze intracellular growth and crystallization in the presence of P. mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Human ureter (Hu 609) and bladder (HCV 29) epithelial cell lines were infected with bacteria and incubated (3-72 h) in the presence of synthetic urine and amikacin to prevent extracellular bacterial growth. During the incubation the number of bacteria (CFU/ml) inside epithelial cells and the intensity of crystallization were established. Crystallization was determined as an amount of a calcium radioisotope. The chosen strains of uropathogens were able to invade both types of epithelial cells but the Hu 609 cells were invaded to a higher extent. However, crystallization occurred only in the presence of P. mirabilis strains which were invasive and urease-positive. The highest intensity of cell-associated crystallization was observed when the number of bacteria within the urothelium remained stable during the time of incubation. These results show that P. mirabilis has an ability to form crystals inside the host cells. Under these conditions bacteria are protected from antibiotic killing, which leads to persistent and recurrent infections. We also suspect that this phenomenon may be an important stage of kidney stones formation. PMID:24803200

  14. Geoenvironmental factors related to high incidence of human urinary calculi (kidney stones) in Central Highlands of Sri Lanka.

    Abeywickarama, Buddhika; Ralapanawa, Udaya; Chandrajith, Rohana

    2016-10-01

    An area with extremely high incidence of urinary calculi was investigated in the view of identifying the relationship between the disease prevalence and the drinking water geochemistry. The prevalence of the kidney stone disease in the selected Padiyapelella-Hanguranketa area in Central Highlands of Sri Lanka is significantly higher compared with neighboring regions. Drinking water samples were collected from water sources that used by clinically identified kidney stone patients and healthy people. A total of 83 samples were collected and analyzed for major anions and cations. The anions in the area varied in the order HCO3 (-) > Cl(-) > SO4 (2-) > NO3 (-) and cations varied in the order Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > Na(+) > K(+) > Fe(2+). The dissolved silica that occurs as silicic acid (H4SiO4) in natural waters varied from 8.8 to 84 mg/L in prevalence samples, while it was between 9.7 and 65 mg/L for samples from non-prevalence locations. Hydrogeochemical data obtained from the two groups were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. It showed that pH, total hardness, Na(+), Ca(2+) and Fe(2+) had significant difference (p plots, Gibbs' plot and factor analysis indicated that the chemical composition of water sources in this area is strongly influenced by rock-water interactions, particularly the weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals. This study reveals a kind of association between stone formation and drinking water geochemistry as evident by the high hardness/calcium contents in spring water used by patients. PMID:26620679

  15. Successful Management of Repetitive Urinary Obstruction and Anuria Caused by Double J Stent Calculi Formation after Renal Transplantation

    Zongyao Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report firstly describes an extremely rare case of repetitive double J stent calculi formation after renal transplantation caused by the antihyperparathyroidism (HPT drug calcitriol. In 2012, a woman initially presented to our hospital for anuria with lower abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with allograft hydronephrosis and double J stents obstruction by calculi formation after transplantation and treated with triplicate stents replacements in another hospital without clinical manifestations improvements. Through detailed exploration of medical history, we conclude that the abnormal calculi formation is due to the calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 administration, a drug which can increase renal tubular reabsorption of calcium for treating posttransplant HPT bone disease. After discontinuing calcitriol, the patient was stone-free and had a good recovery without severe complications during the 9-month follow-up. Our novel findings may provide an important clue and approach to managing formidable repetitive double J stent calculi formation in the clinical trial.

  16. [Hormonal and metabolic disorders as systemic factor for the formation of urinary calculi].

    Aliaev, Iu G; Egshatian, L V; Rapoport, L M; Lartsova, E V

    2014-01-01

    In patients suffering from urolithiasis, metabolic diagnostics often reveals abnormalities contributing to the formation of stones: hypocitraturia, hyper- and hypocalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypomagnesemia/hypomagnesuria, hyperoxalaturia, etc. Before surgery, complex biochemical examination of blood and 24-hourcollection urine in 82 patients with urolithiasis was performed. The analysis of the main laboratory parameters of carbohydrate, lipid, calcium and phosphorus and purine metabolism found the prevalence of violations of calcium and phosphorus metabolism in these patients. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 31 (37.8%) patients. There was a significant positive correlation between serum total cholesterol and serum total calcium (rs = 0.3315, P = 0.0103). Low serum calcium levels were associated with hyperoxalaturia (rs = -0.4270, P = 0.0295). There was a significant effect of natriuria on urinary excretion of oxalate (rs = 0.6107, P = 0.0001), Mg (rs = 0.4156, P = 0.0096) and K (rs = 0.5234, P = 0.00005). The study shows the role of magnesium in the prevention of recurrence and manifestation of urolithiasis. The combination of two or more types of hormonal and metabolic disorders increases the incidence of recurrent stones. Timely correction of hormonal-metabolic status allows to reduce the risk of stone formation, and hospitalization attributable to the complications associated. PMID:25807757

  17. Analysis of chemical composition of urinary calculi%南疆地区197例患者泌尿系结石成份分析

    黄睿; 孟晓辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the composition of urinary stone and investigate its prevention method. Methods 197 cases with urinary stones related to melamine milk were collected. The qualitative determination was performed by infrared spectroscopy automatic analyzer. Results 8 components in urinary stone were detected. 98 cases (51. 8%) were pure type, while 91 cases (48. 1%) were the mixed type. 38% of the calculi were calcium-containing stones. 34. 8% of the stones were non-calcium- containing. The rest were mixed. The percentage of various stone compositions were as follows: urinary ammonium calculi was 44. 9% (48 cases) , calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) + urinary ammonium calculi was 28. 5% (28 cases), calcium lactate was 26. 8% (24cases). The clinical features of three kinds of urinary stones were Uygur nationality cases accounted for 67% , 71% male and 52. 8% was infants under 3 years old. The proportion of patients with kidney stones was 61. 4%. The urinary stones ammonium was the main ingredient, while a certain percentage of patients with calcium oxalate stones. Conclusion Combination of case history, inferred that incidence of kidney stones in Uighur nationality is higher than that of Han nationality significantly. It is inferred that urinary ammonium stones could be easily induced by melamine milk powder.%目的 探讨南疆地区泌尿系结石患者的结石成份及防治方法.方法 搜集新疆南部地区与三聚氰胺奶粉相关尿路结石病例197例.手术取石,采用红外光谱自动分析仪定性检测.结果 除外8例资料不全,纳入统计189例,共检测出8种成份,其中单纯成份结石51.85%(98例),混合成份结石48.15%(91例).按结石主要成份分为含钙结石72例(38%),非钙结石66例(34.8%),混合型结石51例(28%).各种成份的结石病例的构成比从高到低依次为尿酸铵结石44例(44.9%),一水草酸钙和尿酸铵28例(28.5%),一水草酸钙24例(26.3%).三种结石的临床特点是67

  18. Endoscopic treatment of urinary calculi in allograft kidneys%移植肾输尿管结石的腔镜治疗

    王沈阳; 苏顺业; 张余芳; 刘鲁东; 高远; 张明荣; 周全

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of endoscopic treatment for urinary calculi in allograft kidneys. Methods The clinical files of urolithiasis in allograft kidneys in 5 cases were retrospectively analyzed consulting with literature,overall 5 cases of urinary calculi in allograft kidneys were treated by endoscopic technique.Among them, the stone size ranged from 8 mm to 48 mm in greatest dimension, and the time after transplantation ranged from 7 months to 9 years. Results YAG Lithotripsy by ureteroscopy was performed successfully in 4 cases;one underwent ESWL after failed ureteroscopy. The patients were followed up for 1 ~ 6 years, and all the patients and transplanted kidneys survived well. The kidney function returned to normal in 5 patients and no stones recurred. Conclusion Due to its less trauma and excellent outcome, minimally invasive endoscopy should be chosen for treatment of urinary calculi in allograft kidney so as to protect kidney function as far as possible.%目的 探讨肾移植术后移植肾输尿管结石的腔镜治疗效果.方法 结合病史及文献对5例移植肾输尿管结石患者的临床资料进行系统性回顾分析,5例均行输尿管镜钬激光碎石术,其中结石直径为7~48 mm,接受肾移植术的时间约为7个月~9年.结果 4例行输尿管镜钬激光碎石术碎石成功;1例在碎石过程中,结石被冲洗液冲入肾盂,术后留置D-J管行ESWL术,2次后排净结石.术后随访1~6年,人肾均存活良好,5例患者肾功能恢复正常,无结石复发.结论 移植肾输尿管结石处理应选择创伤小、效果好的腔镜微创治疗,尽而更好地保护肾功能.

  19. Unenhanced low-dose versus standard-dose CT localization in patients with upper urinary calculi for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL

    Jiang Licheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: With the ethical concern about the dose of CT scan and wide use of CT in protocol of suspected renal colic, more attention has been paid to low dose CT. The aim of the present study was to make a comparison of unenhanced low-dose spiral CT localization with unenhanced standard-dose spiral CT in patients with upper urinary tract calculi for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL treatment. Methods: Twenty eight patients with ureter and renal calculus, preparing to take MPCNL, underwent both abdominal low-dose CT (25 mAs and standard-dose CT (100 mAs. Low-dose CT and standard-dose CT were independently evaluated for the characterization of renal/ureteral calculi, perirenal adjacent organs, blood vessels, indirect signs of renal or ureteral calculus (renal enlargement, pyeloureteral dilatation, and the indices of localization (percutaneous puncture angulation and depth used in the MPCNL procedure. Results: In all 28 patients, low-dose CT was 100 per cent coincidence 100 per cent sensitive and 100 per cent specific for depicting the location of the renal and ureteral calculus, renal enlargement, pyeloureteral dilatation, adjacent organs, and the presumptive puncture point and a 96.3 per cent coincidence 96 per cent sensitivity and 93 per cent specificity for blood vessel signs within the renal sinus, and with an obvious lower radiation exposure for patients when compared to standard-dose CT (P<0.05. The indices of puncture depth, puncture angulation, and maximum calculus transverse diameter on the axial surface showed no significant difference between the two doses of CT scans, with a significant variation in calculus visualization slice numbers (P<0.05. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings show that unenhanced low-dose CT achieves a sensitivity and accuracy similar to that of standard-dose CT in assessing the localization of renal ureteral calculus and adjacent organs conditions and identifying the

  20. Vaginal calculi in a juvenile harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

    Norman, Stephanie A; Garner, Michael M; Berta, Susan; Dubpernell, Sandra; Klope, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    A large number of vaginal calculi were observed in a juvenile harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) stranded on Whidbey Island, Washington. Vaginal calculi have been reported in other species, but not in harbor porpoises. Histologic examination of the urinary tract revealed mucosal hyperplasia most likely attributable to the calculi. The calculi were numerous (>30), composed completely of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate), and on culture yielded Enterococcus spp., a bacterium not usually associated with struvite urolith formation in domestic animals. The only other lesion of note was severe hepatic lipidosis, and its relationship to the development of the vaginal calculi is unknown. PMID:22946417

  1. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urinary calculi. Results from the first 306 patients treated at the Copenhagen Municipal Stone Center with a second generation lithotriptor

    Andersen, J T; Mogensen, P

    1991-01-01

    The first Danish experience with Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) using a second generation Lithotriptor (Siemens Lithostar) is reported. 306 patients underwent 392 treatments for 363 stones. There were 339 renal calculi including 5 staghorn calculi and 54 ureteral calculi. Treatments...... and 11 patients had residual stones removed at open surgery. The used second generation lithotriptor with X-ray based stone localisation is effective for treatment of both renal calculi and ureteral calculi in situ in all three segments of the ureter.......The first Danish experience with Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) using a second generation Lithotriptor (Siemens Lithostar) is reported. 306 patients underwent 392 treatments for 363 stones. There were 339 renal calculi including 5 staghorn calculi and 54 ureteral calculi. Treatments...... were performed under local analgesia (82%) or epidural or general anesthesia (18%) when invasive procedures had to be done in connection with the treatment. Stone fragmentation was achieved with 2487 +/- 1262 shocks. The first months stone clearance rate was 45%; 26% had fragments less than 6 mm; 29...

  2. Internalization of Calcium Oxalate Calculi Developed in Narrow Cavities

    Fèlix Grases

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient with calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi occluded in cavities. All those calculi were located inside narrow cavities covered with a thin epithelium that permits their visualization. Urinary biochemical analysis showed high calciuria, not hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and a ratio [calcium]/[citrate] >0.33. The existence of cavities of very low urodynamic efficacy was decisive in the formation of such calculi. It is important to emphasize that we observed a thin epithelium covering such cavities, demonstrating that this epithelium may be formed after the development of the calculi through a re-epithelialization process.

  3. Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy of symptomatic renal calculi in children

    Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy of upper urinary tract lithiasis is a well-established procedure in adults. We successfully applied this technique to completely remove symptomatic renal calculi in two children with idiopathic hypercalciuria. The procedure was well tolerated and no complications occurred. Both patients were discharged within 4 days of the lithotripsy. This method is an alternative to surgery for the removal of large or impacted calculi from the upper urinary tracts of pediatric patients. (orig.)

  4. Minimally Invasive Operation Skills for Chewing Gum-Like Urinary Matrix Calculi%泌尿系口香糖样软结石微创手术技巧

    赵春利; 张晶; 杨文增; 古德强; 张彦桥; 李昱

    2011-01-01

    Objective To summarize the minimally invasive operation skills of chewing gum - like urinary matrix calculi. Methods Data of 11 patients ( 5 males and 6 females ) with chewing gum - like urinary matrix calculi admitted to our hospital from Jan 2005 to May 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Of these patients , 10 were with urinary infections ( all identified by urine culture as Escherichia Coli ) , 6 were with diabetes. All the patients underwent minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy ( MPCNL ) . Results ALL the operations were successfully performed without open operation transfer. Operation time ranged from 45 to 120 minutes, with an average of ( 64.3 ± 6.9 ) minutes. Severe complications were not noted during and after the operation. No relapse cases were observed during the 6 months of follow - up. Conclusion MPCNL is safe and effective in treatment of chewing gum - like matrix calculi.%目的 总结微创手术治疗泌尿系口香糖样软结石的手术技巧.方法 回顾性分析2005年1月-2011年4月我院收治的泌尿系口香糖样软结石患者11例,其中男5例,女6例,10例患有泌尿系感染,尿培养均为大肠埃希菌,6例患有糖尿病.11例患者均采用经皮肾镜取石术(PCNL)微创治疗.结果 11例患者均一期完成手术,无改开放手术,手术时间为45~120 min,平均(64.3±6.9)min,术中术后均无明显并发症发生,随访6个月无结石复发者.结论 微创手术治疗泌尿系口香糖样软结石安全有效.

  5. The management of the congenital anterior urethral diverticula with calculi which is the cause of acute urinary retention (Globe vesicale): A case report

    Pirinççi, Necip; Geçit, İlhan; Güneş, Mustafa; Taken, Kerem; Tanık, Serhat; Ceylan, Kadir

    2013-01-01

      Abstract. Congenital urethral diverticula with calculi has a low incidence as reported in the literature. Congenital diverticula have been seen % 10-20 in all urethral diverticula. The etiology of urethral stones are urethra and bladder stones, urethral diverticula, foreign matters, urethral stenosis and urethral trauma. Management of treatment urethral stones is surgery and endoscopy. Our case was a three years old boy who referred to our clinic due to globe vesicale. Diagnosis was perform...

  6. Recurrent bilateral renal calculi in a tetraplegic patient

    Vaidyanathan, S; Soni, B M; Biering-Sorensen, F;

    1998-01-01

    An 18-year-old male developed C-5 complete tetraplegia following a motor-cycle accident in May 1975. The neuropathic bladder was managed by an indwelling urethral catheter. He developed recurrent episodes of urinary infection with Proteus species. In September 1975, an X-ray of the abdomen revealed...... annual urological evaluation. Urinary tract calculi, if detected, should be dealt with promptly to prevent renal damage due to urinary obstruction and urosepsis. Renal calculi can be treated effectively and safely by ESWL in spinal cord injury patients, thus avoiding the need for an invasive procedure...

  7. Staghorn calculi and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis associated with transitional cell carcinoma

    Chao-Wei Tseng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Untreated staghorn calculi can cause xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP, diminished renal function, and renal malignancy. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the upper urinary tract is associated with kidney stones and chronic infection, but their association with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC has not been proven and has rarely been reported in literature. We present a rare case of staghorn calculi and XGP associated with TCC.

  8. Papillary and Nonpapillary Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Renal Calculi: Comparative Study of Etiologic Factors

    Enrique Pieras; Antonia Costa-Bauz; Margarita Ramis; Felix Grases

    2006-01-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) renal calculi can be classified into two groups: papillary and nonpapillary. In this paper, a comparative study between etiologic factors of COM papillary and nonpapillary calculi is performed. The study included 40 patients with COM renal calculi. The urine of these individuals was analyzed. Case history, lifestyle, and dietetic habits were obtained.No significant differences between urinary biochemical data of both groups were observed; 50% of COM papillary...

  9. Detection of renal calculi: the value of tomography

    Two hundred patients were evaluated to determine the sensitivity of tomography in detecting calculous disease of the upper urinary tract. In all cases, patients had routine scout radiographs of the abdomen and five precontrast tomograms of the kidneys. Of the 200 patients, 28 (14%) had renal calculi. Of these, 11 (39%) had either unsuspected or more calculi detected on tomography than seen on abdominal radiographs. Patients with symptoms suggestive of calculous disease should be evaluated with tomography in addition to plain films in order to optimize the detection and the extent of calculous disease involving the urinary tract

  10. The incidence and location of prostatic calculi on noncontrast computed tomography images in patients with renal calculi.

    Balasar, Mehmet; Poyraz, Necdet; Göğer, Yunus Emre; Unal, Yunus; Pişkin, Mehmet Mesut

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the incidence and location of prostatic calculi on noncontrast abdominal computed tomography (NCACT) images of patients with and without renal stones were investigated. Between 2006 and 2013, NCACT images were taken of 133 patients treated for renal stones (Group I) and of 100 age-matched control patients with putative urinary stone disease (Group II) in our clinic. The incidence and location of prostatic calculi on these images were determined. The location of prostatic calculus was classified as type A if they were located in the main prostatic ducts, and type B if they were located outside the ducts. Prostatic calculi were present in 44.4% of patients in Group I and 21.0% of patients in Group II. The incidence of prostatic calculi was significantly higher in patients with urinary stones compared with those without (PII the locations were 76.2% type A and 23.8% type B. The incidence of prostatic calculi is more prevalent in patients with renal stones. On NCACT images, prostatic calculi were mostly detected in the main prostatic ducts, which were defined as type A. PMID:25991494

  11. Risk Factors for Urinary Calculi in Children of Migrant Workers in Nanlang Town of Zhongshan%中山市南朗镇外来务工人员随迁子女泌尿系结石危险因素调查

    吴耀华; 饶惠平; 丁敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析外来务工人员随迁子女泌尿系结石的患病特征及影响因素。方法通过体检资料获得南朗镇外来务工人员随迁子女(W 组)和本地子女(B 组)4~10岁儿童各1260例。采用自制调查问卷收集泌尿系结石的影响因素信息并进行统计学分析。结果泌尿系结石患病率 W 组(3.14%)高于 B 组(1.75%),差异有统计学意义(χ2=6.964,P =0.008);饮水达标率 W 组(36.0%)低于 B 组(81.9%),差异有统计学意义(χ2=549.979,P <0.001);尿道感染率 W 组(46.5%)高于 B 组(22.7%),但差异无统计学意义(χ2=3.478、P =0.062);2组高钙尿发生比例比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.017,P =0.896);父母对预防小儿泌尿系结石知识评分 W 组为(2.39±1.913)分,低于 B 组的(4.12±1.791)分,差异有统计学意义(t=23.433,P <0.001)。结论外来务工人员随迁子女泌尿系结石患病率高于本地户籍儿童。小儿泌尿系结石可能与饮水量不足、父母对预防小儿泌尿系结石知识知晓度有关。%Objective To analyze the characteristics of urinary calculi and its influencing factors in children of migrant workers in Nanlang.Methods The factors influencing urinary calculi were investigated in 1 260 children of migrant workers (group W)and 1 260 local children (group B)in Nanlang using the self-designed questionnaires.Data were analyzed statistically.Results The prevalence of urinary calculi,rate of drinking water complying with standard,incidence of urinary tract infection and urinary calculi knowledge score of parents were,respectively,3.14%,36.0%, 46.5% and (2.39±1.913)in group W,and 1.75%,81.9%,22.7% and (4.12±1.791)in group B. There were significant differences in the prevalence of urinary calculi(χ2 =6.964,P =0.008),rate of drinking water complying with standard(χ2 =549.979,P

  12. Vaginal calculi in the dolphin.

    Sawyer, J E; Walker, W A

    1977-10-01

    Examination of the reproductive tract of a mature spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata , revealed 13 vaginal calculi, composed primarily of calcium phosphate compounds. Vaginal calculi also were found in two mature Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and in six mature Delphinus delphis . PMID:24228951

  13. [Renal staghorn calculi in small children - presentation of two cases].

    Krzemień, Grażyna; Szmigielska, Agnieszka; Jankowska-Dziadak, Katarzyna; Pańczyk-Tomaszewska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Urolithiasis in children occurs with the incidence of 0.1-5%. Risk factors such as metabolic disorders, recurrent urinary tract infections and/or congenital abnormalities of urinary tract are detected in 75-85% of children with urolithiasis. Staghorn calculi is associated with delayed diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection caused by specific organisms, which produce the enzyme urease, promoting generation of ammonia and hydroxide from urea. We present two boys with staghorn calculi recognized in 8th and 31st month of age. The reason for performing ultrasonography was urinary tract infection in both boys. The younger child was previously healthy, with no symptoms of urolithiasis, the older one had recurrent urinary tract infections caused by Proteus mirabilis, episodes of anxiety and abdominal pain. Laboratory test and imaging studies excluded congenital abnormalities in the urinary tract and typical metabolic causes of urolithiasis in both boys. Treatment of infection-related stones in the younger child included two extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). In the older child, both ESWL and operation were performed. Staghorn calculi were composed of mixtures of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) and calcium carbonate (apatite) and confirmed to be identified as infection-related stones. During follow-up in a nephrology outpatient clinic, values of blood pressure, renal ultrasonography, kidney function test were normal and no symptoms of urinary tract infections were clinically present. In patients with recurrent urinary tract infections, urolithiasis should be taken into consideration. The majority of staghorn calculi is often asymptomatic and can be diagnosed with an ultrasonography study performed routine or during urinary tract infection. PMID:27416622

  14. Clinical Diagnosis of Urinary Calculi Application Observed the Effect of Different Dose of CT Scanning%泌尿结石临床诊断应用不同剂量CT扫描效果观察

    黄锦炽

    2015-01-01

    Objective Discusses the application of different dose of CT scan in the clinical diagnostic value of urinary calculi.Methods In chronological order according to admission registered 200 cases of suspected urinary calculi were divided into a control group and the observation group, the 100 cases respectively. Control group with conventional-dose CT scan (120KV, 150mA); Observe the different groups were used (100mA, 80mA, 50mA) low-dose CT scans based on patient body mass index. Comparison of the two groups were image quality score (IQS) and volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), scanning sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value.Results The study found that the observation group CTDIvol was (6.5±1.1) and the control group (19.7±1.4) compared with statistical significance (P 0.05).Conclusion Compared with conventional dose CT scan, according to body mass index (bmi) in patients with clinical use of low-dose CT scan, the images quality, specificity, positive predictive value and its quite. But low dose CT scanning process produced less radiation dose, therefore cause harm to patients, more worthy of popularization and application.%目的:探讨不同剂量CT扫描应用于泌尿结石临床诊断价值。方法按照入院挂号时间顺序将200例拟诊泌尿系结石患者分为对照组与观察组,各100例。对照组采用常规剂量CT扫描检查(120KV、150mA);观察组根据患者体重指数不同分别采用(100mA、80mA、50mA)低剂量CT扫描。比较2组患者图像质量评分(IQS)和容积CT剂量指数(CTDIvol)、扫描敏感性、特异性、阳性预测值、阴性预测值。结果经研究发现,观察组CTDIvol为(6.5±1.1)与对照组(19.7±1.4)比较,具有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论相比常规剂量CT扫描来说,临床根据患者体重指数采用低剂量CT扫描,其图像质量、特异性、阳性预测值与其相当。但低剂量CT扫描过程中所产生辐射剂量要少,因此

  15. Association with meteo-climatological factors and daily emergency visits for renal colic and urinary calculi in Cuneo, Italy. A retrospective observational study, 2007-2010

    Condemi, Vincenzo; Gestro, Massimo; Dozio, Elena; Tartaglino, Bruno; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Meco, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Incidence and prevalence of kidney stones are affected by genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between various meteorological factors (independent variables) and the daily number of visits to the Emergency Department (ED of the S. Croce and Carle Hospital of Cuneo for renal colic (RC) and urinary stones (UC) as the dependent variable over the years 2007-2010. The Poisson generalized regression models (PGAMs) have been used in different progressive ways. The results of PGAMs (stage 1) adjusted for seasonal and calendar factors confirmed a significant correlation ( p 1), with a first peak after 5 days (lag ranges 0-1, 0-3, and 0-5) and a second weak peak observed along the 5-15 lag range days. The estimated RR for females was significant, mainly in the second and fourth age group considered (19-44 and >65 years): RR for total ED visits 1.27, confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.46 (lag 0-5 days); RR 1.42, CI 1.01-2.01 (lag 0-10 days); and RR 1.35, CI 1.09-1.68 (lag 0-15 days). The research also indicated a moderate involvement of the thermal factor in the onset of RC caused by UC, exclusively in the female sex. Further studies will be necessary to confirm these results.

  16. 输尿管软镜治疗孤立肾上尿路结石34例临床观察%Clinical observation of flexible ureteroscopy in the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi of solitary kidney

    胡嘉盛; 袁鹤胜; 谢国海; 刘冠琳; 贾晓龙; 郑重; 程跃

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect and surgical techniques of flexible ureteroscopy in the treatment of upper u‐rinary tract calculi of solitary kidney .Methods From Jan .2012 to Dec .2013 ,34 cases of upper urinary tract calculi of soli‐tary kidney underwent flexible ureteroscopy ,of which 2 cases were congenital solitary kidney ,8 were contralateral nephrecto‐my ,and 24 were contralateral renal atrophy .Among the 24 atrophy cases ,17 underwent open operation ,4 had multiple extra‐corporeal shock wave lithotripsy history .Of all patients ,21 had residual stones after percutaneous nephrolithotomy ,and 23 ca‐ses had D‐J catheter indwelt 1-4 weeks before the operation .Results The operation time was 40-125 minutes .As many as 30 cases had stones successfully crushed with one session ,the success rate being 88 .2% (30/34) .Of these patients ,17 showed no residual stones after one month of follow‐up ,and the diameter of 13 patients'residual stones was smaller than 4 mm .Three months later ,the stones were fully discharged .The operation failed in 2 patients because the vision of the flexible ureteroscope could not touch the stones ,and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) there were still residual stones with diame‐ter larger than 4 mm .One patient had underwent a second surgery with an interval of one month .The other patient received a third surgery .Either of them had residual stones after one month of follow‐up .Conclusions Flexible ureteroscope is safe and effective in the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi of solitary kidney ,especially for patients who have experienced percutaneous nephrolithotomy with residual stones .%目的:探讨输尿管软镜治疗孤立肾上尿路结石的疗效及手术技巧。方法2012年1月至2013年12月对34例孤立肾上尿路结石患者行输尿管软镜碎石术,其中先天性孤立肾2例,对侧肾切除所致孤立肾8例,对侧肾萎缩(无功能肾)24例;萎缩肾有17

  17. Evaluation of refinement calculi

    The present report aims at making a first evaluation of refinement calculi having some potential for the development of distributed systems. Refinement constitutes an integral part of formal software development, with the aim of providing a framework within which an executable software system can be constructed from a high level specification by going through a number of provably correct development steps. Many formal methods have their own refinement calculi, represented by sets of rules and pragmatic guidelines for relating pairs of specifications in a way that captures the essential idea of formal software development: to systematically produce a program that satisfies its specification. Based on a survey of a large number of relevant refinement calculi, seven selected methods were evaluated with respect to identified criteria. The results from the evaluation can be utilized in any software development project where a selection of refinement calculi is required. The evaluation in the present report complements those provided in other research projects at the OECD Halden Reactor Project, in particular INT-FS, EVAL-FS, and VV-FT (author) (ml)

  18. Association with meteo-climatological factors and daily emergency visits for renal colic and urinary calculi in Cuneo, Italy. A retrospective observational study, 2007-2010.

    Condemi, Vincenzo; Gestro, Massimo; Dozio, Elena; Tartaglino, Bruno; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Meco, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Incidence and prevalence of kidney stones are affected by genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between various meteorological factors (independent variables) and the daily number of visits to the Emergency Department (ED of the S. Croce and Carle Hospital of Cuneo for renal colic (RC) and urinary stones (UC) as the dependent variable over the years 2007-2010.The Poisson generalized regression models (PGAMs) have been used in different progressive ways. The results of PGAMs (stage 1) adjusted for seasonal and calendar factors confirmed a significant correlation (p nonlinear models (DLNMs)-stage 2], expressed in terms of relative risk (RR) and cumulative relative risk (RRC), indicated a relative significant effect up to 15 lag days of lag (RR > 1), with a first peak after 5 days (lag ranges 0-1, 0-3, and 0-5) and a second weak peak observed along the 5-15 lag range days. The estimated RR for females was significant, mainly in the second and fourth age group considered (19-44 and >65 years): RR for total ED visits 1.27, confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.46 (lag 0-5 days); RR 1.42, CI 1.01-2.01 (lag 0-10 days); and RR 1.35, CI 1.09-1.68 (lag 0-15 days). The research also indicated a moderate involvement of the thermal factor in the onset of RC caused by UC, exclusively in the female sex. Further studies will be necessary to confirm these results. PMID:24970114

  19. Urinary Tract Imaging

    Rowley, V. Allen

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the current imaging investigations usually required in the work-up of common urinary tract problems such as urinary tract infection, colic, trauma, hematuria and renal failure. Radiological therapeutic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy for drainage of obstructed systems and percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of renal calculi are briefly mentioned. The virtual elimination of percutaneous or open surgery for renal and upper urinary tract stones, resulting ...

  20. Papillary and Nonpapillary Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Renal Calculi: Comparative Study of Etiologic Factors

    Enrique Pieras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM renal calculi can be classified into two groups: papillary and nonpapillary. In this paper, a comparative study between etiologic factors of COM papillary and nonpapillary calculi is performed. The study included 40 patients with COM renal calculi. The urine of these individuals was analyzed. Case history, lifestyle, and dietetic habits were obtained.No significant differences between urinary biochemical data of both groups were observed; 50% of COM papillary stone formers and 40% of COM nonpapillary stone formers had urolithiasis family history. A low consumption of phytate-rich products was observed for both groups. A relationship between profession with occupational exposure to cytotoxic products and COM papillary renal lithiasis was detected.The results suggest that COM papillary calculi would be associated to papillary epithelium alterations together with a crystallization inhibitors deficit, whereas COM nonpapillary calculi would be associated to the presence of heterogeneous nucleants and a crystallization inhibitors deficit.

  1. Lambda Calculi: A Guide

    Hankin, Chris

    One of the universal notions of programming languages is functional abstraction. The methods of Java and the functions defined and used in functional programming languages, such as Haskell, are instances of this general notion. The inspiration for this form of abstraction mechanism comes from Mathematical Logic; notably Church's λ(lambda)-calculi and Schönfinkel's and Curry's Combinatory Logic. A proper study of these foundations leads to a better understanding of some of the fundamental issues in Computer Science.

  2. Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi

    Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J. C.

    2000-05-01

    Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

  3. Observational Calculi and Association Rules

    Rauch, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Observational calculi were introduced in the 1960’s as a tool of logic of discovery. Formulas of observational calculi correspond to assertions on analysed data. Truthfulness of suitable assertions can lead to acceptance of new scientific hypotheses. The general goal was to automate the process of discovery of scientific knowledge using mathematical logic and statistics. The GUHA method for producing true formulas of observational calculi relevant to the given problem of scientific discovery was developed. Theoretically interesting and practically important results on observational calculi were achieved. Special attention was paid to formulas - couples of Boolean attributes derived from columns of the analysed data matrix. Association rules introduced in the 1990’s can be seen as a special case of such formulas. New results on logical calculi and association rules were achieved. They can be seen as a logic of association rules. This can contribute to solving contemporary challenging problems of data minin...

  4. 急性肾绞痛患者B超联合腹部X线平片与平扫CT诊断尿路结石的比较研究%Comparison between ultrasonography with plain abdominal radiography and unenhanced computed tomography in the diagnosis of urinary calculi with renal colic

    曾筱江; 刘丽华; 涂响安

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effect between ultrasonography and plain abdominal radiography with unenhanced computed tomography ( CT) for the diagnosis of urinary calculi in patients with renal colic . Methods; Sixty-iiine patients with renal colic were diagnosed with ultrasonography ; plain abdominal radiography and unenhanced computed tomography. The findings of two methods were compared. Results: 59 of 69 patients were confirmed to have urinary calculi by follow -up. Ultrasonography with plain abdominal radiography detected 44 of the 59 patients with calculi (sensitivity 74. 6% and specificity 100% ). Unenhanced CT detected 55 of 59 patients, (sensitivity 93. 2% and specificity 100% ). Sensitivity of the two methods is of statistical differences in the diagnosis of acute renal colic urolithiasis patients. Conclusion: Unenhanced CT is more sensitive for detecting urolithiasis than ultrasonography with plain abdominal radiography.%目的:比较B超联合腹部X线平片(KUB)和平扫CT在诊断急性肾绞痛患者尿路结石的效能.方法:对69例因急性肾绞痛在我院泌尿外科门诊或者急诊的患者进行B超联合KUB和平扫CT检查,并对两种诊断方法的诊断效能进行对比研究.结果:经过3个月的随访,69例中确诊患有尿路结石59例.B超联合KUB诊断急性肾绞痛患者尿路结石的敏感度为74.6%(44/59),特异度为100%(10/10).CT平扫诊断急性肾绞痛患者尿路结石的敏感度为93.2%(55/59),特异度为100%(10/10).两种影像学方法诊断急性肾绞痛患者尿路结石的敏感度比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:平扫CT用于诊断急性肾绞痛患者尿路结石的敏感度优于B超联合KUB.

  5. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF MUSA PARADISICA LINN AGAINST ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED RENAL CALCULI

    Jha U

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ethanol extract of dried roots of Musa paradisica Linn against ethylene glycol induced renal calculi in albino wistar rats are studied in this research. A renal calculus was induced in rats by ingesting 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days and was manifested by high urinary calcium, oxalate, and low urinary magnesium contents. Simultaneous administration of 1ml (1 in 10 Musa paradisica Linn orally for 28 days along with ethylene glycol (0.75% v/v reduced urinary calcium, oxalate and elevated urinary magnesium level. It also increased urinary volume thereby reducing the tendency for crystallization. The histopathological studies confirmed the induction as degenerated glomeruli, necrotic tubule and inflammatory cells was observed in section of kidney from animals treated with ethylene glycol. This was reduced; however after treatment with Musa paradisica Linn. These observations enable to conclude that Musa paradisica Linn is effective against ethylene glycol induced renal calculi.

  6. Use of a laparoscopic specimen retrieval pouch to facilitate removal of intact or fragmented cystic calculi from standing sedated horses: 8 cases (2012-2015).

    Katzman, Scott A; Vaughan, Betsy; Nieto, Jorge E; Galuppo, Larry D

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the use of a laparoscopic specimen retrieval pouch for removal of intact or fragmented cystic calculi from standing horses. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 8 horses (5 geldings and 3 mares) with cystic calculi. PROCEDURES Physical examination and cystoscopic, ultrasonographic, and hematologic evaluations of urinary tract function were performed for each horse. A diagnosis of cystic calculus was made on the basis of results of cystoscopy and ultrasonography. Concurrent urolithiasis or other urinary tract abnormalities identified during preoperative evaluation were recorded. Horses were sedated and placed in standing stocks, and the perineum was aseptically prepared. Direct access to the urinary bladder was gained in geldings via perineal urethrotomy or in mares by a transurethral approach. Calculi were visualized endoscopically, manipulated into the retrieval pouch, and removed intact or fragmented (for larger calculi). RESULTS For 4 geldings and 1 mare, fragmentation was necessary to facilitate calculus removal. Mean duration of surgery was 125 minutes, and trauma to the urinary bladder and urethra was limited to areas of hyperemia and submucosal petechiation. No postoperative complications were encountered for any horse. When lithotripsy was required, the retrieval pouch provided an effective means of stabilizing calculi and containing the fragments for removal. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Use of the laparoscopic specimen retrieval pouch was an effective, minimally traumatic method for retrieving cystic calculi from standing horses. The pouch protected the urinary bladder and urethra from trauma during calculus removal and allowed for stabilization, containment, and fragmentation of calculi when necessary. PMID:27439348

  7. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL-NETWORK PREDICTIONS OF URINARY CALCULUS COMPOSITIONS ANALYZED WITH INFRARED-SPECTROSCOPY

    VOLMER, M; WOLTHERS, BG; METTING, HJ; DEHAAN, THY; COENEGRACHT, PMJ; VANDERSLIK, W

    1994-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used to analyze urinary calculus (renal stone) constituents. However, interpretation of IR spectra for quantifying urinary calculus constituents in mixtures is difficult, requiring expert knowledge by trained technicians. In our laboratory IR spectra of unknown calculi

  8. How accurate is unenhanced multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for localization of renal calculi?

    Goetschi, Stefan, E-mail: goetschi@gmx.net [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Umbehr, Martin, E-mail: martin.umbehr@triemli.ch [Urology Clinic, Department of Surgery, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Ullrich, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.ullrich@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Glenck, Michael, E-mail: michael.glenck@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Suter, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.suter@triemli.ch [Urology Clinic, Department of Surgery, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Weishaupt, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.weishaupt@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between unenhanced MDCT and intraoperative findings with regard to the exact anatomical location of renal calculi. Design, setting, and participants: Fifty-nine patients who underwent unenhanced MDCT for suspected urinary stone disease, and who underwent subsequent flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) as treatment of nephrolithiasis were included in this retrospective study. All MDCT data sets were independently reviewed by three observers with different degrees of experience in reading CT. Each observer was asked to indicate presence and exact anatomical location of any calcification within pyelocaliceal system, renal papilla or renal cortex. Results were compared to intraoperative findings which have been defined as standard of reference. Calculi not described at surgery, but present on MDCT data were counted as renal cortex calcifications. Results: Overall 166 calculi in 59 kidneys have been detected on MDCT, 100 (60.2%) were located in the pyelocaliceal system and 66 (39.8%) in the renal parenchyma. Of the 100 pyelocaliceal calculi, 84 (84%) were correctly located on CT data sets by observer 1, 62 (62%) by observer 2, and 71 (71%) by observer 3. Sensitivity/specificity was 90-94% and 50-100% if only pyelocaliceal calculi measuring >4 mm in size were considered. For pyelocaliceal calculi {<=}4 mm in size diagnostic performance of MDCT was inferior. Conclusion: Compared to flexible URS, unenhanced MDCT is accurate for distinction between pyelocaliceal calculi and renal parenchyma calcifications if renal calculi are >4 mm in size. For smaller renal calculi, unenhanced MDCT is less accurate and distinction between a pyelocaliceal calculus and renal parenchyma calcification is difficult.

  9. How accurate is unenhanced multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for localization of renal calculi?

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between unenhanced MDCT and intraoperative findings with regard to the exact anatomical location of renal calculi. Design, setting, and participants: Fifty-nine patients who underwent unenhanced MDCT for suspected urinary stone disease, and who underwent subsequent flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) as treatment of nephrolithiasis were included in this retrospective study. All MDCT data sets were independently reviewed by three observers with different degrees of experience in reading CT. Each observer was asked to indicate presence and exact anatomical location of any calcification within pyelocaliceal system, renal papilla or renal cortex. Results were compared to intraoperative findings which have been defined as standard of reference. Calculi not described at surgery, but present on MDCT data were counted as renal cortex calcifications. Results: Overall 166 calculi in 59 kidneys have been detected on MDCT, 100 (60.2%) were located in the pyelocaliceal system and 66 (39.8%) in the renal parenchyma. Of the 100 pyelocaliceal calculi, 84 (84%) were correctly located on CT data sets by observer 1, 62 (62%) by observer 2, and 71 (71%) by observer 3. Sensitivity/specificity was 90–94% and 50–100% if only pyelocaliceal calculi measuring >4 mm in size were considered. For pyelocaliceal calculi ≤4 mm in size diagnostic performance of MDCT was inferior. Conclusion: Compared to flexible URS, unenhanced MDCT is accurate for distinction between pyelocaliceal calculi and renal parenchyma calcifications if renal calculi are >4 mm in size. For smaller renal calculi, unenhanced MDCT is less accurate and distinction between a pyelocaliceal calculus and renal parenchyma calcification is difficult.

  10. 微通道经皮肾镜取石术治疗上尿路结石的疗效及安全性评价(附4533例报告)%The Evaluation of Efficacy and Safety in Mini-PNL for Upper Urinary Tract Calculi(Report of 4 533 Cases)

    李炯明; 刘建和; 陈戬; 姜永明; 张劲松; 闫永吉; 王光; 张海燕; 郭海翔

    2011-01-01

    Objective..To evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy(mPNL) for the treatment of upper urinary tract tcalculi.Methods:4 533 patients with upper urinary tract calculi underwent mPNL from September 1999 to December 2010,including 3 434 pelvic and calyx calculi,342 partial staghorn nephrolithiasis,38 staghorn nephrolithiasis,737 impacted upper ureterolithiasis, stone size 12-103 mm.All patients were treated by the supracostal access or subcostal access mPNL, the pucture via renal papillary to the posterior renal calyx.Results: 4 528 cases(99.8%)were successful of total 4 533 patients,the operation time 30-186 min.The stone clearance rate in upper ureterolithiasis was 99.2 %, nephrolithiasis was 96.5 % ,partial staghorn nephrolithiasis was 92.3% (combined the ESWL) and staghorn nephrolithiasis was 86.2% (combined the ESWL).The complication includced blood transfusion 1.39 % ,high selective renal artery angioembolization 0.13%%, pleural effusion0.13 %, colon injury 0.110%, liquid absorption syndrome 0.110%, septic shock 0.06 %, no death and renal failure cases.Conclusions:The treatment of mPNL for upper urinary tract calculi,including partial staghorn nephrolithiasis,can receive high rate of stone clearance,high safety,and lower surgical bleeding, blood transfusion and other complications.%目的:探讨微通道经皮肾镜取石术(mPNL)治疗上尿路结石的疗效和安全性.方法:1999年9月~2010年12月应用mPNL治疗上尿路结石患者4 533例,其中肾盂及肾盏结石患者3434例,部分鹿角形肾结石患者324例,完全鹿角形肾结石患者38例,嵌顿性输尿管上段结石患者737例,结石大小12~103 mm.采用肋上或肋下人路,经肾乳头穿刺后组肾盏建立手术通道.结果:4 528例(99.8%)获得成功,手术时间30~185 min,结石清除率分别为:输尿管上段结石99.2%,肾盏或肾盂结石96.5%,部分鹿角形肾结石92.3%(

  11. Calculi of meta-variables

    Masahiko SATO; Takafumi SAKURAI; Yukiyoshi KAMEYAMA; Atsushi IGARASH

    2008-01-01

    The notion of meta-variable plays a fun-damental role when we define formal systems such as logical and computational calculi. Yet it has been usually understood only informally as is seen in most textbooks of logic. Based on our observations of the usages of meta-variables in textbooks, we propose two formal systems that have the notion of meta-variable. In both calculi, each variable is given a level (non-negative integer), which classifies variables into object variables (level 0), meta-variables (level 1), metameta-variables (level 2) and so on. Then, simple arity systems are. used to exclude meaningless terms like a meta-level function operating on the metameta-level. A main difference of the two calculi lies in the definitions of substitution. The first calculus uses textual substitution, which can often be found in definitions of quantified formulae: when a term is substituted for a meta-variable, free object-level variables in the term may be captured. The second cal-culus is based on the observation that predicates can be regarded as meta-level functions on object-level terms, hence uses capture-avoiding substitution. We show that both calculi enjoy a number of properties including Church-Rosser and Strong Normalization, which are indispensable when we use them as frameworks to define logical systems.

  12. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF TAMSULOSIN IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CALCULI IN LOWER THIRD OF URETER

    Arunabha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Urinary calculus disease is one of the 3 most common urological diseases . It affects about 12 % of the world population and has become a worldwide health problem . Of all the urinary tract stones 20% are ureteral stones , of which 70% are found in the lower third of ureter . Patients with ureteric calculi have wide range of complications which includes acute pain necessitating hospitalization , urinary tract infection , anuria , acute renal failure , chronic renal failure , hydronephrosis , pyonephrosis , pyelonephritis . The objective of the study is , t o study the effect of Tamsulosin in the passage of calculi in the lower one third of the ureter compared to NSAIDs and oral and IV fluids . MATERI AL AND METHOD: This study included a total of 82 patients between the study period from Nov 20 10 to May 201 3 . 42 patients were chosen randomly and advised to take plenty of oral fluids and treated with NSAIDs ( Diclofenac sodium and the other 40 patients w ere treated with Tamsulosin ( alpha blocker 0 . 4mg HS for one month along with oral fluids and NSAIDs ( Diclofenac sodium . RESULTS: Majority of the patients were in the age group of 20 - 40 yrs . The mean size of the calculus was 6 . 62 cms on the right side and 6 . 07 cms on the left side . Out of the 40 patients who were on alpha 1 blocker ( Tamsulosin 31 patients had passed the calculi and 9 patients had no results with a success rate of 77 . 5% . In the 42 patients who were not on Tamsulosin , 8 patients passed the calculi and 34 patients did not pass the calculi . 9 patients among the 42 underwent ureterorenoscopy ( URS . CONCLUSION : Tamsulosin is an effective and safe drug in the management of calculi in the lower 1/3 rd of the ureter . Most patients with ureteric calc uli were rendered stone free with endourological procedures if conservative treatment failed .

