WorldWideScience

Sample records for urinary calculi

  1. Computed tomographic analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excised urinary calculi were subjected to computed tomographic (CT) scanning in an attempt to determine whether CT attenuation values would allow accurate analysis of stone composition. The mean, maximum, and modal pixel densities of the calculi were recorded and compared; the resulting values reflected considerable heterogeneity in stone density. Although uric acid and cystine calculi could be identified by their discrete ranges on one or more of these criteria, calcium-containing stones of various compositions, including struvite, could not be distinguished reliably. CT analysis of stone density is not likely to be more accurate than standard radiography in characterizing stone composition in vivo

  2. Computed tomographic analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) was employed in an effort to analyze the chemical composition of urinary calculi. Twenty-three surgically removed calculi were scanned in a water bath (in vitro study). Forteen of them in the body were scanned (in vivo study). The calculi consisted of four types: mixed calcium oxalate and phosphate, mixed calcium carbonate and phosphate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, and uric acid. The in vitro study showed that the mean and maximum CT values of uric acid stones were significantly lower than those of the other three types of stones. This indicated that stones with less than 450 HU are composed of uric acid. In an in vivo study, CT did not help to differentiate the three types of urinary calculi, except for uric acid stones. Regarding the mean CT values, there was no correlation between in vitro and in vivo studies. An experiment with commercially available drugs showed that CT values of urinary calculi were not dependent upon the composition, but dependent upon the density of the calculi. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary calculi resulting from disorders in the urinary system are mostly composed of uric acid, urates, calcium oxalate, alkaline earth phosphates (Ca and Mg), triple phosphate (magnesium ammonium phosphate), calcium carbonate, cystine, xanthine, and traces of proteins. The determination of these macro-constituents has been carried out by different analytical procedures. No attempts however, have been reported regarding the determination of trace elements in urinary stones, apart from that of Herring et al., who investigated the consumption of strontium by urolithiasis patients. The present work is a non-destructive neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi, to search the variation in concentration of certain trace elements with the chemical composition of the calculus

  4. Management of urinary calculi in pregnant women.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S. J.; Rho, S. K.; Lee, C.H.; Chang, S. G.; Kim, J. I.

    1997-01-01

    The incidence and predisposing factors of urinary calculi are generally the same in both pregnant and non pregnant women, but anatomic changes during pregnancy make diagnosis and treatment a more challenging issue. We reviewed 16 patients (22 stones) of urinary stone during pregnancy between 1986 and 1996 at Kyung Hee Medical Center. The most common symptom was flank pain, seen in 81.3% of patients, while 68.8% of patients were displayed microscopic hematuria. In all cases, diagnosis was made...

  5. CT findings of melamine caused urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the CT findings of melamine induced urinary calculi. Methods: Nineteen children with a history of ingestion of melamine contaminated infant formula milk were studied, including 12 males and 7 females, age ranged from 50 days to 5 years. Results: CT demonstrated renal pelvic and ureteral stones in 13 cases, with urinary obstruction in 9 of them. The size of the stones ranged from 0.3 cm x 0.3 cm to stag-horn calculus. Tine density of the stones measured from a low of 40-70 HU up to a high of 410 HU with an average density of 160 HU. Conclusion: CT scan is an excellent modality in demonstrating urinary tract calculi caused by melamine. It is the method of choice when ultrasound examinations are equivocal. (authors)

  6. Evaluation of Urinary Calculi by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrasool Mehrsai

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Purpose: To analyze urinary calculi composition and its relationship with gender, age, calculus weight, color, and location.

    Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty one patients with urinary calculus, who had undergone open lithotomy from June 1999 to April 2001, were enrolled in this prospective study which was performed by Tehran and Oroomieh Medical Sciences Universities. The calculi compositions were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy in Bonn University. Statistical analyses were made by paired t test

    Results: One hundred and forty five males with a mean age of 40.4 years and 96 females with a mean age of 42.5 years were enrolled in this study. Mean calculus weight was 4.28 gr. Mean calculus number was 4.33. Thirty four (14.1% calculi were pure (carbonate apatite: 2, brushite: 1, uric acid: 19, cystine: 3, weddellite: 6, mono-NH4-urate: 2, struvite: 1, 207(85.6% were mixed and none of them contained octa-ca-phosphate, apatite, newberyte, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, mono-Na-urate, or xanthine. Weddellite was found in 77% of calculi. It comprised more than 50% of them in 26% of cases. Whewellite crystals were found in 78% of calculi. It comprised more than 50% of them in 46% of cases. The most common pure calculus was uric acid and the most common component of calculi was whewellite followed by weddellite.

    Conclusion: Although there is no comprehensive study on urolithiasis incidence and prevalence in Iran, it can be concluded that whewellite and weddellite may be the most common components of urolithiasis in Iran and uric acid calculi are the most common pure calculi. There was no significant difference in calculi composition in our study.

  7. Interaction of laser radiation with urinary calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Mayo, M E

    2009-01-01

    Urolithias, calculus formation in the urinary system, affects 5 – 10% of the population and is a painful and recurrent medical condition. A common approach in the treatment of calculi is the use of laser radiation, a procedure known as laser lithotripsy, however, the technique has not yet been fully optimised. This research examines the experimental parameters relevant to the interactions of the variable microsecond pulsed holmium laser (? = 2.12 ?m, ?p = 120 – 800 ?s, I ~ 3 MW...

  8. Percutaneous retrieval of upper urinary tract foreign bodies and calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Tae Beom; Seong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Yong Joo [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    To determine, when extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is contraindicated, the usefulness and safety of percutaneous management in the removal from the upper urinary tract of foreign bodies and calculi, or small remnants of these, retained after percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Between January 1996 and May 2001, We attempted to retrieve foreign bodies or calculi from the upper urinary tract of 20 patients, using various percutaneous technique. There were eleven foreign bodies, namely fragmented nephrostomy catheters (n=2), migrated ureteric stents inaccessible to retrograde ureteroscopic management (n=8), and one metallic radiopaque marker which was separated from the pusher of the internal ureteral stent. Nine urinary tract calculi were present. These ranged in radiographically measured size from 4 to 8 mm in their largest diameter, and were found in the renal pelvis or calyx (n=5) and ureter (n=4). After percutaneous nephrostomy, all procedures involved the use of a 7-F to 14-F sheath, inserted under fluoroscopic guidance. Devices used for the retrieval of these objects include a stone basket retriever, loop snare, grasping forceps, and balloon catheter. In all cases except one, it was possible to retrieve calculi or other items from the upper urinary tract. No surgical procedure was required and no significant complications were encountered in any of the cases during or after the procedures. The percutaneous technique can be useful and safe in the management of foreign bodies or calculi present in the upper urinary tract.

  9. Raman spectroscopic investigation of urinary calculi and salivary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The capabilities and limitations of determining the composition of urinary calculi (34 patients) and salivary stones (27 patients) by Raman spectroscopy have been investigated by analysing Raman spectra obtained with 1064 nm laser excitation, and comparing them with Raman spectra both from specific reference substances and from a commercial Raman database. The composition results were also compared with those obtained by other analytical methods e.g. powder diffraction. Raman spectroscopy proves to be an analytical method which provides reliable results on the composition of urinary calculi and salivary stones quickly, non-destructively and without any need of sample preparation. (author)

  10. Dietary dissolution of urinary calculi in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A young adult, castrated male DSH cat was admitted for pollakiuria, hematuria and dysuria. The cat was being fed a commercial dry grocery brand cat food. Radiographs demonstrated multiple radiodense cystic calculi and urinalysis showed hematuria but no crystalluria. A tentative diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis was made. The cat was fed s/d® Feline food exclusively. Clinical signs disappeared within a week and no calculi were visible radiographically within three weeks. s/d® Feline food was continued an additional two weeks. This case study shows that s/d® Feline therapeutic food can be used to successfully manage struvite urolithiasis in cats

  11. Chemical Composition of Urinary Calculi in North Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsheyab

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to report the type and composition of urinary stones in North Jordan. Four hundred and eighty six urinary calculi (398 renal, 88 ureteric from Jordanian patients 364 male (74.9% and 122 female (25.1% from different ages were chemically analyzed. The study takes place in the Collage of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology during the period 2002-2006. The most common type of upper urinary tract stones among patients in North Jordan was a calcium oxalate stone represent (64.8%. Next common stones were calcium phosphate stones (17.7%. While uric acid, triple phosphate and cystine stones occurred in 13.0, 3.3 and 1.2%, respectively. The incidence of calcium oxalate containing stones was predominant in both male and female patients (66.2 and 60.6%, followed by calcium phosphate and uric acid stones (17.0 and 19.7%, (12.6 and 13.9%, respectively. The relationship between age, sex and stone formation illustrates that urinary stones are most common in male than female (ratio 3:1 and regard the age it`s most common within the age 30-40 years for female (39.3% and within the age 20-30 for male`s patients (26.6%. Renal calculi in Jordanian population were found to be within the range of the world population since renal calculi is a worldwide problem, sparing no geographical, cultural, or racial groups.

  12. Study of cystine urinary calculi in dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Escolar, E; Bellanato, J.; Rodriquez, M

    1991-01-01

    The composition and structure of 48 canine cystine urinary stones were determined by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron dispersive X-ray analysis. The infrared analysis showed that about 45% of the specimens were composed of pure cystine. The remainder also contained calcium oxalate (mono and/or dihydrate), magnesium ammonium phosphate hexadydrate (struvite), calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (brushite) and complex urates (ammonium, ammonium potassium and/or p...

  13. Nondestructive analysis of urinary calculi using micro computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingeman James E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro computed tomography (micro CT has been shown to provide exceptionally high quality imaging of the fine structural detail within urinary calculi. We tested the idea that micro CT might also be used to identify the mineral composition of urinary stones non-destructively. Methods Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were measured for mineral that was positively identified by infrared microspectroscopy (FT-IR. To do this, human urinary stones were sectioned with a diamond wire saw. The cut surface was explored by FT-IR and regions of pure mineral were evaluated by micro CT to correlate x-ray attenuation values with mineral content. Additionally, intact stones were imaged with micro CT to visualize internal morphology and map the distribution of specific mineral components in 3-D. Results Micro CT images taken just beneath the cut surface of urinary stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail that could be correlated with structure visible in the optical image mode of FT-IR. Regions of pure mineral were not difficult to find by FT-IR for most stones and such regions could be localized on micro CT images of the cut surface. This was not true, however, for two brushite stones tested; in these, brushite was closely intermixed with calcium oxalate. Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were collected for six minerals that could be found in regions that appeared to be pure, including uric acid (3515 – 4995 micro CT attenuation units, AU, struvite (7242 – 7969 AU, cystine (8619 – 9921 AU, calcium oxalate dihydrate (13815 – 15797 AU, calcium oxalate monohydrate (16297 – 18449 AU, and hydroxyapatite (21144 – 23121 AU. These AU values did not overlap. Analysis of intact stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail and could discriminate multiple mineral types within heterogeneous stones. Conclusions Micro CT gives excellent structural detail of urinary stones, and these results demonstrate the feasibility of identifying and localizing most of the common mineral types found in urinary calculi using laboratory CT.

  14. Family History and Age at the Onset of Upper Urinary Tract Calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaleddin Hasanzadeh; Samad Hazhir; Yadollah Ahmadi Asr Badr

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of family history on the age of urinary calculus formation and its relation with characteristics of the calculi and patients. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study in Tabriz, a total of 210 patients with upper urinary tract calculi were evaluated. Their demographics and clinical characteristics and detailed information on their family history were recorded. Results: Of the patients, 28.6% had a positive family histo...

  15. Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciudin, Alexandru; Luque Galvez, Maria Pilar; Franco de Castro, Agustin; Garcia-Cruz, Eduardo; Alcover Garcia, Juan; Alvarez-Vijande Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Alcaraz Asensio, Antonio [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Urology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Salvador Izquierdo, Rafael; Nicolau, Carlos [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm{sup 2} and 0.1 cm{sup 2} over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

  16. Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm2 and 0.1 cm2 over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

  17. "THE ROLE OF HARDNESS OF POTABLE WATER IN THE FORMATION OF URINARY CALCULI IN UROMIEH, Iran"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Imandel

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of renal and urinary calculi is not due to a single cause but occurs as a multifactor entity, by which some of them still are unknown. Three theories of Stones formation including nucleation, stone matrix and inhibition of crystallization do not accuse water hardness as a main cause of the formation of urinary calculi 120 patients suffering from renal and urinary calculi and the same number of control persons were studied in the city of Uromieh. The analysis of uroliths and water samples fulfilled the laboratory Standard methods Chi-square test was done on the results obtained The results of water analyses showed that the total hardness of Calcium and Magnesium were 300, 69, 32 mg/I as CaCo3 , TDS , 410 mg/I, electrical conductivity 600 us/cm and water classified as very hard. The abundance of uroliths were, oxalate, cystjne, uric acid infectious respectively, There was no statistical significant association between water hardness and urinary calculi of patients under study with respect to age and sex. The abundance blood groups in patients were A , 0 , AB and B respectively and the occurrence of 3 renal calculi mentioned above were more in men than Women The formation of renal stones were most occurred in summer season. The most abundant was calcium oxalate, the incidence was between the ages 30 to 50 years old and calcium stones were 2.7 times more in men than woman.

  18. Optimization of supervised self-organizing maps with genetic algorithms for classification of urinary calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovski, Igor; Trpkovska, Mira; Šoptrajanov, Bojan

    2005-06-01

    Supervised self-organizing maps were used for classification of 160 infrared spectra of urinary calculi composed of calcium oxalates (whewellite and weddellite), pure or in binary or ternary mixtures with carbonate apatite, struvite or uric acid. The study was focused to such calculi since more than 80% of the samples analyzed contained some or all of the above-mentioned constituents. The classification was done on the basis of the infrared spectra in the 1450-450 cm -1 region. Two procedures were used in order to find the most suitable size and for optimizing the self-organizing map of which that using the genetic algorithms gave better results. Using this procedure several sets of solutions with zero misclassifications were obtained. Thus, the self-organizing maps may be considered as a promising tool for qualitative analysis of urinary calculi.

  19. Dual-energy CT for the evaluation of urinary calculi: Image interpretation, pitfalls and stone mimics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with a reported prevalence between 4% and 20% in developed countries. Determination of urinary calculi composition is a key factor in preoperative evaluation, treatment, and stone recurrence prevention. Prior to the introduction of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), available methods for determining urinary stone composition were only available after stone extraction, and thereby unable to aid in optimized stone management prior to intervention. DECT utilizes the attenuation difference produced by two different x-ray energy spectra to quantify urinary calculi composition as uric acid or non-uric acid (with likely further classification in the future) while still providing the information attained with a conventional CT. Knowledge of DECT imaging pitfalls and stone mimics is important, as the added benefit of dual-energy analysis is the determination of stone composition, which in turn affects all aspects of stone management. This review briefly describes DECT principles, scanner types and acquisition protocols for the evaluation of urinary calculi as they relate to imaging pitfalls (inconsistent characterization of small stones, small dual-energy field of view, and mischaracterization from surrounding material) and stone mimics (drainage devices) that may adversely impact clinical decisions. We utilize our clinical experience from scanning over 1200 patients with this new imaging technique to present clinically relevant examples of imaging pitfalls and possible mechanisms for resolution

  20. Family History and Age at the Onset of Upper Urinary Tract Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaleddin Hasanzadeh

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of family history on the age of urinary calculus formation and its relation with characteristics of the calculi and patients. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study in Tabriz, a total of 210 patients with upper urinary tract calculi were evaluated. Their demographics and clinical characteristics and detailed information on their family history were recorded. Results: Of the patients, 28.6% had a positive family history for urinary calculi. Siblings were the majority of the affected family members (71.1%. The rate of a positive family history was slightly higher in women than in men (30.0% versus 28.1%; P = .20. The mean age at the disease onset of the men with and without a positive family history was 37.2 years versus 39.3 years, respectively (P = .20. Such a difference was not detected in the female patients, either (P = .63. In general, the calculi were more detected on the left renal unit, but more prevalent on the right side in patients with a positive family history (P = .008. No relation was found between the number and size of the calculi and the family history. Conclusion: About one-third of the patients with urinary calculi had a positive family history too. Men with affected family members are slightly more susceptible to the disease at younger ages. There might be differences in the side of the calculi and family members with a history of disease that warrants further studies.

  1. Percutaneous Imaging-Guided Access for the Treatment of Calculi in Continent Urinary Reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe our long-term experience with percutaneous access to continent urinary reservoirs for calculus removal. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of 13 procedures in 10 patients was performed. In 2 of the 13 procedures, access and calculus removal was performed in a single session. In the other 11 procedures, initial access was obtained using ultrasonography,fluoroscopy, and/or computed tomography. The patients then returned ata later date for a second step where the access was dilated and the calculi were removed. Results: Access was achieved successfully in all cases with no complications. At mean follow-up time of 13.6 months (range 1-94 months) one patient had died of complications unrelated to her continent urinary reservoir. Another patient had been placed on suppressive antibiotics for recurrent calculi. The remaining patients were stone free and without late complication. Conclusions: Percutaneous removal of reservoir calculi can be performed safely, avoiding potential injury to the continence valve mechanism by a direct cystoscopic approach. We propose a two-stage procedure using CT guidance for initial access as the preferred technique

  2. Targeted dual-energy single-source CT for characterisation of urinary calculi: experimental and clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiber, Matthias; Holzapfel, Konstantin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Dobritz, Martin; Huber, Armin [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Frimberger, Markus; Straub, Michael [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany); Schneider, Heike [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Munich (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    To assess the accuracy of targeted dual-energy single-source multi-detector CT (MDCT) for characterisation of urinary calculi. For proof of principle, 71 ex-vivo calculi underwent single-source 256-slice MDCT. Low-dose CT was performed in 154 patients with suspected urinary calculi. In 104 patients with urinary calculi targeted dual-energy imaging within one breath-hold was added. 46 patients with sufficient material for infrared-spectroscopy were analysed. Potential anatomical misregistrations between 80- and 140-kV{sub p}-images and HU-values were measured. DEIs (dual-energy-indices) were compared with the standard of reference. Effective doses were calculated. In 26 of 46 patients no misregistration was present. Mean deviations were 2.7 mm in the z-axis (16 patients) and 4.3 mm in the axial plane (10 patients). The DEIs were 0.018 {+-} 0.016 for uric acid (UA), 0.035 {+-} 0.015 for mixed UA and 0.102 {+-} 0.015 for calcified stones in-vitro and 0.017 {+-} 0.002 for UA, 0.050 {+-} 0.019 for mixed UA and 0.122 {+-} 0.024 for calcified calculi in-vivo. Significant differences were noted among calcium, mixed UA and UA stones (p < 0.05). For the low-dose examination mean effective dose was 3.11 mSv. Targeted dual-energy resulted in an extra dose of 1.84 mSv (additional 59.1%). Targeted dual-energy imaging within one breath-hold is feasible for characterisation of urinary calculi using single-source MDCT allowing minimal anatomical discordance. (orig.)

  3. Techniques used in trace element analysis of urinary calculi by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was found to be a suitable method for the estimation of iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, aluminium and lead in urinary calculi: graphite furnace electrothermal atomization was required for lead and flame atomization for the others. A standard urinary stone solution was made up and calibrated for each element using the method of standard additions. In all case, absorption varied linearly with concentration; reproducibility, accuracy and recovery were satisfactory for all elements. Conventional atomic absorption standards in 1% nitric acid solution had low apparent values as a percentage of the true values would be: Fe, 108.5; Cu, 103.1; Zn, 106.4; Mg, 125.0; Al, 103.6; Pb, 102.2%. Also, apparent concentrations of magnesium, zinc and copper in dilute nitric acid solution varied significantly with acid strength. It was concluded that in order to minimise matrix and Ph effects, urinary stone analysis should be done against the standard urinary stone solution. (author)

  4. Outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper urinary tract calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcello, Cocuzza; Jose R., Colombo Jr; Antonio L., Cocuzza; Frederico, Mascarenhas; Fabio, Vicentini; Eduardo, Mazzucchi; Miguel, Srougi.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative and financial outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper tract calculi in 44 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2004 and September 2006, 44 patients treated for upper tract stone with flexible ureteroscopic lithot [...] ripsy were evaluated. Renal stones were associated with collecting system obstruction in 15 (34%) patients, failed extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) occurred in 14 (32%) patients, unilateral multiple stones in 18 (41%) patients, and multiple bilateral stones in 3 (7%). In 29 (66%) patients, the stone was located in the inferior calyx. Perioperative and financial outcomes were also evaluated. RESULTS: 50 procedures were performed in 44 patients. The mean stone burden on preoperative CT scan was 11.5 ± 5.8 mm. The mean operative time was 61.3 ± 29.4 min. The stone free rate was 93.1% after one procedure and 97.7% after a second procedure, with overall complication rate of 8%. Therapeutic success occurred in 92% and 93% of patients with lower pole stones and SWL failure, respectively. Treatment failure of a single session was associated with presence of a stone size larger than 15 mm (p = 0.007), but not associated with inferior calyx location (p = 0.09). Surgical disposables were responsible for 78% of overall costs. CONCLUSION: Flexible ureteroscopy using holmium laser is a safe and effective option for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi. In addition, it can be considered an attractive option as salvage therapy after SWL failure or kidney calculi associated with ureteral stones. Stone size larger than 15 mm is associated with single session treatment failure.

  5. Outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper urinary tract calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Cocuzza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative and financial outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper tract calculi in 44 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2004 and September 2006, 44 patients treated for upper tract stone with flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy were evaluated. Renal stones were associated with collecting system obstruction in 15 (34% patients, failed extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL occurred in 14 (32% patients, unilateral multiple stones in 18 (41% patients, and multiple bilateral stones in 3 (7%. In 29 (66% patients, the stone was located in the inferior calyx. Perioperative and financial outcomes were also evaluated. RESULTS: 50 procedures were performed in 44 patients. The mean stone burden on preoperative CT scan was 11.5 ± 5.8 mm. The mean operative time was 61.3 ± 29.4 min. The stone free rate was 93.1% after one procedure and 97.7% after a second procedure, with overall complication rate of 8%. Therapeutic success occurred in 92% and 93% of patients with lower pole stones and SWL failure, respectively. Treatment failure of a single session was associated with presence of a stone size larger than 15 mm (p = 0.007, but not associated with inferior calyx location (p = 0.09. Surgical disposables were responsible for 78% of overall costs. CONCLUSION: Flexible ureteroscopy using holmium laser is a safe and effective option for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi. In addition, it can be considered an attractive option as salvage therapy after SWL failure or kidney calculi associated with ureteral stones. Stone size larger than 15 mm is associated with single session treatment failure.

  6. Application of physico-chemical procedures in the analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All physico-chemical techniques used in the analysis of urinary calculi have inherent advantages and limitations. Although x-ray powder diffraction can identify constituents unambiguously, certain minor components can be missed. Infrared spectroscopy is more sensitive but band assignment at low concentrations is difficult. Scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive x-ray analysis permits the simultaneous investigation of morphology and chemical microstructure. With the electron microprobe, minor constituents can be detected but tedious sample preparation procedures are required. Transmission electron microscopy is extremely useful in determining constituent inter-relationships and ultrastructure but ultramicrotomy is very difficult. Thermal gravimetric analysis gives quantitative information easily but does not satisfactorily distinguish between struvite and brushite. In an attempt to assess the accuracy of chemical analyses, 62 calculi were investigated applying several chemical tests. Those for Mg2+, PO4(3-), NH4+ and uric acid proved highly reliable while that for Ca2+ often yielded an incorrect result. The test for oxalate was totally unsatisfactory. Investigators of stone composition and structure should include x-ray diffraction (or infrared spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy as their methods of first choice. In addition, chemical or thermogravimetric analyses should be utilized in an auxiliary capacity

  7. Struvite infection calculi in dogs: problems with urinary calculus identification, and the value of the results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    John, Dunlevey; Michael, Laing.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the crystalline components of a urinary calculus is a valuable aid to correct diagnosis, and subsequent treatment of the underlying cause of the problem. Calculus formation is often an end product brought about by urine with a high concentration of insoluble material causing bladder irri [...] tation. This promotes bacterial infection by Proteus, which not only raises the pH in the bladder and generates ammonia, but also provides sites for mineral nucleation and crystal growth. Treating the infection and removing the stone will not necessarily cure the disorder. Correct identification of a calculus as struvite and even its potassium analogue can be critical in choice of curative protocols, but this is not always straightforward. Our experience with 'problem calculi' is described.

  8. Dual-energy CT for the characterization of urinary calculi: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a low-dose scanning protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Patschan, O.; Nagele, U.; Stenzl, A. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Urology, Tuebingen (Germany); Ketelsen, D.; Tsiflikas, I.; Reimann, A.; Brodoefel, H.; Claussen, C.; Kopp, A.; Heuschmid, M.; Schlemmer, H.P. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Buchgeister, M. [University of Tuebingen, Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The efficiency and radiation dose of a low-dose dual-energy (DE) CT protocol for the evaluation of urinary calculus disease were evaluated. A low-dose dual-source DE-CT renal calculi protocol (140 kV, 46 mAs; 80 kV, 210 mAs) was derived from the single-energy (SE) CT protocol used in our institution for the detection of renal calculi (120 kV, 75 mAs). An Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with thermoluminescence dosimeters and examined by CT with both protocols. The effective doses were calculated. Fifty-one patients with suspected or known urinary calculus disease underwent DE-CT. DE analysis was performed if calculi were detected using a dedicated software tool. Results were compared to chemical analysis after invasive calculus extraction. An effective dose of 3.43 mSv (male) and 5.30 mSv (female) was measured in the phantom for the DE protocol (vs. 3.17/4.57 mSv for the SE protocol). Urinary calculi were found in 34 patients; in 28 patients, calculi were removed and analyzed (23 patients with calcified calculi, three with uric acid calculi, one with 2,8-dihyxdroxyadenine-calculi, one patient with a mixed struvite calculus). DE analysis was able to distinguish between calcified and non-calcified calculi in all cases. In conclusion, dual-energy urinary calculus analysis is effective also with a low-dose protocol. The protocol tested in this study reliably identified calcified urinary calculi in vivo. (orig.)

  9. Litiasis urinaria en adultos con mielomeningocele / Urinary calculi in myelomeningocele adults

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Verdú Tartajo; J., Salinas Casado; F., Herranz Amo; J.M., Díez Cordero; R., Durán Merino; C., Hernández Fernández.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivos: Los avances en el tratamiento de los nacidos con mielomeningocele (MMC) han logrado un gran aumento en su supervivencia, permitiéndoles una longevidad nunca antes alcanzada, pero todavía son escasos los datos concernientes a los problemas urológicos que estos enfermos plant [...] ean durante su vida adulta. Hemos evaluado las características de la litiasis urinaria en adultos nacidos con MMC así como los tratamientos empleados en la misma. Material y métodos: Revisamos 52 pacientes nacidos con MMC de entre 18 y 40 años, atendidos durante los últimos 14 años en nuestro hospital, con una media de seguimiento de 6,7 años. Resultados: Se diagnosticaron de litiasis urinaria 10 pacientes (19,2%). Tres formaron cálculos renales (5,7%), y uno de ellos, junto con 7 pacientes más, desarrollaron cálculos vesicales (15,3%). El nivel neurológico fue S1 en otros dos. El tipo de disfunción neurógena del tracto urinario inferior fue de lesión múltiple pura de neurona motora inferior en 6 casos, de neurona motora superior en 1, lesión múltiple mixta en otro, no pudiéndose valorar en el restante. Dos pacientes tenían una ampliación vesical y uno de estos junto con otros 3 pacientes era portador de AMS-800 no funcionantes. La litiasis vesical se trató endoscopicamente en 14 ocasiones y mediante cistolitotomía suprapúbica en 4, junto a la retirada de AMS-800 en 3 de ellas. Un paciente expulsó un pequeño cálculo. En un paciente fueron necesarias 2 litotricias extracorpóreas y 2 nefrolitotomías percutáneas. Tres pacientes tuvieron múltiples recidivas. Conclusiones: La litiasis urinaria es frecuente en los adultos con MMC. Determinadas características de estos pacientes, junto con su configuración anatómica y algunos tratamientos empleados en ellos, ocasionan problemas de diagnostico, tratamiento y prevención de los cálculos que forman. Abstract in english Introduction and objectives: the improvements in the management of newborns with myelomeningocele (MMC) have obtained a big increase in survival, allowing them to get longevity like never before, but data regarding urologic diseases during adult age are still missing. We herein evaluate the features [...] of urinary lithiasis in adults born with MMC and the therapies used for its treatment. Material and method: we review 52 patients diagnosed at birth of MMC, between 18 and 40 years old, treated in our institution, with a mean follow-up of 6.7 years. Results: 10 patients (19.2%) were diagnosed of urolithiasis. Three developed kidney calculi and one of them, with 7 more patients, developed bladder calculi (15.3%). The neurological level was S1 in the other two. The type of neurogenic dysfunction of inferior urinary tract was multiple lesion of lower motor neurone in 6 cases, upper motor neurone in 1 case, multiple mixed lesion in 1 case and in case it was impossible to determine. Two patients had a bladder augmentation procedure and one of these with other 3 patients had a non-functional AMS-800 artificial urinary sphincter. Bladder stones were treated endoscopically in 14 procedures and by suprapubic cystolithotomy in 4 procedures, combined with removal of AMS-800 in 3 of them. One patient spontaneously passed a small stone. In one case, 2 ESWL and 2 percutaneous nephrolithotomies were needed. Three patients developed multiple recurrences during follow-up. Conclusions: urinary lithiasis is common in adults with MMC. Some distinct features of these patients, together with their anatomical configuration and some therapies used in them, cause diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylaxis issues for the calculi they may develop.

  10. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10?12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long?term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride?induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography?electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identi?ed in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol?3?O?rutinoside, kaempferol?3?O?glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that Urtica dioica has strong antiurolithiatic activity and may have potential as a natural therapeutic agent for various urological disorders. PMID:25310585

  11. Role of X-ray signs of urinary calculi in the efficiency of shoch-wave telelithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of X-ray signs of urinary calculi for the efficiency of shock-wave telelithotripsy (SWTL) was assessed in 188 patients with nephroureterolithiasis. The calculi were studied from the general X-ray film by means of a routine 4-5x magnifier. Comparative analysis of X-ray films indicated that the calculi which were homogeneous in structure, moderate in intensity and had even edges in the general X-ray films indicated that the calculi which were homogeneous in structure, moderate in intensity and had even edges in the general X-ray pictures in 82% cases were fragmented after 3-4 sessions (the average number of impulses were 7500, at 19,0 kV). With their heterogenous structure, low and high intensity, irregular rough edges, they were fragmented after 1 or rarely 2 sessions in 18% patients. The number of impulses was fewer, on an average of 2300, the voltage was less - 17,5 kV. It was noted that the pattern of the edges of a calculus and its geometric form are of highly value in the prediction of SWTL. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Helical CT evaluation of the chemical composition of urinary tract calculi with a discriminant analysis of CT-attenuation values and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of helical CT using a combination of CT-attenuation values and visual assessment of stone density as well as discriminant linear analysis to predict the chemical composition of urinary calculi. One hundred human urinary calculi were obtained from a stone-analysis laboratory and placed in 20 excised pig kidneys. They were scanned at 80, 120 and 140 kV with 3-mm collimation. Average, highest and lowest CT-attenuation values and CT variability were recorded. The internal calculus structure was assessed using a wide window setting, and visual assessment of stone density was recorded. A stepwise discriminant linear analysis was performed. The following three variables were discriminant: highest CT-attenuation value, visual density, and highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio, all at 80 kV. The probability of correctly classifying stone composition with these three variables was 0.64, ranging from 0.54 for mixed calculi to 0.69 for pure calculi. The probabilities of correctly classifying calculus composition were: 0.91 for calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite, 0.89 for cystine, 0.85 for uric acid, 0.11 for calcium oxalate dihydrate, 0.10 for hydroxyapatite, and 0.07 for struvite calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, 81% of the calculi were correctly classified. Assessment at 80 kV of the highest CT-attenuation value, visual density and the highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio accurately predicts the chemical composition of 64-81% of urinary calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, all cystine, calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite calculi were correctly classified. (orig.)

  13. Helical CT evaluation of the chemical composition of urinary tract calculi with a discriminant analysis of CT-attenuation values and density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellin, Marie-France; Meric, Jean-Baptiste [AP-HP, Department of Radiology, Hopital Paul-Brousse, Villejuif Cedex (France); Renard-Penna, Raphaelle; Grenier, Philippe [AP-HP, Department of Radiology, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Conort, Pierre; Richard, Francois [AP-HP, Department of Urology, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Bissery, Anne; Mallet, Alain [AP-HP, Department of Biostatistics, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Daudon, Michel [AP-HP, Department of Biochemistry, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of helical CT using a combination of CT-attenuation values and visual assessment of stone density as well as discriminant linear analysis to predict the chemical composition of urinary calculi. One hundred human urinary calculi were obtained from a stone-analysis laboratory and placed in 20 excised pig kidneys. They were scanned at 80, 120 and 140 kV with 3-mm collimation. Average, highest and lowest CT-attenuation values and CT variability were recorded. The internal calculus structure was assessed using a wide window setting, and visual assessment of stone density was recorded. A stepwise discriminant linear analysis was performed. The following three variables were discriminant: highest CT-attenuation value, visual density, and highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio, all at 80 kV. The probability of correctly classifying stone composition with these three variables was 0.64, ranging from 0.54 for mixed calculi to 0.69 for pure calculi. The probabilities of correctly classifying calculus composition were: 0.91 for calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite, 0.89 for cystine, 0.85 for uric acid, 0.11 for calcium oxalate dihydrate, 0.10 for hydroxyapatite, and 0.07 for struvite calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, 81% of the calculi were correctly classified. Assessment at 80 kV of the highest CT-attenuation value, visual density and the highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio accurately predicts the chemical composition of 64-81% of urinary calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, all cystine, calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite calculi were correctly classified. (orig.)

  14. Analyses of 99Tcm-DTPA dynamic kidney imaging on 346 patients of upper urinary tract calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of 99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging in evaluating renal function of the patients with upper urinary tract calculi. Methods: The results of 99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), intravenous pyelography (IVP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) in 346 patients with upper urinary tract calculi diseases were analyzed retrospectively. These 346 patients were divided into four groups according to their total GFR value. Results: (1) The renal dynamic imaging in 346 patients could accurately reflect the function of the two kidneys. GFR was negatively related to the serum BUN and SCr levels (r=-0.458, P=0.000 and r=-0.542, P=0.000). (2) The BUN and SCr levels showed significant difference among the four groups (F=49.23, P=0.000 and F=80.66, P=0.000). There were no significant difference of the BUN and SCr levels found between group 1 and group 2 (P=0.119, P=0.088, respectively), while significant difference of the BUN and SCr levels found among the other groups (P99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging, the mean GFR was (21.89±12.81)ml/min. Conclusion: 99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging is valuable to early evaluate the renal function, especially for the sick renal function in IVP detection failed patients. (authors)

  15. Outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper urinary tract calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Marcello Cocuzza; Jose R. Colombo Jr.; Antonio L. Cocuzza; Frederico Mascarenhas; Fabio Vicentini; Eduardo Mazzucchi; Miguel Srougi

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative and financial outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper tract calculi in 44 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2004 and September 2006, 44 patients treated for upper tract stone with flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy were evaluated. Renal stones were associated with collecting system obstruction in 15 (34%) patients, failed extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) occurred in 14 (32%) patients, unilate...

  16. [Infection-induced urinary calculi in children; current therapeutic schedule and prevention of recurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, D; Brühl, P; Hesse, A

    1988-01-01

    Infection stones have an outstanding position in childhood urolithiasis. In non-infection stones one can mostly find a certain--for example metabolic--causes of stone formation. In infection stones, the urease-producing and thus urea-cleaving properties of some gram-negative bacteria are responsible for alkalization of the urine and lead especially in combination with disturbances of urine transport to the staghorn calculi. Therefore in such children early diagnosis, adequate therapy and consequent maintenance is the crucial point for good life quality in future. Preliminary condition for therapeutic success is a close coworking between pediatric nephrologist, pediatric urologist, family doctor and parents. PMID:3070141

  17. Investigation of the microstructure and mineralogical composition of urinary calculi fragments by synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography: a feasibility study.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaiser, J.; Holá, M.; Galiová, M.; Novotný, K.; Kanický, V.; Martinec, Petr; Š?u?ka, Ji?í; Brun, F.; Sodini, N.; Tromba, G.; Mancini, L.; Ko?istková, T.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 39, ?. 4 (2011), s. 259-267. ISSN 0300-5623 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA203/09/1394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : computed microtomography * synchrotron radiation * urinary calculi Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.233, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/y244643574072rk3/fulltext.pdf

  18. In vitro studies of epithelium-associated crystallization caused by uropathogens during urinary calculi development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Budzy?ska, Aleksandra; Bia?czak-Kokot, Magdalena; Ró?alski, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Infectious urinary stones account for about 10% of all urinary stones. In 50% of cases urolithiasis is a recurrent illness, which can lead to the loss of a kidney if not properly treated. One of the reasons for recurrence of the disease may be the ability of bacteria to invade urothelial cells, persist in the host cells and serve as potential reservoirs for infection. Various uropathogens are associated with the formation of bacteria-induced urinary stones but Proteus mirabilis is the most commonly isolated (70%). An in vitro model was used in this study to analyze intracellular growth and crystallization in the presence of P. mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Human ureter (Hu 609) and bladder (HCV 29) epithelial cell lines were infected with bacteria and incubated (3-72 h) in the presence of synthetic urine and amikacin to prevent extracellular bacterial growth. During the incubation the number of bacteria (CFU/ml) inside epithelial cells and the intensity of crystallization were established. Crystallization was determined as an amount of a calcium radioisotope. The chosen strains of uropathogens were able to invade both types of epithelial cells but the Hu 609 cells were invaded to a higher extent. However, crystallization occurred only in the presence of P. mirabilis strains which were invasive and urease-positive. The highest intensity of cell-associated crystallization was observed when the number of bacteria within the urothelium remained stable during the time of incubation. These results show that P. mirabilis has an ability to form crystals inside the host cells. Under these conditions bacteria are protected from antibiotic killing, which leads to persistent and recurrent infections. We also suspect that this phenomenon may be an important stage of kidney stones formation. PMID:24803200

  19. X-ray diffraction analysis of urinary calculi: need for heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbandyan, Vladimir B

    2008-10-01

    Although X-ray diffraction (XRD) is the most reliable method for analysis of urinary stones, it has its specific limitations. It fails to detect amorphous phases, cannot distinguish between chemically different phases having identical lattice geometry (e.g., brushite CaHPO4.2H2O and gypsum CaSO4.2H2O) and may miss some phases (e.g., apatite and calcium urates) due to peak overlaps. XRD of urinary stones was performed using a DRON 2.0 diffractometer with CuKalpha radiation and repeated after calcining the sample, preferably with weighing. XRD of the calcined samples enabled detection of amorphous magnesium phosphates, poor crystallized apatite mixed with struvite, weddellite and/or organic matter, hidden organic calcium salts mixed with uric acid; unambiguously discriminated between brushite and gypsum, struvite and its potassium analogue; confirmed presence of quartz in one stone. Statistical study of 341 samples from Rostov region has shown that three-phase mixtures are most frequent (32.3%). Redoing XRD phase analysis after heat treatment, preferably at 500 and/or 900 degrees C, considerably enhances capabilities of the method due to (i) avoiding peak overlaps; (ii) crystallization of amorphous phases; (iii) concentrating minority inorganic components in organic stones; (iv) different decomposition products from indistinguishable phases; (v) semi-quantitative information from the weight loss data. PMID:18766336

  20. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, endourology and open surgery: the management and follow-up of 200 patients with urinary calculi.

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, D R; Mcnicholas, T A; Whitfield, H N; Wickham, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The management and follow up of 200 consecutive patients with renal and ureteric calculi are presented. The primary treatment of 185 (92.5%) was by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), of whom three (1.6)%) with large calculi underwent percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) prior to ESWL as a planned combined procedure. Twelve (6%) were treated by PCNL or ureterorenoscopy (URS) as their definitive treatment and three (1.5%) by conventional open renal and ureteric surgery. The average i...

  1. [Hormonal and metabolic disorders as systemic factor for the formation of urinary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaev, Iu G; Egshatian, L V; Rapoport, L M; Lartsova, E V

    2014-01-01

    In patients suffering from urolithiasis, metabolic diagnostics often reveals abnormalities contributing to the formation of stones: hypocitraturia, hyper- and hypocalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypomagnesemia/hypomagnesuria, hyperoxalaturia, etc. Before surgery, complex biochemical examination of blood and 24-hourcollection urine in 82 patients with urolithiasis was performed. The analysis of the main laboratory parameters of carbohydrate, lipid, calcium and phosphorus and purine metabolism found the prevalence of violations of calcium and phosphorus metabolism in these patients. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 31 (37.8%) patients. There was a significant positive correlation between serum total cholesterol and serum total calcium (rs = 0.3315, P = 0.0103). Low serum calcium levels were associated with hyperoxalaturia (rs = -0.4270, P = 0.0295). There was a significant effect of natriuria on urinary excretion of oxalate (rs = 0.6107, P = 0.0001), Mg (rs = 0.4156, P = 0.0096) and K (rs = 0.5234, P = 0.00005). The study shows the role of magnesium in the prevention of recurrence and manifestation of urolithiasis. The combination of two or more types of hormonal and metabolic disorders increases the incidence of recurrent stones. Timely correction of hormonal-metabolic status allows to reduce the risk of stone formation, and hospitalization attributable to the complications associated. PMID:25807757

  2. Unenhanced low-dose versus standard-dose CT localization in patients with upper urinary calculi for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licheng, Jiang; Yidong, Fan; Ping, Wang; Keqiang, Yan; Xueting, Wang; Yingchen, Zhang; Lei, Gao; Jiyang, Ding; Zhonghua, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: With the ethical concern about the dose of CT scan and wide use of CT in protocol of suspected renal colic, more attention has been paid to low dose CT. The aim of the present study was to make a comparison of unenhanced low-dose spiral CT localization with unenhanced standard-dose spiral CT in patients with upper urinary tract calculi for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) treatment. Methods: Twenty eight patients with ureter and renal calculus, preparing to take MPCNL, underwent both abdominal low-dose CT (25 mAs) and standard-dose CT (100 mAs). Low-dose CT and standard-dose CT were independently evaluated for the characterization of renal/ureteral calculi, perirenal adjacent organs, blood vessels, indirect signs of renal or ureteral calculus (renal enlargement, pyeloureteral dilatation), and the indices of localization (percutaneous puncture angulation and depth) used in the MPCNL procedure. Results: In all 28 patients, low-dose CT was 100 per cent coincidence 100 per cent sensitive and 100 per cent specific for depicting the location of the renal and ureteral calculus, renal enlargement, pyeloureteral dilatation, adjacent organs, and the presumptive puncture point and a 96.3 per cent coincidence 96 per cent sensitivity and 93 per cent specificity for blood vessel signs within the renal sinus, and with an obvious lower radiation exposure for patients when compared to standard-dose CT (PCT scans, with a significant variation in calculus visualization slice numbers (PCT achieves a sensitivity and accuracy similar to that of standard-dose CT in assessing the localization of renal ureteral calculus and adjacent organs conditions and identifying the maximum calculus transverse diameter on the axial surface, percutaneous puncture depth, and angulation in patients, with a significant lower radiation exposure, who are to be treated by MPCNL, and can be used as an alternative localization method. PMID:24820832

  3. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urinary calculi. Results from the first 306 patients treated at the Copenhagen Municipal Stone Center with a second generation lithotriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J T; Mogensen, P

    1991-01-01

    The first Danish experience with Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) using a second generation Lithotriptor (Siemens Lithostar) is reported. 306 patients underwent 392 treatments for 363 stones. There were 339 renal calculi including 5 staghorn calculi and 54 ureteral calculi. Treatments were performed under local analgesia (82%) or epidural or general anesthesia (18%) when invasive procedures had to be done in connection with the treatment. Stone fragmentation was achieved with 2487 +/...

  4. Typed ?-calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A large variety of process calculi extend the pi-calculus with more general notions of messages. Bengtson et al. have shown that many of these pi-like calculi can be expressed as so-called psi-calculi. In this paper, we describe a simple type system for psi-calculi. The type system satisfies a subject reduction property and a general notion of channel safety. A number of existing systems are shown to be instances of our system, and other, new type systems can also be obtained. We first present a new type system for the calculus of explicit fusions by Wischik and Gardner, then one for the distributed pi-calculus of Hennessy and Riely and finally show how existing type systems for secrecy and authenticity in the spi calculus can be represented and shown to be safe.

  5. Clinical effectiveness of the PolyScope™ endoscope system combined with holmium laser lithotripsy in the treatment of upper urinary calculi with a diameter of less than 2 cm

    OpenAIRE

    GU, SI-PING; HUANG, YUN-TENG; YOU, ZHI-YUAN; Zhou, Xiaoming; LU, YI-JIN; HE, CAO-HUI; QI, JUAN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of the PolyScope™ endoscope system in the treatment of upper urinary calculi with a diameter of 6 mm. Lithotripsy was successful in 77 patients and the duration of the surgery ranged between 25 and 80 min (mean duration, 42 min). Little bleeding was observed. Three patients presented with a slight fever following the surgery; however, no ureteral perforation, high fever or septicemia was observed among the patients following anti-inflam...

  6. Por qué y cómo hemos de analizar los cálculos urinarios / Why and how we must analyse urinary calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Gràcia-Garcia; F., Millán-Rodríguez; F., Rousaud-Barón; R., Montañés-Bermúdez; O., Angerri-Feu; F., Sánchez-Martín; H., Villavicencio-Mavrich; A., Oliver-Samper.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: Existe una heterogeneidad de criterio sobre la utilidad del análisis del cálculo urinario, así como de cuál es la metodología más adecuada. En esta revisión se presenta el análisis de la litiasis mediante la técnica del estudio morfoconstitucional basada en la combinación de la microscopía [...] estereoscópica (MEST) con el estudio de infrarrojos (EIR). Resumen de la evidencia: Existen múltiples técnicas de análisis del cálculo: análisis químico, microscopía electrónica, difracción por rayos X, MEST y EIR. Mediante la revisión de cada una de estas técnicas y el estudio de varios casos clínicos, el presente trabajo muestra la utilidad clínica del análisis del cálculo, así como las ventajas e inconvenientes de cada uno de los citados métodos. Por otro lado, se evidencia cómo el análisis mediante el estudio morfoconstitucional es el que más información clínica de utilidad ofrece al urólogo. Asimismo, se presenta la clasificación de las litiasis basadas en este método y su correlación clínica con el paciente. Conclusiones: El análisis del cálculo mediante la técnica del estudio morfoconstitucional aporta más información que el resto de técnicas y permite establecer una clasificación del cálculo de gran utilidad clínica y diagnóstica. Abstract in english Context: There is heterogeneity of criteria on the utility of urinary stone analysis as well as on which is the most suitable methodology. This review presents the analysis of the lithiasis using the morphoconstitutional analysis technique based on the combination of the stereoscopic microscopy (SM) [...] with infrared study (IRS). Summary of the evidence: There are many techniques to analyze the stone: chemical analysis, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, SM and IRS. Reviewing each one of these techniques and through the study of several clinical cases, this review shows the usefulness of stone analysis and the pros and cons of each one of the mentioned techniques. Furthermore, it can be clearly seen how the morphoconstitutional analysis is the one that offers the most useful clinical information to the urologist. In addition, classification of the lithiasis based on this method and its clinical correlation with patients is presented. Conclusions: Using the morphoconstitutional study to analyze the stone offers more information than the other techniques and it makes it possible to establish a stone classification of important clinical and diagnostic utility.

