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Sample records for urinary calculi

  1. Analyses of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary calculi have been analysed at Birmingham University using three separate techniques: autoradiographic analysis using charged particle activation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with accompanying X-ray microanalysis, and proton induced characteristic X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This latter technique has been developed as a method for quantitative analysis of biological material for trace and minor elements. Closer examinations on the SEM have revealed several interesting and unexpected trace elements particularly in the nuclear region of the stones formed in the bladder or the kidney. The results of the PIXE analyses are important since trace elements (i.e. Ti, Fe, S, Sr, Cu, Cl, K, Zn) have been determined which have been undetectable by previous methods of stone analysis. The analyses have lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of stone formation. The techniques have also been used successfully with investigations on biliary calculi (gall stones). (author)

  2. [Urinary calculi and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete clearance of the stone must be achieved by primary surgical procedure and residual fragments should be extensively treated. In the case of persistent infection, conservative measures, such as acidification and urease inhibitors or citrate administration, should be adopted to minimize its effect on urinary saturation with respect to struvite. PMID:24874306

  3. Computed tomographic analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excised urinary calculi were subjected to computed tomographic (CT) scanning in an attempt to determine whether CT attenuation values would allow accurate analysis of stone composition. The mean, maximum, and modal pixel densities of the calculi were recorded and compared; the resulting values reflected considerable heterogeneity in stone density. Although uric acid and cystine calculi could be identified by their discrete ranges on one or more of these criteria, calcium-containing stones of various compositions, including struvite, could not be distinguished reliably. CT analysis of stone density is not likely to be more accurate than standard radiography in characterizing stone composition in vivo

  4. Computed tomographic analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) was employed in an effort to analyze the chemical composition of urinary calculi. Twenty-three surgically removed calculi were scanned in a water bath (in vitro study). Forteen of them in the body were scanned (in vivo study). The calculi consisted of four types: mixed calcium oxalate and phosphate, mixed calcium carbonate and phosphate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, and uric acid. The in vitro study showed that the mean and maximum CT values of uric acid stones were significantly lower than those of the other three types of stones. This indicated that stones with less than 450 HU are composed of uric acid. In an in vivo study, CT did not help to differentiate the three types of urinary calculi, except for uric acid stones. Regarding the mean CT values, there was no correlation between in vitro and in vivo studies. An experiment with commercially available drugs showed that CT values of urinary calculi were not dependent upon the composition, but dependent upon the density of the calculi. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. [Experiences with instrumental methods for urinary calculi analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asper, R; Schmucki, O

    1979-08-01

    To reduce the urinary calculi incidence by calculi formers, it is important to know the composition of these stones. Unfortunately the chemical analysis does not give very reliable results. Looking for a better method to analyse urinary calculi, three instrumental methods were tested: infared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The experimental results and economical considerations show that the X-ray diffraction analysis of urinary calculi would meet the goal of improved care of patients with stones. PMID:489410

  6. Evaluation of Urinary Calculi by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrasool Mehrsai

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Purpose: To analyze urinary calculi composition and its relationship with gender, age, calculus weight, color, and location.

    Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty one patients with urinary calculus, who had undergone open lithotomy from June 1999 to April 2001, were enrolled in this prospective study which was performed by Tehran and Oroomieh Medical Sciences Universities. The calculi compositions were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy in Bonn University. Statistical analyses were made by paired t test

    Results: One hundred and forty five males with a mean age of 40.4 years and 96 females with a mean age of 42.5 years were enrolled in this study. Mean calculus weight was 4.28 gr. Mean calculus number was 4.33. Thirty four (14.1% calculi were pure (carbonate apatite: 2, brushite: 1, uric acid: 19, cystine: 3, weddellite: 6, mono-NH4-urate: 2, struvite: 1, 207(85.6% were mixed and none of them contained octa-ca-phosphate, apatite, newberyte, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, mono-Na-urate, or xanthine. Weddellite was found in 77% of calculi. It comprised more than 50% of them in 26% of cases. Whewellite crystals were found in 78% of calculi. It comprised more than 50% of them in 46% of cases. The most common pure calculus was uric acid and the most common component of calculi was whewellite followed by weddellite.

    Conclusion: Although there is no comprehensive study on urolithiasis incidence and prevalence in Iran, it can be concluded that whewellite and weddellite may be the most common components of urolithiasis in Iran and uric acid calculi are the most common pure calculi. There was no significant difference in calculi composition in our study.

  7. Evaluation of Urinary Calculi by Infrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolrasool Mehrsai; Ali Taghizadeh Afshari; Zohrevand, R.; Hooman Djaladat; Steffes, H. J.; Hesse, A.; Gholamreza Pourmand

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze urinary calculi composition and its relationship with gender, age, calculus weight, color, and location.

    Materi...

  8. Nondestructive analysis of urinary calculi using micro computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Lingeman James E; Hatt Erin K; Kim Samuel C.; Sommer Andre J; McAteer James A; Zarse Chad A; Evan Andrew P; Williams James C

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Micro computed tomography (micro CT) has been shown to provide exceptionally high quality imaging of the fine structural detail within urinary calculi. We tested the idea that micro CT might also be used to identify the mineral composition of urinary stones non-destructively. Methods Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were measured for mineral that was positively identified by infrared microspectroscopy (FT-IR). To do this, human urinary stones were sectioned with a diamond...

  9. Raman spectroscopic investigation of urinary calculi and salivary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The capabilities and limitations of determining the composition of urinary calculi (34 patients) and salivary stones (27 patients) by Raman spectroscopy have been investigated by analysing Raman spectra obtained with 1064 nm laser excitation, and comparing them with Raman spectra both from specific reference substances and from a commercial Raman database. The composition results were also compared with those obtained by other analytical methods e.g. powder diffraction. Raman spectroscopy proves to be an analytical method which provides reliable results on the composition of urinary calculi and salivary stones quickly, non-destructively and without any need of sample preparation. (author)

  10. Dietary dissolution of urinary calculi in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A young adult, castrated male DSH cat was admitted for pollakiuria, hematuria and dysuria. The cat was being fed a commercial dry grocery brand cat food. Radiographs demonstrated multiple radiodense cystic calculi and urinalysis showed hematuria but no crystalluria. A tentative diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis was made. The cat was fed s/d® Feline food exclusively. Clinical signs disappeared within a week and no calculi were visible radiographically within three weeks. s/d® Feline food was continued an additional two weeks. This case study shows that s/d® Feline therapeutic food can be used to successfully manage struvite urolithiasis in cats

  11. The location of urinary calculi using radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of in vivo labelling urinary calculi with sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate is described. This enables a radionuclide image of the stones to be produced and permits their location at operation by means of a small scintillation detector. The degree of uptake of the radiopharmaceutical on renal stones appears to depend on a number of factors, particularly the chemical composition of the stones. (author)