  13. 经皮肾镜取石术治疗小儿复杂肾结石合并上尿路梗阻%Treatment of complex renal calculi and upper urinary tract obstruction with Minimally invasive percu-taneous nephrolithotomy in children

    张国锋; 侯广军; 耿宪杰; 张春英; 范应中; 张谦

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨微创经皮肾镜取石术(MPCNL)治疗小儿复杂肾结石合并上尿道梗阻的疗效和临床应用价值。方法回顾性分析我们于2006年6月至2009年6月采用微创经皮肾镜取石术(MPCNL)治疗的20例小儿复杂肾结石合并上尿路梗阻患儿临床资料,其中男14例,女6例,年龄8个月至11岁,平均年龄4.5岁。结果全部患儿平均住院时间6 d,20例中,16例一期全部取净,4例行二期取净,一期结石清除率为80.0%(16/20),术中未见肾盂大穿孔或肾皮质撕裂的并发症,无一例需术中输血,所有患儿术后随访6~12个月,未见输尿管狭窄或闭锁等并发症。结论微创经皮肾镜取石术(MPCNL)治疗小儿复杂肾结石合并上尿路梗阻安全有效,值得在临床上推广。%Objetive To evaluate the efficacy and the clinical value of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL)in terms of treating complex renal calculi with upper urinary tract obstruction in children. Methods A total of 20 patients who received treatment by minimally invasive percutaneous nephro-lithotomy (MPCNL)in The First Affiliated Hospital of Zheng zhou University and in The children's Hospital of Zhengzhou between June 2006 and June 2009 were analyzed retrospectively from whom 14 male and 6 female, with average age 4.5 (8 months~1 1 years old). Results The average hospitalization time was 6 days,and 16 out of 20 cases succeeded in taking out the stones clearly at the first time,while the rest 4 cases needed sec-ond surgeries.The stone-free rate was 80.0% (16/20).There were no big holes or renal pelvis cortical tear complications during the operation,and no one needed blood transfusions in the surgery.In the follow-up 6 to 12 months,the ureteral stricture or urethratresia complication was not detected. Conclusion MPCNL has the advantanges of safety and high efficiency in treating complex renal calculi with upper urinary tract

  14. A rare entity in adults: Bilateral Hutch diverticulum with calculi.

    Telli, Onur; Guclu, Adil Gucal; Haciyev, Perviz; Burgu, Berk; Gogus, Cagatay

    2015-01-01

    Congenital bladder diverticulum (CBD) is a very uncommon entity in adults. CBD could be unilateral or bilateral and is caused by a congenital weakness in the bladder musculature. CBD is differentiated from the paraureteral or Hutch type of diverticula. A 42-year-old male presented with bilateral Hutch diverticulum and multiple diverticulum calculus on intravenous pyelography. Cystoscopy revealed bladder diverticulum just medial to the left ureteral orifice with multiple calculi; the patient successfully underwent endoscopic laser cystolithotripsy with resolution of his urinary tract infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report presenting stone formation of CBD in an adult. PMID:26029313

  15. Herbal medicines for urinary stone treatment. A systematic review

    Elena Monti; Alberto Trinchieri; Vittorio Magri; Anne Cleves; Gianpaolo Perletti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical evidence on the efficacy of phytotherapy in the treatment of calculi in the urinary tract. Methods: To be eligible, full-length articles should include the results of randomized controlled trials enrolling patients affected by urolithiasis, reporting any comparison between an experimental herbal agent versus placebo or any active comparator, aimed at preventing the formation or facilitating the dissolution of calculi in any portion of the urinary tract. Fift...

  16. Management of Ureteric Calculi in Dhule City of North-western Maharashtra

    Lokesh Patni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urolithiasis, usually affecting people in the prime of life, causes significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Uretericstones account for 2/3rd of all urinary calculi brought to attention of doctors. The damaging effects of the calculi may result in obstruction with dilatation of the urinary tract, leading to stasis and severe infection. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate patients with urinary stones with regards to the incidence, age, sex,clinical presentation, site, size, side, management and their complications. Material and Methods:It was a prospective study carried out by Department of Surgery at Annasaheb Chudaman Patil Memorial Medical College, and Hospital Dhule for a period of two years. Patients were selected after they were diagnosed as having ureteric calculi. The patients were treated by conservative or surgical methods, and the outcome was monitored. Statistical analysis of the data was done for obtaining results.Result: The majority of the patients were males with peak age group in the second and third decade. Pain in abdomen or loin tenderness was the most common presenting symptom. Most of the patients were treated by conservative medical management. Endourological procedures were the most commonly performed surgical intervention. Conclusion: Most of the patients with ureteric calculi present with painin abdomen and majority can be treated by medical management. With the availability of better facilities the requirement for open surgery is decreasing and endourological procedures are becoming the means of surgical intervention.Complications are minimal with surgical expertise for endourological procedures.

  17. Computed tomographic analysis of renal calculi

    Hillman, B.J.; Drach, G.W.; Tracey, P.; Gaines, J.A.

    1984-03-01

    An in vitro study sought to determine the feasibility of using computed tomography (CT) to analyze the chemical composition of renal calculi and thus aid in selecting the best treatment method. Sixty-three coded calculi were scanned in a water bath. Region-of-interest measurements provided the mean, standard deviation, and minimum and maximum pixel values for each stone. These parameters were correlated with aspects of the stones' chemical composition. A multivariate analysis showed that the mean and standard deviation of the stones' pixel values were the best CT parameters for differentiating types of renal calculi. By using computerized mapping techniques, uric acid calculi could be perfectly differentiated from struvite and calcium oxalate calculi. The latter two types also were differentiable, but to a lesser extent. CT has a potential role as an adjunct to clinical and laboratory methods for determining the chemical composition of renal calculi in an effort to select optimal treatment.

  18. Computed tomographic analysis of renal calculi

    An in vitro study sought to determine the feasibility of using computed tomography (CT) to analyze the chemical composition of renal calculi and thus aid in selecting the best treatment method. Sixty-three coded calculi were scanned in a water bath. Region-of-interest measurements provided the mean, standard deviation, and minimum and maximum pixel values for each stone. These parameters were correlated with aspects of the stones' chemical composition. A multivariate analysis showed that the mean and standard deviation of the stones' pixel values were the best CT parameters for differentiating types of renal calculi. By using computerized mapping techniques, uric acid calculi could be perfectly differentiated from struvite and calcium oxalate calculi. The latter two types also were differentiable, but to a lesser extent. CT has a potential role as an adjunct to clinical and laboratory methods for determining the chemical composition of renal calculi in an effort to select optimal treatment

  19. The application of flexible ureteroscopy with holmium laser in ureteral duplication with upper urinary tract calculi (a report of 5 cases)%输尿管软镜钬激光碎石治疗重复输尿管畸形合并上尿路结石5例报告

    黄建林; 廖勇; 黄翔; 安宇; 邱明星

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨输尿管软镜钬激光碎石治疗重复输尿管畸形合并上尿路结石的有效性和安全性。方法回顾2012年7月至2014年5月我院收治的5例采用输尿管软镜钬激光治疗的重复输尿管畸形合并上尿路结石患者的临床及随访资料,结合文献资料进行分析。男性2例,女性3例;平均年龄32.2(25~40)岁;上位肾结石1例,下位肾结石1例,输尿管上段结石2例,输尿管上段结石合并下位肾结石1例。结石大小平均1.5(1.0~2.2)cm。结果4例患者成功碎石,1例因输尿管狭窄上鞘失败改为经皮肾镜碎石术。术后1个月结石完全排净率为75%(3/4),1例残留结石经体外冲击波碎石后结石排出。所有患者术中及术后无输尿管损伤,无明显出血、发热及尿脓毒血症发生。随访3~20个月,结石无复发,患者的肾积水均有不同程度的改善。结论输尿管软镜钬激光碎石治疗重复输尿管畸形合并上尿路结石安全、有效。%Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of flexible ureteroscopy with holmium laser for ure‐teral duplication with upper urinary tract calculi .Methods The clinical data and follow‐up results of 5 patients with ureteral duplication and upper urinary tract calculi who were treated with flexible ureteroscopy and holmium laser during July 2012 and May 2014 in our hospital were reviewed retrospectively .Three of the patients were female and 2 were male ,and the average age was 32 .2 years (ranging from 25 to 40 year ) .The mean diameter of calculus was 1 .5 cm (ranging from 1 .0 cm to 2 .2 cm) . The cases included 1 case of upper kidney stone ,1 case of inferior kidney stone ,2 cases of upper ureter stone and 1 case of up‐per ureter stone with inferior kidney stone .Results Four patients underwent flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy suc‐cessfully ,and another case was converted to percutaneous

  20. The feasibility of using microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography for detection and evaluation of renal calculi

    Cao Caijun; Nie Liming; Lou Cunguang; Xing Da, E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.c [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2010-09-07

    Imaging of renal calculi is important for patients who suffered a urinary calculus prior to treatment. The available imaging techniques include plain x-ray, ultrasound scan, intravenous urogram, computed tomography, etc. However, the visualization of a uric acid calculus (radiolucent calculi) is difficult and often impossible by the above imaging methods. In this paper, a new detection method based on microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography was developed to detect the renal calculi. Thermoacoustic images of calcium oxalate and uric acid calculus were compared with their x-ray images. The microwave absorption differences among the calcium oxalate calculus, uric acid calculus and normal kidney tissue could be evaluated by the amplitude of the thermoacoustic signals. The calculi hidden in the swine kidney were clearly imaged with excellent contrast and resolution in the three orthogonal thermoacoustic images. The results indicate that thermoacoustic imaging may be developed as a complementary method for detecting renal calculi, and its low cost and effective feature shows high potential for clinical applications.

  1. The feasibility of using microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography for detection and evaluation of renal calculi

    Imaging of renal calculi is important for patients who suffered a urinary calculus prior to treatment. The available imaging techniques include plain x-ray, ultrasound scan, intravenous urogram, computed tomography, etc. However, the visualization of a uric acid calculus (radiolucent calculi) is difficult and often impossible by the above imaging methods. In this paper, a new detection method based on microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography was developed to detect the renal calculi. Thermoacoustic images of calcium oxalate and uric acid calculus were compared with their x-ray images. The microwave absorption differences among the calcium oxalate calculus, uric acid calculus and normal kidney tissue could be evaluated by the amplitude of the thermoacoustic signals. The calculi hidden in the swine kidney were clearly imaged with excellent contrast and resolution in the three orthogonal thermoacoustic images. The results indicate that thermoacoustic imaging may be developed as a complementary method for detecting renal calculi, and its low cost and effective feature shows high potential for clinical applications.

  2. The feasibility of using microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography for detection and evaluation of renal calculi

    Cao, Caijun; Nie, Liming; Lou, Cunguang; Xing, Da

    2010-09-01

    Imaging of renal calculi is important for patients who suffered a urinary calculus prior to treatment. The available imaging techniques include plain x-ray, ultrasound scan, intravenous urogram, computed tomography, etc. However, the visualization of a uric acid calculus (radiolucent calculi) is difficult and often impossible by the above imaging methods. In this paper, a new detection method based on microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography was developed to detect the renal calculi. Thermoacoustic images of calcium oxalate and uric acid calculus were compared with their x-ray images. The microwave absorption differences among the calcium oxalate calculus, uric acid calculus and normal kidney tissue could be evaluated by the amplitude of the thermoacoustic signals. The calculi hidden in the swine kidney were clearly imaged with excellent contrast and resolution in the three orthogonal thermoacoustic images. The results indicate that thermoacoustic imaging may be developed as a complementary method for detecting renal calculi, and its low cost and effective feature shows high potential for clinical applications.

  3. Content and Face Validation of a Curriculum for Ultrasonic Propulsion of Calculi in a Human Renal Model

    Hsi, Ryan S.; Dunmire, Barbrina; Cunitz, Bryan W.; He, Xuemei; Sorensen, Mathew D.; Harper, Jonathan D.; Bailey, Michael R.; Lendvay, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasonic propulsion to reposition urinary tract calculi requires knowledge about ultrasound image capture, device manipulation, and interpretation. The purpose of this study was to validate a cognitive and technical skills curriculum to teach urologists ultrasonic propulsion to reposition kidney stones in tissue phantoms.

  4. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of urinary calculus caused by melamine in children

    JIA Li-qun; SHEN Ying; WANG Xiao-man; HE Le-jian; XIN Yue; HU Yan-xiu

    2009-01-01

    Background Intake of melamine can cause renal and ureteral lithiasis in infants and children. The present study aimed to understand the value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of renal and ureteral lithiasis in infants and young children caused by melamine, and the characteristics of ultrasonograms of melamine-associated calculi.Methods Ultrasonographic examination on the urinary system was performed for 28 332 children who ingested milk powder that was possibly tainted with melamine; 395 of the children were diagnosed by ultrasonography as having urinary calculus, and 231 cases had lump-like calculi and 164 cases had sand gravel-like calculi. The features of the calculi, the sites of obstruction and the status of hydronephrosis and hydroureterosis were analyzed. Ultrasonographic reexamination was performed for 116 patients and the findings were compared with those of the first ultrasonography, and the short-term expulsion of the calculi was evaluated.Results Most of the 395 patients with urinary lithiasis, except for those who developed renal failure, had no symptoms. The whole profile of the calculi could be seen in most of the cases, because the echogenicity of the calculi with no sharp or absent acoustical shadowing, was weaker as compared with those from calcium-containing calculi. Comet tail sign could be seen behind the echogenicity of single gravel calculus. The rate of diagnostic consistency of ureteral lithiasis between the ultrasound and the results of clinical observation (including stones expelled spontaneously or after cystoscopic intervention) in 51 cases for 76 ureters was 100%. Percutaneous renal biopsy was performed for one case, and histopathological examination showed flocculent, fine strip-like, ellipse and circular deeply stained sand gravel-like material in the renal tubules, and the circular calculi were found to be attached to the walls of the tubules. Chemical analysis of the calculi expelled from 12 cases showed that the main contents

  5. Efficacy of extra corporal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in upper and lower urinary tract calculi with reference to stone site, size shape and radio density according to age rule (abstract)

    50 patients having renal ureteral and vesical stones 5-20 mm and having age range 1 years with mean of 30.5 were studied. 70% (35/50) were male and 30% (15/50) female with 2.33:1 ratio 1,1,2,32,10,4 patients were of 0-2, 2-12, 12-18, 18-40, 40-55 and above 55 years age group respectively. Stone site, size, shape and radio density were seen by X-ray plain abdomen, IVU and ultrasound. At 4 months ESWL treatment was considered successful if the patients were stone free or had residual fragments 4 mm or less. Over all success rate was 64% in renal stones it was 62.7% (25/40), in ureteral 62.5% (5/8) and in vesical stone 100% (2/2). 5-10 mm, 11-15 mm and 16-20 mm stones had success rate of 76% (19/25), 61.1% (11/18) and 28.8% (2/7) respectively. Equi bone density, low density, high density and radiolucent stones had success rate of 57.1% (16/28), 92.85% (13/14). 16.6% (1/6) and 100% (2/2). Shape of stones is mere reflection of stone size. In conclusion, the liberal use of ESWL for every type of stone in terms of radio density equal to or less than bone and size up to 20 mm were amenable to ESWL monotherapy. Upper urinary tract stone 96% (48/50) and 18-40 years age group is the commonest. (author)

  6. Analysis of renal calculi by X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe: a comparison of two methods

    We analyzed 48 renal calculi by X-ray powder diffraction and electron microprobe techniques. In 35 of these, the presence of a minor constituent, not detected by X-ray diffraction, was revealed--hydroxyapatite was found in 24 stones, struvite in 6, and calcium oxalate in 5. The results of this study, as well as others, show that incomplete assignment of the crystalline constituents of urinary calculi is an inherent risk of the X-ray method and that conclusions concerning total chemical composition should be based on X-ray diffraction analyses coupled with data obtained from other analytical procedures

  7. Flow Logic for Process Calculi

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the π-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction......Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally...... implementation considerations. The electronic supplements present an application of the analysis techniques to a version of the π-calculus incorporating distribution and code mobility; also the proofs of the main results can be found in the electronic supplements....

  8. Covariant Functional Calculi from the Affine Groups

    Gong, Yafang

    2009-01-01

    Invoking the Clifford-Hermite Wavelets from Clifford analysis, we use the covariances of affine groups to construct a kind of functional calculi for several non-commuting bounded operators. Functional calculi are the intertwining transforms between the representations of affine groups in the space $L^2(\\mathbb R^m)$ and in the space of bounded operators. It turns out that the Weyl calculus is the value of this new functional calculus at the identity of affine groups. Our app...

  9. Retroperitoneal Pyelolithotomy for Management of Renal Calculi

    Chander, Jagdish; Suryavanshi, Manav; Lal, Pawan; Singh, Lakvinder; Ramteke, V. K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the role of retroperitoneoscopic pyelolithotomy in the management of renal calculi. Methods: Fifty-six cases (male, 27; female, 29) of solitary or multiple renal calculi were evaluated in the study. There were 46 patients with a single calculus, 4 patients with a staghorn calculus, and 6 with a caliceal calculus. Retroperitoneoscopic pyelolithotomy was carried out after creating a retroperitoneal space with the balloon dissection method. Pneumoretroperitoneum was maint...

  10. Observations of vaginal calculi in dolphins.

    Woodhouse, C D; Rennie, C J

    1991-07-01

    Vaginal calculi have been described from the common (Delphinus delphis), Pacific white-sided (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) and spotted (Stenella attenuata) dolphins. We describe additional calculi found in six sexually mature D. delphis from southern California. Three calculi were large (ca. 7 x 5 cm), exhibited concentric layer crystallization, and were unique from previously published descriptions. One calculus described previously and one in our sample appeared to be a fetal skeleton and skull respectively. Using CAT scans of a first trimester northern right whale dolphin (Lissodelphis borealis) and of a near term Delphinus delphis, we discuss the potential origin and development of vaginal calculi through analysis of ossification in embryonic delphinids. We hypothesize that the calculi represented spontaneous incomplete abortion with retention of part or all of the fetus in the distal reproductive tract. The form of the calculus relates to the degree of skeletal development at the time of fetal death. Calculi from a pregnant dolphin provided one measure of residence time. PMID:1920661

  11. Renal pelvic calculi and neoplasm. New indication for treatment of asymptomatic renal pelvic calculi?

    Vibitis, H; Jørgensen, J B

    1990-01-01

    Metaplasia of the renal pelvis caused by chronic irritation, calculi, infection is a reversible pre-malignant condition. The application of ESWL on renal calculi as a safe treatment in relation to metaplasia is discussed and a case history is presented....

  12. CT urograms in pediatric patients with ureteral calculi: do adult criteria work?

    Smergel, E.; Greenberg, S.B.; Crisci, K.L.; Salwen, J.K. [Dept. of Radiology, St. Christopher' s Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2001-10-01

    Background: Secondary signs of urinary obstruction associated with ureteral calculi are useful adjuncts to diagnosis in adults with renal colic evaluated by unenhanced helical CT. Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate the frequency of secondary signs of obstruction in children with renal colic undergoing unenhanced helical CT. Materials and methods: Ureteral calculi were identified in 20 of 61 children with acute flank pain examined by unenhanced helical CT. Each imaging study was evaluated for the presence of secondary signs of urinary obstruction. The frequencies of individual signs were compared with each other by means of the McNemar test. Results: Six children had no secondary sign identified. In the remaining 14 children, proximal ureteral dilatation was seen in 10, renal enlargement in 10, hydronephrosis in 9, tissue rim sign in 6, decreased kidney attenuation in 5, and perinephric stranding in 1. Comparison of the frequencies strongly suggested that perinephric stranding occurs less frequently than proximal ureteral dilatation (P = 0.004), hydronephrosis (P = 0.008), or renal enlargement (P = 0.012). Conclusion: Perinephric stranding, a common secondary sign in adults with ureteral calculi, occurs less frequently in children than other reported secondary signs. (orig.)

  13. CT urograms in pediatric patients with ureteral calculi: do adult criteria work?

    Background: Secondary signs of urinary obstruction associated with ureteral calculi are useful adjuncts to diagnosis in adults with renal colic evaluated by unenhanced helical CT. Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate the frequency of secondary signs of obstruction in children with renal colic undergoing unenhanced helical CT. Materials and methods: Ureteral calculi were identified in 20 of 61 children with acute flank pain examined by unenhanced helical CT. Each imaging study was evaluated for the presence of secondary signs of urinary obstruction. The frequencies of individual signs were compared with each other by means of the McNemar test. Results: Six children had no secondary sign identified. In the remaining 14 children, proximal ureteral dilatation was seen in 10, renal enlargement in 10, hydronephrosis in 9, tissue rim sign in 6, decreased kidney attenuation in 5, and perinephric stranding in 1. Comparison of the frequencies strongly suggested that perinephric stranding occurs less frequently than proximal ureteral dilatation (P = 0.004), hydronephrosis (P = 0.008), or renal enlargement (P = 0.012). Conclusion: Perinephric stranding, a common secondary sign in adults with ureteral calculi, occurs less frequently in children than other reported secondary signs. (orig.)

  14. Holmium laser lithotripsy of bladder calculi

    Beaghler, Marc A.; Poon, Michael W.

    1998-07-01

    Although the overall incidence of bladder calculi has been decreasing, it is still a significant disease affecting adults and children. Prior treatment options have included open cystolitholapaxy, blind lithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, and visual lithotripsy with ultrasonic or electrohydraulic probes. The holmium laser has been found to be extremely effective in the treatment of upper tract calculi. This technology has also been applied to the treatment of bladder calculi. We report our experience with the holmium laser in the treatment of bladder calculi. Twenty- five patients over a year and a half had their bladder calculi treated with the Holmium laser. This study was retrospective in nature. Patient demographics, stone burden, and intraoperative and post-operative complications were noted. The mean stone burden was 31 mm with a range of 10 to 60 mm. Preoperative diagnosis was made with either an ultrasound, plain film of the abdomen or intravenous pyelogram. Cystoscopy was then performed to confirm the presence and determine the size of the stone. The patients were then taken to the operating room and given a regional or general anesthetic. A rigid cystoscope was placed into the bladder and the bladder stone was then vaporized using the holmium laser. Remaining fragments were washed out. Adjunctive procedures were performed on 10 patients. These included transurethral resection of the prostate, transurethral incision of the prostate, optic internal urethrotomy, and incision of ureteroceles. No major complications occurred and all patients were rendered stone free. We conclude that the Holmium laser is an effective and safe modality for the treatment of bladder calculi. It was able to vaporize all bladder calculi and provides a single modality of treating other associated genitourinary pathology.

  15. Urinary stone detection and characterisation with dual-energy CT urography after furosemide intravenous injection: preliminary results

    Botsikas, Diomidis; Hansen, Catrina; Stefanelli, Salvatore; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospital, Radiology Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    To investigate the added advantage of IV furosemide injection and the subsequent urine dilution in the detection of urinary calculi in the excretory phase of dual-source dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) urography, and to investigate the feasibility of characterising the calculi through diluted urine. Twenty-three urinary calculi were detected in 116 patients who underwent DECT urography for macroscopic haematuria with a split bolus two- or three-acquisition protocol, including a true unenhanced series and at least a mixed nephrographic excretory phase. Virtual unenhanced images were reconstructed from contrast-enhanced DE data. Calculi were recorded on all series and characterised based on their X-ray absorption characteristics at 100 kVp and 140 kVp in both true unenhanced and nephrographic excretory phase series. All calculi with a diameter more than 2 mm were detected in the virtual unenhanced phase and in the nephrographic excretory phase. Thirteen of these calculi could be characterised in the true unenhanced phase and in the mixed nephrographic excretory phase. The results were strictly identical for both phases, six of them being recognised as non-uric acid calculi and seven as uric acid calculi. Mixed nephrographic excretory phase DECT after furosemide administration allows both detection and characterisation of clinically significant calculi, through the diluted urine. (orig.)

  16. Urinary stone detection and characterisation with dual-energy CT urography after furosemide intravenous injection: preliminary results

    To investigate the added advantage of IV furosemide injection and the subsequent urine dilution in the detection of urinary calculi in the excretory phase of dual-source dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) urography, and to investigate the feasibility of characterising the calculi through diluted urine. Twenty-three urinary calculi were detected in 116 patients who underwent DECT urography for macroscopic haematuria with a split bolus two- or three-acquisition protocol, including a true unenhanced series and at least a mixed nephrographic excretory phase. Virtual unenhanced images were reconstructed from contrast-enhanced DE data. Calculi were recorded on all series and characterised based on their X-ray absorption characteristics at 100 kVp and 140 kVp in both true unenhanced and nephrographic excretory phase series. All calculi with a diameter more than 2 mm were detected in the virtual unenhanced phase and in the nephrographic excretory phase. Thirteen of these calculi could be characterised in the true unenhanced phase and in the mixed nephrographic excretory phase. The results were strictly identical for both phases, six of them being recognised as non-uric acid calculi and seven as uric acid calculi. Mixed nephrographic excretory phase DECT after furosemide administration allows both detection and characterisation of clinically significant calculi, through the diluted urine. (orig.)

  17. Percutaneous management of staghorn renal calculi

    During a four year period, ending May 1987, 154 cases of symptomatic staghorn calculi have been treated by percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Of these patients,86% were discharged completely stone free with the remainder having fragments less than 5 mm in greatest diameter. More than one operative procedure during the same hospitalizations was required in 24% of patients and multiple percutaneous tracts were established in excess of 73% of them. Significant complications occurred in 16% of patients and there was one death. Most complications can be generally by minimized by careful approach and manageable by interventional radiological means. The management of patients with staghorn calculi requires a comprehensive understanding of the renal anatomy, selection of appropriate percutaneous nephrostomy tract sites, and radiologic-urologic expertise needed to remove the large stone mass. The advent of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy will not abolish the need for nephrolithotomy, particularly complex stones such as staghorn calculi

  18. A criterion for separating process calculi

    Banti, Federico; Tiezzi, Francesco; 10.4204/EPTCS.41.2

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new criterion, replacement freeness, to discern the relative expressiveness of process calculi. Intuitively, a calculus is strongly replacement free if replacing, within an enclosing context, a process that cannot perform any visible action by an arbitrary process never inhibits the capability of the resulting process to perform a visible action. We prove that there exists no compositional and interaction sensitive encoding of a not strongly replacement free calculus into any strongly replacement free one. We then define a weaker version of replacement freeness, by only considering replacement of closed processes, and prove that, if we additionally require the encoding to preserve name independence, it is not even possible to encode a non replacement free calculus into a weakly replacement free one. As a consequence of our encodability results, we get that many calculi equipped with priority are not replacement free and hence are not encodable into mainstream calculi like CCS and pi-calculus, t...

  19. Pathophysiological aspects of ureterorenoscopic management of upper urinary tract calculi

    Osther, Palle J S; Pedersen, Katja V; Lildal, Søren K;

    2016-01-01

    ureter and strain-induced ureteral contractions (peristalsis). Different receptor types modulate this peristaltic activity. β-receptor agonists have been investigated in animal and human trials for the purpose of relaxing the ureter. In randomized, placebo-controlled trials in pigs and humans, usage of...... ureterorenoscopy, potentially translating into harmful effects, and how such pathophysiological processes may be minimized. RECENT FINDINGS: Complications to ureterorenoscopy and postoperative pain seem to be related to intrarenal pressure and/or access. Mean intrarenal pressures in the range of 60-100 mmHg during...... ureterorenoscopy without access sheaths have been measured, thus by far exceeding the threshold for intrarenal backflow, potentially resulting in septic complications. Intrarenal pressure may be reduced by use of ureteral access sheaths, which, however, may cause ureteral damage due to the limited size of the...

  20. Measure permutation formulas in Feynman's operational calculi

    Chang, K. S.; Kim, B. S.; Park, Y. H.

    2010-03-01

    In Jefferies-Johnson’s theory of Feynman’s operational calculi for noncommuting operators, the two operators T µ 1,µ 2 f( Ã, tilde B ) and T µ 2,µ1 f( Ã, tilde B ) are not equal. Relationships between these two operators are given, i.e., “measure permutation formulas” in Feynman’s operational calculi are developed; they correspond to the “index permutation formula” in Maslov’s discretized version of Feynman’s operational calculus.

  1. Mobility in process calculi and natural computing

    Aman, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    The design of formal calculi in which fundamental concepts underlying interactive systems can be described and studied has been a central theme of theoretical computer science in recent decades, while membrane computing, a rule-based formalism inspired by biological cells, is a more recent field that belongs to the general area of natural computing. This is the first book to establish a link between these two research directions while treating mobility as the central topic. In the first chapter the authors offer a formal description of mobility in process calculi, noting the entities that move

  2. The value of ultrasound in diagnosis of ureteral calculi

    To determine the diagnostic value of ultrasound in patient with clinically suspected ureteral calculi, a prospective study was performed on 58 patients. Of these, 42 patients had 44 ureteral calculi and 16 patients had no calculi. The sonographic of a distal shadowign highly echogenic reflector along the ureter, with or without dilatation of the proximal ureter. Ultrasound correctly diagnosed 42 stones among 44 calculi and there was one false positive examination. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95% Ultrasonography appears to be a very useful adjunct for the diagnosis of ureteral calculi when excretory urography is equivocal or contraindicated. Also ultrasonography was valuable in monitoring passage of radiolucent ureteral stones

  3. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation : A review of CLU Working Group

    Domenico Prezioso; Pasquale Strazzullo; Tullio Lotti; Giampaolo Bianchi; Loris Borghi; Paolo Caione; Marco Carini; Renata Caudarella; Giovanni Gambaro; Marco Gelosa; Andrea Guttilla; Ester Illiano; Marangella Martino; Tiziana Meschi; Piergiorgio Messa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A s...

  4. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Domenico Prezioso; Pasquale Strazzullo; Tullio Lotti; Giampaolo Bianchi; Loris Borghi; Paolo Caione; Marco Carini; Renata Caudarella; Giovanni Gambaro; Marco Gelosa; Andrea Guttilla; Ester Illiano; Marangella Martino; Tiziana Meschi; Piergiorgio Messa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A s...

  5. Stochastic Simulation of Process Calculi for Biology

    Andrew Phillips

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems typically involve large numbers of components with complex, highly parallel interactions and intrinsic stochasticity. To model this complexity, numerous programming languages based on process calculi have been developed, many of which are expressive enough to generate unbounded numbers of molecular species and reactions. As a result of this expressiveness, such calculi cannot rely on standard reaction-based simulation methods, which require fixed numbers of species and reactions. Rather than implementing custom stochastic simulation algorithms for each process calculus, we propose to use a generic abstract machine that can be instantiated to a range of process calculi and a range of reaction-based simulation algorithms. The abstract machine functions as a just-in-time compiler, which dynamically updates the set of possible reactions and chooses the next reaction in an iterative cycle. In this short paper we give a brief summary of the generic abstract machine, and show how it can be instantiated with the stochastic simulation algorithm known as Gillespie's Direct Method. We also discuss the wider implications of such an abstract machine, and outline how it can be used to simulate multiple calculi simultaneously within a common framework.

  6. AN UNASCENDED RIGHT KIDNEY WITH LEFT SIDED URETERIC CALCULI: A CADAVERIC CASE REPORT

    Meril Ann Soman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies of the urinary system constitute approximately 30% of all the congenital malformations. There are various associated anomalies involving number, size, shape, position and vascularity of the kidneys. Unascended kidneys refers to a halt in the migration of the kidneys during their normal embryological development. Defect in the ascent of the kidneys are closely related with variations in the branching pattern of aorta. Here we report a case of an unilateral unascended right kidney in a male cadaver encountered during routine medical dissection. A left sided ureteric calculi was also seen as an incidental finding in the same cadaver. Ureterolithiasis occurs worldwide in all sets of population with 80% of the stones found in the male sex in the age group of 30- 60 years. There are various factors which favour the formation of ureteric calculi which includes geographical, socio-economical as well as the mineral content of water consumed and some general medical causes. An attempt has been made to document the causes for this variation and the preventive measures that can be adopted to prevent the formation of ureteric calculi.

  7. Relationship between the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi and surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi

    The relationship between the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi and the surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi was examined. Thirty-seven staghorn calculi in 35 cases, which were treated with percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) between 1995 and 2007 in Saga University Hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. The number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi was counted based on the radiographic findings of kidney ureter bladder (KUB), intravenous pyelography (IVP) and CT. The surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi were evaluated according to the number of PCNL sessions, the total number of surgical treatments including transurethral ureterolithotripsy (TUL) and shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), the hospitalization period, the stone-free rate and the residual stone rate. The average stone size was 45.1 mm (21-99 mm). The average number of PCNL sessions was 2.5 times. TUL and SWL were conducted in combination with PCNL in 4 and 25 cases, retrospectively. According to the increase in the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi, the number of PCNL sessions, the total number of surgical treatments and the hospitalization period all increased. In cases where staghorn calculi occupied 3 or more calyces, a lower stone-free rate and a higher residual stone rate were observed, compared with those cases where calculi occupied only 2 calyces. Evaluating the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi seems to be one of the useful indicators for a preoperative assessment of surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi. (author)

  8. The Dual Action of Varunadi Kwath in Renal Calculi as well as Uterine Fibroid- A Case Study

    Padavi D. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutrashmari (Renal Calculi is very common disorder. This distressing urinary disorder affects around 5-7 million people in India [11]. The chances of recurrence are always high and the surgery having disadvantage of high cost. The available treatment in modern science is only conservative and surgical in this present study an effort was made to evaluate the role of Varunadi Kwath in Mutrashmari. The main aim of this particular study was inclined towards the disintegration, dissolution, dislodgement and expulsion of renal calculi. The contents of Varunadi Kwath are easily available, economical and are easy to administer, which are having Anti-inflammatory, Diuretic and Antilithic properties. A case of renal calculi with uterine fibroid was diagnosed and the treatment was given for a period of 9 months. The size of the calculus was studied by periodic ultrasonography; the symptoms Mutrakruchrata (Dysuria, Shula (Pain in abdomen, Sadaha Mutrata (Burning micturition are significantly reduced within less than 45 days and total expulsion of calculi in less than 180 days.

  9. Endoscopic treatment of large vesical calculi

    Objective: To determine the efficiency and safety of endoscopic treatment of large vesical calculi with the available modern endoscopic instruments. Methology: In case series, patients were collected randomly from 2007 to 2014. Patients were diagnosed with ultrasound and Nephroscope with Swiss pneumatic lithoclast, lithotrite and stone punch were used for treatment. Results: Majority of the patient could be managed with the method adopted. Stone size, hardness or softness, gender were the factors affecting treatment. Associated prostate pathology was seen in four patients. Postoperative complications included hemorrhage, perforation, residual stone and transurethral resection of prostate syndrome. Conclusion: Overall, it is a safe procedure except in patients with large enlarged prostate and large vesical calculi. Very hard vesical calculus may need vesicolithotomy. (author)

  10. More on differential calculi on bicrossproducts

    We extend a previous classification of differentials and Cartan calculus on the bicrossproduct quantum group k(M)-blacktriangleright triangleleft-kG to its dual Hopf algebra H = kM-triangleright blacktriangleleft-k(G). It turns out that the usual bicovariant differential calculi on kM and on k(G) extend naturally to H. We explicitly work out the examples of kZ2-triangleright blacktriangleleft (Z3) and kZ6-triangleright 3). (author)

  11. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    Pant-Purohit, Mukta; López Beltrán, Antonio; Montironi, Rodolfo; MacLennan, Gregory T.; Cheng, Lian

    2010-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder(SCCUB) is a rare and aggressive cancer of the bladder.SCCUB is part of neuroendocrine family of tumors thataffect several organ systems including respiratory,gastrointestinal and male and female genitourinary tract.SCCUB affect males predominantly with common riskfactors include smoking, bladder calculi, bladdermanipulation, and chronic cystitis. Prognosis of SCCUBremains poor due to high metastatic potential and lack ofsymptoms in earlier stages of...

  12. FT-IR Analysis of Urinary Stones: A Helpful Tool for Clinician Comparison with the Chemical Spot Test

    Aniello Primiano; Silvia Persichilli; Giovanni Gambaro; Pietro Manuel Ferraro; Alessandro D’Addessi; Andrea Cocci; Arcangelo Schiattarella; Cecilia Zuppi; Jacopo Gervasoni

    2014-01-01

    Background. Kidney stones are a common illness with multifactorial etiopathogenesis. The determination of crystalline and molecular composition and the quantification of all stone components are important to establish the etiology of stones disease but it is often laborious to obtain using the chemical method. The aim of this paper is to compare chemical spot test with FT-IR spectroscopy, for a possible introduction in our laboratory. Methods. We analyzed 48 calculi using Urinary Calculi Anal...

  13. Renal calculi: emergency department diagnosis and treatment.

    Carter, Michelle R; Green, Brad R

    2011-07-01

    The acute treatment of kidney stones (urolithiasis) addresses pain management and focuses on the effects of the morbidity associated with an obstructed renal system. Minimal fluid intake, resulting in decreased urine production and a high concentration of stone-forming salts, is a leading factor in renal calculi development. Radio-opaque calcareous stones account for 70% to 75% of renal calculi. Microscopic hematuria in the presence of acute flank pain is suggestive of renal colic, but the absence of red blood cells does not exclude urolithiasis. Furthermore, many inflammatory and infectious conditions cause hematuria, demonstrating the low specificity of urinalysis testing. The diagnostic modality of choice is a noncontrast computed tomography (CT); ultrasonography s preferred in pregnant patients and children. Combining opioids with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is the optimal evidence-based regimen to treat severe symptoms. Rapid intravenous (IV) hydration has not shown a benefit. Potentially life-threatening diagnoses including abdominal aortic aneurysm, ovarian torsion, and appendicitis may mimic renal colic and must be ruled out. PMID:22164398

  14. SEM and X-ray microanalysis of human prostatic calculi

    Calculi removed from human prostates affected with nodular hyperplasia were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and EDAX system. The general spectrum was made up of Na, Al, Mg, S, P, Ca and Zn. Two types of stone were identified morphostructurally and microanalytically: calculi type I of nodular surface with high peaks of S, and calculi type II polyfaceted with high peaks of P and Ca. Their formation from corpora amylacea and/or exogenous constituents is discussed. The superficial deposit of Zn suggests its incorporation from the prostatic liquid and does not seem to play an important role in the genesis

  15. SEM and X-ray microanalysis of human prostatic calculi

    Vilches, J.; Lopez, A.; De Palacio, L.; Munoz, C.; Gomez, J.

    1982-02-01

    Calculi removed from human prostates affected with nodular hyperplasia were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and EDAX system. The general spectrum was made up of Na, Al, Mg, S, P, Ca and Zn. Two types of stone were identified morphostructurally and microanalytically: calculi type I of nodular surface with high peaks of S, and calculi type II polyfaceted with high peaks of P and Ca. Their formation from corpora amylacea and/or exogenous constituents is discussed. The superficial deposit of Zn suggests its incorporation from the prostatic liquid and does not seem to play an important role in the genesis.

  16. Diagnosis of ureteral calculi using ultrasonography, intravenous urography and unenhanced Helical Computed Tomography

    Govorčin Mira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography Ultrasonography is an efficient tool in the detection of calculi in the pyelocalyx system, but it may not be sufficient for the area of renal pelvis and ureter, as well as for the ureter and the ureterovesical junction. Intravenous urography Radiolucent stones, dilatation of the ureter and of the pyelocalyx system were identified on the urogram, which are common signs of ureter calctilosis. Defects in the contrast can be caused by blood clots and papillary or malignant tumors of the ureter, thus causing a differential diagnosis problem. Unenhanced Helical Computed Tomography Noncontrast spiral CT is useful for detection for calculi as small as 3mm. It can identify their localization and size without enlargements. The primary and secondary CT signs also confirm the established diagnosis. Conclusion The noncontrast spiral CT is a highly precise method for assessment of kidney pain. It is a reliable and rapid diagnostic modality for the detection of urinary stones which differentiates them from blood clots, tumors, air and other factors which create a differential diagnosis problem.

  17. Computerised tomography localisation of intrarenal calculi prior to nephrolithotomy

    The use of the EMI CT 5005 scanner in patients with renal calculus disease is described. This investigation was found to be a useful aid in the accurate localisation of calculi within the renal collecting system prior to surgery. (author)

  18. Sonographic and computed tomographic evaluation of intrahepatic calculi

    Menu, Y.; Lorphelin, J.M.; Scherrer, A.; Grenier, P.; Nahum, H.

    1985-09-01

    Intrahepatic calculi in non-Asian patients were studied by sonography and computed tomography (CT). Three patients were studied by CT cholangiography also. In two cases, the calculi were consecutive to Caroli disease, and in two others, the biliary stones were formed proximal to a stenosis of a previous surgical anastomosis. Five patients spontaneously developed intrahepatic calculi. All sonograms were abnormal. Image specificity was good, even when bile ducts were not dilated, if appropriate technique allowed identification of a double-arc-shadow pattern. Sonography strongly suggested the diagnosis in eight patients and was nonspecific in only one. On CT, calculi had various densities, and they were not visible in two patients. CT cholangiography was not particularly helpful. Both examinations strongly underestimate the number of stones, and direct cholangiography remains indicated if surgery is planned.

  19. Sonographic and computed tomographic evaluation of intrahepatic calculi

    Intrahepatic calculi in non-Asian patients were studied by sonography and computed tomography (CT). Three patients were studied by CT cholangiography also. In two cases, the calculi were consecutive to Caroli disease, and in two others, the biliary stones were formed proximal to a stenosis of a previous surgical anastomosis. Five patients spontaneously developed intrahepatic calculi. All sonograms were abnormal. Image specificity was good, even when bile ducts were not dilated, if appropriate technique allowed identification of a double-arc-shadow pattern. Sonography strongly suggested the diagnosis in eight patients and was nonspecific in only one. On CT, calculi had various densities, and they were not visible in two patients. CT cholangiography was not particularly helpful. Both examinations strongly underestimate the number of stones, and direct cholangiography remains indicated if surgery is planned

  20. Shockwave lithotripsy in patients with renal calculi

    Objective was to demonstrate the efficacy of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in the primary treatment of 1647 patients with renal calculi using a Dornier Doli U/50 lithotripter. One thousand six hundred forty-seven patients underwent SWL as day-cases at King Abdulaziz Hospital, Saudi Arabia between October 2001 and July 2007, using intravenous sedation (Pethidine 1mg/kg and Midazolam 5-10mg) for analgesia in 85.5% of the patients. The treatment outcome of 2241 renal calculi was analyzed and stratified according to the size and site of the stones. Recorded data included shock waves intensity, number of shocks, treatment time, analgesia stone related factors such as size, site, number, nature, composition and any related complications. The stones were grouped into 5 groups, according to the largest stone size in the kidney. Patients were followed up for 6-18 months, mean of 13 months. Complete clearance of the stones occurred in 2154 kidneys (89.5%). At 3-months follow-up, the overall treatment rate was 57.2% and for each group it was 132 (23.5%) for Group I, 254 (36.1%) for Group II, 473 (85.5%) for Group III, 278 (100%) for Group IV and 147 (100%) for Group V. Treatment failed in 87 patients with stone size of 30-39 mm. Fifty-six were solitary pelvic stones treated with ureteroscopy, while 31 were calyceal stoned treated by other modalities such as per-cutaneousnephro-lithotomy. The most common complication was pyelonephritis with or without obstruction. Shock wave lithotripsy treatment was a successful primary management of renal stones of variable sizes in 89.5% of the treated kidneys. (author)

  1. Retroperitoneal Laparoscopic Ureterolithotomy for Proximal Ureteral Calculi in Selected Patients

    Qingfeng Hu; Weihong Ding; Yuancheng Gou; Yatfaat Ho; Ke Xu; Bin Gu; Chuanyu Sun; Guowei Xia; Qiang Ding

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To summarize our experience of retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy for ureteral calculi and evaluate the safety and efficiency of this procedure. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 197 patients with proximal ureteral calculi who accepted retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy from June 2005 to June 2014. Results. All procedures were performed successfully and the mean operating time and estimated blood loss were 87 min and 64 mL. The clearance rate ...

  2. Combined calculi for photon orbital and spin angular momenta

    Elias, N. M.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Wavelength, photon spin angular momentum (PSAM), and photon orbital angular momentum (POAM), completely describe the state of a photon or an electric field (an ensemble of photons). Wavelength relates directly to energy and linear momentum, the corresponding kinetic quantities. PSAM and POAM, themselves kinetic quantities, are colloquially known as polarization and optical vortices, respectively. Astrophysical sources emit photons that carry this information. Aims: PSAM characteristics of an electric field (intensity) are compactly described by the Jones (Stokes/Mueller) calculus. Similarly, I created calculi to represent POAM characteristics of electric fields and intensities in an astrophysical context. Adding wavelength dependence to all of these calculi is trivial. The next logical steps are to 1) form photon total angular momentum (PTAM = POAM + PSAM) calculi; 2) prove their validity using operators and expectation values; and 3) show that instrumental PSAM can affect measured POAM values for certain types of electric fields. Methods: I derive the PTAM calculi of electric fields and intensities by combining the POAM and PSAM calculi. I show how these quantities propagate from celestial sphere to image plane. I also form the PTAM operator (the sum of the POAM and PSAM operators), with and without instrumental PSAM, and calculate the corresponding expectation values. Results: Apart from the vector, matrix, dot product, and direct product symbols, the PTAM and POAM calculi appear superficially identical. I provide tables with all possible forms of PTAM calculi. I prove that PTAM expectation values are correct for instruments with and without instrumental PSAM. I also show that POAM measurements of "unfactored" PTAM electric fields passing through non-zero instrumental circular PSAM can be biased. Conclusions: The combined PTAM calculi provide insight into mathematically modeling PTAM sources and calibrating POAM- and PSAM-induced measurement errors.

  3. TREATMENT WITH TAMSULOSIN IN PATIENTS WITH DISTAL URETERAL CALCULI

    Jagodic, K.; Bizjak, I.(J. Stefan Institute, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia); Erklavec, M.; Poteko, S.; Korosec-Jagodic, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Symptomatic ureteral calculi are one of the most important issues in urologist emergency clinical settings. Spontaneous passage of distal ureteral calculi is usually achieved with good hydration and spasmoanalgetic drugs. alpha-blocker therapy may facilitate and accelerate the spontaneous passage of ureteral stones.Patients and methodsIn retrospective study we analyzed patients with renal colic admitted to our department in 2006. All of them had clinical examination, urine and blo...

  4. Ureteroscopy Assisted Retrograde Nephrostomy for Complete Staghorn Renal Calculi

    Kawahara, Takashi; Ito, Hiroki; Terao, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Takehiko; Uemura, Hiroji; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Matsuzaki, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Complete staghorn calculi are typically managed with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). However, dilating nephrostomy and inserting a nephro access sheath can be difficult to perform without hydronephrosis. We reported the procedure of ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy (UARN) during PCNL. UARN is effective without dilating the renal collecting system in cases of complete staghorn calculi. A 63-year old female with a left complete staghorn renal calculus was referred to our hospit...