  7. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urinary calculi. Results from the first 306 patients treated at the Copenhagen Municipal Stone Center with a second generation lithotriptor.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J T; Mogensen, P

    1991-01-01

    The first Danish experience with Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) using a second generation Lithotriptor (Siemens Lithostar) is reported. 306 patients underwent 392 treatments for 363 stones. There were 339 renal calculi including 5 staghorn calculi and 54 ureteral calculi. Treatments were performed under local analgesia (82%) or epidural or general anesthesia (18%) when invasive procedures had to be done in connection with the treatment. Stone fragmentation was achieved with 2487 +/- 1262 shocks. The first months stone clearance rate was 45%; 26% had fragments less than 6 mm; 29% had residual stones. Corresponding rates after 3 and 6 months were 58%, 24% and 18% and 70%, 21% and 9% respectively. Septicemia occurred in 4 patients and cardial arrhythmia in 34 patients (11%). No serious intra- or perirenal hematomas were registered. In 9% additional procedures were required and 11 patients had residual stones removed at open surgery. The used second generation lithotriptor with X-ray based stone localisation is effective for treatment of both renal calculi and ureteral calculi in situ in all three segments of the ureter.

  8. Internalization of Calcium Oxalate Calculi Developed in Narrow Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fèlix Grases

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient with calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi occluded in cavities. All those calculi were located inside narrow cavities covered with a thin epithelium that permits their visualization. Urinary biochemical analysis showed high calciuria, not hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and a ratio [calcium]/[citrate] >0.33. The existence of cavities of very low urodynamic efficacy was decisive in the formation of such calculi. It is important to emphasize that we observed a thin epithelium covering such cavities, demonstrating that this epithelium may be formed after the development of the calculi through a re-epithelialization process.

  9. The management of the congenital anterior urethral diverticula with calculi which is the cause of acute urinary retention (Globe vesicale): A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pirinççi, Necip; Geçit, ?lhan; Güne?, Mustafa; Taken, Kerem; Tan?k, Serhat; Ceylan, Kadir

    2013-01-01

      Abstract. Congenital urethral diverticula with calculi has a low incidence as reported in the literature. Congenital diverticula have been seen % 10-20 in all urethral diverticula. The etiology of urethral stones are urethra and bladder stones, urethral diverticula, foreign matters, urethral stenosis and urethral trauma. Management of treatment urethral stones is surgery and endoscopy. Our case was a three years old boy who referred to our clinic due to globe vesicale. Diagnosis was perform...

  10. Management of Ureteric Calculi in Dhule City of North-western Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Lokesh Patni; Chitale, Anjali M.; Ashish V. Patil-Rawandale; Sangamesh B. Tondare; Mahesh B Tondare

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urolithiasis, usually affecting people in the prime of life, causes significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Uretericstones account for 2/3rd of all urinary calculi brought to attention of doctors. The damaging effects of the calculi may result in obstruction with dilatation of the urinary tract, leading to stasis and severe infection. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate patients with urinary stones with regards to the incidence, age, sex,clinical presentation,...

  11. Factores predictivos de éxito tras una sesión única de litotricia extracorpórea de cálculos urinarios a las tres semanas de seguimiento: Factors Predicting Success after Three Weeks of Follow-Up / Single-Session Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Urinary Calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Vivaldi; M.I., Fernández; J.F., López; F., Fuentes; C., Urzúa; A., Krebs; A., Domenech; P.A., Figueroa; P., Pizzi; M., Westendarp; N., Zambrano; M., Castro; L.F., Coz.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar factores predictivos de éxito después de una sesión única de litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque (LEOC) a las tres semanas de seguimiento. Material y métodos: Se revisaron los registros clínicos de 116 pacientes con cálculos urinarios únicos sometidos a LEOC entre octu [...] bre 2007 y agosto 2009. Las tomografías axiales computarizadas preoperatorias de todos los pacientes fueron revisadas por dos radiólogos en desconocimiento del desenlace clínico. El éxito fue definido como la desaparición completa del cálculo o la persistencia de fragmentos Abstract in english Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors of success following a single-session of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) at 3 weeks of follow-up in our center. Material and methods: The medical records of 116 patients with solitary urinary calculi who underwent single-session SWL [...] in our department between October 2007 and August 2009 were reviewed. All preoperative unenhanced computed axial tomographies were reviewed by two radiologists blinded to clinical outcome. Success was defined as complete clearance or the persistence of fragments

  12. Age-related delay in urinary stone clearance in elderly patients with solitary proximal ureteral calculi treated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyanagi, Osamu; Nagaoka, Akira; Izumi, Takuji; Kawamura, Yuko; Kato, Tomoyuki

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the effects of aging on the stone-free rate (SFR) after shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for the treatment of proximal ureteral calculi. A total of 247 consecutive patients were retrospectively selected, classified into seven groups set at 10 year increments (from 20 to 90 years), and examined for SFR after SWL. According to our final analysis, 185 male and 62 female patients with an average age of 54.1 years had stones with a diameter of 11.5 mm and a density of 893.1 Hounsfield units. On average, SFR was 74.9 % at 3 months after 1.7 SWL sessions. SFR gradually reached ?90 % for each age-group after 1.5-2 years. Median durations to achieve 50 % SFR were estimated to be 21 and 86 days for those in their 20 and 80 s, respectively. However, the difference between the two estimates was not significant (p = 0.064). The durations to achieve 50 % SFR for the other groups lay between these two estimates. Aging does not affect long-term SFR, but patients aged ?80 years might experience delayed stone clearance within the first 12  months after SWL. PMID:25981235

  13. The incidence and location of prostatic calculi on noncontrast computed tomography images in patients with renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasar, Mehmet; Poyraz, Necdet; Gö?er, Yunus Emre; Unal, Yunus; Pi?kin, Mehmet Mesut

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the incidence and location of prostatic calculi on noncontrast abdominal computed tomography (NCACT) images of patients with and without renal stones were investigated. Between 2006 and 2013, NCACT images were taken of 133 patients treated for renal stones (Group I) and of 100 age-matched control patients with putative urinary stone disease (Group II) in our clinic. The incidence and location of prostatic calculi on these images were determined. The location of prostatic calculus was classified as type A if they were located in the main prostatic ducts, and type B if they were located outside the ducts. Prostatic calculi were present in 44.4% of patients in Group I and 21.0% of patients in Group II. The incidence of prostatic calculi was significantly higher in patients with urinary stones compared with those without (Pincidence of prostatic calculi is more prevalent in patients with renal stones. On NCACT images, prostatic calculi were mostly detected in the main prostatic ducts, which were defined as type A. PMID:25991494

  14. Association with meteo-climatological factors and daily emergency visits for renal colic and urinary calculi in Cuneo, Italy. A retrospective observational study, 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condemi, Vincenzo; Gestro, Massimo; Dozio, Elena; Tartaglino, Bruno; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Meco, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Incidence and prevalence of kidney stones are affected by genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between various meteorological factors (independent variables) and the daily number of visits to the Emergency Department (ED of the S. Croce and Carle Hospital of Cuneo for renal colic (RC) and urinary stones (UC) as the dependent variable over the years 2007-2010. The Poisson generalized regression models (PGAMs) have been used in different progressive ways. The results of PGAMs (stage 1) adjusted for seasonal and calendar factors confirmed a significant correlation ( p 1), with a first peak after 5 days (lag ranges 0-1, 0-3, and 0-5) and a second weak peak observed along the 5-15 lag range days. The estimated RR for females was significant, mainly in the second and fourth age group considered (19-44 and >65 years): RR for total ED visits 1.27, confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.46 (lag 0-5 days); RR 1.42, CI 1.01-2.01 (lag 0-10 days); and RR 1.35, CI 1.09-1.68 (lag 0-15 days). The research also indicated a moderate involvement of the thermal factor in the onset of RC caused by UC, exclusively in the female sex. Further studies will be necessary to confirm these results.

  15. Recurrent bilateral renal calculi in a tetraplegic patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaidyanathan, S; Soni, B M

    1998-01-01

    An 18-year-old male developed C-5 complete tetraplegia following a motor-cycle accident in May 1975. The neuropathic bladder was managed by an indwelling urethral catheter. He developed recurrent episodes of urinary infection with Proteus species. In September 1975, an X-ray of the abdomen revealed small calculi in both the kidneys. In July 1976, he underwent transurethral resection of the bladder neck and division of the external urethral sphincter; subsequently, he was put on a penile sheath drainage. He continued to suffer from repeated episodes of urinary tract infection with Proteus, Providencia, and Pseudomonas species, and he was treated with antibiotics. In 1980, intravenous urography (IVU) showed two large stones in the left kidney with marked caliectasis. The IVU performed in 1984 showed an increase in the size of the calculi in the left kidney which was grossly hydronephrotic. There were clusters of small calculi in the right kidney. The left renal calculi were treated by percutaneous lithotripsy in two sessions. In 1988, an X-ray of the abdomen revealed staghorn calculus in the right kidney and recurrence of stones in the left kidney. The staghorn calculus in the right kidney was treated by percutaneous nephrostolithotomy in two sessions. In 1991, he was admitted with acute urinary infection. IVU showed a stone in the pelviureteric junction with no excretion of contrast in the left kidney. Percutaneous nephrostomy drainage was established followed by left percutaneous nephrostolithotomy. In 1992, he was found to retain large amount of urine in the bladder; subsequently, his mother was taught to perform regular intermittent catheterisations. In 1995, he was admitted with acute urine infection. Abdominal X-ray revealed recurrence of large stones in both kidneys. With multiple sessions of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL), about 80% clearance was achieved on the left side. Right staghorn renal stone awaits treatment. This case shows that recurrent urinary infection in spinal cord injury patients is a predisposing factor for renal lithiasis. These patients require annual urological evaluation. Urinary tract calculi, if detected, should be dealt with promptly to prevent renal damage due to urinary obstruction and urosepsis. Renal calculi can be treated effectively and safely by ESWL in spinal cord injury patients, thus avoiding the need for an invasive procedure. It is essential to achieve low-pressure, adequate emptying of the urinary bladder in patients with spinal cord injury in order to prevent recurrent urinary infection and its sequelae. Social issues involved in the care of a tetraplegic patient play a vital role in the implementation of ideal medical treatment and need to be addressed promptly to avoid any compromise in the quality of medical care.

  16. Verification of Stochastic Process Calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic process calculi represent widely accepted formalisms within Computer Science for modelling nondeterministic stochastic systems in a compositional way. Similar to process calculi in general, they are suited for modelling systems in a hierarchical manner, by explicitly specifying subsystems as well as their interdependences and communication channels. Stochastic process calculi incorporate both the quantified uncertainty on probabilities or durations of events and nondeterministic choic...

  17. Posterior urethral calculi in patients without anatomical abnormalities: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk Karata?

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urethral calculi are uncommon problem in urological practice. The incidence of these stones is reported to be lower than 0.3% in the literature. The majority of urethral calculi originates from upper urinary tract or bladder and migrates into the urethra. Native forms are generally associated with postsurgical changes or anatomic abnormalities such as strictures and urethral diverticula. In this paper, we discussed posterior urethral stones in three patients without any urethral anatomic abnormality who were admitted to our clinic over a period of 5 years.

  18. Clinical experience with the Swiss LithoClast® Master in treatment of bladder calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingo, Pernille Skjold; Ryhammer, Allan Maltha; Fuglsig, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and objective. Bladder calculi account for 5% of urinary tract calculi in the western world and many different treatment modalities have been presented throughout the decades. We report our clinical experience using the Swiss LithoClast® Master (SLM). Materials and Methods. The SLM is a rigid, hand-held endourological probe including a pneumatic lithotriptor and an ultrasonic lithotriptor. Attached to the ultrasonic modality is a suction system. The two lithotriptor modalities are c...

  19. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF MUSA PARADISICA LINN AGAINST ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED RENAL CALCULI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha U

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ethanol extract of dried roots of Musa paradisica Linn against ethylene glycol induced renal calculi in albino wistar rats are studied in this research. A renal calculus was induced in rats by ingesting 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days and was manifested by high urinary calcium, oxalate, and low urinary magnesium contents. Simultaneous administration of 1ml (1 in 10 Musa paradisica Linn orally for 28 days along with ethylene glycol (0.75% v/v reduced urinary calcium, oxalate and elevated urinary magnesium level. It also increased urinary volume thereby reducing the tendency for crystallization. The histopathological studies confirmed the induction as degenerated glomeruli, necrotic tubule and inflammatory cells was observed in section of kidney from animals treated with ethylene glycol. This was reduced; however after treatment with Musa paradisica Linn. These observations enable to conclude that Musa paradisica Linn is effective against ethylene glycol induced renal calculi.

  20. Observational Calculi and Association Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Observational calculi were introduced in the 1960’s as a tool of logic of discovery. Formulas of observational calculi correspond to assertions on analysed data. Truthfulness of suitable assertions can lead to acceptance of new scientific hypotheses. The general goal was to automate the process of discovery of scientific knowledge using mathematical logic and statistics. The GUHA method for producing true formulas of observational calculi relevant to the given problem of scientific discovery was developed. Theoretically interesting and practically important results on observational calculi were achieved. Special attention was paid to formulas - couples of Boolean attributes derived from columns of the analysed data matrix. Association rules introduced in the 1990’s can be seen as a special case of such formulas. New results on logical calculi and association rules were achieved. They can be seen as a logic of association rules. This can contribute to solving contemporary challenging problems of data minin...

  1. [Microanalysis of salivary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, J; Vignoles, M; Bonel, G; Lodter, J P

    1986-09-01

    Eight salivary calculi were sectioned along a plane of symmetry and the sections studied by microanalysis. Three different regions were observed: a central region with one or several strongly mineralized nuclei, a stratified, less mineralized region with a lower Ca/P ratio and finally a peripheral weakly calcified region. Although inclusions with high silicium or sulfur concentrations were found in all samples, their role in the genesis of calculus is not clear. Most often filamentous mineralized bacteria were observed by scanning electron microscopy on the external stone surface. PMID:3464590

  2. How accurate is unenhanced multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for localization of renal calculi?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between unenhanced MDCT and intraoperative findings with regard to the exact anatomical location of renal calculi. Design, setting, and participants: Fifty-nine patients who underwent unenhanced MDCT for suspected urinary stone disease, and who underwent subsequent flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) as treatment of nephrolithiasis were included in this retrospective study. All MDCT data sets were independently reviewed by three observers with different degrees of experience in reading CT. Each observer was asked to indicate presence and exact anatomical location of any calcification within pyelocaliceal system, renal papilla or renal cortex. Results were compared to intraoperative findings which have been defined as standard of reference. Calculi not described at surgery, but present on MDCT data were counted as renal cortex calcifications. Results: Overall 166 calculi in 59 kidneys have been detected on MDCT, 100 (60.2%) were located in the pyelocaliceal system and 66 (39.8%) in the renal parenchyma. Of the 100 pyelocaliceal calculi, 84 (84%) were correctly located on CT data sets by observer 1, 62 (62%) by observer 2, and 71 (71%) by observer 3. Sensitivity/specificity was 90–94% and 50–100% if only pyelocaliceal calculi measuring >4 mm in size were considered. For pyelocaliceal calculi ?4 mm in size diagnostic performance of MDCT was inferior. Conclusion: Compared to flexible URS, unenhanced MDCT is accurate for distinction between pyelocaliceal calculi and renal parenchyma calcifications if renal calculi are >4 mm in size. For smaller renal calculi, unenhanced MDCT is less accurate and distinction between a pyelocaliceal calculus and renal parenchyma calcification is difficult.

  3. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Urinary Risk Factors for Calculus Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Hossein Miladipour; Nasser Shakhssalim; Mahmoud Parvin; Mohaddeseh Azadvari

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Even though dehydration could aggravate formation of urinary calculi, the effects of fluid and food restriction on calculus formation is not thoroughly defined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of fluid and food restriction in Ramadan fasting on urinary factors in kidney and urinary calculus formation. Materials and Methods. Fifty-seven men aged 30 to 55 years old, including 37 recurrent calcium calculus formers and 20 with no history of kidney calculi were...

  4. Coinductive interpreters for process calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, L. S.; De Oliveira, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper suggests functional programming languages with coinductive types as suitable devices for prototyping process calculi. The proposed approach is independent of any particular process calculus and makes explicit the different ingredients present in the design of any such calculi. In particular structural aspects of the underlying behaviour model (e.g. the dichotomies such as active vs reactive, deterministic vs nondeterministic) become clearly separated from the interaction structure ...

  5. Para-meatal urethral cyst with bladder calculi: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Siddangouda B; Patil, Nikhil Ashok; Kundargi, Vinay S; Biradar, Ashok N

    2015-01-01

    Para-meatal urethral cyst or median raphe cyst of the glans penis is a benign cystic lesion uncommonly encountered in prepubertal age group. Approximately, about 50 cases have been reported till date in the world literature. Herein we report a case of para-meatal urethral cyst concurrent with urinary bladder calculi. PMID:26539378

  6. Clinical experience with the Swiss LithoClast® Master in treatment of bladder calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingo, Pernille Skjold; Ryhammer, Allan Maltha

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and objective. Bladder calculi account for 5% of urinary tract calculi in the western world and many different treatment modalities have been presented throughout the decades. We report our clinical experience using the Swiss LithoClast® Master (SLM). Materials and Methods. The SLM is a rigid, hand-held endourological probe including a pneumatic lithotriptor and an ultrasonic lithotriptor. Attached to the ultrasonic modality is a suction system. The two lithotriptor modalities are controlled by a footswitch, and can be activated separately or simultaneously. The SLM is used via a rigid endoscope. Indications for treatment were medical complaints like hematuria, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), recurrent bursts of balloon in indwelling catheters, and difficulties performing clean intermittent self-catheterisation (CISC). Results. From August 1st 2009 to August 1st 2011, 27 patients were treated for bladder calculi (24 men). Five had a neurogenic voiding dysfunction, 3 had a prostate cancer, and 19 suffered from benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) or detrusor muscle insufficiency. Median age was 74 years (range 45-86 years). Stone clearance was obtained in 26 (96%) patients. Stone burden was one or multiple bladder calculi. Median stone size of the largest stone in each patient was 20 (5 - 40) mm. Under the same anaesthesia two patients underwent a TURP due to a very large prostate. Median lithotripsy time was 60 (range 20-144) minutes. All patients were discharged within 24 hours. Conclusion. The method described is a safe and quick method for endoscopic lithotripsy of bladder calculi rendering the patients stone free in the vast majority of cases. The procedure can be performed as day case surgery. Keywords: Bladder calculi, lithotripsy, Swiss Lithoclast, transurethral prostatectomy.

  7. Management of Ureteric Calculi in Dhule City of North-western Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Patni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urolithiasis, usually affecting people in the prime of life, causes significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Uretericstones account for 2/3rd of all urinary calculi brought to attention of doctors. The damaging effects of the calculi may result in obstruction with dilatation of the urinary tract, leading to stasis and severe infection. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate patients with urinary stones with regards to the incidence, age, sex,clinical presentation, site, size, side, management and their complications. Material and Methods:It was a prospective study carried out by Department of Surgery at Annasaheb Chudaman Patil Memorial Medical College, and Hospital Dhule for a period of two years. Patients were selected after they were diagnosed as having ureteric calculi. The patients were treated by conservative or surgical methods, and the outcome was monitored. Statistical analysis of the data was done for obtaining results.Result: The majority of the patients were males with peak age group in the second and third decade. Pain in abdomen or loin tenderness was the most common presenting symptom. Most of the patients were treated by conservative medical management. Endourological procedures were the most commonly performed surgical intervention. Conclusion: Most of the patients with ureteric calculi present with painin abdomen and majority can be treated by medical management. With the availability of better facilities the requirement for open surgery is decreasing and endourological procedures are becoming the means of surgical intervention.Complications are minimal with surgical expertise for endourological procedures.

  8. Recurrent bilateral renal calculi in a tetraplegic patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaidyanathan, S; Soni, B M; Biering-Sorensen, F; Bagi, P; Wallberg, A H; Vidal, J; Borau, A; Singh, G; Sett, P; Krishnan, K R

    1998-01-01

    An 18-year-old male developed C-5 complete tetraplegia following a motor-cycle accident in May 1975. The neuropathic bladder was managed by an indwelling urethral catheter. He developed recurrent episodes of urinary infection with Proteus species. In September 1975, an X-ray of the abdomen revealed small calculi in both the kidneys. In July 1976, he underwent transurethral resection of the bladder neck and division of the external urethral sphincter; subsequently, he was put on a penile sheath d...

  9. Gentzen Calculi for Modal Propositional Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiolesi, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    This book is about Gentzen calculi for (the main systems of) modal logic. It is divided into three parts. In the first part we introduce and discuss the main philosophical ideas related to proof theory, and we try to identify criteria for distinguishing good sequent calculi. In the second part we present the several attempts made from the 50's until today to provide modal logic with Gentzen calculi. In the third and and final part we analyse new calculi for modal logics, called tree-hypersequent calculi, which were recently introduced by the author. We show in a precise and clear way the main

  10. The feasibility of using microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography for detection and evaluation of renal calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Caijun; Nie Liming; Lou Cunguang; Xing Da, E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.c [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2010-09-07

    Imaging of renal calculi is important for patients who suffered a urinary calculus prior to treatment. The available imaging techniques include plain x-ray, ultrasound scan, intravenous urogram, computed tomography, etc. However, the visualization of a uric acid calculus (radiolucent calculi) is difficult and often impossible by the above imaging methods. In this paper, a new detection method based on microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography was developed to detect the renal calculi. Thermoacoustic images of calcium oxalate and uric acid calculus were compared with their x-ray images. The microwave absorption differences among the calcium oxalate calculus, uric acid calculus and normal kidney tissue could be evaluated by the amplitude of the thermoacoustic signals. The calculi hidden in the swine kidney were clearly imaged with excellent contrast and resolution in the three orthogonal thermoacoustic images. The results indicate that thermoacoustic imaging may be developed as a complementary method for detecting renal calculi, and its low cost and effective feature shows high potential for clinical applications.

  11. Computed tomographic analysis of renal calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in vitro study sought to determine the feasibility of using computed tomography (CT) to analyze the chemical composition of renal calculi and thus aid in selecting the best treatment method. Sixty-three coded calculi were scanned in a water bath. Region-of-interest measurements provided the mean, standard deviation, and minimum and maximum pixel values for each stone. These parameters were correlated with aspects of the stones' chemical composition. A multivariate analysis showed that the mean and standard deviation of the stones' pixel values were the best CT parameters for differentiating types of renal calculi. By using computerized mapping techniques, uric acid calculi could be perfectly differentiated from struvite and calcium oxalate calculi. The latter two types also were differentiable, but to a lesser extent. CT has a potential role as an adjunct to clinical and laboratory methods for determining the chemical composition of renal calculi in an effort to select optimal treatment

  12. [Staghorn silicate calculi: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Tomotaka; Koike, Hiroshi; Nobushita, Tomohiro

    2012-07-01

    A 71-year-old woman complaining of fever and left flank pain was referred to our hospital. She had no history of taking any silicate-containing antiacids. She was diagnosed with left staghorn renal stone and repeated extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy was performed. Analysis of the stones revealed silica calculi. Forty-nine cases of silica calculi have been reported in Japan, but this is the first case of nearly pure staghorn silicate calculi. PMID:22895127

  13. Flow Logic for Process Calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the ...

  14. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for lower pole calculi smaller than one centimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Chaussy, Christian; Bergsdorf, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has revolutionized the treatment of urinary calculi and became the accepted standard therapy for the majority of stone patients. Only for stones located in the lower calix, ESWL displayed a limited efficacy. Since the stone-free rate seemed to be preferential, endoscopic maneuvers like percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) have been proposed as the primary approach for this stone localization.

  15. Verification of Stochastic Process Calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic process calculi represent widely accepted formalisms within Computer Science for modelling nondeterministic stochastic systems in a compositional way. Similar to process calculi in general, they are suited for modelling systems in a hierarchical manner, by explicitly specifying subsystems as well as their interdependences and communication channels. Stochastic process calculi incorporate both the quantified uncertainty on probabilities or durations of events and nondeterministic choices between several possible continuations of the system behaviour. Modelling of a system is often performed with the purpose to verify the system. In this dissertation it is argued that the verification techniques that have their origin in the analysis of programming code with the purpose to deduce the properties of the code's execution, i.e. Static Analysis techniques, are transferable to stochastic process calculi. The description of a system in the syntax of a particular stochastic process calculus can be analysed in a compositional way, without expanding the state space by explicitly resolving all the interdependencies between the subsystems which may lead to the state space explosion problem. In support of this claim we have developed analysis methods that belong to a particular type of Static Analysis { Data Flow / Pathway Analysis. These methods have previously been applied to a number of non-stochastic process calculi. In this thesis we are lifting them to the stochastic calculus of Interactive Markov Chains (IMC). We have devised the Pathway Analysis of IMC that is not only correct in the sense of overapproximating all possible behaviour scenarios, as is usual for Static Analysis methods, but is also precise. This gives us the possibility to explicitly decide on the trade-o between precision and complexity while post-processing the analysis results. Another novelty of our methods consists in the kind of properties that we can verify using the results of the Pathway Analysis. We can check both qualitative and quantitative properties of IMC systems. In particular, we have developed algorithms for constructing bisimulation relations, computing (overapproximations of) sets of reachable states and computing the expected time reachability, the last for a linear fragment of IMC. In all the cases we have the complexities of algorithms which are low polynomial in the size of the syntactic description of a system. The presented methods have a clear application in the areas of embedded systems, (randomised) protocols run between a fixed number of parties etc.

  16. Efficacy of extra corporal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in upper and lower urinary tract calculi with reference to stone site, size shape and radio density according to age rule (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    50 patients having renal ureteral and vesical stones 5-20 mm and having age range 1 years with mean of 30.5 were studied. 70% (35/50) were male and 30% (15/50) female with 2.33:1 ratio 1,1,2,32,10,4 patients were of 0-2, 2-12, 12-18, 18-40, 40-55 and above 55 years age group respectively. Stone site, size, shape and radio density were seen by X-ray plain abdomen, IVU and ultrasound. At 4 months ESWL treatment was considered successful if the patients were stone free or had residual fragments 4 mm or less. Over all success rate was 64% in renal stones it was 62.7% (25/40), in ureteral 62.5% (5/8) and in vesical stone 100% (2/2). 5-10 mm, 11-15 mm and 16-20 mm stones had success rate of 76% (19/25), 61.1% (11/18) and 28.8% (2/7) respectively. Equi bone density, low density, high density and radiolucent stones had success rate of 57.1% (16/28), 92.85% (13/14). 16.6% (1/6) and 100% (2/2). Shape of stones is mere reflection of stone size. In conclusion, the liberal use of ESWL for every type of stone in terms of radio density equal to or less than bone and size up to 20 mm were amenable to ESWL monotherapy. Upper urinary tract stone 96% (48/50) and 18-40 years age group is the commonest. (author)

  17. Urinary stone detection and characterisation with dual-energy CT urography after furosemide intravenous injection: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsikas, Diomidis; Hansen, Catrina; Stefanelli, Salvatore; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospital, Radiology Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    To investigate the added advantage of IV furosemide injection and the subsequent urine dilution in the detection of urinary calculi in the excretory phase of dual-source dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) urography, and to investigate the feasibility of characterising the calculi through diluted urine. Twenty-three urinary calculi were detected in 116 patients who underwent DECT urography for macroscopic haematuria with a split bolus two- or three-acquisition protocol, including a true unenhanced series and at least a mixed nephrographic excretory phase. Virtual unenhanced images were reconstructed from contrast-enhanced DE data. Calculi were recorded on all series and characterised based on their X-ray absorption characteristics at 100 kVp and 140 kVp in both true unenhanced and nephrographic excretory phase series. All calculi with a diameter more than 2 mm were detected in the virtual unenhanced phase and in the nephrographic excretory phase. Thirteen of these calculi could be characterised in the true unenhanced phase and in the mixed nephrographic excretory phase. The results were strictly identical for both phases, six of them being recognised as non-uric acid calculi and seven as uric acid calculi. Mixed nephrographic excretory phase DECT after furosemide administration allows both detection and characterisation of clinically significant calculi, through the diluted urine. (orig.)

  18. Urinary stone detection and characterisation with dual-energy CT urography after furosemide intravenous injection: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the added advantage of IV furosemide injection and the subsequent urine dilution in the detection of urinary calculi in the excretory phase of dual-source dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) urography, and to investigate the feasibility of characterising the calculi through diluted urine. Twenty-three urinary calculi were detected in 116 patients who underwent DECT urography for macroscopic haematuria with a split bolus two- or three-acquisition protocol, including a true unenhanced series and at least a mixed nephrographic excretory phase. Virtual unenhanced images were reconstructed from contrast-enhanced DE data. Calculi were recorded on all series and characterised based on their X-ray absorption characteristics at 100 kVp and 140 kVp in both true unenhanced and nephrographic excretory phase series. All calculi with a diameter more than 2 mm were detected in the virtual unenhanced phase and in the nephrographic excretory phase. Thirteen of these calculi could be characterised in the true unenhanced phase and in the mixed nephrographic excretory phase. The results were strictly identical for both phases, six of them being recognised as non-uric acid calculi and seven as uric acid calculi. Mixed nephrographic excretory phase DECT after furosemide administration allows both detection and characterisation of clinically significant calculi, through the diluted urine. (orig.)

  19. Undecidable problems for propositional calculi with implication

    OpenAIRE

    Bokov, Grigoriy V.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we deal with propositional calculi over a signature containing the classical implication $\\to$ with the rules of modus ponens and substitution. For these calculi we consider few recognizing problems such as recognizing derivations, extensions, completeness, and axiomatizations. The main result of this paper is to prove that the problem of recognizing extensions is undecidable for every propositional calculus, and the problems of recognizing axiomatizations a...

  20. Ample Water, Avoiding Dehydration Can Prevent Renal Calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Menace Ample Water, Avoiding Dehydration Can Prevent Renal Calculi By Jan Ehrman On the front page... ... painful than, natural childbirth, kidney stones—known as renal calculi—are solid, often sharp substances made of ...

  1. A criterion for separating process calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Banti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new criterion, replacement freeness, to discern the relative expressiveness of process calculi. Intuitively, a calculus is strongly replacement free if replacing, within an enclosing context, a process that cannot perform any visible action by an arbitrary process never inhibits the capability of the resulting process to perform a visible action. We prove that there exists no compositional and interaction sensitive encoding of a not strongly replacement free calculus into any strongly replacement free one. We then define a weaker version of replacement freeness, by only considering replacement of closed processes, and prove that, if we additionally require the encoding to preserve name independence, it is not even possible to encode a non replacement free calculus into a weakly replacement free one. As a consequence of our encodability results, we get that many calculi equipped with priority are not replacement free and hence are not encodable into mainstream calculi like CCS and pi-calculus, that instead are strongly replacement free. We also prove that variants of pi-calculus with match among names, pattern matching or polyadic synchronization are only weakly replacement free, hence they are separated both from process calculi with priority and from mainstream calculi.

  2. Flow Logic for Process Calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the ?-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction and adequacy results), and a Moore Family result showing that a least solution always exists, as well as providing insights on how to implement the analysis. We then show how to strengthen the analysis technology by introducing reachability components, interaction points, and localized environments, and finally, we extend it to a relational analysis. A Flow Logic is a program logic---in the same sense that a Hoare’s logic is. We conclude with an executive summary presenting the highlights of the approach from this perspective including a discussion of theoretical properties as well as implementation considerations. The electronic supplements present an application of the analysis techniques to a version of the ?-calculus incorporating distribution and code mobility; also the proofs of the main results can be found in the electronic supplements.

  3. Urinary Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Citation Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Urinary System » Components of the Urinary System » Urinary Bladder Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life ...

  4. A criterion for separating process calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Banti, Federico; Tiezzi, Francesco; 10.4204/EPTCS.41.2

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new criterion, replacement freeness, to discern the relative expressiveness of process calculi. Intuitively, a calculus is strongly replacement free if replacing, within an enclosing context, a process that cannot perform any visible action by an arbitrary process never inhibits the capability of the resulting process to perform a visible action. We prove that there exists no compositional and interaction sensitive encoding of a not strongly replacement free calculus into any strongly replacement free one. We then define a weaker version of replacement freeness, by only considering replacement of closed processes, and prove that, if we additionally require the encoding to preserve name independence, it is not even possible to encode a non replacement free calculus into a weakly replacement free one. As a consequence of our encodability results, we get that many calculi equipped with priority are not replacement free and hence are not encodable into mainstream calculi like CCS and pi-calculus, t...

  5. FT-Raman spectral analysis of human urinary stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, R.; Raja, A.; Thiruppathi, G.

    2012-12-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy is the most useful tool for the purpose of bio-medical diagnostics. In the present study, FT-Raman spectral method is used to investigate the chemical composition of urinary calculi. Urinary calculi multi-components such as calcium oxalate, hydroxyl apatite, struvite and uric acid are studied. FT-Raman spectrum has been recorded in the range of 3500-400 cm-1. Chemical compounds are identified by Raman spectroscopic technique. The quantitative estimations of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) 1463 cm-1, calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD) 1478 cm-1, hydroxyl apatite 959 cm-1, struvite 575 cm-1, uric acid 1283 cm-1 and oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate) 2129 cm-1 are calculated using particular peaks of FT-Raman spectrum. The quantitative estimation of human urinary stones suitable for the single calibration curve was performed.

  6. Mobility in process calculi and natural computing

    CERN Document Server

    Aman, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    The design of formal calculi in which fundamental concepts underlying interactive systems can be described and studied has been a central theme of theoretical computer science in recent decades, while membrane computing, a rule-based formalism inspired by biological cells, is a more recent field that belongs to the general area of natural computing. This is the first book to establish a link between these two research directions while treating mobility as the central topic. In the first chapter the authors offer a formal description of mobility in process calculi, noting the entities that move

  7. AN UNASCENDED RIGHT KIDNEY WITH LEFT SIDED URETERIC CALCULI: A CADAVERIC CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meril Ann Soman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies of the urinary system constitute approximately 30% of all the congenital malformations. There are various associated anomalies involving number, size, shape, position and vascularity of the kidneys. Unascended kidneys refers to a halt in the migration of the kidneys during their normal embryological development. Defect in the ascent of the kidneys are closely related with variations in the branching pattern of aorta. Here we report a case of an unilateral unascended right kidney in a male cadaver encountered during routine medical dissection. A left sided ureteric calculi was also seen as an incidental finding in the same cadaver. Ureterolithiasis occurs worldwide in all sets of population with 80% of the stones found in the male sex in the age group of 30- 60 years. There are various factors which favour the formation of ureteric calculi which includes geographical, socio-economical as well as the mineral content of water consumed and some general medical causes. An attempt has been made to document the causes for this variation and the preventive measures that can be adopted to prevent the formation of ureteric calculi.

  8. Classification of bicovariant differential calculi on quantum groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suppose that q is not a root of unity. We classify all bicovariant differential calculi of dimension greater than one on the quantum groups GLq(N), Oq(N) and Spq(N) for which the differentials duij of the matrix entries uij generate the left module of first order forms. Our first classification theorem asserts that there are precisely two one-parameter families of such calculi on GLq(N) for N?3. In the limit q ? 1 only two of these calculi give the ordinary differential calculus on GL(N). Our second main theorem states that apart from finitely many q there exist precisely two differential calculi with these properties on Oq(N) and Spq(N) for N?4. There are four such calculi on Oq(3). We introduce two new 4-dimensional bicovariant differential calculi on Oq(3). (orig.)

  9. Inflamed urachal cyst containing calculi in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotic, Franko; Fuckar, Zeljko; Gazdik, Miljen; Cicvaric, Tedi; Milotic, Irena; Zauhar, Gordana

    2002-05-01

    The urachus is an embryonic structure that persists after birth in some individuals and can cause various problems. We report a case of an inflamed urachal cyst filled with a thick yellow fluid and several calculi in a woman with a 1-month history of dysuria. Physical examination revealed a fist-sized tumor located infraumbically in the midline. The patient's erythrocyte sedimentation rate was elevated; the results of all other routine laboratory studies were normal. Sonography showed a regularly shaped, ovoid, hypoechoic cystic area in the abdominal wall measuring 8 x 4 x 3 cm and containing several hyperechoic masses associated with acoustic shadowing. The wall of the cyst was inhomogeneous, and a thin hypoechoic linear tract linked the superior aspect of the mass to the umbilicus. The results of excretory urography, voiding cystography, and cystoscopy excluded an abnormality of the urinary system. A urachal cyst was diagnosed, and the mass was surgically removed. The surgical specimen was sent for histopathologic analysis, which confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:11981938

  10. Urinary Diversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... permanent diversion may have a higher chance of urinary incontinence––the accidental loss of urine. Only certain people ... Patients who have good sexual function may resume sexual activities after urinary diversion surgery as soon as their health care ...

  11. More on differential calculi on bicrossproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend a previous classification of differentials and Cartan calculus on the bicrossproduct quantum group k(M)-blacktriangleright triangleleft-kG to its dual Hopf algebra H = kM-triangleright blacktriangleleft-k(G). It turns out that the usual bicovariant differential calculi on kM and on k(G) extend naturally to H. We explicitly work out the examples of kZ2-triangleright blacktriangleleft (Z3) and kZ6-triangleright 3). (author)

  12. Pediatric Cystine Calculi in West of Iran: A Study of 22 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Moradi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder which clinically presents as cystine calculi. In this study, we reviewed cystine calculi cases in the west of Iran to determine their common presentations and response to different therapeutic modalities.

    Materials and Methods: Between 1999 and 2005, we had 22 pediatric patients (11 boys and 11 girls with cystine calculi. The demographic characteristics and clinical data of the patients as well as the treatment results were reviewed.

    Results: The mean age of the patients was 34.20 ± 42.99 months (range, 4 to 156 months. They were followed for a mean duration of 23 months (range, 3 to 70 months. Thirteen patients (59.1% had bilateral and 9 (41% had unilateral kidney calculi. The sizes of the calculi were between 2 mm and 20 mm. Nine patients (41% had renal atrophic changes and 1 (4.5% had obstructive acute renal failure. Hydration and urinary alkalinization were administrated to all of the patients which yielded an excellent result in 54.5% and a poor response in 27.2%. Captopril started for 5 patients was effective only in 1. D-penicillamine had no favorable response. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy was successful in 5 attempts and failed in 4. Surgical interventions were performed for 13 patients (59.1% and 6 (27.2% required more than 1 surgical operation.

    Conclusion: We recommend metabolic workup of childhood urolithiasis and appropriate medical management of its underlying disease. We also recommend minimally invasive urologic techniques including shockwave lithotripsy only when there are clear indications for nonmedical procedures.

  13. Diagnosis of ureteral calculi using ultrasonography, intravenous urography and unenhanced Helical Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govor?in Mira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography Ultrasonography is an efficient tool in the detection of calculi in the pyelocalyx system, but it may not be sufficient for the area of renal pelvis and ureter, as well as for the ureter and the ureterovesical junction. Intravenous urography Radiolucent stones, dilatation of the ureter and of the pyelocalyx system were identified on the urogram, which are common signs of ureter calctilosis. Defects in the contrast can be caused by blood clots and papillary or malignant tumors of the ureter, thus causing a differential diagnosis problem. Unenhanced Helical Computed Tomography Noncontrast spiral CT is useful for detection for calculi as small as 3mm. It can identify their localization and size without enlargements. The primary and secondary CT signs also confirm the established diagnosis. Conclusion The noncontrast spiral CT is a highly precise method for assessment of kidney pain. It is a reliable and rapid diagnostic modality for the detection of urinary stones which differentiates them from blood clots, tumors, air and other factors which create a differential diagnosis problem.

  14. Renal calculi in wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, V R; Tomlinson, A J; Molenaar, F M; Lawson, B; Rogers, K D

    2011-07-01

    Macroscopic renal calculi were seen in 50 of 492 (10.2 per cent) wild Eurasian otters found dead in England from 1988 to 2007. Forty-eight adults and two subadults were affected. Calculi were present in 15.7 per cent (31 of 197) of adult males and 12.7 per cent (17 of 134) of adult females. There was an increase in prevalence in the study population over time; no calculi were found in 73 otters examined between 1988 and 1996, but in most subsequent years they were observed with increased frequency. Calculi occurred in both kidneys but were more common in the right kidney. They varied greatly in shape and size; larger calculi were mostly seen in the calyces while the smallest ones were commonly found in the renal medulla. Calculi from 45 cases were examined by x-ray diffraction analysis; in 43 (96 per cent), they were composed solely of ammonium acid urate. Affected otters had heavier adrenal glands relative to their body size than unaffected otters (P0.05). Many otters had fresh bite wounds consistent with intraspecific aggression. The proportion bitten increased over time and this coincided with the increased prevalence of renal calculi. PMID:21676988

  15. 99mTc-DTPA renography before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to evaluate 99mTc-DTPA renography before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Twelve patients with renal calculi were examined in this study. In three patients, bilateral kidneys were treated with ESWL. Sequential renal images of the vascular phase, and the functional and excretory phases were taken using a gamma camera (ZLC 7500, Siemens), after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of 99mTc-DTPA. Renograms were generated using data stored every 10 seconds for a period of 30 minutes by computer (Scintipac-2400, Shimadzu). Some treated kidneys were enlarged and/or showed uniform retention of radioactivity on sequential images, within a week after ESWL. Renogram patterns after ESWL were varied in each patient. The renogram findings after ESWL seemed to be affected by the presence or absence of stone fragments in the urinary tract. (author)

  16. SEM and X-ray microanalysis of human prostatic calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculi removed from human prostates affected with nodular hyperplasia were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and EDAX system. The general spectrum was made up of Na, Al, Mg, S, P, Ca and Zn. Two types of stone were identified morphostructurally and microanalytically: calculi type I of nodular surface with high peaks of S, and calculi type II polyfaceted with high peaks of P and Ca. Their formation from corpora amylacea and/or exogenous constituents is discussed. The superficial deposit of Zn suggests its incorporation from the prostatic liquid and does not seem to play an important role in the genesis

  17. Laser lithotripsy in the treatment of ureteral calculi.

    OpenAIRE

    Psihramis, K E; Buckspan, M B

    1990-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of laser lithotripsy with a flash-lamp-pumped tunable dye laser in the treatment of ureteral calculi that were too large for direct extraction and that could not be treated with or had not responded to extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) or forms of ureteroscopic lithotripsy other than laser lithotripsy. In 20 (74%) of the 27 patients the laser alone successfully fragmented the calculi into pieces small enough to pass spontaneously or to be easily extrac...

  18. Sclerosing cholangitis and biliary tract calculi--primary or secondary?

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorny, C S; McCaughan, G.W.; Gallagher, N D; Selby, W S

    1992-01-01

    The clinical features of 61 patients with sclerosing cholangitis were reviewed. This group included 23 patients with biliary tract calculi, commonly considered as excluding the diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis. The aim of this study was to compare these 23 patients (group A) with 38 patients with sclerosing cholangitis free of calculi (group B). Both groups had the following features in common: (i) age at presentation, (ii) incidence of inflammatory bowel disease, (iii) extent of r...

  19. Shockwave lithotripsy in patients with renal calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to demonstrate the efficacy of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in the primary treatment of 1647 patients with renal calculi using a Dornier Doli U/50 lithotripter. One thousand six hundred forty-seven patients underwent SWL as day-cases at King Abdulaziz Hospital, Saudi Arabia between October 2001 and July 2007, using intravenous sedation (Pethidine 1mg/kg and Midazolam 5-10mg) for analgesia in 85.5% of the patients. The treatment outcome of 2241 renal calculi was analyzed and stratified according to the size and site of the stones. Recorded data included shock waves intensity, number of shocks, treatment time, analgesia stone related factors such as size, site, number, nature, composition and any related complications. The stones were grouped into 5 groups, according to the largest stone size in the kidney. Patients were followed up for 6-18 months, mean of 13 months. Complete clearance of the stones occurred in 2154 kidneys (89.5%). At 3-months follow-up, the overall treatment rate was 57.2% and for each group it was 132 (23.5%) for Group I, 254 (36.1%) for Group II, 473 (85.5%) for Group III, 278 (100%) for Group IV and 147 (100%) for Group V. Treatment failed in 87 patients with stone size of 30-39 mm. Fifty-six were solitary pelvic stones treated with ureteroscopy, while 31 were calyceal stoned treated by other modalities such as per-cutaneousnephro-lithotomy. The most common complication was pyelonephritis with or without obstruction. Shock wave lithotripsy treatment was a successful primary management of renal stones of variable sizes in 89.5% of the treated kidneys. (author)

  20. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can ... or lift a heavy object. This is stress incontinence. If bladder muscles become too active, you may ...

  1. Urinary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... computerized tomography (CT) scans • urodynamic tests • electromyography Physical Exam A health care provider may suspect urinary retention ... 6089 July 2014 The NIDDK prints on recycled paper with bio-based ink. Document Outline What is ...

  2. Análise do impacto do progresso tecnológico nos custos do tratamento hospitalar: o caso do tratamento para litíase urinária no Hospital Universitário de Brasília Analysis of the technological change impact in the costs in hospital treatment: the case study of the treatment for urinary calculi in hospital in university hospital of Brasília

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Souza Costa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O progresso tecnológico na área de saúde tem provocado a elevação dos custos da assistência médica, preocupando a população mundial, os agentes privados e os responsáveis pelas políticas públicas. Estetrabalho apresenta uma análise do impacto do progresso tecnológico - delimitado, neste estudo, à incorporação de equipamentos médicos - nos custos do tratamento hospitalar. Para cumprir o objetivo, foram escolhidos ostratamentos médicos para litíase urinária - litotripsia e cirurgia - devido ao histórico de relevantes avanços tecnológicos. O estudo de caso foi realizado no Serviço de Litotripsia e no Centro Cirúrgico do Hospital Universitário de Brasília (HUB, no período de 2001 a 2003. Foram comparados os custos e as receitas diferenciais das alternativas de tratamento para calculose urinária em quatro opções de decisão. Para testar a robustez dos resultados, foi incorporada a variável incerteza, por meio de simulações no sistema Crystall Ball, realizando 50.000 iterações. Os principais impactos do progresso tecnológico nos custos do tratamento paralitíase urinária são: aumento da capacidade instalada, geração de despesa com obsolescência e aumento das receitas.The technological progress in the field of health has been triggering rises of medical assistance costs, worrying the world-wide population, private agents and the responsible ones for public policies. This search presents an analysis of technological evolution impact - here, bounded to the medical equipments incorporation - on thehospital treatment costs. In order to accomplish the objective, the medical care for urinary lithiasis - lithotripsyand surgery - had been chosen due to the record of meaningful technological advances. The case study wascarried through at the Lithotripsy Service and Hospital Universitário de Brasília (HUB Surgical Center from 2001to 2003. The costs and incomes - differential items inherent to options for urinary calculosis treatment - were compared in four proposals. As a means to prove the results robustness the variable uncertainty wasincorporated through simulations at the Crystal Ball system, achieving 50.000 iterations. The main impacts from technological progress on the medical care for urinary lithiasis costs are: increase of the installed capacity, generation of expense with obsolescence and increase of revenues.

  3. Urinary Tract Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the urinary tract health of women: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) and Urinary Incontinence (UI). For information on a range of urinary tract health issues for women, men, and children, visit the National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information ...

  4. Urinary considerations for adult patients with spinal dysraphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenboer, Paul W; de Kort, Laetitia M O; Chrzan, Rafal J; de Jong, Tom P V M

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of newborns with spinal dysraphism is diminishing worldwide, although survival of individuals with this condition into adulthood continues to improve. The number of adults with spinal dysraphism will, therefore, increase in the coming years, which will pose new challenges in patient management. Urological manifestations of spinal dysraphism can include increased risks of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infection, urinary calculi, sexual dysfunction, end-stage renal disease and iatrogenic metabolic disturbances; however, the severity and incidence of these symptoms varies substantially between patients. Owing to the presence of multiple comorbidities, treatment and follow-up protocols often have to be adapted to best suit the needs of specific patients. Authors describe bladder and kidney function and long-term complications of treatments initiated in childhood, as well as the potential for improvements in quality of life through better follow-up schedules and future developments. PMID:25963964

  5. URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN MALE CHILDREN: A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarada G; Rafiq Ahmed K; Sudhakar G* and Srilatha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 96 male children with Urinary Tract Infections (UTI were included in the study to identify the risk factors predisposing to UTI in male children .78.83%  were in <1 yr age and 20.3% were in 1 to 5 yr of age. Dysuria, fever and frequency are the most common symptoms (33%. Culture positivity was only in 35 children (36.36%. E.coli was the most common organism isolated (80%. Urinary tract abnormalities were found in 34/96 (33%. Phimosis was the most common urinary anomaly noted (47.06%. PUJ obstruction with hydro-nephrosis was seen in 39.29% followed by VUR in 11.76% and renal calculi in 5.88%.