  12. [Metabolic etiology of urinary calculi in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go?abek, B

    1982-01-01

    The analysed material includes 100 children with urolithiasis treated in the Pediatric Clinic of the National Research Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw between 1976 and 1978. Patients' age was from 3 months to 18 years. The analysed group included 51 boys and 49 girls. Urinary tract infection was found in 54 cases, i.e. 57,4% of the analysed material. The most common bacterial strains were those producing urease. They were detected in 48 children i.e. 88,9% of cases with urinary tract infection. Mostly these were bacteria of Proteus group--sporadically Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus albus. In the analysed patients urinary tract obstruction was observed in 36 children, i.e. 36% of cases. In 77% of the analysed material, localization of concrements was in upper urinary tract in 19% in the ureters and in 4% in the lover urinary tract. While in adult patients the most common compound of urinary stones was calcium oxalate, in children the most common stone compounds were phosphates (found in 38 cases i.e. 58,4% of the analysed material). The second frequent compound was oxalate found in 20 cases (30,7%). Less frequent compounds were uric acid and cystine. Performed study allowed to establish the cause of urolithiasis in 93 out of 100 examined children. Metabolic reasons of urolithiasis were found in 26 cases, i.e. 26% of the analysed material. They were as follows: idiopathic hypercalciuria--12 cases, uric acid urolithiasis--8 cases, primary hyperoxaluria--3 cases, cystinuria--2 cases, and incomplete acidosis of distal renal tubuli--1 case. Urolithiasis of probably metabolic origin was detected in 13 children (13%). Other reasons of urolithiasis in children were: infection (31%), idiopathic urolithiasis (17%) and others (6%). In 7 cases the reason of urolithiasis was not established. PMID:7178091

  13. In vitro characterization of urinary calculi: Dual-energy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a dual-energy program implemented on a Siemens Somatom DR3 CT unit, the authors attempted to discriminate between urinary calculi of different chemical compositions by means of selective image reconstruction based on their high kVp(125 keV), low kVp (85 keV), 65 keV, and electron density values. Simultaneous dual-energy images were obtained using a technique of rapid kVp switching (85 and 125 keV) and advanced evaluation algorithms. Representative stones of pure and mixed composition were scanned in a water bath. Computer printouts of electron density and CT attenuation values at each kVp setting were obtained. Preliminary observations indicate readily feasible discrimination between uric acid and all other calculi and between struvite stones and brushite or calcium oxalate stones

  14. Optical spectroscopy of phosphatic urinary calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarynovska, Ivanna H.; Bilyi, Alexander I.

    2007-07-01

    Infrared and Raman spectroscopy are main methods for urine stones type identification today. At the same time they have a limited application for some types of urine stones. Moreover these methods are time-consuming, often hampered by pellet breakage and interpretation of spectra for quantifying urinary calculus constituents in mixtures is difficult, requiring expert knowledge by trained technicians. The other known methods for analyse urinary calculus constituents besides their merits have also such demerits as inexactitude in type identification and high cost of analysis. We propose a new method for urine stones type determination. It is based on luminescent spectroscopy. In this work the results of researches of spectrums of excitation and luminescence of dry tailings of urine are considered. The nature of watched luminescence of urine is explained. Dependence between urine stone type and luminescence maximum localization is investigated.

  15. Study of cystine urinary calculi in dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Escolar, E.; Bellanato, J.; Rodriquez, M.

    1991-01-01

    The composition and structure of 48 canine cystine urinary stones were determined by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron dispersive X-ray analysis. The infrared analysis showed that about 45% of the specimens were composed of pure cystine. The remainder also contained calcium oxalate (mono and/or dihydrate), magnesium ammonium phosphate hexadydrate (struvite), calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (brushite) and complex urates (ammonium, ammonium potassium and/or p...

  16. Nondestructive analysis of urinary calculi using micro computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingeman James E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro computed tomography (micro CT has been shown to provide exceptionally high quality imaging of the fine structural detail within urinary calculi. We tested the idea that micro CT might also be used to identify the mineral composition of urinary stones non-destructively. Methods Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were measured for mineral that was positively identified by infrared microspectroscopy (FT-IR. To do this, human urinary stones were sectioned with a diamond wire saw. The cut surface was explored by FT-IR and regions of pure mineral were evaluated by micro CT to correlate x-ray attenuation values with mineral content. Additionally, intact stones were imaged with micro CT to visualize internal morphology and map the distribution of specific mineral components in 3-D. Results Micro CT images taken just beneath the cut surface of urinary stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail that could be correlated with structure visible in the optical image mode of FT-IR. Regions of pure mineral were not difficult to find by FT-IR for most stones and such regions could be localized on micro CT images of the cut surface. This was not true, however, for two brushite stones tested; in these, brushite was closely intermixed with calcium oxalate. Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were collected for six minerals that could be found in regions that appeared to be pure, including uric acid (3515 – 4995 micro CT attenuation units, AU, struvite (7242 – 7969 AU, cystine (8619 – 9921 AU, calcium oxalate dihydrate (13815 – 15797 AU, calcium oxalate monohydrate (16297 – 18449 AU, and hydroxyapatite (21144 – 23121 AU. These AU values did not overlap. Analysis of intact stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail and could discriminate multiple mineral types within heterogeneous stones. Conclusions Micro CT gives excellent structural detail of urinary stones, and these results demonstrate the feasibility of identifying and localizing most of the common mineral types found in urinary calculi using laboratory CT.

  17. [Urinary calculi analysis using X-ray diffraction: selection, use and advantages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asper, R; Schmucki, O

    1981-08-01

    Analysis of urinary calculi by X-ray diffraction: The evaluation of X-ray diffraction for the analysis of urinary calculi led to the substitution of the analysis by qualitative-chemical reactions. This instrumental method is performed in the routine laboratory in Zurich since two years. The interlaboratory quality assurance programme of 100 laboratories showed the advantage of the new method, producing correct results. On the contrary the old fashioned method by qualitative-chemical reactions yields questionable results. PMID:7287486

  18. Non-contrast thin-section helical CT of urinary tract calculi in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strouse, Peter J. [Section of Pediatric Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bates, Gregory D. [Department of Radiology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Bloom, David A. [Department of Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States); Goodsitt, Mitchell M. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Background: Non-contrast thin-section helical CT has gained acceptance for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in adults, but experience with the technique in children is limited. Purpose: To evaluate the utility of non-contrast thin section helical CT for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in children. Materials and methods: Radiology databases at three pediatric institutions were searched to identify all pediatric patients evaluated by ''renal stone'' protocol CT scans (no oral or intravenous contrast, scans covering the entire urinary tract obtained in helical mode with narrow collimation (< 5 mm)). CT scans were reviewed for the primary finding of urinary tract calculi, for secondary signs of acute urinary tract obstruction and for evidence of alternative diagnoses. Medical records were reviewed to determine clinical presentation and to confirm the eventual diagnosis. Results: One hundred thirty-seven scans of 113 children (mean age: 11.2 years) were studied. Thirty-eight of 94 examinations (40%) performed on 82 children for acute pain and/or hematuria showed ureteral calculi. Alternative diagnoses were suggested by CT on 16 scans (17%). Twenty-eight scans were performed on 10 asymptomatic children with known calculus disease confirming renal stone burden on 21 scans (75%) and persistent ureteral calculi on 6 scans (21%). Upper tract calculi were demonstrated on 10 of 15 scans (67%) performed to evaluate for calculi in patients with known non-calculus genitourinary tract abnormalities. Conclusions: Non-contrast thin section helical CT is a useful method to diagnose urinary tract calculi in children. Radiation dose in this retrospective study may exceed the lowest possible radiation dose for diagnostic accuracy. Further research is needed to optimize CT imaging parameters, while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and minimizing radiation dose. (orig.)