  5. Ureteral jets in patients with unilateral ureteral calculi: Using color doppler ultrasonography

    Sonographic detection of ureteral jets entering the urinary bladder is a well-known procedure. Color doppler ultrasound was used to image the ureteral jets in 28 patients with unilateral ureteral calculi proved by intravenous urography. Three major findings of ureteral jets were obtained in the affected ureter with a stone: less frequency (26 patients), weak reflection (20 patients), and lower grade in length (27 patients) that were significant different from the unaffected side in the same patient. No significant differences were found between the ureteral jets and the degree of hydronephrosis or the location of a stone. In conclusion, these results suggest that ureteral jets should be checked routinely during the procedure of color doppler ultrasonogram in patients with possible unilateral ureteral obstruction. Color doppler examination of ureteral jets may be an important adjunct in routine pelvic ultrasonogram especially in patients who have absolute or relative contraindications of intravenous urography

  6. Ureteral jets in patients with unilateral ureteral calculi: Using color doppler ultrasonography

    Kwon, Hye Soo; Park, Hae Won; Oh, Won Ja [Seoul Koryo General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-05-15

    Sonographic detection of ureteral jets entering the urinary bladder is a well-known procedure. Color doppler ultrasound was used to image the ureteral jets in 28 patients with unilateral ureteral calculi proved by intravenous urography. Three major findings of ureteral jets were obtained in the affected ureter with a stone: less frequency (26 patients), weak reflection (20 patients), and lower grade in length (27 patients) that were significant different from the unaffected side in the same patient. No significant differences were found between the ureteral jets and the degree of hydronephrosis or the location of a stone. In conclusion, these results suggest that ureteral jets should be checked routinely during the procedure of color doppler ultrasonogram in patients with possible unilateral ureteral obstruction. Color doppler examination of ureteral jets may be an important adjunct in routine pelvic ultrasonogram especially in patients who have absolute or relative contraindications of intravenous urography.

  7. 99mTc-DTPA renography before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi

    This study was undertaken to evaluate 99mTc-DTPA renography before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Twelve patients with renal calculi were examined in this study. In three patients, bilateral kidneys were treated with ESWL. Sequential renal images of the vascular phase, and the functional and excretory phases were taken using a gamma camera (ZLC 7500, Siemens), after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of 99mTc-DTPA. Renograms were generated using data stored every 10 seconds for a period of 30 minutes by computer (Scintipac-2400, Shimadzu). Some treated kidneys were enlarged and/or showed uniform retention of radioactivity on sequential images, within a week after ESWL. Renogram patterns after ESWL were varied in each patient. The renogram findings after ESWL seemed to be affected by the presence or absence of stone fragments in the urinary tract. (author)

  8. Unenhanced helical CT in the evaluation of the urinary tract in children and young adults following urinary tract reconstruction: comparison with sonography

    Purpose. To compare the accuracy of unenhanced, helical CT with sonography for the detection of complications of urinary tract reconstruction. Materials and methods. Forty-six kidneys in 24 patients were examined with CT and sonography. All scans were assessed for ease of renal visualization, presence of renal, ureteral, and bladder calculi, renal scars, hydronephrosis, and abdominal wall hernia. The results of both imaging modalities were independently reported. Results. CT provided excellent visualization of all 46 kidneys, while sonography provided poor visualization of 8 kidneys (17 %) (P < 0.001). CT detected calculi in 10 kidneys, 1 ureter, and 7 bladders. Sonography detected calculi in only 2 kidneys, and 2 bladders. Overall, CT detected significantly more calculi than US (18 vs 4, P = 0.01). CT detected scarring in 15 kidneys, while sonography detected scarring in 10. Hydronephrosis was detected in 6 kidneys by CT and in 8 kidneys by sonography. Three abdominal wall hernias were seen at CT that were not seen at sonography. Conclusion. CT is superior to sonography for the detection of urinary tract calculi and renal scarring. CT will demonstrate abdominal wall hernias that are unsuspected. (orig.)

  9. Ureteroscopic Holmium:YAG Laser Lithotripsy for Managing Ureteral Calculi (A Report of 168 Cases)

    庞自力; 肖传国; 曾甫清

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The effectiveness and safety of ureteroscopic holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy for managing ureteral calculi was evaluated. Ureteroscopic holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy was performed in 168 ureteral calculi (upper 27 cases, middle 33 cases and lower 108 cases). The results showed that the stone-free rate was 92.6 % in the upper ureteral calculi, 93.9 % in the middle ureteral calculi and 94.4 % in the lower ureteral calculi, respectively. The complication rate was 4.8 % (8 cases).It was suggested that ureteroscopic holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy is a highly effective and safe treatment modality for managing ureteral calculi.

  10. Existence families, functional calculi and evolution equations

    deLaubenfels, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This book presents an operator-theoretic approach to ill-posed evolution equations. It presents the basic theory, and the more surprising examples, of generalizations of strongly continuous semigroups known as 'existent families' and 'regularized semigroups'. These families of operators may be used either to produce all initial data for which a solution in the original space exists, or to construct a maximal subspace on which the problem is well-posed. Regularized semigroups are also used to construct functional, or operational, calculi for unbounded operators. The book takes an intuitive and constructive approach by emphasizing the interaction between functional calculus constructions and evolution equations. One thinks of a semigroup generated by A as etA and thinks of a regularized semigroup generated by A as etA g(A), producing solutions of the abstract Cauchy problem for initial data in the image of g(A). Material that is scattered throughout numerous papers is brought together and presented in a fresh, ...

  11. On the Expressiveness of Polyadic and Synchronous Communication in Higher-Order Process Calculi

    Lanese, Ivan; Peréz, Jorge,; Sangiorgi, Davide; Schmitt, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Higher-order process calculi are calculi in which processes can be communicated. We study the expressiveness of strictly higher-order process calculi, and focus on two issues well-understood for first-order calculi but not in the higher-order setting: synchronous vs. asynchronous communication and polyadic vs. monadic communication. First, and similarly to the first-order setting, synchronous process-passing is shown to be encodable into asynchronous process- passing. Then, the absence of nam...

  12. Native and contrast-radiographic examination of the urinary tract

    Govorčin Mira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Plain x-rays and contrast urography are important for diagnosing urinary tract diseases. The first plain film of the urinary tract was made in 1896, and the first tests using contrasts started in 1904. Excretory urography has been used since 1930. Plain film of the urinary tract Plain films of the urinary tract are used in the kidney area, the area of the ureter and urinary bladder. They also show structures (lumbar and sacral spine and pelvis, muscles (m. iliopsoas as well as calculi. Excretory urography X-ray visualization of the urinary tract with contrast substances is intravenous urography. It is used for diagnosing diseases of the upper urinary system with symptoms such as: pain, colic, hydronephrosis, as well as acute cortical infections, urinary bladder tumors, etc. Retrograde urography Retrograde urography is a procedure recommended when either the pyelocalyx system or the ureter are not seen unilaterally or bilaterally. Cystography and urethrocystography Cystography is used to visualize the bladder. It is recommended in case of intravesical obstruction. Urethrocystography is a technique for investigation of the anterior and prostatic urethra as well as the neck of the urinary bladder. Conclusion Plain film of the urinary tract, excretory urography, retrograde pyelography, cystography and urethrocystography, used along with ultrasonography, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance, are useful diagnostic procedures which provide accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.

  13. Percutaneous Removal of Retained Calculi from the Abdomen

    With rising pressure placed on health service resources minimally invasive techniques requiring only short hospital admissions are increasing in importance. We describe the techniques used to remove calculi from the peritoneal cavity which had been retained after surgery and continued to cause clinical problems. In both cases described the calculi lay within abscess cavities associated with fistulous tracks to the skin. The fistulae were dilated to allow passage of therapeutic radiologic and endoscopic equipment enabling manipulation and subsequent extraction of the stones. In both cases removal of the calculi allowed complete resolution of the fistulae and the patients made a full clinical recovery. Removal of gallstones which have escaped into the peritoneum at laparoscopic cholecystectomy leading to sepsis has been described; we describe the novel management of a patient in whom extraction had already been attempted, at another hospital, without success. Removal of an appendicolith, described herein another patient, does not appear to have been reported previously

  14. Intracorporeal Lithotripsy for Ureteral Calculi Using Swiss Lithoclast : SKIMS Experience

    Arif Hamid, M. Saleem Wani, B. S. Wazir

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available At present the techniques available for performing intracorporeal lithotripsy include electrohydraulic,ultrasonic, laser, and ballistic lithotripsy. We present our experience with a unique technology forperforming intracorporeal lithotripsy, namely the Swiss lithoclast, which is a form of ballistic lithotripsy.This simple and inexpensive device uses compressed air to activate a solid probe in a manner similarto that of a jackhammer. We report the use of this lithoclast in 92 patients involving a total of 95ureteral calculi. The lithoclast successfully fragmented 81 of the 95 calculi, a success rate of 85.26%.There were no major complications directly related to the use of this device. The Swiss lithoclastseems to be a safe, effective and an inexpensive means of performing intracorporeal lithotripsy forureteral calculi

  15. Study on the Relationship Between Urinary Stonesand Urinary Tract Infections%尿路结石和尿路感染关系研究

    张玉良

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨尿路感染与尿路结石的相关关系,为临床尿路结石的防治工作提供参考意见。方法回顾性研究2012年12月至2015年12月住院治疗的尿路结石病人,所有患者均实行腹腔镜或开腹手术取石。观察相关尿路感染指标与尿路结石的关系。结果感染性结石组患者尿常规异常、中段尿阳性患者数、消毒棉拭子阳性患者数和尿路感染患者数均高于对照组,经统计学分析,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);感染性结石组结石成分主要为六水磷酸铵镁,44例(61.1%);对照组结石成分主要为草酸钙和尿路结石,分别为62例(48.4%)和46例(35.9%)。经统计学分析,两组结石成分差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论尿路结石与尿路感染密切相关,尿路结石可导致尿路感染,尿路感染也可加重尿路结石。%Objective To investigate the correlation between urinary tract infection and urinary calculi, and provide reference for clinical prevention and treatment of urinary calculi.Methods A retrospective study in our hospital in December 2012 -2015 year in December the hospital treatment of urinary calculi patients, all patients were performed laparotomy or laparoscopic lithotomy. Observation of associated urinary tract infection index and urinary calculi.Results The infection of calculi in Urinary Routine abnormalities, urine positive patients number, sterilized cotton swab positive patients number and urinary tract infection patients were higher than those in the control group, the statistical analysis, and the difference is statistically significant (P<0.05); infection stones group stone composition mainly for the hexahydrate magnesium ammonium phosphate (map), 44 cases (61.1%); control group, the stone is the main component of calcium oxalate and uric road stone, respectively 62 cases (48.4%) and 46 cases (35.9%). By statistical analysis, the difference was statistically

  16. Labelled Lambda-calculi with Explicit Copy and Erase

    Maribel Fernández

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present two rewriting systems that define labelled explicit substitution lambda-calculi. Our work is motivated by the close correspondence between Levy's labelled lambda-calculus and paths in proof-nets, which played an important role in the understanding of the Geometry of Interaction. The structure of the labels in Levy's labelled lambda-calculus relates to the multiplicative information of paths; the novelty of our work is that we design labelled explicit substitution calculi that also keep track of exponential information present in call-by-value and call-by-name translations of the lambda-calculus into linear logic proof-nets.

  17. Treatment of giant ureterocele calculi by Holmium Laser Lithotripsy

    Haluk Söylemez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Most ureteral stones pass spontaneously. But patients who have a calculi in an ureterocele could not pass their stone, because of narrow ureteral orifice. These stones may remain asymptomatic until hematuria or obstruction occurs.Materials and Methods: Holmium laser has many uses in urology, including soft tissue incision and calculus fragmentation. These properties are ideal for endoscopic management of the ureterocele calculusResults: We present a young patient who has no spesific and severe symptoms with a hypofunctional left kidney because of giant calculi in an ureterocele Conclusion: Its imaging characteristics on intravenous pyelography and endoscopic treatment were emphasized.

  18. Differential calculi on quantum spaces determined by automorphisms

    If the bimodule of 1-forms of a differential calculus over an associative algebra A is the direct sum of 1-dimensional bimodules, a relation with automorphisms of A shows up. This happens for some familiar quantum-space calculi. (author)

  19. Quality Assessment of Urinary Stone Analysis

    Siener, Roswitha; Buchholz, Noor; Daudon, Michel;

    2016-01-01

    , fulfilled the quality requirements. According to the current standard, chemical analysis is considered to be insufficient for stone analysis, whereas infrared spectroscopy or X-ray diffraction is mandatory. However, the poor results of infrared spectroscopy highlight the importance of equipment, reference...... and chemical analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of urinary stone analysis of laboratories in Europe. Nine laboratories from eight European countries participated in six quality control surveys for urinary calculi analyses of the Reference Institute for Bioanalytics, Bonn......, Germany, between 2010 and 2014. Each participant received the same blinded test samples for stone analysis. A total of 24 samples, comprising pure substances and mixtures of two or three components, were analysed. The evaluation of the quality of the laboratory in the present study was based on the...

  20. Potentialities of polyposition procedures in the X-ray diagnosis of renal and ureteral calculi and associated complications

    A comprehensive radiation examination of 47 apparently healthy patients has ascertained that one of the angles formed by the renal lateral axis and the body's frontal plane (BFP) is 35-45 Deg and medially open, the second made by the long axis of the kidney and BFP is 28-32 Deg and caudally open. The densitometric findings from the X-ray films of 17 patients with ureteral calculi (UC) significantly suggest that a contrast medium rapidly moves to the dilated lower urinary tract due to changes in the relative position of the renal cavities against BFP. Excretory urography followed by measurements of the mean ureteral diameter was performed in 36 patients with dilated ureters and in 31 control subjects. There was a close correlation between the size of ureteral lumen and diuretic values and there was an inverse relationship to the magnitude of tubular reabsorption

  1. Proteomic analysis of renal calculi indicates an important role for inflammatory processes in calcium stone formation

    Merchant, Michael L.; Cummins, Timothy D.; Wilkey, Daniel W.; Salyer, Sarah A.; Powell, David W.; Klein, Jon B.; Eleanor D. Lederer

    2008-01-01

    Even though renal stones/calculi occur in ∼10% of individuals, they are an enormous economic burden to the entire US health system. While the relative metabolic composition of renal calculi is generally known, there is no clear understanding of the genetics of renal stone formation, nor are there clear prognostic indicators of renal stone formation. The application of proteomics to the analysis of renal calculi axiomatically holds that insight into renal stone pathobiology can be gained by a ...

  2. A Fully Abstract Symbolic Semantics for Psi-Calculi

    Johansson, Magnus; Parrow, Joachim; 10.4204/EPTCS.18.2

    2010-01-01

    We present a symbolic transition system and bisimulation equivalence for psi-calculi, and show that it is fully abstract with respect to bisimulation congruence in the non-symbolic semantics. A psi-calculus is an extension of the pi-calculus with nominal data types for data structures and for logical assertions representing facts about data. These can be transmitted between processes and their names can be statically scoped using the standard pi-calculus mechanism to allow for scope migrations. Psi-calculi can be more general than other proposed extensions of the pi-calculus such as the applied pi-calculus, the spi-calculus, the fusion calculus, or the concurrent constraint pi-calculus. Symbolic semantics are necessary for an efficient implementation of the calculus in automated tools exploring state spaces, and the full abstraction property means the semantics of a process does not change from the original.

  3. Bacterial spectrum of urine in staghorn calculi nephrolithiasis

    Kogan М.I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the role of the bacterial spectrum of urine in the development and clinical course of staghorn calculi nephrolithiasis. Patients and Methods. From 2008 to 2010 in the urological department of Rostov State Medical University urine culture was assessed in 86 patients with staghorn calculi. Mean age was 50,4±5,9 (25-73 years. Results: Most of the patients with staghorn calculus (89,5% have microbial contamination of urine, which has a high correlation with leucocituria, and the spectrum of microorganisms often has the various bacterial associations, which caused more infection complications during treatment. Conclusion: In the urine urease-producing bacteria, E. Coli, gram-positive organisms, nonclostridial anaerobic bacteria were predominated

  4. Retroperitoneal Laparoscopic Ureterolithotomy for Proximal Ureteral Calculi in Selected Patients

    Qingfeng Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To summarize our experience of retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy for ureteral calculi and evaluate the safety and efficiency of this procedure. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 197 patients with proximal ureteral calculi who accepted retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy from June 2005 to June 2014. Results. All procedures were performed successfully and the mean operating time and estimated blood loss were 87 min and 64 mL. The clearance rate was 98.5% and the rates of urine leak and ureteral stricture were 2.5% and 1.0%. Conclusions. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy is a safe and effective procedure for patients with complex stones or anatomic abnormalities, and, with experience of high volume series, it is also a reasonable choice as the primary treatment for such selected patients.

  5. Conformal and Poincare tensor calculi in N=1 supergravity

    We present the superconformal tensor calculus for N=1 supergravity in a complete form; irreducible multiplets, their multiplication and embedding formulae and invariant action formulae. It is further clarified in detail how the various versions of N=1 Poincare supergravity (i.e. with different sets of auxiliary fields) are reproduced from the unique superconformal theory. The tensor calculi for all the known versions of Poincare supergravity are derived explicitly. (orig.)

  6. Determination of Lead in Human Calculi and Its Effects on Renal Function of Lead Occupational Workers

    F. Memon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five samples of renal and eighteen samples of supra gingival calculi of lead recycling workers were collected over the period of seven years (2008-2014 and studied for the accumulation of lead. The results were compared with those of non exposed subjects. The lead content of calculi was investigated for its dependence on type and composition of calculi, blood lead, job status and duration of exposure. The effect of blood lead and renal calculi was also investigated in relation to kidney function of respective subjects. The mean lead levels of various types of calculi were found to follow the order as phosphate > oxalate > urate .> cystine while single principal group of supra gingival calculi resulted in lower levels of metal. The lead content of calculi positively correlated with phosphate content of both of the renal (r = 0.655 and supra gingival calculi (r= 0.866, Impaired renal function was more pronounced in active workers and depended on blood lead levels in addition to presence of metal in renal calculi

  7. The efficacy of tamsulosin in lower ureteral calculi

    Griwan M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There has been a paradigm shift in the management of ureteral calculi in the last decade with the introduction of new less invasive methods, such as ureterorenoscopy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. Aims: Recent studies have reported excellent results with medical expulsive therapy (MET for distal ureteral calculi, both in terms of stone expulsion and control of ureteral colic pain. Settings and Design: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting and MET with tamsulosin. Materials and Methods: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting (Group I and MET with tamsulosin (Group II in 60 patients, with a follow up of 28 days. Statistical Analysis: Independent ′t′ test and chi-square test. Results: Group II showed a statistically significant advantage in terms of the stone expulsion rate. The mean number of episodes of pain, mean days to stone expulsion and mean amount of analgesic dosage used were statistically significantly lower in Group II (P value is 0.007, 0.01 and 0.007, respectively as compared to Group I. Conclusions: It is concluded that MET should be considered for uncomplicated distal ureteral calculi before ureteroscopy or extracorporeal lithotripsy. Tamsulosin has been found to increase and hasten stone expulsion rates, decrease acute attacks by acting as a spasmolytic, reduces mean days to stone expulsion and decreases analgesic dose usage.

  8. Diagnosis and surgical management of obstructive ureteral calculi in cats: 11 cases (1993-1996)

    To evaluate diagnostic methods, surgical treatment, perioperative management, and renal function of cats with obstructive calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Retrospective case series. 11 cats that underwent surgery for removal of calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Medical records were reviewed, and the following information was recorded: signalment; results of physical examination, clinicopathologic analyses, and abdominal imaging; surgical procedure; postoperative management; and results of ureterolith quantitative analysis. Ureteroliths in the proximal portion of the ureter were removed from 5 cats (pyelotomy, 1 cat; unilateral ureterotomy, 2 cats; bilateral ureterotomies, 2 cats). Calculi in the middle and distal part of the ureter were removed by partial ureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy (6 cats). Ten cats recovered from surgery and were discharged from the hospital. One cat died from unknown causes 4 months after surgery, and 1 cat had a nephrectomy elsewhere 5 weeks after ureterolith removal. Eight cats were evaluated 12 to 20 months after surgery. Of these, 2 cats that were markedly azotemic before surgery improved after surgery, and 2 cats developed nephroliths after surgery. Also, of 5 cats that had nephroliths that were not removed at the time of surgery, 4 still had visible nephroliths. One cat had recurrent ureteral obstruction from a ureterolith and persistent urinary tract infection. Ureteroliths or ultrasonographic evidence of ureteral obstruction were not detected in other cats. A combination of microsurgical techniques and intensive postoperative care is necessary to minimize morbidity of cats after removal of a ureterolith. Renal function may improve or stabilize after removal of the ureteral obstruction

  9. Urinary Bladder

    ... to the symphysis pubis, and below the parietal peritoneum . The size and shape of the urinary bladder ... outer layer of the bladder wall is parietal peritoneum. In all other regions, the outer layer is ...

  10. Safety and efficacy of transurethral pneumatic lithotripsy for bladder calculi in children

    Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of transurethral pneumatic lithotripsy for bladder calculi in children. Method: The study included 100 children up to 15 years of age undergoing pneumatic cystolithoclast for bladder stones. The descriptive study was conducted from September 2006 to February 2007 at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi. The inclusion criteria was children up to 15 years of age with a bladder stone of up to 3 cm, pre-operative negative urine culture, no coagulopathy and fit for general anaesthesia. An X-ray and ultrasound of Kidney and Urinary Bladder (KUB) was mandatory. The procedure was done under general anaesthesia with a single dose of pre-operative antibiotic. A mini-scope of 4 FR or a semi-rigid ureteroscope of 7/8.5 FR with pneumatic wolf lithoclast was used for the fragmentation of stones. Duration of procedure, any per-operative and post-operative complications and the duration of hospital stay were recorded. Post-operatively, the patient underwent ultrasound Kidney and Urinary Bladder at the first follow-up to assess stone clearance after one week. Result: Mean patients age was 4.95+-3.3 years. The male-to-female ratio was 11.5: 1 The mean hospital stay was 9.2 +- 2.5 hours. The mean operating time was 25 (10 -65) minutes. Ten (10%) patients developed minor complications out of which 5 (5%) developed haematuria and 4 (4%) developed difficulty in passing urine. One (1%) of the patients developed post-operative retention of urine. All the patients were stone free after the procedure. Conclusion: The transurethral pneumatic lithoclast is very effective and safe in children with bladder stones up to 3 cm. (author)

  11. Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review

    Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone...

  12. The composition of urinary stones in central sindh

    To determine chemical analysis of urinary stones of central sindh. Study design: Prospective and randomized study. Setting: Department of Surgery and Pathology of Peoples University of Medical and Health Sciences Nawabshah. Duration of study: Three years from May 2008 to May 2011. Material and Methods: Total 106 urolith patients who underwent open stone surgery were included in the study. EDTA Titration used for determination of calcium ions and determination of oxalate, phosphate, magnesium, ammonia, uric acid and cystine stones was carried out using spectrophotometer. These patients were asked to fill out a proforma with parameters of age, sex, radiological location of stone and chemical composition of surgically recovered stones. The stone analysis findings were reviewed and compared with other reported series Results: In this study 75(70.75%) patients were male and 31 (29.25%) female. Male to female ratio was of 2.41:1. The age ranged from 1 to 70 years with the mean of 22.69 years. The peak incidence of upper urinary tract stone in 20-30 years and lower urinary tract stones in both sexes was under 10 years. Anatomical location of stone showed 48(45.29%) renal, 13(12.26%) ureteric and 45(42.45%) bladder calculi. Chemical analysis revealed 56(52.8%) calcium oxalate, 7(6.6%) calcium phosphate, 11(10.3%) ammonium urate, 18(16.9%) uric acid, 13(12.2%) Sturvite and 1(0.9%) cystine calculi. Conclusion: It was concluded that urolithiasis is predominantly male disease. No age group was spared to stone disease. Calcium oxalate, uric acid, ammonium urate and mixed calculi are the main types in our study due to poor nutritional status, poverty and inadequate health facilities. Considering that knowledge of stone composition is of utmost importance to modify the incidence of urolithiasis. (author)

  13. Parotid and submandibular duct calculi in three successive generations of one family.

    Bullock, K N

    1982-01-01

    A case is reported of chronic calculous parotitis beginning in a 12-month-old child. Further questioning revealed a history of parotid calculi in her mother and submandibular calculi in her maternal grandmother. The features which indicate the diagnosis of parotid calculous disease are discussed and, from a review of the literature, some observations are made on management.

  14. Prostaglandin synthetase inhibition with indomethacin rectal suppositories in the treatment of acute and chronic urinary calculus obstruction.

    Al-Waili, N S

    1986-03-01

    The effect of indomethacin suppositories on both acute urinary colic and urinary calculus, resistant or refractory to conventional therapy with analgesics and spasmolytics was investigated. Fifty-five patients with acute urinary colic refractory to treatment with repeated injections of antispasmodics and analgesics had dramatic or complete pain relief after receiving indomethacin suppositories (100 mg) (P less than 0.01). Fifteen of the 55 patients passed urinary stones within 30 days of treatment with indomethacin. Three out of 30 other patients with renal or ureteric stones were treated with indomethacin suppositories (100 mg) twice daily. Twenty-one of the 30 patients passed their stones within 30 days of treatment. It is concluded that indomethacin suppositories can relieve acute urinary colic resistant to treatment with analgesic/antispasmodic drugs, and facilitate expulsion of urinary calculi. The mechanism of action of indomethacin is discussed in terms of its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and its prostaglandin synthesis inhibition. PMID:3720020

  15. Psi-calculi: a framework for mobile processes with nominal data and logic

    Bengtson, Jesper; Parrow, Joachim; Victor, Björn

    2011-01-01

    The framework of psi-calculi extends the pi-calculus with nominal datatypes for data structures and for logical assertions and conditions. These can be transmitted between processes and their names can be statically scoped as in the standard pi-calculus. Psi-calculi can capture the same phenomena as other proposed extensions of the pi-calculus such as the applied pi-calculus, the spi-calculus, the fusion calculus, the concurrent constraint pi-calculus, and calculi with polyadic communication channels or pattern matching. Psi-calculi can be even more general, for example by allowing structured channels, higher-order formalisms such as the lambda calculus for data structures, and predicate logic for assertions. We provide ample comparisons to related calculi and discuss a few significant applications. Our labelled operational semantics and definition of bisimulation is straightforward, without a structural congruence. We establish minimal requirements on the nominal data and logic in order to prove general alge...

  16. Types of Renal Calculi and Management Regimen for Chinese Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.

    Gu, Si-Ping; Zeng, Guo-Hua; You, Zhi-Yuan; Lu, Yi-Jin; Huang, Yun-Teng; Wang, Qing-Mao; He, Zhao-Hui

    2015-12-01

    Strict selection of patients for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy could effectively improve the success rate of surgery. This study aimed to understand the required skills and the efficacy of mini-PCNL in the treatment of five types of upper ureteral calculi. Data collected after X-ray analysis and B mode ultrasound from 633 patients with upper ureteral and renal pelvis calculi who underwent B ultrasound-guided lithotomy was reviewed, including the following: type I, upper ureteral or renal pelvis calculi with moderate hydronephrosis (154 cases); type II, upper ureteral or renal pelvis calculi with severe hydronephrosis (157 cases); type III, upper ureteral or renal pelvis calculi without hydronephrosis (61 cases); type IV, renal pelvis calculi, one or two renal calyx calculi (206 cases); and type V, renal staghorn calculi (55 cases). Operations on 611 cases were successful. The treatment method for five patients was converted to open surgery. Twelve cases were treated by indwelling double-J tube retro-catheterization and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Five patients gave up the treatment. The rate of calculus clearance was 82.3 %, and the rate of residual calculus was 17.6 %. Selective renal artery embolization was performed in nine cases. Hydropneumothorax occurred in nine cases. No intestinal fistula occurred, and no patient had to undergo nephrectomy. The difficulty and the curative effect of the operation were different because the types of calculi varied. Selection of the procedure based on the different types of calculi could effectively improve the success rate of the procedure, reduce complications, and shorten the learning curve. PMID:27011473

  17. Comparative study of minimally invasive endoscopic surgery and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL for proximal ureteral calculi in pilots

    He-qing GUO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe and compare the therapeutic effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL and minimally invasive endoscopic surgery (URL/PCNL for proximal urinary calculi in pilots. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted for the clinical data of 115 pilots who had received ESWL, URL and PCNL for the treatment of proximal urinary tract calculi from Sep, 2005 to Sep, 2012. The patients were divided into two groups according to the way of treatment: ESWL group (n=83 and URL/PCNL group (n=32. In ESWL group, the patients received ESWL for a maximum of 3 times. In URL/PCNL group, the patients received URS or PCNL after ESWL for 3 times without lithecbole. Results All the patients were male and the mean age was 36.1±9.1 years. The average diameter of the stones was 0.68±0.22cm in ESWL group and 0.78±0.25cm in URL/PCNL group. There was no significant difference in stone diameter between the two groups (P=0.526. The rate of qualification for flying was 68.7% in ESWL group and 81.3% in URL/PCNL group (URL 80.0%, PCNL 100%, showing a significant difference (P=0.002. In ESWL group, the rate of qualification for flying of pilots harboring renal and proximal ureteral stone, middle ureteral stone and distal ureteral stone was 64.3%, 88.9% and 33.3% respectively, with a significant difference (P=0.023. The rate of flying qualification of pilots harboring proximal ureteral stone, middle ureteral stone and distal ureteral stone was 71.4%, 86.7% and 87.5% respectively after URL, and there was no significant difference (P=0.174. Among the five patients who received URL but did not achieve satisfactory effect, two had stones retreated to the renal pelvis during the operation, and in two patients distal ureter was too narrow to allow passage of ureteroscope, and the ureteroscope was enveloped by inflammatory polyp in one patient. Conclusion URL/PCNL maybe more effective than ESWL in the treatment of proximal urinary calculus in pilots

  18. Evaluation of the Raphanus sativus effect on urinary pH

    Hamid Mazdak; Mohammad Masoud Nikkar; Linda Ghanea

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to urology texts, urinary calculi are the third most common affliction of the urinary tract and they pose great expenses on health services. The use of oral herbal medication is one of the cheapest ways of treating this disease (in some societies black radish plant is used as a treatment). The scientific term for black radish is Raph...

  19. Urinary Diversion

    ... of wastes and extra fluid. In order for normal urination to occur, all body parts in the urinary tract need to work together in the correct order. Kidneys. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below ...

  20. Comparison of standard-dose and low-dose scanning with 16-MDCT for urinary calculi

    Objective: To explore the feasibility to diagnose ureterolithiasis by 16-multidetector spiral computed tomography (16-MDCT) at different low doses based on body mass index (BMI). Methods: A total of one hundred patients from 2009 Sep to 2010 Feb suspected of ureterolithiasis were randomly divided into 2 equal groups undergoing 16-MDCT at standard-dose (120 kV, 240 mA) or low dose (120, 80, and 50 mA, respectively) based on the body mass index (BMI). Taking the clinical diagnosis as the standard, the sensitivity level, specificity level, and positive predictive value of these groups were compared. Results: The dose length product (DLP) of the low-dose CT group and the standard dose group were (726±45.67) and (251±73.87) mGy·cm, respectively. There was significant average CT dose index (CTDIvol ) were 18.95 and 6.65 mGy, respectively. There was significant difference between the two groups (t=31.78, P<0.01). The sensitivity level, specificity level, and positive predictive value of the low-dose group were 97.1% , 94.0%, and 94.3%, respectively, all not significantly different from those of the standard-dose groups (97.3%, 96.0%, and 97.3%, respectively, P>0.05). Conclusions: It is feasible to diagnose ureterolithiasis by low-dose 16-MDCT based on BMI with the obtained image quality meeting the clinical diagnostic requirements. (authors)

  1. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation. PMID:25433503

  2. Concave Urinary Crystallines: Direct Evidence of Calcium Oxalate Crystals Dissolution by Citrate In Vivo

    Yun-Feng Shang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in urinary crystal properties in patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx calculi after oral administration of potassium citrate (K3cit were investigated via atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD, and zeta potential analyzer. The AFM and SEM results showed that the surface of urinary crystals became concave, the edges and corners of crystals became blunt, the average size of urinary crystallines decreased significantly, and aggregation of urinary crystals was reduced. These changes were attributed to the significant increase in concentration of excreted citrate to  mg/L after K3cit intake from  mg/L before K3cit intake. After the amount of urinary citrate was increased, it complexed with Ca2+ ions on urinary crystals, which dissolved these crystals. Thus, the appearance of concave urinary crystals was a direct evidence of CaOx dissolution by citrate in vivo. The XRD results showed that the quantities and species of urinary crystals decreased after K3cit intake. The mechanism of inhibition of formation of CaOx stones by K3cit was possibly due to the complexation of Ca2+ with citrate, increase in urine pH, concentration of urinary inhibitor glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, and the absolute value of zeta potential after K3cit intake.

  3. Notes on the differential calculi on quantum linear groups

    This talk is devoted to the problem of constructing differential calculi on quantum linear groups. Based on the natural algebraic postulates, we examine the possible commutation relations for the GLq(N)- and SLq(N)-invariant differential forms and vector fields. It turns out that there exist several families of admissible commutation rules for GLq(N), but, in contrast. the commutation prescription for SLq(N) is unique. The stochastic quantization of dissipative systems is discussed. It is shown that in order to stochastically quantize a sys- tem with dissipation, one has to restrict the Fourier transform of the space-time variable to the positive half domain in the complex plane. This breaks the time-reversal invariance, which manifests itself in the formulation through the re- sulting noninvaxiant forms for the propagators. The relation of the stochastic approach with the Caldeira and Leggett path-integral method is also analyzed

  4. In-vivo labelling of renal calculi with technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate

    A method of labelling renal calculi in-vivo with 99Tcsup(m) methylene diphosphonate is described. The way in which this enables the stones to be located both before and during surgical removal is discussed. (author)

  5. Modeling Of Laser Ablation And Fragmentation Of Human Calculi

    Gitomer, Steven J.; Jones, Roger D.; Howsare, Charles

    1989-09-01

    The large-scale radiation-hydrodynamics computer code LASNEX, has been used to model experimental results in the laser ablation and fragmentation of renal and biliary calculi. Recent experiments have demonstrated laser ablation and fragmentation of human calculi in vitro and in vivo. In the interaction, laser light incident upon the calculus is of sufficient intensity to produce a plasma (a hot ionized gas). The physical picture which emerges is as follows. The plasma couples to acoustic and shear waves which then propagate through the dense stone material, causing spall and fracture by reflection from material discontinuities or boundaries. Experiments have thus far yielded data on the interaction against which models can be tested. Data on the following have been published: (1) light emission, (2) absorption and emission spectra, (3) fragmentation efficiency, (4) cavitation bubble dynamics and (5) mass removal. We have performed one dimensional simulations of the laser-matter interaction to elucidate the im-portant physical mechanisms. We find that good quantitative fits between simulation and experiment are obtained for visible light emission, electron temperature, electron density, plasma pressure and cavitation bubble growth. With regard to mass removal, experiment and simulation are consistent with each other and give an excellent estimate of the ablation threshold. The modeling indicates that a very small ablation layer at the surface of the calulus is responsible for significant mass loss by fragmentation within the bulk of the calculus. With such quantitative fits in hand, we believe this type of modeling can now be applied to the study of other procedures involving plasma formation of interest to the medical community.

  6. Modeling of laser ablation and fragmentation of human calculi

    Gitomer, S.; Jones, R.D.; Howsare, C.

    1989-01-01

    The large-scale radiation-hydrodynamics computer code LASNEX, has been used to model experimental results in the laser ablation and fragmentation of renal and biliary calculi. Recent experiments have demonstrated laser ablation and fragmentation of human calculi in vitro and in vivo. In the interaction, laser light incident upon the calculus is of sufficient intensity to produce a plasma (a hot ionized gas). The physical picture which emerges is as follows. The plasma couples to acoustic and shear waves which then propagate through the dense stone material, causing spall and fracture by reflection from material discontinuities or boundaries. Experiments have thus far yielded data on the interaction against which models can be tested. Data on the following have been published: (1) light emission, (2) absorption and emission spectra, (3) fragmentation efficiency, (4) cavitation bubble dynamics and (5) mass removal. We have performed one dimensional simulations of the laser-matter interaction to elucidate the important physical mechanisms. We find that good quantitative fits between simulation and experiment are obtained for visible light emission, electron temperature, electron density, plasma pressure and cavitation bubble growth. With regard to mass removal, experiment and simulation are consistent with each other and give an excellent estimate of the ablation threshold. The modeling indicates that a very small ablation layer at the surface of the calculus is responsible for significant mass loss by fragmentation within the bulk of the calculus. With such quantitative fits in hand, we believe this type of modeling can now be applied to the study of other procedures involving plasma formation of interest to the medical community. 25 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Percutaneous Endoscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Management of Complicated Biliary Calculi

    Healy, Kelly; Chamsuddin, Abbas; Spivey, James; Martin, Louis; Nieh, Peter; Ogan, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Advances in endoscopic techniques have transformed the management of urolithiasis. We sought to evaluate the role of such urological interventions for the treatment of complex biliary calculi. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients (n=9) undergoing percutaneous holmium laser lithotripsy for complicated biliary calculi over a 4-year period (12/2003 to 12/2007). All previously failed standard techniques include ERCP with sphincterotomy (n=6), PTH...

  8. PA03.12. Role of stonvil capsule with varunadi kwath in renal & ureteric calculi

    Khandare, Dnyaneshwar; ,

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Now a day's Renal & Ureteric calculi is very common problem in our society. In this patient experiences so much Renal pain, Ureteric colic, Haematuria, Recurrent UTI & they disturbed his daily routine work. Modern Medicines have limitations to treat it & advised Surgery to many patients. A poor & middle class patient was not tolerating surgical expenses. And there were chances of recurrences also. So I thought to use combinations to dissolve renal & Ureteric calculi and cure patients...

  9. Clinical observation of different minimally invasive surgeries for the treatment of impacted upper ureteral calculi

    Liu, Yuanhua; Zhou, Zhangyan; Xia, An; Dai, Haitao; Guo, Linjie; Zheng, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical effects of three minimally invasive surgeries on the treatment of impacted upper ureteral calculi. Methods: 135 patients with impacted upper ureteral calculi were selected and randomly divided into three groups (Group A-C) (n=45), which were treated with transurethral ureteroscopic lithotripsy, minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy respectively. Relevant results of the three groups were compared. R...

  10. Definitive ureteroscopy and intracorporeal lithotripsy in treatment of ureteral calculi during pregnancy

    Teleb, Mohamed; Ragab, Ahmed; Dawod, Tamer; Elgalaly, Hazem; Elsayed, Ehab; Sakr, Ahmed; Abdelhameed, Ahmed; Maarouf, Arif; Khalil, Salem

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the outcome of using semi-rigid ureteroscopy with or without intracorporeal pneumatic lithotripsy vs. temporary ureteric JJ stenting in the management of obstructing ureteric calculi in pregnant women. Patients and methods This prospective comparative study comprised 43 pregnant women with obstructing ureteric calculi. The diagnosis was based on the acute flank pain as the main symptom, microscopic haematuria, and unilateral hydronephrosis on abdominal ultrasonography (U...

  11. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  12. Renal papillary calcification and the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary renal calculi: a case series study

    Grases, Fèlix; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Rafel M. Prieto; Conte, Antonio; Servera, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to determine in a case series (four patients) how calcified deposits in renal papillae are associated with the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) papillary calculi. Methods From the recently collected papillary calculi, we evaluated retrospectively patients, subjected to retrograde ureteroscopy, with COM papillary lithiasis. Results The COM papillary calculi were found to result from subepithelial injury. Many of these lesions underwent ...

  13. Association of minor and trace elements with mineralogical constituents of urinary stones: a hard nut to crack in existing studies of urolithiasis.

    Kuta, J; Machát, J; Benová, D; Červenka, R; Zeman, J; Martinec, P

    2013-08-01

    The role of metals in urinary stone formation has already been studied in several publications. Moreover, urinary calculi can also be used for assessing exposure of humans to minor and trace elements in addition to other biological matrices, for example, blood, urine, or hair. However, using urinary calculi for biomonitoring of trace elements is limited by the association of elements with certain types of minerals. In this work, 614 samples of urinary calculi were subjected to mineralogical and elemental analysis. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and thermo-oxidation cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry were used for the determination of major, minor, and trace elements. Infrared spectroscopy was used for mineralogical analysis, and additionally, it was also employed in the calculation of mineralogical composition, based on quantification of major elements and stoichiometry. Results demonstrate the applicability of such an approach in investigating associations of minor and trace elements with mineralogical constituents of stones, especially in low concentrations, where traditional methods of mineralogical analysis are not capable of quantifying mineral content reliably. The main result of this study is the confirmation of association of several elements with struvite (K, Rb) and with calcium phosphate minerals, here calculated as hydroxylapatite (Na, Zn, Sr, Ba, Pb). Phosphates were proved as the most important metal-bearing minerals in urinary calculi. Moreover, a significantly different content was also observed for Fe, Zr, Mo, Cu, Cd, Se, Sn, and Hg in investigated groups of minerals. Examination of such associations is essential, and critical analysis of mineral constituents should precede any comparison of element content among various groups of samples. PMID:23430472

  14. Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population.

    Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

  15. Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Migrated into the Urinary Bladder and a Review of the Literature

    Orhan Zorba

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine contraceptive devices are being used in clinical practice since 1962. Due to their efficiency and low cost, intrauterine contraceptive devices are the most popular method of reversible contraception in developing countries. The incidence of migration of an intrauterine contraceptive device, and related uterine perforation ranges from 0.003% to 0.87%. Intrauterine contraceptive device may migrate into urinary bladder, appendix, rectum, colon, peritoneum, anterior abdominal wall or ovary. Foreign bodies like sutures, stents, and needles in the urinary bladder act as niduses for calculi formation. Intrauterine contraceptive device migrated into the bladder can also become a nidus for a stone formation.Herein we report about a case whose intrauterine contraceptive devices had migrated into the bladder, and presented with lower urinary tract symptoms and suprapubic discomfort 6 years after its insertion.

  16. MEDICAL EXPULSIVE THERAPY OF URETERIC CALCULI - OUR EXPERIENCE

    Ramesh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Uretric stones can be treated with multiple modalities including medical therapy, uretroscopy, shockwave lithotripsy (SWS, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, open/laparoscopic stone removal, and/or combinations of these modalities. The aim is to study the effectivene ss of medical management of uretric stones and to compare the effectiveness of Tamsulosin and Tamsulosin with steroid . MATERIALS & METHODS: 120 Patients who came with acute uretric colic were categorized into III categories of less than 5mm, 5mm to 7mm and more than 7mm based on NCCT. They were consecutively allotted to one of the three groups, the group I patients received Anti - Biotics with NSAIDs group II received Tamsulosin in addition Anti - Biotics and NSAIDs and III rd group received Anti - Biotics, Tamsu losin, NSAIDs in addition Deflazacart 30mg for a period of 10 days. The results were evaluated at the end of 10 days medical treatment. RESULTS : 90 out of 120 patients were re - evaluated at the end of 10 days. The calculi of 7mm should be removed as the chances of passage is <20%. The medical treatment with Tamsulosin or Tamsulosin with Deflazacart does not offer significant benefit.

  17. Epidemiological Survey of Renal Calculi in Adult Yao Population in Guangxi%广西瑶族成年人肾结石流行病学调查

    汤宗源; 江顺建; 李江; 李秀清; 钟明涛; 黄日波; 李萍; 邹爱俐

    2015-01-01

    ,dietary condition and history of diseases. Renal calculus was diagnosed by renal ultrasound. Univariate analyses and multivariate Logistic regression analyses were conducted on the influencing factors for renal calculi. Results Among 3 475 subjects,418 were diagnosed with renal calculi with a prevalence rate of 12. 0% (418 / 3 475). The prevalence rate of renal calculi was significantly different( P <0. 05)among populations with different genders,ages,occupations,education degrees,marital status,yearly income and BMI. The prevalence of renal calculus was significantly different( P < 0. 05) among subjects with regard to smoking or not, alcohol consumption,the source of drinking water,drinking before sleep or not,drinking water being boiled or not and the frequency of eating fresh green vegetables,bean products,persimmon and animal giblets. The prevalence of renal calculus was also significantly different(P < 0. 05) among subjects as regards the history of gall stone,nephritis and urinary calculi. The multivariate Logistic regression analyses showed that age,gender,occupation,education degree,yearly income,the source of drinking water,drinking water being boiled or not,the intake of persimmon,fresh green vegetables,bean products and animal giblets,history of nephritis and the family history of urinary stone were influencing factors( P < 0. 05) for renal calculi. Conclusion The prevalence of renal calculi in adult Yao people in Gongcheng Yao Autonomous County is relatively higher and is related with diet and other various factors. The precaution of renal calculi should be carried out with the high risk factors as the focus.

  18. Shock wave therapy for the destruction of renal calculi

    Using focussed shock waves, kidney stones can be disintegrated without having recourse to surgical measures, so that the concrements can be excreted via the urinary tract. The success of this therapy strongly depends on an exact adjustment of the target by the aid of radiography. The method applied is explained in this article, and the experience gained with 400 patients is summarized. (orig.)