  6. On the Expressiveness of Markovian Process Calculi with Durational and Durationless Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Bernardo

    2010-01-01

    Several Markovian process calculi have been proposed in the literature, which differ from each other for various aspects. With regard to the action representation, we distinguish between integrated-time Markovian process calculi, in which every action has an exponentially distributed duration associated with it, and orthogonal-time Markovian process calculi, in which action execution is separated from time passing. Similar to deterministically timed process calculi, we show ...

  7. Recent advances in management of ureteral calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Richard Daron; Shah, Mushtaq; Patel, Anup

    2009-01-01

    The management of patients with urinary tract stone disease has changed dramatically over recent years, with current treatment modalities focused on their minimal invasiveness. In this article we will discuss the recent advances in the field of urolithiasis management, with a focus on medical expulsive therapy, extra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy.

  8. Experiencia clínica y resultados en el tratamiento de 4402 pacientes con cálculos urinarios únicos con el litotritor extracorpóreo Dornier MFL-5000 / Clinical experience and results iun the treatment of 4402 patients with solitary urinary calculi with the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter Dornier MFL-500

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto, Palacios; Filipe, Rodrigues; Mário Jorge, Soares; Adérito, Morais; Apolinário, Mendes; Jorge, Pinheiro.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Presentamos la casuística de nuestro servicio en el tratamiento de la litíasis urinaria así como la efectividad del litotritor Dornier MFL-5000 Métodos: Tratamos en 12 años un total de 6602 pacientes con un número total de sesiones de litotricia de 17120. Realizamos el estudio del éxito de [...] l tratamiento de los 4402 pacientes que presentaban un cálculo, según el tamaño y la localización. Resultados: No hubo complicaciones mayores y apenas 43 pacientes tuvieron calle litiásica. Realizamos el tratamiento de 4402 cálculos. Para todos los cálculos independientemente de su localización y tamaño supone que 2615 (59,4%) se han tratado en una sesión, 801 (18,2%) en dos, 379 (8,6%) en tres, 213 (4,8%) en cuatro y 372 (8,4%) en cinco o más sesiones. Conclusiones: El litotritor MFL-5000 ha permitido el tratamiento de la litiasis urinaria en todas las edades, con unos porcentajes de retratamiento y un número de tratamientos por cálculo similar a otros autores, sin necesidad de analgesia ni medidas anestésicas, salvo en apenas aquellos pacientes de menor edad. Abstract in english Objectives: To report the series of our Urology Department in the treatment of urinary stone disease with extracorporeal lithotripsy as well as the effectiveness of the Dornier lithotripter MFL-5000. Methods: 6.602 patients were treated by extracorporeal lithotripsy during 12 years with a total of 1 [...] 7.120 sessions. We examined the treatment outcome of 4.402 patients with a solitary stone, accordingly to stone size and localization. Results: There were no major complications and only 43 patients experienced "calle litiásica". We treated 4.402 stones. For all stones, independently of size and localization, 2615 (59.4%) were treated in one session, 801 (18.2%) required two sessions, 379 (8.6%) 3 sessions, 213 (4.8%) 4 sessions and 373 (8.4%) 5 or more sessions. Conclusion: The Dornier MFL-5000 lithotripter successfully treated urinary stone disease in patients of all age groups with a retreatment rate and number of sessions per stone similar to other studies, without analgesia or anesthetic procedures, except in the younger age group.

  9. Predictors of Success for Stone Fragmentation and Stone-Free Rate After Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy in the Treatment of Upper Urinary Tract Stones

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyoshi Takahara; Naokazu Ibuki; Teruo Inamoto; Hayahito Nomi; Takanobu Ubai; Haruhito Azuma

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate factors affecting the success rate of stone fragmentation and stone-free rate after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in treatment of upper urinary tract stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 121 patients with upper urinary tract calculi underwent SWL treatment. RESULTS: Success rate of stone fragmentation after SWL was 73.6% (89/121). In 89 patients who had success of breaking stones, 71 patients were followed up for the assessment of stone-free status, of w...

  10. Urinary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these cases, the health care provider will use anesthesia. For chronic urinary retention, the patient may require intermittent—occasional, or not continuous—or long-term catheterization if other treatments do not work. Patients who need to continue intermittent catheterization will ...

  11. Intracorporeal Lithotripsy for Ureteral Calculi Using Swiss Lithoclast : SKIMS Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hamid, M. Saleem Wani, B. S. Wazir

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available At present the techniques available for performing intracorporeal lithotripsy include electrohydraulic,ultrasonic, laser, and ballistic lithotripsy. We present our experience with a unique technology forperforming intracorporeal lithotripsy, namely the Swiss lithoclast, which is a form of ballistic lithotripsy.This simple and inexpensive device uses compressed air to activate a solid probe in a manner similarto that of a jackhammer. We report the use of this lithoclast in 92 patients involving a total of 95ureteral calculi. The lithoclast successfully fragmented 81 of the 95 calculi, a success rate of 85.26%.There were no major complications directly related to the use of this device. The Swiss lithoclastseems to be a safe, effective and an inexpensive means of performing intracorporeal lithotripsy forureteral calculi

  12. The composition of urinary stones in central sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine chemical analysis of urinary stones of central sindh. Study design: Prospective and randomized study. Setting: Department of Surgery and Pathology of Peoples University of Medical and Health Sciences Nawabshah. Duration of study: Three years from May 2008 to May 2011. Material and Methods: Total 106 urolith patients who underwent open stone surgery were included in the study. EDTA Titration used for determination of calcium ions and determination of oxalate, phosphate, magnesium, ammonia, uric acid and cystine stones was carried out using spectrophotometer. These patients were asked to fill out a proforma with parameters of age, sex, radiological location of stone and chemical composition of surgically recovered stones. The stone analysis findings were reviewed and compared with other reported series Results: In this study 75(70.75%) patients were male and 31 (29.25%) female. Male to female ratio was of 2.41:1. The age ranged from 1 to 70 years with the mean of 22.69 years. The peak incidence of upper urinary tract stone in 20-30 years and lower urinary tract stones in both sexes was under 10 years. Anatomical location of stone showed 48(45.29%) renal, 13(12.26%) ureteric and 45(42.45%) bladder calculi. Chemical analysis revealed 56(52.8%) calcium oxalate, 7(6.6%) calcium phosphate, 11(10.3%) ammonium urate, 18(16.9%) uric acid, 13(12.2%) Sturvite and 1(0.9%) cystine calculi. Conclusion: It was concluded that urolithiasis is predominantly male disease. No age group was spared to stone disease. Calcium oxalate, uric acid, ammonium urate and mixed calculi are the main types in our study due to poor nutritional status, poverty and inadequate health facilities. Considering that knowledge of stone composition is of utmost importance to modify the incidence of urolithiasis. (author)

  13. Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone...

  14. Correlations Between the Composition of Moroccan Urinary Stones and the Risk Factors (Food Habit)

    OpenAIRE

    Laziri Fatiha; Rhazi Filali Fouzia; Amechrouq Ali; Soulaymani Abdelmajid

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize and to analyze the likely factors to influence the composition of the Morocco urinary calculi, we took a study between July 2002 and June 2007 with 283 lithiasis patients that gave their sample (stone) for analyzes by infrared spectroscopy and replied to the questionnaire. Different informations were recorded: epidemiological characteristic (sex, age, residence zone and profession), food habits (tea; rich products in calcium, oxalate, animal proteins a...

  15. Labelled Lambda-calculi with Explicit Copy and Erase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Fernández

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present two rewriting systems that define labelled explicit substitution lambda-calculi. Our work is motivated by the close correspondence between Levy's labelled lambda-calculus and paths in proof-nets, which played an important role in the understanding of the Geometry of Interaction. The structure of the labels in Levy's labelled lambda-calculus relates to the multiplicative information of paths; the novelty of our work is that we design labelled explicit substitution calculi that also keep track of exponential information present in call-by-value and call-by-name translations of the lambda-calculus into linear logic proof-nets.

  16. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation. PMID:25433503

  17. Evaluation of the Raphanus sativus effect on urinary pH

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Mazdak; Mohammad Masoud Nikkar; Linda Ghanea

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to urology texts, urinary calculi are the third most common affliction of the urinary tract and they pose great expenses on health services. The use of oral herbal medication is one of the cheapest ways of treating this disease (in some societies black radish plant is used as a treatment). The scientific term for black radish is Raph...

  18. Urinary Incontinence in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organizations?? . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Urinary Incontinence in Children Page Content On this page: What ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is urinary incontinence (UI) in children? Urinary incontinence is the loss ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract ... should see a doctor right away. Back Continue What Will the Doctor Do? First, your doctor will ...

  20. Major Constituents, Free Amino Acids and Metal Levels in Renal Calculi from Multan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Shad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal calculi collected from adult male/female patients of Multan, Pakistan were analyzed for major constituents, free amino acids and metallic contents. Composition of calculi (whole powder was determined by chemical method using stone analysis kit. Thirteen distinct types of renal calculi were identified. Most of the calculi were compound in nature, however, some simple calculi containing calcium oxalate only were also found. Two dimensional descending paper chromatography was used to identify free amino acids in some prominent classes of renal calculi. Arginine, aspartinine, glycine, leucine, isoleucine and tryptophan were found in nearly all the calculi whereas glutamic acid, histidine, hydroxyproline, phenylalanine, threonine and tryosine occurred randomly. Analysis of major (Na, K, Ca and Mg and trace (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Mn elements in the calculi was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Elements such as Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn have shown their presence in nearly all the calculi however Pb, Ni, Mn and Cu levels were below the limit of detection. This study has revealed useful information about the chemical nature of renal calculi from Multan region. It will be helpful in adopting preventive strategies to minimize stone formation and their reoccurrence.

  1. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  2. Diagnosis and surgical management of obstructive ureteral calculi in cats: 11 cases (1993-1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate diagnostic methods, surgical treatment, perioperative management, and renal function of cats with obstructive calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Retrospective case series. 11 cats that underwent surgery for removal of calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Medical records were reviewed, and the following information was recorded: signalment; results of physical examination, clinicopathologic analyses, and abdominal imaging; surgical procedure; postoperative management; and results of ureterolith quantitative analysis. Ureteroliths in the proximal portion of the ureter were removed from 5 cats (pyelotomy, 1 cat; unilateral ureterotomy, 2 cats; bilateral ureterotomies, 2 cats). Calculi in the middle and distal part of the ureter were removed by partial ureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy (6 cats). Ten cats recovered from surgery and were discharged from the hospital. One cat died from unknown causes 4 months after surgery, and 1 cat had a nephrectomy elsewhere 5 weeks after ureterolith removal. Eight cats were evaluated 12 to 20 months after surgery. Of these, 2 cats that were markedly azotemic before surgery improved after surgery, and 2 cats developed nephroliths after surgery. Also, of 5 cats that had nephroliths that were not removed at the time of surgery, 4 still had visible nephroliths. One cat had recurrent ureteral obstruction from a ureterolith and persistent urinary tract infection. Ureteroliths or ultrasonographic evidence of ureteral obstruction were not detected in other cats. A combination of microsurgical techniques and intensive postoperative care is necessary to minimize morbidity of cats after removal of a ureterolith. Renal function may improve or stabilize after removal of the ureteral obstruction

  3. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy of Kidney Calculi in Horseshoe Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zolfaghari

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL in horseshoe kidneys with calculi. Materials and Methods: Between 1995 and 2005, we performed PCNL in 9 patients with horseshoe kidney. In 3 of them, there was a single calculus and the rest had multiple calculi in the pelvis and at least 1 in the calyxes. Ultrasonography, plain abdominal radiography, and intravenous urography (IVU were performed in all patients. We used fluoroscopy for entering the system and then, pneumatic or ultrasonic lithotripsy was used. Results: In all except 1 patient (88.9% we could access the system. Single calculi in 3 patients were removed. In 5 patients with multiple calculi, the calculus causing obstruction was removed, and in 3, the calculi located in the calyxes were removed too. Consequently, 66.7% were stone-free at the end of the procedure. In 2 patients, there were residual calculi in the calyxes and they underwent candidates for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Conclusion: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy can be used in patients with horseshoe kidney if the patient selection is appropriate and the surgeon is experienced enough. The success rate and complications are the same as the patients with normal anatomy. However, access to the lower calyx is more difficult due to its anatomic status.

  4. Acute urinary retention as a late complication of subcutaneous liquid silicone injection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luongo de Matos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute urinary retention is characterized by a sudden interruption of urinary output; urine is retained in the bladder due to either functional or obstructive anatomic factors, and cannot be voided. The main causes of acute urinary obstruction are benign prostatic hyperplasia, constipation, prostate adenocarcinoma, urethral stenosis, clot retention, neurological disorders, following surgery, calculi, drugs, or urinary tract infections. A transvestite patient, aged 55 years, described having had liquid silicone subcutaneously injected in various parts of the body, the last one four years ago. He complained of absent urinary output during the last 14 hours. The physical examination revealed skin deformation due to migration of implants; a hard nodule (characterized as a foreign body was present in the preputium and a diagnosis of acute urinary retention was made; an unsuccessful attempt to exteriorize the glans for urinary catheterization, was followed by therapeutic cystostomy. Acute urinary retention has not been mentioned in the medical literature as a complication of liquid silicone subcutaneous injection.

  5. A Fully Abstract Symbolic Semantics for Psi-Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Johansson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a symbolic transition system and bisimulation equivalence for psi-calculi, and show that it is fully abstract with respect to bisimulation congruence in the non-symbolic semantics. A psi-calculus is an extension of the pi-calculus with nominal data types for data structures and for logical assertions representing facts about data. These can be transmitted between processes and their names can be statically scoped using the standard pi-calculus mechanism to allow for scope migrations. Psi-calculi can be more general than other proposed extensions of the pi-calculus such as the applied pi-calculus, the spi-calculus, the fusion calculus, or the concurrent constraint pi-calculus. Symbolic semantics are necessary for an efficient implementation of the calculus in automated tools exploring state spaces, and the full abstraction property means the semantics of a process does not change from the original.

  6. Calculi in Hydrocele: Incidence and Results of Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vahlensieck, Winfried; Hesse, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    Trauma, inflammation, or necrosis in the scrotal cavity may lead to depositing of organic material in hydrocele fluid with consecutive calcification if the fluid is oversaturated. During a period of 25 years, 2 scrotal calculi (calculous material in hydrocele fluid) in 2 of 42 patients (4.8%) were found during surgery on symptomatic hydroceles by the first author. In these symptomatic cases, infrared spectroscopy revealed carbonate apatite as the causative mineral. The appearance of scrotal c...

  7. Conformal and Poincare tensor calculi in N=1 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the superconformal tensor calculus for N=1 supergravity in a complete form; irreducible multiplets, their multiplication and embedding formulae and invariant action formulae. It is further clarified in detail how the various versions of N=1 Poincare supergravity (i.e. with different sets of auxiliary fields) are reproduced from the unique superconformal theory. The tensor calculi for all the known versions of Poincare supergravity are derived explicitly. (orig.)

  8. The Role of Calculi in Uncertain Inference Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wellman, Michael P.; Heckerman, David

    2013-01-01

    Much of the controversy about methods for automated decision making has focused on specific calculi for combining beliefs or propagating uncertainty. We broaden the debate by (1) exploring the constellation of secondary tasks surrounding any primary decision problem, and (2) identifying knowledge engineering concerns that present additional representational tradeoffs. We argue on pragmatic grounds that the attempt to support all of these tasks within a single calculus is mis...

  9. The efficacy of tamsulosin in lower ureteral calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griwan M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There has been a paradigm shift in the management of ureteral calculi in the last decade with the introduction of new less invasive methods, such as ureterorenoscopy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. Aims: Recent studies have reported excellent results with medical expulsive therapy (MET for distal ureteral calculi, both in terms of stone expulsion and control of ureteral colic pain. Settings and Design: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting and MET with tamsulosin. Materials and Methods: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting (Group I and MET with tamsulosin (Group II in 60 patients, with a follow up of 28 days. Statistical Analysis: Independent ?t? test and chi-square test. Results: Group II showed a statistically significant advantage in terms of the stone expulsion rate. The mean number of episodes of pain, mean days to stone expulsion and mean amount of analgesic dosage used were statistically significantly lower in Group II (P value is 0.007, 0.01 and 0.007, respectively as compared to Group I. Conclusions: It is concluded that MET should be considered for uncomplicated distal ureteral calculi before ureteroscopy or extracorporeal lithotripsy. Tamsulosin has been found to increase and hasten stone expulsion rates, decrease acute attacks by acting as a spasmolytic, reduces mean days to stone expulsion and decreases analgesic dose usage.

  10. What is important to patients receiving extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy for urinary tract calculi?

    OpenAIRE

    Kouriefs, C; Quatan, N.; Larking, A.; Watkin, N. A.; Boyd, P. J. R.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients' experience and expectations are paramount in the current era of clinical governance. However, there is lack of published information on patients' expectations from extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment for renal stone disease. We conducted a survey to quantify what aspects of ESWL are important purely from the patients' prospective. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Postal questionnaires were sent out to all patients who attended our unit for ESWL treatment for re...

  11. Comparison of standard-dose and low-dose scanning with 16-MDCT for urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the feasibility to diagnose ureterolithiasis by 16-multidetector spiral computed tomography (16-MDCT) at different low doses based on body mass index (BMI). Methods: A total of one hundred patients from 2009 Sep to 2010 Feb suspected of ureterolithiasis were randomly divided into 2 equal groups undergoing 16-MDCT at standard-dose (120 kV, 240 mA) or low dose (120, 80, and 50 mA, respectively) based on the body mass index (BMI). Taking the clinical diagnosis as the standard, the sensitivity level, specificity level, and positive predictive value of these groups were compared. Results: The dose length product (DLP) of the low-dose CT group and the standard dose group were (726±45.67) and (251±73.87) mGy·cm, respectively. There was significant average CT dose index (CTDIvol ) were 18.95 and 6.65 mGy, respectively. There was significant difference between the two groups (t=31.78, P<0.01). The sensitivity level, specificity level, and positive predictive value of the low-dose group were 97.1% , 94.0%, and 94.3%, respectively, all not significantly different from those of the standard-dose groups (97.3%, 96.0%, and 97.3%, respectively, P>0.05). Conclusions: It is feasible to diagnose ureterolithiasis by low-dose 16-MDCT based on BMI with the obtained image quality meeting the clinical diagnostic requirements. (authors)

  12. [Pathophysiology, diagnosis and conservative therapy of non-calcium kidney calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochreiter, W; Knoll, Th; Hess, B

    2003-02-01

    While calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate make up at least 80% of all kidney stones, infection-induced and uric acid stones occur in 10% and 8%, respectively. Although any type of stone may become infected, the term "infection stones" means that stone formation exclusively depends on urease-producing bacteria. The splitting of urea leads to a rise in urinary pH which may induce crystallization of struvite (magnesium-ammonium-phosphate), the major constituent of infection stones, or carbonate apatite. Struvite stones account for the majority of staghorn calculi. They can grow quite large and may fill the entire collecting system. Patients with struvite stones may present with acute flank pain or remain completely asymptomatic. The cure of infection stones requires complete removal of the stone material. For uric acid crystallization and stone formation, low urine pH (below 5.5) is a more important risk factor than increased urinary uric acid excretion. Main causes of low urine pH are tubular disorders (including gout), chronic diarrheal states or severe dehydration. Accordingly, the treatment of uric acid stones consists not only of hydration (urine volume above 2000 ml per day), but mainly of urine alkalinization to pH values between 6.2 and 6.8. Urinary uric acid excretion can be reduced by a low-purine diet as well as--in case of recurrent uric acid stones and/or gout--by allopurinol. Cystinuria is a rare hereditary gene disorders with impaired tubular reabsorption of cystine. Stone formation occurs as a consequence of cystine's relatively low solubility at urine pH levels below 8. Only symptomatic diet and drug treatments are currently available, with urine dilution and urine alkalinization being the most efficient ones. Cystine stones respond poorly to shockwave lithotripsy, so that invasive procedures may regularly be necessary. 2,8-dihydroxy-adenine stones occur as a consequence of an enzyme deficiency that involves purine metabolism. These resulting stones are not visible by fluoroscopy and are therefore often misinterpreted as uric acid stones. Low-purine diet and allopurinol reduce the frequency of stone formation. PMID:12649987

  13. Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

  14. [Silica-containing urinary stones--clinical issues to keep in mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, M; Helke, C; Kubenz, K; Seehafer, M; Wolter, M; Hoschke, B

    2005-01-01

    Formation of calculi in efferent urinary passages is always due to supersaturation of urinary calculi substances and associated increased crystallization. Apart from the typical calculi, consisting of calcium oxalate, inorganic phosphates, uric acid or cystine, there are occasional signs of rare substance classes. Although more than 50 silicate stones have already been reported internationally, this stone entity remains relatively unknown. In particular, the occurrence of silicate stones in the absence of magnesium trisilicate abuse is extremely rare. A medium-sized left-sided ureterolith was removed from a 54-year-old male patient using a ureteroscope. X-ray diffraction showed it to be a compound stone consisting of 40% silicate. The patient, who in 1986 was living close to the nuclear reactor accident in Chernobyl, showed no signs of a constant uptake of magnesium trisilicate. However, he had undergone partial (2/3) gastrectomy 4 months before for a drug-refractory gastric ulcer, which had been diagnosed at the end of the 1980s and treated with excessive dosages of a magnesium trisilicate antacid preparation until the time of the operation. The patient had also been suffering from unstable angina pectoris since 1986 and treated with Pentalong (pentaerythrityltetranitrate) for 17 years. We were also able to detect silicium dioxide in components of this drug using X-ray diffraction. Silicate uroliths are extremely rare but they can be clearly identified by X-ray diffraction or infrared spectroscopy and distinguished from artifacts or quartz pebbles. Formation of calculi can be prevented by increasing diuresis as well as switching to a different drug and reducing the dosage. PMID:15688172

  15. Classification of bicovariant differential calculi on quantum groups of type A, B, C and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the assumptions that q is not a root of unity and that the differentials duij of the matrix entries span the left module of first order forms, we classify bicovariant differential calculi on quantum groups An-1, Bn, Cn and Dn. We prove that apart one dimensional differential calculi and from finitely many values of q, there are precisely 2n such calculi on the quantum group An-1 = SLq(n) for n ? 3. All these calculi have the dimension n2. For the quantum groups Bn, Cn and Dn we show that except for finitely many q there exist precisely two N2-dimensional bicovariant calculi for N ? 3, where N = 2n + 1 for Bn and N = 2n for Cn, Dn. The structure of these calculi is explicitly described and the corresponding ad-invariant right ideals of ker ? are determined. In the limit q ? 1 two of the 2n calculi for An-1 and one of the two calculi for Bn, Cn and Dn contain the ordinary classical differential calculus on the corresponding Lie group as a quotient. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of urinary stone components by x-ray coherent scatter: characterizing composition beyond laboratory x-ray diffractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Melanie T M; Batchelar, Deidre L; Velupillai, Sujeevan; Denstedt, John D; Cunningham, Ian A

    2005-08-21

    Monoenergetic x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis is an established standard for the assessment of urinary stone composition. The inherent low energy of x-rays used (8 keV), however, restricts penetration depth and imposes a requirement for small powdered samples. A technique capable of producing detailed information regarding component structural arrangements in calculi non-destructively would provide clearer insights into causes of formation and subsequent growth and allow the selection of more appropriate courses of therapy. We describe a new method based on the detection of coherent scatter (CS) in stone components using polyenergetic x-rays (70 kVp) from diagnostic equipment. While the higher energy allows the analysis of intact calculi, the polyenergetic source causes an angular broadening of measured CS patterns. We show that it is possible to relate the polyenergetic (CS) and monoenergetic (XRD) measurements through a superposition integral of the monoenergetic XRD cross-section with a function representative of the polyenergetic spectrum used in CS. Experimentally acquired diffractometry cross-sections of the seven major urinary stone components were subjected to this operation, revealing good agreement of diffraction features with CS. Therefore, our CS analysis is sensitive to stone component structure, similar to conventional XRD analysis. This indicates that CS analysis can be used as a basis to classify urinary calculi by composition. The potential of identifying stone components non-destructively was demonstrated from a tomographic CS analysis of a stone-mimicking phantom. Tomographic composition maps were generated from CS patterns, showing the structural arrangement of multiple stone components within the phantom. CS analysis has the ability to detect components in the presence of many others. The ability to perform CS measurements in intact calculi would allow for the identification of stone structures critical to patient metaprophylaxis. PMID:16077226

  17. Urinary incontinence products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are many products to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which product to choose based ... and dry your skin. WHERE TO BUY URINARY INCONTINENCE PRODUCTS You can find most products at your ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pee! But if you have a urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing ... These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out ...

  19. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How do I know my child has a UTI? • Fever • Excessive fussiness or sleepiness • Change in odor ... nausea, and vomiting are also common. How are UTI’s prevented? • Avoid urinary retention. Urinary retention occurs when ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about? A: Pee! But if you have a urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing ... a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Puberty Video: Am I Normal? (Girls and Puberty) Movie: Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page ... TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Your Urinary System Bedwetting Movie: Urinary System Contact Us Print Additional resources Send ...

  2. [Infection and urinary lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyere, F; Traxer, O; Saussine, C; Lechevallier, E

    2008-12-01

    Urinary infection is a risk factor for lithiasis. Urinary tract infection is a factor of gravity of urinary stone. The stone can exist before the infection which colonizes the stone, infected stone. The infection can be the cause of the stone, infectious stone (struvite stone). Infectious stones can be secondary to a non urinary infectious agent, oxalobacter formigenes (OF) and nanobacteria. The first-line treatment of struvite stone is percutaneous surgery. Perioperative antibiotics, renal urines and stone cultures are obligatory. PMID:19033073

  3. Urinary Catheter Management

    OpenAIRE

    Hendren, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    After colorectal resection surgery, early urinary catheter removal has been promoted as a part of the national Surgical Care Improvement Project. However, the decrease in urinary tract infection expected with this strategy must be balanced against an increased risk for urinary retention. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to summarize the evidence for and against early postoperative urinary catheter removal. For nonpelvic colorectal resection, the evidence supports removal o...

  4. FT-IR spectroscopic, thermal analysis of human urinary stones and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, R.; Raja, A.; Thiruppathi, G.

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, FT-IR, XRD, TGA-DTA spectral methods have been used to investigate the chemical compositions of urinary calculi. Multi-components of urinary calculi such as calcium oxalate, hydroxyl apatite, struvite and uric acid have been studied. The chemical compounds are identified by FT-IR spectroscopic technique. The mineral identification was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction patterns as compared with JCPDS reported values. Thermal analysis techniques are considered the best techniques for the characterization and detection of endothermic and exothermic behaviors of the urinary stones. The percentages of each hydrate (COM and COD) are present together, in the presences of MAPH or UA. Finally, the present study suggests that the Urolithiasis is significant health problem in children, and is very common in some parts of the world, especially in India. So that present study is so useful and helpful to the scientific community for identification of latest human health problems and their remedies using spectroscopic techniques.

  5. FT-IR spectroscopic, thermal analysis of human urinary stones and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, R; Raja, A; Thiruppathi, G

    2015-02-25

    In the present study, FT-IR, XRD, TGA-DTA spectral methods have been used to investigate the chemical compositions of urinary calculi. Multi-components of urinary calculi such as calcium oxalate, hydroxyl apatite, struvite and uric acid have been studied. The chemical compounds are identified by FT-IR spectroscopic technique. The mineral identification was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction patterns as compared with JCPDS reported values. Thermal analysis techniques are considered the best techniques for the characterization and detection of endothermic and exothermic behaviors of the urinary stones. The percentages of each hydrate (COM and COD) are present together, in the presences of MAPH or UA. Finally, the present study suggests that the Urolithiasis is significant health problem in children, and is very common in some parts of the world, especially in India. So that present study is so useful and helpful to the scientific community for identification of latest human health problems and their remedies using spectroscopic techniques. PMID:25306135

  6. Sequent Calculi for the classical fragment of Bochvar and Halldén's Nonsense Logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Coniglio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper sequent calculi for the classical fragment (that is, the conjunction-disjunction-implication-negation fragment of the nonsense logics B3, introduced by Bochvar, and H3, introduced by Halldén, are presented. These calculi are obtained by restricting in an appropriate way the application of the rules of a sequent calculus for classical propositional logic CPL. The nice symmetry between the provisos in the rules reveal the semantical relationship between these logics. The Soundness and Completeness theorems for both calculi are obtained, as well as the respective Cut elimination theorems.

  7. POTENTIAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN KIDNEY, GALL AND URINARY STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choubey Ankur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity.

  8. Laparoscopic Management of Ureteral Calculi: A Report of 123 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Farrokhi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic surgery for the management of ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods: We performed 123 laparoscopic calculus removal in 103 men and 31 women. Indications for the procedure were extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy or transureteral lithotomy failure and large calculus. The mean age of the patients was 39.6 ± 13.8 years. The calculi were between 1 and 5.6 cm and located in the upper, middle, and lower ureter in 90 (73.2%, 20 (16.3%, and 13 (10.5% patients, respectively. Ureteral stent was used in 52 (42.3% patients. We used 3 ports for camera and instruments. Intraperitoneal approach was used in 104 (84.6% and extraperitoneal in 19 (15.4%. Results: The mean operative time was 143.2 ± 60.5 minutes. One hundred and nineteen patients (96.7% became stone free. Minor complications occurred in 14 (11.4% patients. Conversion to open surgery was required in 1 patient due to migration of the calculus to the peritoneum after removal from the ureter. Intra-abdominal hematoma led to reoperation 1 day after the surgery in 1 patient. Operative time was different significantly between extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal approaches (171.3 ± 91.3 minutes and 137.3 ± 52.2 minutes, respectively; P = .02. Conclusion: Our results confirm the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic removal of ureteral calculi in selected groups of patients, taking the advantage of this minimally invasive procedure such as better cosmetic results and patient’s satisfaction.

  9. The treatment of ureteric calculi before and after the introduction of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, J; Holtveg, H

    1995-01-01

    Indications and treatment results of ureteric calculi one year before and one year after the introduction of ESWL were analysed in 169 consecutive patients. Sex, age, former stone operation, stone localisation and stone size were not significantly different in the two groups. Before ESW1 47% of the patients received treatment against 54% after the introduction (p > 0.3). There was no tendency towards treatment of smaller calculi. Expectedly, the number of endoscopies and ureterolithotomies was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). The treatment period (from first contact till final control) was longer with ESWL, but not significantly. Judged from the length of the hospital stay there was no major economic benefit from ESWL. In conclusion, ESWL with a second generation lithotriptor is suitable for in situ treatment of ureteric calculi. It should be first choice for ureteric calculi.

  10. Proof search in multi-succedent sequent calculi for intuitionistic logic

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Toshiyasu

    2013-01-01

    Following G. Mints(Kluwer 200 and draft 2013), we present a complete proof search in multi-sequent calculi for intuitionistic propositional and pure predicate logic in spirit of Sch\\"utte's schema(JSL 1960).

  11. Urinary Schistosomiasis: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Barsoum, Rashad S.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, the clinical manifestations of urinary schistosomiasis are displayed from a pathogenetic perspective. According to the prevailing host’s immune response profile, urinary schistosomiasis may be broadly categorized into cell-mediated and immune-complex-mediated disorders. The former, usually due to Schistosoma haematobium infection, are attributed to the formation of granulomata along the entire urinary tract. As they heal with excessive fibrosis, they may lead to strictures, ca...

  12. A Syntactic Correspondence between Context-Sensitive Calculi and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    We present a systematic construction of environment-based abstract machines from context-sensitive calculi of explicit substitutions, and we illustrate it with ten calculi and machines for applicative order with an abort operation, normal order with generalized reduction and call/cc, the lambda-mu-calculus, delimited continuations, stack inspection, proper tail-recursion, and lazy evaluation. Most of the machines already exist but they have been obtained independently and are only indirectly rel...

  13. A Syntactic Correspondence between Context-Sensitive Calculi and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    We present a systematic construction of environment-based abstract machines from context-sensitive calculi of explicit substitutions, and we illustrate it with ten calculi and machines for applicative order with an abort operation, normal order with generalized reduction and call/cc, the lambda-mu-calculus, delimited continuations, stack inspection, proper tail-recursion, and lazy evaluation. Most of the machines already exist but have been obtained independently and are only indirectly related ...

  14. Comparison of treatment of renal calculi by open surgery, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Charig, C. R.; Webb, D R; Payne, S R; Wickham, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to compare different methods of treating renal calculi in order to establish which was the most cost effective and successful. Of 1052 patients with renal calculi, 350 underwent open surgery, 350 percutaneous nephrolithotomy, 328 extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), and 24 both percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ESWL. Treatment was defined as successful if stones were eliminated or reduced to less than 2 mm after three months. Success was achieved in 273 (78%) pa...

  15. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy versus ureteroscopy for distal ureteric calculi: efficacy and patient satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ghalayini, Ibrahim F.; Mohammed A. Al-Ghazo; Yousef S Khader

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and ureteroscopy (URS) for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi with respect to patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND MHETODS: This is a prospective study where a total of 212 patients with solitary, radiopaque distal ureteral calculi were treated with ESWL (n = 92) using Dornier lithotriptor S (MedTech Europe GmbH) or URS (n = 120). Patient and stone characteristics, treatment parameters, clinical outcomes,...

  16. Characteristics of patients with fluid extravasation during retrograde ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for renal calculi.

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Min Luo; Ci Zhang; Hui-Jun Qian; Chao Song; Si-Xing Yang

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To explore the risk factors of fluid extravasation during retrograde ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for renal calculi. METHODS Three hundred and twenty-seven patients with renal calculi ranging 10 to 20 mm received retrograde ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China from January 2004 to December 2010. The clinical records were reviewed, and the correlation was studied between various clinical factors and fluid ex...

  17. Arithmetical proofs of strong normalization results for symmetric lambda calculi

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2009-01-01

    We give arithmetical proofs of the strong normalization of two symmetric $\\lambda$-calculi corresponding to classical logic. The first one is the $\\bar{\\lambda}\\mu\\tilde{\\mu}$-calculus introduced by Curien & Herbelin. It is derived via the Curry-Howard correspondence from Gentzen's classical sequent calculus LK in order to have a symmetry on one side between "program" and "context" and on other side between "call-by-name" and "call-by-value". The second one is the symmetric $\\lambda \\mu$-calculus. It is the $\\lambda \\mu$-calculus introduced by Parigot in which the reduction rule $\\mu'$, which is the symmetric of $\\mu$, is added. These results were already known but the previous proofs use candidates of reducibility where the interpretation of a type is defined as the fix point of some increasing operator and thus, are highly non arithmetical.

  18. A survey of computational calculi used in musical applications

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gerardo M., Sarria M..

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas muchos modelos formales han sido propuestos para formalizar aplicaciones musicales, para resolver problemas musicales y de improvisación, y para probar propiedades en la música. En este artículo describiremos brevemente algunos de estos modelos formales (los cálculos computaci [...] onales); proveeremos una descripción de algunas aplicaciones de dichos formalismos; finalmente discutiremos algunas consideraciones sobre cada cálculo mencionado aquí, resaltando fortalezas y debilidades Abstract in english During the last decades, several formal models have been proposed to formalize musical applications, to solve musical and improvisation problems, and to prove properties in music. In this paper, we briefly describe some of those formal models (computational calculi). We provide a description of some [...] applications of these formalisms, and discuss some considerations about each calculus mentioned here remarking strengths and weaknesses

  19. Notes on the differential calculi on quantum linear groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This talk is devoted to the problem of constructing differential calculi on quantum linear groups. Based on the natural algebraic postulates, we examine the possible commutation relations for the GLq(N)- and SLq(N)-invariant differential forms and vector fields. It turns out that there exist several families of admissible commutation rules for GLq(N), but, in contrast. the commutation prescription for SLq(N) is unique. The stochastic quantization of dissipative systems is discussed. It is shown that in order to stochastically quantize a sys- tem with dissipation, one has to restrict the Fourier transform of the space-time variable to the positive half domain in the complex plane. This breaks the time-reversal invariance, which manifests itself in the formulation through the re- sulting noninvaxiant forms for the propagators. The relation of the stochastic approach with the Caldeira and Leggett path-integral method is also analyzed

  20. Porfirinas en Cálculos Renales (Revisión) / Porphyrins in renal calculi (Review)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MªL., Traba Villameytide.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Hemos realizado una revisión del contenido de porfirinas en una clase peculiar de cálculos renales. Estos son negros como el carbón y presentan un espectro infrarrojo (EIR) similar al conocido como "materia orgánica", el cual no indica la clase de sustancia a la que corresponde. Otros tipos de cálcu [...] los renales, principalmente de pequeño tamaño y eliminados espontáneamente, pueden tener un compuesto oscuro o negro de forma difusa o aislada y presentan un espectro de IR similar al de "materia orgánica". Después de observar que la hemoglobina presentaba un espectro de IR de "materia orgánica", estudiamos, por cromatografía en capa fina, un método sensible para la determinación de porfirinas, la presencia de porfirinas en diversos tipos de cálculos renales negros y oscuros, ya que las porfirinas son los precursores del grupo hemo. Este trabajo ha puesto de manifiesto dos tipos de porfirinas: la coproporfirina, en pacientes que padecen hepatopatías, y la uroporfirina y heptacarboxilporfirina en pacientes con algún tipo de porfiria o bien con fracaso renal crónico. Abstract in english We performed a review of the porphyrines content in a type of black, charcoal-like, renal calculi exhibiting infrarred spectra (IRS) similar to those characteristic of "organic material" which has not yet been fully elucidate. Several other types of renal calculi, mainly those of small size, spontan [...] eous passage renal stone, may also have diffuse or isolated dark charcoal components showing "organic material" IRS. After observing that haemoglobin has an "organic material" IRS, we studied, by a sensitive thin layer chromatography method, the presence of porphyrines in several types of dark or charcoal renal stones, since porphyrines are the physiological precursors of haemo group biosynthesis. We found two types of porphyrine content: coproporphyrin, in patients suffering from hepatopathy, and uroporphyrin and heptacarboxil-porphyrin in patients with some types of porphyria or with chronic renal failure.

  1. Anti-Urolithiatic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Pedalium Murex Linn. Fruits on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyesh R. Mandavia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate effect of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits on experimentalmodel of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided in 6 groups.Normal controls received distilled water for 28 days. Other five groups received ethylene glycol(1% v/v in distilled water for 28 days. Pedalium murex ethanolic extract was given 200 mg/kgand 400 mg/kg orally in distilled water for 28 days in prophylactic groups (III and IV and from15th to 28th days in treatment groups (V and VI. The urea, creatinine, random blood sugar, aspartateaminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and calcium weremeasured on 28th day. 24 hr urinary oxalate and volume were measured on day 0 and 28. On day28, kidneys were removed, weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. Calcium oxalatecrystallization was evaluated by renal histopathology and in-vitro method of mineralization.All parameters were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis or one-way ANOVA with post-hoc test.Results: Pedalium murex showed significant improvement in renal function and kidney weight inprophylactic groups as compared to ethylene glycol controls. It did not show any effect on urinaryoxalate, urine volume and any other serological parameters. Calcium oxalate crystallization wassignificantly reduced in all the Pedalium murex treated groups (P < .05. Calcium oxalate and phosphatemineralization were also inhibited by 33% and 57%.Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex fruits possess significant activity for preventionof renal calculi.

  2. O que há de novo no diagnóstico e tratamento da litíase urinária? What's new in the diagnosis and management of urinary lithiasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mazzucchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Atualizar aspectos do diagnóstico e do tratamento da litíase urinária. MÉTODOS. Uma revisão dos principais artigos publicados sobre o tema em revistas indexadas no "Medline" entre 1979 e 2009. RESULTADOS. A ocorrência de cálculos é maior em pacientes com IMC > 30. A TC sem contraste promove o diagnóstico correto em até 98% dos casos. O uso de bloqueadores alfa-adrenérgicos aumenta a eliminação de cálculos ureterais menores que 8 mm em 29%. O índice de pacientes livres de cálculo após LEOC varia entre 35% e 91%, conforme seu tamanho e localização. Cálculos renais maiores que 2 cm são eliminados pela NLPC entre 60% e 100% dos casos. Cálculos de ureter distal são tratados com sucesso em até 94% dos casos pela ureteroscopia semirrígida contra 74% da LEOC. Já para cálculos de ureter superior as taxas de sucesso situam-se entre 77% e 91% para ureteroscopia e 41% e 82% para a LEOC. CONCLUSÃO. A associação da calculose urinária com obesidade e Diabetes mellitus está bem estabelecida. A TC sem contraste é atualmente o padrão-ouro no diagnóstico da litíase urinária. A LEOC é o método de eleição em nosso meio para tratamento de cálculos renais menores que 2 cm e com densidade tomográfica OBJECTIVE. To review developments in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary lithiasis. METHODS. A review of the most important articles on the subject published in Medline indexed periodicals between 1979 and 2009.RESULTS. Stones occur with greater frequency among people with BMI > 30. Computerized tomography without contrast provides the correct diagnosis in up to 98% of cases. Alpha-adrenergic blockers increase elimination of ureteral calculi smaller than 8 mm by 29%. The proportion of patients free from calculi after ESWL varies from 35% to 91%, depending on size and location. In between 60% and 100% of cases, renal calculi larger than 2 cm are eliminated with PCNL. Calculi of the distal ureter are successfully treated in up to 94% of cases using semi-rigid ureteroscopy, compared to 74% using ESWL. For calculi of the upper ureter success rates are around 77% and 91% for ureteroscopy and 41% and 82% for ESWL. CONCLUSION. The association between urinary lithiasis and Diabetes mellitus, is well-established. Computerized tomography without contrast is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of urinary lithiasis. In Brazil, ESWL is the method of choice for treating renal calculi smaller than 2 cm and with tomographic density < 1000 HU, except those of the lower pole, where the ideal limit for treatment is 1 cm. Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy is the best method of treating renal calculi larger than 2 cm and semi-rigid ureteroscopy is the best treatment for calculi of the distal ureter. Flexible ureteroscopy is an option for calculi of the upper ureter and renal calculi smaller than 1.5 cm that do not respond to ESWL or where PCNL is contraindicated.

  3. Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to wipe correctly. Having sex may also cause urinary tract infections in women because bacteria can be pushed into the urethra. ... days of antibiotic pills will usually cure your urinary tract infection. If you are pregnant, your doctor will prescribe a medicine that is ...

  4. O que há de novo no diagnóstico e tratamento da litíase urinária? / What's new in the diagnosis and management of urinary lithiasis?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Mazzucchi; Miguel, Srougi.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Atualizar aspectos do diagnóstico e do tratamento da litíase urinária. MÉTODOS. Uma revisão dos principais artigos publicados sobre o tema em revistas indexadas no "Medline" entre 1979 e 2009. RESULTADOS. A ocorrência de cálculos é maior em pacientes com IMC > 30. A TC sem contraste promov [...] e o diagnóstico correto em até 98% dos casos. O uso de bloqueadores alfa-adrenérgicos aumenta a eliminação de cálculos ureterais menores que 8 mm em 29%. O índice de pacientes livres de cálculo após LEOC varia entre 35% e 91%, conforme seu tamanho e localização. Cálculos renais maiores que 2 cm são eliminados pela NLPC entre 60% e 100% dos casos. Cálculos de ureter distal são tratados com sucesso em até 94% dos casos pela ureteroscopia semirrígida contra 74% da LEOC. Já para cálculos de ureter superior as taxas de sucesso situam-se entre 77% e 91% para ureteroscopia e 41% e 82% para a LEOC. CONCLUSÃO. A associação da calculose urinária com obesidade e Diabetes mellitus está bem estabelecida. A TC sem contraste é atualmente o padrão-ouro no diagnóstico da litíase urinária. A LEOC é o método de eleição em nosso meio para tratamento de cálculos renais menores que 2 cm e com densidade tomográfica Abstract in english OBJECTIVE. To review developments in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary lithiasis. METHODS. A review of the most important articles on the subject published in Medline indexed periodicals between 1979 and 2009.RESULTS. Stones occur with greater frequency among people with BMI > 30. Computerized [...] tomography without contrast provides the correct diagnosis in up to 98% of cases. Alpha-adrenergic blockers increase elimination of ureteral calculi smaller than 8 mm by 29%. The proportion of patients free from calculi after ESWL varies from 35% to 91%, depending on size and location. In between 60% and 100% of cases, renal calculi larger than 2 cm are eliminated with PCNL. Calculi of the distal ureter are successfully treated in up to 94% of cases using semi-rigid ureteroscopy, compared to 74% using ESWL. For calculi of the upper ureter success rates are around 77% and 91% for ureteroscopy and 41% and 82% for ESWL. CONCLUSION. The association between urinary lithiasis and Diabetes mellitus, is well-established. Computerized tomography without contrast is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of urinary lithiasis. In Brazil, ESWL is the method of choice for treating renal calculi smaller than 2 cm and with tomographic density

  5. Functional Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Kidneys Using Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent and Diffusion-Weighted Sequences: a Reliable Tool for Monitoring Acute Upper Urinary Tract Obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Giannarini, Gianluca; Kessler, Thomas M; Roth, Beat; Vermathen, Peter; Thoeny, Harriet C

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Little data is available on noninvasive MRI-based assessment of renal function during upper urinary tract (UUT) obstruction. In this study, we determined whether functional multiparametric kidney MRI is able to monitor treatment response in acute unilateral UUT obstruction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 01/2008 and 01/2010, 18 patients with acute unilateral UUT obstruction due to calculi were prospectively enrolled to undergo kidney MRI with conventional, blood oxygen level-depen...

  6. Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic effect of aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. leaves using ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apexa Bhanuprasad Shukla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anti-urolithiatic effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (B. pinnatum on ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six Wistar male rats were randomly divided into six equal groups. group A animals received distilled water for 28 days. Group B to group F animals received 1% v/v ethylene glycol in distilled water for 28 days and group B served as ethylene glycol control. Groups C and D (preventive groups received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively for 28 days. Groups E and F (treatment groups received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively from 15th to 28th day. On days 0 and 28, 24 hrs urine samples were collected for urinary volume and urinary oxalate measurement. On day 28, blood was collected for serum creatinine and blood urea level monitoring. All animals were sacrificed and kidneys were removed, weighed, and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate crystals deposition. Results: Administration of aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum reduced urine oxalate level significantly, as compared with Group B (p

  7. On the Expressiveness of Markovian Process Calculi with Durational and Durationless Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bernardo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Several Markovian process calculi have been proposed in the literature, which differ from each other for various aspects. With regard to the action representation, we distinguish between integrated-time Markovian process calculi, in which every action has an exponentially distributed duration associated with it, and orthogonal-time Markovian process calculi, in which action execution is separated from time passing. Similar to deterministically timed process calculi, we show that these two options are not irreconcilable by exhibiting three mappings from an integrated-time Markovian process calculus to an orthogonal-time Markovian process calculus that preserve the behavioral equivalence of process terms under different interpretations of action execution: eagerness, laziness, and maximal progress. The mappings are limited to classes of process terms of the integrated-time Markovian process calculus with restrictions on parallel composition and do not involve the full capability of the orthogonal-time Markovian process calculus of expressing nondeterministic choices, thus elucidating the only two important differences between the two calculi: their synchronization disciplines and their ways of solving choices.