  19. Current status of minimally invasive management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi

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    Kolla Surendra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The surgical management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi has evolved from open surgery to minimally invasive techniques. With advancement in instrumentation, endourological procedures are being performed more commonly in children. However, the endourological management of renal and ureteral stones in the pediatric population is considered challenging, owing to the smaller size of the urinary tract. Various minimally invasive techniques that are being applied in the management of pediatric urolithiasis, include shock wave lithitripsy (SWL, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL, ureterorenoscopy and a combination of these procedures. The role of SWL is well established and is considered the first line of treatment in the management of urinary calculi in pediatric patients. Recent reports have confirmed the safety of PCNL and ureteroscopy in children, although they are not as widely practiced in children as in adults. This article reviews literature published till October 2005, pertaining to the minimally invasive management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi.

  20. Factors affecting urinary calculi treatment by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

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    Tarawneh Emad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL is still the treatment of choice for most renal and upper ureteric stones; however the outcome depends on multiple factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stone density, as measured by Hounsfield Units (H.U by non-contrast Computerized Tomography (CT, stone size and stone location on ESWL treatment outcome of urinary calculi in Jordanian patients. 65 patients underwent clinical, biochemical and radiological assessments followed by ESWL treatment. Statistical analyses including chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA, correlation, regression were performed for statistical significance between ESWL treatment, stone fragmentation and stone density, size and location in the renal pelvis. ESWL success rate was high (94% for low density stones (< 500 Hounsfield units. In general CT densities of 750 Hounsfield units or less were almost always successfully treated by ESWL. An inverse association between ESWL treatment outcome and stone size was also documented. CT stone density and stone size combined account for nearly 73% of the variation in the number of shock waves required to attain fragmentation. Stones located in lower calyceal area had less success rates. In conclusion, stones with higher density, large size and lower location may better be managed by percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

  1. Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm2 and 0.1 cm2 over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

  2. Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients

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    Ciudin, Alexandru; Luque Galvez, Maria Pilar; Franco de Castro, Agustin; Garcia-Cruz, Eduardo; Alcover Garcia, Juan; Alvarez-Vijande Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Alcaraz Asensio, Antonio [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Urology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Salvador Izquierdo, Rafael; Nicolau, Carlos [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm{sup 2} and 0.1 cm{sup 2} over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

  3. Current status of minimally invasive management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Kolla Surendra; Wadhwa Pankaj; Aron Monish

    2006-01-01

    The surgical management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi has evolved from open surgery to minimally invasive techniques. With advancement in instrumentation, endourological procedures are being performed more commonly in children. However, the endourological management of renal and ureteral stones in the pediatric population is considered challenging, owing to the smaller size of the urinary tract. Various minimally invasive techniques that are being applied in the management of pedia...

  4. The comparison of PIXE and other methods in the analysis of biliary and urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton induced X-ray analysis (PIXE) and scanning electron microscopy together with X-ray microanalysis have been used to examine biliary and urinary calculi. Particular attention has been given to the centre or nuclear region of the stones and several interesting and unexpected trace elements have been found in these regions. Detailed analyses have indicated distinct mechanisms of formation and growth. (orig.)

  5. [Size and formation of crystals in urinary calculi studied with x-ray diffraction profiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asper, R; Schmucki, O

    1984-01-01

    Application on in vivo grown urinary calculi shows that crystals of uric.acid.dihydrate and calcium.oxalate.dihydrate are larger than crystals of uric.acid.siccum and calcium.oxalate.monohydrate. These findings could be explained by the hypothesis, that dehydrated forms are secondary formations out of dihydrate crystals. PMID:6527718

  6. Dual-energy CT for the evaluation of urinary calculi: Image interpretation, pitfalls and stone mimics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with a reported prevalence between 4% and 20% in developed countries. Determination of urinary calculi composition is a key factor in preoperative evaluation, treatment, and stone recurrence prevention. Prior to the introduction of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), available methods for determining urinary stone composition were only available after stone extraction, and thereby unable to aid in optimized stone management prior to intervention. DECT utilizes the attenuation difference produced by two different x-ray energy spectra to quantify urinary calculi composition as uric acid or non-uric acid (with likely further classification in the future) while still providing the information attained with a conventional CT. Knowledge of DECT imaging pitfalls and stone mimics is important, as the added benefit of dual-energy analysis is the determination of stone composition, which in turn affects all aspects of stone management. This review briefly describes DECT principles, scanner types and acquisition protocols for the evaluation of urinary calculi as they relate to imaging pitfalls (inconsistent characterization of small stones, small dual-energy field of view, and mischaracterization from surrounding material) and stone mimics (drainage devices) that may adversely impact clinical decisions. We utilize our clinical experience from scanning over 1200 patients with this new imaging technique to present clinically relevant examples of imaging pitfalls and possible mechanisms for resolution

  7. Family History and Age at the Onset of Upper Urinary Tract Calculi

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    Kamaleddin Hasanzadeh

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of family history on the age of urinary calculus formation and its relation with characteristics of the calculi and patients. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study in Tabriz, a total of 210 patients with upper urinary tract calculi were evaluated. Their demographics and clinical characteristics and detailed information on their family history were recorded. Results: Of the patients, 28.6% had a positive family history for urinary calculi. Siblings were the majority of the affected family members (71.1%. The rate of a positive family history was slightly higher in women than in men (30.0% versus 28.1%; P = .20. The mean age at the disease onset of the men with and without a positive family history was 37.2 years versus 39.3 years, respectively (P = .20. Such a difference was not detected in the female patients, either (P = .63. In general, the calculi were more detected on the left renal unit, but more prevalent on the right side in patients with a positive family history (P = .008. No relation was found between the number and size of the calculi and the family history. Conclusion: About one-third of the patients with urinary calculi had a positive family history too. Men with affected family members are slightly more susceptible to the disease at younger ages. There might be differences in the side of the calculi and family members with a history of disease that warrants further studies.