  19. Stage Ⅰ minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy for calculi complicated with pyonephrosis%Ⅰ期微通道经皮肾穿刺取石术治疗结石性脓肾

    袁秦波; 王强东; 董振佳; 肖旭; 颜姚

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the safety and efficacy of stage-Ⅰ minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) for the treatment of upper urinary calculi complicated with pyonephrosis.Methods From January 2012 to June 2013,a total of 26 patients with upper urinary calculi complicated with pyonephrosis were treated with stage · Ⅰ MPCNL.Of the patients,8 had upper ureteral calculi,9 showed calculi in both kidneys,13 suffered from renal pelvis calculi.Of the patients,11 complained of low back pain at the affected side,5 had fever before operation,9 assumed bacteria culture positive in midstream urine.Results The mean operation time was 49.2 ± 13.2 minutes in our patients.The stones were removed on one session in 22 cases(80.8 %).Mean hospital stays was 8.38 ± 0.98 days.Six patients confirmed bacteria culture positive in urine in the kidney pelvis,1 patient confirmed positive blood culture after surgery.Eight patients appeard postoperative fever (Greater than 38 degrees Celsius),up to 39.6 degrees Celsius.Of the patients,2 had a transient fever,4 had a persistent fever last 1 to 3 days and 2 had a persistent fever last 4 to 5 days.Conclusions Stage-Ⅰ MPCNL is an effective,quick-recovery and safe treatment for upper urinary calculi complicated with pyonephrosis,as long we stick to the indications and standard procedures for the operation.%目的 探讨Ⅰ期微创经皮肾镜取石术治疗结石性脓肾的安全性和疗效.方法 选择2012年1月至2013年6月经Ⅰ期微创经皮肾穿刺取石术(MPCNL)治疗结石性脓肾患者26例.其中输尿管上段结石8例,双侧肾结石5例,单侧肾结石13例.术前有患侧腰痛11例,发热5例,中段尿细菌培养阳性9例.结果 平均手术时间49.2±13.2min.一次取尽结石22例(80.8%),平均住院时间8.38±0.98d,肾盂尿细菌培养阳性6例,术后血细菌培养阳性1例.术后发热(>38℃)8例,最高达39.6℃,2例发热1次,4例发热1~3d,2例发热4 ~5d.结论 采取相应

  20. Computer-aided detection of renal calculi from noncontrast CT images using TV-flow and MSER features

    Purpose: Renal calculi are common extracolonic incidental findings on computed tomographic colonography (CTC). This work aims to develop a fully automated computer-aided diagnosis system to accurately detect renal calculi on CTC images. Methods: The authors developed a total variation (TV) flow method to reduce image noise within the kidneys while maintaining the characteristic appearance of renal calculi. Maximally stable extremal region (MSER) features were then calculated to robustly identify calculi candidates. Finally, the authors computed texture and shape features that were imported to support vector machines for calculus classification. The method was validated on a dataset of 192 patients and compared to a baseline approach that detects calculi by thresholding. The authors also compared their method with the detection approaches using anisotropic diffusion and nonsmoothing. Results: At a false positive rate of 8 per patient, the sensitivities of the new method and the baseline thresholding approach were 69% and 35% (p < 1e − 3) on all calculi from 1 to 433 mm3 in the testing dataset. The sensitivities of the detection methods using anisotropic diffusion and nonsmoothing were 36% and 0%, respectively. The sensitivity of the new method increased to 90% if only larger and more clinically relevant calculi were considered. Conclusions: Experimental results demonstrated that TV-flow and MSER features are efficient means to robustly and accurately detect renal calculi on low-dose, high noise CTC images. Thus, the proposed method can potentially improve diagnosis

  1. Computer-aided detection of renal calculi from noncontrast CT images using TV-flow and MSER features

    Liu, Jianfei; Wang, Shijun; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M., E-mail: rms@nih.gov [Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1182 (United States); Linguraru, Marius George [Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children’s National Health System Center, Washington, DC 20010 and School of Medicine and Health Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20010 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Renal calculi are common extracolonic incidental findings on computed tomographic colonography (CTC). This work aims to develop a fully automated computer-aided diagnosis system to accurately detect renal calculi on CTC images. Methods: The authors developed a total variation (TV) flow method to reduce image noise within the kidneys while maintaining the characteristic appearance of renal calculi. Maximally stable extremal region (MSER) features were then calculated to robustly identify calculi candidates. Finally, the authors computed texture and shape features that were imported to support vector machines for calculus classification. The method was validated on a dataset of 192 patients and compared to a baseline approach that detects calculi by thresholding. The authors also compared their method with the detection approaches using anisotropic diffusion and nonsmoothing. Results: At a false positive rate of 8 per patient, the sensitivities of the new method and the baseline thresholding approach were 69% and 35% (p < 1e − 3) on all calculi from 1 to 433 mm{sup 3} in the testing dataset. The sensitivities of the detection methods using anisotropic diffusion and nonsmoothing were 36% and 0%, respectively. The sensitivity of the new method increased to 90% if only larger and more clinically relevant calculi were considered. Conclusions: Experimental results demonstrated that TV-flow and MSER features are efficient means to robustly and accurately detect renal calculi on low-dose, high noise CTC images. Thus, the proposed method can potentially improve diagnosis.

  2. Toward the classification of differential calculi on κ-Minkowski space and related field theories

    Jurić, Tajron; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutić, Danijel; Štrajn, Rina

    2015-07-01

    Classification of differential forms on κ-Minkowski space, particularly, the classification of all bicovariant differential calculi of classical dimension is presented. By imposing super-Jacobi identities we derive all possible differential algebras compatible with the κ-Minkowski algebra for time-like, space-like and light-like deformations. Embedding into the super-Heisenberg algebra is constructed using non-commutative (NC) coordinates and one-forms. Particularly, a class of differential calculi with an undeformed exterior derivative and one-forms is considered. Corresponding NC differential calculi are elaborated. Related class of new Drinfeld twists is proposed. It contains twist leading to κ-Poincaré Hopf algebra for light-like deformation. Corresponding super-algebra and deformed super-Hopf algebras, as well as the symmetries of differential algebras are presented and elaborated. Using the NC differential calculus, we analyze NC field theory, modified dispersion relations, and discuss further physical applications.

  3. Proceedings Fourth Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi 2010

    Ciobanu, Gabriel; 10.4204/EPTCS.40

    2010-01-01

    The 4th Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi (MeCBIC 2010) is organized in Jena as a satellite event of the Eleventh International Conference on Membrane Computing (CMC11). Biological membranes play a fundamental role in the complex reactions which take place in cells of living organisms. The importance of this role has been considered in two different types of formalisms introduced recently. Membrane systems were introduced as a class of distributed parallel computing devices inspired by the observation that any biological system is a complex hierarchical structure, with a flow of biochemical substances and information that underlies their functioning. The modeling and analysis of biological systems has also attracted considerable interest of the process algebra research community. Thus the notions of membranes and compartments have been explicitly represented in a family of calculi, such as ambients and brane calculi. A cross fertilization of these two research areas has ...

  4. Flexible Ureteroscopic Management of Horseshoe Kidney Renal Calculi

    Jie Ding

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the clinical efficacy of flexible ureteroscope (F-URS combined with holmium laser lithotripter in treating renal calculi in horseshoe kidney.Materials and Methods:From November 2010 to December 2013, the medical history and charts of sixteen patients (mean age 42.9±11.6 years, range 26-66 years, including 13 males and 3 females were analyzed retrospectively. Mean stone burden was 29±8 mm (range 17-42 mm2. Mean stone digitized surface area (DSA was 321±94 mm2 (range 180-538 mm2. Under spinal anesthesia in a modified lithotomy position with the head down, rigid ureteroscope was placed firstly into the ureter to reach the level of the pelvis, a zebra guide wire was inserted and following the removal of the rigid ureteroscope, an ureteral access sheath was positioned along the guide wire, then passed the URF P-5 flexible ureteroscope into the renal cavities over the guidewire. After locating the stones, holmium laser lithotripsy was performed.Results:The average operative time was 92±16 minutes (range 74-127 min.. No major complications were encountered. Ten patients obtained stone-free status with one session, four obtained stone-free status after two sessions. Single session stone-free rate was 62.5%, overall stone-free rate was 87.5%. Two patients have small residual stones in the lower pole.Conclusions:F-URS combined with holmium laser lithotripter and nitinol basket, is safe and effective in dealing with moderate stone diameter (<30 mm in HSKs with high clearance rates and low complication rates.

  5. Weak Convergence and Vector-Valued Functions: Improving the Stability Theory of Feynman's Operational Calculi

    In this paper we present a theorem that establishes a relation between continuous, norm-bounded functions from a metric space into a separable Hilbert space and weak convergence of sequences of probability measures on the metric space. After establishing this result, it's application to the stability theory of Feynman's operational calculi will be illustrated. We will see that the existing time-dependent stability theory of the operational calculi will be significantly improved when the operator-valued functions take their values in LH,H a separable Hilbert space

  6. Analytical scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microdiffractometry of renal calculi using etched plastic sections

    We describe the technique and illustrate results of renal calculi analyses utilizing correlative analytical scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microdiffractometry on the same 100 micrometer Spurr embedded sections. Essential to the technique is the employment of an extremely sensitive x-ray microdiffractometer, and for morphological analysis, pretreatment of the sections with a sodium ethoxide etching solution. This technique facilitates more precise identification of crystalline constituents especially calcium apatite and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (struvite). Further, the technique permits detection and mapping of both crystalline and amorphous constituents within calculi

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting ... Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and ...

  8. [Male urinary incontinence

    Boer, TA de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment o

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting ... of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  10. Urinary tract infection - adults

    A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary tract. The infection can occur at different points in ... al. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catheter-associated ... in adults: 2009 International Clinical Practice Guidelines from ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... frye -tus), or a kidney infection, and it's serious because it can damage the kidneys and make ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up ... should see a doctor right away. previous continue What Will the Doctor Do? First, your doctor will ask you questions about your symptoms. ...

  14. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    ... more common kidney and urinary tract problems include: Congenital problems of the urinary tract. As a fetus develops in the womb, any part of the urinary tract can grow to an abnormal size or in an abnormal ... congenital abnormalities (meaning abnormalities that exist at birth) is ...

  15. POTENTIAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN KIDNEY, GALL AND URINARY STONES

    Choubey Ankur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity.

  16. Renal colic: comparison of spiral CT, US and IVU in the detection of ureteral calculi

    Yilmaz, S.; Sindel, T.; Arslan, G.; Oezkaynak, C.; Karaali, K.; Kabaalioglu, A.; Lueleci, E. [Department of Radiology, Akdeniz University Medical Faculty, Arapsuyu, Antalya (Turkey)

    1998-03-01

    The aim of our study was to compare noncontrast spiral CT, US and intravenous urography (IVU) in the evaluation of patients with renal colic for the diagnosis of ureteral calculi. During a period of 17 months, 112 patients with renal colic were examined with spiral CT, US and IVU. Fifteen patients were lost to follow-up and excluded. The remaining 97 patients were defined to be either true positive or negative for ureterolithiasis based on the follow-up data. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and accuracy of spiral CT, US and IVU were determined, and secondary signs of ureteral stones and other pathologies causing renal colic detected with these modalities were noted. Of 97 patients, 64 were confirmed to have ureteral calculi based on stone recovery or urological interventions. Thirty-three patients were proved not to have ureteral calculi based on failure to recover a stone and diagnoses unrelated to ureterolithiasis. Spiral CT was found to be the best modality for depicting ureteral stones with a sensitivity of 94 % and a specificity of 97 %. For US and IVU, these figures were 19, 97, 52, and 94 %, respectively. Spiral CT is superior to US and IVU in the demonstration of ureteral calculi in patients with renal colic, but because of its high cost, higher radiation dose and high workload, it should be reserved for cases where US and IVU do not show the cause of symptoms. (orig.) With 4 figs., 3 tabs., 12 refs.

  17. Feline porphyria associated with anemia, severe hepatic disease, and renal calculi

    Schnier, Jonathan J.; Hanna, Paul

    2010-01-01

    A 13-year-old, neutered male domestic cat presented with signs of weight loss, anemia, and hepatomegaly. Pathognomonic signs of porphyria were identified. Charcoal-like renal calculi and severe liver changes were observed, neither of which has been previously reported in association with feline porphyria.

  18. Distal ureteral calculi: the usefulness of transrectal ultrasound and comparison with intravenous urography

    To determine the usefulness of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and to compare TRUS with intravenous urography (IVU) in the evaluation of distal ureteral calculi. TRUS and IVU were performed in 24 patients with distal ureteral calculi. Using TRUS, we evaluated the presence and size of calculus, type of ureteral jet at the affected site and diameter of ureter proximal to calculus, and using IVU evaluated the presence and size of calculus, degree of ureteral obstruction, and degree of hydroureter. TRUS and IVU findings, were compared. In each patient, TRUS detected calculus of the distal ureter;in only 18 cases (75%), were the calculi demonstrated with IVU. In 18 cases where calculi were detected by both modalities, average calculus size was 4.5x3.0mm (longest and shortest dimensions) by IVU, and 6.1x3.7mm by TRUS. Between TRUS and IVU(p0.05). TRUS appears to be a useful adjunctive method for the evaluation of distal ureteral calculus

  19. Renal colic: comparison of spiral CT, US and IVU in the detection of ureteral calculi

    The aim of our study was to compare noncontrast spiral CT, US and intravenous urography (IVU) in the evaluation of patients with renal colic for the diagnosis of ureteral calculi. During a period of 17 months, 112 patients with renal colic were examined with spiral CT, US and IVU. Fifteen patients were lost to follow-up and excluded. The remaining 97 patients were defined to be either true positive or negative for ureterolithiasis based on the follow-up data. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and accuracy of spiral CT, US and IVU were determined, and secondary signs of ureteral stones and other pathologies causing renal colic detected with these modalities were noted. Of 97 patients, 64 were confirmed to have ureteral calculi based on stone recovery or urological interventions. Thirty-three patients were proved not to have ureteral calculi based on failure to recover a stone and diagnoses unrelated to ureterolithiasis. Spiral CT was found to be the best modality for depicting ureteral stones with a sensitivity of 94 % and a specificity of 97 %. For US and IVU, these figures were 19, 97, 52, and 94 %, respectively. Spiral CT is superior to US and IVU in the demonstration of ureteral calculi in patients with renal colic, but because of its high cost, higher radiation dose and high workload, it should be reserved for cases where US and IVU do not show the cause of symptoms. (orig.)

  20. Content and Face Validation of a Curriculum for Ultrasonic Propulsion of Calculi in a Human Renal Model

    Dunmire, Barbrina; Cunitz, Bryan W.; He, Xuemei; Sorensen, Mathew D.; Harper, Jonathan D.; Bailey, Michael R.; Lendvay, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Ultrasonic propulsion to reposition urinary tract calculi requires knowledge about ultrasound image capture, device manipulation, and interpretation. The purpose of this study was to validate a cognitive and technical skills curriculum to teach urologists ultrasonic propulsion to reposition kidney stones in tissue phantoms. Materials and Methods: Ten board-certified urologists recruited from a single institution underwent a didactic session on renal ultrasound imaging. Subjects completed technical skills modules in tissue phantoms, including kidney imaging, pushing a stone through a translucent maze, and repositioning a lower pole calyceal stone. Objective cognitive and technical performance metrics were recorded. Subjects completed a questionnaire to ascertain face and content validity on a five-point Likert scale. Results: Eight urologists (80%) had never attended a previous ultrasound course, and nine (90%) performed renal ultrasounds less frequently than every 6 months. Mean cognitive skills scores improved from 55% to 91% (p<0.0001) on pre- and post-didactic tests. In the kidney phantom, 10 subjects (100%) repositioned the lower pole calyceal stone to at least the lower pole infundibulum, while 9 (90%) successfully repositioned the stone to the renal pelvis. A mean±SD (15.7±13.3) pushes were required to complete the task over an average of 4.6±2.2 minutes. Urologists rated the curriculum's effectiveness and realism as a training tool at a mean score of 4.6/5.0 and 4.1/5.0, respectively. Conclusions: The curriculum for ultrasonic propulsion is effective and useful for training urologists with limited ultrasound proficiency in stone repositioning technique. Further studies in animate and human models will be required to assess predictive validity. PMID:24228719

  1. The role of the plain radiograph and renal tract ultrasound in the management of children with renal tract calculi

    AIMS: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the relative efficacy of plain abdominal radiographs and detailed renal tract ultrasound (US) examination in the diagnosis and follow-up of children with renal tract calculi. METHODS: The records and imaging studies of 28 paediatric patients who had presented with proven renal tract calculi over a period of 5 years were examined. RESULTS: In 23 (82%) patients, US was the first investigation. All these patients also had plain radiographs. Plain radiographs were the first investigation in five (18%) patients. All renal calculi (100%) visible on plain films were demonstrated on US. Furthermore, detailed US often provided other clinically significant findings that were not apparent on plain films. CONCLUSION: As a result of this study it is recommend that detailed US should be the investigation of choice in children with suspected renal tract calculi. Smith, S.L. (2000)

  2. Aphallia with urethrorectal fistula, bladder and urethral calculi

    M Movarrekh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aphallia is a very rare urogenital anomaly with incidence rate of 1 in 30,000,000. It usually coexists with other anomalies such as cardiovascular anomalies which are incompatible with normal life, and therefore infants are delivered stillbirth or live for a very short period of time. Methods: We present an 18 months old boy with aphallia associated with congenital urethrorectal fistula, bladder and urethral stones. All stones were removed endourologically, recto-urethral fistula was repaired and perincal urethrostomy was performed. Results: The stones were composed of calcium phosphate colonized by klebiella pneumonia and proteus mirabilis. Urethrorectal fistula repairment was confirmed by cystography. Patient was discharged without a urinary catheter. Conclusion: In developed countries, management of such patients is to raise them as females. However, we must consider socio-cultural conditions, parents preference and patients tendency in management of aphallia.

  3. Continent Urinary Diversion

    Moon, Andrew; Vasdev, Nikhil; Thorpe, Andrew C

    2013-01-01

    We present a review on the current options for continent urinary diversion and their different indications on the basis of patient selection. In current clinical practice continent urinary diversion is being used world-wide in patients undergoing radical cystectomy and in severe cases of benign bladder pathologies. We also discuss the specific complications of continent urinary diversion and highlight the need to rigorously monitor these patients in the long- term specifically in terms of the...

  4. Development of a urinary lithiasis localizer mechanism to couple ultrasound and extracorporeal lithotripsy equipment in canine model

    Enrico Andrade

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Due to the evolution of extracorporeal lithotripsy equipment (ESWL and presently, the fact that most part of the equipment does not present ultrasound to localize urinary calculi, a system that allows adapting ultrasound equipment to ESWL equipment was developed, disposing only of fluoroscopy. Thus, this equipment was developed and was tested in urinary stones in canine models, to check its precision in relation to fluoroscopy. METHOD: Seven male dogs were utilized with the introduction, in the bladder through the ureteral route, of chalkstones, with initial localization by fluoroscopy, with a further ultrasound coincidence check localization of the vesical stones, being submitted to ESWL with a 3-hour, 21 days and 60 days follow-up after the procedure. RESULTS: Success of localization in all animals was verified presenting elimination of stones in the first micturitions, after ESWL. No complications were verified in those animals for 60 days. CONCLUSION: We verified that this equipment can lead to an update of the equipment that use only fluoroscopy, increasing in this way, their technical capacity in the treatment of urinary calculi, mainly in cases of non-radiopaque stones.

  5. Robust detection of renal calculi from non-contract CT images using TV-flow and MSER features

    Liu, Jianfei; Wang, Shijun; Linguraru, Marius George; Summers, Ronald M.

    2013-03-01

    Renal calculi are one of the most painful urologic disorders causing 3 million treatments per year in the United States. The objective of this paper is the automated detection of renal calculi from CT colonography (CTC) images on which they are one of the major extracolonic findings. However, the primary purpose of the CTC protocols is not for the detection of renal calculi, but for screening of colon cancer. The kidneys are imaged with significant amounts of noise in the non-contrast CTC images, which makes the detection of renal calculi extremely challenging. We propose a computer-aided diagnosis method to detect renal calculi in CTC images. It is built on three novel techniques: 1) total variation (TV) flow to reduce image noise while keeping calculi, 2) maximally stable extremal region (MSER) features to find calculus candidates, 3) salient feature descriptors based on intensity properties to train a support vector machine classifier and filter false positives. We selected 23 CTC cases with 36 renal calculi to analyze the detection algorithm. The calculus size ranged from 1.0mm to 6.8mm. Fifteen cases were selected as the training dataset, and the remaining eight cases were used for the testing dataset. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values were 0.92 in the training datasets and 0.93 in the testing datasets. The testing dataset confidence interval for AUC reported by ROCKIT was [0.8799, 0.9591] and the training dataset was [0.8974, 0.9642]. These encouraging results demonstrated that our detection algorithm can robustly and accurately identify renal calculi from CTC images.

  6. Outpatient emergency treatment by ESWL for ureteral calculi with renal colic%门诊急诊ESWL治疗输尿管结石伴肾绞痛疗效分析

    吕金东; 汤元杰; 张丽; 李书铃; 陶淑芬

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨门诊急诊ESWL治疗输尿管结石伴肾绞痛的治疗效果.方法 回顾性分析2010年1月~2012年4月门诊急诊ESWL治疗输尿管结石伴肾绞痛的体外冲击波治疗的效果.结果 经1次碎石后肾绞痛缓解者715例(89.4%),经1次治疗后结石排净者660例(82.5%),经2~5次治疗后结石排净者126例(15.8%),结石总排净率为98.3%.失败14例,失败者均转入外科行肾镜输尿管镜或手术治疗.结论 门诊急诊ESWL治疗输尿管结石伴肾绞痛效果满意,是治疗输尿管结石伴肾绞痛的首选治疗手段.%OBJECTIVE To investigate outpatient emergency treatment by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for ureteral calculi with renal colic. METHODS A retrospective analysis was made on the effect of outpatient emergency treatment by ESWL for ureteral calculi with renal colic from January, 2010 to April, 2012. RESULTS After one time of ESWL, the o-dynolysis rate and lithecbole rate were 89.4% and 82.5% respectively. The lithecbole rate after 2-5 times of ESWL was 15.8%, and the total lithecbole rate was 98.3%. 14 cases were failed, and were transferred to urinary surgery to do examins by nephro-scope or ureteroscope surgical treatment or surgical operation. CONCLUSION Outpatient emergency treatment by ESWL for ureteral calculi with renal colic is very effective, and can be the first choice for the treatment of ureteral calculi with renal colic.

  7. Swapping: a natural bridge between named and indexed explicit substitution calculi

    Mendelzon, Ariel; Ziliani, Beta; 10.4204/EPTCS.49.1

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to the presentation of lambda_rex, an explicit substitution calculus with de Bruijn indexes and a simple notation. By being isomorphic to lambda_ex - a recent formalism with variable names -, lambda_rex accomplishes simulation of beta-reduction (Sim), preservation of beta-strong normalization (PSN) and meta-confluence (MC), among other desirable properties. Our calculus is based on a novel presentation of lambda_dB, using a swap notion that was originally devised by de Bruijn. Besides lambda_rex, two other indexed calculi isomorphic to lambda_x and lambda_xgc are presented, demonstrating the potential of our technique when applied to the design of indexed versions of known named calculi.

  8. Internal Structure of Kidney Calculi as a Predictor for Shockwave Lithotripsy Success

    Christiansen, Frederikke Eichner; Andreassen, Kim Hovgaard; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Osther, Palle Joern Sloth

    with patients with homogeneous stones (odds ratio 0.43 [95% confidence interval 0.20, 0.92; p < 0.05]). However, when adjusting for stone size by multiple logistic regression, including stone size (area) as a covariate, this difference became insignificant. CONCLUSION: The internal structure of kidney......INTRODUCTION: The internal structure of renal calculi can be determined on CT using bone windows and may be classified as homogeneous or inhomogeneous with void regions. In vitro studies have shown homogeneous stones to be less responsive to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL). The objective...... collected retrospectively. All patients had noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) performed before SWL and at 3-month follow-up. The stones were categorized as homogeneous or inhomogeneous. At follow-up, the patient's stone status was registered. Stone-free status was defined as no evidence of calculi on...

  9. Cystic calculi removal in African spurred Tortoise (Geochelone sulcata using transplstron coeliotomy

    Azlan Che' Amat

    Full Text Available The present report was carried out to manage a case of calculi in the bladder of African spurred tortoise. A 6 year old African spurred tortoise presented with history of anorexia and whitish discharged from the vent. Upon physical examination, the tortoise were 10% dehydrated, hindlegs muscle wasting and whitish materials came out from the vent. Plain radiograph revealed increased radiopacity in the bladder and also both right and left kidney. Contrast gastrointestinal radiograph showed less possibility of foreign body. Inconclusive radiological findings required the decision to proceed with exploratory transplastron coeliotomy by using dental burr. About 4 cm solid, hard whitish mass was removed from the bladder and both kidney was congested with whitish material. The findings were suggestive for urates crystal calculi based on histology result. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 489-492

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... might have the feeling that you need to go to the bathroom all the time. And when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections

    ... can usually be found and treated before the kidneys become infected. If your doctor treats a urinary tract infection early and ... Tips on preventing urinary tract infections Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. Drinking cranberry juice may also help ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... a Booger? Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth > For Kids > Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Print A A A ...

  13. SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF PERCUTANEOUS NEPHROLITHOTOMY IN INFANTS PRESENTING WITH OBSTRUCTIVE RENAL CALCULI AND ANURIA

    Yugesh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Urolithiasis in infancy is rare but important health issue. Etiology is multi factorial . Optimal management of pediatric stone disease is still evolving . Infants with bilateral obstructive renal stones are unique group of patients in whom prompt evaluation and management is necessary. AI MS AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate safety and efficacy of PCNL in infants presenting with bilateral obstructive renal calculi and anuria . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: From N ov . 2012 to M arch 2014, 18 renal units with calculi in 9 infants (6 boys, 3 girls were treated with PCNL ( P ercutaneous N ephrolithotomy at our institution. All infants presented with anuria, rised serum creatinin (mean 6.1mg/dl and uremic symptoms due to bilateral obstructive renal calculi. All patients managed initially with peritoneal dialysis a t nephrology u nit, followed by bilateral DJ (D ouble J stenting, then bilateral PCNL performed in two sittings. Mean age 8.5 months (4m to 12m, mean stone burden 1.7 cm (0.6cm to 3.0 cm, 20 F pediatric nephroscope through 22F percutaneous access was used . Stones were fragmented with pneumatic lithotripter. RESULTS: Mean operative time was 60.22 mins (30 mins to 90 mins. Complete stone clearance was done in all cases without need for second look PCNL. Mean post op serum creatinin is 0.6 mg/dl. No patient r equired blood transfusion, developed urosepsis, or had a procedure related complications. CONCLUSION: When performed by experienced urologists, PCNL is safe and effective procedure in infants presenting with bilateral obstructive renal calculi and anuria, provided these patients managed preoperatively with peritoneal dialysis and DJ stenting to optimise renal function and to relieve sepsis.

  14. Feynman's Operational Calculi: Spectral Theory for Noncommuting Self-adjoint Operators

    Jefferies, Brian [University of New South Wales, School of Mathematics (Australia)], E-mail: b.jefferies@unsw.edu.au; Johnson, Gerald W. [333 Avery Hall, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Department of Mathematics (United States)], E-mail: gjohnson@math.unl.edu; Nielsen, Lance [Creighton University, Department of Mathematics (United States)], E-mail: lnielsen@creighton.edu

    2007-02-15

    The spectral theorem for commuting self-adjoint operators along with the associated functional (or operational) calculus is among the most useful and beautiful results of analysis. It is well known that forming a functional calculus for noncommuting self-adjoint operators is far more problematic. The central result of this paper establishes a rich functional calculus for any finite number of noncommuting (i.e. not necessarily commuting) bounded, self-adjoint operators A{sub 1},..., A{sub n} and associated continuous Borel probability measures {mu}{sub 1}, ?, {mu}{sub n} on [0,1]. Fix A{sub 1},..., A{sub n}. Then each choice of an n-tuple ({mu}{sub 1},...,{mu}{sub n}) of measures determines one of Feynman's operational calculi acting on a certain Banach algebra of analytic functions even when A{sub 1}, ..., A{sub n} are just bounded linear operators on a Banach space. The Hilbert space setting along with self-adjointness allows us to extend the operational calculi well beyond the analytic functions. Using results and ideas drawn largely from the proof of our main theorem, we also establish a family of Trotter product type formulas suitable for Feynman's operational calculi.

  15. Simulation of a bounded symport/antiport P system with Brane calculi.

    Vitale, Antonio; Mauri, Giancarlo; Zandron, Claudio

    2008-03-01

    Membrane systems (also called P systems) and Brane calculi have been recently introduced as formal models inspired by the structure and the functioning of living cells, but having in mind different goals. The aim of Membrane systems was the formal investigation of the computational nature and power of various features of the cell, while Brane calculi aims to define a model capable of a faithful and intuitive representation of various biological processes. The common background of the two formalisms and the recent growing of interests in applying P systems in Systems Biology have raised the natural question of bridging this two research areas. The present paper goes in this direction, as it presents a direct simulation of a variant of P systems by means of Brane calculi. In particular, we consider a Brane calculus based on three operations called Mate/Bud/Drip, and we show how to use such system to simulate Simple symport/antiport P systems, a variant of P systems purely based on communication of objects. As an example, a simplified sodium-potassium pump modeled in Simple SA is encoded in Mate/Bud/Drip Brane calculus. PMID:17889992

  16. The Comparison of Ultrasonography and Non Enhanced Helical Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Ureteral Calculi

    İlhan Kılınç

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous urography, ultrasonography, and non-contrast spiral computed tomography have been used to diagnose ureteral calculi. We aimed to compare the accuracy of non-contrast spiral computed tomography with ultrasonography in the evaluation of patients with renal colic.Fourty-one patients with flank pain were examined with both computed tomography and ultrasonography over a period of 11 months. Findings of ultrasonography and computed tomography of 28 patients in whom üreteral stones were confirmed by standart methods were comparedUreteral calculi were diagnosed in 28 of 41 patients. Ureteral stones could be demonstrated in 18 patients by ultrasonography and in 27 patients by computed tomography. Ultrasonography showed 64.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity in the diagnosis of ureterolithiasis; computed tomography showed 96.4% and 100%, respectively. Spiral computed tomography is superior to ultrasonography in the demonstration of ureteral calculi in patients with renal colic. But because of higher cost and higher radiation dose, it should be reserved for symptomatic cases in whom ultrasonography is non-diagnostic.

  17. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi, experience of first 100 cases at Jinnah Hospital, Lahore

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), where available, has become the preferred treatment modality for majority of renal calculi. Nevertheless because of low morbidity and strong patient endorsement there is a natural tendency of over using it. We report the experience of first 100 patients of renal calculi treated at Lithotripsy Center, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore between November 1993 and October 1995.. All patients were treated on an out patients basis. In this prospective study patients were divided into three groups depending upon the initial stone size (Group 1 2.1 to 3 cm). Twenty-eight patients were lost to follow-up. Analysis of data revealed a success rate of 89.5%, 65.8% and 33.3% in Group-I, II and III respectively at the end of 3 months follow-up. Morbidity was directly procedures to stone burden, while success was inversely related to stone burden. Complications requiring auxiliary procedures were seen in none of the patients of Group-I while in 17.1% and 25% of the patients of Group-II and III respectively. Failure of the procedure demanding for an open intervention was seen in none of the patients of Group II and III respectively. We concluded that selection of patients is key to successful management of the renal calculi with ESWL. (author)

  18. Auditing urinary catheter care.

    Dailly, Sue

    Urinary catheters are the main cause of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections among inpatients. Healthcare staff can reduce the risk of patients developing an infection by ensuring they give evidence-based care and by removing the catheter as soon as it is no longer necessary. An audit conducted in a Hampshire hospital demonstrated there was poor documented evidence that best practice was being carried out. Therefore a urinary catheter assessment and monitoring tool was designed to promote best practice and produce clear evidence that care had been provided. PMID:22375340

  19. Origin of Urinary Oxalate

    Holmes, Ross P.; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2007-04-01

    Urinary oxalate is mostly derived from the absorption of ingested oxalate and endogenous synthesis. The breakdown of vitamin C may also contribute small amounts to the urinary oxalate pool. The amount of oxalate absorbed is influenced by the oxalate content of the diet, the concentrations of divalent cations in the gut, the presence of oxalate-degrading organisms, transport characteristics of the intestinal epithelium, and other factors associated with the intestinal environment. Knowledge of pathways associated with endogenous oxalate synthesis is limited. Urinary oxalate excretion can be modified using strategies that limit dietary oxalate absorption and the ingestion of oxalogenic substrates such as hydroxyproline.

  20. Is continent urinary diversion feasible in children under five years of age?

    Luiz L. Barbosa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review our clinical experience with urinary continent catheterizable reservoir in children under five years of age. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 patients (16 males, 7 females with a median age of 3.64 years were evaluated. Among these, 6 (26.08% had a posterior urethral valve, 9 (39.13% myelomeningocele, 4 (17.39% bladder exstrophy, 2 (8.69% genitourinary rabdomyosarcoma, 1 (4.34% had spinal tumor and 1 (4.34% an ano-rectal anomaly. Results: Perioperative complications were observed in four patients consisting of one febrile urinary tract infection, one partial operative wound dehiscence, one partial stomal dehiscence and one vesico-cutaneous fistula after a secondary exstrophy repair. The overall long-term complications rate was 40.90% and consisted of two stomal stenoses (9.09%, one neobladder mucosal extrusion (4.54%, three neobladder calculi (13.63% and persistence of urinary incontinence in three patients (13.63%. The overall surgical revision was 36.36% and final continence rate was 95.45% with mean follow-up of 39.95 months Conclusion: Continent urinary diversion is technically feasible even in small children, with acceptable rates of complications.

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a UTI. That's because their urethras are much shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get ...

  2. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and ...

  3. Reoperation for urinary incontinence

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The synthetic midurethral slings were introduced in the 1990s and were rapidly replaced the Burch colposuspension as the gold standard treatment for urinary incontinence. It has been reported that the retropubic midurethral tape has an objective and subjective cure rate of 85% at 5...... years of follow-up, but the rate of reoperation after retropubic midurethral tape at the long-term follow-up is less well described. The existing literature specifies an overall lifetime rate of reoperation of about 8-9% after an initial operation for urinary incontinence. There are, however......, conflicting statements about the risk of reoperation after specific surgical procedures for urinary incontinence. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the cumulative incidence of reoperation within a 5 year period after different types of surgical procedures for urinary incontinence based...

  4. Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension

    ... or in your abdomen above your pubic bone (suprapubic catheter). The catheter is used to drain urine from ... Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter care Urinary catheters - what to ask your doctor ...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ... Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

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  8. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Full Text Available ... Problems of Grown Ups People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Q&A Movies & More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary ... ll never want to have one again! To help keep those bacteria out of your urinary tract, ...

  10. RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF TAMSULOSIN AND SILODOSIN IN MEDICAL EXPULSIVE THERAPY FOR DISTAL THIRD URETERIC CALCULI

    Rajanna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Urolithiasis is a common condition that affects approximately 5% to 10% of the population and the incidence of Urolithiasis is rising. Ureteric stones account for 20% of urinary tract stones and about 70% of them are found in the lower third of the ureter at presentation. Recent literatures show the efficacy of various drugs and minimally invasive procedures for the management of lower third ureteral stones. We performed a randomized, prospective study to assess and compare the efficacy of tamsulosin and silodosin as medical expulsive therapy for lower third ureteral stones. SETTING AND DURATION: Department of Surgery, Hassan Institute of Medical Sciences/ Teaching Hospital, Hassan. from August 2013 to August 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prospective data of 60 symptomatic patients with unilateral, lower third ureteral calculi of less than ≤10 mm were randomly allocated for out- patient treatment with tamsulosin and silodosin groups Patients aged ≥ 18 years with a single, unilateral, symptomatic, radio-opaque ureteric stone of 10 mm or smaller in the largest dimension located between the lower border of the sacroiliac joint and vesico-ureteric junction were included. For Group I tamsulosin a daily single dose of 0.4 mg for 28days and for Group II a daily single dose of silodosin 8mg was given. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were used on demand for both the groups. All the patients were told to observe passage of stone by filtering urine stream. The primary end point was the expulsion of the stone and the secondary end points were expulsion time, analgesic use, socioeconomic status, need for hospitalization, endoscopic treatment and drug side effects were documented. RESULTS: The stone expulsion rates in patients treated with tamsulosin and silodosin were 83.3% and 86.6% respectively. Mean stone expulsion times in tamsulosin group and silodosin group were 6.8 and 6.2 days respectively. Mean number of pain episodes were

  11. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted ...

  12. Acute Urinary Tract Obstruction

    Aleksic Djordje

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys are paired organs with the primary function of helping to remove toxins from the body and regulate water balance. They are vital to survival. After urine is produced in the kidneys, it must pass into the bladder, where it can be stored before being eliminated from the body through the urethra. Urinary tract obstruction is a common problem encountered by urologists, primary care physicians, and emergency medicine physicians. Urine can become obstructed at any point in this pathway. There are three groups of urinary tract obstructions: 1 obstruction of the urinary tract lumen; 2 obstruction of the urinary tract wall; and 3 extrinsic obstruction, which can press on the urinary tract lumen. An obstruction can be present from birth or develop later in life. The most common causes of obstruction include stones, strictures, tumours, and bladder dysfunction. These obstructions may result in the hydronephrosis of one or both kidneys, which, if left untreated, may lead to the deterioration of renal function. The goal of an initial treatment of urinary tract obstruction is to remove the obstruction. Later, we treat the cause that led to the obstruction. The bottom line is that all efforts should be made to preserve kidney function to avoid the need for dialysis or renal transplantation.

  13. [Urinary tract infections].

    Hörl, W H

    2011-09-01

    Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended. PMID:21850538

  14. Magnetic resonance urography: application in urinary tract obstruction

    To compare magnetic resonance urography (MRU) and conventional intravenous urography (IVU) in the assessment of the upper urinary tract in patients with obstructive uropathy. Twenty-three patients suspected of having urinary tract obstruction were examined by IVU and MRU, MRU imaging was performed with a 1.0 Tesla multicoil unit. The images were obtained with two MR sequences: a) half-Fourier single shot turbo spin echo (HASTE), and b) highly T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) based on fast acquisition with the relaxation and enhancement (RARE) method. The images were examined independently by four radiologists. Two radiologists reviewed the IVU images by consensus and two reviewed the MRU images by consensus. The incidencences of dilatation and of stricture were calculated and the McNemar test was used to compare the two techniques. The mean duration of MRU was 11 minutes (range: 7 to 25 minutes), while the mean duration of IVU was 363 minutes (range: 45 to 2,160 minutes). IVU took more than 150 minutes to complete in over 50% of the patients. Twenty.one patients presented dilatation of the pyelocaliceal system. MRU disclosed the urinary tract dilatation in all 21 cases, while IVU detected it in 15 (65%: p=0.03). The causes of obstruction were neoplasm (n=9), calculi (n=6) and extrinsic stricture (n=6). MRU is much more reliable and rapid in the detection of dilatation and the site of obstruction in patients with obstructive uropathy, and could be used as an alternative to IVU in certain cases. (Author) 13 refs

  15. The increased risk of urinary stone disease in betel quid chewers.

    Allen, Siân E; Singh, Sadmeet; Robertson, William G

    2006-08-01

    The chewing of betel quid is a common practice in many countries of the world, particularly in Southeast Asia. The quid consists of a preparation of areca nut, betel leaf and calcium hydroxide "lime" paste ("chuna"). For the first time, we present a study that links its use to urinary stone disease. Eight patients (seven male and one female) who presented to our Stone Unit with recurrent urinary stones were included in the study. All were from the Indian subcontinent and were found to regularly chew betel. The patients underwent metabolic screening including blood, random urine and 24-h urine tests, quantitative chemical analysis of their calculi (where possible) and each completed a 7-day Diet Diary on his/her free, home diet. The study demonstrated a high incidence of hypercalciuria, a tendency to pass an alkaline urine and low urinary citrate excretion among the patients. Together these urinary risk factors increase the probability of developing both calcium phosphate-containing and calcium oxalate-containing stones. In support of this hypothesis, the patients were found to form stones consisting mainly of calcium phosphate but mixed with calcium oxalate. It is concluded that the use of calcium hydroxide "chuna" in the betel quid is the major contributor to the cause of urinary stones in its users. Moreover, the development of urinary lithiasis in such patients may be a precursor to milk-alkali syndrome in those individuals whose chewing habit is more extensive than in the patients in this study and who do not seek to decrease their habit over the long term. PMID:16534642

  16. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  17. Fasting and urinary stones

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods:Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field  of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results:The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  18. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs

  19. MedlinePlus: Urinary Incontinence

    ... Also in Spanish Stress incontinence Also in Spanish Suprapubic catheter care Also in Spanish Urge incontinence Also in ... catheterization - male Skin care and incontinence Stress incontinence Suprapubic catheter care Urge incontinence Urinary catheters Urinary catheters - what ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Urinary Tract Infections in Children Page Content On this page: What ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)? A UTI is an infection in the ...

  1. Imaging of transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary tracts

    and regional lymph nodes. The current purpose of CT or MR imaging is to detect T3b disease or higher and, especially, locoregional lymph node metastases. Upper tract urothelial neoplasms commonly present as a single or as multiple irregular filling defects on CTU. Focal urinary tract wall thickening is another finding that can suggest the presence of urothelial neoplasm. CTU is accepted as a gold standard for the diagnosis and staging of upper urinary tract TCC by European Association of Urology. The multicentric nature of TCC makes assessment of the entire urothelium essential before treatment. Vigilant urologic and radiologic follow-up is warranted to assess for metachronous lesions and recurrence. The emerging technique of CT urography allows detection of urinary tract tumors and calculi, assessment of perirenal tissues, and staging of lesions; it may offer the opportunity for one-stop evaluation in the initial assessment of hematuria and in follow-up of TCC

  2. Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy with vacuum aspiration in the treatment of catastaghorn renal calculi%负压吸引式微创经皮肾镜取石术治疗鹿角形肾结石

    杨忠圣; 宋乐明; 齐琳; 祖雄兵; 刘泰荣

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨自行设计的负压吸引式微创经皮肾镜取石术治疗鹿角形肾结石临床疗效及其优点.方法 回顾性分析60例采用负压吸引式微创经皮肾镜取石术治疗鹿角形肾结石患者的临床资料.其中单侧55例,双侧5例;结石大小4.0~6.5 cm,平均5.0 cm;有肾脏手术史患者6例;合并尿路感染23例;肾功能不全8例.采用B超引导穿刺建立通道,应用自行设计的经皮肾微造瘘吸引碎石清石鞘(已获国家专利),接负压吸引,肾镜下应用钬激光或者气压弹道碎石.对手术时间、手术并发症及清石率等进行分析.结果 60例患者均一期成功穿刺建立经皮肾通道,2例因为建立通道时有明显出血,行二期取石.手术时间120~260 min,平均180min.术中出血50~300mL,平均100mL,均未输血;术后3例继发出血,输血200~800mL,1例患者行肾动脉分支介入栓塞治疗.52例患者一次取净结石;5例患者再次手术取石,4例取净;3例患者(2例为第1次术后,1例为第2次术后)术后配合体外冲击波碎石(ESWL)治疗,1例排净;3例患者有残石.5例患者术后出现发热.所有患者中没有出现腹腔脏器损伤、气胸、休克等严重并发症.结论 负压吸引式微创经皮肾镜取石术具有创伤小、手术时间短、结石清除率高及并发症少等优点,是治疗鹿角形结石的一种重要选择.%[Objective] To evaluate the clinical effects and advantages of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy with vacuum aspiration (VMPCNL) in the treatment of cata-staghorn renal calculi. [Methods] The clinical data of 60 cases (43 males and 17 females) treated by VMPCNL were retrospectively analyzed. There were mono-renal calculi in 55 patients, while the other 5 combined opposite side renal calculi. The diameter of calculi ranged from 4.0 to 6.5 (mean =5.0) cm. There were 6 patients with a history of renal surgery, 23 patients with combined urinary tract infection, and

  3. Urinary albumin in space missions

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina;

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's ... near your body, especially when it's hot outside. Bacteria love to grow in warm, moist places. Gross! Reviewed by: T. Ernesto Figueroa, ... Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...

  5. Cases of polycystic kidney associated with right renal calculi and right perirenal abscess diagnosed preoperably by computed tomography

    Computed tomography (CT) was used in 2 patients with polycystic kidney associated with right renal calculi and right perirenal abscess and definitive diagnostic informations were obtained preoperably. Therefore, CT was proved to be very valuable with its diagnostic accuracy and less complications compared with other diagnostic methods in recent urologic fields. (author)

  6. Kidneys and urinary system

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies

  7. Urinary Incontinence in Men

    ... of wastes and extra fluid. In order for normal urination to occur, all parts in the urinary tract need to work together in the correct order. Kidneys. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below ...

  8. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a previous study, urinary orosomucoid excretion rate (UOER) independently predicted cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased UOER is associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as inflammation, im...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  10. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Results: Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidencebased guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. Conclusions: General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. Hypercalciuria: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of

  11. Urinary Tract Infection among Renal Transplant Recipients in Yemen.

    Gondos, Adnan S; Al-Moyed, Khaled A; Al-Robasi, Abdul Baki A; Al-Shamahy, Hassan A; Alyousefi, Naelah A

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common complication following kidney transplantation (KT), which could result in losing the graft. This study aims to identify the prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen and to determine the predisposing factors associated with post renal transplantation UTI. A cross sectional study included of 150 patients, who underwent KT was conducted between June 2010 and January 2011. A Morning mid-stream urine specimen was collected for culture and antibiotic susceptibility test from each recipient. Bacterial UTI was found in 50 patients (33.3%). The prevalence among females 40.3% was higher than males 29%. The UTI was higher in the age group between 41-50 years with a percentage of 28% and this result was statistically significant. Predisposing factors as diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder and polycystic kidney showed significant association. High relative risks were found for polycystic kidney = 13.5 and neurogenic bladder = 13.5. The most prevalent bacteria to cause UTI was Escherichia coli represent 44%, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus 34%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic against gram-negative isolates while Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In conclusion, there is high prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen. Diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, polycystic kidney and calculi were the main predisposing factors. PMID:26657128

  12. Urinary Tract Infection among Renal Transplant Recipients in Yemen.

    Adnan S Gondos

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common complication following kidney transplantation (KT, which could result in losing the graft. This study aims to identify the prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen and to determine the predisposing factors associated with post renal transplantation UTI. A cross sectional study included of 150 patients, who underwent KT was conducted between June 2010 and January 2011. A Morning mid-stream urine specimen was collected for culture and antibiotic susceptibility test from each recipient. Bacterial UTI was found in 50 patients (33.3%. The prevalence among females 40.3% was higher than males 29%. The UTI was higher in the age group between 41-50 years with a percentage of 28% and this result was statistically significant. Predisposing factors as diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder and polycystic kidney showed significant association. High relative risks were found for polycystic kidney = 13.5 and neurogenic bladder = 13.5. The most prevalent bacteria to cause UTI was Escherichia coli represent 44%, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus 34%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic against gram-negative isolates while Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In conclusion, there is high prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen. Diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, polycystic kidney and calculi were the main predisposing factors.

  13. Urinary Tract Infection among Renal Transplant Recipients in Yemen

    Gondos, Adnan S.; Al-Moyed, Khaled A.; Al-Robasi, Abdul Baki A.; Al-Shamahy, Hassan A.; Alyousefi, Naelah A.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common complication following kidney transplantation (KT), which could result in losing the graft. This study aims to identify the prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen and to determine the predisposing factors associated with post renal transplantation UTI. A cross sectional study included of 150 patients, who underwent KT was conducted between June 2010 and January 2011. A Morning mid-stream urine specimen was collected for culture and antibiotic susceptibility test from each recipient. Bacterial UTI was found in 50 patients (33.3%). The prevalence among females 40.3% was higher than males 29%. The UTI was higher in the age group between 41–50 years with a percentage of 28% and this result was statistically significant. Predisposing factors as diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder and polycystic kidney showed significant association. High relative risks were found for polycystic kidney = 13.5 and neurogenic bladder = 13.5. The most prevalent bacteria to cause UTI was Escherichia coli represent 44%, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus 34%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic against gram-negative isolates while Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In conclusion, there is high prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen. Diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, polycystic kidney and calculi were the main predisposing factors. PMID:26657128

  14. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  15. Upper and midureteral calculi: Percutaneous extraction with an occlusion balloon catheter

    Beckmann, C.F.; Roth, R.A.; Luedke, M.D.