  8. Computer-aided detection of renal calculi from noncontrast CT images using TV-flow and MSER features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Renal calculi are common extracolonic incidental findings on computed tomographic colonography (CTC). This work aims to develop a fully automated computer-aided diagnosis system to accurately detect renal calculi on CTC images. Methods: The authors developed a total variation (TV) flow method to reduce image noise within the kidneys while maintaining the characteristic appearance of renal calculi. Maximally stable extremal region (MSER) features were then calculated to robustly identify calculi candidates. Finally, the authors computed texture and shape features that were imported to support vector machines for calculus classification. The method was validated on a dataset of 192 patients and compared to a baseline approach that detects calculi by thresholding. The authors also compared their method with the detection approaches using anisotropic diffusion and nonsmoothing. Results: At a false positive rate of 8 per patient, the sensitivities of the new method and the baseline thresholding approach were 69% and 35% (p < 1e ? 3) on all calculi from 1 to 433 mm3 in the testing dataset. The sensitivities of the detection methods using anisotropic diffusion and nonsmoothing were 36% and 0%, respectively. The sensitivity of the new method increased to 90% if only larger and more clinically relevant calculi were considered. Conclusions: Experimental results demonstrated that TV-flow and MSER features are efficient means to robustly and accurately detect renal calculi on low-dose, high noise CTC images. Thus, the proposed method can potentially improve diagnosis

  9. Urinary Incontinence in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organizations?? . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Urinary Incontinence in Women Page Content On this page: What ... its severity. [ Top ] What are the types of incontinence? Stress Incontinence If coughing, laughing, sneezing, or other ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a UTI. The doctor also can choose to send the urine sample to a lab for testing. ... Movie: Urinary System Contact Us Print Additional resources Send to a friend Reprint guidelines Sign up for ...

  11. Urinary Incontinence in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, the involuntary leakage of urine, is caused by a variety of factors and may result in a wide range of urinary symptoms that can affect women's physical, psychological, and social well-being and sometimes can impose significant lifestyle restrictions. Identifying the etiology of each woman's urinary incontinence symptoms and developing an individualized treatment plan is essential for improving her quality of life. The purpose of this joint document of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Urogynecologic Society is to review information on the current understanding of urinary incontinence in women and to outline guidelines for diagnosis and management that are consistent with the best available scientific evidence. PMID:26506157

  12. Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. You may have a UTI if you notice Pain or burning when you ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids for Teens Kids Home How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Recipes & Cooking Staying ... and Puberty) Movie: Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth > Kids > ...

  14. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around the genitals). It is most common in children younger than 6 years old and is more common in boys. Nephrotic syndrome is often treated with steroids. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is infection of a part of or ...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 237 milliliters) of urine in your bladder, your brain tells you it's time to find a bathroom. Once you're ready to pee, you relax a set of muscles ... Urinary Tract Troubles ...

  16. Matrix effects in PIXE elemental analysis of thick calculi targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Lekki, Janusz; Nowak, Tomasz; Dutkiewicz, Erazm M.; Paluszkiewicz, Czeslawa

    1997-02-01

    The PIXE technique for Trace Element Analysis have been applied to the studies of mineral deposits such as kidney stones in human organism. The calculi mainly composed of phosphates, oxalates and uric acid were extracted during surgical operations and were measured at the proton beam as thick targets. Trace elements studies of such samples are influenced by the thick targets matrix effects and by the sample composition changes caused by energy deposition in the target due to the proton beam irradiation. These both difficulties are especially pronounced in the case of the biological samples. In this paper the procedure dealing with the above problems is described, basing on calculations with the use of principal formula for the detected X-ray yields and two complementary techniques for PIXE experiments such as Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Elastic Back Scattering (EBS). A rough estimation of sample chemical composition was achieved by means of the FTIR analysis, which also may serve as a tool for local sample temperature estimation during beam irradiation. Composition of major target elements, needed for beam stopping and X-rays attenuation calculations were determined using the EBS technique applied simultaneously with PIXE. The above approach was used to estimate elemental contents of several samples. Comparison between traditionally calculated and improved results is presented.

  17. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted ...

  18. URINARY MELATONIN IN DEPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Devi, S. Parvathi; Srinivasan, V

    1983-01-01

    This report is based on a study of 12 cases of depression (8 endogenous, 4 neurotic) with a view to explore the possible association between urinary melatonin and the illness prior to and following treatment. While cases of endogenous depression had low 24 hour as well as nocturnal urinary melatonin levels, the neurotic depressives showed higher than normal levels. A rise in the 24 hour melatonin levels occurred in all cases of endogenous depression though this did not apply, to the nocturnal...

  19. Toward the classification of differential calculi on ?-Minkowski space and related field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juri?, Tajron; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikuti?, Danijel; Štrajn, Rina

    2015-07-01

    Classification of differential forms on ?-Minkowski space, particularly, the classification of all bicovariant differential calculi of classical dimension is presented. By imposing super-Jacobi identities we derive all possible differential algebras compatible with the ?-Minkowski algebra for time-like, space-like and light-like deformations. Embedding into the super-Heisenberg algebra is constructed using non-commutative (NC) coordinates and one-forms. Particularly, a class of differential calculi with an undeformed exterior derivative and one-forms is considered. Corresponding NC differential calculi are elaborated. Related class of new Drinfeld twists is proposed. It contains twist leading to ?-Poincaré Hopf algebra for light-like deformation. Corresponding super-algebra and deformed super-Hopf algebras, as well as the symmetries of differential algebras are presented and elaborated. Using the NC differential calculus, we analyze NC field theory, modified dispersion relations, and discuss further physical applications.

  20. Proceedings Fourth Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Ciobanu, Gabriel; 10.4204/EPTCS.40

    2010-01-01

    The 4th Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi (MeCBIC 2010) is organized in Jena as a satellite event of the Eleventh International Conference on Membrane Computing (CMC11). Biological membranes play a fundamental role in the complex reactions which take place in cells of living organisms. The importance of this role has been considered in two different types of formalisms introduced recently. Membrane systems were introduced as a class of distributed parallel computing devices inspired by the observation that any biological system is a complex hierarchical structure, with a flow of biochemical substances and information that underlies their functioning. The modeling and analysis of biological systems has also attracted considerable interest of the process algebra research community. Thus the notions of membranes and compartments have been explicitly represented in a family of calculi, such as ambients and brane calculi. A cross fertilization of these two research areas has ...

  1. Drinking Water Composition and Incidence of Urinary Calculus: Introducing a New Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Basiri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We searched for a pathophysiologically based feature of major water electrolytes, which may define water quality better than the water hardness, respecting urinary calculus formation.Materials and Methods. Utilizing a multistage stratified sampling, 2310 patients were diagnosed in the imaging centers of the provincial capitals in Iran between 2007 and 2008. These were composed of 1755 patients who were settled residents of 24 provincial capitals. Data on the regional drinking water composition, obtained from an accredited registry, and their relationships with the region’s incidence of urinary calculi were evaluated by metaregression models. The stone risk index (defined as the ratio of calcium to magnesium-bicarbonate product in drinking water was used to assess the risk of calculus formation.Results. No correlation was found between the urinary calculus incidence and the amount of calcium, bicarbonate, or the total hardness of the drinking water. In contrast, water magnesium had a marginally significant nonlinear inverse relationship with the incidence of the disease in the capitals (R2 = 26%, P = .05 for a power model. The stone risk index was associated nonlinearly with the calculus incidence (R2 = 28.4%, P = .04.Conclusions. Urinary calculus incidence was inversely related with drinking water magnesium content. We introduced a new index constructed on the foundation of a pathophysiologically based formula; the stone risk index had a strong positive association with calculus incidence. This index can have therapeutic and preventive applications, yet to be confirmed by clinical trials.

  2. Is continent urinary diversion feasible in children under five years of age?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz L., Barbosa; Riberto, Liguori; Sergio L., Ottoni; Ubirajara, Barroso Jr; Valdemar, Ortiz; Antonio, Macedo Junior.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review our clinical experience with urinary continent catheterizable reservoir in children under five years of age. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 patients (16 males, 7 females) with a median age of 3.64 years were evaluated. Among these, 6 (26.08%) had a posterior urethral valve, [...] 9 (39.13%) myelomeningocele, 4 (17.39%) bladder exstrophy, 2 (8.69%) genitourinary rabdomyosarcoma, 1 (4.34%) had spinal tumor and 1 (4.34%) an ano-rectal anomaly. Results: Perioperative complications were observed in four patients consisting of one febrile urinary tract infection, one partial operative wound dehiscence, one partial stomal dehiscence and one vesico-cutaneous fistula after a secondary exstrophy repair. The overall long-term complications rate was 40.90% and consisted of two stomal stenoses (9.09%), one neobladder mucosal extrusion (4.54%), three neobladder calculi (13.63%) and persistence of urinary incontinence in three patients (13.63%). The overall surgical revision was 36.36% and final continence rate was 95.45% with mean follow-up of 39.95 months Conclusion: Continent urinary diversion is technically feasible even in small children, with acceptable rates of complications.

  3. Is continent urinary diversion feasible in children under five years of age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz L. Barbosa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review our clinical experience with urinary continent catheterizable reservoir in children under five years of age. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 patients (16 males, 7 females with a median age of 3.64 years were evaluated. Among these, 6 (26.08% had a posterior urethral valve, 9 (39.13% myelomeningocele, 4 (17.39% bladder exstrophy, 2 (8.69% genitourinary rabdomyosarcoma, 1 (4.34% had spinal tumor and 1 (4.34% an ano-rectal anomaly. Results: Perioperative complications were observed in four patients consisting of one febrile urinary tract infection, one partial operative wound dehiscence, one partial stomal dehiscence and one vesico-cutaneous fistula after a secondary exstrophy repair. The overall long-term complications rate was 40.90% and consisted of two stomal stenoses (9.09%, one neobladder mucosal extrusion (4.54%, three neobladder calculi (13.63% and persistence of urinary incontinence in three patients (13.63%. The overall surgical revision was 36.36% and final continence rate was 95.45% with mean follow-up of 39.95 months Conclusion: Continent urinary diversion is technically feasible even in small children, with acceptable rates of complications.

  4. The Relations of Inner and Outer Differential Calculi on Quantum Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Zweydinger, P

    1998-01-01

    The differential caluli $(Gamma,d)$ on quantum groups are classified due to the property of the generating element $X$ of its differential $d$. There are, on the one hand differential caluli which contain this element $X$ in the basis of one- forms that span $Gamma$, called Inner Differential Calculi. On the other hand, one has the differential caluli which do not contain the generating element $X$ of its differential $d$, thus they are called Outer Differential Calculi. We show that this two classes of differential caluli, for a given quantum group ${\\cal A}$, are related by homomorphisms, which map the elements of one class on elements of the other class.

  5. Weak Convergence and Vector-Valued Functions: Improving the Stability Theory of Feynman's Operational Calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a theorem that establishes a relation between continuous, norm-bounded functions from a metric space into a separable Hilbert space and weak convergence of sequences of probability measures on the metric space. After establishing this result, it's application to the stability theory of Feynman's operational calculi will be illustrated. We will see that the existing time-dependent stability theory of the operational calculi will be significantly improved when the operator-valued functions take their values in LH,H a separable Hilbert space

  6. Litiasis prostática: cálculos silentes / Prostatic calculi: silent stones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H., Köseoglu; G., Aslan; B.H., Sen; B., Tuna; K., Yörükoglu.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivos: En la práctica urológica se encuentran con frecuencia cálculos prostáticos durante la resección transuretral de la próstata. Nuestro objetivo era demostrar las propiedades físicas y químicas de los cálculos prostáticos, así como determinar la posible relación entre la infla [...] mación de la próstata y los cálculos prostáticos. Métodos: Se incluyó en el estudio a pacientes consecutivos (excluidos los sujetos con PSA>4ng/ml y urolitiasis) sometidos a resección transuretral de la próstata (RTUP) en quienes se observaron cálculos prostáticos. Se analizó la composición química de los cálculos prostáticos obtenidos de cada paciente durante la RTUP, que se observaron también al microscopio electrónico (MEB) para determinar su estructura y morfología superficial. El uroanatomopatólogo valoró las muestras para emitir el diagnóstico definitivo y determinar la existencia y el grado de la inflamación. Resultados: Se incluyó en el estudio a cinco pacientes. Se obtuvieron de cada paciente al menos tres (de 3-8) muestras de cálculos (con un diámetro de 1-5mm). Los cálculos tenían una composición mixta de fosfato cálcico y carbonato cálcico. En la MEB se observó que los cálculos tenían una superficie lobular formada por pequeñas esferas. El examen histopatológico de las muestras de RTUP reveló hiperplasia prostática benigna acompañada de inflamación entre leve e intensa. Conclusiones: Los cálculos prostáticos son cálculos de calcio precipitados concéntricamente situados dentro de los conductillos prostáticos con una morfología granular arracimada. Estos cálculos prostáticos parecen ir acompañados de inflamación histopatológica. Abstract in english Introduction: Introduction and Objectives Prostate stones are frequently encountered during transurethral resection of the prostate in urology practice. We aimed to demonstrate the physical and chemical properties of prostate stones. We also aimed to determine possible relationship between inflammat [...] ion of prostate gland and prostate stones. Methods: The consecutive patients (excluding subjects with PSA>4ng/ml and urolithiasis), who underwent TURP operation and who were observed to have prostatic calculi during TURP, were included in the study. The prostatic stones obtained from each patient during TURP were analysed for chemical composition and observed under electron microscopy (SEM) for structure and surface morphology. The pathological specimens were assessed by the uropathologist for the final diagnosis and existence and degree of inflammation. Results: Five patients were included in the study. From each patient at least three (range 3-8) samples of stones (diameter varying from 1mm up to 5mm) were obtained. The stones were made of mixed composition of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. The stones were found to have lobular surface made up of small spheres under SEM. Histopathological examination of the TURP specimens revealed being prostatic hyperplasia accompanied with inflammation of mild to severe degree. Conclusions: Prostatic stones are concentrically precipitated calcium stones within the prostatic ductuli with granular grape like morphology. Histopathological inflammation seems to be associated with these prostatic calculi.

  7. Studies on the function of upper urinary tract, 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify the changes of the ureteral function after ureterolithotomy, 131I-Hippuran renograms were recorded at 3 times before, immediately after (i.e. 1 - 2 days after) and 10 days after the lithotomy in 52 patients. The influences of preoperative hydronephrosis or urinary tract infection upon the postoperative renogram patterns were studied. The following results were obtained. 1. In the renogram findings of the preoperative 52 cases, 28 delayed excretion types, 15 obstructive types and 9 standard types were shown. 2. The postoperative renogram patterns showed a tendency of increased obstruction immediately after the operation (56.9%) irrespective of the location of the calculi in the ureter, and the recovering excretion phases became visible on the 10th postoperative day (51.1%). 3. In the findings on the postoperative renograms, a tendency of increased obstruction was noted in many of the patients of the non-hydronephrotic group than the hydronephrotic group immediately after the operation, but no statistically significant difference was noted. On the 10th postoperative day, slightly more patients of the hydronephrotic group tended to show improvements of obstruction than those of the non-hydronephrotic group, but with no statistically significant difference. 4. In the relationship between the hydronephrosis and urinary tract infection, the infection rate was 26.9% (7 out of 26) in the non-hydronephrotic group and 52.4% (11 out of 21) in the hydronephrotic group. 5. In the findings on the renograms viewed from presence of urinary tract infection, slightly more cases of increased obstruction were found out immediately after the operation in the non-infected group than in the infected group. On the 10th postoperative day, slightly more cases of improvements of obstruction were noted in the infected group than in the non-infected group, but no statistically significant difference was seen between the two groups at either of the two points. (author)

  8. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Compartir Frequently Asked Questions about Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections What is a urinary catheter? What is a urinary tract infection? What is a catheter-associated urinary tract infection? ...

  9. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  10. Fasting and urinary stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods:Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field  of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results:The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  11. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs

  12. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of surgeries that help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ... sling procedures are done to treat stress urinary incontinence. Before discussing surgery, your doctor will have you ...

  13. When you have urinary incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have urinary incontinence. This means you are not able to keep urine from leaking from your urethra, the tube that carries urine out of your body from your bladder. Urinary incontinence may occur because of aging, surgery, or childbirth. ...

  14. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KB) Alternate Language URL Urinary Tract Infections in Children Page Content On this page: What is a ... ear infections. [ Top ] How common are UTIs in children? Urinary tract infections affect about 3 percent of ...

  15. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina; Norsk, Peter; Elmann-Larsen, Benny; Bellini, Luigi; Stellato, Davide; Drummer, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure...

  16. Artifical urinary sphincters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small selected group of patients with urinary incontinence can be treated effectively with an artificial urinary sphincter. Since the fluid in the hydraulic system of this device is radiopaque, radiography is useful in its evaluation. An immediate postoperative radiogram should be performed to control the position and integrity of the system. It also serves as a useful baseline study in case of later complications. It should include radiograms both in the deactivated and activated state. A few cases of tube kinking may be overlooked when exposures in only one projection are used. Experience with 110 implanted sphincters is presented. (orig.)

  17. Photothermal laser lithotripsy of uric acid calculi: clinical assessment of the effects of cyanide production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichman, Joel M. H.; Champion, Paolo C.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Wollin, Timothy A.; Denstedt, John D.

    1999-06-01

    The mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is photothermal. Holmium:YAG lithotripsy of uric acid calculi produces cyanide, which is a known, thermal decomposition produce of uric acid. we review our experience with holmium:YAG lithotripsy of uric acid to determine if there is any clinical evidence of cyanide toxicity. A retrospective analysis of all of our cases of holmium:YAG lithotripsy of uric acid calculi was done. Anesthetic and postoperative data were reviewed. A total of 18 patients with uric acid calculi were tread with holmium:YAG lithotripsy by urethroscopy (5), retrograde nephroscopy (2), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (5) or cystolithotripsy (6). Total holmium:YAG irradiation ranged from 1.2 to 331 kJ. No patient had evidence of increased end-tidal carbon dioxide, change sin electrocardiogram or significant decrease in postoperative serum bicarbonate. An 84 year old woman had decreased diastolic pressure of 30 mm Hg while under general anesthesia. No cyanide related neurologic, cardiac or respiratory complications were noted. These data suggest no significant cyanide toxicity from holmium:YAG lithotripsy or uric acid calculi in typical clinical settings. More specific studies in animals are warranted to characterize the risk.

  18. Feline porphyria associated with anemia, severe hepatic disease, and renal calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Schnier, Jonathan J.; Hanna, Paul

    2010-01-01

    A 13-year-old, neutered male domestic cat presented with signs of weight loss, anemia, and hepatomegaly. Pathognomonic signs of porphyria were identified. Charcoal-like renal calculi and severe liver changes were observed, neither of which has been previously reported in association with feline porphyria.

  19. Drug-induced MR urography: the effects of furosemide and intravenous saline injection on MR urography of obstructed and non-obstructed urinary tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Ha; Lee, Myung Jun; Lee, Chang Joon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To determine the usefulness of MR urography technique for the evaluation of urinary systems in patients with obstructed urinary tract and normal volunteers with non-obstructed urinary tract after intravenous normal saline and diuretic injection. Three normal volunteers and 12 patients with urinary tract obstruction [ureteral calculi (n=8), extraurinary mass (n=1), ureteral tumor invasion (n=3)] underwent MR urography using a 1.0T scanner and a 2D non-breath-hold heavily T2-weighted fast spin-cho sequence. These acquisition were post-processed with a maximum intensity projection (MIP) algorithm. Two acquisitions were performed, the first prior to saline solution infusion following standard MR urography procedures, and the second, within 2-3 minutes of the infusion of 250 ml saline solution followed by 20 mg of Lasix administered intravenously. For this latter, drug-induced MR urography procedures were followed. In healthy volunteer (n=3) and those experiencing partial obstruction (n=4) by a urinary stone, drug-induced MR urography provided better images of the urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those in whom a urinary stone or tumor had caused complete obstruction (n=8), standard MR urography provided good images, as did drug-induced MR urography. In patients with a partially or non-obstructed urinary tract, drug-induced MR urography provided better anatomic and functional details of the kidney and urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those experiencing complete obstruction of the urinary tract, however, standard or drug-induced MR urography permitted very adequate evaluation of the tract, and drug-induced MR urography was unnecessary.

  20. Drug-induced MR urography: the effects of furosemide and intravenous saline injection on MR urography of obstructed and non-obstructed urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the usefulness of MR urography technique for the evaluation of urinary systems in patients with obstructed urinary tract and normal volunteers with non-obstructed urinary tract after intravenous normal saline and diuretic injection. Three normal volunteers and 12 patients with urinary tract obstruction [ureteral calculi (n=8), extraurinary mass (n=1), ureteral tumor invasion (n=3)] underwent MR urography using a 1.0T scanner and a 2D non-breath-hold heavily T2-weighted fast spin-cho sequence. These acquisition were post-processed with a maximum intensity projection (MIP) algorithm. Two acquisitions were performed, the first prior to saline solution infusion following standard MR urography procedures, and the second, within 2-3 minutes of the infusion of 250 ml saline solution followed by 20 mg of Lasix administered intravenously. For this latter, drug-induced MR urography procedures were followed. In healthy volunteer (n=3) and those experiencing partial obstruction (n=4) by a urinary stone, drug-induced MR urography provided better images of the urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those in whom a urinary stone or tumor had caused complete obstruction (n=8), standard MR urography provided good images, as did drug-induced MR urography. In patients with a partially or non-obstructed urinary tract, drug-induced MR urography provided better anatomic and functional details of the kidney and urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those experiencing complete obstruction of the urinary tract, however, standard or drug-induced MR urography permitted very adequate evaluation of the tract, and drug-induced MR urography was unnecessary

  1. Kidneys and urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies

  2. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  3. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spinal cord injury, or other medical problems Are pregnant and have a fever or are otherwise ill At the hospital, you will receive fluids and antibiotics through a vein. Some people have urinary tract infections that do not go away with treatment or ...

  4. Urinary Schistosomiasis: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad S. Barsoum

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the clinical manifestations of urinary schistosomiasis are displayed from a pathogenetic perspective. According to the prevailing host’s immune response profile, urinary schistosomiasis may be broadly categorized into cell-mediated and immune-complex-mediated disorders. The former, usually due to Schistosoma haematobium infection, are attributed to the formation of granulomata along the entire urinary tract. As they heal with excessive fibrosis, they may lead to strictures, calcifications and urodynamic abnormalities. The main impact is lower urinary, the site of heaviest ovi-position. Secondary bacterial or viral infection is common, any may be incriminated in secondary stone formation of the development of bladder malignancy. Immune-complex mediated lesions are usually associated with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni infection. Circulating complexes composed of schistosomal gut antigens and different classes of immunoglobulins deposit in the kidneys leading to several patterns of glomerular pathology. The latter have been categorized under six classes based on the histological and immunofluorescence profile. These classes have been linked to respective clinical manifestations and depend on the stage of evolution of the host’s immune response, extent of associated hepatic fibrosis and co-infection with salmonella or hepatitis C. Secondary amyloidosis develops in 15% of such patients, representing a critical impairment of macrophage function. Conclusion: The wide clinicopathological spectrum of urinary schistosomiasis mirrors the evolution of the host’s immune response according to chronicity of infection, bacterial or viral co-infection and, in the case of glomerulonephritis, to the extent of hepatic co-morbidity.

  5. Drug-induced urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Urinary incontinence can have a significant impact on patients' quality of life. Some causes involve physiologic and structural disorders of the urinary system. Other causes do not directly affect the urinary system but are related to difficulties in reacting to the urge to urinate or getting to the toilet alone, or an increase in urine output. Toxic substances or drugs are sometimes implicated. Drugs that affect one or more of the components of the normal continence mechanism expose patients to the risk of urinary incontinence. Some of these drugs act on the urinary system, particularly the autonomic nervous system; some increase urine output; some impair physical or cognitive function; and others cause urinary retention, leading to overflow incontinence. Drugs known to cause urinary incontinence are often prescribed for older patients, who are already at increased risk: sedatives, neuroleptics, antidepressants, cholinesterase inhibitors used in Alzheimer's disease, diuretics, alpha blockers used in hypertension or benign prostatic hyperplasia, and menopausal hormone replacement therapy. PMID:26240882

  6. El artefacto de centelleo en la caracterización de los cálculos urinarios / Role of twinkling artifact in characterization of urinary calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Alan; H., Koçoglu; S., Kosar; O., Karatag; A., Resit Ersay; A., Erhan.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La caracterización de los cálculos renales está cada vez cobrando mayor importancia como paso previo a la toma de decisiones terapéuticas tales como la nefrolitotomía percutánea (NLP) y la litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque (LEOC). En algunos estudios se ha publicado que el a [...] rtefacto de centelleo (artefacto de ecografía de flujo en color) puede ser de utilidad en la detección de piedras en el riñón. En este estudio se pretende dilucidar si la presencia o ausencia del artefacto de centelleo tendría alguna relación con la composición química de los cálculos. Material y método: En un estudio prospectivo se incluyó a pacientes con cálculos renales de > 0,5cm. Se examinó a 70 pacientes mediante rayos X, pielografía intravenosa, tomografía computarizada sin contraste y ecografía doppler espectral y a color. El artefacto se consideró de grado 1 si sólo ocupaba una parte de la sombra acústica, considerándose de grado 2 si ocupaba la totalidad de la sombra. Se trató a los pacientes con cálculos de menos de 2cm con LEOC, y a aquellos con piedras de mayor tamaño se les derivó a tratamiento con NLP. Resultados: No se detectó artefacto alguno (grado 0) en 11 sujetos, detectándose el grado 1 en 25 y el grado 2 en 24. Se encontró una relación significativa entre el aumento en artefactos de centelleo y tamaño del cálculo (p Abstract in english Introduction: Stone characterization is becoming important before decision of treatment such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Some studies have reported that the twinkling artifact (color-flow ultrasonography artifact) may be useful to detect u [...] rinary stones. This study aims to determine whether the presence or absence of the twinkling artifact is correlated with the chemical composition of the stones. Material and method: Patients with renal stones > 0.5cm were included in a prospective study. Sixty patients were examined with x-ray film, intravenous pyelography, non-contrast computerized tomography, and color and spectral doppler ultrasonography. The artifact was considered grade 1 when occupied only one portion of the acoustic shadowing and when the artifact occupied the entire acoustic shadowing was considered grade 2. Patients with stones smaller than 2 cm were treated with SWL and patients with stones larger than 2cm were treated with PCNL. Results: No artifact (grade 0) was detected in 11 subjects, grade 1 in 25 and grade 2 in 24. Significant relationship was found between the increase in twinkling artifact and stone size (p

  7. Duodenal diverticula demonstrated by endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) - their relationship to biliary calculi and gastrooesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 24 patients with duodenal diverticula, demonstrated by ERCP, food-stimulated gastrooesophageal reflux was demonstrated in 33% of the patients and biliary tract calculi in 81%. This is in contrast to a previous study (3) in patients with duodenal diverticula demonstrated by barium examination where gastrooesophageal reflux occurred in 81% and biliary tract calculi in 38% of the patients. Differences in clinical selection are believed to be the underlying cause to these varying results. (orig.)

  8. Aphallia with urethrorectal fistula, bladder and urethral calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Movarrekh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aphallia is a very rare urogenital anomaly with incidence rate of 1 in 30,000,000. It usually coexists with other anomalies such as cardiovascular anomalies which are incompatible with normal life, and therefore infants are delivered stillbirth or live for a very short period of time. Methods: We present an 18 months old boy with aphallia associated with congenital urethrorectal fistula, bladder and urethral stones. All stones were removed endourologically, recto-urethral fistula was repaired and perincal urethrostomy was performed. Results: The stones were composed of calcium phosphate colonized by klebiella pneumonia and proteus mirabilis. Urethrorectal fistula repairment was confirmed by cystography. Patient was discharged without a urinary catheter. Conclusion: In developed countries, management of such patients is to raise them as females. However, we must consider socio-cultural conditions, parents preference and patients tendency in management of aphallia.

  9. Probabilistic Models and Process Calculi for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Due to the wide use of communicating mobile devices, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have gained in popularity in recent years. In order that the devices communicate properly, many protocols have been proposed working at different levels. Devices in an MANET are not stationary but may keep moving, thus the network topology may undergo constant changes. Moreover the devices in an MANET are loosely connected not depending on pre-installed infrastructure or central control components, they exchange messages via wireless connections which are less reliable compared to wired connections. Therefore the protocols for MANETs are usually more complicated and error-prone. In this thesis we discuss different models and their underlying theories which will facilitate the verification of protocols for MANETs. Process calculi have been used successfully as a formal method to verify and analyze functional behaviors of concurrent systems e.g. free of deadlock, and they also have been extended with probability to verify quantitative properties e.g. “the sent message will arrive at the destination in 5 seconds with probability no less than 0.99”. In this thesis we extend the framework to deal with special issues in MANETs e.g. mobility and unreliable connections. Specially speaking, 1. We first propose a discrete probabilistic process calculus with which we can model in an MANET that the wireless connection is not reliable, and the network topology may undergo changes. We equip each wireless connection with a probability, and moreover we allow these probabilities to be changed according to some mobility rule to model the changes of the network topology. 2. Secondly we extend the discrete probabilistic process calculus in several directions: i) Generalize the notions of mobility rules which allow to change part of a network topology depending on an exponentially distributed random delay and a network topology constraint. ii) Introduce stochastic time behavior for processes running at network nodes. iii) A novel abstraction is proposed where several broadcasts may be simulated by one. 3. Various behavioral equivalences and their logical characterizations have been proposed to combat the infamous states space explosion problem of PAs, but unfortunately it is well known that the behavioral equivalences are strictly stronger than the logical equivalences induced by PCTL or PCTL*. We address this problem in this thesis by introducing a sequence of strong bisimulations, which will converge to the PCTL or PCTL* equivalence eventually. This work is then extended to CTMDPs. 4. Recently, MAs have been proposed as a compositional behavior model supporting both probabilistic transitions and exponentially distributed random delays. In this thesis, we introduce both early and late semantics for MAs based on which we define the early and late weak bisimulation respectively. We also show that the early weak bisimulation coincides with the previous variants while the late weak bisimulation is strictly coarser than them.

  10. Female urinary incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Abdool, Zeelha

    1980-01-01

    Urinary incontinence affects approximately a quarter of a billion people worldwide. It is associated with high economic costs, psychological morbidity and adverse effects on the quality of life. Despite this, few women seek help for this condition either due to embarrassment and unwillingness to discuss the symptom with their family member or friend or, acceptance of the disorder as a natural part of aging or being unaware that treatment exists. More resources are utilised in maintaining pati...

  11. Managing urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...

  12. Urinary Biomarkers of Oxidative Status

    OpenAIRE

    Il’yasova, Dora; Scarbrough, Peter; SPASOJEVIC, IVAN

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the etiology and pathology of many health conditions, including a large number of chronic diseases. Urinary biomarkers of oxidative status present a great opportunity to study redox balance in human populations. With urinary biomarkers, specimen collection is non-invasive and the organic/metal content is low, which minimizes the artifactual formation of oxidative damage to molecules in specimens. Also, urinary l...

  13. Cystic calculi removal in African spurred Tortoise (Geochelone sulcata using transplstron coeliotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Che' Amat

    Full Text Available The present report was carried out to manage a case of calculi in the bladder of African spurred tortoise. A 6 year old African spurred tortoise presented with history of anorexia and whitish discharged from the vent. Upon physical examination, the tortoise were 10% dehydrated, hindlegs muscle wasting and whitish materials came out from the vent. Plain radiograph revealed increased radiopacity in the bladder and also both right and left kidney. Contrast gastrointestinal radiograph showed less possibility of foreign body. Inconclusive radiological findings required the decision to proceed with exploratory transplastron coeliotomy by using dental burr. About 4 cm solid, hard whitish mass was removed from the bladder and both kidney was congested with whitish material. The findings were suggestive for urates crystal calculi based on histology result. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 489-492

  14. Toward the classification of differential calculi on $\\kappa$-Minkowski space and related field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Juric, Tajron; Pikutic, Danijel; Strajn, Rina

    2015-01-01

    Classification of differential forms on $\\kappa$-Minkowski space, particularly, the classification of all bicovariant differential calculi of classical dimension is presented. By imposing super-Jacobi identities we derive all possible differential algebras compatible with the $\\kappa$-Minkowski algebra. Embedding into the super-Heisenberg algebra is constructed using non-commutative (NC) coordinates and one-forms. Particularly, a class of differential calculi with an undeformed exterior derivative and one-forms is considered. NC differential calculus and twist leading to $\\kappa$-Poincar\\'e Hopf algebra for light-like deformation are proposed. Corresponding super-algebra and deformed super-Hopf algebra, as well as the symmetries of differential algebras are presented and elaborated. Using the NC differential calculus, we analyze NC field theory, modified dispersion relations, and discuss further physical applications.

  15. Continuation-Passing Style and Strong Normalisation for Intuitionistic Sequent Calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Santo, Jose Espirito; Pinto, Luis

    2009-01-01

    The intuitionistic fragment of the call-by-name version of Curien and Herbelin's lambda-mu-mu-tilde-calculus is isolated and proved strongly normalising by means of an embedding into the simply-typed lambda-calculus. Our embedding is a continuation-and-garbage-passing style translation, the inspiring idea coming from Ikeda and Nakazawa's translation of Parigot's lambda-mu-calculus. The embedding strictly simulates reductions while usual continuation-passing-style transformations erase permutative reduction steps. For our intuitionistic sequent calculus, we even only need "units of garbage" to be passed. We apply the same method to other calculi, namely successive extensions of the simply-typed lambda-calculus leading to our intuitionistic system, and already for the simplest extension we consider (lambda-calculus with generalised application), this yields the first proof of strong normalisation through a reduction-preserving embedding. The results obtained extend to second and higher-order calculi.

  16. Swapping: a natural bridge between named and indexed explicit substitution calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelzon, Ariel; Ziliani, Beta; 10.4204/EPTCS.49.1

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to the presentation of lambda_rex, an explicit substitution calculus with de Bruijn indexes and a simple notation. By being isomorphic to lambda_ex - a recent formalism with variable names -, lambda_rex accomplishes simulation of beta-reduction (Sim), preservation of beta-strong normalization (PSN) and meta-confluence (MC), among other desirable properties. Our calculus is based on a novel presentation of lambda_dB, using a swap notion that was originally devised by de Bruijn. Besides lambda_rex, two other indexed calculi isomorphic to lambda_x and lambda_xgc are presented, demonstrating the potential of our technique when applied to the design of indexed versions of known named calculi.

  17. In-vitro fragmentation of biliary calculi with a 308-nm excimer laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-Qiang; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Vari, Sandor G.; Daykhovsky, Leon; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1990-06-01

    We report the use of a 308 mu XeC1 exciiuer laser for- biliary stone fragnientation. The 130 nsec laser pulses are delivered through tJV grade fused silica fibers to the target stones inmiersed in normal saline solution and placed in direct contact with the fiber. Sixty biliary calculi, 20 cholesterol and 40 pigment, were fragmented in vitro. The effect of laser repetition rate, energy fluence, and fiber core size on stone fragmentation was studied. Fragmentation thresholds for biliary calculi of different compositions were measured. It was found that higher fragmentation efficiency was obtained with larger fluence, lower repetition rate and fiber of larger core. Our study suggests that the long pulse 308 nm excimer laser may be an effective device for laser lithotripsy with low threshold and good efficiency for biliary stone fragmentation.

  18. Proceedings Third Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi 2009

    CERN Document Server

    Ciobanu, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    This volume contains the accepted papers at the third Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi, held in Bologna on 5th September 2009. The papers are devoted to both membrane computing and biologically inspired process calculi, as well as to other related formalisms. The papers of this volume are selected by the programme committee due to their quality and relevance; they have defined an exciting programme highlighting interesting problems and stimulating the search for novel ways of describing related biological phenomena. In addition, we had an invited talk given by Luca Cardelli on a spatial process algebra for developmental biology. Membrane systems were introduced as a class of distributed parallel computing devices inspired by the observation that any biological system is a complex hierarchical structure, with a flow of materials and information that underlies their functioning. The emphasis is on the computational properties of the model, and it makes use of automata, la...

  19. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy versus ureteroscopy for distal ureteric calculi: efficacy and patient satisfaction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ibrahim F., Ghalayini; Mohammed A., Al-Ghazo; Yousef S., Khader.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and ureteroscopy (URS) for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi with respect to patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND MHETODS: This is a prospective study where a total of 212 patients with solitary, radiopaque dis [...] tal ureteral calculi were treated with ESWL (n = 92) using Dornier lithotriptor S (MedTech Europe GmbH) or URS (n = 120). Patient and stone characteristics, treatment parameters, clinical outcomes, and patient satisfaction were assessed for each group. RESULTS: The 2 groups were comparable in regard to patient age, sex, stone size, and side of treatment. The stone-free status for ESWL and URS at 3 months was 81.5% and 97.5%, respectively (p

  20. On the Expressiveness and Decidability of Higher-Order Process Calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Lanese, Ivan; Peréz, Jorge,; Sangiorgi, Davide; Schmitt, Alan

    2008-01-01

    In higher-order process calculi the values exchanged in communications may contain processes. A core calculus of higher-order concurrency is studied; it has only the operators necessary to express higher-order communications: input prefix, process output, and parallel composition. By exhibiting a nearly deterministic encoding of Minsky machines, the calculus is shown to be Turing complete and therefore its termination problem is undecidable. Strong bisimilarity, however, is shown to be decida...

  1. Tissue reactions under piezoelectric shockwave application for the fragmentation of biliary calculi.

    OpenAIRE

    Ell, C.; Kerzel, W; Heyder, N; Rödl, W; Langer, H.; Mischke, U.; Giedl, J; Domschke, W.

    1989-01-01

    The tissue reactions that occurred during piezoelectric shockwaves for the fragmentation of biliary calculi were investigated in 10 surgically removed stone containing human gall bladders and in acute (six dogs) and chronic (six dogs) animal experiments. Before and after shockwave (500, 1500 or 3000) in the anaesthetised dogs, computed tomography (CT), magnetic imaging (MRI) and laboratory tests were done; treatment was carried out under continuous ultrasonographic control. Shockwave applicat...

  2. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi, experience of first 100 cases at Jinnah Hospital, Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), where available, has become the preferred treatment modality for majority of renal calculi. Nevertheless because of low morbidity and strong patient endorsement there is a natural tendency of over using it. We report the experience of first 100 patients of renal calculi treated at Lithotripsy Center, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore between November 1993 and October 1995.. All patients were treated on an out patients basis. In this prospective study patients were divided into three groups depending upon the initial stone size (Group 1 2.1 to 3 cm). Twenty-eight patients were lost to follow-up. Analysis of data revealed a success rate of 89.5%, 65.8% and 33.3% in Group-I, II and III respectively at the end of 3 months follow-up. Morbidity was directly procedures to stone burden, while success was inversely related to stone burden. Complications requiring auxiliary procedures were seen in none of the patients of Group-I while in 17.1% and 25% of the patients of Group-II and III respectively. Failure of the procedure demanding for an open intervention was seen in none of the patients of Group II and III respectively. We concluded that selection of patients is key to successful management of the renal calculi with ESWL. (author)

  3. [Management of urinary incontinence after orthotopic urinary diversion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soave, A; Dahlem, R; Rink, M; Ahyai, S; Fisch, M

    2012-04-01

    Orthotopic urinary diversion (OUD) is performed in almost half of all radical cystectomies. This review presents an overview of the incidence, pathophysiology, and management of urinary incontinence (UI) after OUD. Daytime and nighttime UI are reported in up to 15% and 45% of cases after OUD, respectively. UI after OUD is more frequent in women. Stress incontinence is the most common reason for daytime urinary leakage, while an absent vesicourethral reflex with reduced external sphincter muscle tone is associated with nighttime UI. Conservative management has limited therapeutic value in UI after OUD. Surgical approaches include adjustable and nonadjustable slings as well as the ProACT® system in mild stress UI. Implantation of the artificial urinary sphincter system AMS 800® is the standard treatment for stress UI after OUD. Very limited data exist regarding results after implantation of newer artificial urinary sphincter systems such as the FlowSecure® and the Zephyr® ZSI 375 after OUD. PMID:22476800

  4. RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF TAMSULOSIN AND SILODOSIN IN MEDICAL EXPULSIVE THERAPY FOR DISTAL THIRD URETERIC CALCULI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Urolithiasis is a common condition that affects approximately 5% to 10% of the population and the incidence of Urolithiasis is rising. Ureteric stones account for 20% of urinary tract stones and about 70% of them are found in the lower third of the ureter at presentation. Recent literatures show the efficacy of various drugs and minimally invasive procedures for the management of lower third ureteral stones. We performed a randomized, prospective study to assess and compare the efficacy of tamsulosin and silodosin as medical expulsive therapy for lower third ureteral stones. SETTING AND DURATION: Department of Surgery, Hassan Institute of Medical Sciences/ Teaching Hospital, Hassan. from August 2013 to August 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prospective data of 60 symptomatic patients with unilateral, lower third ureteral calculi of less than ?10 mm were randomly allocated for out- patient treatment with tamsulosin and silodosin groups Patients aged ? 18 years with a single, unilateral, symptomatic, radio-opaque ureteric stone of 10 mm or smaller in the largest dimension located between the lower border of the sacroiliac joint and vesico-ureteric junction were included. For Group I tamsulosin a daily single dose of 0.4 mg for 28days and for Group II a daily single dose of silodosin 8mg was given. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were used on demand for both the groups. All the patients were told to observe passage of stone by filtering urine stream. The primary end point was the expulsion of the stone and the secondary end points were expulsion time, analgesic use, socioeconomic status, need for hospitalization, endoscopic treatment and drug side effects were documented. RESULTS: The stone expulsion rates in patients treated with tamsulosin and silodosin were 83.3% and 86.6% respectively. Mean stone expulsion times in tamsulosin group and silodosin group were 6.8 and 6.2 days respectively. Mean number of pain episodes were 1.5 and 1.4 in the tamsulosin and silodosin group respectively. The mean number of analgesic requirement was 1.0 and 0.8 for the tamsulosin and silodosin group, respectively with no significant difference. Overall, incidence of side effects was similar in both groups. Patients taking silodosin experienced a higher incidence of retrograde ejaculation but a lower incidence of side effects related to peripheral vasodilation when compared to patients taking tamsulosin. Sub-group analysis shows, higher expulsion rates but lower mean expulsion time and pain episodes for stones ? 5 mm with both tamsulosin and silodosin groups.

  5. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy and Transureteral Lithotripsy in the Treatment of Impacted Lower Ureteral Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Iranpour

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL with ureteroscopy followed by transureteral lithotripsy (TUL for the treatment of impacted distal ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 patients with solitary impacted distal ureteral calculi were assigned into 2 groups of treatment with SWL (42 patients and TUL (54 patients with a 6.9-F semirigid ureteroscope. Characteristics of the patients and the calculi, treatment parameters, clinical outcomes, and patients’ satisfaction were assessed for each group as well as efficiency quotient. Results: Demographic characteristics of the patients in the 2 groups were similar as well as the sizes of the calculi. The stone-free rate, 2 months postoperatively, was 71.4% in the patients of the SWL group and 88.9% in those of the TUL group. The efficiency quotient was 56% and 81% for the SWL and TUL groups, respectively (P = .004. Retreatment rate was 26.2% (11 patients and 9.3% (5 patients for the SWL and TUL groups, respectively (P = .027. Thirty patients in the SWL group (71.4% and 52 in the TUL group (96.3% were satisfied with their treatment (P = .001. There were no major complications in neither of the groups. Minor complications (pain and hematuria were more common in the TUL group. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, TUL seems to be more effective than SWL in the treatment of impacted lower ureteral calculi sized smaller than 12 mm, and patients are more satisfied with this treatment method.

  6. Urolitíase no alotransplante renal / Urinary lithiasis in renal allografts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adauto José, Cologna; Antonio Carlos Pereira, Martins; Haylton Jorge, Suaid; Silvio, Tucci Júnior; Rodolfo Borges dos, Reis; Ricardo Mesquita, Paschoal; André Luis Alonso, Domingos; Lucy Vieira da, Silva-Lima.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A litíase urinária é uma complicação incomum no alotransplante renal, a incidência varia de 0,02 a 3,4%. A maioria dos cálculos forma-se após o transplante, porém alguns podem ser transferidos junto com o enxerto para o hospedeiro. O tratamento desta complicação está baseado em alguns caso [...] s descritos na literatura. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de relatar a incidência da litíase renal no paciente com transplante renal, assim como a conduta adotada no HCFMRPUSP. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 953 pacientes submetidos a transplante renal no HCFMRPUSP, de fevereiro 1968 a maio de 2003. A idade média foi de 47,2 anos (35 a 63 anos). Em 09 pacientes, o rim foi proveniente de doador cadáver e apenas 01 doador vivo. RESULTADOS:Foram diagnosticados 10 casos de litíase (1,05%). Em 02 pacientes (20%) o cálculo foi diagnosticado no intraoperatório, em 01 (10%) no peri-operatório (5º. dia), os 07 restantes (70%) no pós-operatório tardio. Em 04 pacientes (57%) não havia sintomatologia específica, 02 (29%) apresentaram ITU, em 03 (43%) ocorreu elevação da creatinina sérica. De 8 pacientes com litíase no pós-operatorio, em 06 os cálculos estavam localizados no rim e 02 no ureter. Dos pacientes com cálculos renais, 02 foram observados, 02 submetidos a LECO, 01 a nefrolitripsia percutânea, 01 à pielolitotomia. Em 01 paciente com cálculo ureteral foi realizada pielovesicostomia (cálculo + estenose), no outro paciente foi feita a ureterorrenoscopia retrógrada. CONCLUSÃO: A urolitíase é complicação rara no transplante renal, a conduta terapêutica no pós-operatório tardio é semelhante à da população geral. Abstract in english Purpose: Urinary lithiasis is an uncommon complication in recipient of kidney allografts. The prevalence varies from 0.02 to 3.4%. The majority of calculi arises de novo in the recipient, however some of them are transferred with the transplanted kidney. The treatment relies on few reports published [...] previously. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of lithiasis as well as the treatment in an university hospital. METHODS: We analyzed 953 recipients of renal transplant undertaken in Hospital das Clínicas - FMRP-USP, from February of 1968 to May of 2003. The mean age of patients bearing lithiasis was 47.2 years (range 35 to 63 years). RESULTS: The prevalence of lithiasis was 10/953 (1.0%). Nine patients received kidneys from cadaver donor and 1 from living donor. The diagnosis occurred during the surgery in 2 (20%), within few days after transplantation in 1 (10%) and in the late postoperative period in 7 (70%). Seven patients had no complains, 2 had associated urinary tract infection and 1 a rise in serum creatinine. Of 8 cases with lithiasis in the postoperative period, the stones were localized in the kidney in 6 and in the ureter in 2. Renal calculi were managed as follows: watchful-waiting - 2, extracorporeal lithotrypsy - 2, percutaneous nepholithotrypsy - 1 and open pyelolithomy - 1. One patient with ureteric lithiasis associated ureteral stenosis underwent a pyelo-vesicostomy. The other patient with ureteric lithiasis was treated by retrograde endoscopic ureterolithothrypsy. CONCLUSION: Urinary lithiasis is rare in transplanted kidneys and can be managed as to the general population.