  8. Some critical aspects of FT-IR, TGA, powder XRD, EDAX and SEM studies of calcium oxalate urinary calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vimal S; Vasant, Sonal R; Bhatt, J G; Joshi, Mihir J

    2014-06-01

    Urinary calculi constitute one of the oldest afflictions of humans as well as animals, which are occurring globally. The calculi vary in shape, size and composition, which influence their clinical course. They are usually of the mixed-type with varying percentages of the ingredients. In medical management of urinary calculi, either the nature of calculi is to be known or the exact composition of calculi is required. In the present study, two selected calculi were recovered after surgery from two different patients for detailed examination and investigated by using Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) techniques. The study demonstrated that the nature of urinary calculi and presence of major phase in mixed calculi could be identified by FT-IR, TGA and powder XRD, however, the exact content of various elements could be found by EDAX only. PMID:25204087

  9. Bacteriological and crystallographical analysis of urinary calculi: aid to patient management.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenstein, I.; Osborn, R. S.; Hopewell, J. P.; Hamilton-miller, J. M.; Brumfitt, W.

    1984-01-01

    In an analysis, by both crystallographic and microbiological methods, of 50 urinary calculi recently removed by surgical operation, 33 proved to be of metabolic origin (mostly calcium oxalate and some uric acid or urate) and 17 of 'infective' origin (struvite, apatite or a mixture of the two). Metabolic stones were usually bacteriologically sterile or contained only small numbers (less than 10(3)/g of stone) of bacteria which did not produce urease, while infective stones always contained ure...

  10. Critical aspects of urine and stone analysis. Appearance of iatrogenic urinary calculi.

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    Asper, R; Schmucki, O

    1986-01-01

    In 25% of the samples the often applied qualitative chemical analysis of urinary stones leads to entirely wrong results with severe therapeutic consequences. The appropriate techniques for stone analysis are infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. These techniques make also possible the identification of iatrogenic urinary calculi. Four types of such stones were detected here, caused by modern medication. N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole, N4-acetylsulfadiazine, mefenamic acid and silicon dioxide. It is only the correct preanalytical treatment of urine samples that prevents considerable impairment of analytical results. Without precautions especially, the oxalate concentration in urine may be doubled or tripled during one day of storage. PMID:3811034

  11. [Application and research progress of composition analysis of urinary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Sui-ping; Chen, De-zhi; Ouyang, Jian-ming

    2006-04-01

    The analyses of compositions of urinary stones can provide significant reference to the treatment and prevention of recurrence of urolithiasis. In the present paper, the application and research progress of composition analyses of various urinary stones such as calcium oxalates, phosphates, uric acid, urates, cystine etc. by means of modern instruments are summarized. These techniques include Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, etc. PMID:16836157

  12. Zinc disc implantation model of urinary bladder calculi and humane endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P K; Patil, C R; Harlalka, G V; Gaud, N P

    2010-07-01

    The zinc disc implantation-induced urinary bladder calculi model in the rat is commonly used for preclinical evaluation of the antiurolithiatic activity of test compounds. Certain published reports state that relatively long durations for which zinc discs must be implanted in the bladders of rats. Hence, there is a need to refine this model. These investigations aimed to determine whether long-term studies using the zinc disc implantation model provide any additional data that affect the final outcomes of the study. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a well-known antiurolithiatic polyherbal drug, Cystone, for different treatment durations of 10, 20 and 48 days postimplantation. Our results indicate that even the shortest duration of 10 days is sufficient to reveal antiurolithiatic effects of a test drug. Hence, in the zinc disc implantation-induced urinary bladder calculi model, the study duration is proposed to be minimized so as to reduce the distress caused to the rats due to long-term exposure to the implant. Further, it is suggested that the growth of the bladder calculi can be monitored by taking X-ray radiographs of the bladder deposits to decide the time to terminate the study. Use of preformed calcium oxalate crystal instead of zinc discs, as suggested in earlier reports by others, may also be considered to avoid the sacrifice of rats at the end of the study. PMID:20385652

  13. Percutaneous Imaging-Guided Access for the Treatment of Calculi in Continent Urinary Reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe our long-term experience with percutaneous access to continent urinary reservoirs for calculus removal. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of 13 procedures in 10 patients was performed. In 2 of the 13 procedures, access and calculus removal was performed in a single session. In the other 11 procedures, initial access was obtained using ultrasonography,fluoroscopy, and/or computed tomography. The patients then returned ata later date for a second step where the access was dilated and the calculi were removed. Results: Access was achieved successfully in all cases with no complications. At mean follow-up time of 13.6 months (range 1-94 months) one patient had died of complications unrelated to her continent urinary reservoir. Another patient had been placed on suppressive antibiotics for recurrent calculi. The remaining patients were stone free and without late complication. Conclusions: Percutaneous removal of reservoir calculi can be performed safely, avoiding potential injury to the continence valve mechanism by a direct cystoscopic approach. We propose a two-stage procedure using CT guidance for initial access as the preferred technique

  14. Trace element studies in urolithiasis; preliminary investigation on mixed calcium oxalate-struvite urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the levels of the trace elements copper , zinc, lead, iron, aluminum, nickel, chromium along with magnesium, sodium and potassium were estimated in fifteen mixed calcium oxalate-struvite (CaOx/STR) urinary stones. The mean values of the combined results were, copper 4.24, zinc 1302, zinc 1302.10, lead 23.25, iron 36.83,nickel 0.69, chromium 1.93, magnesium 4530441, sodium 54.13 and potassium 5.93 ng mg/sup -1/. It was observed that zinc, aluminum and potassium levels were higher than in calcium oxalate(CaOx) calculi 0.05>P>0.02 and potassium levels were higher than in mixed calcium oxalate-hydroxy appetite (CaOx/APA) calculi, P<0.01. A combination of all the results was also compared with similar data from South Africa, Turkey, Austria, India, U.S.A and Japan. (author)

  15. Laser lithotripsy: experience with different laser systems in the treatment of urinary calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschter, Rolf; Knipper, Ansgar; Maghraby, Hisham; Thomas, Stephen

    1990-06-01

    Two different systems for laserlithotripsy - the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with an optomechanical coupler and the flashlamp pumped dye laser with integrated optical feedback mechanism are in clinical use for the treatment of urinary calculi at the Department of Urology of the Medical University of LUbeck. Seventy-five patients with ureteral calculi have been treated by laser lithotripsy. Eleven of 15 treatments using the Nd:YAG laser have been performed under visual control with the help of a rigid ureteroscope of 11.5 F. Thirty-five of 42 treatments with the dye laser were carried out with the help of a rigid ureteroscope of 9.5 F. Four patients with the Nd:YAG laser and 7 patients with the dye laser, respectively, have been treated without visual control using a flexible application system and fluoroscopy alone. Both systems showed excellent results. Fourteen of 15 laser lithotripsies with the Nd:YAG laser were successful showing complete (4 cases) or partial (10 cases) fragmentation. The analysis of the failure showed calcium oxalate monohydrate. Thirty-eight of 42 laser 1 ithotripsies with the dye laser were successful. Fragmentation was complete in 26 and partial in 12 cases. The 4 calculi which proved to be failures were all of pale color and 2 of them consisted of cystine alone. Both laser systems are suitable for the treatment of ureteral calculi under visual control or by blind application using fluoroscopy. No serious side effects of the treatment have been observed. Treatment results are satisfactory. Problems may occur in calculi of hard structure using the Nd:YAG laser due to its limited energy and in pale-colored stones using the dye laser due to poor absorption of the laser energy.