    1986-06-01

    In 44 patients with one or more calculi in the upper two-thirds of the ureter, single-stage percutaneous nephrolithotomy was performed through a middle or upper calyceal nephrostomy after cystoscopic placement of an occlusion balloon catheter distal to the calculus; in 42, the procedure was successful. The occlusion balloon catheter permitted retrograde opacification of all systems for enhanced renal puncture. In the last 30 patients an attempt was made either to push the calculus upward mechanically or to flush it upward into the renal pelvis with carbon dioxide or dilute contrast material. This was successful in 24 of these patients. Prior overnight occlusion of the ureter by means of ureteral dilatation further facilitates dislodgement of the calculus, which was successful in 12 of 13 patients.

  16. Urinary Incontinence in Elderly

    N. S. Neki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Incontinence (UI is dened any involuntary leakage of urine. It is twice as common in women as in men and affects at least 1 in 3 older women. It is not a normal result of aging. Rather it is a medical problem that is often curable and should be treated. Urine is stored in the bladder and emptied via the urethra. During urination, muscles of the bladder wall contract, forcing urine from the bladder into the urethra. Sphincter muscles surrounding the urethra relax thus releasing urine from the body. Incontinence occurs if bladder muscles suddenly contract or sphincter muscles are not strong enough to contain urine. The diagnosis of geriatric urinary incontinence includes evaluation for overow incontinence, functional incontinence and stress incontinence. The treatment goal should be realistic and aim to improve the patient's functional status and quality of life. Best treatment outcomes can only be achieved by a holistic treatment approach.

  17. Imaging protocol for suspected ureteric calculi in patients presenting to the emergency department

    Aim: To ensure diagnostic yields were adequate in patients with suspected ureteric calculi with and without haematuria, and to assess whether there was a significant difference between these two groups in men and women. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of 513 patient records who attended the Emergency Department with suspected ureteric colic over 8 months. Results: 513 patient records were evaluated. The overall positive rate for calculi was 45.4%, with an alternative diagnosis in 14.4%. Of the patients scanned with haematuria 49.36% were positive. The positive scan rate in males was significantly higher than in females (56% v. 31%, p < 0.0001). 32.79% of patients scanned without haematuria had a proven calculus. The positive rate in males without haematuria was 40.39% versus 27.14% in females. Conclusion: The overall diagnostic yield of 45.4% is acceptable according to national guidelines. A large number of patients scanned without haematuria were found to have a calculus. This review suggests that in males a negative urine dipstick should not preclude CT investigation for renal colic in the presence of a “classical” history. However, the number of female patients with negative scans suggests that further randomized studies are needed to identify the ideal investigation pathway in women. - Highlights: • Review CTKUB diagnostic yields in patients presenting to the ED with loin pain. • We examine gender differences and whether haematuria is obligatory for CT investigation. • The positive scan rate in males was significantly higher than in females. • The positive rate in males without haematuria was 40.4%. • Diagnostic yields in females were low with or without haematuria

  18. Changes in DMSA scan after PCNL procedure in children with renal calculi

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is an established technique for the management of renal calculi. However there is limited data on the effects of PCNL on the renal parenchyma especially in the paediatric population. This study was aimed to determine the effects of PCNL on the renal parenchyma in children with renal calculi using DMSA scan. Medical records of 37 patients who had undergone PCNL over a five-year period from 1999 to 2003 were reviewed. Details of imaging were not available in 11 patients and these were excluded from the study; only patients who had both preoperative and post operative DMSA scans or a normal postoperative DMSA scan were included. 26 patients (26 renal units) were therefore available for the review. The age of the patients ranged from 1 year to 12.5 years (median, 3.75 years) at the time of PCNL. DMSA scans was done from 1 day to 47 months (median, 2 months) before the PCNL and 2 months to 27 months (median, 3.5 months) after the procedure. Two independent observers interpreted the scans and any discrepancy was reviewed and the Conclusion was reached with mutual agreement. Regions of interest around each kidney were drawn to determine the percent uptake of DMSA. 20 patients (76.9%) showed no change or improvement in post-procedure scans. The uptake of DMSA was 43.63±10.11% (mean±SD) before and 42.79±11.80% after the PCNL procedure. This change did not reach the statistically significant level (p=0.334). Hence DMSA scans showed that PCNL procedure does not produce significant changes in the renal parenchyma in more than three quarters of the patients who undergo this procedure. (authors)

  19. A novel ureter dilatation method for replacing hydromantic perfusion pump during ureteroscopic lithotripsy in patients with ureteral calculi and ibroepithelial polyps

    Li, Tengcheng; Fang, Youqiang; Wu, Jieying; Zhou, Xiangfu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical value of a novel ureter dilatation method during ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy in patients with ureteral calculi and polyps. Clinical information of 86 patients with ureter calculi and polyps who underwent ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy was reviewed. A cavity-distention machine was used in 44 cases to inject normal saline for keeping clear operation view (cavity-distention machine-assisted group). A high handled water bag with artificial wa...

  20. Zdravljenje s tamsulozinom pri kamnih v spodnji tretjini sečevoda: Treatment with tamsulosin in patients with distal ureteral calculi:

    Bizjak, Igor; Erklavec, Marko; Jagodič, Klemen; Korošec, Helena; Poteko, Sandi

    2008-01-01

    Background Symptomatic ureteral calculi are one of the most important issues in urologist emergency clinical settings. Spontaneous passage of distal ureteral calculi is usually achieved with good hydration and spasmoanalgetic drugs. á-blocker therapy may facilitate and accelerate the spontaneous passageof ureteral stones.Patients and In retrospective study we analyzed patients with renal colic admitted to our department in methods 2006. All of them had clinical examination, urine and blood an...

  1. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. PMID:26177232

  2. The Evaluation of Ureteroscopy and Pneumatic Lithotripsy Results in Pregnant Women With Urethral Calculi

    Keshvari Shirvan, Maliheh; Darabi Mahboub, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Seyedi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary stone incidence in pregnancy has been reported in a wide range, from 1 in 200 to 1 in 2000 cases. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of ureteroscopic treatment and its results and complications for pregnant women with urinary stones. Patients and Methods From 2003 till 2011, 113 pregnant patients with symptomatic urolithiasis were admitted to the urology emergency clinic at Imam Reza hospital. All patients were initially treated cons...

  3. 不同类型尿石的XRD,FTIR和热释光谱分析%XRD, FTIR and Thermoluminescence Spectra of Different Types of Urinary Stones

    杨锦; 何节玉; 欧阳健明

    2011-01-01

    Using thermoluminescence spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the chemical compositions of four types of kidney stones were investigated. They are calcium oxalate, uric acid, calcium phosphate and magnesium ammonium phosphate calculi(struvite). Experimental results showed that in the 305 cases of stones, calculi oxalate stones were found to account for 63%, uric acid stones 22%, calcium phosphate stones 8%, struvite 5%, and the stones with other compositions 2%. There were significant differences in the thermoluminescence spectra among the 4 types of urinary stones, which can provide an important basis for the clinic diagnosis of urinary stone types.%采用热释光谱仪(TLD)、X射线衍射仪(XRD)和红外光谱仪(FTIR)研究了四类不同类型肾结石的化学组分,它们分别是:草酸钙、尿酸、磷酸钙和磷酸铵镁结石.实验结果表明,在所研究的305例尿石中,草酸钙为主要组分的占63%,尿酸22%,磷酸钙8%,磷酸铵镁5%,其他组分2%.四类肾结石的热释光谱存在显著差异,可为临床上诊断肾结石的类型提供启示.

  4. [Urinary complications after anorectal surgery].

    Iusuf, T; Sârbu, V; Cristache, C; Popescu, R; Botea, F; Panait, L

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of urinary complications after various anorectal operations was studied in a group of 273 patients. The overall prevalence of urinary complications was 26.7%; most of these complications affected men between 41 and 50, mainly after hemorrhoidectomy. In 10.6% of patients, bladder catheterization was needed. These urinary complications result from nervous reflexes originating from the anus and determined by the operative trauma and/or rectal distinction. In the treatment of these urinary complications, the role of the muses is essential for reassuring the patients. Parasympathomimetic drugs are often efficient. Urinary catheterization must be delayed until the 18th hour. Fluid restriction may be useful to prevent urinary retention. PMID:14870531

  5. Diagnosis of urinary tract diseases

    Radiological exploration of the urinary tract has become highly sophisticated. The information provided by the new imaging techniques is extremely accurate and useful in the diagnosis and pretherapeutic assessment of most urinary tract diseases. Interventional radiology has given radiologists an important role in the treatment of some types of pathology. The authors describe the value of modern imaging and its different aspects in each of the principal branches of urinary tract pathology. viz.: tumours, obstructions, infections, vascular and prostatic diseases

  6. PA01.11. A retrospective case study of ayurvedic treatment of ashmaräª (renal calculi)

    Jangid, Chhagan; ,

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Now a day's occurrence & recurrence of Ashmara (Renal Calculus) are very common & its rate of incidence is alarmingly increasing. Some acute cases require immediate attention to relieve from severe pain. Even surgery is recommended if a calculus is larger in size because it can cause many complications. Conservative line of treatment is recommended if calculi are small in size, non obstructive, post operative and in the cases of recurrence. For the conservative treatment of Renal Cal...

  7. Urinary extracellular microvesicles: isolation methods and prospects for urinary proteome.

    Wang, Danqi; Sun, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Extracellular microvesicles (EVs) are membranous vesicles, which are released from diverse cells. These EVs have also been found in a wide range of body fluids. The cargo of EVs, including proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids, can be stably preserved in EVs. Researchers have found that EVs can mediate intercellular communication by shuttling the cargo components. Therefore, EVs can be used for the identification of disease-specific biomarkers. As one class of EVs, urinary exosomes can reflect the status of the renal system. Moreover, urinary exosome analysis can minimize the interference of high abundant proteins in the whole urine sample. Therefore, urinary exosomes have gained much attention in recent years. In this review, we present a comprehensive summary of urinary exosome studies in recent years, including collection, storage, and isolation methods. The normal and disease proteomic analyses of urinary exosomes are also presented. Thus, this review may provide a valuable reference for future research. PMID:24962155

  8. [Urinary antimicrobial prophylaxis].

    Nathanson, S; Deschênes, G

    2002-05-01

    Antibiotics are usually used to prevent childhood recurrent urinary tract infections: cystitis or pyelonephritis. The mechanism of action of these antibiotics, although imperfectly known, seems to be double: the antibiotic acts by its bactericidal effect, but also probably for minimal concentrations by reducing adhesion capability of bacteria to the urothelium. The most commonly used molecules are cotrimoxazole, trimethoprime, pivmecillinam, cefaclor and nalidixic acid. However all have not been studied rigorously as for their prophylactic capacity, and in particular very little is known for patients presenting with vesico-ureteral reflux. PMID:12053547

  9. Influence of ultrasonic adsorption lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope on inflammation mediators and stress hormones of patients with infectious renal calculi

    Dong Lu; Xiao-Lei Jiang; Ming-Hui Wu; Yun-Jun Wu; Qiang Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence of ultrasonic adsorption lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope on inflammation mediators and stress hormones of the patients with infectious renal calculi. Methods:A total of 62 patients with infectious renal calculi in our hospital from January 2014 to June 2015 were selected as the study object,and they were randomly divided into control group(pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope group) 31 cases and observation group(ultrasonic adsorption lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope group) 31 cases,then the serum expression levels of inflammation mediators and stress hormones of two groups before the treatment and at 12 h-24 h and 48 h after the treatment were compared. Results:The serum expression levels of inflammation mediators and stress hormones of two groups before the treatment were compared,all P>0.05,and the serum expression levels of observation group at 12 h-24 h and 48 h after the treatment were significantly lower than those of control group,while the expression levels of two groups after the treatment were all significantly higher than those before the treatment,all P<0.05. Conclusions:The inflammation mediators and stress hormones of patients with infectious renal calculi who are treated with pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope are relatively lower,and it shows that the trauma and bad stress for the body are better controlled, so its clinical application value are relatively higher.

  10. Symptomatic small non-obstructing lower ureteric calculi: comparison of ureteroscopy and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Andankar M

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the success, efficacy and complications of ureteroscopy (URS and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL for the treatment of symptomatic small non obstructing lower ureteric calculi. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective non-randomised study was conducted simultaneously at two urological referral centres, included 280 patients with symptomatic small (4-10 mm lower ureteric calculi (situated below the sacroiliac joint, with good renal function on intravenous urography. Patients were offered both the treatment options. One hundred and sixty patients chose ureteroscopy, whereas 120 patients were treated by ESWL. Standard techniques of ureteroscopy and ESWL were employed. Patients were followed-up to assess the success rates and complications of the two procedures. RESULTS: Ureteroscopy achieved complete stone clearance in one session in 95% of patients. In six patients ureteroscopy had failed initially and was later accomplished in second session improving the success rate to 98.7%. Two patients had a proximal migration of calculus that needed ESWL. Of the 120 patients treated by ESWL, 90% achieved stone free status at three months. Ureteroscopy was needed for twelve patients (10% where ESWL failed to achieve stone clearance. There were no significant ESWL related complications. ESWL was administered on outpatient basis, while patients needed hospitalisation and anaesthesia for ureteroscopy. CONCLUSION: ESWL can be the primary mode of treatment for symptomatic small non-obstructing lower ureteric calculi as it is minimally invasive and safe. Ureteroscopy can be offered to patients who demand immediate relief or when ESWL fails.

  11. Urolithiasis, Urinary Cancer, and Home Drinking Water Source in the United States Territory of Guam, 2006–2010

    Robert L. Haddock

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed patient records with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis—also known as urinary tract or kidney stone disease, nephrolithiasis—upon discharge from Guam’s sole civilian hospital during 2006 to 2010 and urinary cancer mortality records from the Guam Cancer Registry for 1970 to 2009 to determine the source of municipal water supplied to the patients’ residence. The objective was to investigate a possible relationship between the sources of municipal water supplied to Guam villages and the incidence of urolithiasis and urinary cancer. We analyzed hospital discharge diagnoses of urolithiasis or renal calculi by calculating the incidence of first-mentioned discharge for urolithiasis or renal calculi and comparing rates across demographic or geographic categories while adjusting by age, sex, and ethnicity/race. We reviewed cancer registry records of urinary cancer deaths by patient residence. The annual incidence of hospitalization for urolithiasis was 5.22 per 10,000. Rates adjusted for sex or age exhibited almost no change. The rate of 9.83 per 10,000 among Chamorros was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than the rates among any other ethnic group or race. When villages were grouped by water source, rates of patients discharged with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis, adjusted for ethnicity/race, were similar for villages using either well water (5.44 per 10,000 or mixed source water (5.39 per 10,000, and significantly greater than the rate for villages using exclusively reservoir water (1.35 per 10,000. No statistically significant differences were found between the water source or village of residence and urinary cancer mortality. Some Guam residents living in villages served completely or partly by deep well water high in calcium carbonate may be at increased risk for urolithiasis compared with residents living in villages served by surface waters. Although the risk appears to be highest in villagers of Chamorro

  12. Urolithiasis, Urinary Cancer, and Home Drinking Water Source in the United States Territory of Guam, 2006–2010

    Haddock, Robert L.; Olson, David R.; Backer, Lorraine; Malilay, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed patient records with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis—also known as urinary tract or kidney stone disease, nephrolithiasis—upon discharge from Guam’s sole civilian hospital during 2006 to 2010 and urinary cancer mortality records from the Guam Cancer Registry for 1970 to 2009 to determine the source of municipal water supplied to the patients’ residence. The objective was to investigate a possible relationship between the sources of municipal water supplied to Guam villages and the incidence of urolithiasis and urinary cancer. We analyzed hospital discharge diagnoses of urolithiasis or renal calculi by calculating the incidence of first-mentioned discharge for urolithiasis or renal calculi and comparing rates across demographic or geographic categories while adjusting by age, sex, and ethnicity/race. We reviewed cancer registry records of urinary cancer deaths by patient residence. The annual incidence of hospitalization for urolithiasis was 5.22 per 10,000. Rates adjusted for sex or age exhibited almost no change. The rate of 9.83 per 10,000 among Chamorros was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the rates among any other ethnic group or race. When villages were grouped by water source, rates of patients discharged with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis, adjusted for ethnicity/race, were similar for villages using either well water (5.44 per 10,000) or mixed source water (5.39 per 10,000), and significantly greater than the rate for villages using exclusively reservoir water (1.35 per 10,000). No statistically significant differences were found between the water source or village of residence and urinary cancer mortality. Some Guam residents living in villages served completely or partly by deep well water high in calcium carbonate may be at increased risk for urolithiasis compared with residents living in villages served by surface waters. Although the risk appears to be highest in villagers of Chamorro ethnicity, residents

  13. Urolithiasis, Urinary Cancer, and Home Drinking Water Source in the United States Territory of Guam, 2006-2010.

    Haddock, Robert L; Olson, David R; Backer, Lorraine; Malilay, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed patient records with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis-also known as urinary tract or kidney stone disease, nephrolithiasis-upon discharge from Guam's sole civilian hospital during 2006 to 2010 and urinary cancer mortality records from the Guam Cancer Registry for 1970 to 2009 to determine the source of municipal water supplied to the patients' residence. The objective was to investigate a possible relationship between the sources of municipal water supplied to Guam villages and the incidence of urolithiasis and urinary cancer. We analyzed hospital discharge diagnoses of urolithiasis or renal calculi by calculating the incidence of first-mentioned discharge for urolithiasis or renal calculi and comparing rates across demographic or geographic categories while adjusting by age, sex, and ethnicity/race. We reviewed cancer registry records of urinary cancer deaths by patient residence. The annual incidence of hospitalization for urolithiasis was 5.22 per 10,000. Rates adjusted for sex or age exhibited almost no change. The rate of 9.83 per 10,000 among Chamorros was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the rates among any other ethnic group or race. When villages were grouped by water source, rates of patients discharged with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis, adjusted for ethnicity/race, were similar for villages using either well water (5.44 per 10,000) or mixed source water (5.39 per 10,000), and significantly greater than the rate for villages using exclusively reservoir water (1.35 per 10,000). No statistically significant differences were found between the water source or village of residence and urinary cancer mortality. Some Guam residents living in villages served completely or partly by deep well water high in calcium carbonate may be at increased risk for urolithiasis compared with residents living in villages served by surface waters. Although the risk appears to be highest in villagers of Chamorro ethnicity, residents should be

  14. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine;

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and...... renal tubule and then discuss why not all gene defects that cause renal tubular acidosis are associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis....

  15. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  16. Urinary stone size estimation: a new segmentation algorithm-based CT method

    Liden, Mats; Geijer, Haakan [Oerebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Oerebro (Sweden); Oerebro University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oerebro (Sweden); Andersson, Torbjoern [Oerebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Oerebro (Sweden); Broxvall, Mathias [Oerebro University, Centre for Modelling and Simulation, Oerebro (Sweden); Thunberg, Per [Oerebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Oerebro (Sweden); Oerebro University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Oerebro (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    The size estimation in CT images of an obstructing ureteral calculus is important for the clinical management of a patient presenting with renal colic. The objective of the present study was to develop a reader independent urinary calculus segmentation algorithm using well-known digital image processing steps and to validate the method against size estimations by several readers. Fifty clinical CT examinations demonstrating urinary calculi were included. Each calculus was measured independently by 11 readers. The mean value of their size estimations was used as validation data for each calculus. The segmentation algorithm consisted of interpolated zoom, binary thresholding and morphological operations. Ten examinations were used for algorithm optimisation and 40 for validation. Based on the optimisation results three segmentation method candidates were identified. Between the primary segmentation algorithm using cubic spline interpolation and the mean estimation by 11 readers, the bias was 0.0 mm, the standard deviation of the difference 0.26 mm and the Bland-Altman limits of agreement 0.0{+-}0.5 mm. The validation showed good agreement between the suggested algorithm and the mean estimation by a large number of readers. The limit of agreement was narrower than the inter-reader limit of agreement previously reported for the same data. (orig.)

  17. Clinical application of Patlak plot CT-GFR in animals with upper urinary tract disease.

    Alexander, Kate; Dunn, Marilyn; Carmel, Eric Norman; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Del Castillo, Jérôme R E

    2010-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), an important parameter of renal function, is difficult to assess clinically. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen measurements lack sensitivity, whereas radionuclide determination of GFR is not always available and requires postinjection patient isolation. GFR can be determined using computed tomography (CT), most commonly via Patlak plot analysis. Four adult cats, two adult dogs, and a foal underwent abdominal CT under general anesthesia for various diseases of the upper urinary tract. CT-GFR was measured with a single-slice dynamic acquisition and Patlak plot analysis. In five animals, the total CT-GFR appeared to be below normal, corresponding with mild (two animals) and moderate (two animals) increases of serum creatinine in four. In the two animals with normal or increased CT-GFR, serum creatinine was within the reference values. A significant negative logarithmic relationship was found between CT-GFR and serum creatinine values (P = 0.008; r2 = 0.75). No complications occurred during or following CT-GFR. CT examination provided clinically relevant information in 3/5 patients with possible ureteral obstruction and in 3/3 patients with suspected ureteral calculi. Single-slice dynamic CT-GFR was practical and provided clinically useful information in this small series of patients undergoing CT of the upper urinary tract. There was a significant relationship between CT-GFR and serum creatinine values, which supports the clinical potential of CT-GFR and justifies further investigation of this technique. PMID:20806874

  18. Management of symptomatic ureteral calculi during pregnancy: Experience of 23 cases

    Mohammad S Abdel-Kader

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present our experience in the management of symptomatic ureteral calculi during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three pregnant women, aged between 19 and 28 years presented to the obstetric and urology departments with renal colic (17 cases, 73.9% and fever and renal pain (6 cases, 26.1%; suggesting ureteric stones. The diagnosis was established by ultrasonography (abdominal and transvaginal. Outpatient follow-up consisted of clinical assessment and abdominal ultrasonography. Follow-up by X-ray of the kidneys, ureter, and bladder (KUB, or intravenous urography (IVU was done in the postpartum period. Results: Double J (DJ stent was inserted in six women (26% with persistent fever followed by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL one month post-partum. Ureteroscopic procedure and pneumatic lithotripsy were performed for 17 women (distal ureteric stone in 10, middle ureter in 5, and upper ureteric stone in 2. Stone-free rate was 100%. No urologic, anesthetic, or obstetric complications were encountered. Conclusions: Ureteroscopy, pneumatic lithotripsy, and DJ insertion could be a definitive and safe option for the treatment of obstructive ureteric stones during pregnancy.

  19. Identification of mineral compositions in some renal calculi by FT Raman and IR spectral analysis

    Tonannavar, J.; Deshpande, Gouri; Yenagi, Jayashree; Patil, Siddanagouda B.; Patil, Nikhil A.; Mulimani, B. G.

    2016-02-01

    We present in this paper accurate and reliable Raman and IR spectral identification of mineral constituents in nine samples of renal calculi (kidney stones) removed from patients suffering from nephrolithiasis. The identified mineral components include Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (COM, whewellite), Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate (COD, weddellite), Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Hexahydrate (MAPH, struvite), Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrate (CHPD, brushite), Pentacalcium Hydroxy Triphosphate (PCHT, hydroxyapatite) and Uric Acid (UA). The identification is based on a satisfactory assignment of all the observed IR and Raman bands (3500-400 cm- 1) to chemical functional groups of mineral components in the samples, aided by spectral analysis of pure materials of COM, MAPH, CHPD and UA. It is found that the eight samples are composed of COM as the common component, the other mineral species as common components are: MAPH in five samples, PCHT in three samples, COD in three samples, UA in three samples and CHPD in two samples. One sample is wholly composed of UA as a single component; this inference is supported by the good agreement between ab initio density functional theoretical spectra and experimental spectral measurements of both sample and pure material. A combined application of Raman and IR techniques has shown that, where the IR is ambiguous, the Raman analysis can differentiate COD from COM and PCHT from MAPH.

  20. Tratamiento no quirúrgico de la litiasis biliar Non-Surgical treatment of biliary calculi

    Felipe Franco

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Se describen diversos procedimientos para el tratamiento no quirúrgico de la colelitiasis: la administración de ácidos billares orales, la litotripsia extracorpórea, la colecistostomía percutánea, la escleroterapia de la vesícula y la litotripsia mecánica; se consignan las indicaciones, ventajas, desventajas y limitaciones de cada uno de ellos.

    Several procedures are described for non-surgical treatment of biliary calculi, namely: oral administration of bile acids, extracorporeal shock-wave lithotrypsy I percutaneous cholecystostomy I gallbladder sclerotherapy

    and mechanicallithotrypsy. lndications, advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each procedure are discussed.

  1. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ultrasound reports. Aborted fetuses and still born babies were collected for autopsy after the consent of parents. These babies were fixed in 10% formalin and autopsy was done after fixing, and anomalies were noted. Results: Total births during study period were 3000. There were 61 babies with congenital anomalies and 6 babies had anomalies of urinary system. Among the urinary system anomalies 1 baby had bilateral renal agenesis, 1 baby had unilateral renal agenesis with anophthalmia (Fraser syndrome, 2 babies had Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCDK and 1 live baby had hydronephrosis due to obstruction at pelvi ureteric junction, and 1 live female baby had polycystic kidneys. Conclusion: Incidence of urinary system anomalies in the present study was 2 per 1000 births. U/S detection of urinary anomalies varies with period of gestation, amniotic fluid volume and visualisation of urinary bladder. Autopsy helps to detect renal agenesis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 743-748

  2. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    ... Top of page What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that involves ... page What is a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI)? A catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) occurs when germs (usually bacteria) ...

  3. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    ... your doctor will have you try bladder retraining, Kegel exercises, medicines, or other options. If you tried ... Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Full Text Available ... your urinary tract, take these steps: Keep clean. Wash your private parts every day when you take ... choices. Those trips to the bathroom can help wash bacteria out of your body and cranberry juice ...

  5. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    ... FIC. To help reduce the chances of recurrence: • Feed small meals on a frequent basis. • Consult with your veterinarian about the best diet for your cat. Many commercial diets are acceptable, but some urinary ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a UTI. That's because their urethras are much shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get ...

  8. Diseases of the urinary system

    Age-dependent anatomo-physiological regularities of development urogenital system of in children are considered. A description of performing examination methods is given: summarized roentgenography, excretary urography, cystography, kidney angiography. Great attention is given to the choice of contrast media, dose calculation, excretion and pharmokinetic mechanism of contrast media. Particular items of roentgenodiagnosis of urinary tract diseases are given: anomalies and acquired diseases of urinary system

  9. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limitat...

  10. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Sharada B. Menasinkai; Mahantappa A. Chiniwar; Saraswathi, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ul...

  11. Urinary conduits in gynecologic oncology

    Over an 11-year period (1971 to 1981), 212 urinary conduit surgeries were performed by the Department of Gynecology at the University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston. The urinary diversions were performed as part of the pelvic exenteration operation in 154 patients, for radiation injury in 48 patients, and for palliation of disease recurrence in ten patients. Ninety-three percent had prior pelvic radiotherapy. Various segments of the gastrointestinal tract were used, including the ileum (102), sigmoid colon (99), transverse colon (four), jejunum (four), and others (three). Fifty percent of abnormal preoperative intravenous pyelograms reverted to normal after urinary diversion. Revision of the stoma was required in 6%. Other complications included infection (18%), renal loss (17%), and urinary leaks and fistulae (3%). The overall perioperative mortality was 7%, decreasing from 11% in the first five years to 3% during the last six years. Ureteral stents were routinely used. When selecting a segment of bowel for a urinary conduit, both tissue quality and mobility are important. Mortality and morbidity of urinary conduit surgery continues to decrease with experience

  12. Quality Assessment of Urinary Stone Analysis: Results of a Multicenter Study of Laboratories in Europe.

    Roswitha Siener

    Full Text Available After stone removal, accurate analysis of urinary stone composition is the most crucial laboratory diagnostic procedure for the treatment and recurrence prevention in the stone-forming patient. The most common techniques for routine analysis of stones are infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of urinary stone analysis of laboratories in Europe. Nine laboratories from eight European countries participated in six quality control surveys for urinary calculi analyses of the Reference Institute for Bioanalytics, Bonn, Germany, between 2010 and 2014. Each participant received the same blinded test samples for stone analysis. A total of 24 samples, comprising pure substances and mixtures of two or three components, were analysed. The evaluation of the quality of the laboratory in the present study was based on the attainment of 75% of the maximum total points, i.e. 99 points. The methods of stone analysis used were infrared spectroscopy (n = 7, chemical analysis (n = 1 and X-ray diffraction (n = 1. In the present study only 56% of the laboratories, four using infrared spectroscopy and one using X-ray diffraction, fulfilled the quality requirements. According to the current standard, chemical analysis is considered to be insufficient for stone analysis, whereas infrared spectroscopy or X-ray diffraction is mandatory. However, the poor results of infrared spectroscopy highlight the importance of equipment, reference spectra and qualification of the staff for an accurate analysis of stone composition. Regular quality control is essential in carrying out routine stone analysis.

  13. Anti-Urolithiatic Effect of Cow Urine Ark on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Calculi

    A.B Shukla

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To investigate the anti-urolithiatic effect of cow urine ark (medicinal distilled cow urine on ethylene glycol (EG induced renal calculi. Materials and Methods 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups. Group I animals served as vehicle control and received distilled water for 28 days. Group II to VI animals received 1% v/v EG in distilled water for 28 days. Group II served as EG control. Group III and IV (preventive groups received cow urine ark orally for 28 days in doses of 1 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg, respectively. Group V and VI (treatment groups received 1 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg cow urine ark orally, respectively from 15th to 28th days. 24-hour urine samples were collected on day 0 and 28. Urine volume and oxalate levels were measured. On day 28, blood was collected for biochemical parameters. Animals were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested, weighed and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals. To calculate the percentage of inhibition of mineralization, simultaneous flow static in-vitro model was used. Results EG significantly increased urine oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea level; kidney weight and CaOx deposits. Provision of cow urine ark resulted in significantly lower levels of urine oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea and CaOx depositions as compared to Group II. (p value < 0.05 It also significantly restored kidney weight. (p value < 0.05 Cow urine ark inhibited 40% and 35% crystallization of CaOx and calcium phosphate, respectively. Conclusion Cow urine ark is effective in prevention and treatment of EG induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats.

  14. Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic activity of Pashanabhedadi Ghrita against experimentally induced renal calculi in rats

    Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Baghel, Madhav Singh; Bhuyan, Chaturbhuja; Ravishankar, B.; Ashok, B.K.; Patil, Panchakshari D.

    2012-01-01

    Population in an industrialized world is afflicted by urinary stone disease. Kidney stones are common in all kinds of urolithiasis. One distinguished formulation mentioned by Sushruta for management of Ashmari (urolithiasis) is Pashanabhedadi Ghrita (PBG), which is in clinical practice since centuries. Validation of drug is the requirement of time through the experimental study. In this study, trial of PBG has been made against ammonium oxalate rich diet and gentamicin injection induced renal...

  15. 结石成分分析护理模式在预防尿路结石复发中的应用%Application of the nursing model based on calculi composition analysis in the prevention of recurrence of lithangiuria

    郑岚鹏; 阮定萍; 孙明; 陈爱文; 王玉新; 张澍; 梁丽英; 石宏燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨结石成分分析护理模式在预防尿路结石复发中的应用效果。方法:将788例上尿路结石患者按随机数字表法分为干预组和对照组各394例,对照组采取常规护理措施,干预组在对照组基础上根据结石分析结果进行健康教育和针对性护理。比较两组患者近、远期结石复发率和患者健康知识依从性。结果:与对照组比较,干预组患者3、6个月近期复发率和1、2年远期复发率均降低,两组比较差异有统计学意义( P <0.05);干预组患者健康知识依从性明显高于对照组( P <0.05)。结论:结石成分分析护理模式可有效降低尿路结石的近、远期复发率,提高患者依从性,使患者更积极地配合结石复发的预防。%Objective:To investigate the effect of the nursing model based on calculi composition analysis in the prevention of recur-rence of lithangiuria. Methods:788 patients with upper urinary tract calculi were randomly divided into the intervention group and the control group(394 cases in each group). The routine nursing measures were taken in the control group and the targeted health education and nursing measures were implemented in the intervention group according to the result of calculi analysis. The recent and forward re-currence rate of the disease and patient compliance of health education were compared between the two groups. Results:Compared with the control group,the recent recurrence rate of 3 and 6 months and the forward recurrence rate of one and 2 years decreased in the inter-vention group and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant(P < 0. 05);the patient compliance of health educa-tion was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control group(P < 0. 05). Conclusion:The nursing model based on calcu-li composition analysis can reduce the recurrence rate of urinary tract stones and improve patient compliance as well.

  16. Palliative urinary conduit diversion in cases of intolerable urinary discomfort

    Fifteen patients with incurable gynecological cancers, all primary radiation treated and all having severe urinary discomfort due to urinary tract injuries were retrospectively examined after urinary conduit diversion. All have been followed-up until termination or until all survivors had lived for 6 months after the operation. Twelve of the 15 were discharged from the hospital, 10 of whom survived the first 6 months. Of those discharged 82% of the cumulated sum of postoperative observations days was spent out of the hospital. At the end of the observation period nine patients had been supplied with a colostomy as well, thus having double stomas. All six patients still alive declared in retrospect that given the choice again, they would still be willing to undergo the operation

  17. the Application of Low dose MDCT Urinary Tract Imaging in Urinary Tract Disease%低剂量多层螺旋CT尿路成像在泌尿系疾病中的应用

    2013-01-01

     Objective To investigate low dose MDCT urinary tract imaging (CTU) to urinary tract disease clinical application value. Methods 36 cases of clinical quasi urinary tract disease patients, the use of furosemide, low dose multilayer spiral CT scan, line multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and surface recombination (CPR) and volume reproduction technology (VR), analysis the cause of the disease. Results 36 patients with urinary tract patients, 2 cases of renal cell carcinoma, pyelonephritis (3 cases), renal abscess 1 cases of ureteral calculi, eighteen cases, urinary congenital malformation in 5 cases, 4 cases of ureteral inflammation, 2 cases of ureteral carcinoma, uterine fibroids in 1, and all cases were confirmed by clinical or surgical pathology.Conclusion MDCT urinary tract imaging can not only clear visual display urinary tract lesion location, size and nature, but also can show around the lesions, help clinical rational treatment.%  目的探讨低剂量多层螺旋CT尿路造影(CTU)对泌尿系疾病的临床应用价值。方法对36例临床拟泌尿系病变患者,使用呋塞米后,低剂量多层螺旋CT扫描后,行多平面重建(MPR)、曲面重组(CPR)及容积再现技术(VR),分析病变的原因。结果36例泌尿系患者中,肾癌2例,肾盂肾炎3例,肾脓肿1例,输尿管结石18例、泌尿系先天畸形5例、输尿管炎症4例、输尿管癌2例、子宫肌瘤1例,所有病例均经临床或手术病理证实。结论多层螺旋CT尿路成像不仅可清楚直观显示泌尿系病变位置、大小和性质,还能显示周围的病变,有助于临床制定合理的治疗方案。

  18. The menopause and urinary incontinence

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, Søren

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to study the possible role of the menopause in adult female urinary incontinence (UI) etiology, using a cross-sectional population study comprising a random sample of adult females and self-reported data based on postal questionnaires. The study group comprised 915 women who...... prevalence in 1987 of episodes of stress and urge urinary incontinence; prevalence of menopause and exposure to childbirth, gynecologic surgery, cystitis and obesity as indicated by body mass index more than 29; prevalence relative risks, as indicated by odds ratio of UI conditional on menopause and other...... prevalence risk indicators. The 1987 period prevalences of stress and urge urinary incontinence were 15.9% and 8.7%, respectively. Forty-one percent had ceased to menstruate. Irrespective of the UI risk indicators mentioned, UI prevalence was significantly raised from 1 year before until 1 year after...

  19. Urinary incontinence - what to ask your doctor

    ... to help with my urinary incontinence? What are Kegel exercises? What can I do when I want ... tape Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Self catheterization - ...

  20. Cranberry Juice for Urinary Tract Infection?

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157466.html Cranberry Juice for Urinary Tract Infection? Specialist says grocery-store ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Contrary to popular belief, cranberry juice does not cure a urinary tract infection, a ...

  1. Evaluation of the efficacy of tamsulosin with or without deflazacort for stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for upper ureteral and renal calculi

    Rajeev T. P.

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Addition of alpha-blocker tamsulosin along with deflazacort post ESWL for renal and upper ureteric calculi increases the stone expulsion rate and reduces the expulsion duration as shown by highly statistically significant results in group C. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(2.000: 643-648

  2. Radiology of continent urinary diversions

    Continent urinary diversions are gaining wide acceptance as alternatives to the ideal conduit following cystectomy. Clean intermittent catheterization of the pouch at regular intervals obviates the inconvenience of an external stomal appliance. A variety of surgical techniques have been described for continent pouches. These use the small bowel alone or a combination of the cecum and the terminal ileum. The optimum pouch protects upper tracts by preventing reflux, provides urinary continence, and has sufficient capacity to require infrequent catheterization. Simplified construction techniques for the common pouches are graphically presented, and methods are suggested for identification and study of continent diversions

  3. Urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick in acute pancreatitis

    Andersen, Anders Møller; Novovic, Srdan; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer;

    2010-01-01

    In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results.......In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results....

  4. Urinary incontinence in children Invited Editor

    Canpolat, Nur; ,; Çalışkan, Salim

    2007-01-01

    Urinary incontinence which is defined as the involuntary loss of urine is a very common clinical problem in childhood Its etiology includes delayed bladder control effects of environmental and social factors on toilet training urinary tract infection anatomic abnormalities of lower urinary tract and neurogenic disorders The more common cause of childhood urinary incontinence is non neurogenic abnormalities classified as anatomic abnormalities or bladder dysfunction Voiding dysfunction is asso...

  5. Clinical Observation on Electroacupuncture Against Urinary Incontinence

    赵文洁; 胡昌东; 王洁茹; 洪珏

    2009-01-01

    @@ Urinary incontinence is a common problem, usually classified as stress incontinence or urge incontinence[1]. With the development of medical science, people have got more and more profound knowledge towards urinary incontinence. We treated urinary incontinence with electroacupuncture since 2006, and now reported it as follows.

  6. Urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformations in children: A retrospective study of 34 cases

    Jamila Chahed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association of urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation is not rare, their management poses challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between urolithiasis and malformations of the urinary system. There were 34 patients (19 males and 15 females with a mean age of 4.8 years (range, 2 months to 14 years. All patients had urinary lithiasis with a urinary tract malformation. Abdominal pain was the most frequent clinical symptom (38%. Urinary infection was found in 7 patients (21% and macroscopic haematuria was present in 10 patients (29%. The most frequent urinary tract malformations were megaureter (8 cases, uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (7 cases and vesico-ureteric reflux (8 cases, but its malformative origin could not be confirmed. Treatment consisted of lithiasis extraction in 32 cases associated with specific treatment of the uropathy in 27 cases. Postoperative outcome was uneventful in all cases. In fact, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is not rare. Indeed, 9-34% of urinary lithiasis are noted to be associated with urinary tract malformation. Positive diagnosis relies specifically on kidney ultrasound, intravenous urography, and urethrocystography. Treatment depends on the type of urinary tract malformation, localisation and size of the urinary lithiasis. Conclusion: In conclusion, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is a frequent eventuality. Surgical intervention is the usual mode of treatment.

  7. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1990-01-01

    This review presents reported cure and improvement rates of stress urinary incontinence in women obtained by different treatment modalities. Apart from the urodynamic findings, histological and histochemical changes of the pelvic floor may be clinically relevant to treatment in the future. Long...

  8. Imaging of the Urinary Tract

    ... takes pictures of the body’s internal organs and soft tissues without using x rays. MRI machines use radio waves and magnets to ... Urinary tract imaging techniques include conventional radiology, or x rays; ... tomography (CT) scans; and radionuclide scans. Preparations for an ...

  9. Biofilm infections of urinary tract

    Holá, V.; Růžička, F.; Horáková, L.; Renata, R.; Horká, Marie

    Istanbul, 2008. s. 232. [International Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology /12./. 05.08.2008-09.08.2008, Istanbul] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Keywords : catheter related urinary tract infections * affection of culture conditions * capillary isoelectric focusing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  10. Multi-modality imaging review of congenital abnormalities of kidney and upper urinary tract.

    Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Kumar, Devendra; Khanna, Maneesh; Al Heidous, Mahmoud; Sheikh, Adnan; Virmani, Vivek; Palaniappan, Yegu

    2016-02-28

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include a wide range of abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic ectopic kidneys to life threatening renal agenesis (bilateral). Many of them are detected in the antenatal or immediate postnatal with a significant proportion identified in the adult population with varying degree of severity. CAKUT can be classified on embryological basis in to abnormalities in the renal parenchymal development, aberrant embryonic migration and abnormalities of the collecting system. Renal parenchymal abnormalities include multi cystic dysplastic kidneys, renal hypoplasia, number (agenesis or supernumerary), shape and cystic renal diseases. Aberrant embryonic migration encompasses abnormal location and fusion anomalies. Collecting system abnormalities include duplex kidneys and Pelvi ureteric junction obstruction. Ultrasonography (US) is typically the first imaging performed as it is easily available, non-invasive and radiation free used both antenatally and postnatally. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful to confirm the ultrasound detected abnormality, detection of complex malformations, demonstration of collecting system and vascular anatomy and more importantly for early detection of complications like renal calculi, infection and malignancies. As CAKUT are one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease, it is important for the radiologists to be familiar with the varying imaging appearances of CAKUT on US, CT and MRI, thereby helping in prompt diagnosis and optimal management. PMID:26981222

  11. Use of traditional Chinese medicine in the management of urinary stone disease

    Ricardo Miyaoka

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the evidence-based literature supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine Kampo herbal and Acupuncture in stone disease management. Materials and Methods: Four of the most commonly used herbal components of Kampo medicine in the treatment of stone disease are described according to their in vitro and in vivo effects. We also reviewed the role of Acupuncture in urologic clinical setting as well as its proposed mechanisms of action and results. Medline database was assessed using isolated and conjugated key words (Chinese Medicine, Kampo, Chinese Herbal, Calculi, Stone Disease, Kidney, Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine. Articles were reviewed and summarized. Results: Herbal medicine has been proven to be free from side-effects and therefore suitable for long term use therapy. Its antilithic beneficial effects include increased urinary volume, increased magnesium excretion (Takusya, inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate aggregation (Takusya, Wulingsan and Desmodyum styracyfolium, inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation and hydroxyapatite internalization (Wulingsan. In contrast, acupuncture, has shown to be effective as a pre-treatment anxiolytic and analgesic during colic pain and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment, reducing the need for complementary sedative drugs. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine is promising as regards its role in stone prevention. An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each procedure differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics. Similarly, standardization of Kampo formulations and acceptable clinical endpoints (imaging vs. symptomatic events is needed.

  12. Influence of ureter mirror holmium laser lithotripsy on blood rheology and oxidative stress in patients with upper ureteral calculi

    Guo-Dong Chen; Jian Dong; Jun Ding; Guo-Bo Li; Chen-Xi Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influence of ureter mirror holmium laser lithotripsy on blood rheology and oxidative stress in patients with upper ureteral calculi.Methods:A total of 113 cases patients who underwent surgical treatment of ureter mirror holmium laser lithotripsy were divided into observation group (n=76) and the control group (n=37) according to different therapeutic methods. Patients in the observation group were treated by ureteroscopy holmium laser lithotripsy treatment and patients in control group were treated by open surgery treatment. Venous blood was collected ro test the blood rheology and oxidative stress indicators respectively in the preoperative and postoperative 1 d, 7 d after treatment.Results:The postoperative backlog of red blood cells increased performance first decreased after treatment in two groups, the plasma viscosity and whole blood viscosity, high shear viscosity of whole blood were increased after the stable trend, the postoperative hematocritg, plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity, high shear viscosity of whole blood were significantly lower than the control group in the observation group 1 d and 7 d after operation; The postoperative Cor, MDA in two groups showed a rising trend, SOD showed a decreasing trend, the difference was statistically significant; MDA in observation group 1 d and 7 d after operation was significantly lower than the control group, SOD was significantly higher than control group in the same point in time.Conclusions:Patients with upper ureteral calculi treated by surgical treatment may cause abnormal blood rheology and oxidative stress. And compared with open surgery, ureteroscopy holmium laser lithotripsy is of smaller side effect, and is beneficial for postoperative recovery.

  13. Defective urinary crystallization inhibition and urinary stone formation

    Mauricio Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nephrocalcin (NC is a glycoprotein produced in the kidney and inhibits calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has been separated into 4 isoforms (A, B, C, and D and found that (A + B are more abundant than (C + D in urine of healthy subjects, but the reverse is seen in human urine of kidney stone patients. To further examine the role of this protein in inhibition of urinary crystallization, nephrocalcin isoforms were purified from 2 genetically pure dog species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied healthy Beagles, known to be non-stone forming dogs, and Mini-Schnauzers, known to be calcium oxalate stone formers. NC was isolated and purified from each group. Urinary biochemistry and calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibition were measured. RESULTS: Specific crystal growth inhibition activity was significantly higher in non-stone forming dogs (9.79 ± 2.25 in Beagles vs. 2.75 ± 1.34 of Mini-Schnauzers, p < 0.005. Dissociation constants toward calcium oxalate monohydrate were 10-fold different, with Beagles' isoforms being 10 times stronger inhibitors compare to those of Mini-Schnauzers'. Isoforms C + D of NC were the main isoforms isolated in stone-forming dogs. CONCLUSION: NC of these two species of dogs differently affects calcium oxalate crystallization and might have a role in determining ulterior urinary stone formation.