  7. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  8. [Urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Pilatz, A; Naber, K; Weidner, W

    2014-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are amongst the most frequent bacterial infections and therefore responsible for a great amount of antibiotic administration. UTI may present as benign, uncomplicated cystitis or severe, life-threatening urosepsis. Due to the heterogeneity of UTI the European Section of Infections in Urology (ESIU) has introduced a phenotypical classification, based upon the clinical presentation, the risk factors and the antibiotic susceptibility of the causative pathogens. Antibiotic treatment of the UTI varies accordingly. In uncomplicated cystitis antibiotics with low potential for collateral damage are recommended, which are mainly indicated for these infections. In uncomplicated pyelonephritis fluoroquinolones and 3rd generation cephalosporines are recommended. Antibiotic treatment regimens of complicated UTI depend very much on the antibiotic susceptibility according to regional resistance statistics. In urosepsis an early diagnosis and therapy is mandatory. In this regard a procalcitonin level > 0.25 µg/l has a good sensitivity and acceptable specificity in predicting bacteremia. Apart from the early antibiotic therapy successful decompression of the obstructed urinary tract is a predictor of survival. In children UTI are also amongst the most important bacterial infections, although symptoms are frequently not characteristic. The correct sampling of urine for microbiological investigations is critical. Due to the increasing fluoroquinolone resistance, infectious complications after transrectal prostate biopsy are becoming more frequent. Strategies to decrease complications encompass, amongst others, microbiological screening of the faecal flora for fluoroquinolone resistance, administration of alternative antibiotics for prophylaxis and alternative techniques for biopsy, such as perineal prostate biopsy. PMID:24700070

  9. Acute Urinary Retention in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zare

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Acute urinary retention in children is a relatively rare entity. There are a variety of causes that are poorly defined in the literature. We review our cases of acute urinary retention in children at three major pediatrics centers in Iran. Materials and Methods: Between 1996 and 2003, children (up to 14 years old who had been referred due to acute urinary retention were examined. Urinary retention was defined as inability to empty the bladder volitionally for more than 12 hours with a urine volume greater than expected for age or a palpably distended bladder. All data from the patients’ past medical history, physical examination, and laboratory and radiographic assessments were collected. Also, cystourethroscopy and urodynamic procedures had been carried out according to patient’s conditions. Patients with secondary urinary retention, including those with surgical history, immobility or chronic neurological disorders, mental retardation, and drugs or narcotics consumption were excluded from study. Results: There were 86 patients meeting the inclusion criteria, consisting of 58 males with a median age of 4 years (range 1 month to 14 years and 58 females with a median age of 4 years (range 4 month to 14 years. Etiologies were lower urinary tract stone in 27.9%, neurological disorders in 10.4%, trauma in 10.4%, local inflammatory causes in 9.1%, urinary tract infection in 7.4%, ureterocele in 7.4%, benign obstructing lesions in 5.8%, iatrogenic in 5.8%, constipation in 4.6%, imperforated hymen in 3.5%, and large prostate utricle, urethral foreign body, and rhabdomyosarcoma each in 1 case (1.1%. Conclusion: The most common cause of acute urinary retention was lower urinary tract stone in our pediatric cases. Ureterocele and stone were the main findings in girls and boys, respectively, and urinary retention in boys was twice as prevalent as that in girls.

  10. Managing urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, Sermin A; Mattoo, Tej K

    2011-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-stage renal failure. The relevance and the sequence of the renal imaging following initial UTI, and the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis and surgical intervention are currently undergoing an intense debate. Prompt treatment of UTI and appropriate follow-up of those at increased risk of recurrence and/or renal scarring are important. PMID:21409431

  11. Urinary incontinence in Norwegian nursing home residents

    OpenAIRE

    Ove Hellzèn; Ulla Romild; Ragnhild Omli; Liv Heidi Skotnes; Esther Kuhry

    2012-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a multi-factorial condition that has a high impact on older persons living in nursing homes. While urinary incontinence is common, only a small percentage of nursing home residents have an official diagnosis. Factors influencing urinary incontinence in this population are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of urinary incontinence in Norwegian nursing home residents and to study the factors associated with urinary incontinence in thi...

  12. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy versus ureteroscopy for distal ureteric calculi: efficacy and patient satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim F. Ghalayini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL and ureteroscopy (URS for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi with respect to patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND MHETODS: This is a prospective study where a total of 212 patients with solitary, radiopaque distal ureteral calculi were treated with ESWL (n = 92 using Dornier lithotriptor S (MedTech Europe GmbH or URS (n = 120. Patient and stone characteristics, treatment parameters, clinical outcomes, and patient satisfaction were assessed for each group. RESULTS: The 2 groups were comparable in regard to patient age, sex, stone size, and side of treatment. The stone-free status for ESWL and URS at 3 months was 81.5% and 97.5%, respectively (p < 0.0001. In addition, 88% of patients who underwent ESWL versus 20% who underwent URS were discharged home the day of procedure. Minor complications occurred in 3.3% and 8.3% of the ESWL and URS groups, respectively (p = 0.127. No ureteral perforation or stricture occurred in the URS group. Postoperative flank pain and dysuria were more severe in the URS than ESWL group, although the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.16. Patient satisfaction was high for both groups, including 94% for URS and 80% for ESWL (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: URS is more effective than ESWL for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi. ESWL was more often performed on an outpatient basis, and showed a trend towards less flank pain and dysuria, fewer complications and quicker convalescence. Patient satisfaction was significantly higher for URS according to the questionnaire used in this study.

  13. Urinary stone size estimation: a new segmentation algorithm-based CT method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The size estimation in CT images of an obstructing ureteral calculus is important for the clinical management of a patient presenting with renal colic. The objective of the present study was to develop a reader independent urinary calculus segmentation algorithm using well-known digital image processing steps and to validate the method against size estimations by several readers. Fifty clinical CT examinations demonstrating urinary calculi were included. Each calculus was measured independently by 11 readers. The mean value of their size estimations was used as validation data for each calculus. The segmentation algorithm consisted of interpolated zoom, binary thresholding and morphological operations. Ten examinations were used for algorithm optimisation and 40 for validation. Based on the optimisation results three segmentation method candidates were identified. Between the primary segmentation algorithm using cubic spline interpolation and the mean estimation by 11 readers, the bias was 0.0 mm, the standard deviation of the difference 0.26 mm and the Bland-Altman limits of agreement 0.0±0.5 mm. The validation showed good agreement between the suggested algorithm and the mean estimation by a large number of readers. The limit of agreement was narrower than the inter-reader limit of agreement previously reported for the same data. (orig.)

  14. Laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgery in the management of urinary lithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule, Arvind P.; Prashant, Jain; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To review the current role of laparoscopy and robot-assisted laparoscopy for managing urinary lithiasis. Results The contemporary indications for laparoscopic stone management are: anatomical variations in location or shape of the kidney (pelvic kidney, horseshoe kidney and malrotated kidney); coexisting pathologies, e.g. pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction; and stones in a renal unit with lower ureteric obstruction. The laparoscopic approach allows the simultaneous management of both the pathologies. Symptomatic stones in diverticula not amenable to endourological intervention can be treated with laparoscopy. Large impacted pelvic and ureteric calculi with a functioning renal unit are an indication for laparoscopic ureterolithotomy or pyelolithotomy. This review of current reports suggests that in a selected group of patients with complex stone disease the laparoscopic approach offers good success rates with minimal complications. There are few reports of robotic procedures in stone disease but existing data suggest that it is feasible. Conclusion Laparoscopic surgery is effective for complex renal stones and offers excellent stone clearance rates with minimal morbidity. Laparoscopic surgery is complementary in managing these stones. Robot-assisted laparoscopic technique of urinary tract stone management is in its early stage of implementation and randomised trials that compare robot assisted outcomes with other minimally invasive techniques are needed.

  15. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limitat...

  16. Urinary tract infection in newborn

    OpenAIRE

    F ?nci Ar?kan; Banu Çelikel Acar; Ülkü T?ra?; Aysu Tazegül; Y?ld?z Dallar

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common encountered infection disease in childhood. UTI of childhood can cause renal damage, and so these children should be examined and observed. In our study, 65 case with UTI in neonatal period was investigated regarding clinical and laboratory findings. Material and Methods: All cases performed by urinary ultrasonography (US) for confirming renal damage and DMSA scintigraphy was required after 6 months. Results: Elevation in CRP ...

  17. Litotricia extracorpórea en litiasis en pacientes con derivación urinaria / Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urolithiasis in patients with urinary diversion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Vega Vega; D., García Alonso; L., Parra Muntaner; J.M., Sánchez Merino; J., García Alonso.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Exponemos nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento de litiasis en pacientes con derivación urinaria. Hemos tratado 5 pacientes con litiasis en el tracto urinario superior tras cistectomía y derivación urinaria. El tratamiento se ha hecho con monoterapia por ondas de choque con el litotritor Lithostar M [...] odularis de Siemens. El tamaño medio de las litiasis fue de 1,95 cm (rango 1 a 3,5 cm). El número medio de sesiones ha sido 2,6, con 3961 ondas de choque de media por sesión. Hemos conseguido un 100% de pacientes libres de litiasis, indicando que la litotricia extracorpórea tiene unos buenos resultados en el tratamiento de las litiasis en pacientes con derivación urinaria, siendo el tratamiento de elección en estos pacientes, con muy baja morbilidad y alta eficacia, comparable a los pacientes sin derivación urinaria. Abstract in english We evaluate the efficacy of ESWL in the management of calculi in patients with urinary diversion. We treated 5 patients who suffered from urinary lithiasis after urinary diversion post cistectomy. We managed the patients with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in monotherapy with a Siemens Lithos [...] tar Modularis device. Mean stone size (long axis) was 1.95 cm (range 1 to 3.5 cm). The mean shockwave number per session was 2.6 per patient. Stone free result was 100%. We conclude that ESWL technique can provide acceptable results in patients with urinary diversion and can be used as first choice treatment in these type of patients due to its minimal morbidity and excellent results, equivalent to those achieved in patients without urinary diversion.

  18. Problems and Prospects of Neglected Renal Calculi in Pakistan Can This Tragedy be Averted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Hussain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Materials and Methods: From January 2010 to December 2010, a total of 2838 new patients withstone disease were treated at a tertiary care center. The medical files of 278 patients presenting withstone disease and renal failure were reviewed and compared with a cohort of 878 patients withnormal renal functions. Their demographic and clinicopathological parameters were noted andanalyzed.Results: Of 2838 patients, 278 presented with acute and chronic renal failure, 40 (1.4% withunilateral non-functioning kidneys, and 25 (0.8% with pyonephrosis and perinephric abscess.Management in 278 (9.7% subjects was divided into initial relief of obstruction by percutaneousnephrolithotomy and double-J stents followed by definitive management in the form of open surgery,percutaneous nephrolithotomy, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, and ureterorenoscopyto make these patients stone-free. Results of treatment showed that 72% of patients either recoveredtheir renal functions or became dialysis-free at the end of the follow-up period.Conclusion: Complications of renal calculi in the era of modern treatment can be prevented bypublic education and organizing courses for family physicians as well as opening new stone clinicsin the rural areas of the country equipped with modern treatment facilities and strategies forprevention of renal calculi.

  19. La incontinencia urinaria Urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Robles

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available La incontinencia urinaria, entendida como cualquier pérdida involuntaria de orina, constituye un problema médico y social importante. Puede clasificarse en incontinencia urinaria de esfuerzo, incontinencia urinaria de urgencia e incontinencia urinaria mixta, principalmente. Las proporciones de estos tres tipos principales de incontinencia urinaria son difíciles de establecer y varían notablemente según las fuentes, pero, podrían estar en torno a 40, 33 y 20%, respectivamente. Su diagnóstico requiere una correcta historia clínica y exploración física, junto con algunas exploraciones complementarias. El primer escalón terapéutico lo constituyen las medidas higiénico-dietéticas y las técnicas de modificación de la conducta. El tratamiento farmacológico es específico para cada tipo de incontinencia urinaria, utilizándose anticolinérgicos e inhibidores de la recaptación de serotonina. Por último, las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas tienen su papel ante el fracaso de los tratamientos conservadores o frente a incontinencia urinaria severa.Urinary incontinence, understood as any involuntary loss of urine, constitutes an important medical and social problem. It can be classified as stress urinary incontinence, urgent urinary incontinence or mixed urinary incontinence. The proportions of these three types of urinary incontinence are difficult to establish and vary notably between sources, but they might be about 40, 33 and 20% respectively. Its diagnosis requires a correct clinical history and physical exploration, together with some complementary explorations. The first therapeutic step consists of hygienic-dietary measures and behaviour modification techniques. Pharmacological treatment is specific for each type of urinary incontinence, using anticholinergics and inhibitors of serotonin reuptake. Finally, different surgical techniques have a role in cases where conservative treatments fail or when dealing with severe urinary incontinence.

  20. Palliative urinary conduit diversion in cases of intolerable urinary discomfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyndrup, J.; Sorensen, B.L.

    1983-12-01

    Fifteen patients with incurable gynecological cancers, all primary radiation treated and all having severe urinary discomfort due to urinary tract injuries were retrospectively examined after urinary conduit diversion. All have been followed-up until termination or until all survivors had lived for 6 months after the operation. Twelve of the 15 were discharged from the hospital, 10 of whom survived the first 6 months. Of those discharged 82% of the cumulated sum of postoperative observations days was spent out of the hospital. At the end of the observation period nine patients had been supplied with a colostomy as well, thus having double stomas. All six patients still alive declared in retrospect that given the choice again, they would still be willing to undergo the operation.

  1. FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAQs (frequently asked questions) “Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection” about What is “catheter-associated urinary tract infection”? A urinary tract infection (also called “UTI”) is an infection in the urinary system, ...

  2. A Surprising Attempt for Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Tunçk?ran; Mehmet Ekinci; Mustafa Hoscan

    2012-01-01

    Although there are various treatment types, majority of women with urinary incontinence do not seek care for that disorder. We present a case of woman who used a walnut for the treatment of urinary incontinence by herself.

  3. Urinary incontinence - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have urinary incontinence. This means that you are not able to keep urine from leaking from your urethra, the tube that ... urine out of your body from your bladder. Urinary incontinence may occur as you get older. It can ...

  4. Urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Hansen, Mark Berner; Andersen, Anders Møller

    2010-01-01

    In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results.

  5. Radiology of continent urinary diversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continent urinary diversions are gaining wide acceptance as alternatives to the ideal conduit following cystectomy. Clean intermittent catheterization of the pouch at regular intervals obviates the inconvenience of an external stomal appliance. A variety of surgical techniques have been described for continent pouches. These use the small bowel alone or a combination of the cecum and the terminal ileum. The optimum pouch protects upper tracts by preventing reflux, provides urinary continence, and has sufficient capacity to require infrequent catheterization. Simplified construction techniques for the common pouches are graphically presented, and methods are suggested for identification and study of continent diversions

  6. The Current Role of the Artificial Urinary Sphincter in Male and Female Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Islah, MAR; Cho, Sung Yong; Son, Hwancheol

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of the artificial urinary sphincter has affected the current surgical options for urinary incontinence. With its unique features, the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) has been an attractive option for the treatment of urinary incontinence regardless of gender. The current paper discusses the indications, contraindications, types of devices, surgical approaches, outcomes, and complications of the AUS in the treatment of both male and female urinary incontinence. A PubMed review...

  7. A comparative study to analyze the efficacy and safety of flexible ureteroscopy combined with holmium laser lithotripsy for residual calculi after percutaneous nephrolithotripsy

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Gang; Wen, Jiaming; Li, Zhongyi; Zhang, Zhewei; Gong, Xiuqing; Chen, Jimin; Du, Chuanjun

    2015-01-01

    A certain proportion of patients with initial Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) management require ancillary procedures to increase the stone-free rate. In this study, we aim to analyze the efficacy and safety of flexible ureteroscopy combined with holmium laser lithotripsy (F-UL) for treatment of residual calculi after PCNL by comparison with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL). Total of 96 patients with residual renal calculi (4 mm to 20 mm) after PCNL was enrolled from May 2010 ...

  8. A novel ureter dilatation method for replacing hydromantic perfusion pump during ureteroscopic lithotripsy in patients with ureteral calculi and ibroepithelial polyps

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tengcheng; Fang, Youqiang; Wu, Jieying; Zhou, Xiangfu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical value of a novel ureter dilatation method during ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy in patients with ureteral calculi and polyps. Clinical information of 86 patients with ureter calculi and polyps who underwent ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy was reviewed. A cavity-distention machine was used in 44 cases to inject normal saline for keeping clear operation view (cavity-distention machine-assisted group). A high handled water bag with artificial wa...

  9. Urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformations in children: A retrospective study of 34 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Chahed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association of urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation is not rare, their management poses challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between urolithiasis and malformations of the urinary system. There were 34 patients (19 males and 15 females with a mean age of 4.8 years (range, 2 months to 14 years. All patients had urinary lithiasis with a urinary tract malformation. Abdominal pain was the most frequent clinical symptom (38%. Urinary infection was found in 7 patients (21% and macroscopic haematuria was present in 10 patients (29%. The most frequent urinary tract malformations were megaureter (8 cases, uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (7 cases and vesico-ureteric reflux (8 cases, but its malformative origin could not be confirmed. Treatment consisted of lithiasis extraction in 32 cases associated with specific treatment of the uropathy in 27 cases. Postoperative outcome was uneventful in all cases. In fact, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is not rare. Indeed, 9-34% of urinary lithiasis are noted to be associated with urinary tract malformation. Positive diagnosis relies specifically on kidney ultrasound, intravenous urography, and urethrocystography. Treatment depends on the type of urinary tract malformation, localisation and size of the urinary lithiasis. Conclusion: In conclusion, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is a frequent eventuality. Surgical intervention is the usual mode of treatment.

  10. Ureteroscopic and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Rather Large Renal Pelvis Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Baghban Haghighi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the results and complications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL plus retrograde ureteroscopic lithotripsy using laser and pneumatic lithotriptors with SWL monotherapy for renal pelvic calculi between 2 cm and 3 cm. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 patients with 2- to 3-cm pelvic calculi were assigned into groups 1 and 2, including 22 and 33 patients, respectively. Patients in group 1 first underwent laser pneumatic lithotripsy and insertion of a double-J ureteral catheter and then underwent SWL 2 to 4 weeks thereafter. In group 2, the patients underwent SWL after double-J ureteral catheter insertion. The stone-free rate, complications, and cost effectiveness were evaluated 3 months postoperatively. Results: Five patients (22.7% in group 1, had their calculi completely fragmented after ureteroscopy and retrograde lithotripsy without any need for further SWL. In 9 patients (40.9%, after a single session of SWL, and in 3 (13.6%, after 2 sessions, fragmentation was completed. In group 2, successful treatment was achieved after 1 and 2 SWL sessions in 6 (18.2% and 8 (24.2% patients, respectively. The stone-free rate was significantly higher in the patients of group1 than those in group 2 (77.3% versus 42.4%, respectively; P = .01. The period of anesthesia was 23.1 minutes (during ureteroscopy in group 1 and 13.2 minutes in group 2 (during cystoscopy or ureteroscopy and insertion of ureteral catheter. No significant complication was reported in neither of the groups. The mean costs of the treatment were US $ 400 and US $ 370 in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: Ureteroscopic lithotripsy before SWL is a rational method for the treatment of the rather large renal pelvic calculi with fairly acceptable costs.

  11. Biofilm infections of urinary tract.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holá, V.; R?ži?ka, F.; Horáková, L.; Renata, R.; Horká, Marie

    Istanbul, 2008. s. 232. [International Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology /12./. 05.08.2008-09.08.2008, Istanbul] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAAX00310701 Keywords : catheter related urinary tract infections * affection of culture conditions * capillary isoelectric focusing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  12. Laparoscopic lower urinary tract reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K R; Clayman, R V

    2000-10-01

    In the past decade laparoscopy has been successfully utilized for both the obliterative and reconstructive management of urologic disease. We have seen not only an advance in the technology available to perform these procedures, but also an effort on the part of laparoscopic urologists to refine their techniques to allow them to perform more complicated procedures. In the lower urinary tract, the development of reconstructive procedures has been slow. While early interest in laparoscopy prompted several pioneers to perform the initial reconstructive procedures, the difficulties associated with these procedures at that time largely precluded their widespread application or adoption. Recently, improvements in the skills of laparoscopic urologists and the advent of instruments to facilitate suturing (e.g. EndoStitch semi-automatic suturing device, Lapra-Ty clips to replace intracorporeal knotting, and advances in staple and clip technology) have facilitated a renewed interest in laparoscopic reconstructive surgery of the lower urinary tract. At present, almost all types of urologic open reconstructive procedures have been accomplished laparoscopically: urinary diversion (e.g. ureteroileal loop urinary diversion and continent diversion), bladder reconstruction (e.g. ureterovesicostomy, bladder augmentation, bladder diverticulectomy, partial cystectomy), ureteral reimplantation, and, most recently, urethrovesical anastomosis following radical prostatectomy. This article will review the development of these procedures. PMID:11131313

  13. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiologist—a doctor who specializes in medical imaging; anesthesia is not needed. The images can show abnormalities in the kidneys and bladder. However, this test cannot reveal all important urinary abnormalities or measure how well the kidneys work. Voiding cystourethrogram. This test is an x-ray ...

  14. Defective urinary crystallization inhibition and urinary stone formation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauricio, Carvalho; Jody P., Lulich; Carl A., Osborne; Yasushi, Nakagawa.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nephrocalcin (NC) is a glycoprotein produced in the kidney and inhibits calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has been separated into 4 isoforms (A, B, C, and D) and found that (A + B) are more abundant than (C + D) in urine of healthy subjects, but the reverse is seen in human urine o [...] f kidney stone patients. To further examine the role of this protein in inhibition of urinary crystallization, nephrocalcin isoforms were purified from 2 genetically pure dog species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied healthy Beagles, known to be non-stone forming dogs, and Mini-Schnauzers, known to be calcium oxalate stone formers. NC was isolated and purified from each group. Urinary biochemistry and calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibition were measured. RESULTS: Specific crystal growth inhibition activity was significantly higher in non-stone forming dogs (9.79 ± 2.25 in Beagles vs. 2.75 ± 1.34 of Mini-Schnauzers, p

  15. Safety and Efficacy of Pneumatic Lithotripters Versus Holmium Laser in Management of Ureteral Calculi: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Valipour; Amin GolmohammadiTaklimi; Mohammad Mohsen Mazloomfard; Abdollah Razi; Mohammad Reza Razzaghi; Zahra Razzaghi

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare efficacy and safety of holmium:YAG laser and pneumatic lithotripter in the management of ureteral stones.MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred and twelve patients with 1 to 2 cm ureteral calculi were selected for pneumatic or holmium:YAG laser transurethral ureterolithotripsy (56 patients in each group). Ultrasonography and plain abdominal x-ray were performed for all the patients before the operation. The pneumatic lithoclast was Swiss LithoClast, while in laser lithotripsy, ...

  16. Ultramini nephrostomy tract combined with flexible ureterorenoscopy for the treatment of multiple renal calculi in paediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen Zeng; Zhang, Yanqiao; An, Feng; Wei, Ruojing; Li, Yu; Zhang, Haisong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the safety and efficacy of an ultramini nephrostomy tract, which we were using for the first time, combined with flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) in the treatment of pediatric patients with multiple renal calculi. Materials and Methods Twenty pediatric patients (age, ?6 years) underwent ultramini percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) combined with flexible URS. The group had multiple renal calculi, which were bilateral in 3 cases and were located in a total of 23 sites. The calculi were located in 2 calyces in 10 cases, scattered in more than 2 calyces in 7 cases, and limited to 1 calyx in 3 cases. The average patient age was 37.35 months (range, 14-68 months). The average stone diameter was 2.0 cm (range, 1-3.0 cm). In all patients, an ultramini nephrostomy tract was established under ultrasound guidance (dilated to F10) with simultaneous sheath placement. The flexible URS was placed into the collecting system during holmium laser lithotripsy. Results When ultramini PCNL was combined with flexible ureterorenoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy, the complete stone-free rate was 87% (20/23). The average level of hemoglobin decreased to 1.0 g/dL after the operation. No blood transfusions were needed. Levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and C-reactive protein were not significantly different before and after the operation. The average duration of hospitalization was approximately 4.85 days, and all cases were followed up for 6 to 12 months. No complications were found. Conclusions Ultramini PCNL combined with flexible ureterorenoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is a safe and effective treatment for children with multiple renal calculi. PMID:26175871

  17. Predictors of Success for Stone Fragmentation and Stone-Free Rate After Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy in the Treatment of Upper Urinary Tract Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Takahara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate factors affecting the success rate of stone fragmentation and stone-free rate after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL in treatment of upper urinary tract stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 121 patients with upper urinary tract calculi underwent SWL treatment. RESULTS: Success rate of stone fragmentation after SWL was 73.6% (89/121. In 89 patients who had success of breaking stones, 71 patients were followed up for the assessment of stone-free status, of whom 51 (71.8% patients were stone-free at 3-month follow-up. Among four prognostic factors, including body mass index (BMI, stone size, stone position, and hydronephrosis, BMI and stone position had a significant impact on the success rate of stone fragmentation (P = .04 and U1: P = .0108, respectively. Among five prognostic factors of BMI, stone size, stone position, hydronephrosis, and times of SWL treatments, stone size was the only factor with significant impact on the stone-free rate (middle: P = .0229. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that stone fragmentation and stone-free rate after SWL treatment for upper urinary tract stones can be predicted.

  18. Symptomatic small non-obstructing lower ureteric calculi: comparison of ureteroscopy and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andankar M

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the success, efficacy and complications of ureteroscopy (URS and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL for the treatment of symptomatic small non obstructing lower ureteric calculi. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective non-randomised study was conducted simultaneously at two urological referral centres, included 280 patients with symptomatic small (4-10 mm lower ureteric calculi (situated below the sacroiliac joint, with good renal function on intravenous urography. Patients were offered both the treatment options. One hundred and sixty patients chose ureteroscopy, whereas 120 patients were treated by ESWL. Standard techniques of ureteroscopy and ESWL were employed. Patients were followed-up to assess the success rates and complications of the two procedures. RESULTS: Ureteroscopy achieved complete stone clearance in one session in 95% of patients. In six patients ureteroscopy had failed initially and was later accomplished in second session improving the success rate to 98.7%. Two patients had a proximal migration of calculus that needed ESWL. Of the 120 patients treated by ESWL, 90% achieved stone free status at three months. Ureteroscopy was needed for twelve patients (10% where ESWL failed to achieve stone clearance. There were no significant ESWL related complications. ESWL was administered on outpatient basis, while patients needed hospitalisation and anaesthesia for ureteroscopy. CONCLUSION: ESWL can be the primary mode of treatment for symptomatic small non-obstructing lower ureteric calculi as it is minimally invasive and safe. Ureteroscopy can be offered to patients who demand immediate relief or when ESWL fails.

  19. Urinary Incontinence in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Ouslander, Joseph G.

    1981-01-01

    Probably 20% of community dwelling older adults have enough incontinence to limit some aspect of their lives. Affected individuals go to great lengths to deny and hide urinary incontinence, which can pose physical and psychosocial impediments to the enjoyment of life. There are differing pathophysiologies of incontinence and what helps one type may not help and may in fact worsen another. Problems of incontinence can be associated with major neurological damage or can be functional or iatroge...

  20. The menopause and urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, Søren

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to study the possible role of the menopause in adult female urinary incontinence (UI) etiology, using a cross-sectional population study comprising a random sample of adult females and self-reported data based on postal questionnaires. The study group comprised 915 women who reported continued menstruation and 636 women who had stopped menstruation after the age of 39; in total, 1551 women aged 40–59 years, from the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark. Ooophorectomized or hysterect...

  1. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1990-01-01

    This review presents reported cure and improvement rates of stress urinary incontinence in women obtained by different treatment modalities. Apart from the urodynamic findings, histological and histochemical changes of the pelvic floor may be clinically relevant to treatment in the future. Long-term cure and improvement rates achieved by non-surgical treatment (physiotherapy, biofeedback, bladder training, electrostimulation) are commented on. These rates range from 40-60% for physiotherapy and ...

  2. Bedside Diagnosis Of Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, John

    1985-01-01

    Urinary incontinence usually presents as stress incontinence, unstable bladder, incontinence of psychomotor impairment, or neurogenic bladder. While diagnosis may sometimes require specialist investigation, it is often possible on clinical grounds. The otherwise well woman with a long history of incontinence will have either stress incontinence or an unstable bladder; the differences are defined. The ill patient with a short history of incontinence associated with impaired alertness or mobili...

  3. Urinary tract infections in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgili, Gökmen; Yüksel, Mehmet Bilgehan

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of neonatal urinary tract infection (UTI) varies from 0.1 to 1% of all infants, and its frequency is inversely proportional to birth weight [1]. Neonatal UTI presents different features than those observed in other age groups for several reasons, including higher prevalence, male sex predominance, and most importantly higher risk of urosepsis [2]. As the symptoms of a UTI in a neonate, such as irritability, poor feeding and vomiting are generalized, the clinician should have a h...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections In Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Sivalingam, N; KY Loh

    2007-01-01

    Urinary tract infections frequently affect pregnant mothers. This problem causes significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Three common clinical manifestations of UTIs in pregnancy are: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli remains the most frequent organism isolated in UTIs. All pregnant mothers should be screened for UTIs in pregnancy and antibiotics should be commenced without delay. Urine culture and sensitivity is the gold standard in...

  5. Management of male urinary incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Katie C.; Lucas, Malcolm G.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of male urinary incontinence seen is secondary to sphincter weakness following prostatic surgery. As there is a rising elderly population and increasing numbers of surgical interventions for prostate cancer, incidence of male incontinence is increasing. Hence, management of male incontinence has become a subject of increased interest for urologists. Various non-surgical and surgical approaches have been suggested for this devastating condition. Non-invasive therapies are suggeste...

  6. Approach to urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Najar, M. S.; Saldanha, C. L.; Banday, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomati...

  7. Urinalysis in urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthai, J; Ramaswamy, M

    1995-01-01

    In 376 children, between 6 months and 5 years of age, with suspected urinary tract infection, 4 parameters of a routine urine examination were correlated with culture reports. In diagnosing urinary infection, the sensitivity and specificity of proteinuria was 79 and 80% respectively, that of bacteriuria 78 and 96% and that of pyuria > 10 wbc/hpf 80 and 82% respectively. 61% among the culture positive groups had all these three parameter present, as against only 0.5% in the culture negative group (P Pyuria > 10 Wbc/hpf had 98% specialty is diagnosis. In diagnosis UTI, Pyuria > 10 wbc/hpf was significantly more specific (82:66.6) than the conventional > 5 wbc/hpf. Isolated proteinuria, isolated pyuria, isolated bacteriuria and microscopic haematuria were not features of urinary tract infection in children. Urine culture can be more selectively done if the routine urinalysis is well interpreted. In the absence of dependable culture facilities, a routine urine examination can be reliably used in the diagnosis of UTI in children. PMID:10829949

  8. Use of traditional Chinese medicine in the management of urinary stone disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Miyaoka; Manoj, Monga.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the evidence-based literature supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine Kampo herbal and Acupuncture in stone disease management. Materials and Methods: Four of the most commonly used herbal components of Kampo medicine in the treatment of stone disease are described ac [...] cording to their in vitro and in vivo effects. We also reviewed the role of Acupuncture in urologic clinical setting as well as its proposed mechanisms of action and results. Medline database was assessed using isolated and conjugated key words (Chinese Medicine, Kampo, Chinese Herbal, Calculi, Stone Disease, Kidney, Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine). Articles were reviewed and summarized. Results: Herbal medicine has been proven to be free from side-effects and therefore suitable for long term use therapy. Its antilithic beneficial effects include increased urinary volume, increased magnesium excretion (Takusya), inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate aggregation (Takusya, Wulingsan and Desmodyum styracyfolium), inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation and hydroxyapatite internalization (Wulingsan). In contrast, acupuncture, has shown to be effective as a pre-treatment anxiolytic and analgesic during colic pain and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment, reducing the need for complementary sedative drugs. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine is promising as regards its role in stone prevention. An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each procedure differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics. Similarly, standardization of Kampo formulations and acceptable clinical endpoints (imaging vs. symptomatic events) is needed.

  9. Modifying factors in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Nobuyuki; Fukushima, Shoji; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Nakanishi, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Ryohei; Imaida, Katsumi

    1983-01-01

    N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) is a potent carcinogen in the urinary bladder of animals. The BBN model of bladder cancer is an excellent model of human urinary bladder cancer and has already led to a greater knowledge of its pathogenesis. In our studies, histogenesis and morphological characteristics of BBN urinary bladder cancer were analyzed in different animal species such as rats, mice, hamsters and guinea pigs and also in different rat strains. Papillary or nodular hyperplas...

  10. Older women and men with urinary symptoms.

    OpenAIRE

    Stenzelius, Karin; Westergren, Albert; Mattiasson, Anders; Rahm Hallberg, Ingalill

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to compare urinary symptoms and their influence on daily life among elderly (75+) women and men in a sample that previously had reported difficulties controlling urine (urine incontinence (UI)) and/or other urinary symptoms (OU). A further aim was to find underlying structures of urinary symptoms and to identify symptoms that had an impact on seeking medical help and need of help in daily activities (dependency). In total, 771 persons (352 men and 419 women) over 75 years answered...

  11. Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo, Hisano; Homero, Bruschini; Antonio Carlos, Nicodemo; Miguel, Srougi.

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent urinary tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are ava [...] ilable, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower urinary tract infections, including in vitro studies and clinical trials.

  12. Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Hisano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent urinary tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are available, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower urinary tract infections, including in vitro studies and clinical trials.

  13. Urinary tract infections in children. An update.

    OpenAIRE

    Zelikovic, I; Adelman, R D; Nancarrow, P A

    1992-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a common and frequently recurring condition in children. The susceptibility of the host, the presence of urinary tract abnormalities, and the virulence of the urinary pathogens are of primary importance in the development of the infection. Renal parenchymal scarring, hypertension, and renal insufficiency are well-established complications of the infection in children. To reduce the risk of renal damage, diagnosis and treatment must be prompt. The diagnosis demands r...

  14. Urinary Tract Infections in Female Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, S. Elmer

    1989-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are a common problem in female patients. Twenty-five per cent of patients with an initial infection will develop recurrent infections, with reinfection of the urine some time after the urine has been sterilized being the most common situation. Most adult patients have no urinary tract abnormality, with the infecting organism coming from the rectum and colonizing the vagina before colonizing the bladder. In children with urinary tract infections, there is a higher inci...

  15. Urinary tract infection in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based ap...

  16. Use of urinary gram stain for detection of urinary tract infection in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLAN, Sükrü; Caksen, Hüseyin; Rastgeldi, Levent; UNER, Abdurrahman; Oner, Ahmet Faik; Dursun ODABA?

    2002-01-01

    In this study, urinary culture, urinary Gram stain, and four tests within the urinalysis, leukocyte esterase, nitrite, microscopyfor bacteria, and microscopyforpyuria, were examined in 100 children with symptoms suggesting urinary tract infection. Our purpose was to determine the validity of the urinary Gram stain compared with a combination of pyuria plus Gram stain and overall urinalysis (positiveness of nitrite, leukocyte esterase, microscopy for bacteria, or microscopy for white blood cel...

  17. Can Urinary Nitrite Results Be Used to Conduct Antimicrobial Option for Urinary Tract Infection in Children?

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Mahyar; Parviz Ayazi; Mahta Froozesh; Mohammad-Mahdi Daneshi-Kohan; Ameneh Barikani

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to determine the relationship between urinary nitrite results and bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs in urinary tract infection of children.Methods: In a cross-section study 119 children younger than 12 years with urinary tract infection were evaluated in Qazvin children's hospital. Patients were divided into negative and positive nitrite groups depending on urinary nitrite test result. Rates of antibiotic resistance in the two groups were compared...

  18. Urinary disorders and female sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jaclyn; Sweet, Genevieve; Shindel, Alan

    2013-08-01

    Overactive bladder urinary incontinence and female sexual dysfunction are common in women, but often go unreported and/or untreated. All of these conditions can have a markedly negative impact on quality of life. There is a growing body of evidence that sexual and urinary problems are often comorbid and possibly synergistic in women. Increasingly robust evidence indicates that management of urinary concerns may enhance sexual function and quality of life. It is important for health care providers who see women to consider both urinary and sexual health concerns during patient encounters. Additional research attention to the interrelationships between these genitourinary disorders is warranted. PMID:23716031

  19. Hypercalciuria in children with urinary tract symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Fallahzadeh M; Mowla A; Derakhshan A

    2010-01-01

    We performed this prospective study to determine the urinary calcium to creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr) in children with different urinary symptoms. We studied 523 children in our neph-rology clinic with an age range of 3 to 14 years (mean= 8) and male to female ratio of 0.61. All the children had at least one of the urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, frequency, urgency, abdo-minal and/or flank pain, diurnal incontinence or enuresis), microscopic hematuria, urinary tract infection or urolithiasis. Fas...

  20. Fetal MRI of the urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of the urinary system is typically performed by ultrasound. Nevertheless, an ultrasound may be inconclusive in fetuses with renal diseases that result in anhydramnios or oligohydramnios. In such cases, and in other cases in which ultrasound is limited, further investigation with MR should be considered. In the following article, we will provide an overview of the most commonly encountered disorders of the urinary system and their appearance on fetal MR imaging. Fetal MR imaging can accurately diagnose a wide variety of urinary tract disorders and must be seen as a valuable complementary tool to ultrasound in the assessment of the urinary system, particularly in cases of inconclusive ultrasound findings

  1. Urinary Incontinence Treatments for Women (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com ©2015 UpToDate ® Print | Back Patient information: Urinary incontinence treatments for women (Beyond the Basics) Author Emily S ... synonyms Find synonyms Find exact match Print URINARY INCONTINENCE OVERVIEW Many women suffer from urinary leakage. Treatments ...

  2. JAMA Patient Page: Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urinary System Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women Urinary tract infections (UTIs)are common, especially in older women. Your ... your body through the urethra. What Is a UTI? Having a UTI means that germs (bacteria) in ...

  3. Retención urinaria aguda por cálculo prostático: a propósito de un caso / Debut endometriosis with urinary manifestations: report of two cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando S., Fernández Marichal; Rafael, Toirán García; Ahimara, Varela Álvarez; Orlando, Segura Roque.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: los cálculos prostáticos son frecuentes después de los 50 años presentando infecciones urinarias y dificultad miccional cuando son de gran tamaño. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de un paciente con un cálculo prostático de gran tamaño que provocó retención urinaria aguda, al examen dig [...] ital rectal apareció una próstata de consistencia firme que impresionaba crepitar a la palpación. Resultados: se le realiza extracción del cálculo prostático a través de incisión longitudinal de la cápsula prostática y vejiga en el Hospital Docente de Oncología María Curie de Camagüey, en agosto del 2014. El paciente egresó a los 7 días después del tratamiento quirúrgico, con seguimiento por consulta externa. Conclusiones: la litiasis prostática de gran tamaño puede ser causa de retención urinaria aguda, aunque su presentación no sea frecuente. Abstract in english Background: prostatic calculi are frequent after 50 years old and cause urinary infections and urination difficulty when they are large. Clinical case: the case of a patient with a large prostatic calculus which caused acute urinary retention is presented. When making the digital rectal exam, a pros [...] tate of firm consistency that impressed because it felt crepitant at touching, could be perceived. Results: the extraction of the prostatic calculus was made through the longitudinal incision of the capsule of prostate and the bladder in the Maria Curie Teaching Oncological Hospital of Camagüey, in August, 2014. The patient was discharged seven days after the surgical treatment. A follow-up care was established. Conclusions: a large prostatic lithiasis can be the cause of acute urinary retention, although its presentation is infrequent.

  4. Minimally Invasive Radiologically Guided Intervention for the Treatment of Salivary Calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe the technique and examine the value of salivary stone extraction using a minimally invasive, radiologically guided approach as an alternative to salivary gland surgery for the treatment of benign salivary gland obstruction. Methods: Eighty-six cases of sialolithiasis (83 patients) were treated by stone removal using a Dormia basket under local anesthesia and fluoroscopic guidance. Postoperative assessment was made clinically at review, by sialogram and by questionnaire. Results: Of 86 cases of sialolithiasis treated, in 55 (64%)it was possible to remove all stones. In 12 cases (14%) part of a stone or some of a number of calculi were removed and in 19 cases (22%) the procedure failed. The commonest reason for failure was fixation of the stone within the duct. Symptoms at review (range 1-49 months, mean 17 months) were relieved in 55 of 67 (82%) of cases where a stone or portion of stone was removed. Conclusions:Stone removal from the salivary duct system by radiologically guided,minimally invasive approach is a simple procedure with low morbidity and high patient acceptance when appropriate selection criteria are applied. These criteria are considered and recommendations made

  5. Identification of mineral compositions in some renal calculi by FT Raman and IR spectral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonannavar, J; Deshpande, Gouri; Yenagi, Jayashree; Patil, Siddanagouda B; Patil, Nikhil A; Mulimani, B G

    2016-02-01

    We present in this paper accurate and reliable Raman and IR spectral identification of mineral constituents in nine samples of renal calculi (kidney stones) removed from patients suffering from nephrolithiasis. The identified mineral components include Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (COM, whewellite), Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate (COD, weddellite), Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Hexahydrate (MAPH, struvite), Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrate (CHPD, brushite), Pentacalcium Hydroxy Triphosphate (PCHT, hydroxyapatite) and Uric Acid (UA). The identification is based on a satisfactory assignment of all the observed IR and Raman bands (3500-400cm(-1)) to chemical functional groups of mineral components in the samples, aided by spectral analysis of pure materials of COM, MAPH, CHPD and UA. It is found that the eight samples are composed of COM as the common component, the other mineral species as common components are: MAPH in five samples, PCHT in three samples, COD in three samples, UA in three samples and CHPD in two samples. One sample is wholly composed of UA as a single component; this inference is supported by the good agreement between ab initio density functional theoretical spectra and experimental spectral measurements of both sample and pure material. A combined application of Raman and IR techniques has shown that, where the IR is ambiguous, the Raman analysis can differentiate COD from COM and PCHT from MAPH. PMID:26495905

  6. Anti-Urolithiatic Effect of Cow Urine Ark on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.B, Shukla; D.R, Mandavia; M.J, Barvaliya; S.N, Baxi; C.B, Tripathi.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To investigate the anti-urolithiatic effect of cow urine ark (medicinal distilled cow urine) on ethylene glycol (EG) induced renal calculi. Materials and Methods 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups. Group I animals served as vehicle control and received distilled [...] water for 28 days. Group II to VI animals received 1% v/v EG in distilled water for 28 days. Group II served as EG control. Group III and IV (preventive groups) received cow urine ark orally for 28 days in doses of 1 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg, respectively. Group V and VI (treatment groups) received 1 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg cow urine ark orally, respectively from 15th to 28th days. 24-hour urine samples were collected on day 0 and 28. Urine volume and oxalate levels were measured. On day 28, blood was collected for biochemical parameters. Animals were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested, weighed and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. To calculate the percentage of inhibition of mineralization, simultaneous flow static in-vitro model was used. Results EG significantly increased urine oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea level; kidney weight and CaOx deposits. Provision of cow urine ark resulted in significantly lower levels of urine oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea and CaOx depositions as compared to Group II. (p value

  7. Urinary Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Ross, Ashley E; Sokoll, Lori J; Partin, Alan W; Pavlovich, Christian P

    2016-02-01

    In light of the overdiagnosis and overtreatment associated with widespread prostate-specific antigen-based screening, controversy persists surrounding the detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). Given its anatomic proximity to the prostate, urine has been proposed as a noninvasive substrate for prostatic biomarkers. With greater understanding of the molecular pathways of carcinogenesis and significant technological advances, the breadth of potential biomarkers is substantial. In this review, the authors aim to provide an evidence-based assessment of current and emerging urinary biomarkers used in the detection and prognostication of PCa and high-grade PCa, with particular attention on clinically relevant findings. PMID:26614026

  8. URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sivalingam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections frequently affect pregnant mothers. This problem causes significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Three common clinical manifestations of UTIs in pregnancy are: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli remains the most frequent organism isolated in UTIs. All pregnant mothers should be screened for UTIs in pregnancy and antibiotics should be commenced without delay. Urine culture and sensitivity is the gold standard in diagnosing UTIs. Without treatment, asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, maternal hypertension, pre-eclampsia and anaemia. Acute pyelonephritis can lead to maternal sepsis. Recurrent UTIs in pregnancy require prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

  9. Urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion in urolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Akcay, T.; Konukoglu, D.; Dincer, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Urinary glycosaminoglycan (GAG) excretion was measured in children with idiopathic urolithiasis (15 girls and 10 boys; mean (SD) age 6.2 (2.4) years) and in healthy controls (10 girls and 14 boys; mean (SD) age 6.8 (3.8) years). GAG excretion was expressed as a GAG/creatinine (mg/g) ratio and was evaluated using dimethylmethylene blue. In healthy control children, the mean (SD) GAG/creatinine ratio was 31.67 (12.76) and it was similar in girls and boys. The children with idi...

  10. Imaging in urinary tract infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Gleeson, F. V.; Gordon, I

    1991-01-01

    The relationship of vesicoureteric reflex (VUR) and renal scarring was studied in 94 children (188 kidneys) with proved urinary tract infection in a district general hospital. There were 61 girls and 33 boys, with nine girls and 17 boys aged less than 1 year, 31 girls and nine boys aged between 1 and 5 years, the remaining 28 children were over 5 years of age. All children had a micturating cystourethrogram and a 99mTc (technetium) dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan. Forty two of the 188 kid...

  11. Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because…

  12. Urinary tract infection in children - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days. ... If diagnosed with a urinary tract infection (UTI), your child will take antibiotic medicines by mouth at home. These may come as pills, capsules, or a liquid. ...

  13. [Plastic repair of the urinary bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar', G V; Bulava, V V; Panova, L A

    1976-01-01

    Clinical observations of 76 patients in whom an artifical urinary bladder was constructed from the rectum are presented. 52 patients were operated upon for cancer of the urinary bladder, total papillomatosis, a metastasis of uterine cancer in the bladder, cancer of the sigmoid with the urinary bladder involvement, sarcoma and cancer of the prostate with the bladder involvement. 17 patients were operated upon for extrophy, 7 -- for cancer of the urethra. An isolation of the rectum is followed by ligation of the upper rectal and vein. Fifteen patients died postoperatively due to peritonitis (6), ascending infection of the urinary tract (4), postoperative shock (I), phlegmon of the minor pelvis (I). In late postoperative period an artificial urinary bladder provides for reservoir and excretory functions. PMID:997414

  14. STUDY OF URINARY CALCIUM AND URINARY CREATININE LEVELS AND URINARY CALCIUM/CREATININE RATIO IN GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gestational hypertension (BP>140/90mmHg or pregnancy induced hypertension usually precedes pre - eclampsia (BP>140/90mmHg associated with proteniuria. Many tests to predict pre - eclampsia are coming up on the horizon. Hypocalciuria is one such test to predict pre - eclampsia which may be present before other clinical signs and symptoms. AIM: To determine urinary calcium, urinary creatinine and urinary calcium/creatinine ratio in pregnancy induced hypertension and in normal pregnant women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 100 subjects with gestational age between 24 - 38 weeks and divided into two groups’ viz. control group and study group . The control group included 50 subjects who were normal pregnant women and study group included 50 subjects who were gestational hypertensive patients. Urinary calcium was estimated by Ortho - Cresolphthalein Complexone (CPC method, urinary creatinine was estimated by Jaffe’s method in all the subjects. RESULTS: The estimated mean levels (Mean±SD of urinary calcium, creatinine in control group were 263.0±80.3, 0.95±0.16 respectively and in patients with gestational hypertension they were 86.2±19.5, 1.21±0. 37 respectively. The statistical analysis by unpaired t - test shows that the levels of urinary calcium were significantly decreased (p<0.001 and the urinary creatinine were significantly increased (p <0.001 in gestational hypertensive patients when compar ed to healthy controls. The mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio in control group were 0.28±0.08 and in gestational hypertensive patients were 0.07±0.03.The statistical analysis by unpaired t - test shows that the levels of urinary calcium/creatinine ratio were significantly decreased (p<0.001 in gestational hypertensive patients when compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a regular evaluation of urinary calcium/creatinine ratio after 20wks of gestation may be an effective screen ing method for impending pre - eclampsia and may identify population at risk to be included in primary prevention programmes. KEYWORDS: Pregnancy Induced Hypertension; Pre - Eclampsia; Urinary calcium; Urinary creatinine; Calcium/Creatinine Ratio .