  16. Unique ability of the Proteus mirabilis capsule to enhance mineral growth in infectious urinary calculi.

    OpenAIRE

    Dumanski, A. J.; Hedelin, H.; Edin-liljegren, A.; Beauchemin, D.; Mclean, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    Struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O) calculi are a common complication of Proteus mirabilis urinary tract infections. Although urease is a major virulence factor in calculus formation, the polysaccharide capsule (CPS) of this organism also enhances struvite crystallization and growth in vitro (L. Clapham, R. J. C. McLean, J. C. Nickel, J. Downey, and J. W. Costerton, J. Crystal Growth 104:475-484, 1990). We obtained purified CPS, of known structure and varying anionic character, from P. mirabilis ATCC 49...

  17. Clinical value of crystalluria and quantitative morphoconstitutional analysis of urinary calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudon, Michel; Jungers, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Morphoconstitutional analysis of urinary calculi, i.e. morphologic examination combined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), is of decisive interest for the diagnosis of rare but severe inherited or acquired stone diseases such as cystine, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, xanthine, struvite, ammonium urate or drug-containing calculi as well as primary hyperoxalurias. In the absence of early diagnosis and proper management, these diseases may lead to progressive loss of renal function. Among common forms of calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones, predominant CaOx monohydrate (whewellite) is mainly associated with hyperoxaluric conditions whereas predominant CaOx dihydrate (weddellite) is mainly associated with hypercalciuria, and this distinction is of interest to orient metabolic evaluation and preventive measures. Crystalluria examination, also based on morphology and FTIR, is a valuable diagnostic method when no stone is available for analysis. Presence of specific crystals (cystine, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, struvite, ammonium urate) is diagnostic by itself. In all types of nephrolithiasis, serial crystalluria determination appears as a simple, cheap and reliable method to evaluate the risk of stone formation and assess the effectiveness of preventive measures. Determination of urinary crystal volume was in our experience a useful tool in the management of patients with cystinuria or primary hyperoxaluria in the post-transplantation period. In conclusion, both accurate morphologic and FTIR analysis of stones and serial crystalluria determination should be more largely used, in view of their value in the diagnosis and management of renal stone formers. PMID:15499212

  18. Outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper urinary tract calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcello, Cocuzza; Jose R., Colombo Jr; Antonio L., Cocuzza; Frederico, Mascarenhas; Fabio, Vicentini; Eduardo, Mazzucchi; Miguel, Srougi.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative and financial outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper tract calculi in 44 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2004 and September 2006, 44 patients treated for upper tract stone with flexible ureteroscopic lithot [...] ripsy were evaluated. Renal stones were associated with collecting system obstruction in 15 (34%) patients, failed extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) occurred in 14 (32%) patients, unilateral multiple stones in 18 (41%) patients, and multiple bilateral stones in 3 (7%). In 29 (66%) patients, the stone was located in the inferior calyx. Perioperative and financial outcomes were also evaluated. RESULTS: 50 procedures were performed in 44 patients. The mean stone burden on preoperative CT scan was 11.5 ± 5.8 mm. The mean operative time was 61.3 ± 29.4 min. The stone free rate was 93.1% after one procedure and 97.7% after a second procedure, with overall complication rate of 8%. Therapeutic success occurred in 92% and 93% of patients with lower pole stones and SWL failure, respectively. Treatment failure of a single session was associated with presence of a stone size larger than 15 mm (p = 0.007), but not associated with inferior calyx location (p = 0.09). Surgical disposables were responsible for 78% of overall costs. CONCLUSION: Flexible ureteroscopy using holmium laser is a safe and effective option for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi. In addition, it can be considered an attractive option as salvage therapy after SWL failure or kidney calculi associated with ureteral stones. Stone size larger than 15 mm is associated with single session treatment failure.

  19. Outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper urinary tract calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Cocuzza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative and financial outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper tract calculi in 44 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2004 and September 2006, 44 patients treated for upper tract stone with flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy were evaluated. Renal stones were associated with collecting system obstruction in 15 (34% patients, failed extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL occurred in 14 (32% patients, unilateral multiple stones in 18 (41% patients, and multiple bilateral stones in 3 (7%. In 29 (66% patients, the stone was located in the inferior calyx. Perioperative and financial outcomes were also evaluated. RESULTS: 50 procedures were performed in 44 patients. The mean stone burden on preoperative CT scan was 11.5 ± 5.8 mm. The mean operative time was 61.3 ± 29.4 min. The stone free rate was 93.1% after one procedure and 97.7% after a second procedure, with overall complication rate of 8%. Therapeutic success occurred in 92% and 93% of patients with lower pole stones and SWL failure, respectively. Treatment failure of a single session was associated with presence of a stone size larger than 15 mm (p = 0.007, but not associated with inferior calyx location (p = 0.09. Surgical disposables were responsible for 78% of overall costs. CONCLUSION: Flexible ureteroscopy using holmium laser is a safe and effective option for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi. In addition, it can be considered an attractive option as salvage therapy after SWL failure or kidney calculi associated with ureteral stones. Stone size larger than 15 mm is associated with single session treatment failure.