  14. 输尿管软镜下钬激光治疗肾盂旁囊肿合并肾结石的应用%Application study on flexible ureteroscope /holmium laser therapy of parapelvic cyst complicating with renal calculi

    陈海潮; 邵法明; 孙树本; 缪起龙

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨输尿管软镜下钬激光治疗肾盂旁囊肿合并肾结石的手术方法、安全性、可行性. 方法 回顾性分析我院2012年11月至2014年11月共收治8例肾盂旁囊肿合并肾结石患者的临床资料,其中男5例,女3例,年龄54~78岁,平均63岁.最大单颗肾结石大小1.2 cm×1.1cm ~1.5 cm×2.0 cm,囊肿大小3.2cm×3.6 cm~5.1 cm×4.2cm,腰部酸胀不适6例,血尿3例,肾盂积水1例,局限性肾盏积水2例,合并高血压3例,泌尿系感染3例.在全麻下行经尿道输尿管软镜钬激光下肾盂旁囊肿内切开引流+肾结石碎石取石术. 结果 8例手术均成功,处理结石及囊肿时间共为52~120 min,平均76 min.术中、术后无大出血、肾周血肿、尿外渗、感染性休克、患肾萎缩等并发症发生,术后随访3~12个月,全部病例无肾结石残留,其中6例囊肿消失,2例囊肿明显缩小,随访期内无复发. 结论 经尿道输尿管软镜下钬激光治疗肾盂旁囊肿合并肾结石具有创伤小、恢复快、术式简单、经济、安全有效等优点.%Objective To investigate the safety and feasibility of flexible ureteroscope/holmium laser therapy of parapelvic cyst complicating with renal calculi.Methods The clinical data of 8 patients diagnosed as parapelvic cyst with renal calculi and hospitalized in our hospital from Nov.2012 to Nov.2014 were retrospectively analyzed.They were 5 males and 3 females,aged 54 78 years,with an average of 63 years old.The largest kidney calculis were at the size of (1.2 cm× 1.1 cm) to (1.5cm×2.0 cm),and the size of parapelvic cysts ranged between (3.2 cm×3.6 cm) and (5.1 cm×4.2cm).Waist pain was found in 6 patients,hematuria in 3 patients,hydronephrosis in 1 patient,circumscribed hydrocalycosis in 2 patients,hypertension in 3 patients,and infection of urinary tract in 3 patients.Incision and internal drainage of parapelvic cyst and lithotripsy for renal calculi were conducted by flexible ureteroscope

  15. Urinary Tract Infections In Pregnancy

    N Sivalingam; Loh KY

    2007-01-01

    Urinary tract infections frequently affect pregnant mothers. This problem causes significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Three common clinical manifestations of UTIs in pregnancy are: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli remains the most frequent organism isolated in UTIs. All pregnant mothers should be screened for UTIs in pregnancy and antibiotics should be commenced without delay. Urine culture and sensitivity is the gold standard in...

  16. Approach to urinary tract infections

    Najar, M S; Saldanha, C. L.; Banday, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomati...

  17. URINARY INCONTINENCE IN ACUTE PSYCHOSIS

    Choudhury, S.; Augustine, M.

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY A prospective two year study of consecutive admissions (n=984) to a psychiatry ward revealed that the incidence of temporary urinary incontinence in psychiatric patients without delirium or dementia was 1.63% (n=l6). When compared with controls (n=64) the incontinent patients were more often psychotic, gave a history of childhood enuresis and a past history of temporary incontinence during psychosis. Compared with psychotic controls (n=26), incontinent patients (n=16) had been exposed...

  18. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen

    Abdullah Saleh Al-Samawi; Saleh Mansoor Aulaqi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998) classification.Methods: This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30t...

  19. Promotion in urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

    Cohen, S M

    1983-01-01

    Aromatic amines, including 2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine, are known urinary bladder carcinogens in man and other species, but in rodents, aromatic amines and amides have usually induced liver tumors, occasionally also with tumors of the bladder and other tissues. Variations in organ specificity are related to differences in metabolism; for the production of bladder tumors, the rates of acetylation and deacetylation appear to be critical. Bladder specific carcinogens in rodent...

  20. Drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis

    Kramer, Christine V; Zhang, Fan; Sinclair, David; Olliaro, Piero L

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by an intravascular infection with parasitic Schistosoma haematobium worms. The adult worms typically migrate to the venous plexus of the human bladder and excrete eggs which the infected person passes in their urine. Chronic infection can cause substantial morbidity and long-term complications as the eggs become trapped in human tissues causing inflammation and fibrosis. We summarised evidence of drugs active against the infection. This is new edi...

  1. [URINARY DISCOMFORTS IN PATIENTS AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY].

    Al'-Shukri, S Kh; Ananiĭ, I A; Amdiĭ, R E; Kuz'min, I V

    2015-01-01

    The authors showed the result of complication treatment of lower urinary tracts in 128 patients with localized prostate cancer. The patients underwent radical prostatectomy. Urinary discomforts included enuresis, urinary incontinence in postoperative period. Abnormalities of urine outflow due to urethral stricture were revealed in 6 (4,6%) patients by the 6 month after operation. These complications required surgical treatment. Urinary incontinence was noted in 20 (15,6%) patients in this period. It was stressful urinary incontinence in 16 (12,6%) and urgent - in 4 (3%). Patents with stressful urinary difficulty were advised to use the conservative treatment (pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation), but in case of inefficiency - surgical treatment. PMID:26390591

  2. Female urinary incontinence: effective treatment strategies.

    Castro, R A; Arruda, R M; Bortolini, M A T

    2015-04-01

    Urinary incontinence is a dysfunction that tremendously affects women's quality of life, involving social, emotional and economic aspects. Although various treatments for urinary incontinence have been described, it is important to know which of them are truly effective. This review seeks to determine the current available therapies for women with stress urinary incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome, based on the best scientific evidence. PMID:25307986

  3. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans

    BEHZADI, Payam; BEHZADI, Elham; Ranjbar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution o...

  4. Evaluation of the efficacy of tamsulosin with or without deflazacort for stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for upper ureteral and renal calculi

    Rajeev T. P.; Nitin Gupta; Somour J. Baruah; Barua, Sasanka K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medical expulsive therapy in the form of alpha blockers, corticosteroids, calcium channel blockers is being used with success for medical treatment of lower ureteric calculus. Adjunctive use of these therapeutic agents in post extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy period is also being tried.With this background, we evaluated the efficacy of tamsulosin with or without deflazacort for various outcome factors after ESWL of upper ureteral and renal calculi. Methods: A Prospecive stu...

  5. Procalcitonin determined at emergency department as an early indicator of progression to septic shock in patient with sepsis associated with ureteral calculi

    Young Hwii Ko; Yoon Seob Ji; Sin-Youl Park; Su Jin Kim; Phil Hyun Song

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: To investigate the role of initial procalcitonin (PCT) level as an early predictor of septic shock for the patient with sepsis induced by acute pyelonephritis (APN) secondary to ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods: The data from 49 consecutive patients who met criteria of sepsis due to APN following ureteral stone were collected and divided into two groups: with (n=15) or without (n=34) septic shock. The clinical variables including PCT level for this outcome were...

  6. NASA Astronaut Urinary Conditions Associated with Spaceflight

    Law, Jennifer; Cole, Richard; Young, Millennia H.; Mason, Sara

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight is associated with many factors which may promote kidney stone formation, urinary retention, and/or Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). According to ISS mission predictions supplied by NASA's Integrated Medical Model, kidney stone is the second and sepsis (urosepsis as primary driver) the third most likely reason for emergent medical evacuation from the International Space Station (ISS). METHODS: Inflight and postflight medical records of NASA astronauts were reviewed for urinary retention, UTI and kidney stones during Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Mir, Shuttle, and ISS expeditions 1-38. RESULTS: NASA astronauts have had 7 cases of kidney stones in the 12 months after flight. Three of these cases occurred within 90 to 180 days after landing and one of the seven cases occurred in the first 90 days after flight. There have been a total of 16 cases (0.018 events per person-flights) of urinary retention during flight. The event rates per mission are nearly identical between Shuttle and ISS flights (0.019 vs 0.021 events per person-flights). In 12 of the 16 cases, astronauts had taken at least one space motion sickness medication. Upon further analysis, it was determined that the odds of developing urinary retention in spaceflight is 3 times higher among astronauts who took promethazine. The female to male odds ratio for inflight urinary retention is 11:14. An astronaut with urinary retention is 25 times more likely to have a UTI with a 17% infection rate per mission. There have been 9 reported UTIs during spaceflight. DISCUSSION: It is unclear if spaceflight carries an increased post-flight risk of kidney stones. Regarding urinary retention, the female to male odds ratio is higher during flight compared to the general population where older males comprise almost all cases due to prostatic hypertrophy. This female prevalence in spaceflight is even more concerning given the fact that there have been many more males in space than females. Terrestrial

  7. Fetal MRI of the urinary system

    Hoermann, Marcus [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: marcus.hoermann@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Balassy, Csilla [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The assessment of the urinary system is typically performed by ultrasound. Nevertheless, an ultrasound may be inconclusive in fetuses with renal diseases that result in anhydramnios or oligohydramnios. In such cases, and in other cases in which ultrasound is limited, further investigation with MR should be considered. In the following article, we will provide an overview of the most commonly encountered disorders of the urinary system and their appearance on fetal MR imaging. Fetal MR imaging can accurately diagnose a wide variety of urinary tract disorders and must be seen as a valuable complementary tool to ultrasound in the assessment of the urinary system, particularly in cases of inconclusive ultrasound findings.

  8. Fetal MRI of the urinary system

    The assessment of the urinary system is typically performed by ultrasound. Nevertheless, an ultrasound may be inconclusive in fetuses with renal diseases that result in anhydramnios or oligohydramnios. In such cases, and in other cases in which ultrasound is limited, further investigation with MR should be considered. In the following article, we will provide an overview of the most commonly encountered disorders of the urinary system and their appearance on fetal MR imaging. Fetal MR imaging can accurately diagnose a wide variety of urinary tract disorders and must be seen as a valuable complementary tool to ultrasound in the assessment of the urinary system, particularly in cases of inconclusive ultrasound findings

  9. FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    ... Tract Infection” What is “catheter-associated urinary tract infection”? A urinary tract infection (also called “UTI”) is an infection in the urinary system, which includes the bladder (which stores the ...

  10. Approach to urinary tract infections.

    Najar, M S; Saldanha, C L; Banday, K A

    2009-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in certain age groups and has different connotations. It needs to be treated and completely cured in pregnant women and preschool children. Reflux nephropathy in children could result in chronic kidney disease; otherwise, urinary tract infections do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of end-stage renal disease. Symptomatic urinary tract infections occur most commonly in women of child-bearing age. Cystitis predominates, but needs to be distinguished from acute urethral syndrome that affects both sexes and has a different management plan than UTIs. The prostatitis symptoms are much more common than bacterial prostatic infections. The treatment needs to be prolonged in bacterial prostatitis and as cure rates are not very high and relapses are common, the classification of prostatitis needs to be understood. The consensus conference convened by National Institute of Health added two more groups of patients, namely, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, in addition to acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Although white blood cells in urine signify inflammation, they do not always signify UTI. Quantitative cultures of urine provide definitive evidence of UTI. Imaging studies should be done 3-6 weeks after cure of acute infection to identify abnormalities predisposing to infection or renal damage or which may affect management. Treatment of cystitis in women should be a three-day course and if

  11. Undertreatment of urinary incontinence in general practice.

    Penning-van Beest, F.J.A.; Sturkenboom, M.C.; Bemelmans, B.L.H.; Herings, R.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the urinary incontinence guidelines that are issued by the Dutch College of General Practitioners, treatment guidelines are related to the type of incontinence. It is unknown whether treatment of urinary incontinence in general practice complies with these guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To de

  12. Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because…

  13. Isolated Primary Schwannoma of Urinary Bladder

    Bhat, Suresh; Paul, Fredrick

    2016-01-01

    Primary schwannoma of urinary bladder is a very rare tumour. It usually occurs in association with Von Recklinghausen’s disease. It arises from Schwann’s cells in the nerve sheath. We report here a very rare case of primary schwannoma of urinary bladder managed by complete transurethral resection. PMID:27437301

  14. Hypercalciuria in children with urinary tract symptoms

    Fallahzadeh M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed this prospective study to determine the urinary calcium to creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr in children with different urinary symptoms. We studied 523 children in our neph-rology clinic with an age range of 3 to 14 years (mean= 8 and male to female ratio of 0.61. All the children had at least one of the urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, frequency, urgency, abdo-minal and/or flank pain, diurnal incontinence or enuresis, microscopic hematuria, urinary tract infection or urolithiasis. Fasting urine was collected for measuring calcium and creatinine and the results were compared to the values for the normal Iranian children. Ca/Cr ratio of more than 0.2 (mg/mg was considered as hypercalciuria. Of all the patients, 166 (31.3% were hypercalciuric. Urine Ca/Cr ratio was significantly higher in all the subgroups with one or more of the urinary symptoms (P< 0.001. We conclude that urine Ca/Cr ratio is significantly increased in children with all types of urinary symptoms. We recommend measuring urinary calcium in all children with urinary tract symptoms, especially if unexplained.

  15. Kidneys and Urinary Tract (For Parents)

    ... disorders. In kids, the more common problems include: Congenital problems of the urinary tract. As a fetus develops in the womb, any part of the urinary tract can grow to an abnormal size or in an abnormal shape or position. One common congenital abnormality (an abnormality that exists at birth) is ...

  16. Follow the Stream: Imaging of Urinary Diversions.

    Moomjian, Lauren N; Carucci, Laura R; Guruli, Georgi; Klausner, Adam P

    2016-01-01

    Urinary diversion is a surgical technique to redirect the stream of urine, most often after cystectomy. Cystectomy may be performed both for benign and for malignant conditions. Bladder cancer is the most common indication for cystectomy, and most patients who undergo radical cystectomy and urinary diversion have muscle-invasive or high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. There are two major surgical approaches for urinary diversions performed after radical cystectomy: continent and incontinent diversions. For incontinent urinary diversions, a cutaneous ostomy is used for continuous urine drainage (eg, ileal conduit). With a continent diversion procedure, the patient may void through the native urethra or self-catheterize through a surgically created stoma. The goals of imaging after urinary diversion are to assess postoperative anatomy, detect postoperative complications, evaluate for residual or recurrent tumor and metastatic disease, and monitor for upper tract distention and/or deterioration. Multiple imaging modalities and techniques may be used to evaluate urinary diversions, including computed tomographic and magnetic resonance urography, intravenous pyelography, ultrasonography, pouchography, loopography, and nephrostomy studies. Knowledge of the expected postoperative appearance after urinary diversions and potential postoperative complications is crucial because many complications may be clinically silent. Radiologists must be able to recognize the expected postoperative appearance as well as complications to facilitate appropriate diagnosis and treatment of patients after cystectomy and urinary diversion. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27058730

  17. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AND COLORECTAL ADENOMA RISK

    AbstractWe investigated urinary mutagenicity and colorectal adenoma risk in a clinic-based, case-control study of currently nonsmoking cases (n = 143) and controls (n = 156). Urinary organics were extracted by C18/methanol from 12-h overnight urine samples, and mutagenici...

  18. Sexually acquired Salmonella Typhi urinary tract infection.

    Wielding, Sally; Scott, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of isolated urinarySalmonella entericaserotype Typhi in an HIV-positive man who has sex with men. He was clinically well and blood and stool cultures were negative, indicating that this may have been a sexually acquired urinary tract infection. PMID:25953964

  19. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not ... Elder JS. Urinary tract infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  20. ENTEROCOCCAL URINARY TARACT INFECTION: AN EMERGING THREAT

    Mohua; Shiv Sekhar; Kheya;; Sanjeev; Chinmoy; Banya; Mitali; Mandira

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Enterococcus faecalis is a frequent cause of hospital acquired urinary tract infection and is being increasingly recognized as a cause of community acquired urinary tract infection. The organism is resistant to commonly used antibiotics, thereby limiting treatment options. OBJECTIVES: To study the epidemiology and resistogram of enterococcal ...

  1. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18(q21: 21. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment.

  2. Analysis of naltrexone urinary metabolites.

    Ventura, R; de la Torre, R; Segura, J

    1988-01-01

    A reversed-phase HPLC method using ion-pair formation has been developed for the simultaneous determination of naltrexone and three urinary metabolites. The extraction of the free and conjugated metabolites was studied by liquid-solid procedures using styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers (Amberlite XAD-2) and bonded octadecyl silica supports (ODS-silica). Optimum recovery was obtained with ODS-silica extraction using 25% acetonitrile in a 5 mM diammonium phosphate buffer pH 2.1 as elution solvent. The chromatographic behaviour of naltrexone metabolites and naloxone (internal standard) was examined by varying the mobile phase composition. Increments of both the diammonium phosphate buffer concentration and the percentage of organic solvent in the eluent decreases the retention of compounds in a non-linear manner. Increments of the dodecyl sulphate (counter-ion) concentration, increases the retention time. The method was applied to determine the urinary levels of major naltrexone metabolites in a volunteer receiving a 50 mg oral dose. This is the first method reported which permits the simultaneous quantitative determination of naltrexone and its metabolites, 6beta-naltrexol, naltrexone glucuronide and 6beta-naltrexol glucuronide, in urine. PMID:16867358

  3. STUDY OF URINARY CALCIUM AND URINARY CREATININE LEVELS AND URINARY CALCIUM/CREATININE RATIO IN GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS

    Swapna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gestational hypertension (BP>140/90mmHg or pregnancy induced hypertension usually precedes pre - eclampsia (BP>140/90mmHg associated with proteniuria. Many tests to predict pre - eclampsia are coming up on the horizon. Hypocalciuria is one such test to predict pre - eclampsia which may be present before other clinical signs and symptoms. AIM: To determine urinary calcium, urinary creatinine and urinary calcium/creatinine ratio in pregnancy induced hypertension and in normal pregnant women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 100 subjects with gestational age between 24 - 38 weeks and divided into two groups’ viz. control group and study group . The control group included 50 subjects who were normal pregnant women and study group included 50 subjects who were gestational hypertensive patients. Urinary calcium was estimated by Ortho - Cresolphthalein Complexone (CPC method, urinary creatinine was estimated by Jaffe’s method in all the subjects. RESULTS: The estimated mean levels (Mean±SD of urinary calcium, creatinine in control group were 263.0±80.3, 0.95±0.16 respectively and in patients with gestational hypertension they were 86.2±19.5, 1.21±0. 37 respectively. The statistical analysis by unpaired t - test shows that the levels of urinary calcium were significantly decreased (p<0.001 and the urinary creatinine were significantly increased (p <0.001 in gestational hypertensive patients when compar ed to healthy controls. The mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio in control group were 0.28±0.08 and in gestational hypertensive patients were 0.07±0.03.The statistical analysis by unpaired t - test shows that the levels of urinary calcium/creatinine ratio were significantly decreased (p<0.001 in gestational hypertensive patients when compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a regular evaluation of urinary calcium/creatinine ratio after 20wks of gestation may be an effective screen ing method for

  4. Urinary Calprotectin and Posttransplant Renal Allograft Injury

    Bistrup, Claus; Marcussen, Niels; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix S.; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. Methods In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144 incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Results We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r = −0.33; P<0.001). Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98; specificity, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.66). Higher urinary calprotectin concentrations predicted impaired kidney function 4 weeks after transplantation, as well as 6 months and 12 months after transplantation. When data were analyzed using the urinary calprotectin/creatinine-ratio similar results were obtained. Urinary calprotectin was superior to current use of absolute change of plasma creatinine to predict allograft function 12 months after transplantation. Urinary calprotectin predicted an increased risk both in transplants from living and deceased donors. Multivariate linear regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. Conclusions Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation. PMID:25402277

  5. Urinary Biomarkers of Brain Diseases

    Manxia An

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are the measurable changes associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood, urine is not subject to homeostatic mechanisms. Therefore, greater fluctuations could occur in urine than in blood, better reflecting the changes in human body. The roadmap of urine biomarker era was proposed. Although urine analysis has been attempted for clinical diagnosis, and urine has been monitored during the progression of many diseases, particularly urinary system diseases, whether urine can reflect brain disease status remains uncertain. As some biomarkers of brain diseases can be detected in the body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood, there is a possibility that urine also contain biomarkers of brain diseases. This review summarizes the clues of brain diseases reflected in the urine proteome and metabolome.

  6. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen

    Abdullah Saleh Al-Samawi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998 classification.Methods: This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30th April 2009. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and categorized according to WHO/ISUP 1998 classification.Results: Out of 316 urinary bladder cancers, 248 (78% were urothelial neoplasms, 53 (17% were squamous cell carcinoma, 7 (2% were adenocarcinoma, and 3 (1% were rhabdomyosarcoma. The remaining cases were metastatic carcinomas (n=3, small cell carcinoma (n=1, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1. The urothelial neoplasms observed were carcinoma in situ 4 (2%, papilloma 7 (3%, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential 26 (11%, papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade 107 (43%, papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 18 (7%, and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 85 (34%, with 60 years mean age for males and 58 years for females; along with a male to female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was observed in the 61-70 years age group.Conclusion: This study documents a high frequency of urothelial neoplasms, mostly papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade with male preponderance and peak incidence in 6th decade of age.

  7. 尿路结石与尿路感染的相关性研究%Correlation between urinary stones and urinary tract infections

    陈沛林; 张立国; 孟斌

    2014-01-01

    .6%). Numbers of urine abnormalities,urine positivities,positive intraoperative cotton swabs and urinary tract infections in patients in the group with infected stones,were significantly higher than in the group without infected stones and the differences were statistically significant(χ2=8.203,73.99,178.9,24.26,P<0.05). The incidence rates of hexahydrate magnesium ammonium phosphate, carbonate apatite and hydroxyapatite stones in the group with infected stones were significantly higher than those in the non-infected-rock group while the incidence rates of calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were found significantly lower than those in the non-infected-stone group,with differences statistically significant (χ2=167.6,21.00,8.586,73.17,48.79,P<0.05). Conclusion Bacteria could cause urinary tract stones,and infected stones were always associated with urinary tract infections. Bacteria detection in patients with urinary calculi was particularly important to avoid the urinary tract infections.

  8. Recurrence of urinary retention secondary to retroverted gravid uterus

    Shunji Suzuki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although urinary retention caused by the retroverted gravid uterus is uncommon, acute urinary retention is an emergency condition. Cases: We present here two cases of acute urinary retention at 12 weeks′ gestation secondary to retroverted gravid uterus. Although some preventive measures were suggested to the patients, recurrences of urinary retention occurred during the following 2-3 weeks and in their next pregnancies. Conclusion: In cases that urinary retention due to retroverted gravid uterus once occurred, we have to pay attention to the recurrence of urinary retention during the next pregnancies. (Suzuki S, Ono S, Satomi M. Recurrence of urinary retention secondary to retroverted gravid uterus

  9. 肾结石合并错构瘤的处理(附11例报告)%Treatment of Renal Calculi Associated with Renal Angiomyolipom

    许良余; 陈善群; 王栋; 邹义华; 龚烨; 张威

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨肾结石合并错构瘤的治疗方法。方法通过对2006年10月~2013年1月11例肾结石同时合并错构瘤患者的治疗进行分析。结果11例患者中,3例随诊观察,无变化,2例行错构瘤剜除、肾实质切开取石,2例B超定位下行微创经皮肾碎石取石,4例输尿管软镜钬激光碎石术,1例行高选择性错构瘤动脉栓塞。结论肾结石合并错构瘤的治疗,依据结石大小、肾积水程度、肿瘤大小及技术设备条件综合考虑,选择安全、有效方法。%Objective To discuss treatment methods of renal calculi associated with renal angiomyolipoma. Methods According to the 2006 October to 2013 January in our hospital 11 cases of renal calculi associated with renal angiomyolipoma were analyzed. Results Of 11 cases,3 cases were fol ow-up observation and no change,2 cases received angiomyolipoma enucleation and anatrophic nephrolithotomy,2 cases were given MPCNL using B-ultrasound localization. 4 cases were given flexible ureteroscoppe holmium laser lithotripsy. Conclusion Accord to dif erent situations it took safe and ef ective methods in treatment of renal calculi associated with renal angiomyolipoma.

  10. Adult female urinary incontinence and childhood bedwetting

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, S.

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional random population sample of women 30 to 59 years old was sent a questionnaire on urinary incontinence and, among other things, childhood bedwetting. Among 2,613 responders 17.0% reported prevalent urinary incontinence (14.7% stress provoked, 8.3% associated with urge, 6.8% stress...... and urge overlap, 2.2% occurring especially during sleep and 3.9% occurring especially when anxious), and 6.5% reported childhood bedwetting after age 5 years and 3.3% after age 10 years. Childhood bedwetting was associated with prevalent urge urinary incontinence (p incontinence occurring...... during sleep (p urinary incontinence occurring in situations of anxiety (p

  11. Urinary calprotectin and posttransplant renal allograft injury

    Tepel, Martin; Borst, Christoffer; Bistrup, Claus;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144...... incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin...... concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r = -0.33; P<0.001). Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity...

  12. [Conservative treatment in male urinary incontinence].

    Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Anding, R

    2014-03-01

    Prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of urinary incontinence are well studied in women; however, studies on male urinary incontinence focus on incontinence following surgery of the bladder or prostate, predominantly incontinence after radical prostatectomy. Aging men suffer from incontinence, most frequently urge incontinence (overactive bladder, OAB), nearly as often as women do.The domain of conservative therapy of urinary stress incontinence in men is pelvic floor training. It remains unclear whether biofeedback procedures, electrostimulation therapy, or magnetic stimulation therapy can enhance pelvic floor training. There are data suggesting that an off-label therapy with Duloxetin®, a selective serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI), improves urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy. Antimuscarinic agents in combination with bladder training have been proven as safe and effective treatment in men with OAB. Data, however, suggest that men with OAB are far less frequently treated than women. PMID:24585116

  13. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

    Cevahir Ozer

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  14. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

    Cevahir Ozer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  15. Neuropeptides in Lower Urinary Tract (LUT) Function

    Arms, Lauren; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous neuropeptide/receptor systems including vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, neurokinin A, bradykinin, and endothelin-1 are expressed in the lower urinary tract (LUT) in both neural and non-neural (e.g., urothelium) components. LUT neuropeptide immunoreactivity is present in afferent and autonomic efferent neurons innervating the bladder and urethra and in the urothelium of the urinary bla...

  16. Herbs In Treatment Of Urinary Tract Infections

    Manish Wasamwar; Vijay S.Wadha; Gopal S. Gond

    2012-01-01

    It is known that urinary tract is very common source of infection and UTIs are second most common reason people visit their doctors each year. Escherichia coli is responsible for large majority of UTIs. UTIs is most commonly diagnosed bacterial infection in woman. Population at risk of complication include older woman, pregnant woman. Continuous antibiotics prophylaxis are used to treat and prevent recurrent urinary tract infections, frequent antibiotic use can result in vagin...

  17. Epidemiology of community urinary tract infections

    Savoye-Rossignol, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (IUs) are a frequent reason for consultation and prescription of antibiotics in general practice. The choice of the antibiotic is based on the patient’s characteristics, the antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria and cost analyzes. This therapeutic approach has become increasingly complex due to the increase in antibiotic resistance. In this context, my thesis is based on two main studies:From the data of IMS health France, a spectral analysis of urinary antibiotic sal...

  18. Ⅰ期经皮肾镜取石术术后结石残留的影响因素分析%Influencing factors of residual calculi after single-session percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    蓝志相; 蔡斌; 梁建波; 王晓平; 王伟

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨Ⅰ期经皮肾镜取石术( PCNL)术后结石残留的主要影响因素. 方法 回顾性分析776 例Ⅰ期PCNL患者围术期资料,其中Ⅰ期术后结石残留217例. 对可能影响PCNL后结石残留的相关因素进行单因素分析,将有统计学意义指标采用多因素logistic回归模型进行分析. 结果 多因素logistic回归分析结果显示,结石负荷、肾盂类型、肾功能不全及鹿角形肾结石是Ⅰ期PCNL术后结石残留的独立危险因素(P均 1 000 mm2、分支型肾盂、鹿角形肾结石、肾功能不全均可增加Ⅰ期PCNL术后结石残留的风险. 术前改善患者肾功能,明确肾盂类型及结石负荷并采取个性化方案是降低Ⅰ期PCNL术后结石残留的重要措施.%Objective To explore the main influencing factors of residual calculi after single-session percutaneous nephrolithotomy ( PCNL) .Methods The perioperative clinical data of 776 patients who underwent single-session PCNL were retrospectively analyzed.And residual calculi were observed in 217 patients after single-session PCNL.The probable related influencing factors of residual calculi after single-session PCNL were assessed by univariate analysis, and the statistically significant factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis.Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that calculus load,type of renal pelvis,renal insufficiency and staghorn-shaped renal calculi were independent risk factors for residual calculi after single-session PCNL(all P<0.05).Conclusion Calculus load more than 1000 mm2 ,branched renal pelvis,staghorn-shaped renal calculi and renal insufficiency might increase the risk of residual calculi after single-session PCNL.The important management for reducing residual calculi after single-session PCNL includes the preoperative improvement of renal insufficiency and the application of individualized approach following confirming the type of renal pelvis and calculus load

  19. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Duarte, Geraldo; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2008-02-01

    Several factors cause urinary tract infection (UTI) to be a relevant complication of the gestational period, aggravating both the maternal and perinatal prognosis. For many years, pregnancy has been considered to be a factor predisposing to all forms of UTI. Today, it is known that pregnancy, as an isolated event, is not responsible for a higher incidence of UTI, but that the anatomical and physiological changes imposed on the urinary tract by pregnancy predispose women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) to become pregnant women with symptomatic UTI. AB affects 2 to 10% of all pregnant women and approximately 30% of these will develop pyelonephritis if not properly treated. However, a difficult-to-understand resistance against the identification of AB during this period is observed among prenatalists. The diagnosis of UTI is microbiological and it is based on two urine cultures presenting more than 10(5) colonies/mL urine of the same germ. Treatment is facilitated by the fact that it is based on an antibiogram, with no scientific foundation for the notion that a pre-established therapeutic scheme is an adequate measure. For the treatment of pyelonephritis, it is not possible to wait for the result of culture and previous knowledge of the resistance profile of the antibacterial agents available for the treatment of pregnant women would be the best measure. Another important variable is the use of an intravenous bactericidal antibiotic during the acute phase, with the possibility of oral administration at home after clinical improvement of the patient. At our hospital, the drug that best satisfies all of these requirements is cefuroxime, administered for 10-14 days. Third-generation cephalosporins do not exist in the oral form, all of them involving the inconvenience of parenteral administration. In view of their side effects, aminoglycosides are considered to be inadequate for administration to pregnant women. The inconsistent insinuation of contraindication of

  20. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

    , the internal pressure of the urethra should also increase. In women, the internal pressure of the urethra is short, and even if it has poorly developed they wet themselves when they cough. "nThe causes of BD: "nAs you see there are 17 causes, which 11 are related to the bladder. The bladder is responsible for retaining the urine and voiding. "nPathophysiology: "nThe bladder and sphincter should work in a coordinated manner: "nDuring the course of a day, an average person will void approximately 4-8 times. The urinary bladder is in storage mode for most of the day, allowing an individual to engage in more important activities than urination. "nNormal bladder function consists of 2 phases—filling and emptying. The normal micturition cycle requires the urinary bladder and the urethral sphincter working together as a coordinated unit to store and empty urine. During urinary storage, the bladder acts as a low-pressure receptacle, while the urinary sphincter maintains high resistance to urinary flow to keep the bladder outlet closed. During urine elimination, the bladder contracts to expel urine while the urinary sphincter opens (low resistance to allow unobstructed urinary flow and bladder emptying. "nFilling phase: "nDuring the filling phase, the bladder accumulates increasing volumes of urine while the pressure inside the bladder remains low. The pressure within the bladder must be lower than the urethral pressure during the filling phase. If the bladder pressure is greater than the urethral pressure (resistance, urine will leak out. "nThe filling of the urinary bladder depends on the intrinsic viscoelastic properties of the bladder and the inhibition of the parasympathetic nerves. Thus, bladder filling is primarily a passive event. "nSympathetic nerves also facilitate urine storage in the following ways: "nSympathetic nerves inhibit the parasympathetic nerves from triggering bladder contractions. "nSympathetic nerves directly cause relaxation and expansion of the

  1. Complicated Urinary Tract Infection in Adults

    LE Nicolle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complicated urinary tract infection occurs in individuals with functional or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract.OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge relevant to complicated urinary tract infection, and to provide evidence-based recommendations for management.METHODS: The literature was reviewed through a PubMed search, and additional articles were identified by journal reference review. A draft guideline was prepared and critically reviewed by members of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada Guidelines Committee, with modifications incorporated following the review.RESULTS: Many urological abnormalities may be associated with complicated urinary infection. There is a wide spectrum of potential infecting organisms, and isolated bacteria tend to be more resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Morbidity and infection outcomes in subjects with complicated urinary infection are principally determined by the underlying abnormality rather than the infection. Principles of management include uniform collection of a urine specimen for culture before antimicrobial therapy, characterization of the underlying genitourinary abnormality, and nontreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria except before an invasive genitourinary procedure. The antimicrobial regimen is determined by clinical presentation, patient tolerance, renal function and known or anticipated infecting organisms. If the underlying abnormality contributing to the urinary infection cannot be corrected, then early post-treatment recurrence of infection is anticipated.CONCLUSIONS: The management of complicated urinary infection is individualized depending on patient variables and the infecting organism. Further clinical investigations are necessary to assist in determining optimal antimicrobial regimens.

  2. RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF TAMSULOSIN AND SILODOSIN IN MEDICAL EXPULSIVE THERAPY FOR DISTAL THIRD URETERIC CALCULI

    Rajanna,; Manjunath; Harsharvardhan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Urolithiasis is a common condition that affects approximately 5% to 10% of the population and the incidence of Urolithiasis is rising. Ureteric stones account for 20% of urinary tract stones and about 70% of them are found in the lower third of the ureter at presentation. Recent literatures show the efficacy of various drugs and minimally invasive procedures for the management of lower third ureteral stones. We performed a randomized, prospective study to assess ...

  3. Urinary tract stones in pregnancy.

    Swanson, S K; Heilman, R L; Eversman, W G

    1995-02-01

    The presence of stones during an otherwise uneventful pregnancy is a dramatic and potentially serious issue for the mother, the fetus, and the treating physicians alike. The incidence and predisposing factors are generally the same as in nonpregnant, sexually active, childbearing women. Unique metabolic effects in pregnancy such as hyperuricuria and hypercalciuria, changes in inhibitors of lithiasis formation, stasis, relative dehydration, and the presence of infection all have an impact on stone formation. The anatomic changes and physiologic hydronephrosis of pregnancy make the diagnosis and treatment more challenging. Presenting signs and symptoms include colic, flank pain, hematuria, urinary tract infection, irritative voiding, fever, premature onset or cessation of labor, and pre-eclampsia. The initial evaluation and treatment are again similar to those used for the nonpregnant population. The most appropriate first-line test is renal ultrasonography, which may, by itself, allow the diagnosis to be made and provide enough information for treatment. Radiographic studies, including an appropriately performed excretory urogram, give specific information as to size and location of the stones, location of the kidneys, and differential renal function and can be used safely, but the ionizing radiation risks should be considered. All forms of treatment with the exception of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and some medical procedures are appropriate in the pregnant patient. Close coordination by the urologist, the obstetrician, the pediatrician, the anesthesiologist, and the radiologist is required for the appropriate care of these patients. PMID:7855714

  4. STUDY OF URINE PH, HYPERCALCIURIA, URINARY TRACT INFECTION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH STONE COMPOSITION IN BHOPAL REGION

    Mahendra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This prospective case control study is an attempt to study the importance and significance of urinary pH, urinary tract infection (Urinary Culture and hypercalciuria and its correlation with stone composition in patients of urolithiasis. METHODS: This prospective cases control study is done at the Department of Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal (M.P. India from October 2013 to October 2014. We have included 25 healthy persons as control group for the comparison of study group i.e. patients of urolithiasis. RESULTS: Total (43.5% persons were having stones in upper urinary tract. The mean age (+/-SD of the study group was 31.5 for the males and 34.5 for the females. In control group it was 30.4 males and 30.2 for the females. The overall ratio of M/F was 1.5:1.0 in stone former (Study group group and 2.1:1.0 in control group. Most (82.5% of stone former persons were in lower and middle socioeconomic group. 65.2% persons in stone former group were taking water less than 2 liters per day while in normal control group it was 48%. Milk and milk products consumption was very high in stone formers i.e. 34/46(73.9%. Pain in the flanks is the first symptom of upper urinary tract calculi. Haematuria and burning during micturition were present in 75% and 50% patients respectively. Pain during micturition was in 75% of the stone formers. Urinary pH was mostly acidic in stone formers. The pH of urine in stone formers was 5.40±0.05 whereas in control group it was 6.34±0.08. In our study we found that most of the stones formed in normal acidic urine pH were composed of mainly calcium oxalate as dominant component while in alkaline urine at pH 6 to 8 triple phosphate is the major stone component. Uric acid is mainly present in stones formed in acidic urine. 24 Hours urine volume was significantly low in stone formers (750±156ml than in normal individuals (1250±250ml. S. Calcium level was also raised marginally

  5. Urinary Peptide Levels in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    Mungli Prakash

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peptide levels in urine are found to be decreased in renal failure. In the current study urinary peptide levels were determined in chronic renal failure (CRF patients. Method: 86 CRF patients and 80 healthy controls were selected for the study. Urinary proteins and peptide levels were determined by spectrophotometer based Lowry and Bradford methods. Urinary creatinine levels were determined by clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: There was significant decrease in urinary peptide levels in CRF patients and Urinary % peptides were significantly decreased in CRF patients as compared to healthy controls. Urinary % peptides correlated negatively with proteinuria. Conclusion: we have found decrease in urinary peptides and % urinary peptides in CRF patients and possibly measurement of % urinary peptides may possibly serve as better indicator in early detection of impairment in renal function.

  6. Use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection in women undergoing surgery for urinary incontinence

    Guldberg, Rikke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Brostrøm, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection (UTI) before and after surgery for urinary incontinence (UI); and for those with use of antibiotics before surgery, to estimate the risk of treatment for a postoperative UTI, relative to those without use of antibiotics...

  7. Recurrence of urinary retention secondary to retroverted gravid uterus

    Shuichi Ono

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although urinary retention caused by the retroverted gravid uterus is uncommon, acute urinary retention is an emergency condition. Cases: We present here two cases of acute urinary retention at 12 weeks’ gestation secondary to retroverted gravid uterus. Although some preventive measures were suggested to the patients, recurrences of urinary retention occurred during the following 2-3 weeks and in their next pregnancies. Conclusion: In cases that urinary retention due to retroverted gravid uterus once occurred, we have to pay attention to the recurrence of urinary retention during the next pregnancies.

  8. Urinary tract injuries in children

    As shown by literature data, abdominal trauma in children is responsible for 14% of deaths, whereas in adults for 10%. Although abdominal traumas in children can be severe and lead to massive blood loss, most children die because of accompanying traumas of the thorax and head. It validates the surgical rule concerning abdominal traumas 'investigate aggressively, manage conservatively'. Posttraumatic injury of the urinary system is not frequent in children and its specificity (compared with adults), depends on greater susceptibility to external aggressive factors. Blunt trauma is the cause of renal parenchyma injury and acceleration/deceleration injury affects the excretory system and vessels. Extension mechanism is the cause of ureter avulsion and/or thrombus formation in stretched renal vessels- it is characteristic in children with non-accidental traumas. Bladder and urethra injuries are rare in children. During car accidents, a rupture of full bladder (seat belt injury) or bladder perforation by fractured bones of the pelvis is possible. We analyzed all hospitalizations of abdominal trauma in our surgical ward in the year 2004 (70 cases). Renal injuries were found in 6 children (8.6%). Thanks to five-year clinical experience of our hospital, on the average only 1-2 cases per annum needed operation. The management of renal injuries involves first of all conservative treatment. This publication has educational character and may serve as a valuable reminder of the useful knowledge in daily cooperation between the emergency room, radiology department and surgical ward. Based on available literature from recent few years, we quote suggested renal injuries classifications and procedures.This publication contains only images from our department of radiology archives. Clinical symptoms are often not appropriate for blunt abdominal traumas diagnosis. Owing to clinical status, which is difficult to interpret, fast and complete radiological diagnosis is necessary for

  9. Imaging of urinary bladder tumors

    Full text: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with urinary bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common cancer in males. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype of urothelial tumour accounting for approximately 90% of all urothelial cancers. It is typically observed in men aged 50-70 years with history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, with high incidence of recurrence, requires rigorous follow-up but have a relatively good prognosis. Other bladder neoplasm include squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-15% mainly according to geographic location; adenocarcinoma - less than 2% /both occurring in the context of chronic bladder infection and irritation/; mesenchymal tumors in 5%, with the most common examples being rhabdomyosarcoma in children and leiomyosarcoma in adults. More rare mesenchymal tumors include paraganglioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma and solitary fibrous tumor which have no specific typical imaging findings to be differentiated. Multidetector computed tomography urography is an efficient tool for diagnosis and follow-up in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and it can be considered the primary radiologic method for detection, staging and assessment of the entire urothelium regarding the multicentric nature of TCC. MRI is rapidly expanding modality of choice especially in locally staging the tumor and in controversies. Accurate TNM staging is primordial in choosing treatment and prognosis for patients with bladder carcinoma. Correct interpretation and classification of the tumour is helpful for the urologists to determine further management in these cases. The learning objectives of the presentation are: to illustrate the spectrum of CT and MRI findings and to assess their clinical value in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and some other bladder neoplasm; to discuss the TNM staging based on the imaging findings; to be

  10. Clinical Significance of MR Analysis on Pediatric Upper Urinary Tract Obstruction%小儿上尿路梗阻的MR分析及临床意义

    徐晓院; 李胜凯; 廖承阳

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨小儿上尿路梗阻磁共振水成像(MRU)的影像学表现及临床意义。方法对31例上尿路梗阻患儿进行MRU检查,诊断结果与术后结果对照。结果 MRU诊断肾盂输尿管连接部狭窄16例,输尿管下段结石5例,重复肾重复输尿管6例,先天性巨输尿管4例。 MRU诊断结果与手术结果一致,小儿上尿路梗阻定性诊断率为100%。结论 MRU水成像无创,诊断率高,是诊断小儿上尿路梗阻的理想方法,为小儿上尿路梗阻手术治疗提供依据。%Objective: To explore the magnetic resonance urography (MRU) performance and it's clinical significance of pediatric upper urinary tract obstruction. Methods: The MRU imaging was done on 35 cases of patients with upper urinary tract obstruction, the results of MRU imaging were compared with the postoperative results. Results:MRU imaging diagnosed 16 cases of ureteropelvic junction obstruction,5 cases of lower ureteral calculi,6 cases of duplex kidney and ureter abnormalities and 4 cases of congenital megaloureter,the results of MRU imaging were in accordance with the surgical results,the topical and qualitative diagnosis accuracy was 100%of pediatric upper urinary tract obstruction. Conclusion:The MRU imaging is noninvasive and it has high diagnostic rate,it is the ideal method for the diagnosis of pediatric upper urinary tract obstruction,and it can provide the basis for surgical treatment of pediatric upper urinary tract obstruction.

  11. Urinary infection before and after prostatectomy

    Pourmand Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of pre and post prostatectomy related urinary tract in-fection and its correlation with peri-operative events, we studied 120 patients who underwent pros-tatectomy due to benign prostatic hypertrophy from September 2005 to September 2006. Urine cultures were performed before the operations, after a week, and three months later. Data including prostate volume, prostatic specific antigen (PSA, post voiding residue (PVR and histopathological reports as well as the duration of urinary leak, bladder irrigation, hospitalization, and catheterization were studied. The mean age of the studied patients was 70.5 ± 8 years. Significant preoperative bac-teriuria was revealed in 18 (15% patients of whom 14(77% patients developed negative cultures following the operation. Postoperative bacteriuria was detected in 9(7.5% patients who negative urine cultures preoperatively. Pre and post operative micro-organisms were different in the majority of the cases. The mean PSA was higher in patients with a positive history of infection. Following prostatectomy, patients with positive urine cultures had significantly longer urinary leakage, cathe-terization, and hospital stays compared with those who remained culture negative. We conclude that the incidence of positive urine culture pri-prostatectomy for BPH can be improved by appropriate antibiotic therapy, and the risk factors for postoperative urinary infection include preoperative infec-tion, prolonged urinary leakage, catheterization, and hospital stay. The elevated PSA may be a risk factor.

  12. Characteristic plain radiographic and intravenous urographic findings of bladder calculi formed over a hair nidus: a case report

    We present the characteristic plain radiographic and intravenous urographic (IVU) findings of calculus formed over a hair. A 66-year-old man who had been quadriplegic for 40 years because of vertebral injury was admitted for further evaluation of frequent urinary tract infection. Plain radiography showed a linear, serpiginous calcification in the lower abdomen, and IVU revealed a round filling defect with linear radiopacity in the bladder, suggesting calculus. The gross appearance of the stone after extraction demonstrated that calcification had formed over a hair

  13. Herbs In Treatment Of Urinary Tract Infections

    Manish Wasamwar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that urinary tract is very common source of infection and UTIs are second most common reason people visit their doctors each year. Escherichia coli is responsible for large majority of UTIs. UTIs is most commonly diagnosed bacterial infection in woman. Population at risk of complication include older woman, pregnant woman. Continuous antibiotics prophylaxis are used to treat and prevent recurrent urinary tract infections, frequent antibiotic use can result in vaginal and intestinal dysbiosis as well as antibiotic resistance. Thus, it is desirable to seek alternative methods of prevention and treatment of simple UTIs. Few herbal antimicrobial agents Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry, Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry; Blueberry, Berberine, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (Bearberry are proved to be very effective in preventing and treating urinary tract infections.

  14. Urinary infections in children: main radiological alterations

    The authors present 120 cases of urinary tract infection in children. Radiological evaluation of every child with urinary tract infection included both excretory urography and voiding cyst urethrography. Fifty eight percent of the children were found to have urinary anomalies. Reflux was present in 26.6% of the cases and congenital anomalies in 25%. Among the latter, duplication of collecting system and pyeloureteral and ureterovesical stenosis were the more frequent findings. Hypo tony of the collecting systems, loss of cortical renal tissue and irregularities of the renal contour were the main radiological signs. The delay in performing the radiological evaluation (46% of the children presenting radiological abnormalities were examined only one year after the beginning of the symptoms) contributed to a greater incidence of irreversible lesions, showing therefore that it should be done immediately. A scheme for radiological investigation is also proposed. (author)

  15. Differences in urinary trichloroethylene metabolites of animals.

    Ogata,Masana

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences in urinary excretion of trichloroethylene were studied in rabbits, rats and mice. Trichloretylene (1 m mole/kg was injected intra-peritoneally, then urinary trichloroacetic acid and trichloroethanol glucuronide were measured. The results were: 1. The ratio of total excretion of trichloroethylene metabolites to the administered trichloroethylene decreased in the order of mice, rats and rabbits. 2. The ratio of total trichloroethanol to trichloroacetic acid in urine decreased in the order of rabbits (69.2, mice (12.8 and rats (2.3. The high ratio in rabbits was due to the extremely small amount of trichloroacetic acid in the urine. 3. Differences in these two urinary metabolites in the three kinds of animals and in human subjects were discussed.