  15. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nIn the name of God. Dear colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great honor to be here. Bladder dysfunction is serious enough to seek serious help. If you may know I am working in a private clinic which it is impossible to follow the patients so this lecture is based on unusual and rare cases who came to me. Bladder dysfunction (BD is common among 30% of young and old people who are suffering from it, however it is more common in old ages. According to a research, women are more involved as in men which prostate has a role is more common. The usual cases were: "n1. A young girl, aged 20, who had to wake up five times during the night to micturate. "n2. Also a lady said when I roll in bed I wet myself. "n3. A young lady who always had to use a pad. "n4. A man said I can’t use underground. "n5. I cannot go out since I have to micturate every hour. "n6. One said I have to wake up every hour at night. "n7. Young people say we have to micturate 3-4 times at night. "n8. A young man said as soon as I feel to micturate I empty my bladder before I’ve reached the WC and I wet myself to the ankle, how could I have a job? "n9. Some women wet themselves when they cough. "nIn order to know and diagnosis, the physiology of bladder function must be known. "nThe bladder is divided into two parts: "nThe Dom, which is innervated by Beta-Adrenergic. It relaxes the bladder in order to comply the urine. "nFrom the orifice of the urether and posterior ridge of the trigon to the bladder neck or internal sphincter. The prostatic urethra plays a major role in conti- nence. It has two parts,   "n1: From the bladder neck to V.M. this is enclaved by extension of detrusor muscles like a sleeve. These muscles contract during ejaculation to prevent retrograde ejaculation. "nDistal urethra from V.M. to the external sphincter which is covered by voluntary muscles. "nThe internal pressure of the urethra is higher than the bladder. If the pressure of the bladder rises, the internal pressure of the urethra should also increase. In women, the internal pressure of the urethra is short, and even if it has poorly developed they wet themselves when they cough. "nThe causes of BD: "nAs you see there are 17 causes, which 11 are related to the bladder. The bladder is responsible for retaining the urine and voiding. "nPathophysiology: "nThe bladder and sphincter should work in a coordinated manner: "nDuring the course of a day, an average person will void approximately 4-8 times. The urinary bladder is in storage mode for most of the day, allowing an individual to engage in more important activities than urination. "nNormal bladder function consists of 2 phases—filling and emptying. The normal micturition cycle requires the urinary bladder and the urethral sphincter working together as a coordinated unit to store and empty urine. During urinary storage, the bladder acts as a low-pressure receptacle, while the urinary sphincter maintains high resistance to urinary flow to keep the bladder outlet closed. During urine elimination, the bladder contracts to expel urine while the urinary sphincter opens (low resistance to allow unobstructed urinary flow and bladder emptying. "nFilling phase: "nDuring the filling phase, the bladder accumulates increasing volumes of urine while the pressure inside the bladder remains low. The pressure within the bladder must be lower than the urethral pressure during the filling phase. If the bladder pressure is greater than the urethral pressure (resistance, urine will leak out. "nThe filling of the urinary bladder depends on the intrinsic viscoelastic properties of the bladder and the inhibition of the parasympathetic nerves. Thus, bladder filling is primarily a passive event. "nSympathetic nerves also facilitate urine storage in the following ways: "nSympathetic nerves inhibit the parasympathetic nerves from triggering bladder contractions. "

  16. Urinary calprotectin and posttransplant renal allograft injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Borst, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144 incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r?=?-0.33; P<0.001). Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98; specificity, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.66). Higher urinary calprotectin concentrations predicted impaired kidney function 4 weeks after transplantation, as well as 6 months and 12 months after transplantation. When data were analyzed using the urinary calprotectin/creatinine-ratio similar results were obtained. Urinary calprotectin was superior to current use of absolute change of plasma creatinine to predict allograft function 12 months after transplantation. Urinary calprotectin predicted an increased risk both in transplants from living and deceased donors. Multivariate linear regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation.

  17. First case report of staghorn calculi successfully removed by mini-endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery in a 2-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Kazumi; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Okada, Atsushi; Mizuno, Kentaro; Tozawa, Keiichi; Hayashi, Yutaro; Kohri, Kenjiro; Yasui, Takahiro

    2015-10-01

    Less-invasive therapy for pediatric urolithiasis is available due to the miniaturization of equipment and improved optics; however, surgical treatment strategies, especially for large calculi, remain controversial. We describe here our experience of treating a 2-year-old boy with left renal staghorn calculi with a single session of mini-endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery in the prone split-leg position with pre-ureteral stenting and the directional enhanced flow imaging ultrasound technique. This is the first report of successful pediatric mini-endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery without any major complications. We believe this technique provides an important therapeutic option for large renal calculus in pediatric patients. PMID:26138252

  18. The Sound and Complete R-Calculi with Respect to Pseudo-Revision and Pre-Revision

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li; Yuefei Sui

    2013-01-01

    The AGM postulates ([1]) are for the belief revision (revision by a single belief), and the DP postulates ([2]) are for the iterated revision (revision by a finite sequence of beliefs). Li [3] gave an R-calculus for R-configurations ?|?, where ? is a set of literals, and ? is a finite set of formulas. We shall give two R-calculi such that for any consistent set ? and finite consistent set ? of formulas in the propositional logic, in one calculus, there is a pseudo-revision ? of ? by ? such th...

  19. Renal blood flow and metabolism after cold ischaemia : peroperative measurements in patients with calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Petersen, H K

    1984-01-01

    Peroperative measurements of renal blood flow (RBF), renal O2-uptake, and renal venous lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio were performed before and after a period of 30-71 min of hypothermic (10-15 degrees C) renal ischaemia in nine patients, undergoing surgery for renal calculi. Before ischaemia, RBF correlated inversely to arterial-renal venous O2-difference (r = -0.74, P less than 0.05, n = 9) and directly to the preoperatively estimated unilateral glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.76, P less than 0.05, n = 8). After hypothermic ischaemia RBF decreased on the average by 42% (P less than 0.01) immediately after re-established perfusion and 36% (P less than 0.02) 30 min later. In one additional patient, who had a short warm ischaemia (8 min), the flow pattern was the same. As arterial pressure remained constant, the reduced RBF signifies an increased renal vascular resistance. Renal O2-uptake and renal venous L/P ratio were almost constant, indicating no significant anaerobic processes being involved in the flow response. None of the patients showed any signs of reactive hyperaemia. It is concluded that hypothermic renal ischaemia may be followed by an increased renal vascular resistance even when signs of anaerobic metabolism are sparse or absent. This conception is in contrast to that gained from previous animal experiments where anaerobic processes are kept responsible for the changes. The mechanism behind the described response is unknown, but the changes are probably reversible.

  20. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium ?0.88 ?g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 ?g/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium ?0.88 ?g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 ?g/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium ?0.88 ?g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 ?g/g creatinine

  1. [Epidemiological aspects of the female urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmel, R; Novácková, M; Vlk, R; Horcicka, L

    2005-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is defined as an involuntary loss of urine, which makes social and hygienic problem. It is a symptom with different causes. According to the typical clinical manifestation it is classified as stress, urge, reflex and paradox urinary incontinence. Loss of small amount of urine related to the increase of intraabdominal pressure (during coughing, sneezing or running) is characteristic for stress urinary incontinence. Sudden and uncontrollable voiding with loss of greater amount of urine is typical for urge incontinence. Reflex incontinence means that urinary bladder is emptying without voiding. Paradox incontinence is caused by an acquired smooth muscle weakness of the bladder and it manifests with incomplete emptying and with growing residual urine. Prevalence of urinary incontinence increases with age. Significant increase of female urinary incontinence symptoms is found in fifth and sixth decade. Urinary incontinence in young women is more a dynamic than a permanent symptom but the postmenopausal incontinence obviously does not disappear spontaneously. Urge and mixed incontinence are less frequent than stress symptomatology (between 10 and 15%). According to the prevalence studies only 1,5 to 6% of incontinent women are looking for a medical help. Because the urge symptoms are more limiting, the patients with urge incontinence are searching treatment possibilities more often than those with stress incontinence. PMID:15807294

  2. Urinary biomarkers of diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta S

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Swati Mehta,1 Valerie Jorge Cabrera,2 Roshni Upputalla,2 Belinda Jim21Department of Medicine, James J Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA; 2Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAAbstract: The fervent search for an early biomarker for diabetic nephropathy is continuing because this entity has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in many countries. Novel biomarkers are being described in a high-speed manner. Using urine as a biological source is especially appealing given its ease of collection and its ability to serve as a direct conduit to the site of injury. We begin by briefly discussing the merits and pitfalls of our gold standard of microalbuminuria, and shift quickly to several promising nontraditional protein and messenger (mRNA biomarkers. The quality of the evidence for using urinary podocyte as a marker will be described. Exploring entire sets of protein in humans in terms of proteomics has been a favorite approach in the last decade because the technology of protein separation and mass spectrometry allows for the unbiased search for new biomarkers. Isolating urinary microRNA may become yet another preferred method because these small, noncoding mRNA that regulate gene expression are particularly stable and apt for biomarker studies. Finally, the latest development is perhaps the study of exosomes, which are nanometer particles derived from the fusion of internal vesicles to the plasma membrane. These particles harbor protein, mRNA, and microRNA that may be isolated for further study. With the advent of newer technologic approaches, we hope that these newly discovered biomarkers will be rigorously tested in large, prospective, clinical trials so they can be implemented in clinical practice.Keywords: diabetes, predictor, proteinuria, albuminuria, exosomes, proteomics, podocyte

  3. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and other lower tract urinary symptoms in patients with uterine myomas

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Wellman W; Bluth, Martin H.; Dorota Borawski

    2011-01-01

    To study the prevalence and risk factors of the overactive bladder, urinary incontinence and other lower tract urinary symptoms in patients with uterine myomas, female patients with established diagnosis of the uterine myomas presenting to gynecology clinic were invited to answer a self-administered questionnaire, which included questions on evidence of lower urinary tract symptoms [modified Overactive Bladder-Validated 8-question Screener (OAB-V8)]. Demographic data, relevant medical and sur...

  4. Electrochemical Immunosensor Detection of Urinary Lactoferrin in Clinical Samples for Urinary Tract Infection Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Ying; Sonn, Geoffrey A.; Sin, Mandy L. Y.; Mach, Kathleen E; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Gau, Vincent; Wong, Pak Kin; Liao, Joseph C.

    2010-01-01

    Urine is the most abundant and easily accessible of all body fluids and provides an ideal route for non-invasive diagnosis of human diseases, particularly of the urinary tract. Electrochemical biosensors are well suited for urinary diagnostics due to their excellent sensitivity, low cost, and ability to detect a wide variety of target molecules including nucleic acids and protein biomarkers. We report the development of an electrochemical immunosensor for direct detection of the urinary tract...

  5. Trans-Ureteral Ureterolithotripsy of Ureteral Calculi:Which is the Best; Pneumatic or Holmium Laser Technique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mohammadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Our aim was compare of two types of lithotripter include holmium: YAG laser and pneumatic one in transurethral ureterolithotripsy (TUL for the management of ureteral calculi ?1 cm.METHODS: 112 patients with ureteral calculi more than 1 cm were selected in randomized order for pneumatic or holmium: YAG laser transurethral ureterolithotripsy (56 patients in each group. Ultrasonography and intravenous urography were performed for all patients before surgery. Complete clearance and success was defined as the absence of any fragments on post operation KUB and ultrasonography images.RESULTS: Success rate was 85.7% in pneumatic group and 100% in holmium: YAG laser group (p =0.003. Stone migration up in the pelvicalyceal system was observed only in 8 cases of pneumatic group. No statically differences were observed in terms of patient’s age, hospital stay, and complications between two groups.CONCLUSION: According to our experience, for ureteral stone larger than 1 Cm treatment with ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy is a preferring approach with favorable operation time and hospital admission, and no more significant complication.

  6. Common Problems in the Elderly: Urinary Incontinence, Pain, Immobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Ye?im Akkoç; Jale ?rdesel; Kaz?m ?enel

    2009-01-01

    In this review, urinary incontinence, pain and immobilization problems in elderly people have been discussed. Urinary incontinence is a growing medical, social and economic health problem for the elderly people. Urge urinary incontinence and stress urinary incontinence are the most common forms of incontinence and they both affect the quality of life of the elderly. Assessment and treatment of urinary incontinence will significantly influence the elder’s quality of life. Many older adults con...

  7. Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tape is surgery to help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ... free vaginal tape is placed to treat stress incontinence. Before discussing surgery, your doctor will have you ...

  8. Conservative Management of Urinary Incontinence in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiena, Izak; Patel, Neal; Parihar, Jaspreet S; Calabrese, Marc; Tunuguntla, Hari

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence in women has a high prevalence and causes significant morbidity. Given that urinary incontinence is not generally a progressive disease, conservative therapies play an integral part in the management of these patients. We conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature to identify high-quality studies that evaluated the different components of conservative management of stress urinary incontinence, including behavioral therapy, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle training, lifestyle changes, mechanical devices, vaginal cones, and electrical stimulation. Urinary incontinence can have a severe impact on our healthcare system and patients' quality of life. There are currently a wide variety of treatment options for these patients, ranging from conservative treatment to surgical treatment. Although further research is required in the area of conservative therapies, nonsurgical treatments are effective and are preferred by some patients. PMID:26543427

  9. Urinary Tract and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... commonly used funding mechanisms, including diversity and small business programs Research Programs & Contacts Research program and staff ... and urinary tract disorders develop, leading to improved methods of diagnosing, ... trials are research studies involving people. Clinical trials look at safe ...

  10. Oestrogens and lower urinary tract function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hextall, A

    2000-08-31

    There is increasing evidence from animal and human studies that sex steroids have an important effect on the female lower urinary tract during adult life. Oestrogen receptors have been identified throughout the brain, pontine micturition centre and in the bladder, urethra and pelvic floor. Fluctuations in the circulating level of oestrogens and progesterone occurring during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy influence the prevalence of urinary symptoms and the results of urodynamic investigation. In addition, the menopause and subsequent oestrogen deficiency have been implicated in the aetiology of a number of urogenital complaints including incontinence, urgency and recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). However, the use of hormone replacement therapy for these conditions has given conflicting and largely disappointing results. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of oestrogen in the pathogenesis and treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:11006496

  11. Urinary phytoestrogens and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Tonkelaar, I., den; Keinan-Boker, L.; Veer, P. van der; Arts, C.J.M.; Adlercreutz, H.; Thijssen, J. H. H.; Peeters, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant substances that are structurally or functionally similar to estradiol. We report the associations of two major phytoestrogens, genistein and enterolactone, with breast cancer risk, using urinary specimens collected 1-9 years before breast cancer was diagnosed. The subjects were 88 breast cancer cases and 268 controls, selected from a cohort of postmenopausal women (n = 14,697) who participated in a breast cancer screening program. Mean levels of urinary gen...

  12. Breast Cancer Metastatic to the Urinary Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, Jennifer; Beckman, Edwin N.; Winters, J. Christian

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is common and has the potential to spread to multiple organs. This article describes metastasis to the urinary bladder. In most instances, breast cancer metastatic to the bladder is associated with other pelvic organ metastasis. In patients with known metastatic breast cancer, bladder screening is not warranted. However, if lower urinary tract symptoms persist, an evaluation of the bladder should be considered to rule out metastatic involvement.

  13. Urinary calprotectin and posttransplant renal allograft injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Borst, Christoffer; Bistrup, Claus; Marcussen, Niels; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix S; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144 incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months...

  14. Twinkling Artifact in Patients with Urinary Stones

    OpenAIRE

    H Rokni Yazdi; M. Mirjalili; M. R. Noroozi

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objective: To determine the usefulness of twinkling artifact in detecting urinary stones by sonography according to stone characteristics and sonographic features."nPatients and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 60 urinary stones which had been detected by KUB, IVP or CT scan. First of all, gray scale sonography was performed using 3.5-5 MHz phased array and data including stone size, location and posterior shadow were registered. Then, presence or absence of twink...

  15. Herbs In Treatment Of Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Wasamwar; Vijay S.Wadha; Gopal S. Gond

    2012-01-01

    It is known that urinary tract is very common source of infection and UTIs are second most common reason people visit their doctors each year. Escherichia coli is responsible for large majority of UTIs. UTIs is most commonly diagnosed bacterial infection in woman. Population at risk of complication include older woman, pregnant woman. Continuous antibiotics prophylaxis are used to treat and prevent recurrent urinary tract infections, frequent antibiotic use can result in vagin...

  16. An Unusual Case of Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Eric R.; Darius J. Unwala

    2011-01-01

    Urinary incontinence and hematuria are frequent complaints evaluated by urologists often with readily identifiable etiologies. Occasionally, an unlikely source is found. We present an unusual case of urinary incontinence and hematuria in an elderly female. Evaluation revealed that the complaints were due to a large cyst emanating from her right hip which was the result of a previous right hip arthroplasty in 1970 with three subsequent revisions. Her symptoms resolved spontaneously and the cys...

  17. Nosocomial urinary tract infections: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Valerio; Gaziev, Gabriele; Topazio, Luca; Bove, Pierluigi; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infections are a common complication in healthcare systems worldwide. A review of the literature was performed in June 2014 using the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) database, through either PubMed or Ovid as a search engine, to identify publications regarding nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs) definition, epidemiology, etiology and treatment.According to current definitions, more than 30% of nosocomial infections are urinary tract infections (UTIs). A UTI is defined 'nosocomial' (NUTI) when it is acquired in any healthcare institution or, more generally, when it is related to patient management. The origin of nosocomial bacteria is endogenous (the patient's flora) in two thirds of the cases. Patients with indwelling urinary catheters, those undergoing urological surgery and manipulations, long-stay elderly male patients and patients with debilitating diseases are at high risk of developing NUTIs. All bacterial NUTIs should be treated, whether the patient is harboring a urinary catheter or not. The length of treatment depends on the infection site. There is abundance of important guidance which should be considered to reduce the risk of NUTIs (hand disinfection with instant hand sanitizer, wearing non-sterile gloves permanently, isolation of infected or colonized catheterized patients). Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria can generally be treated initially with catheter removal or catheter exchange, and do not necessarily need antimicrobial therapy. Symptomatic patients should receive antibiotic therapy. Resistance of urinary pathogens to common antibiotics is currently a topic of concern. PMID:25451882

  18. Guideline of guidelines: urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syan, Raveen; Brucker, Benjamin M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the article is to review key guidelines on the management of urinary incontinence (UI) to guide clinical management in a practical way. Guidelines produced by the European Association of Urology (updated in 2014), the Canadian Urological Association (updated in 2012), the International Consultation on Incontinence (updated in 2012), and the National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (updated in 2013) were examined and their recommendations compared. In addition, specialised guidelines produced by the collaboration between the American Urological Association and the Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine and Urogenital Reconstruction on overactive bladder and the use of urodynamics were reviewed. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE) instrument was used to evaluate the quality of these guidelines. There is general agreement between the groups on the recommended initial evaluation and the use of conservative therapies for first-line treatment, with a limited role for imaging or invasive testing in the uncomplicated patient. These groups have greater variability in their recommendations for invasive procedures; however, generally the mid-urethral sling is recommended for uncomplicated stress UI, with different recommendations on the approach, as well as the comparability to other treatments, such as the autologous fascial sling. This 'Guideline of Guidelines' provides a summary of the salient similarities and differences between prominent groups on the management of UI. PMID:26033093

  19. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1990-01-01

    This review presents reported cure and improvement rates of stress urinary incontinence in women obtained by different treatment modalities. Apart from the urodynamic findings, histological and histochemical changes of the pelvic floor may be clinically relevant to treatment in the future. Long-term cure and improvement rates achieved by non-surgical treatment (physiotherapy, biofeedback, bladder training, electrostimulation) are commented on. These rates range from 40-60% for physiotherapy and electrostimulation but are considerably less after biofeedback and bladder training. Pharmacotherapy is unlikely to offer more than a placebo effect. Studies of a single surgical procedure usually report high cure rates. In making the appropriate choice of operation the best guidelines are the cure rates from comparative or prospective randomized reports. From such studies an abdominal retropubic suspension operation (cure rates after five years 57-78 %) is more likely to help the patient than an anterior colporrhaphy (cure rates 31-70 %) or a transvaginal needle bladder neck suspension (cure rates 39-61 %). In selected patients sling procedures or the use of artificial sphincters may produce excellent results (70-80 %). To estimate the results of different treatments urine loss should be assessed objectively and physical restrictions and hygienic and social implications taken into account. A method of pre- and post-treatment "performance scores" should be developed.

  20. Radioimmunoassay of human urinary kallikrein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a human urinary kallikrein, purified by means of Trasylol sepharose, it has been possible to develop a radioimmunoassay of kallikrein capable of detecting the substance down to a concentration of 0.5 ng/ml. The specific activity of the tracer labelled with 125-iodine using the Chloramine-T method was 30-70 nCi/ng of kallikrein. The antiserum titres for the antikallikrein serum were 1:20.000 up to 1:50.000. Human urine, submandibular and parotid salivae as well as pancreatic secretion in this RIA reacted in the same manner as the kallikrein standard solution. The kallikrein content in urine, as determined by the RIA was between 0 and 300 ng/ml, in the saliva between 400 and 2.000 ng/ml, and in the pancreatic juice between 300 and 12.000 ng/ml. Using human serum, only an incomplete immunological cross-reaction could be achieved. In human liquor as well as in animal preparation, no cross-reacting substances could be detected. (orig.)

  1. Urinary screening and urinary abnormalities in 3-year-old children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Takeshi; Hamada, Riku; Ishikura, Kenji; Uemura, Osamu; Matsuyama, Takeshi; Takahashi, Shori; Honda, Masataka

    2015-06-01

    In Japan, urinary screening for preschool children has been obligatory since 1961. The system was reconsidered and has been under review since 2012, because many problems in the system had been identified, and its usefulness was uncertain. In the process, the following were analyzed: (i) frequency of urinary abnormalities identified on screening; (ii) diseases identified from urinary abnormalities; (iii) clinical course of children found to have urinary abnormalities; and (iv) screening for asymptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) as a way of screening for congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. A computerized literature search was conducted, and study reports issued by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare study group, and data of Akita City and Chiba City were reviewed. The prevalence of abnormal results at the first urinalysis was high, but at the second urinalysis the prevalence decreased in the range 1/6-1/20. The prevalence of tentative diagnosis at the third urinalysis was similar to the school urinary screening results. Serious illness was not found in children who had hematuria alone. In contrast, diseases requiring immediate attention were found in children with proteinuria, although the prevalence of proteinuria was not high. The dipstick method for leukocyturia was inefficient. The importance of two consecutive urinalyses before detailed examination, the lack of usefulness of screening for hematuria in 3-year-old children, and the importance of proteinuria were confirmed. Screening for asymptomatic UTI using urinary leukocytes was very inefficient. PMID:25827222

  2. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p <0.01). Four patients had incomplete renal tubular acidiosis (iRTA), 3 had hypercalciuria, and 5 patients had hypocitraturia. The 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium was increased in the females with MSK (5.23 +/- 0.78 mmol) compared to the healthy females (3.49 +/- 0.29 mmol) (p <0.02), and increased in MSK patients with iRTA (7.32 +/- 1.45 mmol) compared to patients with normal urinary acidification (3.83 +/- 0.12 mmol) (p <0.01). The patients with iRTA had reduced levels of plasma standard bicarbonate (20.5 +/- 1.0) after fasting compared to patients with normal urinary acidification (23.8 +/- 0.8) and healthy women (22.7 +/- 0.6) (p <0.01), and reduced levels of 24-hour urinary excretion of citrate (0.93 +/- 0.25 mmol) compared to patients with normal urinary acidification (3.58 +/- 0.51) and healthy women (2.78 +/- 0.49) (p <0.005). A positive correlation was found between the degree of acidosis during ammonium chloride loading and urinary excretion of calcium (r = 0.71, p = 0.02), and a negative correlation between the degree of acidosis during ammonium chloride loading and urinary citrate excretion (r = 0.87, p = 0.001). The results suggest that defective urinary acidification might play an important role in the mechanism of hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia in patients with medullary sponge kidney.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Urinary tract injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As shown by literature data, abdominal trauma in children is responsible for 14% of deaths, whereas in adults for 10%. Although abdominal traumas in children can be severe and lead to massive blood loss, most children die because of accompanying traumas of the thorax and head. It validates the surgical rule concerning abdominal traumas 'investigate aggressively, manage conservatively'. Posttraumatic injury of the urinary system is not frequent in children and its specificity (compared with adults), depends on greater susceptibility to external aggressive factors. Blunt trauma is the cause of renal parenchyma injury and acceleration/deceleration injury affects the excretory system and vessels. Extension mechanism is the cause of ureter avulsion and/or thrombus formation in stretched renal vessels- it is characteristic in children with non-accidental traumas. Bladder and urethra injuries are rare in children. During car accidents, a rupture of full bladder (seat belt injury) or bladder perforation by fractured bones of the pelvis is possible. We analyzed all hospitalizations of abdominal trauma in our surgical ward in the year 2004 (70 cases). Renal injuries were found in 6 children (8.6%). Thanks to five-year clinical experience of our hospital, on the average only 1-2 cases per annum needed operation. The management of renal injuries involves first of all conservative treatment. This publication has educational character and may serve as a valuable reminder of the useful knowledge in daily cooperation between the emergency room, radiology department and surgical ward. Based on available literature from recent few years, we quote suggested renal injuries classifications and procedures.This publication contains only images from our department of radiology archives. Clinical symptoms are often not appropriate for blunt abdominal traumas diagnosis. Owing to clinical status, which is difficult to interpret, fast and complete radiological diagnosis is necessary for proper treatment of children after abdominal trauma. Further complications of renal injuries may affect the further growth of the child. (author)

  4. [Diagnostic algorithms in female urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlk, R; Chmel, R

    2005-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is frequent problem with significantly negative impact on the quality of life. The correct plan of examination leads to the proposal of the appropriate treatment. The history, correct judgment of symptoms of incontinence and detailed gynaecological examination are important at the beginning of the diagnostic process. Negative urine cultivation is necessary condition for the invasive investigation of the urinary tract. Special questionnaires, micturition diary and clinical tests belong to the physical examination. The pad-weight test is based on the measurement of weight gain of absorbent pads during a test period under standardised conditions. Q-tip test (cotton swab test) measures the degree of mobility of urethra and bladder neck. Most of the clinical tests can be replaced by the ultrasound examination (introital or perineal approach), which helps to appreciate the vigour of urethra, bladder neck and vagina during the resting period and at stress. Urodynamic examination records pressure changes during the bladder filling, pressure gradients in urethra and the velocity of the urinary flow. It should be carried out when antiincontinence surgery is planned or when conservative therapy failed. Urodynamic examination helps to distinguish between stress and urge type of incontinence. Urethrocystoscopy is indicated for the diagnosis of the recurrent urinary infections, urge incontinence when structural pathologies of the urinary bladder are suspected, iatrogenic incontinence or postoperative complications. PMID:15807295

  5. Diagnosis and imaging in urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Truls Erik Berklund

    2002-01-01

    The aim of imaging in urinary tract infection is to detect conditions that must be treated in order to avoid immediate deterioration or recurrences, and probable long-term kidney damage. In newborns identified with hydronephrosis during pregnancy or by neonatal screening, vesicoureteral reflux and renal scarring are congenital and not caused by infection. Most of these patients are male and the vesicoureteral reflux is of a higher grade than that detected in girls having had urinary tract infection. In children with urinary tract infection, several authors advocate a more selective policy and recommend imaging only in those children who are at risk for developing renal damage. In adult females no imaging is necessary in cystitis, whereas ultrasonography and plain films are recommended in acute pyelonephritis. Because uncomplicated urinary tract infection in men is rare, diagnostic evaluation including imaging should be started early in order to rule out complicating factors within the urinary tract. The role of imaging in prostatitis, vesiculitis, epididymitis and orchitis is primarily to rule out abscess formation, but also to exclude testicular malignancies.

  6. Urinary infection before and after prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmand Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of pre and post prostatectomy related urinary tract in-fection and its correlation with peri-operative events, we studied 120 patients who underwent pros-tatectomy due to benign prostatic hypertrophy from September 2005 to September 2006. Urine cultures were performed before the operations, after a week, and three months later. Data including prostate volume, prostatic specific antigen (PSA, post voiding residue (PVR and histopathological reports as well as the duration of urinary leak, bladder irrigation, hospitalization, and catheterization were studied. The mean age of the studied patients was 70.5 ± 8 years. Significant preoperative bac-teriuria was revealed in 18 (15% patients of whom 14(77% patients developed negative cultures following the operation. Postoperative bacteriuria was detected in 9(7.5% patients who negative urine cultures preoperatively. Pre and post operative micro-organisms were different in the majority of the cases. The mean PSA was higher in patients with a positive history of infection. Following prostatectomy, patients with positive urine cultures had significantly longer urinary leakage, cathe-terization, and hospital stays compared with those who remained culture negative. We conclude that the incidence of positive urine culture pri-prostatectomy for BPH can be improved by appropriate antibiotic therapy, and the risk factors for postoperative urinary infection include preoperative infec-tion, prolonged urinary leakage, catheterization, and hospital stay. The elevated PSA may be a risk factor.

  7. Efect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Hypericum Perforatum L. Leaves on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Kidney Calculi in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khalili

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum leaves on the kidney calculi in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Groups 2, 3, and 4 received ethylene glycol (EG 1% + ammonium chloride (0.5%-added drinking water as a stone inducer. The H. Perforatum solution was fed at the same time of EG application and was repeated once for two days until the end of the experimental period. Group 1 (control; n = 10 was provided free access to food and normal drinking water. Group 2 (EG; n = 12 received EG-ammonium chloride-added drinking water and was fed with normal chow. Groups 3 and 4 (n = 15, as EG-treatment groups, received H. Perforatum in low (300 mg/kg and high (500 mg/kg doses, respectively. After 28 days, the kidneys were removed and prepared for histologic evaluation of calcium oxalate deposits. RESULTS: Urine level of free calcium in groups EG and EG + H. perforatum (300 mg/kg and phosphorous in EG + H. perforatum (500 mg/kg significantly decreased compared to controls (P < .01; P < .05; and P < .05, respectively. Treatment of the rats with high dose of H. Perforatum (500 mg/kg markedly reduced decrementing effect of EG on serum level of free calcium (P < .05. Histological experiments showed that chronic feeding of H. perforatum (300 and 500 mg/kg, orally could significantly reduce the size and number of calcium oxalate deposits in EG group. CONCLUSION: Chronic treatment of rats with hydroalcoholic extract of H. perforatum reduced the size and number of calcium oxalate deposits in EG-induced calculi.

  8. Validity of urinary monoamine assay sales under the “spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Marty Hinz1, Alvin Stein2, Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, Neuro Research Clinics Inc, Cape Coral, FL; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL; 3Laboratory, Fairview Regional Medical Center-Mesabi, Hibbing, MN, USAAbstract: Spot baseline urinary monoamine assays have been used in medicine for over 50 years as a screening test for monoamine-secreting tumors, such as pheochromocytoma and carcinoid syndrome. In these disease states, when the result of a spot baseline monoamine assay is above the specific value set by the laboratory, it is an indication to obtain a 24-hour urine sample to make a definitive diagnosis. There are no defined applications where spot baseline urinary monoamine assays can be used to diagnose disease or other states directly. No peer-reviewed published original research exists which demonstrates that these assays are valid in the treatment of individual patients in the clinical setting. Since 2001, urinary monoamine assay sales have been promoted for numerous applications under the “spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model”. There is no published peer-reviewed original research that defines the scientific foundation upon which the claims for these assays are made. On the contrary, several articles have been published that discredit various aspects of the model. To fill the void, this manuscript is a comprehensive review of the scientific foundation and claims put forth by laboratories selling urinary monoamine assays under the spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model.Keywords: monoamine, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, urine, urinary

  9. Urinary infections in children: main radiological alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present 120 cases of urinary tract infection in children. Radiological evaluation of every child with urinary tract infection included both excretory urography and voiding cyst urethrography. Fifty eight percent of the children were found to have urinary anomalies. Reflux was present in 26.6% of the cases and congenital anomalies in 25%. Among the latter, duplication of collecting system and pyeloureteral and ureterovesical stenosis were the more frequent findings. Hypo tony of the collecting systems, loss of cortical renal tissue and irregularities of the renal contour were the main radiological signs. The delay in performing the radiological evaluation (46% of the children presenting radiological abnormalities were examined only one year after the beginning of the symptoms) contributed to a greater incidence of irreversible lesions, showing therefore that it should be done immediately. A scheme for radiological investigation is also proposed. (author)

  10. Herbs In Treatment Of Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Wasamwar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that urinary tract is very common source of infection and UTIs are second most common reason people visit their doctors each year. Escherichia coli is responsible for large majority of UTIs. UTIs is most commonly diagnosed bacterial infection in woman. Population at risk of complication include older woman, pregnant woman. Continuous antibiotics prophylaxis are used to treat and prevent recurrent urinary tract infections, frequent antibiotic use can result in vaginal and intestinal dysbiosis as well as antibiotic resistance. Thus, it is desirable to seek alternative methods of prevention and treatment of simple UTIs. Few herbal antimicrobial agents Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry, Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry; Blueberry, Berberine, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (Bearberry are proved to be very effective in preventing and treating urinary tract infections.

  11. Binary Vegetative Management of the Lower Urinary Tract Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim B. Berdichevskii

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the neurophysiology of the bladder and the lower urinary tract function and discuss logical concepts for the development of novel drug therapy for patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  12. Radiology of trauma to kidney and lower urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents are trauma to kidney, imaging of kidney trauma, management of renal trauma, delayed complications, trauma to the lower urinary tract, trauma to urinary bladder, radiologic diagnosis, ethiology of blunt bladder injury, urethal injury (6 refs.)

  13. Parental reporting of smelly urine and urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    Struthers, S; J. SCANLON; Parker, K; Goddard, J; Hallett, R.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Parents often report that young children have "smelly urine" or a particular urinary odour. There is little evidence that these observations are relevant to the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI).

  14. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  15. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L.R.; Phair, J.P.; Seki, Masafumi; Hamilton, H.B.; Nefzger, M.D.

    1964-08-19

    The present study was conducted at ABCC on a sample of Hiroshima residents systematically seleced for determining the influence on general health status of exposure to the atomic bomb of 1945. A survey for urinary infections was taken on persons in the sample examined in the ABCC clinic over a 1-year period: approximately 3000 women and 2000 men. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of urinary infection and to study the relation between bacteriuria and various aspects of the general examination, particularly blood pressure. In addition, the rates of urinary tract infection in the clinic were compared with the rates of chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy. Results showed that infections were much more common in women than in men and rose with age in both sexes. The greatest increase in the prevalence was found in women age 60 years and over was due to coliform bacteria in all but a few instances. There was no difference in hematuria, glycosuria, diabetes, serum cholesterol, blood groups, electrocardiograms, audiometry, vibrometry, hemoglobin levels or height-weight ratios. Blood pressure is higher in infected women as compared with noninfected women and the finding of higher rates for cardiac enlargement suggests that this small difference in blood pressures may have biological significance. However, the data do not permit a conclusion as to whether the urinary infections were responsible for the higher blood pressure levels, or whether the higher blood pressure levels increased the frequency of detectable infection. The difference between the clinical rates of urinary infection in men and women, and the pathological diagnosis of pyelonephritis in the same population, supports a previous suggestion that much of what is called pyelonephritis at autopsy is not due to urinary tract infection. 27 references, 2 figures, 10 tables.

  16. Scintigraphic detection of urinary leakage after kidney transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLange, E.E.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; Tjon Pian Gi-van Loon, C.E.; Lobatto, S.; van Hooff, J.P.

    1982-02-01

    Urinary leakage after kidney transplantation is a serious complication. In a retrospective study we analyzed 8 relevant cases of 14 patients with urinary leakage. In these eight patients kidney scintigraphy indicated the presence of urinary extravasation. Compared with other imaging modalities such as IV urography, cystography and ultrasound, scintigraphy seems to be an easy and safe method to detect urinary leakage. Moreover scintigraphic examination may suggest leakage, while this may not be clinically evident or suspected.

  17. Scintigraphic detection of urinary leakage after kidney transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary leakage after kidney transplantation is a serious complication. In a retrospective study we analyzed 8 relevant cases of 14 patients with urinary leakage. In these eight patients kidney scintigraphy indicated the presence of urinary extravasation. Compared with other imaging modalities such as IV urography, cystography and ultrasound, scintigraphy seems to be an easy and safe method to detect urinary leakage. Moreover scintigraphic examination may suggest leakage, while this may not be clinically evident or suspected. (orig.)

  18. Urinary Tract Infections and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Renal Transplant Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoub, Rabi; Akl, Nader Kassis

    2011-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infection are common complications after kidney transplantation. In this population, if urinary tract infection occurred in the first six months post procedure, it carries a grave impact on both graft and patient survival. Renal transplant recipients with urinary tract infection are often clinically asymptomatic as a consequence of immunosuppression. Urinary tract infection, however, may progress to acute pyelonephritis, bacteremia and the full blown...

  19. Current Trends in the Management of Difficult Urinary Catheterizations

    OpenAIRE

    Paul A Willette; Scott K Coffield

    2012-01-01

    Routine urinary catheter placement may cause trauma and poses a risk of infection. Male catheterization, in particular, can be difficult, especially in patients with enlarged prostate glands or other potentially obstructive conditions in the lower urinary tract. Solutions to problematic urinary catheterization are not well known and when difficult catheterization occurs, the risk of failed catheterization and concomitant complications increase. Repeated and unsuccessful attempts at urinary ca...

  20. Models of Inflammation of the Lower Urinary Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Bjorling, Dale E; Wang, Zun-Yi; Bushman, Wade

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation of the lower urinary tract occurs frequently in people. The causes remain obscure, with the exception of urinary tract infection. Animal models have proven useful for investigating and assessing mechanisms underlying symptoms associated with lower urinary tract inflammation and options for suppressing these symptoms. This review will discuss various animal models of lower urinary tract inflammation, including feline spontaneous (interstitial) cystitis, neurogenic cystitis, autoim...

  1. The innate immune response during urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, John David; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Becknell, Brian; Watson, Joshua; David S. Hains

    2013-01-01

    Despite its proximity to the fecal flora, the urinary tract is considered sterile. The precise mechanisms by which the urinary tract maintains sterility are not well understood. Host immune responses are critically important in the antimicrobial defense of the urinary tract. During recent years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune homeostasis of the kidney and urinary tract. Dysfunctions in these immune mechanisms may result in acute d...

  2. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B; Nissen, H M

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p <0.01). Four patients had incomplete renal tubular acidiosis (iRTA), 3 had hypercalciuria, and 5 patients had hypocitraturia. The 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium was increased in the females with MSK (5.23 +/- 0.78 mmol) compare...

  3. Adult female urinary incontinence and childhood bedwetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, S.

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional random population sample of women 30 to 59 years old was sent a questionnaire on urinary incontinence and, among other things, childhood bedwetting. Among 2,613 responders 17.0% reported prevalent urinary incontinence (14.7% stress provoked, 8.3% associated with urge, 6.8% stress and urge overlap, 2.2% occurring especially during sleep and 3.9% occurring especially when anxious), and 6.5% reported childhood bedwetting after age 5 years and 3.3% after age 10 years. Childhood bed...

  4. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. PMID:26475949

  5. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. PMID:18990947

  6. Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Alexander P; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Bacteriuria during pregnancy may be classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria, infections of the lower urinary tract (cystitis), or infections of the upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis). Lower tract bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis in pregnancy, which is itself associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women should be screened for the presence of bacteriuria early in pregnancy. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated, and antimicrobial choice in pregnancy should reflect safety for both the mother and the fetus. After treatment of bacteriuria, patients should be followed closely due to risk of recurrent bacteriuria. PMID:26475951

  7. Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    OpenAIRE

    BALAT, Ayse

    1999-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized children, and the urinary tract is one of the most common sites of these infections. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 1,221 children discharged with a diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) from July 1, 1991 to June 30, 1994. Of the 1,221 UTIs, there were 137 (11.2%) cases of nosocomial UTI (NUTI) in 136 patients. NUTI accounted for 0.28% of all discharges (48, 382 patients) at a single institution...

  8. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Farzana Hamid; Md. Rafiqul Islam; Nibedeta Paul; Nadia Nusrat; Rafia Parveen

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species) and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an importa...

  9. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  10. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie de Rouen, Laboratoire Quant-If, Rouen (France); Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); CRLCC Henri Becquerel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rouen (France); Avni, Fred E. [Free University of Brussels, Department of Radiology, Erasmus Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  11. How Family Physicians Manage Urinary Tract Infection in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Woolnough, K. V.; Domovitch, E.

    1983-01-01

    Physicians vary in their approaches to urinary tract infections in females. We studied 198 women with symptoms suggesting urinary tract infection. Computer analysis failed to identify any clusters of symptoms, signs or significant historical data which would predict significant bacteriuria with acceptable accuracy. Routine culturing of all symptomatic women is not recommended. Risk factors causing complications of urinary tract infection are reviewed.

  12. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Agarwala, Sandeep [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Prerna; Kumar, Sunesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, New Delhi (India)

    2006-10-15

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  13. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  14. Housestaff Knowledge Related to Urinary Catheter Use and Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paras, Molly L; Shenoy, Erica S; Hsu, Heather E; Walensky, Rochelle P; Hooper, David C

    2015-11-01

    Despite published catheter-associated urinary tract infection prevention guidelines, inappropriate catheter use is common. We surveyed housestaff about their knowledge of catheter-associated urinary tract infections at a teaching hospital and found most are aware of prevention guidelines; however, their application to clinical scenarios and catheter practices fall short of national goals. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1355-1357. PMID:26278269

  15. Urinary bisphenol A levels in young Urinary Bisphenol A Levels in Young Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Joensen, Ulla N; Main, Katharina M; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Juul, Anders; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few human studies have examined bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in men, and results are divergent. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between urinary BPA concentration and reproductive hormones, as well as semen quality, in young men from the general population. METHODS: Our study population consisted of 308 young men from the general population. Urinary BPA concentration was measured by isotope dilution TurboFlow-liquid chromatogra...

  16. Validity of urinary monoamine assay sales under the “spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model”

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Uncini, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Spot baseline urinary monoamine assays have been used in medicine for over 50 years as a screening test for monoamine-secreting tumors, such as pheochromocytoma and carcinoid syndrome. In these disease states, when the result of a spot baseline monoamine assay is above the specific value set by the laboratory, it is an indication to obtain a 24-hour urine sample to make a definitive diagnosis. There are no defined applications where spot baseline urinary monoamine assays can be used to diagno...

  17. Measuring Morbidity Associated with Urinary Schistosomiasis: Assessing Levels of Excreted Urine Albumin and Urinary Tract Pathologies

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa-Figueiredo, José C.; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Khamis, I. Simba; Garba, Amadou; Rollinson, David; Stothard, J Russell

    2009-01-01

    Urinary schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease caused by a parasitic worm that dwells in the blood vessels, particularly those surrounding the human bladder wall. Although not directly associated with high patient mortality, this disease is linked to both short-term morbidity, e.g. visible blood in urine (acute), as well as long-term sequelae, e.g. urinary tract pathologies (chronic). Numerous control programmes based upon chemotherapy have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa in an atte...

  18. Urinary Bladder Hemangioma –A Rare Urinary Bladder Tumor in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Jibhkate, Shubhangi; Sanklecha, Vandana; Valand, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder hemangiomas are rare, accounting for 0.6% of the urinary bladder tumors. Hemangioma is considered arising from embryonic stem cells of an angioblastic lineage. A 3-year old boy presented with hematuria. He had past operative history of excision of extensive lymphatic malformation involving retroperitoneum, pelvis and upper thigh. Computed tomography scan of abdomen and pelvis with contrast revealed a large soft tissue mass arising from the dome of the bladder. Partial cystecto...

  19. Single-Dose Gentamicin Treatment of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Children with Normal Urinary Tract

    OpenAIRE

    MH Fallahzadeh; Habib, H

    2003-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children is usually treated with orally administered antibiotics for 7–10 days. Because of the unreliability of the patient compliance with the prescribed medications and because single-dose aminoglycoside therapy has been shown to be effective in adults with lower UTI, we conducted this retrospective study to asses efficacy of a single dose of gentamicin in patients with anatomically normal urinary tract, who had recurrent UTI. In this study 79 episodes of UT...

  20. Urinary Incontinence: Causes and Methods of Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the third of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. Here, the author introduces the types and physiology of urinary incontinence. The author also…

  1. [Urachal cyst presenting as acute urinary retention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quicios Dorado, C; Fernández Fernández, E; Gómez García, I; García Flórez, D; De Castro Guerin, C; Escudero Barrilero, A

    2005-10-01

    About 2% of adults have an urachal cyst. The diagnosis is usually made due to its clinical complications. We report an inusual case of acute urinary retention due to an urachal cyst, with hipogastric pain and anuria as initial syntoms. PMID:16353780

  2. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  3. [Lower urinary tract infections in urogynaecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novácková, M; Vlk, R; Horcicka, L

    2005-01-01

    Urinary tract infections belong among the most common infectious diseases in adult women. Sporadic infection is usually not a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Recurrent lower urinary tract infections significantly decrease the quality of life of the affected women. Colonisation of the vagina, vulva and the perineum by the uropathogens is the main risk factor of any urinary infection, but only concomitant action of some other factor (e.g. immunosuppression, urethral stenosis, urolithiasis, urethral diverticulum, diabetes and urinary incontinence) can induce the recurrent infection. Correct primary treatment and proper used preventive method is highly advantageous not only from the individual but also from the global point of view (high diagnostic and therapeutic expenses, increase of resistance and imminent success decrease of the modern treatment). Continuous low dose antimicrobial treatment is the most common prophylactic modality. Postcoital antimicrobial prophylaxis and immunomodulative therapy are the other used modalities. Local vaginal estrogen therapy is recommended in postmenopausal women. Estrogens improve the symptoms of the urogenital atrophy and decrease the vaginal pH, which is very important in prevention of the pathological bacterial colonisation of the vagina. Decision about the individual therapy and prophylaxis must be preceded by the evaluation of the risk factors with positives and negatives of the used drug. PMID:15945485

  4. Urinary proteome analysis in congenital bilateral hydronephrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    StØdkilde, Lene; Madsen, Mia Gebauer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. A proteomics strategy was applied to map protein changes in urine after relief of congenital bilateral hydronephrosis to identify proteins correlated with the pathophysiological processes in congenital obstructive nephropathy as potential urinary biomarkers. Material and methods. Urine samples from 10 infants with bilateral abnormal drainage from the kidneys were collected at the time of relief from obstruction, and after 2 and 4 weeks. Proteomics techniques were used on samples from three patients for identification of protein changes between the three time-points, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used on samples from all 10 patients for validation of five selected proteins. Results. Mass spectrometry quantified 315 protein hits, out of which 33 proteins showed significantly changed urinary excretion between the time-points. Validation by ELISA showed high urinary excretion of fibrinogen, plasminogen, transthyretin and transferrin at the time of relief from obstruction, followed by a significant reduction. In contrast, Tamm-Horsfall protein exhibited the reverse pattern. Conclusion. Using a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach, this study identified 33 proteins related to congenital bilateral hydronephrosis, and pinpointed a panel of five proteins consistently linked to this congenital kidney disorder as potential urinary biomarkers.

  5. Constipation and reversible urinary tract abnormalities.

    OpenAIRE

    Dohil, R.; Roberts, E.; JONES, K. V.; Jenkins, H R

    1994-01-01

    Urinary tract anomalies were prospectively investigated with ultrasound in 29 children with functional constipation. These children were compared before and after treatment with 451 age matched healthy controls without constipation. The bladder residue and upper renal tract dilatation after micturition were significantly increased in the group with constipation and improved after treatment.