  20. Application of physico-chemical procedures in the analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All physico-chemical techniques used in the analysis of urinary calculi have inherent advantages and limitations. Although x-ray powder diffraction can identify constituents unambiguously, certain minor components can be missed. Infrared spectroscopy is more sensitive but band assignment at low concentrations is difficult. Scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive x-ray analysis permits the simultaneous investigation of morphology and chemical microstructure. With the electron microprobe, minor constituents can be detected but tedious sample preparation procedures are required. Transmission electron microscopy is extremely useful in determining constituent inter-relationships and ultrastructure but ultramicrotomy is very difficult. Thermal gravimetric analysis gives quantitative information easily but does not satisfactorily distinguish between struvite and brushite. In an attempt to assess the accuracy of chemical analyses, 62 calculi were investigated applying several chemical tests. Those for Mg2+, PO4(3-), NH4+ and uric acid proved highly reliable while that for Ca2+ often yielded an incorrect result. The test for oxalate was totally unsatisfactory. Investigators of stone composition and structure should include x-ray diffraction (or infrared spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy as their methods of first choice. In addition, chemical or thermogravimetric analyses should be utilized in an auxiric analyses should be utilized in an auxiliary capacity

  1. Struvite infection calculi in dogs: problems with urinary calculus identification, and the value of the results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    John, Dunlevey; Michael, Laing.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the crystalline components of a urinary calculus is a valuable aid to correct diagnosis, and subsequent treatment of the underlying cause of the problem. Calculus formation is often an end product brought about by urine with a high concentration of insoluble material causing bladder irri [...] tation. This promotes bacterial infection by Proteus, which not only raises the pH in the bladder and generates ammonia, but also provides sites for mineral nucleation and crystal growth. Treating the infection and removing the stone will not necessarily cure the disorder. Correct identification of a calculus as struvite and even its potassium analogue can be critical in choice of curative protocols, but this is not always straightforward. Our experience with 'problem calculi' is described.

  2. Dual-energy CT for the characterization of urinary calculi: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a low-dose scanning protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency and radiation dose of a low-dose dual-energy (DE) CT protocol for the evaluation of urinary calculus disease were evaluated. A low-dose dual-source DE-CT renal calculi protocol (140 kV, 46 mAs; 80 kV, 210 mAs) was derived from the single-energy (SE) CT protocol used in our institution for the detection of renal calculi (120 kV, 75 mAs). An Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with thermoluminescence dosimeters and examined by CT with both protocols. The effective doses were calculated. Fifty-one patients with suspected or known urinary calculus disease underwent DE-CT. DE analysis was performed if calculi were detected using a dedicated software tool. Results were compared to chemical analysis after invasive calculus extraction. An effective dose of 3.43 mSv (male) and 5.30 mSv (female) was measured in the phantom for the DE protocol (vs. 3.17/4.57 mSv for the SE protocol). Urinary calculi were found in 34 patients; in 28 patients, calculi were removed and analyzed (23 patients with calcified calculi, three with uric acid calculi, one with 2,8-dihyxdroxyadenine-calculi, one patient with a mixed struvite calculus). DE analysis was able to distinguish between calcified and non-calcified calculi in all cases. In conclusion, dual-energy urinary calculus analysis is effective also with a low-dose protocol. The protocol tested in this study reliably identified calcified urinary calculi in vivo. (orig.)

  3. Scintigraphy and Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of obstructive urinary calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Gandolpho; M., Sevillano; A., Barbieri; S., Ajzen; N., Schor; V., Ortiz; I.P., Heilberg.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-seven patients with unilateral obstructive calculi (12 males and 35 females) were submitted to 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) or 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans for assessment of renal function. The scans revealed unilateral functional deficit in 68 and 66% of the [...] patients, respectively. A calculus size of 1.1 to 2.0 cm was significantly associated with deficit detected by DTPA, but duration of obstruction and calculus localization were not. After relief of the obstruction, the mean percent renal function of the affected kidney was found to be significantly increased from 25 ± 12% to 29 ± 12% in DTPA and from 21 ± 15% to 24 ± 12% in DMSA. Initial Doppler ultrasonography performed in 35 patients detected an increased resistive index in 10 (29%). In the remaining patients with a normal resistive index, ureteral urinary jet was observed, indicating partial obstruction. The high frequency of renal function impairment detected by DTPA and of tubulointerstitial damage detected by DMSA as well as the slight amelioration of unilateral renal function after relief of obstruction suggest that scintigraphy assessment may help evaluate the unilateral percentage of renal function and monitor renal function recovery when it occurs. The presence of a urinary jet detected by Doppler ultrasonography further indicates the severity of obstruction and the recovery prognosis.

  4. Scintigraphy and Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of obstructive urinary calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolpho, L; Sevillano, M; Barbieri, A; Ajzen, S; Schor, N; Ortiz, V; Heilberg, I P

    2001-06-01

    Forty-seven patients with unilateral obstructive calculi (12 males and 35 females) were submitted to 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) or 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans for assessment of renal function. The scans revealed unilateral functional deficit in 68 and 66% of the patients, respectively. A calculus size of 1.1 to 2.0 cm was significantly associated with deficit detected by DTPA, but duration of obstruction and calculus localization were not. After relief of the obstruction, the mean percent renal function of the affected kidney was found to be significantly increased from 25 +/- 12% to 29 +/- 12% in DTPA and from 21 +/- 15% to 24 +/- 12% in DMSA. Initial Doppler ultrasonography performed in 35 patients detected an increased resistive index in 10 (29%). In the remaining patients with a normal resistive index, ureteral urinary jet was observed, indicating partial obstruction. The high frequency of renal function impairment detected by DTPA and of tubulointerstitial damage detected by DMSA as well as the slight amelioration of unilateral renal function after relief of obstruction suggest that scintigraphy assessment may help evaluate the unilateral percentage of renal function and monitor renal function recovery when it occurs. The presence of a urinary jet detected by Doppler ultrasonography further indicates the severity of obstruction and the recovery prognosis. PMID:11378662

  5. Scintigraphy and Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of obstructive urinary calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandolpho L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-seven patients with unilateral obstructive calculi (12 males and 35 females were submitted to 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA or 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scans for assessment of renal function. The scans revealed unilateral functional deficit in 68 and 66% of the patients, respectively. A calculus size of 1.1 to 2.0 cm was significantly associated with deficit detected by DTPA, but duration of obstruction and calculus localization were not. After relief of the obstruction, the mean percent renal function of the affected kidney was found to be significantly increased from 25 ± 12% to 29 ± 12% in DTPA and from 21 ± 15% to 24 ± 12% in DMSA. Initial Doppler ultrasonography performed in 35 patients detected an increased resistive index in 10 (29%. In the remaining patients with a normal resistive index, ureteral urinary jet was observed, indicating partial obstruction. The high frequency of renal function impairment detected by DTPA and of tubulointerstitial damage detected by DMSA as well as the slight amelioration of unilateral renal function after relief of obstruction suggest that scintigraphy assessment may help evaluate the unilateral percentage of renal function and monitor renal function recovery when it occurs. The presence of a urinary jet detected by Doppler ultrasonography further indicates the severity of obstruction and the recovery prognosis.