  16. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  17. Lower urinary tract symptoms after subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common after hysterectomy and increase after menopause. We aimed to compare subtotal with total abdominal hysterectomy regarding LUTS, including urinary incontinence (UI) subtypes, 14 years after hysterectomy. Main results from ...

  18. Radiology of trauma to kidney and lower urinary tract

    The contents are trauma to kidney, imaging of kidney trauma, management of renal trauma, delayed complications, trauma to the lower urinary tract, trauma to urinary bladder, radiologic diagnosis, ethiology of blunt bladder injury, urethal injury (6 refs.)

  19. Binary Vegetative Management of the Lower Urinary Tract Function

    Vadim B. Berdichevskii

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the neurophysiology of the bladder and the lower urinary tract function and discuss logical concepts for the development of novel drug therapy for patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  20. Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria in Pregnancy.

    Glaser, Alexander P; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Bacteriuria during pregnancy may be classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria, infections of the lower urinary tract (cystitis), or infections of the upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis). Lower tract bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis in pregnancy, which is itself associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women should be screened for the presence of bacteriuria early in pregnancy. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated, and antimicrobial choice in pregnancy should reflect safety for both the mother and the fetus. After treatment of bacteriuria, patients should be followed closely due to risk of recurrent bacteriuria. PMID:26475951

  1. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M;

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly of...... different activity by comparing it to serum GH, serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and clinical activity. There were highly significant, positive correlations between urinary GH and serum GH, serum IGF-I as well as clinical activity score (p < 0.00005), although some overlap between the groups was...

  2. Urinary capillariosis in six dogs from Italy

    A. Mariacher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from Italy. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica. and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals.

  3. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Farzana Hamid; Md. Rafiqul Islam; Nibedeta Paul; Nadia Nusrat; Rafia Parveen

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species) and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an importa...

  4. Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    BALAT, Ayse

    1999-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized children, and the urinary tract is one of the most common sites of these infections. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 1,221 children discharged with a diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) from July 1, 1991 to June 30, 1994. Of the 1,221 UTIs, there were 137 (11.2%) cases of nosocomial UTI (NUTI) in 136 patients. NUTI accounted for 0.28% of all discharges (48, 382 patients) at a single institution...

  5. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  6. Pivmecillinam treatment of chronic urinary tract infection.

    Kalager, T; Bøe, E; Digranes, A; Høisaether, P; Solberg, C O

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with chronic urinary tract infections were treated with 400 mg pivmecillinam orally three times daily for 10 to 15 days. The diagnosis was confirmed by a history of cystitis or cystopyelitis four to six times annually, microscopy of urine sediment, and growth of pathogens in urine specimens obtained by suprapubic bladder puncture. Three days, three and six weeks after completion of therapy the success rates were 24/28, 20/28 and 19/28 respectively. Pivmecillinam was well tolerated. Two patients developed nausea and vomiting. Other side-effects were not observed. Pivmecillinam is a useful drug in the treatment of chronic urinary tract infections. PMID:204581

  7. Does the Urinary Microbiome Play a Role in Urgency Urinary Incontinence and Its Severity?

    Karstens, Lisa; Asquith, Mark; Davin, Sean; Stauffer, Patrick; Fair, Damien; Gregory, W. Thomas; Rosenbaum, James T.; McWeeney, Shannon K.; Nardos, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Traditionally, the urinary tract has been thought to be sterile in the absence of a clinically identifiable infection. However, recent evidence suggests that the urinary tract harbors a variety of bacterial species, known collectively as the urinary microbiome, even when clinical cultures are negative. Whether these bacteria promote urinary health or contribute to urinary tract disease remains unknown. Emerging evidence indicates that a shift in the urinary microbiome may play an important role in urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). The goal of this prospective pilot study was to determine how the urinary microbiome is different between women with and without UUI. We also sought to identify if characteristics of the urinary microbiome are associated with UUI severity. Methods: We collected urine from clinically well-characterized women with UUI (n = 10) and normal bladder function (n = 10) using a transurethral catheter to avoid bacterial contamination from external tissue. To characterize the resident microbial community, we amplified the bacterial 16S rRNA gene by PCR and performed sequencing using Illumina MiSeq. Sequences were processed using the workflow package QIIME. We identified bacteria that had differential relative abundance between UUI and controls using DESeq2 to fit generalized linear models based on the negative binomial distribution. We also identified relationships between the diversity of the urinary microbiome and severity of UUI symptoms with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: We successfully extracted and sequenced bacterial DNA from 95% of the urine samples and identified that there is a polymicrobial community in the female bladder in both healthy controls and women with UUI. We found the relative abundance of 14 bacteria significantly differed between control and UUI samples. Furthermore, we established that an increase in UUI symptom severity is associated with a decrease in microbial diversity in women with UUI

  8. Urinary Peptide Levels in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    Mungli Prakash; Phani, Nagaraj M; Kavya R; Supriya M

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Peptide levels in urine are found to be decreased in renal failure. In the current study urinary peptide levels were determined in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients. Method: 86 CRF patients and 80 healthy controls were selected for the study. Urinary proteins and peptide levels were determined by spectrophotometer based Lowry and Bradford methods. Urinary creatinine levels were determined by clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: There was significant decrease in urinary pepti...

  9. The innate immune response during urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis

    Spencer, John David; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Becknell, Brian; Watson, Joshua; Hains, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite its proximity to the fecal flora, the urinary tract is considered sterile. The precise mechanisms by which the urinary tract maintains sterility are not well understood. Host immune responses are critically important in the antimicrobial defense of the urinary tract. During recent years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune homeostasis of the kidney and urinary tract. Dysfunctions in these immune mechanisms may result in acute d...

  10. Current Trends in the Management of Difficult Urinary Catheterizations

    Willette, Paul A.; Coffield, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Routine urinary catheter placement may cause trauma and poses a risk of infection. Male catheterization, in particular, can be difficult, especially in patients with enlarged prostate glands or other potentially obstructive conditions in the lower urinary tract. Solutions to problematic urinary catheterization are not well known and when difficult catheterization occurs, the risk of failed catheterization and concomitant complications increase. Repeated and unsuccessful attempts at urinary ca...

  11. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Agarwala, Sandeep [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Prerna; Kumar, Sunesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, New Delhi (India)

    2006-10-15

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  12. Rho kinase : a target for treating urinary bladder dysfunction?

    Peters, Stephan L. M.; Schmidt, Martina; Michel, Martin C.

    2006-01-01

    Urinary incontinence and other urinary storage symptoms are frequent in the general population but available treatments have limited efficacy and tolerability. Rho kinase (ROCK) has a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction, including that of the urinary bladder. Recent experimen

  13. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  14. 21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.1340 Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to measure glucosuria (glucose in...

  15. Current Trends in the Management of Difficult Urinary Catheterizations

    Willette, Paul A.; Coffield, Scott K

    2012-01-01

    Routine urinary catheter placement may cause trauma and poses a risk of infection. Male catheterization, in particular, can be difficult, especially in patients with enlarged prostate glands orother potentially obstructive conditions in the lower urinary tract. Solutions to problematic urinary catheterization are not well known and when difficult catheterization occurs, the risk of failedcatheterization and concomitant complications increase. Repeated and unsuccessful attempts aturinary cathe...

  16. [Ketamine-associated urinary tract damage].

    Chen, Wei-hao; Guan, Zhi-chen

    2011-08-18

    Ketamine is widely used as an anesthetic during surgical procedures in both animals and humans. As its unique effects of inducing the dissociative hallucinatory,vivid dreams, out-of-body experiences, and delirium, it has diverted from legitimate uses to the illicit drug market, and abusing ketamine has become a serious social problem. The abusers may use ketamine alone or mixe it with other drugs to get an intense pleasure. There are case reports from all over the world in recent years that abusing ketamine may induce severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and a variety of anatomical and functional lesions can be found in the urinary tract if further examinations are administrated. There is no universally recognized treatment protocols for this syndrome. Ketamine cessation or even reduction is the most effective treatment to prevent deterioration of the urinary tract, and intravesical instillation of hyaluranic acid (cystitstat) and oral pentosan polysulphate (elmiron) may take effect. The pathogenesis of ketamine-associated urinary tract destruction is unclear, and further study is needed. PMID:21844983

  17. Urinary Incontinence: Causes and Methods of Evaluation

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the third of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. Here, the author introduces the types and physiology of urinary incontinence. The author also…

  18. Preventing urinary incontinence during pregnancy and postpartum

    Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Lose, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common condition in association with pregnancy. Incident UI in pregnancy or postpartum are significant risk factors for UI later in life. Epidemiological studies on UI during pregnancy and postpartum list numerous variables associated with UI. For women, the main...

  19. Correlates of urinary incontinence in pregnancy

    Hvidman, Lone; Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, S.;

    2002-01-01

    In a population sample, the period prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) during pregnancy was found to be 19.9% and 24.1% among 352 nulliparous and 290 primiparous women, respectively. The first UI episode ever was experienced by 16.7% and 7.0% during the two last trimesters of the first...

  20. [Rare differential diagnosis of urinary incontinence].

    Coutty, Nadège; Dubreucq, Sylvie; Delahousse, Guy; Cosson, Michel

    2003-04-01

    The authors report the case of a 55-year-old woman with prolapse presenting a differential diagnosis of urinary incontinence: a peritoneo-vaginal fistula with serous discharge in a patient with ascites and a history of hysterectomy. The only cases of peritoneo-vaginal fistula reported in the literature were discovered during extra-uterine pregnancy after hysterectomy. PMID:12765075

  1. Cigarette Smoking and Urinary Organic Sulfides 

    JIANLE; CAOWEN-JUN

    2000-01-01

    In order to observe how cigarette smoking influences levels of thio-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid(TTCA),high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) was used to detect TTCA in urine from 18 healthy male volunteers.At the sme time,the total amout of urinary organic sulfides was determined by the iodine azide test(IAT).Nine of the volunteers had smoking higtories(5 to 10 cigarettes per day,as the smoking group),and the rest only occasionally smoke (1 to 2 cigarettes per month,as the control group).Samples were collected in the early morning (limosis)and 90 minutes after smoking a cigarette.Results showed that smoking a single cigaretter could elevate the level of urinary organic sulfides both in the smoking and control groups,while a smoking habit appeared to have no significant influence on the urinary organic sulfide level.No significant cumulative effect of cigarette smoking on urinary organic sulfides was found,The influence of cigarette on uinary organic sulfides was temporary.The results suggest that cigaretter smoking might be a confounding factor in biomontoring the levels of carbon disulfide in exposed workers.

  2. Pyoderma gangrenosum and urinary tract infection

    Chopra A

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of pyoderma gangrenosum is reported in a 52 - year - old man who had skin lesions without any association. On investigation urinary tract infection was detected. Treatment of UTI led to spontaneous healing of the lesions in short period thus avoiding the need of oral corticosteroids.

  3. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Farzana Hamid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

  4. Best pharmacological practice: urinary tract infections.

    Nicolle, Lindsay

    2003-05-01

    Urinary tract infection is the most frequent bacterial infection. Acute uncomplicated urinary infection and acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis occur in young women with normal genitourinary tracts. Empirical short-course therapy is preferred for the management of acute cystitis, but evolving resistance requires continuing reassessment of optimal antimicrobial selection. Empirical trimethoprim or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole has been recommended, but increasing resistance to these agents suggests that pivmecillinam, nitrofurantoin and perhaps fosfomycin trometamol should be considered. Although flouroquinolones are effective as short-course therapy, widespread empirical use of these agents should be discouraged because of potential promotion of resistance. For acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis, flouroquinolones are the empirical oral treatment of choice, although urine culture results should direct continuing therapy. Complicated urinary tract infection occurs in men or women of all ages with underlying abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Treatment of complicated urinary infection is individualised, taking into consideration the underlying abnormality and susceptibilities of the infecting organism. Asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be treated except in pregnant women, in patients prior to undergoing an invasive surgical procedure, or renal transplant recipients in the early postrenal transplant period. PMID:12739995

  5. Measuring eosinophiluria, urinary eosinophil cationic protein and urinary interleukin-5 in patients with Lupus Nephritis

    Brito, Tereza Neuma Souza; Vilar, Maria José; Almeida, José Bruno; Faria, Ana Luiza Souza Brito; Medeiros, Sarah Dantas Viana; Medeiros, Maria Carmo Cardoso; Silva, Edna Marques Araújo; Silva, Vanessa Marques Araújo; Souza, Luanda Bárbara F Canário; Arruda, Luisa Karla P; Costa, Tatiana Xavier; Junior, Geraldo Barroso Cavalcanti; Oliveira, Antonio G; Sales, Valéria Soraya Farias

    2014-01-01

    Background Urine is increasingly becoming an attractive biological fluid in clinical practice due to being an easily obtained, non-invasive sampling method, containing proteins and peptides. The aim of this study was to investigate eosinophiluria, urinary eosinophil cationic protein (uECP) and urinary IL-5 (uIL-5) in patients with Lupus Nephritis. Methods Seventy-four patients with SLE—20 with clinical and laboratory evidence of lupus nephritis (LN group) and 54 without evidence of renal invo...

  6. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B;

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p <0.01). Four patients had...... mechanism of hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia in patients with medullary sponge kidney.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  7. Semantics, Logics, and Calculi

    Hanne Riis Nielson and Flemming Nielson turned 60 in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Congratulations! To celebrate the 60th birthdays, and to honor the birthday children, a colloquium was held at the Technical University of Denmark on January 8, 2016, to deliver the Festschrift and presentations of ...

  8. Transureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for ureteral calculi%输尿管硬镜钬激光治疗输尿管结石

    石红林; 朱晓博; 丁春霞; 张素琴; 魏金星

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect and evaluate the clinical value of transureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for ureteral calculi. Method: A total of 406 cases of ureteral calculi were included in the study, which treated by Wolf F8/9. 8 ureteroscope, Germany Wavelight Auriga holmium laser machine, 365 — 600 μm fiber, with a pulse energy of 500—1 200 mJ and frequency 5 —12 Hz. All were followed up for 1 — 30 months to analyze and summarize the treatment effect. Result: Holmium laser lithotripsy was successfully completed in 387 cases at one time, except the stone migration to renal pelvis in 9 cases, ureteral stenosis in 10 cases, which caused uret-eroscopy failing to reach the stone, so other methods was selected. The operation time was 8 — 63 minutes with a mean of 21 minutes. Postoperative complications in 301 cases with hematuria, disappeared in 3 days, except 1 case up to 13 days; in 316 cases with dysuria, lasted 1 — 6 clays; fever in 18 cases, normal in 3 days, double J stent was retained after operation for 14 — 150 days with a mean of 30 days. 4 cases of kidney stones were treated by ESWL. Stone free rate was 89. 29% (100112) in upper ureter, 95. 10%(136/143) in middle, 98. 68% (149/151) in lower part. Conclusion: Holmium laser lithotripsy under ureteroscope for ureteral calculi is mini-invasive and effective. Using high frequency and low energy can reduce the incidence of upper ureteral calculi fefowing to kidney.%目的:通过分析输尿管硬镜钬激光输尿管结石的治疗效果,评价其临床应用价值.方法:应用Wolf F8/9.8输尿管硬镜,德国Wavelight Auriga钬激光治疗仪,365~600 μm光纤,激光能量500~1 200 mJ,频率5~l2Hz治疗406例输尿管结石患者,随防1~30个月,分析总结治疗效果.结果:除9例输尿管镜检查时结石回流入肾内,无法碎石,10例因输尿管结石远端狭窄,输尿管镜未能到达结石部位改其它方法治疗,余病人均一次成功.手术时间8~63 min

  9. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  10. Procalcitonin determined at emergency department as an early indicator of progression to septic shock in patient with sepsis associated with ureteral calculi

    Ko, Young Hwii; Ji, Yoon Seob; Park, Sin-Youl; Kim, Su Jin; Song, Phil Hyun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: To investigate the role of initial procalcitonin (PCT) level as an early predictor of septic shock for the patient with sepsis induced by acute pyelonephritis (APN) secondary to ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods: The data from 49 consecutive patients who met criteria of sepsis due to APN following ureteral stone were collected and divided into two groups: with (n=15) or without (n=34) septic shock. The clinical variables including PCT level for this outcome were retrospectively compared by univariate analysis, followed by multivariable logistic regression model. Results: All subjects had hydronephrosis, and were hospitalized with the mean of 11.8 days (3–42 days). The mean size of the ureteral stones was 7.5mm (3–30mm), and 57% were located in upper ureter. At univariate analysis, patients with septic shock were significantly older, a higher proportion had hypertension, lower platelet count and serum albumin level, higher CRP and PCT level, and higher positive blood culture rate. Multivariate models indicated that lower platelet count and higher PCT level are independent risk factors (p=0.043 and 0.046, respectively). In ROC curve, the AUC was significantly wider in PCT (0.929), compared with the platelet count (0.822, p=0.004). At the cut-off of 0.52ng/mL, the sensitivity and specificity were 86.7% and 85.3%. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated elevated initial PCT levels as an early independent predictor to progress into septic shock in patients with sepsis associated with ureteral calculi. PMID:27256181

  11. Pre- and Post-operative cortical function of the kidney with staghorn calculi assessed by sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy

    sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy consisting of the cortical image and DMSA renal uptake was used to assess the pre- and post-operative renal function in 39 patients with staghorn calculi or complicated calculi occupying more than 2 major calices. Extended pyelolithotomy was performed on 14 patients, nephrolithotomy on 14 patients, pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy on 7 patients, and partial nephrectomy on 4 patients. Nine out of 14 patients who underwent pyelolithotomy and 4 out of 14 patients who underwent nephrolithotomy showed an increase or no change in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney. However, there was no increase in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the patients who underwent pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy or partial nephrectomy. Eight percent of the preoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney seems to be the absolute level for predicting a postoperative recovery of the kidney function. The contralateral kidney function can affect the postoperative recovery of the function in the operative side. It seems to be hard to expect an increment in the DMSA renal uptake postoperatively when the ratio of DMSA renal uptake in the operative side to the total DMSA renal uptake is less than 20%. At least 6 months of the follow-up period is necessary for the evaluation of the kidney function in the operative side. DMSA renal scintigraphy is a useful modality to assess pre- and post-operative kidney function in nephrolithiasis from the point of both morphological and functional changes in the renal cortex. (author)

  12. Pre- and post-operative cortical function of the kidney with staghorn calculi assessed by sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy

    Kawamura, Juichi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-08-01

    sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy consisting of the cortical image and DMSA renal uptake was used to assess the pre- and post-operative renal function in 39 patients with staghorn calculi or complicated calculi occupying more than 2 major calices. Extended pyelolithotomy was performed on 14 patients, nephrolithotomy on 14 patients, pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy on 7 patients, and partial nephrectomy on 4 patients. Nine out of 14 patients who underwent pyelolithotomy and 4 out of 14 patients who underwent nephrolithotomy showed an increase or no change in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney. However, there was no increase in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the patients who underwent pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy or partial nephrectomy. Eight percent of the preoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney seems to be the absolute level for predicting a postoperative recovery of the kidney function. The contralateral kidney function can affect the postoperative recovery of the function in the operative side. It seems to be hard to expect an increment in the DMSA renal uptake postoperatively when the ratio of DMSA renal uptake in the operative side to the total DMSA renal uptake is less than 20%. At least 6 months of the follow-up period is necessary for the evaluation of the kidney function in the operative side. DMSA renal scintigraphy is a useful modality to assess pre- and post-operative kidney function in nephrolithiasis from the point of both morphological and functional changes in the renal cortex.

  13. Current practices in the management of patients with ureteral calculi in the emergency room of a university hospital

    Oliver Rojas Claros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Urinary lithiasis is a common disease. The aim of the present study is to assess the knowledge regarding the diagnosis, treatment and recommendations given to patients with ureteral colic by professionals of an academic hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five physicians were interviewed about previous experience with guidelines regarding ureteral colic and how they manage patients with ureteral colic in regards to diagnosis, treatment and the information provided to the patients. RESULTS: Thirty-six percent of the interviewed physicians were surgeons, and 64% were clinicians. Forty-one percent of the physicians reported experience with ureterolithiasis guidelines. Seventy-two percent indicated that they use noncontrast CT scans for the diagnosis of lithiasis. All of the respondents prescribe hydration, primarily for the improvement of stone elimination (39.3%. The average number of drugs used was 3.5. The combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids was reported by 54% of the physicians (i.e., 59% of surgeons and 25.6% of clinicians used this combination of drugs (p = 0.014. Only 21.3% prescribe alpha blockers. CONCLUSION: Reported experience with guidelines had little impact on several habitual practices. For example, only 21.3% of the respondents indicated that they prescribed alpha blockers; however, alpha blockers may increase stone elimination by up to 54%. Furthermore, although a meta-analysis demonstrated that hydration had no effect on the transit time of the stone or on the pain, the majority of the physicians reported that they prescribed more than 500 ml of fluid. Dipyrone, hyoscine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opioids were identified as the most frequently prescribed drug combination. The information regarding the time for the passage of urinary stones was inconsistent. The development of continuing education programs regarding ureteral colic in the emergency room is necessary.

  14. Spiral CT in urinary tract reconstruction in the upper urinary tract obstruction in the application of%螺旋CT尿路三维重建在上尿路梗阻性病变中的应用

    王勇

    2012-01-01

      Objective: To investigate the spiral CT 3D reconstruction in the elderly upper urinary tract obstructive diseases in clinical application. Methods:100 cases of upper urinary tract obstruction in patients with IVU compared with B ultrasound and spiral CT scan and urinary tract reconstruction CT angiography if needed for calculating the three kinds of examination of the nature and location of the coincidence rate of diagnosis for operation postoperative pathology and gravel as the gold standard contrast B ultrasound IVU and CT axial imaging combined with CTU positioning diagnostic accuracy and coincidence rate of qualitative diagnosis. Results:the 100 cases were diagnosed, including 69 cases of ureteral calculi, ureteral carcinoma 3 cases, benign ureteral stenosis in 16 cases, 7 cases of bladder cancer, congenital abnormality in 8 cases, were treated with operation pathology after surgery and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy ( ESWL ) confirmed the diagnosis of intraoperative findings and spiral CT scan results consistent with. Conclusion:spiral CT three-dimensional reconstruction of three-dimensional imaging of the urinary tract with high resolution short examination time and minimal invasiveness has become the diagnosis of upper urinary tract obstruction the most valuable examination method.%  目的:探讨螺旋CT三维重建技术在老年上尿路梗阻病变中的临床应用价值。方法:对100例上尿路梗阻患者同期进行B 超IVU 及螺旋 CT 薄层扫描和尿路三维重建必要时行 CT 血管造影计算这三种检查的定性和定位诊断符合率以手术术后病理及碎石为金标准对比 B 超 IVU及CT 轴位像结合CTU 的定位诊断符合率以及定性诊断符合率。结果:本组100例均获明确诊断,其中输尿管结石69例,输尿管癌3例,输尿管良性狭窄16例,膀胱癌7例,先天异常8例,均行手术治疗术后病理及体外冲击波碎石术(ESWL)证实

  15. Clinical study of urinary excretion of Ga-67

    Ga-67 urinary excretion was examined in 59 patients. The 72-hour urinary excretion rate ranged from 4.3 to 67.8% of the injected dose. Within the first 24 hours, 60.9% of the 72-hour urinary excretion was excreted. There was no significant difference in the Ga-67 urinary excretion rate between males and females, nor between the Ga-67 positive and negative cases. A significant negative correlation was found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and the unsaturated iron binding capacity. Notably, four patients with hyperferremia, which was considered secondary to leukemia and/or chemotherapy or liver cirrhosis, excreted more than 46.8% of Ga-67 within 72 hours. A significant negative correlation was also found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and age. Urinary excretion of Ga-67 may be related to the glomerular filtration rate, which decreases with age

  16. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Whitcomb EL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative

  17. Effective Factors on Urinary Incontinence in Natural Menopausal Women

    Shohani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infections and urinary incontinence are common urogenital problems affecting 7 - 10% of menopausal women. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to quantify effective factors on urinary incontinence in a cohort of menopausal women. Patients and Methods A sample of 150 menopausal women (natural menopause for at least 12 months were recruited from 13 healthcare centers in Ilam, Iran. Data regarding diagnosis, medical history and clinical symptoms were collected using a structured questionnaire and screening patient medical records. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between urinary incontinence and other variables. Results Multiple atrophic urogenital changes were identified including vaginal dryness (42%, decreased libido (41.3%, dyspareunia (16%, vaginal itching (11.3% and vaginal discharge and burning (10.7%. The prevalence of urinary frequency, stress urinary incontinence, nocturia and urge urinary incontinence were 33.3%, 28.7%, 22.7% and 17.3%, respectively. A multivariate logistic model found that urinary infection (OR 5.6; 95% CI: 2.6 - 11.58, cystocele (OR 1.73; 95% CI: 1.29 - 2.33 and rectocele (OR 1.47; 95% CI: 1.20 - 1.80 were potential risk factors for incontinence. A significant association was observed between marital status and vaginal atrophy, body mass index and urinary incontinence and parity type and urinary incontinence (P < 0.05 for all. Conclusions Multiple associations existed between atrophic urogenital changes and urinary incontinence. The most significant interaction was between urinary tract infections and urinary incontinence in menopausal women, with urinary tract infections increasing the risk of incontinence by 5.6 fold. We recommend health professionals to focus on early screening of these issues and implement educational programs for women as part of standard practice.

  18. Effect of BMI and urinary pH on urolithiasis and its composition

    Qazi Najeeb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a common urological disease predominantly affecting males. The lifetime risk of urolithiasis varies from 1% to 5% in Asia, 5% to 9% in Europe, 10% to 15% in the USA and 20% to 25% in the middle-east; lowest prevalence is reported from Greenland and Japan. Such differences have been explained on the basis of race, diet and climate factors. Furthermore, changing socio-economic conditions have generated changes in the prevalence, incidence and distribution for age, sex and type of lithiasis in terms of both the site and the chemical as well as the physical composition of the calculi. The aim of our study was to determine the association between body mass index (BMI and urine pH in patients with urolithiasis and the influence of body size, as reflected by the BMI, on the composition. The study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, on urolithiatic patients. The data included patient′s age, sex, BMI, urine pH, serum calcium, serum uric acid, serum creatinine and stone composition. Data from 100 patients, 70 men (70% and 30 women (30%, were analyzed, with 28 patients having normal weight, 38 patients being overweight and 34 patients being obese. The mean age of the patients was 36.58 ± 9.91 years in group I, 40.47 ± 14.48 years in group II and 37.85 ± 12.46 years in group III (P > 0.05. The stone composition was calcium oxalate (CaOx in 66 patients, calcium phosphate (CaP in 60 patients, uric acid (UA in 38 patients, combined calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in 28 patients and three stones in 10 patients. The urinary pH levels (mean ± SD were 7.78 ± 1.49 in group I, 7.15 ± 1.11 in group II and 6.29 ± 1.14 in group III patients (P = 0.0001. Urine pH showed a stepwise decrease with increasing BMI (inverse correlation. Urine pH is inversely related to BMI among patients with urolithiasis, as is the occurrence of urate, calcium oxalate and calcium

  19. Urinary tract infection and indirect hyperbilirubinemia in newborns

    Chamdine Omar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Jaundice is a common problem during the neonatal period. About 60% of the full term and 80% of premature infants develop jaundice. It can be associated with serious illnesses such as Urinary tract infections. Aims : The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of urinary tract infection in newborns with indirect hyperbilirubinemia and to find a relationship with prolonged jaundice. Patients and Methods : We retrospectively evaluated asymptomatic, jaundiced neonates for evidence of a urinary tract infection. Data reviewed including demographic and historical data were included with data of blood studies, radiological evaluation and treatment. Results : 32 neonates of 152 cases had urinary tract infection. Most commonly isolated organisms were Klebsiella and Escherishia coli. Maximum duration of phototherapy was 4 days in the urinary tract infection group versus 7 in the non-urinary tract infection group. Intensive phototherapy was used in 18.7% in the urinary tract infection group versus 29.16% in the non-urinary tract infection group. None of the newborns in the urinary tract infection group underwent exchange transfusion therapy. Conclusion : Urinary tract infection can occur in asymptomatic, jaundiced newborns. Thus, it may be the first in these babies before other signs become evident.

  20. [Urinary infection in the pregnant woman].

    Delcroix, M; Zone, V; Cheront, C; Adam, M H; Duquesne, G; Noel, A M

    1994-05-01

    Urinary tract infections are common during pregnancy. When unrecognized, they can be responsible for complications such as threatened premature labour and impaired intra-uterine development. Detection and appropriate treatment are thus essential. This article reviews the pathophysiology of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and the three major entities involved--different but related to each other--are detailed (significant asymptomatic bacteriuria or SAB, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis), together with their specific treatment. SAB tends to persist during pregnancy, then leading in the absence of treatment to a potentially serious complication (acute pyelonephritis) in approximately one woman in five. SAB should be sought at the first prenatal visit by microscopic and bacteriological examination of a properly obtained urine specimen. Lower genital infections should also be sought and treated, without forgetting to remind the patient of preventive measures (adequate hygiene, sufficient urine output, post-coital micturition, regular bowel habit). PMID:8036390

  1. [Diagnosis of urinary stress incontinence in men].

    Goepel, M

    2014-03-01

    Male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) occur more frequently with increasing age. LUTS can either be caused by benign prostatic syndrome (BPS) and consecutive subvesical obstruction as well as detrusor hyperactivity. On the other hand, stress urinary incontinence is mostly seen after surgical intervention in the pelvis like radical prostatectomy. Also high volume centers report persisting incontinence rates of 2-4 % after radical prostatectomy.The diagnostic procedure in men with LUTS is divided in two steps: basic diagnostics, followed by a conservative treatment option, and extended diagnostic procedures including measurement of bladder pressure during filling and voiding. In addition, radiologic examinations, including voiding cystouretherogram, retrograde cystogram, CT scan, MRI scan, are added according to the severity of the symptoms and the scheduled surgical procedure. According to the guidelines of the DGU, EAU, AUA, and ICS, this extended examination is also mandatory prior to any surgical procedure like suburethral tapes, artificial sphincters, and sacral foramen neuronal stimulators. PMID:24615463

  2. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1), and their...... ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive breast cancer cases and 723 controls) were analyzed. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured using...... enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Study-specific and combined multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated based on tertiles of estrogen metabolites. Multinomial logistic regression models were fit according to hormone receptor status.¿Results: Higher...

  3. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB) is an extremely rare tumor that exhibits aggressive behavior and accounts for approximately less than 1% of all primary bladder tumors. Small cell carcinoma generally occurs in the lung, accounting for 25% of all pulmonary malignancies. SCCUB exhibits a similar microscopic and immunohistochemical appearance to that of small cell carcinoma of the lung. There is no consensus about the standard therapy, owing to its rarity. Surgical resection seems to be the mainstay of treatment for patients with limited stage, together with neoadjuvant or adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. Radiation therapy has same small effect for palliative purposes, as well as being an alternative to radical cystectomy. Patients with advanced stage, although given platinum-based chemotherapy, have a poor prognosis. We herein review epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, pathological features, and current management of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. (author)

  4. MR of the urinary tract in pregnancy

    A report on the application of standard 2D-FT MR combined with RARE-MR-Urography in a pregnant woman with right sided abdominal pain, dilated upper urinary tract and possible stone or inflammatory disease. This technique visualised the complete obstructed ureter in relation to the surrounding organs (uterus, vessels), allows precise diagnosis of the cause of the obstruction and avoids ionising radiation. (orig.)

  5. Urinary porphyrin excretion in hepatitis C infection

    Vogeser, Michael; Jacob, Karl; Zachoval, Reinhart

    1999-01-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in porphyria cutanea tarda in some populations suggests a close link between viral hepatitis and alteration of porphyrin metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence of a role of porphyrinopathies in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to obtain data on the prevalence and patterns of heme metabolism alterations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Urinary porphyrin excretion was prospectively studied in 100 consecutive ou...

  6. The management of childhood urinary incontinence

    Maternik, Michal; Krzeminska, Katarzyna; Zurowska, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The International Children’s Continence Society (ICCS) has undertaken an enormous effort to standardize both the terminology and management of various aspects of incontinence in children, including enuresis, bladder overactivity, dysfunctional voiding and psychological comorbidities. A number of guidelines have been published to aid those involved in the care of children with lower urinary tract symptoms. This review addresses a number of recommended diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, inc...

  7. Urinary Proteomics to Support Diagnosis of Stroke

    Dawson, J.; Walters, M.; Delles, C.; Mischak, H.; Mullen, W

    2012-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis in suspected ischaemic stroke can be difficult. We explored the urinary proteome in patients with stroke (n = 69), compared to controls (n = 33), and developed a biomarker model for the diagnosis of stroke. We performed capillary electrophoresis online coupled to micro-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Potentially disease-specific peptides were identified and a classifier based on these was generated using support vector machine-based software. Candidate biomarkers were seq...

  8. The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis

    The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis was performed in two hundred and five patients at the Clinical Hospital of the University of de State of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), in the period of 1962 to 1982. Clinical, radiological and pathological findings of ten cases of pionephrosis submitted to nephrectomy, and two cases of vesical enlargement by coloncystoplasty were related. Excretory urograms constitutes the most important radiological exam in reaching a diagnosis, followed by retrograde urograms. (author)

  9. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare; only several studies have been reported in the English literature. A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Bladder endoscopy revealed a large polypoid tumor at the bladder base. Transurethral bladder tumorectomy (TUR-BT) was performed. Many TUR-BT specimens were obtained. Histologically, the bladder tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positi...

  10. Primary posterior perineal herniation of urinary bladder

    Kurumboor Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary perineal hernia is a rare clinical condition wherein herniation of viscera occurs through pelvic diaphragm. They are usually mistaken for sciatic hernia, rectal prolapse or other diseases in the perineum. Correct identification of the type of hernia by imaging is crucial for planning treatment. We present a case of primary posterior herniation of urinary bladder and rectal wall through levator ani repaired laparoscopically using a mesh repair.

  11. Improved method to measure urinary alkoxyacetic acids

    Shih, T. S.; Chou, J. S.; Chen, C Y; Smith, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To simplify the current preparation of samples, and to improve the specificity and reliability of the conventional analytical methods to measure urinary alkoxyacetic acids. METHODS: Samples containing alkoxyacetic acids including methoxy, ethoxy, and butoxyacetic acids (MAA, EAA, and BAA) were acidified with HCl and extracted with a mixed solvent of methylene chloride and isopropyl alcohol, then analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). RESULTS: Optimal resul...

  12. Hyperammonaemic coma in ureterosigmoid urinary diversion.

    Oliver, R M; Talbot, S.; Raman, G. V.

    1989-01-01

    We report on a patient with ureterosigmoid anastomosis, who presented with recurrent episodes of confusion, agitation and aggressive behaviour, culminating in coma. Investigations revealed profound hyperammonaemia, which responded to treatment with sodium benzoate and sodium phenylacetate. No definite cause was found for the abnormality, apart from possible urinary tract infection. The patient remains well on a protein restricted diet with mildly elevated levels of plasma ammonia.

  13. Chlamydia and Male Lower Urinary Tract Diseases

    Lee, Young-Suk; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such ...

  14. [Laparoscopy of the upper urinary tract].

    Stepushkin, S P; Chebanov, K O; Chaĭkovskiĭ, V P; Sokolenko, R V; Novikov, S P; Novikov, V O

    2014-01-01

    The upper urinary tract is a wide field for using of laparoscopy. The aim of this work was to analyze retrospectively our experience in the development of laparoscopic techniques of surgical treatment of upper urinary tract pathology. 137 patients with pathology of the upper urinary tract were operated laparoscopically in our department during three years (July 2010 - July 2013). There were performed: nephrectomy--75 (54.7%, nephroureterectomy--3, 2.2%, partial nephrectomy--12 (8.7%), adrenalectomy--11 (8%), resection of the adrenal gland--2 (1.5%), cystectomy--10 : (7.3%) ureterolithotomy--15 (11%) pelviolithotomy--3 (2.2%), pyeloplasty--4 (2.9%) nephropexy--2 (14%). The results were evaluated by the comparative analysis of laparoscopic surgery and similar open interventions that were performed in our clinic. The mean operative time after laparoscopic nephrectomy was 180 min (80-220), the mean blood loss during surgery was 150 ml (50-370). The patients discharged at 4-5 days after operation. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy was performed at an average tumor size 2.7 cm (1.5-3.5). We used warm ischemia in 75% of cases. Its average time was 27 min (9-39), which was significantly greater than in the open resection--17 min (10-27). At the beginning of the development of laparoscopic adrenalectomy the average operative time was 140 min (110-270). In the future, as we got experience, it declined to 70 min (60-90) min. The mean blood loss was 70 ml (range 20-400). After laparoscopic cystectomy, ureterolithotomy, pelviolithotomy and pyeloplastic the patients discharged at 2-3 days. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were not noted. Laparoscopic surgery for treatment of pathology of the upper urinary tract is an alternative to the operations performed by the open approach. The oncological outcomes, functional results and complication rates are comparable for both types of surgery. PMID:25286605

  15. Urinary tract infection by Chryseobacterium indologenes

    G Bhuyar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chryseobacterium species is an uncommon human pathogen although recovered from various sources in the hospital environment. Most infections have been detected in hospitalized patients with severe underlying diseases and who had indwelling devices or implants. Despite their low virulence, chryseobacteria are inherently resistant to many antimicrobial agents. We report a rare case of urinary tract infection by Chryseobacterium indologenes in a young girl, operated for renal calculus and successfully treated with piperacillin-tazobactam combination.

  16. Urinary Tract Infection: How It Happens?

    Silvio Altarac

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs), including cystitis and pyelonephritis, affect a large proportion of the world population and account for substantial morbidity and medical costs. Classification of the UTIs is based on the anatomical level of infection, the grade of severity of infection, the underlying risk factors, and the microbiological findings. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli is the causative agent in 70-95% of community-acquired uroinfections and about 50% of all cases of nosocomial u...

  17. Animal Models of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Jiang, Hai-Hong; Damaser, Margot S.

    2011-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common health problem significantly affecting the quality of life of women worldwide. Animal models that simulate SUI enable the assessment of the mechanism of risk factors for SUI in a controlled fashion, including childbirth injuries, and enable preclinical testing of new treatments and therapies for SUI. Animal models that simulate childbirth are presently being utilized to determine the mechanisms of the maternal injuries of childbirth that lead to S...

  18. Rationalisation of Legionella Urinary Antigen Testing.

    Lynch, Breda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Legionnaires’ is a severe pneumonia, the diagnosis of which can be confirmed by a positive Legionella Urinary Antigen (LUA) test. The British Thoracic Society has specific guidelines for its use. Incorrect LUA test requests can result in false-positive results while accumulating costs. Aims and Objectives: The aim is the rationalisation of LUA testing. The first objective is to educate clinicians on indications for testing reducing unnecessary orders. The second is to develop...

  19. Aquaporins in Urinary Extracellular Vesicles (Exosomes)

    Sayaka Oshikawa; Hiroko Sonoda; Masahiro Ikeda

    2016-01-01

    Since the successful characterization of urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) by Knepper’s group in 2004, these vesicles have been a focus of intense basic and translational research worldwide, with the aim of developing novel biomarkers and therapeutics for renal disease. Along with these studies, there is growing evidence that aquaporins (AQPs), water channel proteins, in uEVs have the potential to be diagnostically useful. In this review, we highlight current knowledge of AQPs in uEVs fro...

  20. Estimation of urinary angiotensin II by radioimmunoassay

    Urine samples were collected from fasting subjects after maintaining posture for 2 hr in early morning. Urinary angiotensin II was extracted with SE-Sephadex. The extracts, after being dissolved in phosphate buffer, pH 7.5, were measured by radioimmunoassay. Recovery, sensitivity and accuracy were found to be satisfactory. The normal values obtained from 6 subjects were 52-280 pg/2 hr. The values were almost normal in essential hypertension and in chronic glomerulonephritis. They were high in 3 out of 6 cases with renovascular hypertension and subsequently dropped after surgery. In 6 cases with primary aldosteronism, very low levels were found. These increased after the removal of adrenal adenomas. No positive correlation between simultaneous plasma and urinary angiotensin samples was apparent. Also no positive correlation between urinary angiotensin and urine volume was found. In renovascular hypertention, during glucose infusion, lower values in urine volume and angiotensin excretion were observed on the stenotic side as compared to the intact side. Thus, the angiotensin excretion rate does not appear to be regulated by arterial angiotensin concentration, but rather by the angiotensin perfusion rate. (author)

  1. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections.

    Schaffer, Jessica N; Pearson, Melanie M

    2015-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium and is well known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls'-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition, which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis. PMID:26542036

  2. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    Liedl, B

    2001-01-01

    In the past few years it has been clearly demonstrated that the concept of bacterial biofilm production permits an understanding and provides some explanation of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. This concept describes the colonization of catheter surfaces and the movement of bacteria against the urinary flow. It explains the antibacterial resistance of these matrix-enclosed sessile populations of bacteria. The catheter encrustation can be observed as mineralizing bacterial biofilm. The differentiation in swarming cells exposing a much higher activity of the enzyme urease is responsible for the predominant role of Proteus mirabilis in obstructing encrustations. The guidelines for the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections were developed over the past decades by clinicians and are still valid. They can now be better understood taking into consideration these new theories. As overuse of urethral catheters and non-compliance of their recommended use are still apparent, educational and surveillance programmes are needed to help maintain good standards of care. PMID:11148750

  3. Recurrent urinary tract infections in females

    Uncomplicated Urinary tract infections are common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, with mean annual incidence of 15% and 10% in those aged 15-39 and 40-79 years, respectively. Urinary tract infection (UTI), with its diverse clinical syndromes and affected host groups, remains one of the most common but widely misunderstood and challenging infectious diseases encountered in clinical practice. Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) present a significant problem for women and a challenge for the doctors who care for them. The diagnosis of uncomplicated UTI can be achieved best by a thorough assessment of patient symptoms with or without the addition of a urine dipstick test. Treatment should be based on the most recent guidelines, taking into account resistance patterns in the local community. The patient who suffers from recurrent UTIs can be treated safely and effectively with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital therapy, or self-initiated treatment. This review article covers the latest trends in the management of recurrent UTI among women. Further research is needed regarding rapid diagnosis of UTI, accurate presumptive identification of patients with resistant pathogens, and development of new antimicrobials for drug-resistant UTI. (author)

  4. Ultrasonographic evaluation of urinary bladder neoplasias

    Nipa Patidar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasound has been shown to be a sensitive method for evaluating patients with chronic obstruction, bladder outlet obstruction, urinary tract infection, renal failure, renal and bladder neoplasm and renal transplants. It is now recommended as the method of choice for preliminary assessment and follow-up of several of these disorders. The objective of the study was to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of ultrasonographic features of neoplastic lesions of urinary bladder. Methods: Clinical impression about the suspected abnormality was obtained from the case papers or from referring by clinical colleagues. Data was recorded under headings like clinical history, clinical examinations, investigations like urine analysis, serum creatinine and blood urea, X-ray of chest and Kidney Urinary Bladder, pelvic and abdominal Ultrasonography, and if require CT scan and guided biopsy. Results: out of total 35 cases 29 were Transitional Cell Carcinoma, 4 were Squamous Cell Carcinoma, One leiomyoma and one was secondary from bronchogenic carcinoma. Most of tumours were irregular in shape in both TCC and SCC patients. Most of tumour showed heterogeneous echo-texture in ultrasonography. While all SCC showed heterogeneous with calcification echo-texture. Most of the cases had residual urine volume was less than 100 cc. Conclusions: The primary advantage of ultrasound over the conventional study was found to be its ability to detect focal or diffuse bladder wall abnormalities in patients who presented with commonest complaint of painless hematuria. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3775-3778

  5. Dynamics of Urinary Calprotectin after Renal Ischaemia

    Ebbing, Jan; Seibert, Felix S.; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Bauer, Frederic; Miller, Kurt; Kempkensteffen, Carsten; Günzel, Karsten; Bachmann, Alexander; Seifert, Hans H.; Rentsch, Cyrill A.; Ardelt, Peter; Wetterauer, Christian; Amico, Patrizia; Babel, Nina; Westhoff, Timm H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urinary calprotectin has been identified as a promising biomarker for acute kidney injury. To date, however, the time-dependent changes of this parameter during acute kidney injury remain elusive. The aim of the present work was to define the time-course of urinary calprotectin secretion after ischaemia/reperfusion-induced kidney injury in comparison to neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin, thereby monitoring the extent of tubular damage in nephron sparing surgery for kidney tumours. Methods: The study population consisted of 42 patients. Thirty-two patients underwent either open or endoscopic nephron sparing surgery for kidney tumours. During the surgery, the renal arterial pedicle was clamped with a median ischaemic time of 13 minutes (interquartile range, 4.5–20.3 minutes) in 26 patients. Ten retro-peritoneoscopic living donor nephrectomy patients and 6 nephron sparing surgery patients in whom the renal artery was not clamped served as controls. Urinary calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin concentrations were repeatedly measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and assessed according to renal function parameters. Results: Urinary concentrations of calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin increased significantly after ischaemia/reperfusion injury, whereas concentrations remained unchanged after nephron sparing surgery without ischaemia/reperfusion injury and after kidney donation. Calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin levels were significantly increased 2 and 8 hours, respectively, post-ischaemia. Both proteins reached maximal concentrations after 48 hours, followed by a subsequent persistent decrease. Maximal neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin and calprotectin concentrations were 9-fold and 69-fold higher than their respective baseline values. The glomerular filtration rate was only transiently impaired at the first post-operative day after ischaemia

  6. Detecting microalbuminuria by urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio

    Jensen, J S; Clausen, P; Borch-Johnsen, K;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin....../creatinine concentration ratio, instead of the usual measurement of the albumin excretion rate in a timed urine collection. METHODS: All 2579 subjects analysed were screened in a population based epidemiological study. Participants with diabetes mellitus, renal disease, haematuria, or urinary tract infection were not...... included. Urinary albumin (Ualb) and creatinine (Ucreat) concentrations were measured in an overnight collected sample by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and colorimetric assays, respectively. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio (Ualb/Ucreat) were calculated...