  6. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Hamid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

  7. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitcomb EL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative approaches is effective in reducing urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered as a first line treatment for overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence.Keywords: urinary incontinence, obesity, women

  8. Urinary metal concentrations among female welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrandale, Victoria H; Beach, Jeremy; Cembrowski, George S; Cherry, Nicola M

    2015-01-01

    As part of a Canada-wide study of women entering non-traditional trades [Women's Health in Apprenticeship Trades-Metalworkers and Electricians (WHAT-ME)], we examined spot urine samples from women welders in Alberta to determine whether urinary metal concentrations exceeded those of the general population, to compare levels to previously published urinary concentrations in male welders and to examine the relationship with welding tasks. Women mailed-in urine samples collected close to the time of completing a detailed exposure questionnaire, including welding tasks on their most recent day welding at work. Of 53 welders working in their trade, 45 had urinary creatinine >0.3-?3.0g l(-1) and were included in analyses. Seven metals were examined for which both population and male welder urinary concentrations were available: cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, manganese, nickel, and zinc. Principal component analysis was used to extract three components from natural log transformed creatinine-corrected metal concentrations. Of the 45 women, 17 reported more than one main task. Overall two thirds worked in fabrication, a third on pipe welding, and smaller numbers on repair, in construction or other tasks: manual metal arc welding was reported by 62%, semi-automatic arc welding by 47%, and arc welding with a tungsten electrode by 15%. In multiple regression analyses, little relation was found between urinary metals and task or type of welding, except for cadmium where lower levels were seen in those reporting semi-automatic manual welding (after adjustment for age and smoking). The proportion of women welders exceeding the selected general population 95th percentile was high for manganese (96%) and chromium (29%). Urinary metal concentrations were similar to those reported for male welders with only manganese, with a geometric mean in women of 1.91 µg g(-1) creatinine, and perhaps copper (11.8 µg g(-1) creatinine), consistently lower in male welders. Although not evident from the task analysis reported here, differences in exposure by sex may be explained by type of welding or by other work practices. A closely comparable cohort of male welders would be necessary to examine this hypothesis more fully. PMID:25359273

  9. [Women's strategies for coping with urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delarmelindo, Rita de Cássia Altino; Parada, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima; Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Bocchi, Silvia Cristina Mangini

    2013-04-01

    This article is part of a more comprehensive qualitative study which used grounded theory and symbolic interactionism as theoretical and methodological frameworks, resulting in the theoretical model entitled, Between suffering and hope: rehabilitation of urinary incontinence as an intervenient component. In order to communicate all the knowledge produced, part of this model is presented, and it refers to the process of coping with urinary incontinence by women without perspectives of access to surgical treatment after failure of conservative procedures. When interrelating the components (categories and subcategories) of these women's experience in order to compare and analyze them to understand their interaction, moral and psychosocial vulnerability were noticed within the experience of the group, which makes them susceptible to health risks and to compromise of their quality of life, observed in the movement of the group's experience. Research is needed to further understand experiences in which there are barriers to surgical treatment due to physicians' disbelief in its effectiveness. PMID:23743893

  10. Can Urinary Nitrite Results Be Used to Conduct Antimicrobial Option for Urinary Tract Infection in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mahyar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was performed to determine the relationship between urinary nitrite results and bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs in urinary tract infection of children.Methods: In a cross-section study 119 children younger than 12 years with urinary tract infection were evaluated in Qazvin children's hospital. Patients were divided into negative and positive nitrite groups depending on urinary nitrite test result. Rates of antibiotic resistance in the two groups were compared.Findings: Sixty seven patients were in the negative nitrite group and 52 in the positive nitrite group.Resistance rates to ceftriaxone, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, gentamicin, amikacin, nalidixic acid, cephalothin and nitrofurantoin in the nitrite negative group were 7.5%, 31.3%, 50.7%, 11.9%, 9%, 3%,14.9% and 11.9%, respectively. These values in the nitrite positive group were 21.2%, 28.8%, 63.5%, 7.7%, 5.8%, 1.9%, 9.6%, and 3.8%, respectively (P>0.05.Conclusion: This study showed that there is no correlation between urinary nitrite results and bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, it seems that physicians should not adjust antibiotic therapy for UTI based on nitrite results.

  11. Quantitation of urinary Tamm-Horsfall protein in children with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, H H; Spencer, J R; Zaki, N F; Sobel, J D

    1992-01-01

    It has been suggested that urinary Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) prevents colonization of the urinary tract by binding uropathogens. We tested the hypothesis that low urinary THP levels may predispose to urinary tract infection (UTI) by measuring THP levels in children. We studied a cohort of 35 girls with uncomplicated recurrent UTI (group 1) that was compared with 27 patients with myelomeningoceles undergoing clean intermittent catheterization (group 2) and 16 female controls (group 3). We measured urinary THP in both aggregated (aTHP) and disaggregated form (dTHP), leukocyte esterase activity, urine chemistries and culture. No significant differences in dTHP or aTHP levels were seen between groups 1 and 3, but group-1 patients had higher dTHP levels than group-2 patients (p pyuria at the time of urine collection did not affect dTHP levels; in contrast, pyuria or bacteriuria at the time of sampling was associated with markedly lower aTHP levels when compared with sterile samples (p children with history of recurrent UTI is not reduced. In contrast, concentrations of aTHP are profoundly depressed in children during times of UTI, suggesting a role for THP in the pathogenesis of UTI. Assaying THP in its aggregated form may prove valuable when studying its physiologic function and merits further investigation. PMID:1468474

  12. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of ureteroscopic lithotripsy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on ureteral calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yahong, Xu; Yi, Lu; Jian, Li; Shunwen, Luo; Yang, Liu; Zhigang, Jia; Ping, Chen; Yu, Guo; Qihua, Zhao; Xiaoping, Ma; Shufang, Jia.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To re-evaluated the clinic efficacy of ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URS) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on ureteral calculi with Cochrane systematic reviews in this paper. METHODS: We searched clinical randomized controlled trials and prospective controlled trials in d [...] atabases such as Cochrane library, Medline, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, PubMed. Pooled estimate of risk ratios (RRs), standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as measure of effect sizes. Summary effect estimates were also stratified by sample size, study design and study region. The overall effect sizes were derived using a random-effects model or fixed-effects model when appreciated, and meta-analysis were conducted with software RewMan 5.0. RESULTS: The meta-analysis suggested that there were significant differences of post-treatment stone free rate, repeat treatment rate, patients' satisfaction, incidence of postoperative complications, operation time and hospital stays between ESWL treatment cases and URS treatment cases. But in the sample sizes analysis, there were no significant differences of the post-treatment stone free rate and repeat treatment rate when the sample sizes were less than 100. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the ureteroscopic lithotripsy treatment, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment provided a significantly lower post-treatment stone free rate, but it also obviously brought out less postoperative complications, shorter operation time and hospital stays.

  13. Preventing urinary incontinence during pregnancy and postpartum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Lose, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common condition in association with pregnancy. Incident UI in pregnancy or postpartum are significant risk factors for UI later in life. Epidemiological studies on UI during pregnancy and postpartum list numerous variables associated with UI. For women, the main focus is on pelvic floor muscle training to prevent UI. However, several other modifiable risk factors are likely to contribute to prevention of UI during pregnancy and postpartum. This review investigated...

  14. Providencia ssp in Nosocomial Urinary Infections

    OpenAIRE

    AKBA?, Efsun

    1998-01-01

    This study was carried out in the Ankara Rehabilitation Centre over an eight month period. A total of 428 urine samples was collected from inpatients with long-term catheterization for diagnosis of bacteriuria. Urinary tract infection was detected in three hundreds and thirty-one samples. Escherichia coli was found to be the highest causative agent. Moreover in forty of these samples Providencia spp were determined as the fifth highest causative agent. This Providencia spp finding ...

  15. Treatment Duration of Febrile Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    van der Starre, Willize E.; Dissel, Jaap T.; van Nieuwkoop, Cees

    2011-01-01

    Although febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) are relatively common in adults, data on optimal treatment duration are limited. Randomized controlled trials specifically addressing the elderly and patients with comorbidities have not been performed. This review highlights current available evidence. Premenopausal, non-pregnant women without comorbidities can be treated with a 5–7 day regimen of fluoroquinolones in countries with low levels of fluoroquinolone resistance, or, if proven suscep...

  16. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electro...

  17. Retroperitoneal lipoma arising from the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Ozasa; Hisato Kobayashi; Tomoyuki Shirase; Masaya Hirose; Tomoko Kim; Michikazu Nagura; Fumitomo Nishimura; Yukio Yamanishi; Naoyuki Miyagawa; Megimi Ohnaka; Shingo Ukita; Masafumi Koshiyama

    2009-01-01

    Retroperitoneal benign lipomas are extremely rare and represent about 2.9% of all primary retroperitoneal tumors. About 80% of the tumors in the retroperitoneal cavities are malignant neoplasms. We experienced a case of a retroperitoneal lipoma simulating an ovarian mature cystic teratoma. A diagnosis was correctly made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to surgery, and a total tumorectomy was performed. The retroperitoneal lipoma was recognized to have arisen from the urinary bladder....

  18. Urinary Tract Infection in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    RAZ, RAUL

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it i...

  19. Improved method to measure urinary alkoxyacetic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, T S; Chou, J. S.; Chen, C.Y.; Smith, T. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To simplify the current preparation of samples, and to improve the specificity and reliability of the conventional analytical methods to measure urinary alkoxyacetic acids. METHODS: Samples containing alkoxyacetic acids including methoxy, ethoxy, and butoxyacetic acids (MAA, EAA, and BAA) were acidified with HCl and extracted with a mixed solvent of methylene chloride and isopropyl alcohol, then analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). RESULTS: Optimal resul...

  20. Primary posterior perineal herniation of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurumboor Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary perineal hernia is a rare clinical condition wherein herniation of viscera occurs through pelvic diaphragm. They are usually mistaken for sciatic hernia, rectal prolapse or other diseases in the perineum. Correct identification of the type of hernia by imaging is crucial for planning treatment. We present a case of primary posterior herniation of urinary bladder and rectal wall through levator ani repaired laparoscopically using a mesh repair.

  1. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A; Ness, Roberta B; Vogel, Victor G; Fentiman, Ian S; Fowke, Jay H; Krogh, Vittorio; Loft, Steffen; Meilahn, Elaine N; Muti, Paola; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Sieri, Sabina; Tjønneland, Anne; Ursin, Giske; Wellejus, Anja; Taioli, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16?-hydroxyestrone (16?-OHE1), and their ratio (2:16?-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ?Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive brea...

  2. The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis was performed in two hundred and five patients at the Clinical Hospital of the University of de State of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), in the period of 1962 to 1982. Clinical, radiological and pathological findings of ten cases of pionephrosis submitted to nephrectomy, and two cases of vesical enlargement by coloncystoplasty were related. Excretory urograms constitutes the most important radiological exam in reaching a diagnosis, followed by retrograde urograms. (author)

  3. Urinary Proteomics to Support Diagnosis of Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, J.; Walters, M.; Delles, C.; Mischak, H.; Mullen, W

    2012-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis in suspected ischaemic stroke can be difficult. We explored the urinary proteome in patients with stroke (n = 69), compared to controls (n = 33), and developed a biomarker model for the diagnosis of stroke. We performed capillary electrophoresis online coupled to micro-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Potentially disease-specific peptides were identified and a classifier based on these was generated using support vector machine-based software. Candidate biomarkers were seq...

  4. Animal Models of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hai-Hong; Damaser, Margot S.

    2011-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common health problem significantly affecting the quality of life of women worldwide. Animal models that simulate SUI enable the assessment of the mechanism of risk factors for SUI in a controlled fashion, including childbirth injuries, and enable preclinical testing of new treatments and therapies for SUI. Animal models that simulate childbirth are presently being utilized to determine the mechanisms of the maternal injuries of childbirth that lead to S...

  5. Assessing drug influences on urinary albumin excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Monster, Taco Bo Michiel,

    2003-01-01

    Microalbuminuria, defined as a urinary albumin excretion of 30-300 mg per 24 hours, was first recognised as a risk marker for diabetic renal disease but it is suggested that microalbuminuria is a marker for renal disease in the general population too. It is thought to reflect endothelial damage and an early sign of atherosclerosis. Indeed, microalbuminuria appears to be a risk marker for cardiovascular morbidity and mortalityas well. This thesis explored the extent in which drug use could ...

  6. Chlamydia and Male Lower Urinary Tract Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Suk; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such ...

  7. Urinary tract infection in febrile convulsions.

    OpenAIRE

    P.Lee; Verrier Jones, K

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective review of the casenotes of 403 children admitted to hospital with febrile convulsions was performed to estimate the frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection and examine medical practice in making this diagnosis. A total of 228 (56%) children had urine cultured: 150 bag specimens, 76 clean voided samples, and two suprapubic aspirates. There were 13 'probable' and six 'possible' infected urine samples together representing 5% of the whole study population (n = 403), 8% o...

  8. Investigation of urinary tract infection in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Jadresic, L; Cartwright, K; Cowie, N; Witcombe, B; Stevens, D.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the number of laboratory confirmed urinary tract infections in children and to ascertain general practitioners' practices and attitudes towards their investigation and management. DESIGN--Prospective one year survey of urine specimens submitted for bacteriological investigation; review of radiology department records; questionnaire survey of general practitioners. SETTING--Gloucester health district. SUBJECTS--57,432 children aged < 15 and 7143 children aged < 2 regis...

  9. Twinkling Artifact in Patients with Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rokni Yazdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: To determine the usefulness of twinkling artifact in detecting urinary stones by sonography according to stone characteristics and sonographic features."nPatients and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 60 urinary stones which had been detected by KUB, IVP or CT scan. First of all, gray scale sonography was performed using 3.5-5 MHz phased array and data including stone size, location and posterior shadow were registered. Then, presence or absence of twinkling artifact and its intensity with re-spect to different filters (0-3, pulse repetition frequencies (PRF (244, 1563, and 4864 Hz, and focal zones (at the level of the stone, lower and higher was assessed using color Doppler sonography. Finally and in the case of artifact presence, spectral Doppler sonographywas performed. For data analysis, ?2 and independent t test was used ."nResults: The prevalence of twinkling artifact was 78.3%. Artifact presence in a PRF value of 1563 Hz was significantly related to the echo difference between stone and adjacent tissues (p= 0.001."nConclusion: The above findings together with the fact that twinkling artifact was strongly present in more than half the cases, indicates the sufficiency in detecting urinary stone

  10. Metabolic assessment in patients with urinary lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen R. Amaro

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metabolic investigation in patients with urinary lithiasis is very important for preventing recurrence of disease. The objective of this work was to diagnose and to determine the prevalence of metabolic disorders, to assess the quality of the water consumed and volume of diuresis as potential risk factors for this pathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 182 patients older than 12 years. We included patients with history and/or imaging tests confirming at least 2 stones, with creatinine clearance > 60 mL/min and negative urine culture. The protocol consisted in the collection of 2, 24-hour urine samples, for dosing Ca, P, uric acid, Na, K, Mg, Ox and Ci, glycemia and serum levels of Ca, P, Uric acid, Na, K, Cl, Mg, U and Cr, urinary pH and urinary acidification test. RESULTS: 158 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among these, 151 (95.5% presented metabolic changes, with 94 (62.2% presenting isolated metabolic change and 57 (37.8% had mixed changes. The main disorders detected were hypercalciuria (74%, hypocitraturia (37.3%, hyperoxaluria (24.1%, hypomagnesuria (21%, hyperuricosuria (20.2%, primary hyperparathyroidism (1.8% secondary hyperparathyroidism (0.6% and renal tubular acidosis (0.6. CONCLUSION: Metabolic change was diagnosed in 95.5% of patients. These results warrant the metabolic study and follow-up in patients with recurrent lithiasis in order to decrease the recurrence rate through specific treatments, modification in alimentary and behavioral habits.

  11. CT endoscopy in urinary bladder lesions detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašulovi? D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate applicability and efficacy CT vurtual cystoscopy in detection of urinary bladder tumors. Material and methods: During the period of 14 months, 17 patients with suspicion or present of some urinary bladder lesions has undergone CT virtual and conventional cystoscopy. After examination, all data were moved to the workstation for interactive endoluminal navigation. After that, radiologist analyzed transversal and virtual images without results of conventional cystoscopy and made conclusion. Results: Results were divided according to their basic clinical application. By using this method, all lesions over 5 mm in size were revealed. In the group of patients that were followed up for urinary bladder tumors, three patients with carcinomatous lesion were revealed. Two tumors of bladder vault that were missed on transversal scan were visualized by virtual cystoscopy. Useful additional information about tumor spread was given in two patient. One tumor inside the bladder diverticulum was detected, that was not seen by conventional cystoscopy. In two patients, endoluminal origin of mass that could not be confirmed by conventional radiologic methods, was determined. Conclusion: CT virtual cystoscopy is useful method and technique that promise a lot, especially in following situations: a follow up of bladder tumors; b supplemental estimation of endoscopically hardly accessible regions; c differential diagnosis between intravesical and exravesical lesions. Optimal estimation offers adequate bladder distension with patient positioned on the back and on the belly and interpretation as well as on transversal and virtual images. .

  12. Mirabegron for male lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Oscar; Osborn, David; Kaufman, Melissa; Reynolds, W Stuart; Dmochowski, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men. Patients with BPH often present with a combination of obstructive and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. It is postulated that bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) from BPH results in concomitant OAB symptoms through ischemic induced variations in the response to neurotransmitters of both the detrusor and the urothelium. This altered response leads to the pathologic activation of the micturition reflex, generating sensory dysfunction and involuntary bladder contractions. Alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonists (alpha-blockers) and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) are commonly used to treat the BOO caused by BPH. Anticholinergic agents are frequently used to treat concurrently OAB symptoms caused by the BOO. Unfortunately, anticholinergic medications demonstrate bothersome side effects and a theoretical risk of urinary retention. Basic science and clinical research has led to the development of a new class of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of overactive bladder with diminished risk of urinary retention and lacking many anticholinergic side effects. This novel compound, mirabegron (Mybertriq, Astellas Pharma US, Inc.), is a ??-adrenoceptor agonist and represents a promising new class of oral agents designed for the treatment of OAB symptoms, with minimal effect on voiding. PMID:23913200

  13. Recurrent urinary tract infections in females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncomplicated Urinary tract infections are common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, with mean annual incidence of 15% and 10% in those aged 15-39 and 40-79 years, respectively. Urinary tract infection (UTI), with its diverse clinical syndromes and affected host groups, remains one of the most common but widely misunderstood and challenging infectious diseases encountered in clinical practice. Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) present a significant problem for women and a challenge for the doctors who care for them. The diagnosis of uncomplicated UTI can be achieved best by a thorough assessment of patient symptoms with or without the addition of a urine dipstick test. Treatment should be based on the most recent guidelines, taking into account resistance patterns in the local community. The patient who suffers from recurrent UTIs can be treated safely and effectively with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital therapy, or self-initiated treatment. This review article covers the latest trends in the management of recurrent UTI among women. Further research is needed regarding rapid diagnosis of UTI, accurate presumptive identification of patients with resistant pathogens, and development of new antimicrobials for drug-resistant UTI. (author)

  14. The management of urinary tract infections in octogenarian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dudley; Giarenis, Ilias; Cardozo, Linda

    2015-07-01

    Urinary Tract Infections are common in women of all ages and the incidence increases with age. Whilst they are a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in all women they may be associated with increased morbidity in the elderly. Appropriate investigation and treatment in primary and secondary care are essential to effectively manage urinary tract infection and decrease morbidity and hospitalisation rates. Loss of endogenous oestrogen at the time of the menopause is associated with the urogenital atrophy and an increased incidence of urinary tract infection. Consequently vaginal oestrogen therapy may offer a rationale for treatment and prevent of urinary tract infection. The aim of this paper is to review the clinical management of elderly women presenting with primary and recurrent urinary tract infection. PMID:26006302

  15. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for refractory daytime urinary urge incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagstroem, Søren; Mahler, Birgitte; Madsen, Bodil; Djurhuus, Jens Christian; Rittig, Søren

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: We studied the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in children with overactive bladder and treatment refractory daytime urinary incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 27 children 5 to 14 years old with daytime urge incontinence refractory to timer assisted standard urotherapy and anticholinergics who had normal urinalysis, and unremarkable urinary tract ultrasound and physical examination. Study exclusion criteria were bladder underactivity, lower urinary tr...

  16. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S; Schroll, M; Jensen, J S

    1999-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population-based cohort. In 1983, urinary albumin and creatinine levels were measured, along with the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors, in 2085 consecutive participa...

  17. The Challenge of Urinary Incontinence in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Worrall, Graham

    1989-01-01

    By 2021 Canada will have an enormous population older than 65 years of age. Before the wholesale introduction of programs for seniors with urinary incontinence, careful evaluation of present treatments and the extent to which they can usefully be applied in the community is necessary. We need more information about the diagnosis and treatment of urinary incontinence in the elderly and about both patient and caregiver compliance with treatment for urinary incontinence. There is a great need fo...

  18. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: Diagnosis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Wm. Lane M.

    1990-01-01

    The history and the physical examination are important and rewarding in the assessment of urinary tract infection in children. Urinary tract infection is usually an ascending infection; periurethral colonization is fundamental to its pathogenesis. It is important to treat predisposing factors, such as poor personal hygiene, diarrhea, and diaper rash. Parents should be specifically instructed on the proper procedures for introital and foreskin cleansing. To minimize the risk of urinary tract i...

  19. Epidemiology of symptomatic infections of the urinary tract in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Uhari, M.; Nuutinen, M.

    1988-01-01

    The epidemiology of symptomatic infections of the urinary tract in children and the factors that may alter the risk of infection are not well known. Numbers of children aged under 15 discharged from hospitals because of symptomatic infections of the urinary tract during 1978-84 were obtained from the database kept by the Finnish National Board of Health. Information on continuous treatment for recurrent urinary tract infections was obtained from records kept by the Social Insurance Institutio...

  20. Nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Hee; Lee, Sun Wha; Han, Woon Seup [Ewha Womans Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma is a benign metaplastic lesion of the urinary tract occurring most frequently at the urinary bladder. It is very rare, especially in children. We describe the US, CT and MRI findings of nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder in an 8-year-old girl who suffered rupture of the bladder, urethra and vagina after a traffic accident and whose condition was complicated by urethral stricture and vesicoureteral reflux.

  1. Urinary tract infections in infants and children: Diagnosis and management

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Joan L; Finlay, Jane C; Lang, Mia Eileen; Bortolussi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have resulted in major changes in the management of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children. The present statement focuses on the diagnosis and management of infants and children >2 months of age with an acute UTI and no known underlying urinary tract pathology or risk factors for a neurogenic bladder. UTI should be ruled out in preverbal children with unexplained fever and in older children with symptoms suggestive of UTI (dysuria, urinary frequency, hematuria, abdominal p...

  2. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  3. A prospective study of urinary tract infection during pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of urinary tract infection before and during pelvic radiotherapy was studied prospectively in 172 patients who were not catherised and had not had instrumentation for at least 4 weeks prior to radiotherapy. The incidence of urinary tract infection prior to radiotherapy was 17% and a further 17% of patients develped a urinary tract infection during radiotherapy. Mid-stream specimens of urine (MSU) should be examined for infection on a weekly basis during pelvic radiotherapy not only to identify this additional 17% of patients but also to detect those patients who have persistent urinary tract infection in spite of treatment with appropriate antibiotics. (author). 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  4. 21 CFR 862.1560 - Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1560 Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification....

  5. Neurological aspects of urinary incontinence in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Anatolyevich Parfenov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives data on the prevalence, pathogenesis, and treatment of urinary incontinence in the elderly. There is a high rate of urinary incontinence among the patients who have experienced stroke or suffer from dementia or other neurological diseases. The ideas on the pathogenesis and manifestations of overactive bladder, stress urinary incontinence are outlined. Currently available drugs (anticholinergics, antidepressants, botulinum toxin preparations, methods for behavioral therapy and physiotherapy, and skin care in urinary incontinence are discussed. The current treatment options can improve quality of life in the elderly and their milieu.

  6. Role of Urinary Cathelicidin LL-37 and Human ?-Defensin 1 in Uncomplicated Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Dynesen, Pia; Larsen, Preben; Jakobsen, Lotte; Andersen, Paal S.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Cathelicidin (LL-37) and human ?-defensin 1 (hBD-1) are important components of the innate defense in the urinary tract. The aim of this study was to characterize whether these peptides are important for developing uncomplicated Escherichia coli urinary tract infections (UTIs). This was investigated by comparing urinary peptide levels of UTI patients during and after infection to those of controls, as well as characterizing the fecal flora of participants with respect to susceptibility to LL-...

  7. A cost-effectiveness study of the management of intractable urinary incontinence by urinary catheterisation or incontinence pads.

    OpenAIRE

    McMurdo, M. E.; Davey, P. G.; Elder, M A; Miller, R. M.; Old, D C; Malek, M

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to compare the costs and effects of management of intractable urinary incontinence by urinary catheterisation or incontinence pads. DESIGN--This was a prospective, randomised study comparing catheterisation with pads, supplemented by additional data collected from patients with chronic indwelling catheters. Main outcome measures were costs of equipment, nursing time, patient preference, nursing preference, and clinical and bacteriological assessment of urinary inf...

  8. Effects of urinary bladder distention on location of the urinary bladder and urethra of healthy dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the anatomic location of the distended and empty urinary bladders and urethras of healthy adult male and female dogs and cats by retrograde urethrocystography revealed substantial variations. In 15 dogs in lateral recumbency with empty bladder lumens, the caudal portion of the urinary bladder was within the pelvic canal in 5 of 7 male and 5 of 8 female dogs. In female dogs examined in ventrodorsal recumbency, only 4 of 8 had the empty urinary bladders in part within the pelvic canal. After luminal distention, 3 of 7 male and 3 of 8 female dogs, while in lateral recumbency, had the urinary bladders in part intrapelvically. However, when female dogs were placed in ventrodorsal recumbency, only 1 of 7 urinary bladders was in part within the pelvis. The urinary bladders of 14 cats were consistently within the abdominal cavity, irrespective of whether the bladder lumen was distended or empty. Urethral flexures occurred in dogs with intrapelvic bladders that were distended or empty. Urethral flexures were not found in cats. The urethras of dogs and cats in lateral recumbency were generally closer to the floor of the pelvis after urinary bladder distention than when the bladder was empty. The urethra of the dogs and cats in ventrodorsal recumbency was to the left or right of or on the midsagittal plane, whether the urinary bladder was empty or distended. A greater degree of lateral displacement was encountered in ventrodorsal recumbency after urinary bladder distention

  9. Short Communication: Relationship between Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Noninfectious Pyuria in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Proverbio, D.; Spada, E.; L. Baggiani; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, G.; Ferro, E; Martino, P. A.; Perego, R

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a neutrophil-derived protein whose concentration increases in plasma and urine with ongoing renal damage. Urinary leucocytes can be a potential source of urinary NGAL. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of urinary neutrophil count and other urinary parameters on urinary NGAL values in urine with negative culture. Urinalysis, urine culture, and determination of urinary NGAL were performed on 33 clinically healthy nonproteinu...

  10. Antibiotic Resistance in Urinary Isolates of Escherichia coli from College Women with Urinary Tract Infections?

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Ronald P.; Harrell, Lizzie J.; Kaye, Keith S.

    2009-01-01

    Of 176 urine isolates from female students positive for Escherichia coli, 29.6% were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistant and none were nitrofurantoin resistant. Among students with a history of urinary tract infection (UTI) (n = 119), resistance to ciprofloxacin was 11.8%, compared to 1.8% among those without prior UTI. Nitrofurantoin should be considered for empirical therapy of lower tract UTI.

  11. Electrochemical immunosensor detection of urinary lactoferrin in clinical samples for urinary tract infection diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Sonn, Geoffrey A; Sin, Mandy L Y; Mach, Kathleen E; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Gau, Vincent; Wong, Pak Kin; Liao, Joseph C

    2010-10-15

    Urine is the most abundant and easily accessible of all body fluids and provides an ideal route for non-invasive diagnosis of human diseases, particularly of the urinary tract. Electrochemical biosensors are well suited for urinary diagnostics due to their excellent sensitivity, low-cost, and ability to detect a wide variety of target molecules including nucleic acids and protein biomarkers. We report the development of an electrochemical immunosensor for direct detection of the urinary tract infection (UTI) biomarker lactoferrin from infected clinical samples. An electrochemical biosensor array with alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was used. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to characterize the mixed SAM, consisted of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol. A sandwich amperometric immunoassay was developed for detection of lactoferrin from urine, with a detection limit of 145 pg/ml. We validated lactoferrin as a biomarker of pyuria (presence of white blood cells in urine), an important hallmark of UTI, in 111 patient-derived urine samples. Finally, we demonstrated multiplex detection of urinary pathogens and lactoferrin through simultaneous detection of bacterial nucleic acid (16S rRNA) and host immune response protein (lactoferrin) on a single sensor array. Our results represent first integrated sensor platform capable of quantitative pathogen identification and measurement of host immune response, potentially providing clinical diagnosis that is not only more expeditious but also more informative than the current standard. PMID:20667707

  12. Safety and Efficacy of Pneumatic Lithotripters Versus Holmium Laser in Management of Ureteral Calculi: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Valipour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare efficacy and safety of holmium:YAG laser and pneumatic lithotripter in the management of ureteral stones.MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred and twelve patients with 1 to 2 cm ureteral calculi were selected for pneumatic or holmium:YAG laser transurethral ureterolithotripsy (56 patients in each group. Ultrasonography and plain abdominal x-ray were performed for all the patients before the operation. The pneumatic lithoclast was Swiss LithoClast, while in laser lithotripsy, holmium:YAG laser frequency was used, which was usually set between 5 and 10 Hz at a power of 10 to 15 Watt. Intravenous urography was performed for all the patients at 3 months to assess functional status and to delineate the ureteral anatomy.RESULTS: The mean patients’ age and stones’ size were the same in both groups, and there were no statistical differences. Mean duration of lithotripsy was 13.7 ± 12.6 minutes in laser group and 7.9 ± 4.2 minutes in pneumatic lithotripsy group. Immediate stone-free rate was 100% and 82.1% in the laser and pneumatic groups, respectively (P = .001. Stone pushing back occurred only in 10 (17.9% patients in pneumatic group. In terms of complications, such as perforation, mucosal injury, and bleeding, there were no differences between the two groups. No intravenous pyelography related complication was seen at 3-month follow-up.CONCLUSION:Laser lithotripsy is a superior approach for the management of upper ureteral stones of 1 to 2 cm in size due to its higher rate of stone clearance.

  13. Assessment of infective urinary tract disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary tracts infection (UTI) is common in children, particularly in the youngest age groups. There is a risk for progressive deterioration of renal function in these children if aggravating factors such as gross reflux and/or outflow obstruction of the urinary tract are present. In this review the pros and cons of available scintigrafic and radiological imaging techniques for the work-up of these children are presented. Ultrasound can be used in the acute phase to exclude obstruction but can not reliably show transient or permanent parenchymal lesions. The presence of reflux can be established with X-ray or direct nuclide cystography. The X-ray technique gives good morphological information and has a grading system with prognostic relevance. Both techniques are invasive and great care must be taken to keep the radiation burden down with the X-ray technique. Indirect nuclide cystography following a renographic study is non-invasive but has a lower sensitivity than direct techniques. More experience is needed with the indirect technique to evaluate the consequences of its apparently low sensitivity. Urography has a limited place in the acute work-up of urinary tract infection but can be used to look for renal scarring 1-2 years after an acute pyelonephritis. The 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan can be used during the acute UTI to show pyelonephritic lesions with good accuracy and/or during the follow-up after six months to show permanent lesions. The acute DMSA scan can be omitted

  14. Assessment of infective urinary tract disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixt, R.; Stokland, E. [Goteborg, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital/Ostra (Sweden). Dept. of Pediatric Clinical Physiology and Dept. of Pediatric Radiology

    1998-06-01

    Urinary tracts infection (UTI) is common in children, particularly in the youngest age groups. There is a risk for progressive deterioration of renal function in these children if aggravating factors such as gross reflux and/or outflow obstruction of the urinary tract are present. In this review the pros and cons of available scintigrafic and radiological imaging techniques for the work-up of these children are presented. Ultrasound can be used in the acute phase to exclude obstruction but can not reliably show transient or permanent parenchymal lesions. The presence of reflux can be established with X-ray or direct nuclide cystography. The X-ray technique gives good morphological information and has a grading system with prognostic relevance. Both techniques are invasive and great care must be taken to keep the radiation burden down with the X-ray technique. Indirect nuclide cystography following a renographic study is non-invasive but has a lower sensitivity than direct techniques. More experience is needed with the indirect technique to evaluate the consequences of its apparently low sensitivity. Urography has a limited place in the acute work-up of urinary tract infection but can be used to look for renal scarring 1-2 years after an acute pyelonephritis. The {sup 99m}Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan can be used during the acute UTI to show pyelonephritic lesions with good accuracy and/or during the follow-up after six months to show permanent lesions. The acute DMSA scan can be omitted.

  15. Introital ultrasonography in female urinary incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of introital ultrasonography in the assessment of female urinary incontinence. Introital ultrasonography was performed in fifteen with stress urinary incontinence(mean age 50) and six patients without symptoms of incontinence(mean age 37). Using a sagittal section of the anterior pelvis in the plane of the symphysis pubis the posterior urethrovesical angle, the pubourethral distance and the pubo-yregrak abgle were measured at rest and during stress(Valsalva's maneuver state). The student T-test and the ANOVA test were used in statistical analysis. The posterior urethrovesical angels of the controls were 125.3 deg (±10.9) at rest and 125.7 deg (±7.6) during stress. In the patients, the corresponding angles were135.3 deg (±11.3) and 139.6 deg(±10.8). The posterior urethrovesical angles increased 0.3 deg (±4.7) in the controls and 5.6 deg (±4.0) in the patients(p=0.018). In the controls, the pubo-urethral distances were 21.8 mm(±5.8) at rest and 18.2 mm(±7.1) during stress, while in the patients these distances were 18.4 mm(±3.9) and 12.6 mm(±4.4). The pubo-urethral distance decreased 3.5 mm (±1.5) in the controls and 5.8 mm (±2.3) in the patients(p=0.039). In the patients with mild incontinence(Grade I), the posterior urethrovesical angles increased 3.4 deg (±2.8) : 132.3 deg (±12.5) at rest and 135.6 deg (12.8) during stress. In the patients with moderate incontinence(Grade II), the angles increased 8.1 deg(±3.8) : 136.0 deg( 6.5) at rest and 144.1 deg((±5.9) during stress. The change of the posterior urethrovesical angle was related to the grade of urinary incontinence in the patients(p<0.05). There was no statistical significancy in the pubo-urethral angle (p=0.315). Introital ultrasonography may be useful for assessment of stress urinary incontinence

  16. Correlates of urinary incontinence in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidman, Lone; Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, S.; Nielsen, John Bugge

    2002-01-01

    In a population sample, the period prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) during pregnancy was found to be 19.9% and 24.1% among 352 nulliparous and 290 primiparous women, respectively. The first UI episode ever was experienced by 16.7% and 7.0% during the two last trimesters of the first and second pregnancies, respectively. None of the pregnancy-specific risk factors, such as emesis and birthweight, was significantly associated with UI during pregnancy. Previous UI was a significant risk fact...

  17. Introital ultrasonography in female urinary incontinence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weon, Young Cheol; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Lee, Jin Seong; Choi, Sang Hee; Kim, Keon Seok; Choo, Myung Soo [Ulsan Univ. Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of introital ultrasonography in the assessment of female urinary incontinence. Introital ultrasonography was performed in fifteen with stress urinary incontinence(mean age 50) and six patients without symptoms of incontinence(mean age 37). Using a sagittal section of the anterior pelvis in the plane of the symphysis pubis the posterior urethrovesical angle, the pubourethral distance and the pubo-yregrak abgle were measured at rest and during stress(Valsalva's maneuver state). The student T-test and the ANOVA test were used in statistical analysis. The posterior urethrovesical angles of the controls were 125.3 deg ({+-}10.9) at rest and 125.7 deg ({+-}7.6) during stress. In the patients, the corresponding angles were 135.3 deg ({+-}11.3) and 139.6 deg({+-}10.8). The posterior urethrovesical angles increased 0.3 deg ({+-}4.7) in the controls and 5.6 deg ({+-}4.0) in the patients(p=0.018). In the controls, the pubo-urethral distances were 21.8 mm({+-}5.8) at rest and 18.2 mm({+-}7.1) during stress, while in the patients these distances were 18.4 mm({+-}3.9) and 12.6 mm({+-}4.4). The pubo-urethral distance decreased 3.5 mm ({+-}1.5) in the controls and 5.8 mm ({+-}2.3) in the patients(p=0.039). In the patients with mild incontinence(Grade I), the posterior urethrovesical angles increased 3.4 deg ({+-}2.8) : 132.3 deg ({+-}12.5) at rest and 135.6 deg (12.8) during stress. In the patients with moderate incontinence(Grade II), the angles increased 8.1 deg({+-}3.8) : 136.0 deg({+-}6.5) at rest and 144.1 deg({+-}5.9) during stress. The change of the posterior urethrovesical angle was related to the grade of urinary incontinence in the patients(p<0.05). There was no statistical significancy in the pubo-urethral angle (p=0.315). Introital ultrasonography may be useful for assessment of stress urinary incontinence.

  18. Characterization of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Among Custodians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Jennifer M; Simcox, Nancy J; Wakai, Sara; Lu, Chensheng; Garza, Jennifer L; Cherniack, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of chemicals found in consumer, personal care, and cleaning products, have been linked to adverse health effects. Our goal was to characterize urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and to identify work and nonwork sources among custodians using traditional cleaning chemicals and 'green' or environmentally preferable products (EPP). Sixty-eight custodians provided four urine samples on a workday (first void, before shift, end of shift, and before bedtime) and trained observers recorded cleaning tasks and types of products used (traditional, EPP, or disinfectant) hourly over the work shifts. Questionnaires were used to assess personal care product use. Four different phthalate metabolites [monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)] were quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Geometric means (GM) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for creatinine-adjusted urinary phthalate concentrations. Mixed effects univariate and multivariate modeling, using a random intercept for each individual, was performed to identify predictors of phthalate metabolites including demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. Creatinine-adjusted urinary concentrations [GM (95% CI)] of MEP, MMP, MEHP, and MBzP were 107 (91.0-126), 2.69 (2.18-3.30), 6.93 (6.00-7.99), 8.79 (7.84-9.86) µg g(-1), respectively. An increasing trend in phthalate concentrations from before to after shift was not observed. Creatinine-adjusted urinary MEP was significantly associated with frequency of traditional cleaning chemical intensity in the multivariate model after adjusting for potential confounding by demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. While numerous demographics, workplace factors, and personal care products were statistically significant univariate predictors of MMP, MEHP, and MBzP, few associations persisted in multivariate models. In summary, among this population of custodians, we identified both occupational and nonoccupational predictors of phthalate exposures. Identification of phthalates as ingredients in cleaning chemicals and consumer products would allow workers and consumers to avoid phthalate exposure. PMID:26240196

  19. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Rod Roque; Uzay Yasar; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    Tomislav M Jelic1, Rod Roque1, Uzay Yasar2, Shayna B Tomchin1, Jose M Serrato2, Samuel G Deem3, James P Tierney3, Ho-Huang Chang11Department of Pathology Charleston Area Medical Center, Charleston WV, USA; 2Urology Center of Charleston, Charleston WV, USA; 3Urologic-Surgical Assoc. of Charleston, Charleston WV, USAAbstract: Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bla...

  20. Radionuclide imaging of the upper urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this chapter is to provide a relatively concise review of the applications of radionuclide imaging techniques to the evaluation of the common pathologic changes of upper urinary tract. The principal topics addressed are congenital anomalies, space-occupying lesions, obstructive uropathy, vascular disorders, inflammatory disorders, trauma, and transplantation evaluation. Where appropriate, pediatric conditions are also incorporated into these discussions. Summary remarks on the application of radionuclide imaging to the pediatric population are included. Where possible, clinical settings and pathologic findings are presented, since these are frequently essential to the correct interpretations of the imaging data

  1. Treatment of Fungal Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lewis; Tracy, Chad R

    2015-11-01

    Funguria, and particularly candiduria, is an increasingly common problem encountered by the practicing urologist and is associated with high-acuity care, indwelling catheters, diabetes mellitus, antibiotic and steroid use, and urinary tract disease. In most cases, candiduria is asymptomatic and follows a benign clinical course with antifungal therapy only required in symptomatic or high-risk cases, because spontaneous resolution is common in patients with asymptomatic colonization. Rarely, invasive infections can occur (such as fungus balls or renal abscesses) and may require percutaneous and endoscopic interventions. This article highlights the workup and treatment of funguria and its related urologic manifestations. PMID:26475944

  2. Retroperitoneal lipoma arising from the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisato Kobayashi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Retroperitoneal benign lipomas are extremely rare and represent about 2.9% of all primary retroperitoneal tumors. About 80% of the tumors in the retroperitoneal cavities are malignant neoplasms. We experienced a case of a retroperitoneal lipoma simulating an ovarian mature cystic teratoma. A diagnosis was correctly made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI prior to surgery, and a total tumorectomy was performed. The retroperitoneal lipoma was recognized to have arisen from the urinary bladder. Histological sections revealed a tumor consisting of typical adipose cells without atypia. These types of lipomas should be carefully followed-up because they often recur and undergo malignant transformations.

  3. Bone and metabolic complications of urinary diversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; Muñoz Delgado, Eva Golmayo

    2015-02-01

    Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is a complication of urinary diversion using ileum or colon. Its prevalence ranges from 25% and 46% depending on the procedure used and renal function of the patient. It is a consequence of intestinal fluid and electrolyte exchange between intestinal mucosa and urine. The main mechanism is absorption of ammonium and chloride from urine. Long-term chronic metabolic acidosis in these patients may lead to impaired bone metabolism and osteomalacia. Regular monitoring of pH, chlorine, bicarbonate, and calcium-phosphorus metabolism is therefore essential for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25481805

  4. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A; Ness, Roberta B; Vogel, Victor G; Fentiman, Ian S; Fowke, Jay H; Krogh, Vittorio; Loft, Steffen; Meilahn, Elaine N; Muti, Paola; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Sieri, Sabina; Tjønneland, Anne; Ursin, Giske; Wellejus, Anja; Taioli, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1), and their ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive brea...

  5. Biomaterials in urinary incontinence and treatment of their complications

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, Philippa; Morley, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Biomaterials integrate with the anatomy and provide support to the weakened area. They are generally synthetic, but natural substances are also used. These substances are being increasingly used in stress urinary incontinence. This article discusses the various biomaterials, minimally invasive techniques, and recent advances for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. In addition, their complications and subsequent management are explored.

  6. The effect of hormones on the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dudley; Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Cardozo, Linda

    2013-12-01

    The female genital and lower urinary tracts share a common embryological origin, arising from the urogenital sinus and both are sensitive to the effects of the female sex steroid hormones throughout life. Estrogen is known to have an important role in the function of the lower urinary tract and estrogen and progesterone receptors have been demonstrated in the vagina, urethra, bladder and pelvic floor musculature. In addition estrogen deficiency occurring following the menopause is known to cause atrophic change and may be associated with lower urinary tract symptoms such as frequency, urgency, nocturia, urgency incontinence and recurrent infection. These may also co-exist with symptoms of urogenital atrophy such as dyspareunia, itching, vaginal burning and dryness. Epidemiological studies have implicated estrogen deficiency in the aetiology of lower urinary tract symptoms with 70% of women relating the onset of urinary incontinence to their final menstrual period. Whilst for many years systemic and vaginal estrogen therapy was felt to be beneficial in the treatment of lower urinary and genital tract symptoms this evidence has recently been challenged by large epidemiological studies investigating the use of systemic hormone replacement therapy as primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of the sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, on the lower urinary tract and to review the current evidence regarding the role of systemic and vaginal estrogens in the management of lower urinary tract symptoms and urogenital atrophy. PMID:24336244

  7. Staphylococcus haemolyticus urinary tract infection in a male patient.

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, B. A.; Davis, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Urinary tract infections caused by staphylococci are usually attributed to Staphylococcus epidermidis or S. saprophyticus. The case study reported here describes a persistent urinary tract infection caused by S. haemolyticus in a 38-year-old male whose infection was ultimately resolved through the use of the antibiotic trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

  8. The Management of Urinary Incontinence by Community-Living Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteness, Linda S.

    1987-01-01

    Explored ways elderly people (N=30) manage urinary incontinence. Subjects tended to dismiss their urinary incontinence as a normal part of aging and used various behavioral and psychological strategies to maintain their independence, usually without any assistance from the health professions. Management strategies commonly involved some degree of…

  9. Prophylactic antibiotics for children with recurrent urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Joan L; Finlay, Jane C; Lang, Mia Eileen; Bortolussi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Prophylactic antibiotics for urinary tract infections are no longer routinely recommended. A large number of children must be given prophylaxis to prevent one infection and antibiotic resistance is a major concern when treating community-acquired urinary tract infections. The results of three recent significant studies are examined, with focus on the efficacy of prophylaxis, and recommendations are made.

  10. Stress induced urinary incontinence in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Sakakibara, R.; Hattori, T; Kita, K.; Arai, K(+); Yamanishi, T; Yasuda, K.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To examine the pathophysiology of "stress induced urinary incontinence" (urinary incontinence evoked by abdominal straining) in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration.?METHODS—Micturitional symptoms of 184 patients with spinocerebellar degeneration who were admitted to hospital were studied repeatedly. Urodynamic studies were made in symptomatic patients, and consisted of uroflowmetry, measurement of residual urine, urethral pressure profilometry, medium fill ...

  11. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections due to Asymptomatic Colonic Diverticulitis

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelos Falidas; Georgios Anyfantakis; Stavros Boutzouvis; Michail Kyriakopoulos; Stavros Mathioulakis; Konstantinos Vlachos; Constantinos Villias

    2012-01-01

    Colovesical fistula is a common complication of diverticulitis. Pneumaturia, fecaluria, urinary tract infections, abdominal pain, and dysuria are commonly reported. The authors report a case of colovesical fistula due to asymptomatic diverticulitis, and they emphasize the importance of deeply investigate recurrent urinary tract infection without any bowel symptoms. They also briefly review the literature.

  12. Urinary symptoms in Parkinson's disease: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Sousa Raimundo Nonato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a cross-sectional study involving 61 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD who were consecutively examined and compared to a control group with 74 subjects. Only patients who fulfilled the standard diagnostic criteria for PD and whose brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal were included. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of inferior urinary tract symptoms in PD and to study the possible association between clinical factors to urinary dysfunction. ln the patient group, 39.3% presented urinary symptoms when compared to 10.8% in the control group. All symptomatic patients presented irritative symptoms. The most common irritative symptom PD was nocturia, followed by frequency and urinary incontinence. Around 25% of the patients presented functional obstructive symptoms determined by the disease. The most frequent obstructive symptom was incomplete emptying of the bladder. Only the age of the patients and control group were correlated with urinary dysfunction.