  6. Litiasis urinaria en adultos con mielomeningocele / Urinary calculi in myelomeningocele adults

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Verdú Tartajo; J., Salinas Casado; F., Herranz Amo; J.M., Díez Cordero; R., Durán Merino; C., Hernández Fernández.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivos: Los avances en el tratamiento de los nacidos con mielomeningocele (MMC) han logrado un gran aumento en su supervivencia, permitiéndoles una longevidad nunca antes alcanzada, pero todavía son escasos los datos concernientes a los problemas urológicos que estos enfermos plant [...] ean durante su vida adulta. Hemos evaluado las características de la litiasis urinaria en adultos nacidos con MMC así como los tratamientos empleados en la misma. Material y métodos: Revisamos 52 pacientes nacidos con MMC de entre 18 y 40 años, atendidos durante los últimos 14 años en nuestro hospital, con una media de seguimiento de 6,7 años. Resultados: Se diagnosticaron de litiasis urinaria 10 pacientes (19,2%). Tres formaron cálculos renales (5,7%), y uno de ellos, junto con 7 pacientes más, desarrollaron cálculos vesicales (15,3%). El nivel neurológico fue S1 en otros dos. El tipo de disfunción neurógena del tracto urinario inferior fue de lesión múltiple pura de neurona motora inferior en 6 casos, de neurona motora superior en 1, lesión múltiple mixta en otro, no pudiéndose valorar en el restante. Dos pacientes tenían una ampliación vesical y uno de estos junto con otros 3 pacientes era portador de AMS-800 no funcionantes. La litiasis vesical se trató endoscopicamente en 14 ocasiones y mediante cistolitotomía suprapúbica en 4, junto a la retirada de AMS-800 en 3 de ellas. Un paciente expulsó un pequeño cálculo. En un paciente fueron necesarias 2 litotricias extracorpóreas y 2 nefrolitotomías percutáneas. Tres pacientes tuvieron múltiples recidivas. Conclusiones: La litiasis urinaria es frecuente en los adultos con MMC. Determinadas características de estos pacientes, junto con su configuración anatómica y algunos tratamientos empleados en ellos, ocasionan problemas de diagnostico, tratamiento y prevención de los cálculos que forman. Abstract in english Introduction and objectives: the improvements in the management of newborns with myelomeningocele (MMC) have obtained a big increase in survival, allowing them to get longevity like never before, but data regarding urologic diseases during adult age are still missing. We herein evaluate the features [...] of urinary lithiasis in adults born with MMC and the therapies used for its treatment. Material and method: we review 52 patients diagnosed at birth of MMC, between 18 and 40 years old, treated in our institution, with a mean follow-up of 6.7 years. Results: 10 patients (19.2%) were diagnosed of urolithiasis. Three developed kidney calculi and one of them, with 7 more patients, developed bladder calculi (15.3%). The neurological level was S1 in the other two. The type of neurogenic dysfunction of inferior urinary tract was multiple lesion of lower motor neurone in 6 cases, upper motor neurone in 1 case, multiple mixed lesion in 1 case and in case it was impossible to determine. Two patients had a bladder augmentation procedure and one of these with other 3 patients had a non-functional AMS-800 artificial urinary sphincter. Bladder stones were treated endoscopically in 14 procedures and by suprapubic cystolithotomy in 4 procedures, combined with removal of AMS-800 in 3 of them. One patient spontaneously passed a small stone. In one case, 2 ESWL and 2 percutaneous nephrolithotomies were needed. Three patients developed multiple recurrences during follow-up. Conclusions: urinary lithiasis is common in adults with MMC. Some distinct features of these patients, together with their anatomical configuration and some therapies used in them, cause diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylaxis issues for the calculi they may develop.

  7. Helical CT evaluation of the chemical composition of urinary tract calculi with a discriminant analysis of CT-attenuation values and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of helical CT using a combination of CT-attenuation values and visual assessment of stone density as well as discriminant linear analysis to predict the chemical composition of urinary calculi. One hundred human urinary calculi were obtained from a stone-analysis laboratory and placed in 20 excised pig kidneys. They were scanned at 80, 120 and 140 kV with 3-mm collimation. Average, highest and lowest CT-attenuation values and CT variability were recorded. The internal calculus structure was assessed using a wide window setting, and visual assessment of stone density was recorded. A stepwise discriminant linear analysis was performed. The following three variables were discriminant: highest CT-attenuation value, visual density, and highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio, all at 80 kV. The probability of correctly classifying stone composition with these three variables was 0.64, ranging from 0.54 for mixed calculi to 0.69 for pure calculi. The probabilities of correctly classifying calculus composition were: 0.91 for calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite, 0.89 for cystine, 0.85 for uric acid, 0.11 for calcium oxalate dihydrate, 0.10 for hydroxyapatite, and 0.07 for struvite calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, 81% of the calculi were correctly classified. Assessment at 80 kV of the highest CT-attenuation value, visualf the highest CT-attenuation value, visual density and the highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio accurately predicts the chemical composition of 64-81% of urinary calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, all cystine, calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite calculi were correctly classified. (orig.)

  8. Analyses of 99Tcm-DTPA dynamic kidney imaging on 346 patients of upper urinary tract calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of 99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging in evaluating renal function of the patients with upper urinary tract calculi. Methods: The results of 99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), intravenous pyelography (IVP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) in 346 patients with upper urinary tract calculi diseases were analyzed retrospectively. These 346 patients were divided into four groups according to their total GFR value. Results: (1) The renal dynamic imaging in 346 patients could accurately reflect the function of the two kidneys. GFR was negatively related to the serum BUN and SCr levels (r=-0.458, P=0.000 and r=-0.542, P=0.000). (2) The BUN and SCr levels showed significant difference among the four groups (F=49.23, P=0.000 and F=80.66, P=0.000). There were no significant difference of the BUN and SCr levels found between group 1 and group 2 (P=0.119, P=0.088, respectively), while significant difference of the BUN and SCr levels found among the other groups (P99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging, the mean GFR was (21.89±12.81)ml/min. Conclusion: 99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging is valuable to early evaluate the renal function, espeearly evaluate the renal function, especially for the sick renal function in IVP detection failed patients. (authors)

  9. [Urinary calculi in small and other animals--a retrospective study of the years 1980-1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenkel, R; Berg, W; Prange, H

    1998-05-01

    More than 500 uroliths from dogs, cats, minks, rabbits and 9 further animal species originating from various regions of former East Germany were analysed. The observations were made between 1980 and 1989 using X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The urinary stones consisted of struvite, whewellite, weddellite, cystine, ammonium urate, brushite, whitlockite, hydroxyapatite or carbonate-apatite, calcium carbonate, silicon dioxide and organic matrix stones. In dogs, the most frequent types were struvite and apatite concrements, followed by calcium oxalate and cystine uroliths. Among the diseased animals poodles, dachshunds and terriers ranked first. In the analysed material from cats apatite and struvite predominated. With few exceptions, minks formed struvite uroliths only. The analysed calculi from rabbits consisted principally of calcium phosphate or calcium carbonate concrements. The present analysis has been compared with results of former studies, differences are discussed. PMID:9646551

  10. Scintigraphy and Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of obstructive urinary calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Gandolpho L.; Sevillano M.; Barbieri A.; Ajzen S.; Schor N.; Ortiz V; Heilberg I.P.