  7. Urinary Ghrelin Concentration in Children With Urinary Tract Infections Before and After Treatment

    Sharifian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs are common in children. They can lead to hypertension and end stage renal disease (ESRD. Ghrelin is a regulatory hormone that maintains fat tissues and body composition. Ghrelin is mainly produced in the stomach and in smaller amounts in kidneys. It stimulates release of growth hormone (GH, increases food intake, and causes weight gain. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine weather urinary Ghrelin concentration is involved in anorexia in patients with UTI and its urinary concentration changes with treatment. Patients and Methods This study was performed on 40 hospitalized children with UTI at Mofid children’s hospital during years 2013 to 2014. Ghrelin and Creatinine were measured before and after treatment. statistical analyzes were performed using the SPSS software version 18 by student t test, Wilcoxon test and Spearman coefficient and differences were considered as significant if P < 0.05. Results Mean age was 4.5 ± 3.8 years and 34 (85% were females; 14 children (35% had proteinuria, nine patients (29% had Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR, eight (20% scare, five (12.5% hydronephrosis and 33 (82.5% anorexia. Mean urinary acylated Ghrelin before and after treatment were 138.4 ± 70.9 and 147.2 ± 72.6, respectively (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference between mean urinary Ghrelin before and after treatment in children with UTI with or without anorexia. Acylated Ghrelin had a direct correlation with the incidence of renal scarring (r = 0.37, P = 0.034. Conclusions Urinary Ghrelin concentration was lower before treatment of UTI and significantly increased after cessation of inflammation. Further studies are required for more definite results.

  8. The Genetics of Urinary Tract Infections and the Innate Defense of the Kidney and Urinary tract.

    Ambite, Ines; Rydstrom, Gustav; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Hains, David S

    2016-03-01

    The urinary tract is a sterile organ system. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and often serious infections. Research has focused on uropathogen, environment, and host factors leading to UTI pathogenesis. A growing body of evidence exists implicating genetic factors that can contribute to UTI risks. In this review, we highlight genetic variations in aspects of the innate immune system critical to the host response to uropathogens. This overview includes genetic variations in pattern recognition receptor molecules, chemokines/cytokines, and neutrophil activation. We also comprehensively cover murine knockout models of UTI, genetic variations involved in renal scarring as a result of ascending UTIs, and asymptomatic bacteriuria. PMID:27617139

  9. Ertapenem: A new antibiotic choice for complicated urinary tract infections

    Yildirim, Filiz; YAŞAR, Kadriye Kart; Şengöz, Gönül; SANDOKÇI, Semra; NAZLICAN, Özcan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) may require the use of a parenteral antimicrobial agent active against the extended spectrum |3 lactamases-producing urinary pathogens. The activity of ertapenem, a new once-a-day carbapenem, was investigated in pathogens isolated from complicated and non-complicated UTIs. Material and method: A total of 256 urinary pathogen were studied. The half of the strains were isolated from complicated and the others were from non-...

  10. Migrated embolization coil: A rare cause of urinary tract obstruction

    Bhageria, Anand; Seth, Amlesh; Bora, Girdhar S.

    2012-01-01

    Refractory bleeding following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is mainly due to formation of pseudoaneurysm. Transarterial embolization is required to control the bleeding in such cases. We report a case of post-PCNL hematuria in whom angioembolization was done. An early erosion of the embolization coil from the renal vasculature into the urinary collecting system occurred, causing urinary tract obstruction and urinary tract infection (UTI). The coil was retrieved ureteroscopically after c...

  11. Nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder: a case report

    Chung, Sun Hee; Lee, Sun Wha; Han, Woon Seup [Ewha Womans Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma is a benign metaplastic lesion of the urinary tract occurring most frequently at the urinary bladder. It is very rare, especially in children. We describe the US, CT and MRI findings of nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder in an 8-year-old girl who suffered rupture of the bladder, urethra and vagina after a traffic accident and whose condition was complicated by urethral stricture and vesicoureteral reflux.

  12. 复杂性肾结石外科治疗的安全性探讨%The safety of surgical treatment for complex renal calculi

    许爱国; 徐冬冬; 高昕池; 徐良杰

    2013-01-01

    目的 讨论复杂性肾结石外科治疗的安全性.方法 我院于2001年3月至2012年9月期间治疗复杂性肾结石患者30例,其中肾盂切开取石15例,肾实质切开取石7例,肾窦后实质切开取石5例,肾蒂血管阻断+肾周冰块低温下肾实质切开取石术3例.总结手术效果及患者手术时间、术中出血量及术后血尿时间,评价手术治疗的安全性.结果 本组所有患者均顺利完成手术,术后一周患肾功能均恢复正常.所有患者无一例输血.残留结石5例,残石率16.67%.残石数5,残石直径0.3 ~ 0.5 cm,均为肾盏内细小结石,结合EWSL治愈.同时,本组患者手术时间为50 ~ 120 min,平均为(93±17) min;术后出血量为50~200 ml,平均为(112±36) ml;术后血尿时间12~48 h,平均为(28±7)h.结论 复杂性肾结石的外科治疗安全性较高,临床治疗中应根据结石的位置、大小选择不同的手术方法.%Objective To explore the safety of surgical treatment for complex renal calculi.Methods 30 patients with complex renal calculi who had been treated during the period of March 2001 to September 2012 were included in this study.15 patients underwent pyelolithotomy,7 received renal parenchyma incision for removing stones,5 received renal sinus parenchyma incision for stone removal,and 3 received renal pedicle vascular blocking plus renal parenchyma incision for removing stones under pararenal low temperature with ice.The efficacy of the procedures,surgical duration,postoperative bleeding volume and duration of hematuria were analyzed.The safety of the procedures were assessed.Results The procedures were successfully perfromed on all patients,and kidney function returned to normal one week after surgery.No patients needed to receive blood transfusion.Residual stones occurred in five patients,with a rate of 16.67%.There were 5 residual stones with a diameter of 0.3 cm to 0.5 cm and they were small calyceal stones,which were finally treated by

  13. Current Approaches in the Surgical Treatment of Urinary Stress Incontinence

    Sabri Cavkaytar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The management of urinary stress incontinence which constitutes nearly the half of all urinary incontinence cases, mainly depends on surgical treatment. Before surgery, the type of incontinence should be determined and the treatment should be planned according to this. Several surgical techniques have been developed and long term outcomes comparing them have been published in recent years. Midurethral slings have become the most commonly performed procedures for urinary stress incontinence since they are safe, effective and have good long term outcomes. But it should be kept in mind that there is no single operation successful for the urinary stres incontinence and the treatment should be individualised for each patient.

  14. The role of urinary peptidomics in kidney disease research.

    Klein, Julie; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Mischak, Harald; Schanstra, Joost P

    2016-03-01

    Urinary peptidomics focuses on endogenous urinary peptide content. Many studies now show the usefulness of this approach for the discovery and validation of biomarkers in kidney diseases that are as varied as chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, congenital anomalies of the kidney and the urinary tract, and polycystic kidney disease. Most studies focus on chronic kidney disease and demonstrate that urinary peptidome analysis can substantially contribute to early detection and stratification of patients with chronic kidney disease. A number of multicenter studies are ongoing that aim further validation in a clinical setting and broaden the applicability of urinary peptides. The association of urinary peptides with kidney disease also starts to deliver information on the pathophysiology of kidney disease with emphasis on extracellular matrix remodeling. Bioinformatic peptide centric tools have been developed that allow to model the changes in protease activity involved in kidney disease, based on the urinary peptidome content. A novel application of urinary peptidome analysis is the back-translation of results obtained in humans to animals for animal model validation and improvement of readout in these preclinical models. In conclusion, urinary peptidomics not only contribute to detection and stratification of kidney disease in the clinic, but might also create a new impulse in drug discovery through better insight in the pathophysiology of disease and optimized translatability of animal models. PMID:26880450

  15. Detection of Intracellular Bacterial Communities in Human Urinary Tract Infection

    Opal, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    Steven Opal reviews the phenomenon of bacterial communities and discusses the role played by bacterial communication and cooperation in host-pathogen interactions, particularly in urinary tract infection.

  16. A prospective study of urinary tract infection during pelvic radiotherapy

    The frequency of urinary tract infection before and during pelvic radiotherapy was studied prospectively in 172 patients who were not catherised and had not had instrumentation for at least 4 weeks prior to radiotherapy. The incidence of urinary tract infection prior to radiotherapy was 17% and a further 17% of patients develped a urinary tract infection during radiotherapy. Mid-stream specimens of urine (MSU) should be examined for infection on a weekly basis during pelvic radiotherapy not only to identify this additional 17% of patients but also to detect those patients who have persistent urinary tract infection in spite of treatment with appropriate antibiotics. (author). 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  17. Use of computed tomography scout film and Hounsfield unit of computed tomography scan in predicting the radio-opacity of urinary calculi in plain kidney, ureter and bladder radiographs

    Michael E. Chua

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Urolithiases identified on the CT-scout film were also seen as radiopaque on the KUB radiograph while those stones not visible on the CT-scout film, but above the optimal HU cut-off value of 630 are also likely to be radiopaque.

  18. Role of Urinary Cathelicidin LL-37 and Human β-Defensin 1 in Uncomplicated Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infections

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Dynesen, Pia; Larsen, Preben; Jakobsen, Lotte; Andersen, Paal S.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Cathelicidin (LL-37) and human β-defensin 1 (hBD-1) are important components of the innate defense in the urinary tract. The aim of this study was to characterize whether these peptides are important for developing uncomplicated Escherichia coli urinary tract infections (UTIs). This was investigated by comparing urinary peptide levels of UTI patients during and after infection to those of controls, as well as characterizing the fecal flora of participants with respect to susceptibility to LL-...

  19. Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy with 2 μm laser in treating nephritic staghorn calculi%经皮肾镜下2μm激光碎石治疗肾铸型结石55例分析

    刘津念; 陈强; 刘显中; 刘德云; 周健; 闻斌; 刘聪颖; 张茂; 田波; 周述银

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨经皮肾镜下2 μm激光治疗肾铸型结石的有效性、安全性及相关技巧.方法 采用经皮肾镜下2 μm激光治疗肾铸型结石患者55例,其中双侧肾铸型结石8例.结果 55例患者中,一次碎石成功率为74.5%,手术平均时间70 min;术后恢复快、并发症少;随访3个月,无残余碎石,肾积水均有不同程度减轻或消失.结论 经皮肾镜下2 μm激光治疗肾铸型结石是安全、有效的微创治疗方法,具有避免开放手术、手术时间短、恢复快、创伤小等优点.%Objective To investigate the efficacy, safety and techniques of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy with 2 μm laser in treating nephritic staghorn calculi. Methods The clinical data of 55 patients treated with PCNL with 2 μm laser during January 2008 to December 2009 were analyzed. Results Among 55 cases of nephritic staghorn calculi,all calculi were successfully fragmented,the one-time calculi clearance rate was 74. 5% (41/55) and the clearance time was 40-120 min(mean 70 min). No severe complications such as massive haemorrhage, ureteral perforation, conglutinant stenosis happened. Infection or recurrence was observed during the postoperative follow-up for 3 months, and no recurrence was found. Conclusion The percutaneous nephrolithotripsy with 2 μm laser in treating nephritic staghorn calculi could avoid patency operation,reduce the operation time,have a quick recovery and take small wound for patients. So this method has the advantages of safety and efficacy, and has higher value for widespread application in clinic.

  20. Patients with Urinary Incontinence Appear More Likely to Develop Upper Urinary Tract Stones: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study with 8-Year Follow-Up.

    Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between primary urinary incontinence and development of upper urinary tract stones in a nationwide population in Taiwan. Data of 1,777 adults with primary urinary incontinence and 26,655 controls (groups A, B, and C) without urinary incontinence at study inception were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan and were analyzed retrospectively. No enrolled subjects had previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. All subjects were followed through end of 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years. A greater percentage of study subjects (334/1777, 18.8%) developed upper urinary tract stones than that of control groups A (865/8885, 9.7%) and B (888/8885, 10%), and C (930/8885, 10.5%) (all p-values Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly increased risk of developing urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.70-2.34, p urinary tract stones (both p-values urinary incontinence was still associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.76-2.26, p urinary incontinence suggests that urinary incontinence is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones. Study findings suggest that physicians treating patients with urinary incontinence should give attention to early detection of upper urinary tract stones. PMID:27536881

  1. Effects of urinary bladder distention on location of the urinary bladder and urethra of healthy dogs and cats

    Evaluation of the anatomic location of the distended and empty urinary bladders and urethras of healthy adult male and female dogs and cats by retrograde urethrocystography revealed substantial variations. In 15 dogs in lateral recumbency with empty bladder lumens, the caudal portion of the urinary bladder was within the pelvic canal in 5 of 7 male and 5 of 8 female dogs. In female dogs examined in ventrodorsal recumbency, only 4 of 8 had the empty urinary bladders in part within the pelvic canal. After luminal distention, 3 of 7 male and 3 of 8 female dogs, while in lateral recumbency, had the urinary bladders in part intrapelvically. However, when female dogs were placed in ventrodorsal recumbency, only 1 of 7 urinary bladders was in part within the pelvis. The urinary bladders of 14 cats were consistently within the abdominal cavity, irrespective of whether the bladder lumen was distended or empty. Urethral flexures occurred in dogs with intrapelvic bladders that were distended or empty. Urethral flexures were not found in cats. The urethras of dogs and cats in lateral recumbency were generally closer to the floor of the pelvis after urinary bladder distention than when the bladder was empty. The urethra of the dogs and cats in ventrodorsal recumbency was to the left or right of or on the midsagittal plane, whether the urinary bladder was empty or distended. A greater degree of lateral displacement was encountered in ventrodorsal recumbency after urinary bladder distention

  2. Post traumatic urinary extravasation in occult urinary obstruction: Report of three cases

    Jyoti Bothra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary extravastion after blunt abdominal trauma is seen often and generally treated conservatively. However a blunt renal trauma causing huge amount of extravasations and symptoms disproportionate to the severity of trauma should alarm the surgeon towards an underlying occult renal pathology usually an obstruction. In this case series, we share three such experiences and their management.

  3. [Follow-up after surgical replacement of the urinary bladder (urinary diversion)].

    Ubrig, B; Kories, C; Roth, S

    2013-01-01

    Surgical replacement of the urinary bladder is usually necessary after radical cystectomy for muscle invasive bladder cancer. Besides uro-oncological follow-up (local, urethral, and systemic recurrence; tumor in the upper tract) functional follow-up of the urinary diversion is indicated. Guidelines are still scarce. Long contact time and large surface area in continent pouches made from long intestinal segments lead to absorption of contents of urine and thus to acidosis and imbalances in serum electrolytes. Compensation depends on renal function. Exclusion of long ileal segments out of the intestinal passage may lead to malabsorption of Vitamin B12 and bile acids. 30 % and more of long-term survivors with continent pouches take Vitamin B12 and sodium bicarbonate. Special attention has to be paid to obstruction of the upper urinary tract, total renal function and to secondary malignancy in the bladder substitute. For the latter, sigma-rectum pouches, augmentation cystoplasties and continent pouches with incorporation of colonic segments are at special risk. Functional follow-up affords good understanding of the specific complications of the different types of urinary diversions. PMID:23386377

  4. The Application Value of Three-Dimensional Imaging of Multislice Spiral CT in Urinary System%多层螺旋CT泌尿系统三维成像的应用价值

    张超波; 曾怡群; 卢伟光

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨多层螺旋CT扫描在泌尿系统三维成像中的应用价值。方法:拟对在本院诊治的106例泌尿系统病变患者进行MSCTU平扫、增强、延迟扫描的病例进行回顾性整理,采用曲面重组法(CPR)、最大密度投影法(MIP)、多平面重组法(MPR )及容积成像法(VR)等三维重建技术对原始数据进行重建和分析。结果:MSCTU尿路成像能够清晰显示泌尿系统全貌,同时显示泌尿系统与附近结构和器官的相互关系。106例患者中,共检出泌尿系统结石71例,其中肾结石35例,输尿管结石20例,肾脏及输尿管多发结石16例;先天性发育畸形7例,包括3例双肾盂双输尿管畸形,2例巨输尿管,l例输尿管囊肿和1例马蹄形肾;肾囊肿4例,包括2例单侧囊肿,2例双侧囊肿;肾脏、输尿管、膀胱肿瘤14例,包括4例肾癌、5例输尿管癌和5例膀胱癌;肾脏创伤、肾内血肿3例;输尿管狭窄7例。结论:MSCTU扫描时间短,图像质量好,可获得不同层面、不同角度的三维图像,能良好地显示泌尿系统病变的位置、形态、解剖关系、毗邻关系、血供情况及性质,对泌尿系统疾病的诊断及临床治疗有独特的临床应用价值。%Objective:To explore the application value of multi-slice spiral CT in urinary system of three-dimensional imaging.Method:The quasi on plain MSCTU scan, enhancement, delayed scanning in 106 cases of urinary system disease patients in our hospital were retrospectively sorting,the original data were analyzed using surface recombination method (CPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), multi planar reconstruction (MPR) and volume rendering (VR) and other 3D reconstruction methods.Result:MSCTU urinary tract imaging can clearly display the urinary system, also showed a correlation between urinary system and nearby structures and organs.In 106 cases, 71 cases of urinary calculi were detected

  5. Stress Urinary Incontinence: Comparative Efficacy Trials.

    Lavelle, Erin Seifert; Zyczynski, Halina M

    2016-03-01

    Women seeking relief from symptoms of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) may choose from a broad array of treatment options. Therapies range from lifestyle/behavioral modification to surgical interventions, and differ in terms of both effectiveness and risk. Individualized treatment plans can be developed to address a patient's expectations and goals for treatment, as well as her tolerance for potential adverse events. This article reviews the highest-quality clinical trials comparing contemporary treatment options for women with SUI. Clinicians and patients can use this compendium to inform their treatment selection. PMID:26880507

  6. Synchronous Rectovaginal, Urinary Bladder, and Pulmonary Endometriosis

    Hilaris, Georgios E.; Payne, Christopher K.; Osias, Joelle; Cannon, Walter; Nezhat, Camran R.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Extragenital endometriosis is an uncommon condition that can affect almost any organ system and tissue in the human body. Disease involving multiple distant sites is extremely uncommon. Methods: We report a rare case of synchronous rectovaginal, urinary bladder, and pulmonary endometriosis. We performed a Medline literature search using keywords “endometriosis,” “rectovaginal,” “pulmonary,” “bladder,” “ureteral,” “bowel,” “extrapelvic,” and “extragenital” and were unable to find a...

  7. Aquaporins in Urinary Extracellular Vesicles (Exosomes)

    Oshikawa, Sayaka; Sonoda, Hiroko; Ikeda, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Since the successful characterization of urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) by Knepper’s group in 2004, these vesicles have been a focus of intense basic and translational research worldwide, with the aim of developing novel biomarkers and therapeutics for renal disease. Along with these studies, there is growing evidence that aquaporins (AQPs), water channel proteins, in uEVs have the potential to be diagnostically useful. In this review, we highlight current knowledge of AQPs in uEVs from their discovery to clinical application. PMID:27322253

  8. [Catheter-associated urinary tract infections].

    Liedl, B

    2015-09-01

    In patients with indwelling urethral catheters significant bacteriuria develops within 4 weeks of indwelling time in practically 100% of the cases. Catheter encrustation and obstruction can occur in approximately 40% of patients. Symptomatic ascending urinary tract infections, urethral complications and urolithiasis can occur in significant numbers in the long term. Regular educational and surveillance programs in nursing homes, hospitals and in home care are important to instruct personnel in hygiene procedures, to learn the indications for catheterization, to keep the indwelling time of catheters as short as possible, to detect any complications early and to initiate appropriate diagnostics and therapy by the urologist. PMID:26275988

  9. Introital ultrasonography in female urinary incontinence

    Weon, Young Cheol; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Lee, Jin Seong; Choi, Sang Hee; Kim, Keon Seok; Choo, Myung Soo [Ulsan Univ. Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of introital ultrasonography in the assessment of female urinary incontinence. Introital ultrasonography was performed in fifteen with stress urinary incontinence(mean age 50) and six patients without symptoms of incontinence(mean age 37). Using a sagittal section of the anterior pelvis in the plane of the symphysis pubis the posterior urethrovesical angle, the pubourethral distance and the pubo-yregrak abgle were measured at rest and during stress(Valsalva's maneuver state). The student T-test and the ANOVA test were used in statistical analysis. The posterior urethrovesical angles of the controls were 125.3 deg ({+-}10.9) at rest and 125.7 deg ({+-}7.6) during stress. In the patients, the corresponding angles were 135.3 deg ({+-}11.3) and 139.6 deg({+-}10.8). The posterior urethrovesical angles increased 0.3 deg ({+-}4.7) in the controls and 5.6 deg ({+-}4.0) in the patients(p=0.018). In the controls, the pubo-urethral distances were 21.8 mm({+-}5.8) at rest and 18.2 mm({+-}7.1) during stress, while in the patients these distances were 18.4 mm({+-}3.9) and 12.6 mm({+-}4.4). The pubo-urethral distance decreased 3.5 mm ({+-}1.5) in the controls and 5.8 mm ({+-}2.3) in the patients(p=0.039). In the patients with mild incontinence(Grade I), the posterior urethrovesical angles increased 3.4 deg ({+-}2.8) : 132.3 deg ({+-}12.5) at rest and 135.6 deg (12.8) during stress. In the patients with moderate incontinence(Grade II), the angles increased 8.1 deg({+-}3.8) : 136.0 deg({+-}6.5) at rest and 144.1 deg({+-}5.9) during stress. The change of the posterior urethrovesical angle was related to the grade of urinary incontinence in the patients(p<0.05). There was no statistical significancy in the pubo-urethral angle (p=0.315). Introital ultrasonography may be useful for assessment of stress urinary incontinence.

  10. Introital ultrasonography in female urinary incontinence

    To evaluate the usefulness of introital ultrasonography in the assessment of female urinary incontinence. Introital ultrasonography was performed in fifteen with stress urinary incontinence(mean age 50) and six patients without symptoms of incontinence(mean age 37). Using a sagittal section of the anterior pelvis in the plane of the symphysis pubis the posterior urethrovesical angle, the pubourethral distance and the pubo-yregrak abgle were measured at rest and during stress(Valsalva's maneuver state). The student T-test and the ANOVA test were used in statistical analysis. The posterior urethrovesical angels of the controls were 125.3 deg (±10.9) at rest and 125.7 deg (±7.6) during stress. In the patients, the corresponding angles were135.3 deg (±11.3) and 139.6 deg(±10.8). The posterior urethrovesical angles increased 0.3 deg (±4.7) in the controls and 5.6 deg (±4.0) in the patients(p=0.018). In the controls, the pubo-urethral distances were 21.8 mm(±5.8) at rest and 18.2 mm(±7.1) during stress, while in the patients these distances were 18.4 mm(±3.9) and 12.6 mm(±4.4). The pubo-urethral distance decreased 3.5 mm (±1.5) in the controls and 5.8 mm (±2.3) in the patients(p=0.039). In the patients with mild incontinence(Grade I), the posterior urethrovesical angles increased 3.4 deg (±2.8) : 132.3 deg (±12.5) at rest and 135.6 deg (12.8) during stress. In the patients with moderate incontinence(Grade II), the angles increased 8.1 deg(±3.8) : 136.0 deg( 6.5) at rest and 144.1 deg((±5.9) during stress. The change of the posterior urethrovesical angle was related to the grade of urinary incontinence in the patients(p<0.05). There was no statistical significancy in the pubo-urethral angle (p=0.315). Introital ultrasonography may be useful for assessment of stress urinary incontinence

  11. Characterization of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Among Custodians.

    Cavallari, Jennifer M; Simcox, Nancy J; Wakai, Sara; Lu, Chensheng; Garza, Jennifer L; Cherniack, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of chemicals found in consumer, personal care, and cleaning products, have been linked to adverse health effects. Our goal was to characterize urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and to identify work and nonwork sources among custodians using traditional cleaning chemicals and 'green' or environmentally preferable products (EPP). Sixty-eight custodians provided four urine samples on a workday (first void, before shift, end of shift, and before bedtime) and trained observers recorded cleaning tasks and types of products used (traditional, EPP, or disinfectant) hourly over the work shifts. Questionnaires were used to assess personal care product use. Four different phthalate metabolites [monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)] were quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Geometric means (GM) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for creatinine-adjusted urinary phthalate concentrations. Mixed effects univariate and multivariate modeling, using a random intercept for each individual, was performed to identify predictors of phthalate metabolites including demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. Creatinine-adjusted urinary concentrations [GM (95% CI)] of MEP, MMP, MEHP, and MBzP were 107 (91.0-126), 2.69 (2.18-3.30), 6.93 (6.00-7.99), 8.79 (7.84-9.86) µg g(-1), respectively. An increasing trend in phthalate concentrations from before to after shift was not observed. Creatinine-adjusted urinary MEP was significantly associated with frequency of traditional cleaning chemical intensity in the multivariate model after adjusting for potential confounding by demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. While numerous demographics, workplace factors, and personal care products were statistically significant univariate predictors of MMP, MEHP, and MBzP, few associations persisted

  12. Reducing urinary tract infections in catheterised patients.

    Howe, Pam; Adams, John

    2015-01-20

    Urinary tract infections in catheterised patients continue to present a challenge in reducing healthcare-associated infection. In this article, an infection prevention and control team in one NHS trust reports on using audit results to focus attention on measures to reduce bacterial infections. Educational initiatives have an important role in reducing infection, but there is no single solution to the problem. Practice can be improved using a multi-targeted approach, peer review and clinical audit to allow for shared learning and experiences. These, along with informal education in the clinical area and more formal classroom lectures, can ultimately lead to improved patient outcomes. PMID:25585767

  13. Aquaporins in Urinary Extracellular Vesicles (Exosomes).

    Oshikawa, Sayaka; Sonoda, Hiroko; Ikeda, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Since the successful characterization of urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) by Knepper's group in 2004, these vesicles have been a focus of intense basic and translational research worldwide, with the aim of developing novel biomarkers and therapeutics for renal disease. Along with these studies, there is growing evidence that aquaporins (AQPs), water channel proteins, in uEVs have the potential to be diagnostically useful. In this review, we highlight current knowledge of AQPs in uEVs from their discovery to clinical application. PMID:27322253

  14. In vitro activity of vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) on urinary tract pathogens in uncomplicated urinary tract infection

    Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection in the community, mainly caused by Escherichia coli (E coli). Due to its high incidence and recurrence, problems are faced in the treatment with antibiotics. Cranberry being herbal remedy have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections. This study was conducted to analyse in vitro activity of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on uropathogenic E coli in uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Method: In this laboratory based single group experimental study, anti-bacterial activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate on urinary tract E coli was investigated, in vitro. Ninety-six culture positive cases of different uropathogens were identified. Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate at different concentrations was prepared in distilled water and put in wells punched in nutrient agar. E coli isolates were inoculated on the plates and incubated at 37 Degree C for 24 hours. A citric acid solution of the same pH as that of Vaccinium macrocarpon was used and put in a well on the same plate to exclude the effect of pH. Results: A total of 35 isolates of E coli were identified out of 96 culture positive specimens of urine and found sensitive to Vaccinium macrocarpon (p<0.000). Results revealed that Vaccinium macrocarpon has antibacterial effect against E coli. Furthermore the antibacterial activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon has dose response relationship. Acidic nature of Vaccinium macrocarpon due to its pH is not contributory towards its antibacterial effect. Conclusion: Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate may be used in urinary tract infection caused by E coli. (author)

  15. Preoperative and postoperative cortical function of the kidney with staghorn calculi assessed by /sup 99m/technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy

    /sup 99m/Technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy, consisting of the cortical image and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal uptake rate, was used to assess preoperative and postoperative renal function in 55 patients with staghorn calculi. In 14 of 20 patients who had undergone extended pyelolithotomy and in 4 of 22 who had undergone nephrolithotomy there was an increase or no change in the postoperative dimercaptosuccinic acid renal uptake in the surgically treated kidney. However, there was no increase in the postoperative dimercaptosuccinic acid renal uptake in the patients who had undergone pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy or partial nephrectomy. Eight per cent of the preoperative dimercaptosuccinic acid renal uptake rate in the diseased kidney seems to be the absolute level for predicting the postoperative recovery of renal function. Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal images provide evidence of morphological changes in the cortex of the kidney with stones and the dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake rate is a useful adjunct for quantitative assessments of preoperative and postoperative residual cortical function

  16. Dilatation and curettage of urinary bladder: A rarity

    Suresh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight-year-old female while undergoing a medical termination of pregnancy (MTP encounter complete urethral loss and massive bladder curettage. After resuscitation, she developed continuous urinary leakage followed by progressive decline in urine output. Case is highlighted here because of the massive vesico-urethral trauma because of MTP, leading to permanent urinary diversion.

  17. Blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol in asthmatic subjects

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, John;

    2010-01-01

    Data on blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol after inhalation and oral administration in healthy subjects are scarce. Accordingly, we examined the pharmacokinetics of inhaled and oral salbutamol in asthmatic subjects.......Data on blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol after inhalation and oral administration in healthy subjects are scarce. Accordingly, we examined the pharmacokinetics of inhaled and oral salbutamol in asthmatic subjects....

  18. Prostate cancer biomarker profiles in urinary sediments and exosomes

    Dijkstra, S.; Birker, I.L.; Smit, F.P.; Leyten, G.H.J.M.; Reijke, T.M. de; Oort, I.M. van; Mulders, P.F.A.; Jannink, S.A.; Schalken, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Urinary biomarker tests for diagnosing prostate cancer have gained considerable interest. Urine is a complex mixture that can be subfractionated. We evaluated 2 urinary fractions that contain nucleic acids, ie cell pellets and exosomes. The influence of digital rectal examination before uri

  19. Female urinary stress incontinence treated with Teflon injections

    Osther, P J; Røhl, H

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-six women with urinary stress incontinence underwent transperineal or transurethral Teflon injections. The results were classified into three grades (good, moderate, and poor). Good or moderate results were obtained in 50%. No major immediate complications or long-term side-effects were...... for urinary incontinence should this prove necessary....

  20. Metabolomics of urinary tract infection : a multiplatform approach

    Pacchiarotta, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a complex clinical entity a common infectious disease that encompasses a variety of clinical syndromes with a positive bacterial culture as common denominator. This thesis provides an exhaustive exploratory study of the metabolic pattern of patients affected by urinary tra

  1. Urinary and metabolic clearances of arginine vasopressin in normal subjects

    Synthetic arginine vasopressin (AVP) was infused into 11 hydrated normal subjects at five different infusion rates ranging from 10 to 350 μU kg-1 min-1. Each infusion rate was continued for 1 h, and urinary determinations were made on the 30- to 60-min specimens during which time there was no further rise in plasma AVP. Urinary AVP concentrations (μU/ml) and excretion rates (μU/min) increased linearly with increasing infusion rates, and the concentration of AVP in urine increased 120 times more rapid than plasma. Urinary and metabolic clearances of AVP also increased linearly with the maximum urinary clearance being 60.6% of the creatinine clearance. The total metabolic clearance of AVP (including urinary clearance) was 17.8 times that of the urinary clearance of AVP alone. These data clarify the relationships between plasma and urinary AVP in normal hydrated subjects during AVP infusion under steady-state conditions and emphasize the potential advantage of measuring urinary AVP as a monitor of endogenous AVP secretion. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay

  2. Urinary tract infection due to Enterobacter sakazakii

    Bhat Gopalkrishna; Anandhi.R; Dhanya V; Shenoy Shalini

    2009-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is a rare but important cause of necrotizing enterocolitis, bloodstream infection and central nervous system infections in humans, with mortality rates of 40-80%. It has not been reported to cause urinary tract infection. We report a case of urinary tract infection due to E. sakazakii in a 63-year-old lady with chronic renal failure.

  3. Visceral pain originating from the upper urinary tract

    Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Frimodt-Møller, Poul Christian; Osther, Palle Jørn Sloth

    2010-01-01

    Pain originating from the upper urinary tract is a common problem and stone colic is one of the most intense pain conditions that can be experienced in the clinic. The pain is difficult to alleviate and often leads to medical attention. In humans, pain mechanisms of the upper urinary tract pain are...

  4. Non-invasive localization of urinary tract infection

    New methods to localize the source of bacteriuria were evaluated in monkeys with experimental urinary tract infection. A high level of diagnostic accuracy was obtained with the combined study of antibody-coated urinary bacteria by immunofluorescence, 131I hippuran scintiphotos in the hydropenic state and 67gallium citrate scintiphotos. Unique patterns were found, which differentiate cystitis, ureteritis, pyelonephritis and renal or perinephric abscesses

  5. Biochemical tests for diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma: urinary versus plasma determinations.

    Plouin, P F; Duclos, J M; Menard, J; Comoy, E; Bohuon, C; Alexandre, J M

    1981-01-01

    Fifteen patients with hypertension due to phaeochromocytoma and 35 controls with essential hypertension were studied to assess the diagnostic value of urinary and plasma biochemical determinations in phaeochromocytoma. In every case of phaeochromocytoma the urinary concentration of vanillylmandelate, metanephrines, or adrenaline plus noradrenaline was diagnostic of the disease irrespective of whether the patient was normotensive or hypertensive at the time. Plasma determinations of adrenaline...

  6. Urinary porphyrin excretion in hepatitis C infection.

    Vogeser, M; Jacob, K; Zachoval, R

    1999-08-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in porphyria cutanea tarda in some populations suggests a close link between viral hepatitis and alteration of porphyrin metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence of a role of porphyrinopathies in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to obtain data on the prevalence and patterns of heme metabolism alterations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Urinary porphyrin excretion was prospectively studied in 100 consecutive outpatients with chronic hepatitis C infection without signs of photosensitivity, using an ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography method. Increased total porphyrin excretion was found in 41 patients, with predominant excretion of coproporphyrins (whole study group: mean 146 microg/g creatinine, interquartile range 76-186; normal coproporphyrin, heptacarboxyporphyrin III increased) but the total porphyrin excretion was only slightly elevated in this case. In the whole group, total urinary porphyrin excretion correlated well with serum bilirubin and was inversely correlated with albumin and thrombin time. In conclusion, secondary coproporphyrinuria occurs frequently in heptatitis C infection, whereas in Germany, preclinical porphyria cutanea tarda seems to be rare in these patients. PMID:10536928

  7. ILEOCYSTOPLASTY IN INVASIVE URINARY BLADDER CARCINOMA

    V. N. Pavlov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the results of surgical treatment of patients with the intestinal urinary bladder, to characterize its early and late postoperative complications, and to develop their correction tactics.  Subjects and methods. The results of treatment in 198 patients who had undergone ileocystoplasty were analyzed.  Results. The developed diagnostic approach and the determined examination periods could reduce the number of late postoperative complications of ileocystoplasty: acute and chronic pyelonephritis from 19.4 to 7.6%, urolithiasis from 17.2 to 1.9%, bladder dysfunction from 25.8 to 7.6%, and metabolic acidosis from 4.3 to 1.9%, and prevent the development of ureterovesical anastomosis stricture.  Conclusion. Radical cystectomy with the ileoplasty using an isolated segment of the ileum in patients with invasive urinary bladder carcinoma has been the operation of choice no longer; it has become an essential surgical adjunct. This method permits overall 5-year survival to be achieved in 69.7% of patients.  

  8. Urinary bladder rupture during voiding cystourethrography

    Kyong Ok Lee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux with urinary tract infection or congenital renal diseases in children. The procedure is relatively simple and cost-effective, and complications are very rare. The iatrogenic complication of VCUG range from discomfort, urinary tract infection to bacteremia, as well as bladder rupture. Bladder rupture is a rare complication of VCUG, and only a few cases were reported. Bladder rupture among healthy children during VCUG is an especially uncommon event. Bladder rupture associated with VCUG is usually more common in chronically unused bladders like chronic renal failure. Presented is a case of bladder rupture that occurred during a VCUG in a healthy 9-monthold infant, due to instilled action of dye by high pressure. This injury completely healed after 7 days of operation, and it was confirmed with a postoperative cystography. The patient’s bladder volume, underlying disease, velocity of the contrast media instilled, catheter size, and styles of instillation are important factors to prevent bladder rupture during VCUG. Management of bladder rupture should be individualized, but the majority of infants are treated with the operation. In conclusion, bladder rupture is a rare complication, however, delicate attention is needed in order to prevent more dire situations.

  9. Urinary proteomics to support diagnosis of stroke.

    Jesse Dawson

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis in suspected ischaemic stroke can be difficult. We explored the urinary proteome in patients with stroke (n = 69, compared to controls (n = 33, and developed a biomarker model for the diagnosis of stroke. We performed capillary electrophoresis online coupled to micro-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Potentially disease-specific peptides were identified and a classifier based on these was generated using support vector machine-based software. Candidate biomarkers were sequenced by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We developed two biomarker-based classifiers, employing 14 biomarkers (nominal p-value <0.004 or 35 biomarkers (nominal p-value <0.01. When tested on a blinded test set of 47 independent samples, the classification factor was significantly different between groups; for the 35 biomarker model, median value of the classifier was 0.49 (-0.30 to 1.25 in cases compared to -1.04 (IQR -1.86 to -0.09 in controls, p<0.001. The 35 biomarker classifier gave sensitivity of 56%, specificity was 93% and the AUC on ROC analysis was 0.86. This study supports the potential for urinary proteomic biomarker models to assist with the diagnosis of acute stroke in those with mild symptoms. We now plan to refine further and explore the clinical utility of such a test in large prospective clinical trials.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens

    Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done according to age-group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates. A total of 803 urine culture positive patients were studied of whom 81.6% were females and 18.4% were males. The common micro-organisms isolated were E. coli (78.58%), Klebsiella (5.48%), Proteus and Staphylococcus. About 89% of the E. coli isolated showed sensitivity to cephtizoxin, 83.9% to gentamycin and 83.2% to ciprofloxacin; the highest resistance was shown to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Surveys of this nature will give a clear idea about the bacteriologic profile in a given institution as well their antibiotic sensitivity profile. This will act as a guide to commencing empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary infections until such time culture reports are available. (author)

  11. Urinary bladder cancer: role of MR imaging.

    Verma, Sadhna; Rajesh, Arumugam; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Gaitonde, Krishnanath; Lall, Chandana G; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Aeron, Gunjan; Bracken, Robert B; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan

    2012-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variety of pathologic features, cytogenetic characteristics, and natural histories. It is the fourth most common cancer in males and the tenth most common cancer in females. Urinary bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate, necessitating long-term surveillance after initial therapy. Early detection is important, since up to 47% of bladder cancer-related deaths may have been avoided. Conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are only moderately accurate in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer, with cystoscopy and pathologic staging remaining the standards of reference. However, the role of newer MR imaging sequences (eg, diffusion-weighted imaging) in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer is still evolving. Substantial advances in MR imaging technology have made multiparametric MR imaging a feasible and reasonably accurate technique for the local staging of bladder cancer to optimize treatment. In addition, whole-body CT is the primary imaging technique for the detection of metastases in bladder cancer patients, especially those with disease that invades muscle. PMID:22411938

  12. Urinary incontinence nursing diagnoses in patients with stroke

    Telma Alteniza Leandro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Identifying the prevalence of Stress urinary incontinence (SUI, Urge urinary incontinence (UUI, Functional urinary incontinence (FUI, Overflow urinary incontinence (OUI and Reflex urinary incontinence (RUI nursing diagnoses and their defining characteristics in stroke patients. METHOD A cross-sectional study with 156 patients treated in a neurological clinic. Data were collected through interviews and forwarded to nurses for diagnostic inference. RESULTS 92.3% of the patients had at least one of the studied diagnoses; OUI showed the highest prevalence (72.4%, followed by FUI (53.2%, RUI (50.0%, UUI (41.0% and SUI (37.8%. Overdistended bladder and reports of inability to reach the toilet in time to avoid urine loss were the most prevalent defining characteristics. A statistically significant association of the defining characteristics with the studied diagnosis was verified. CONCLUSION The five incontinence diagnoses were identified in the evaluated patients, with different prevalence.

  13. Urinary symptoms in Parkinson's disease: prevalence and associated factors

    Campos-Sousa Raimundo Nonato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a cross-sectional study involving 61 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD who were consecutively examined and compared to a control group with 74 subjects. Only patients who fulfilled the standard diagnostic criteria for PD and whose brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal were included. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of inferior urinary tract symptoms in PD and to study the possible association between clinical factors to urinary dysfunction. ln the patient group, 39.3% presented urinary symptoms when compared to 10.8% in the control group. All symptomatic patients presented irritative symptoms. The most common irritative symptom PD was nocturia, followed by frequency and urinary incontinence. Around 25% of the patients presented functional obstructive symptoms determined by the disease. The most frequent obstructive symptom was incomplete emptying of the bladder. Only the age of the patients and control group were correlated with urinary dysfunction.

  14. The Artificial Urinary Sphincter in the Management of Incontinence.

    Suarez, Oscar A; McCammon, Kurt A

    2016-06-01

    Despite the emergence of different devices in the treatment of postprostatectomy urinary incontinence, the AMS 800 (American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, MN) remains the gold standard for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in men. We reviewed the current literature regarding the indications, surgical principles, outcomes, and complications of artificial urinary sphincter placement for stress urinary incontinence after prostatectomy. Despite all the available information, heterogeneous data, different success definitions, and the lack of high-quality prospective studies with long-term follow-up, it is difficult to compare outcomes between studies. In spite of these, the perineal implantation of a single cuff artificial urinary sphincter has withstood the test of time. PMID:26845050

  15. Urinary density measurement and analysis methods in neonatal unit care

    Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess urine collection methods through cotton in contact with genitalia and urinary collector to measure urinary density in newborns. This is a quantitative intervention study carried out in a neonatal unit of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, in 2010. The sample consisted of 61 newborns randomly chosen to compose the study group. Most neonates were full term (31/50.8% males (33/54%. Data on urinary density measurement through the methods of cotton and collector presented statistically significant differences (p<0.05. The analysis of interquartile ranges between subgroups resulted in statistical differences between urinary collector/reagent strip (1005 and cotton/reagent strip (1010, however there was no difference between urinary collector/ refractometer (1008 and cotton/ refractometer. Therefore, further research should be conducted with larger sampling using methods investigated in this study and whenever possible, comparing urine density values to laboratory tests.

  16. [Urodynamic parameters of fetal lower urinary tract in physiological pregnancy].

    Chekhonatskaia, M L; Glybochko, P V; Demidov, V N

    2005-01-01

    The study of urodynamic parameters in 76 fetuses in physiological course of pregnancy at gestation term from 20 to 40 weeks has shown that urodynamics of the lower urinary tract in the prenatal period directly correlate with embryon and fetus formation. Urodynamic indices of fetal lower urinary tract have 13 significant correlations out of possible 43, indicating distinct interactions of various organs and strictures of fetal urinary system. The analysis of the structure of correlations between different urodynamic indices of the lower urinary tract of the fetus demonstrates that they vary greatly in pregnancy trimester II and remain constant in trimester III. Thus, interrelations between basic urodynamic parameters of the lower urinary tract get established to the end of trimester II. PMID:16097713

  17. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stones

    Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Hyun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Myung Hee; Bahk, Yong Whee; Park, Yong Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-06-15

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a new noninvasive treatment modality for urinary stones, and it sometimes is to necessitate endourologic techniques. ESWL with an Edap lithotripter which uses piezo-electric elements, was performed in 142 cases (130 patients) with urinary stones including 68 in calices, 30 in pelves, and 44 in ureters. Technical factors were 100 storages at 5 to 10 pulse rates/sec and 70-100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes (15-90) for renal stones, and 200 storages at 20 pulse rates/sec and 100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes for ureteral stones in a single treatment under stone localization by 5 MHz ultrasonic sector scanner. All patients were treated at Kangnam St.Mary's Hospital of Catholic University Medical College during the 5 months period from May 1, 1987. Every patient had pre-treatment chest, plain abdomen, intravenous urogram and ultrasonogram studies and post-treatment follow-up abdominal radiograms in 1 to 3 months after ESWL.The overall success rate of ESWL in 142 cases was 94.4%. Eight out of 142 cases were successful. Thus, 134 cases were analysed. Of these, 58 cases (43.3%) received one treatment, 33 cases (24.6%) two treatments, 16 cases (11.9%) three treatments and 27 cases (20.2%) more than four treatments. Renal stones were more successfully treated (98.0%) than ureteral stones (88.1%), and calyceal stones presented the highest success rate (98.5%). The stones as small as 5 to 10 mm in size were easily fragmented and the stones of round of oval shape were more easily pulverized than those of staghorn or amorphous shape. The adjunctive endourlogic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy, ureteral catheterization or internal ureteral stenting with a double pigtail catheter were required in 17 cases (11.9%). Complications of ESWL for urolithiasis included hematuria (84.5%), flank pain (8.5%) and fever (5.6%), which were controlled without specific treatment. ESWL using ultrasonic localization

  18. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stones

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a new noninvasive treatment modality for urinary stones, and it sometimes is to necessitate endourologic techniques. ESWL with an Edap lithotripter which uses piezo-electric elements, was performed in 142 cases (130 patients) with urinary stones including 68 in calices, 30 in pelves, and 44 in ureters. Technical factors were 100 storages at 5 to 10 pulse rates/sec and 70-100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes (15-90) for renal stones, and 200 storages at 20 pulse rates/sec and 100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes for ureteral stones in a single treatment under stone localization by 5 MHz ultrasonic sector scanner. All patients were treated at Kangnam St.Mary's Hospital of Catholic University Medical College during the 5 months period from May 1, 1987. Every patient had pre-treatment chest, plain abdomen, intravenous urogram and ultrasonogram studies and post-treatment follow-up abdominal radiograms in 1 to 3 months after ESWL.The overall success rate of ESWL in 142 cases was 94.4%. Eight out of 142 cases were successful. Thus, 134 cases were analysed. Of these, 58 cases (43.3%) received one treatment, 33 cases (24.6%) two treatments, 16 cases (11.9%) three treatments and 27 cases (20.2%) more than four treatments. Renal stones were more successfully treated (98.0%) than ureteral stones (88.1%), and calyceal stones presented the highest success rate (98.5%). The stones as small as 5 to 10 mm in size were easily fragmented and the stones of round of oval shape were more easily pulverized than those of staghorn or amorphous shape. The adjunctive endourlogic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy, ureteral catheterization or internal ureteral stenting with a double pigtail catheter were required in 17 cases (11.9%). Complications of ESWL for urolithiasis included hematuria (84.5%), flank pain (8.5%) and fever (5.6%), which were controlled without specific treatment. ESWL using ultrasonic localization was

  19. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie;

    2013-01-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the...... utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984-1987 at the ages of 20-59 years from 29 North American and...... European samples. Participants were randomly assigned to test or validation data sets. Equations derived from casual urinary sodium concentration and other variables in the test data were applied to the validation data set. Correlations between observed and estimated 24-hour sodium excretion were 0.50 for...

  20. Urinary bisphenol A levels in young Urinary Bisphenol A Levels in Young Men

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few human studies have examined bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in men, and results are divergent. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between urinary BPA concentration and reproductive hormones, as well as semen quality, in young men...... system, possibly through a competitive inhibition at the receptor level. However, additional research is needed to confirm our findings and to further test the suggested potential mechanisms....