  13. [Sport and urinary incontinence in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousquy, R; Jean-Baptiste, J; Barranger, E; Hermieux, J-F

    2014-09-01

    Women are more attentive to their physical appearance and a quarter of French women use to practice a regular physical activity. Benefits of sport on general health are recognized. However, sport may be the cause of various diseases when it is poorly chosen or improperly performed. In literature, intensive exercise is a risk factor for urinary incontinence, defined as "the complaint of any involuntary leakage of urine". It is essentially stress urinary incontinence, occurring because of the phenomenon of intrabdominal hyperpressure, inherent with certain activities, and excess capacity of sphincters. Some sports are more risky than others, and high-level sportswomen are the most exposed. Health professionals must invest in information, screening, prevention, counseling and treatment track athletes So, the general practitioner and the doctor of sports play a vital role in informing, screening, prevention, therapeutic and monitoring of sportswomen. Better information is needed because according to the severity of incontinence and its impact, there are simple, effective, more or less invasive treatment options. The aim of this study was to establish an inventory of scientific knowledge and to improve the management of these patients. PMID:24996876

  14. Treatment of resistant enterococcal urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Subramanian; Alangaden, George J

    2010-11-01

    Enterococcus spp have emerged as important pathogens in urinary tract infection (UTI), especially in hospitalized patients. Resistance to multiple antibiotics, including vancomycin, has become common, particularly in infections involving Enterococcus faecium. The management of UTIs caused by Enterococcus spp has become challenging given the presence of underlying comorbidities in these patients and the limited therapeutic options available to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterococcus. Routine therapy for asymptomatic bacteriuria with MDR-Enterococcus is not recommended. Removal of indwelling urinary catheters should be considered. Appropriate antibiotic therapy selection should be guided by urine culture and susceptibility results. Data are limited on the treatment of UTIs caused by MDR-Enterococcus. Potential oral agents active against MDR-Enterococcus that may be considered for acute uncomplicated UTI include nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, and fluoroquinolones. Potential parenteral agents for the treatment of pyelonephritis and complicated UTIs caused by MDR-Enterococcus include daptomycin, linezolid, and quinipristin-dalfopristin. Aminoglycosides or rifampin may be considered as adjunctive therapy in serious infections. PMID:21308555

  15. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav M Jelic

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomislav M Jelic1, Rod Roque1, Uzay Yasar2, Shayna B Tomchin1, Jose M Serrato2, Samuel G Deem3, James P Tierney3, Ho-Huang Chang11Department of Pathology Charleston Area Medical Center, Charleston WV, USA; 2Urology Center of Charleston, Charleston WV, USA; 3Urologic-Surgical Assoc. of Charleston, Charleston WV, USAAbstract: Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria. We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.Keywords: calcifying nanoparticles, nanobacteria, encrusted cystitis

  16. Cell Therapy for Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Melanie L; Izeta, Ander; Herrera-Imbroda, Bernardo; Amend, Bastian; Brinchmann, Jan E

    2015-08-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is the involuntary loss of urine and is a common condition in middle-aged and elderly women and men. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is caused by leakage of urine when coughing, sneezing, laughing, lifting, and exercise, even standing leads to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Other types of UI also exist such as urge incontinence (also called overactive bladder), which is a strong and unexpected sudden urge to urinate, mixed forms of UI that result in symptoms of both urge and stress incontinence, and functional incontinence caused by reduced mobility, cognitive impairment, or neuromuscular limitations that impair mobility or dexterity. However, for many SUI patients, there is significant loss of urethral sphincter muscle due to degeneration of tissue, the strain and trauma of pregnancy and childbirth, or injury acquired during surgery. Hence, for individuals with SUI, a cell-based therapeutic approach to regenerate the sphincter muscle offers the advantage of treating the cause rather than the symptoms. We discuss current clinically relevant cell therapy approaches for regeneration of the external urethral sphincter (striated muscle), internal urethral sphincter (smooth muscle), the neuromuscular synapse, and blood supply. The use of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells is a major step in the right direction, but they may not be enough for regeneration of all components of the urethral sphincter. Inclusion of other cell types or biomaterials may also be necessary to enhance integration and survival of the transplanted cells. PMID:25789845

  17. Granular cell tumors of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayani Naila

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granular cell tumors (GCTs are extremely rare lesions of the urinary bladder with only nine cases being reported in world literature of which one was malignant. Generally believed to be of neural origin based on histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies; they mostly follow a clinically benign course but are commonly mistaken for malignant tumors since they are solid looking, ulcerated tumors with ill-defined margins. Materials and methods We herein report two cases of GCTs, one benign and one malignant, presenting with gross hematuria in a 14- and a 47-year-old female, respectively. Results Histopathology revealed characteristic GCTs with positive immunostaining for neural marker (S-100 and negative immunostaining for epithelial (cytokeratin, Cam 5.2, AE/A13, neuroendocrine (neuron specific enolase, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin and sarcoma (desmin, vimentin markers. The benign tumor was successfully managed conservatively with transurethral resection alone while for the malignant tumor, radical cystectomy, hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, anterior vaginectomy, plus lymph node dissection was done. Both cases show long-term disease free survival. Conclusion We recommend careful pathologic assessment for establishing the appropriate diagnosis and either a conservative or aggressive surgical treatment for benign or localized malignant GCT of the urinary bladder, respectively.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done according to age-group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates. A total of 803 urine culture positive patients were studied of whom 81.6% were females and 18.4% were males. The common micro-organisms isolated were E. coli (78.58%), Klebsiella (5.48%), Proteus and Staphylococcus. About 89% of the E. coli isolated showed sensitivity to cephtizoxin, 83.9% to gentamycin and 83.2% to ciprofloxacin; the highest resistance was shown to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Surveys of this nature will give a clear idea about the bacteriologic profile in a given institution as well their antibiotic sensitivity profile. This will act as a guide to commencing empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary infections until such time culture reports are available. (author)

  19. Leishmania (infantum) chagasi in canine urinary sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça, Ivete Lopes; Batista, Joilson Ferreira; Alves, Leucio Camara

    2015-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is difficult to diagnosis, mainly due to the presence of asymptomatic animals, the diversity of clinical symptoms and the difficulty in obtaining diagnostic evidence of high sensitivity and specificity. The purpose of this study was to diagnose CVL in urinary sediment of 70 dogs of different breeds, sexes and ages from the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Piauí and Zoonosis Control Center of Teresina, Brazil. The serological tests were TR DPP® for CVL and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for CVL, parasitological exams of bone marrow and lymph nodes and urine sediment cultures. Leishmania was detected in the bone marrow and/or lymph node of 61.0% of the animals (43/70), and urine sediment culture was positive in 9.30% (4/43) of these animals. In the serological exams, 70.0% (49/70) were reactive using the DPP and 78.2% (55/70) were reactive using ELISA. The goal of this study was to diagnose the presence of L. (infantum) chagasi in a culture of urinary sediment. PMID:25909260

  20. Organic Selenium Alleviated the Formation of Ethylene Glycol-Induced Calcium Oxalate Renal Calculi by Improving Osteopontin Expression and Antioxidant Capability in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongwang; Xu, Haibin; Zhong, Wenting; Shen, Qingpeng; Zhuang, Tenghan; Huang, Kehe

    2015-12-01

    Twenty one-year-old local male dogs were randomly assigned into four groups (five dogs per group). The control and the ethylene glycol (EG) groups were fed basal diets without and with EG, and the EG?+?sodium selenite (EG?+?SS) and EG?+?selenium yeast (EG?+?SY) groups were fed basal diets with EG containing SS and SY, respectively. Blood, urine, and renal samples were taken after 18 weeks of feeding. The results showed that compared with the control group, the serum calcium levels and antioxidase activities significantly decreased in the EG group. Serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and urine calcium and oxalate levels significantly increased. Calcium oxalate crystal deposition and osteopontin (OPN) messenger RNA and protein expression in the renal tissues significantly increased. These changes above in the EG group were reversed within limits by adding selenium in the diets (both EG?+?SS and EG?+?SY groups). Further, compared with the EG?+?SS group, the EG?+?SY group showed better effects in decreasing the formation of EG-induced calcium oxalate renal calculi and OPN expression and improving antioxidant capability in dogs. It indicates that organic selenium has the potential value to alleviate the formation of EG-induced calcium oxalate renal calculi. PMID:26018495

  1. Estudio de un cálculo intestinal en un paciente con adenocarcinoma de colón: ¿es similar a los cálculos renales? / Study of a intestinal enteroliths in human patient with colon adenocarcinome: Is it similar to renal calculi?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.L., Traba Villameytide; J.A., Orts Costa; M., Morell.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra el estudio realizado a enterolitos intestinales procedentes de un paciente de 91 años que padecía una enterolitiasis múltiple confirmada por estudio radiológico abdominal y TAC, mostrando cálculos en el tracto intestinal, renal y biliar. Además esta enterolitiasis estaba asociad [...] a a un adenocarcinoma de colon. Los enterolitos analizados proceden de una intervención quirúrgica en la que se practicó una hemicolectomía derecha. Los enterolitos se sometieron a un análisis por espectrometría de infrarrojos (IR) observándose un espectro de carbonato apatita no-estequiométrica, tipo whitloquita, posiblemente con materia orgánica. Con el fin de estudiar el posible contenido de diversos elementos químicos, se practicó un análisis por espectrometría de emisión atómica encontrándose, fundamentalmente, los iones Ca, Mg, K, Na y K (del orden de mg/100 mg de cálculo) y Zn, Ba, Mn, Fe, Cu, Si, Ti y Br en menor proporción (del orden de µg/100 mg de cálculo). Dada la morfología del cálculo y su espectro de IR (carbonato apatita no estequiométrica) se determinó la posible presencia de porfirinas por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC) encontrándose, fundamentalmente, coproporfirina (µg/g de cálculo) y en menor proporción uroporfirina, protoporfirina y hepta-carboxi porfirina. El estudio se completó con el análisis de los enterolitos mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido y EDX. El análisis por difracción de rayos X detectó la presencia de CaP4O11. Los resultados obtenidos de los diferentes análisis muestran que la composición de los enterolitos es similar a la de los cálculos renales, aunque su morfología difiera de estos. Abstract in english This work shows the study performance to intestinal enterolithis from a 91 year old patient with multiple enterolithiasis confirmed by abdominal X-ray and TAC analyses showing the presence of intestinal, renal and bile stones. This enterolithis is associated with colon adenocarcinoma. The enterolith [...] s were obtained by hemicolectomia and were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (IR), giving nonstoichiometry carbonate apatite whitloquite-like with, possibly, organic material. By atomic emission spectroscopy we found Ca, Mg, K, Na y K (mg/100 mg of calculi) and Zn, Ba, Mn, Fe, Cu, Si, Ti and Br in minor proportion (µg/100 mg of calculi). Because of calculi morphology and the IR spectra (non-stoichiometry carbonate apatite) we carried out analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and found coproporphyrin (about µg/g of calculi) and uroporphyrin, protoporphyrin and heptacarboxy-porphyrin in minor extent. Calculi were also studied by scanning electronic microscopy and EDX and X-ray diffraction giving crystals of CaP4O11. All these results show that intestinal enteroliths composition are similar to renal calculi although its morphology differs from renal calculi.

  2. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a new noninvasive treatment modality for urinary stones, and it sometimes is to necessitate endourologic techniques. ESWL with an Edap lithotripter which uses piezo-electric elements, was performed in 142 cases (130 patients) with urinary stones including 68 in calices, 30 in pelves, and 44 in ureters. Technical factors were 100 storages at 5 to 10 pulse rates/sec and 70-100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes (15-90) for renal stones, and 200 storages at 20 pulse rates/sec and 100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes for ureteral stones in a single treatment under stone localization by 5 MHz ultrasonic sector scanner. All patients were treated at Kangnam St.Mary's Hospital of Catholic University Medical College during the 5 months period from May 1, 1987. Every patient had pre-treatment chest, plain abdomen, intravenous urogram and ultrasonogram studies and post-treatment follow-up abdominal radiograms in 1 to 3 months after ESWL.The overall success rate of ESWL in 142 cases was 94.4%. Eight out of 142 cases were successful. Thus, 134 cases were analysed. Of these, 58 cases (43.3%) received one treatment, 33 cases (24.6%) two treatments, 16 cases (11.9%) three treatments and 27 cases (20.2%) more than four treatments. Renal stones were more successfully treated (98.0%) than ureteral stones (88.1%), and calyceal stones presented the highest success rate (98.5%). The stones as small as 5 to 10 mm in size were easily fragmented and the stones of round of oval shape were more easily pulverized than those of staghorn or amorphous shape. The adjunctive endourlogic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy, ureteral catheterization or internal ureteral stenting with a double pigtail catheter were required in 17 cases (11.9%). Complications of ESWL for urolithiasis included hematuria (84.5%), flank pain (8.5%) and fever (5.6%), which were controlled without specific treatment. ESWL using ultrasonic localization was the effective procedure for treatment of the urinary stones

  3. Urinary Tract Infections in Renal Transplantation Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Tract Infection (UTI can be associated with significant morbidity after renal transplantation. While, the use of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis has dramatically reduced the incidence of UTI after renal transplantation over the past decades, rates of serious complications associated with UTI, such as bacterial septicemia, remain high for post transplantation patients even in the modern era. However, late post transplantation UTI has been widely considered as benign based on relatively small studies. The majority of transplant centers administers prophylactic antibiotics post transplantation, but most generally stop antibiotic prophylaxis 6 months after transplantation. However, emerging concepts from recent studies suggest that UTI, even if late after renal transplantation, has definite risks, suggesting that this clinical entity may not be as "benign" as previously supposed. A total of 185 midstream urine samples were collected in sterile containers from patient with kidney transplantation. With standard calibrated loop delivering 0.01 mL of urine was inoculated on Blood agar and EMB agar and incubated aerobically at 37°C for 24-48 h. Urinary tract infection was diagnosed by growth of at least 100000 colony-forming units of a urinary tract pathogen per milliliter in a culture of a midstream urine sample. Any specimen containing high colony counts with more than one species of bacteria in asymptomatic patient was considered contamination. Identification of bacterial pathogens was made on the basis of gram reactions, morphology and biochemical characteristics. Total 185 kidney transplantation patient studied, of whom 52 (28.10% were identified to have asymptomatic bacteriuria. In present study, the most common isolate was E. coli 33 (56.89%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 13 (22.41%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5 (8.62%, Proteus mirabilis 3 (5.17%, Citrobacter freundii 3 (5.17% and Staphylococcus aureus 1(1.72%. UTIs are a frequent problem after kidney transplantation. In the long-term, UTIs should be considered as a potential risk for poorer graft outcomes. In this study, the incidence of UTIs was 31.35% among renal transplant recipients, with E coli as the most common cause. While ureteral double-J catheter and female gender were the risk factors for UTI, female gender was the only independent risk factor.

  4. Mechanical devices for urinary incontinence in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipp, Allyson; Shaw, Christine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incontinence can have a devastating effect on the lives of sufferers with significant economic implications. Non-surgical treatments such as pelvic floor muscle training and the use of mechanical devices are usually the first line of management, particularly when a woman does not want surgery or when she is considered unfit for surgery. Mechanical devices are inexpensive and do not compromise future surgical treatment. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether mechanical devices are useful in the management of adult female urinary incontinence. SEARCH METHODS: For this second update we searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO ICTRP and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings (searched 21 August 2014), EMBASE (January 1947 to 2014 Week 34), CINAHL (January 1982 to 25 August 2014), and the reference lists of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of mechanical devices in the management of adult female urinary incontinence determined by symptom, sign or urodynamic diagnosis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The reviewers assessed the identified studies for eligibility and risk of bias and independently extracted data from the included studies. Data analysis was performed using RevMan software (version 5.3). MAIN RESULTS: One new trial was identified and included in this update bringing the total to eight trials involving 787 women. Three small trials compared a mechanical device with no treatment and although they suggested that use of a mechanical device might be better than no treatment, the evidence for this was inconclusive. Four trials compared one mechanical device with another. Quantitative synthesis of data from these trials was not possible because different mechanical devices were compared in each trial using different outcome measures. Data from the individual trials showed no clear difference between devices, but with wide confidence intervals. One trial compared three groups: a mechanical device alone, behavioural therapy (pelvic floor muscle training) alone and behavioural therapy combined with a mechanical device. While at three months there were more withdrawals from the device-only group, at 12 months differences between the groups were not sustained on any measure. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The place of mechanical devices in the management of urinary incontinence remains in question. Currently there is little evidence from controlled trials on which to judge whether their use is better than no treatment and large well-conducted trials are required for clarification. There was also insufficient evidence in favour of one device over another and little evidence to compare mechanical devices with other forms of treatment.

  5. Maternal Urinary Tract Infection as a Risk Factor For Neonatal Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Emamghorashi; Nasrin Mahmoodi; Zahra Tagarod; Seyed Taghi Heydari

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of maternal UTI during pregnancy with neonatal UTI. Materials and Methods. One hundred and fourteen neonates admitted to hospital were enrolled in the present study, of whom 40 were admitted for management of UTI and 74 for management of jaundice. Urinalysis and urine culture were carried out for all of the neonates. Data regarding gestational age, history of UTI in the mother during pregnancy, and urinary symptoms of...

  6. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie; Cogswell, Mary E; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

    2013-01-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There w...

  7. Primary Staphylococcus aureus urinary tract infection: the role of undetected hematogenous seeding of the urinary tract

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Staphylococcus aureus (SA) bacteriuria may accompany SA bacteremia, but primary SA urinary tract infection (UTI) may also occur. Our clinical observation of SA UTIs following intravenous catheter-related phlebitis lead us to review hematogenous and ascending route-related risk factors in patients with primary SA UTIs. The charts from all patients with SA UTIs over a 1.5-year period were reviewed for concurrent or recent hospitalization, intravenous catheterization, and for...

  8. Primary urinary tract infection: the role of undetected hematogenous seeding of the urinary tract

    OpenAIRE

    Baraboutis, I. G.; Tsagalou, E. P.; Lepinski, J. L.; Papakonstantinou, I; Papastamopoulos, V.; Skoutelis, A T; Johnson, S

    2010-01-01

    (SA) bacteriuria may accompany SA bacteremia, but primary SA urinary tract infection (UTI) may also occur. Our clinical observation of SA UTIs following intravenous catheter-related phlebitis lead us to review hematogenous and ascending route-related risk factors in patients with primary SA UTIs. The charts from all patients with SA UTIs over a 1.5-year period were reviewed for concurrent or recent hospitalization, intravenous catheterization, and for known UTI risk factors. Patients with con...

  9. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko

    2010-01-01

    Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100 Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans to compare the intake and metabolism. Dietary determinants of lignan intake and their urinary excretion were also determined. The mean intake of lignans was 1224 (sd 539) mug/d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intakeof water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4 % by the intake of lariciresinol. Although the assessed intake of lignans corresponded well with the urinary excretion of lignans, the enterolactone production in the human body depended more on the dietary sources of lignans than the absolute intake of lignans.

  10. Urinary Citrate: A view in Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANTHOSH KUMAR.N

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim & Objective: To evaluate the 24 hour urinary citrate levels in chronic renal failure and healthy controls and to define the role of urinary citrates in the chronic renal failures. Materials and Methods: The 24 hours urinary citrates, Blood urea, Serum creatinine, Na+, K+were evaluated in 25 chronic renal failure patients and25 healthy subjects taken as controls. In both groups participants were on their usual diet. In addition, none of the participant was taking any drugs that could interfere with the citrate excretion. Results: The mean 24 hour urinary citrate excretion in patients and healthy controls was 296.3 ± 8.543mg and 323.9 ± 4.304mg respectively. Using previously defined values of normal urinary citrates as more than 320 mg.The difference in 24 hour urinary citrateexcretion in all patients and healthy control was statistically significant (

    urinary citrate excretion in recurrent renal failures and healthy controls. Uniformly low citrate excretion in patients indicates that low citrate levels may be a feature seen in predisposing factor for renal failure

  11. Urinary stones in pediatric age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Önen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The presenting symptoms of stone disease in children are rather different than the adult patients.US, direct urinary X-ray exam or/and computarized tomography are the diagnostic tools of choice.In case of obstruction,infection,or in the presence of larger stones prone to obstructive signs are the candidates of surgical intervention. In case of acute conditions insertion of JJ stents or percutaneous nephrostomy can be a solution.Asymptomatic and small stones should be treated by minimal invazive procedures such as. ESWL, URS or PNL. According to the results of biochemical analysis, medical treatment or/and dietary recommendations ar very important for the long term prophylaxis. (Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45 Suppl: 104-9

  12. Treatment duration of febrile urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Starre, Willize E; van Dissel, Jaap T; van Nieuwkoop, Cees

    2011-12-01

    Although febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) are relatively common in adults, data on optimal treatment duration are limited. Randomized controlled trials specifically addressing the elderly and patients with comorbidities have not been performed. This review highlights current available evidence. Premenopausal, non-pregnant women without comorbidities can be treated with a 5-7 day regimen of fluoroquinolones in countries with low levels of fluoroquinolone resistance, or, if proven susceptible, with 14 days of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Oral ?-lactams are less effective compared with fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In men with mild to moderate febrile UTI, a 2-week regimen of an oral fluoroquinolone is likely sufficient. Although data are limited, this possibly holds even in the elderly patients with comorbidities or bacteremia. PMID:21882085

  13. [Risk factors for urinary incontinence in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Rosângela; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes; dos Reis, Maria José

    2008-03-01

    The goal of this study was to conduct a review of the main papers published between 1983 and 2003 on the main risk factors for urinary incontinence (UI) in women. Thirty-eight publications in English and Portuguese were analyzed using the MEDLINE and LILACS databases as well as through research in libraries. There is evidence that the main risk factors are age, pelvic floor trauma, hereditary factors, race, menopausal status, obesity, chronic diseases, use of some sympathomimetics and parasympatholitics, constipation, smoking, coffee consumption and intense abdominal exercises. Nurses are able to identify these factors through anamnesis and determine interventions for the prevention and treatment of UI, thus contributing to improve incontinent women's quality of life. PMID:18450165

  14. Combined therapy of urinary bladder radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scheme of therapy of radiation cystitis is suggested. It was developed on the basis of evaluation of literature data and clinical of 205 patients with radiation injury of the urinary bladder. The method is based on general and local therapy of damaged tissues by antiinflammatory drugs, anesthetics and stimulators of reparative regeneration. Severe ulcerative and incrustation cystites, refractory to conservative therapy, were treated by surgery, using antiseptics and reparation stimulators before, during and after operation. As a result, there were hardly any complications after reconstruction of the bladder with intestinal and peritoneal tissues. 104 patients (96.1%) were cured completely and ability to work was restored in 70 patients (76.9%)

  15. Derivaciones urinarias laparoscópicas / Laparoscopic urinary diversions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Alonso y Gregorio; M., Álvarez Maestro; P.M., Cabrera Castillo; A., Tabernero Gómez; R., Cansino Alcaide; J., Cisneros Ledo; J.J., De la Peña Barthel.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El tratamiento del cáncer vesical infiltrante y el carcinoma superficial de alto grado recidivante está claramente establecido en la cistectomía radical y linfadenectomía pelviana. Uno de los campos que más dudas plantea en su abordaje por vía laparoscópica es el tratamiento radical de [...] l cáncer vesical, que exige experiencia en cirugía laparoscópica pelviana y en el que la derivación urinaria presenta grandes dificultades técnicas a su abordaje laparoscópico. Objetivos: El objetivo fundamental de este artículo es comunicar nuestros resultados con las derivaciones urinarias tras cistectomía radical laparoscópica en las que hemos llevado a cabo las anastomosis ureteroileales por vía laparoscópica. Material y Métodos: Desde enero del 2005 hasta diciembre 2007 hemos completado 67 cistectomías radicales laparoscópicas. Hemos realizado un total de 28 derivaciones urinarias laparoscópicas según nuestra técnica, siendo en 7 pacientes enterocistoplastias de sustitución con una edad media de 54,85 años y en 21 pacientes ureteroileostomía cutánea con una edad media de 69,15 años. Resultados: El tiempo quirúrgico medio de la enterocistoplastia con anastomosis uretral y ureteral laparoscópicas es de 5 h y 30 min. Para la ureteroileostomía cutánea con anastomosis ureteral laparoscópica el tiempo quirúrgico medio ha sido de 4hs. y 30 min. Hemos tenido 1 caso de fuga urinaria en las neovejigas laparoscópicas y 3 casos en los conductos ileales laparoscópicos (14%). No hemos tenido ningún caso de dehiscencia intestinal ni de estenosis ureteroileal. La estancia media de las neovejigas es de 13,6 días para el 85% de los casos y de 11,8 días para el 77,7% de las ureteroileostomías laparoscópicas. Discusión: La cistectomía radical laparoscópica constituye un procedimiento todavía relegado a centros con gran experiencia en cirugía laparoscópica. El procedimiento más aceptado por la mayoría de los grupos incluye realizar la cistectomía por vía laparoscópica y la derivación urinaria por vía abierta. No existen evidencias sobre las posibles ventajas de las derivaciones urinarias por vía laparoscópica. En cualquier caso, son necesarios estudios comparativos para definir claramente el papel de la cirugía laparoscópica en las derivaciones urinarias. Abstract in english Introduction: The treatment of the invasive bladder cancer and the recurrent T1G3 is clearly established in radical cystectomy and pelvic linphadenectomy. One of the fields where the laparoscopic approach implies more doubts is the treatment of bladder cancer, because it requires experience enough i [...] n pelvic laparoscopic surgery and the urinary diversion implies great technical difficulties to the laparoscopic approach. Objetives: The main goal of this article is to report our results with the urinary diversion after laparoscopic radical cystectomy where the ureteral anastomosis has been performed by a laparoscopic approach. Methods: From January 2005 to December 2007 we have performed 67 laparoscopic radical cistectomies. We conducted 28 laparoscopic urinary diversions with our technique: 7 neobladder with an average age of 54,85 years and 21 ileal conduit with an average age of 69,15 years. Results: The averagesurgical time for enterocistoplasty with laparoscopic urethral and ureteral anastomosis is of 5 hours and 30 minutes. For the cutaneous ureteroileostomy with laparoscopic ureteral anastomosis the average surgical time has been of 4 hours and 30 minutes. We have had 1 case of urinary leakage in the laparoscopic neobladder and 3 cases in the laparoscopic ileal conduit (14%). We have not intestinal dehiscence nor ileal-ureteric stenosis. The average hospital stay for laparoscopic neobladder is for the 85% of cases of 13,6 days , and of 11,8 days for the 77,7% ofileal ureteric laparoscopies. Discussion: The laparoscopic radical cystectomy is still a procedure reserved for groups with great experience in laparoscopic surgery. Nowadays, the most accepted procedure by most groups

  16. Surgical Management of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Sharifi-Aghdas

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This review evaluates the most recent knowledge regarding surgical management of stress urinary incontinence.Materials and Methods: A comprehensive MEDLINE search was performed, limited to those articles published from 1995 to 2005; 470 articles were reviewed. The most relevant of which were considered, and additional ones were selected by reviewing these studies’ bibliographies. Overall, 53 articles were selected and used in this study.Results: Few randomized controlled trials have been done. The best results of retropubic procedures are seen when the intrinsic urethral sphincter is competent and its effectiveness is sustained in the long term. A laparoscopic approach, although less popular and with a lower short-term cure rate, is an alternative. Sling surgeries can be the first-line treatment for all types of stress urinary incontinence. Autologous grafts are still considered the gold standard, but synthetic materials such as tension-free tape have comparable results with standard open retropubic procedures. Still, long-term–cure and complication rates have not yet been elucidated. Using urethral bulking agents is the least invasive approach, applicable in both intrinsic sphincter deficiency and urethral hypermobility. However, it has a poor long-term outcome and necessitates repeat injections.Conclusion: Long-term data suggest that Burch colposuspension and sling procedures produce similar objective cure rates. New synthetic suburethral slings such as tension-free vaginal tape have gained popularity in recent years. Complications of traditional and newer suburethral slings are declining, but they still occur and often are associated with serious morbidity. New therapies should be studied in randomized clinical trials and compared with conventional approaches.

  17. Selecting appropriate absorbent products to treat urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Drew

    2015-11-01

    Urinary incontinence can have a significant negative effect on a person's life, especially if left unmanaged and untreated. Continence assessment, often carried out by community nurses, is an important element in the management of a person's urinary incontinence, and so is the selection of appropriate absorbent incontinence pads. This article reviews: the causes and effects of urinary incontinence; how to derive the most appropriate information from a continence assessment; strategies for selecting incontinence pads for a person, on the basis of the results of the continence assessment; and some of the problems and risks associated with the use of incontinence pads. PMID:26551385

  18. Visceral pain originating from the upper urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Frimodt-Møller, Poul Christian; Osther, Palle Jørn Sloth

    2010-01-01

    Pain originating from the upper urinary tract is a common problem and stone colic is one of the most intense pain conditions that can be experienced in the clinic. The pain is difficult to alleviate and often leads to medical attention. In humans, pain mechanisms of the upper urinary tract pain are still poorly understood, which often leads to a trial and error approach in clinical pain management. Pain from the upper urinary tract seems to have all the characteristics of pure visceral pain, inc...

  19. Antibacterial activity of Barringtonia acutangula against selected urinary tract pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barringtonia acutangula (L. Gaertn belonging to family Barringtoniaceae was investigated to evaluate In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanolic, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts against Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli the major urinary tract infection causing pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. Ethanol (95% extract exhibited broader spectrum of inhibition followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts against the urinary tract pathogens under test. An attempt has been made to compare the activity of extracts with standard antibiotics against selected urinary tract infection causing pathogens.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in lower urinary tract endometriosis: iconographic essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the endometrial cavity and myometrium. Although this is a frequent disease with multifactorial causes, involvement of the lower urinary tract is rare. Magnetic resonance imaging is highly sensitive, specific and accurate in the diagnosis of endometriosis in the lower urinary tract, especially for allowing the identification of lesions obscured by adhesions or with subperitoneal extension. The present iconographic essay presents the main magnetic resonance imaging findings of the lower urinary tract involvement by endometriosis. (author)

  1. Is there an association between depressive and urinary symptoms during and after pregnancy?

    OpenAIRE

    De Pol, G.; van Brummen, H. J.; Bruinse, H.W.; Heintz, A. P. M.; van der Vaart, C. H.

    2007-01-01

    Depressive symptoms and urinary symptoms are both highly prevalent in pregnancy. In the general population, an association is reported between urinary symptoms and depressive symptoms. The association of depressive and urinary symptoms has not yet been assessed in pregnancy. In this study, we assessed (1) the prevalence of depressive symptoms, over-active bladder (OAB) syndrome, urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) during and after pregnancy using the Center f...

  2. Products for Children with Enuresis and Daytime Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products for Children with Enuresis and Daytime Urinary Incontinence The products listed here are designed for children with bedwetting (enuresis) or daytime bladder control problems (incontinence or wetting). Some products, such as the bedwetting ...

  3. Urinary incontinence in the prediction of falls in hospitalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Cristina de Almeida Abreu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective Analyzing the effect of urinary incontinence as a predictor of the incidence of falls among hospitalized elderly. Method Concurrent cohort study where 221 elderly inpatients were followed from the date of admission until discharge, death or fall. The Kaplan-Meier methods, the incidence density and the Cox regression model were used for the survival analysis and the assessment of the association between the exposure variable and the other variables. Results Urinary incontinence was a strong predictor of falls in the surveyed elderly, and was associated with shorter time until the occurrence of event. Urinary incontinence, concomitant with gait and balance dysfunction and use of antipsychotics was associated with falls. Conclusion Measures to prevent the risk of falls specific to hospitalized elderly patients who have urinary incontinence are necessary.

  4. Treatment of urinary voiding dysfunction syndromes with spinal cord stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Alexander E; Resch, Beth E

    2010-03-01

    This case report presents the use of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in a patient with urinary incontinence who had previously undergone trial and implantation of InterStim therapy (Medtronic Neurological, Minneapolis, MN). The patient also experienced bilateral lower extremity pain and low back pain related to post-laminectomy syndrome. Having failed all conservative treatment, the patient underwent SCS trial and subsequent implantation. In the postoperative period using SCS therapy, the patient had excellent relief of urinary incontinence symptoms, along with relief of low back pain and bilateral lower extremity pain and was able to discontinue use of InterStim therapy. For this patient, SCS was effective in controlling the urinary voiding dysfunction symptoms, bilateral lower extremity pain and back pain. The use of SCS to treat urinary incontinence problems deserves further study to explore its therapeutic potentials. PMID:20305146

  5. International Spinal Cord Injury Urinary Tract Infection Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetz, L L; Cardenas, D D; Kennelly, M; Bonne Lee, B S; Linsenmeyer, T; Moser, C; Pannek, J; Wyndaele, J-J; Biering-Sorensen, F

    2013-01-01

    To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research.

  6. Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most urinary tract infections (UTI) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. This can lead ... sure your doctor knows if you could be pregnant before starting the antibiotics. Your doctor may also ...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections in Adolescents and Adults (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... home and continue taking oral antibiotics there. Most pregnant women with a kidney infection are hospitalized and treated with intravenous (IV) antibiotics and fluids. (See "Urinary tract infections and asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy" .) RECURRENT BLADDER ...

  8. Urinary tract infections in patients with spinal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection remains an important problem for patients with spinal cord injury. Interventions used to promote bladder emptying and maintain low-pressure voiding have variable risks for urinary tract infection. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in this population and should not be treated. However, identification of symptomatic infection is compromised by difficulties in ascertainment of symptoms. Use of hydrophilic coated catheters for intermittent catheterization does not influence the frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection. Botulinum toxin injection in the detrusor muscle or the urethral sphincter improves bladder emptying and does not influence the frequency of urinary infection. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is a common finding in pregnant women with spinal cord injury, but optimal management is not clear. Other research needs include further development and evaluation of interventions to decrease the frequency of infection, improve diagnostic precision, and limit the emergence of resistant organisms. PMID:24445675

  9. Blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol in asthmatic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Data on blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol after inhalation and oral administration in healthy subjects are scarce. Accordingly, we examined the pharmacokinetics of inhaled and oral salbutamol in asthmatic subjects.

  10. Evaluation of a behavioral treatment for female urinary incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Santacreu M; Fernández-Ballesteros R

    2011-01-01

    Marta Santacreu, Rocío Fernández-BallesterosBiological and Health Psychology, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Urinary incontinence is a medical, psychological, social, economic, and hygienic problem. Although it is difficult to state its prevalence, all authors agree that it is related to age and gender. This study aimed to carry out a urinary incontinence behavioral treatment in order to reduce urine leakages in 14 participants recruited from a s...

  11. Urinary incontinence after vaginal delivery or cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    João Bosco Ramos Borges; Telma Guarisi; Ana Carolina Marchesini de Camargo; Thomaz Rafael Gollop; Rogério Bonassi Machado; Pítia Cárita de Godoy Borges

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence, urge incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence among women residing in the city of Jundiaí (São Paulo, Brazil), and the relation between the type of incontinence and the obstetric history of these women. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted. A total of 332 women were interviewed; they were seen for whatever reason at the public primary healthcare units of the city of Jundiaí, from March 2005 to Apr...

  12. When Are Urodynamics Indicated in Patients with Stress Urinary Incontinence?

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Benjamin E.; Zimmern, Philippe E.

    2012-01-01

    Despite technical and procedural advances in urodynamics over the past decade, the role of urodynamics in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) remains controversial. Many of these advancements have been the result of multicentric studies in the United States, such as the UITN and PFDN, which will be highlighted in this article. It appears to be the consensus that urodynamics may not be needed in pure stress incontinence. Urodynamics can be valuable in unmasking stress urinary incontin...

  13. Physiotherapy for stress urinary incontinence: a national survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Mantle, J; Versi, E.

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the physiotherapeutic treatment of urinary stress incontinence in England. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire survey. SETTING--All 192 English district health authorities. SUBJECTS--One physiotherapist from each district who was primarily concerned with urinary incontinence. A consensus view was requested. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Responses to questionnaire and analysis of a visual analogue scale to indicate effectiveness. RESULTS--There was a 98% response rate. Treatment was ofte...

  14. Scintiphotography in diagnosis of urinary fistula after renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintiphotographic studies in six patients with ureteral fistula following renal transplantation are presented. Images were obtained using /sup 99m/Tc-Sn-DTPA or 131I-orthoiodohippurate. Urinary leakage was accurately detected in each case but the pattern of extravasation is highly variable. When carefully performed, radionuclide scintiphotography is a safe and effective method for detecting urinary leakage after renal transplantation. (U.S.)

  15. Engineering out the risk for infection with urinary catheters.

    OpenAIRE

    Maki, D. G.; Tambyah, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common nosocomial infection. Each year, more than 1 million patients in U.S. acute-care hospitals and extended-care facilities acquire such an infection; the risk with short-term catheterization is 5% per day. CAUTI is the second most common cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection, and studies suggest that patients with CAUTI have an increased institutional death rate, unrelated to the development of urosepsis. Novel urinary ca...

  16. Aseptic Meningitis with Urinary Retention: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Stravodimos; Dimitrios Bougas; Sofia Kanellopoulou; Kostas Konstantopoulos; Aristidis Alevizopoulos; Fotinie Ntziora

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Aseptic meningitis is serious inflammation of the meninges caused by agents including viruses, non-viral pathogens, non-infectious conditions and chemicals. Case Presentation. This study concerns the case of a 16-year-old healthy Greek female with persistent fever, mild headache and acute urinary retention, secondary to aseptic meningitis. Physical examination revealed no distinct signs of meningeal irritation. The urinary bladder was palpable, painless and over-distended. Serol...

  17. Urinary tract infections in adult general practice patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Kochen, Michael M.

    2002-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are symptomatic infections of the urinary tract, mainly caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli. One in two women suffers from a UTI at least once in her life. The young and sexually active are particulaly affected, but it is also seen in elderly, postmenopausal women. The likelihood of recurrence is high. Diagnosis is made with regard to typical complaints and the presence of leucocytes and nitrites in the urine. A culture is unnecessary in most cases. Uncomp...

  18. Development and evaluation of an antimicrobial urinary catheter

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years the healthcare setting has seen a vast increase in the use of medical devices and whilst this may have improved clinical outcomes for patients their increase in use has given rise to an increase in medical - device associated infections. It has been reported that urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for up to 40% of all healthcare associated infections and about 80% of those are associated with catheter use [1]. Urinary catheters are hollow, flexible, tubular device...

  19. Rat Indwelling Urinary Catheter Model of Candida albicans Biofilm Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Jeniel E.; Brooks, Erin G.; Cabezas-Olcoz, Jonathan; Sanchez, Hiram; Zarnowski, Robert; Marchillo, Karen; David R. Andes

    2014-01-01

    Indwelling urinary catheters are commonly used in the management of hospitalized patients. Candida can adhere to the device surface and propagate as a biofilm. These Candida biofilm communities differ from free-floating Candida, exhibiting high tolerance to antifungal therapy. The significance of catheter-associated candiduria is often unclear, and treatment may be problematic considering the biofilm drug-resistant phenotype. Here we describe a rodent model for the study of urinary catheter-a...

  20. Lower urinary tract symptoms after subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common after hysterectomy and increase after menopause. We aimed to compare subtotal with total abdominal hysterectomy regarding LUTS, including urinary incontinence (UI) subtypes, 14 years after hysterectomy. Main results from this randomized clinical trial have been published previously; the analyses covered in this paper are exploratory. METHODS: We performed a long-term questionnaire follow-up of women in a randomized clini...

  1. Do urinary tract infections affect morale among very old women?

    OpenAIRE

    Fagerström Lisbeth; Gustafson Yngve; Eriksson Irene; Olofsson Birgitta

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is among the most common bacterial infections in women of all ages but the incidence increases with older age. Despite the fact that UTI is a common problem it is still poorly investigated regarding its connection with experienced health and morale. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of a diagnosed, symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) with or without ongoing treatment on morale or subjective wellbeing among very old women. M...

  2. Investigation of Urinary Tract Infection in Neonates with Hyperbilirubinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Zia Eslami; Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed on 100 jaundiced neonates as cases and on 100 neonates without hyperbilirubinemia as controls to investigate the incidence of UTI in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia. Medical history, physical examinations and laboratory tests were done on all cases and data was analyzed by SPSS software. The urinary analysis and culture (U/A, U/C) were performed on the urinary samples which were collected by bladder catheterization under sterile condition. Of the total of 100 jaundic...

  3. Cobb's collar: a rare cause of urinary retention

    OpenAIRE

    Adorisio, Ottavio; Bassani, Francesca; Silveri, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Cobb's collar is a membranous stricture of the bulbar urethra, often misdiagnosed, potentially leading to acute urinary retention, upper urinary tract dilations, enuresis, infectious diseases, poor streaming and haematuria. A 14-year-old boy with a history of previous hospitalisations came to our attention. A Cobb's collar was diagnosed and successfully managed with a videoendoscopic one-step approach. Although extremely uncommon, paediatric urologists must be aware of this congenital anomaly...

  4. A current perspective on geriatric lower urinary tract dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Ha Bum; Kim, Hyung Jee; Cho, Sung Tae

    2015-01-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction-such as urinary incontinence (UI), detrusor overactivity, and benign prostatic hyperplasia-is prevalent in elderly persons. These conditions can interfere with daily life and normal functioning and lead to negative effects on health-related quality of life. UI is one of the most common urologic conditions but is poorly understood elderly persons. The overall prevalence of UI increases with age in both men and women. Elderly persons often neglect UI or dismiss i...

  5. Urinary and Fecal Incontinence in Nursing Home Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Felix W Leung; Schnelle, John F

    2008-01-01

    Urinary and fecal incontinence (UI, FI) are co-morbid conditions affecting over 50% of nursing home residents. Both forms of incontinence are risk factors for elderly persons to be placed in the nursing home, and such institutionalization itself is a risk factor for developing incontinence. Management should focus on identifying and treating underlying causes, such as detrusor instability, urinary tract infections, diet- or medication-induced diarrhea, constipation and fecal impaction. Despit...

  6. Endoscopic Management of Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Bong Hee; Jeon, Seong Soo

    2013-01-01

    Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is relatively uncommon. Radical nephroureterectomy with an ipsilateral bladder cuff excision has been the gold standard treatment for UTUC. However, recent advances in technology have made possible the increased use of endoscopic management for the treatment of UTUC. The definitive goal of endoscopic management of UTUC is cancer control while maintaining renal function and the integrity of the urinary tract. Endoscopic management includes both t...

  7. Alterations of urinary metabolite profile in model diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stec, Donald F. [Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Wang, Suwan; Stothers, Cody [Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Avance, Josh [Berea College, 1916 CPO, Berea, KY 40404 (United States); Denson, Deon [Choctaw Central High School, Philadelphia, MS 39350 (United States); Harris, Raymond [Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Voziyan, Paul, E-mail: paul.voziyan@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy was employed to study urinary metabolite profile in diabetic mouse models. • Mouse urinary metabolome showed major changes that are also found in human diabetic nephropathy. • These models can be new tools to study urinary biomarkers that are relevant to human disease. - Abstract: Countering the diabetes pandemic and consequent complications, such as nephropathy, will require better understanding of disease mechanisms and development of new diagnostic methods. Animal models can be versatile tools in studies of diabetic renal disease when model pathology is relevant to human diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetic models using endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice develop major renal lesions characteristic of human disease. However, it is unknown whether they can also reproduce changes in urinary metabolites found in human DN. We employed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic mouse models of DN, i.e. STZ-eNOS{sup ?/?} C57BLKS and eNOS{sup ?/?} C57BLKS db/db, with the goal of determining changes in urinary metabolite profile using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Six urinary metabolites with significantly lower levels in diabetic compared to control mice have been identified. Specifically, major changes were found in metabolites from tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid catabolism including 3-indoxyl sulfate, cis-aconitate, 2-oxoisocaproate, N-phenyl-acetylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, and hippurate. Levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and hippuric acid showed the strongest reverse correlation to albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), which is an indicator of renal damage. Importantly, similar changes in urinary hydroxyphenyl acetate and hippurate were previously reported in human renal disease. We demonstrated that STZ-eNOS{sup ?/?} C57BLKS and eNOS{sup ?/?} C57BLKS db/db mouse models can recapitulate changes in urinary metabolome found in human DN and therefore can be useful new tools in metabolomic studies relevant to human pathology.

  8. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao A Venket

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03 with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body.

  9. Minimum effective dose of trimethoprim for urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    Blackstone, Victoria; Grüneberg, R. N.

    1988-01-01

    Non-pregnant women with urinary tract infection attending a health centre were treated with single doses of 400 mg, 200 mg or 100 mg of trimethoprim. The cure rates for these doses were 100%, 93% and 90%, respectively. In general practice the expected cure rate for this infection treated conventionally over five to seven days is 85-90%. Therefore, 100 mg of trimethoprim is the minimum effective dose for the treatment of urinary tract infection in general practice.

  10. Screening with urinary dipsticks for reducing morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Lasse T; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary dipsticks are sometimes used for screening asymptomatic people, and for case-finding among inpatients or outpatients who do not have genitourinary symptoms. Abnormalities identified on screening sometimes lead to additional investigations, which may identify serious disease, such as bladder cancer and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Urinary dipstick screening could improve prognoses due to earlier detection, but could also lead to unnecessary and potentially invasive follow-up ...

  11. Lower urinary tract symptoms after total and subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Birthe Jakobsen; Sørensen, Helle Christina; Toftager-Larsen, Kim; Sidenius, Katrine; Møller, Nini; Madsen, Ellen Merete; Vejtorp, Mogens; Clausen, Helle; Rosgaard, Annie; Villumsen, John; Gluud, Christian; Ottesen, Bent S; Tabor, Ann

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this Danish multicenter trial was to compare the proportion of women with lower urinary tract symptoms after total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy (SAH) for benign uterine disorders. A total of 319 women were randomized to TAH (n = 158) or SAH (n = 161). Women were followed up for 1 year by strict data collection procedures, including postal questionnaires. Results were analyzed by intention-to-treat analyses. Urinary incontinence was found less often ...

  12. Local Immune Response to Upper Urinary Tract Infections in Children?

    OpenAIRE

    Kantele, Anu; Palkola, Nina; Arvilommi, Heikki; Honkinen, Olli; Jahnukainen, Timo; Mertsola, Jussi; Kantele, Jussi M.

    2008-01-01

    Vaccines are needed against urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children, as episodes of pyelonephritis (PN) may cause renal scarring. Local immune mechanisms are regarded to confer protection, yet they have been poorly characterized for children. This study explores the local immune response in children by looking for newly activated pathogen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC), expected to appear transiently in the circulation as a response to UTI. Urinary tract-originating ASC specific ...

  13. The Effects of Oxidative Stress in Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Kilinc; Mustafa Gul; P?nar Ciragil; Ergul Belge Kurutas

    2005-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of oxidative stress in urinary tract infection (UTI). One hundred sixty-four urine samples obtained from patients with the prediagnosis of acute UTI admitted to the Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, were included in this study. Urine cultures were performed according to standard techniques. Urinary isolates were identified by using API ID 32E. The catalase and superoxide dismutase activity and the lipid peroxida...

  14. Cranberry in prevention of urinary tract Infections in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda-Machado Pablo Andrés

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The urinary infection tract is the most common infectious complication in pregnancy.The aim was to conduct a literature review of the evidence on effectiveness, safetyand cost effectiveness of cranberry products in preventing urinary tract infection inpregnancy. Studies suggest a potential protective effect of cranberry products againsturinary tract infection in pregnancy and there is no documented evidence of danger orcontraindication in pregnancy or lactation. The cost effectiveness of cranberry productsin pregnancy has not been evaluated.

  15. Prevalence of urinary tract infection in homosexual and heterosexual men.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, A. P.; Tovey, S. J.; Adler, M W; Grüneberg, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    Homosexual practices might be expected to result in an increase in urinary tract infection in adult men. Midstream urine specimens were collected from 200 homosexual and 205 heterosexual men attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. Three specimens from each group yielded more than 10(5) Escherichia coli per ml. The prevalence of urinary tract infection among homosexuals was therefore similar to that in the heterosexual population.

  16. Urinary tract infection in children: a survey of management

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, S R; Irwin, W G

    1983-01-01

    Two hundred and forty general practitioners were questioned on their management of urinary tract infection in children. The liaison with hospitals in treating urinary tract infection in children was also evaluated. While the survey showed enthusiasm among general practitioners to treat the condition, there was evidence in a significant minority of cases of delayed referral to hospital based on outmoded practice. Detailed analysis of the questionnaire and a statement of present policy is repor...

  17. Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid in the treatment of urinary infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Al Roomi, L G; Sutton, A M; Cockburn, F; McAllister, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of amoxycillin combined with clavulanic acid in the treatment of 32 children with urinary tract infection were studied. Twenty one (80%) of 26 children with proved urinary tract infection showed a favourable clinical and bacteriological response. Fifteen of these children had amoxycillin resistant organisms and were treated successfully. In 20 children the serum and urine concentrations of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid were measured after the first...

  18. Etiology of urinary tract infection in scholar children

    OpenAIRE

    Ubirajara Barroso Jr; Danilo V. Barroso; Modesto Jacobino; Antonio J. Vinhaes; Antonio Macedo Jr.; Miguel Srougi

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the prevalence of vesicourethral dysfunction in children over 3 years old, comparing it with the occurrence rate for other potential factors that cause urinary infection in this age range. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 36 girls and 9 boys were assessed, with mean age of 6.4 years, ranging from 3 to 13.9 years. These children were prospectively assessed regarding the presence of symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction. These data were compared with the retrospec...

  19. Renal scintigraphy in children with first febrile urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urinary tract infection is one of the most frequent bacterial infections in the childhood. Two hundred eleven children diagnosed as first febrile urinary tract infection patients were studied and performed Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in the acute phase of infection. The results were correlated to the duration and intensity of the fever before the diagnosis, to the acute phase reactants (hemogram, erythrosedimentation and reactive-C protein) and to the results of imaging studies (renal ultrasound and mictional uretrocystography)

  20. Identification of Urinary Peptide Biomarkers Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Stalmach, Angelique; Johnsson, Hanna; McInnes, Iain B; Husi, Holger; Klein, Julie; Dakna, Mohammed; Mullen, William; Mischak, Harald; Porter, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis are associated with improved outcomes but current diagnostic tools such as rheumatoid factor or anti-citrullinated protein antibodies have shown limited sensitivity. In this pilot study we set out to establish a panel of urinary biomarkers associated with rheumatoid arthritis using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. We compared the urinary proteome of 33 participants of the Scottish Early Rheumatoid Arthritis inception...