    2001-01-01

    Forty-seven patients with unilateral obstructive calculi (12 males and 35 females) were submitted to 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) or 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans for assessment of renal function. The scans revealed unilateral functional deficit in 68 and 66% of the patients, respectively. A calculus size of 1.1 to 2.0 cm was significantly associated with deficit detected by DTPA, but duration of obstruction and calculus localization were not. After relief of...

  11. Investigation of the microstructure and mineralogical composition of urinary calculi fragments by synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography: a feasibility study.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaiser, J.; Holá, M.; Galiová, M.; Novotný, K.; Kanický, V.; Martinec, Petr; Š?u?ka, Ji?í; Brun, F.; Sodini, N.; Tromba, G.; Mancini, L.; Ko?istková, T.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 39, ?. 4 (2011), s. 259-267. ISSN 0300-5623 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA203/09/1394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : computed microtomography * synchrotron radiation * urinary calculi Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.233, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/y244643574072rk3/fulltext.pdf

  12. [Administration of intracorporeal, laser-induced shock waves for the destruction of urinary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, A G; Thomas, S

    1989-05-01

    In spite of rapid developments in modern endourologic methods of urinary tract stone management, a definitive solution regarding the energy source for intracorporeal lithotripsy has not yet been found. Laser-induced shock wave lithotripsy is one of the most promising approaches. The evolution of this treatment modality within the last 4 years gives rise to the hope that a commonly accepted standard method will soon become available. General acceptance depends on increasing reliability and effectivity of current systems, especially in the case of problem stones. The advantages of intracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can be summarized in the following points. (1) The shock wave is applied directly to the intended object, i.e., the stone, so that adverse side effects are virtually excluded. (2) Laser-induced shock wave lithotripsy leads to a precise and extremely fine fragmentation of stones, avoiding urinary tract obstruction with consecutive tract infection. (3) Cost and treatment handling are further points in favour of intracorporeal lithotripsy. (4) Perspectives are widened by the possibility of treating, of biliary, pancreatic and salivary gland duct stones. PMID:2568028

  13. [Fragmentation of urinary calculi using the Lithoclast EMS. Technique and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbar, M; Sousa Castello, A; Gelet, A; Martin, X; Marechal, J M; Dubernard, J M

    1993-12-01

    The Lithoclast is an endoscopic lithotriptor which uses the ballistic energy produced by a small hand-held apparatus, by the movement of a small metal part (the projectile) driven by a jet of compressed air. The energy is transmitted to a metal rod whose diameter is selected according to the application: 0.8 or 1 mm in the ureter; 2 mm in the bladder and kidney. We have used this apparatus to treat 40 stones in 39 patients (25 ureteric stones, 11 renal stones, 4 bladder stones). Satisfactory fragmentation was obtained for 39 of the 40 stones (97.5%). The apparatus is very easy to use in the kidney and bladder (the risk of urinary tract perforation is very low at this level). The risk of perforation of the ureteric wall by 0.8 mm or 1 mm rods is considerable (12% of cases), but these punctate lesions heal rapidly over a double J stent. Special techniques should be used in the ureter to limit the risk of pushing the stone towards the renal pelvis. PMID:8305936

  14. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, endourology and open surgery: the management and follow-up of 200 patients with urinary calculi.

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, D. R.; Mcnicholas, T. A.; Whitfield, H. N.; Wickham, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The management and follow up of 200 consecutive patients with renal and ureteric calculi are presented. The primary treatment of 185 (92.5%) was by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), of whom three (1.6)%) with large calculi underwent percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) prior to ESWL as a planned combined procedure. Twelve (6%) were treated by PCNL or ureterorenoscopy (URS) as their definitive treatment and three (1.5%) by conventional open renal and ureteric surgery. The average i...

  15. Typed ?-calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A large variety of process calculi extend the pi-calculus with more general notions of messages. Bengtson et al. have shown that many of these pi-like calculi can be expressed as so-called psi-calculi. In this paper, we describe a simple type system for psi-calculi. The type system satisfies a subject reduction property and a general notion of channel safety. A number of existing systems are shown to be instances of our system, and other, new type systems can also be obtained. We first present a new type system for the calculus of explicit fusions by Wischik and Gardner, then one for the distributed pi-calculus of Hennessy and Riely and finally show how existing type systems for secrecy and authenticity in the spi calculus can be represented and shown to be safe.

  16. Por qué y cómo hemos de analizar los cálculos urinarios / Why and how we must analyse urinary calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Gràcia-Garcia; F., Millán-Rodríguez; F., Rousaud-Barón; R., Montañés-Bermúdez; O., Angerri-Feu; F., Sánchez-Martín; H., Villavicencio-Mavrich; A., Oliver-Samper.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: Existe una heterogeneidad de criterio sobre la utilidad del análisis del cálculo urinario, así como de cuál es la metodología más adecuada. En esta revisión se presenta el análisis de la litiasis mediante la técnica del estudio morfoconstitucional basada en la combinación de la microscopía [...] estereoscópica (MEST) con el estudio de infrarrojos (EIR). Resumen de la evidencia: Existen múltiples técnicas de análisis del cálculo: análisis químico, microscopía electrónica, difracción por rayos X, MEST y EIR. Mediante la revisión de cada una de estas técnicas y el estudio de varios casos clínicos, el presente trabajo muestra la utilidad clínica del análisis del cálculo, así como las ventajas e inconvenientes de cada uno de los citados métodos. Por otro lado, se evidencia cómo el análisis mediante el estudio morfoconstitucional es el que más información clínica de utilidad ofrece al urólogo. Asimismo, se presenta la clasificación de las litiasis basadas en este método y su correlación clínica con el paciente. Conclusiones: El análisis del cálculo mediante la técnica del estudio morfoconstitucional aporta más información que el resto de técnicas y permite establecer una clasificación del cálculo de gran utilidad clínica y diagnóstica. Abstract in english Context: There is heterogeneity of criteria on the utility of urinary stone analysis as well as on which is the most suitable methodology. This review presents the analysis of the lithiasis using the morphoconstitutional analysis technique based on the combination of the stereoscopic microscopy (SM) [...] with infrared study (IRS). Summary of the evidence: There are many techniques to analyze the stone: chemical analysis, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, SM and IRS. Reviewing each one of these techniques and through the study of several clinical cases, this review shows the usefulness of stone analysis and the pros and cons of each one of the mentioned techniques. Furthermore, it can be clearly seen how the morphoconstitutional analysis is the one that offers the most useful clinical information to the urologist. In addition, classification of the lithiasis based on this method and its clinical correlation with patients is presented. Conclusions: Using the morphoconstitutional study to analyze the stone offers more information than the other techniques and it makes it possible to establish a stone classification of important clinical and diagnostic utility.

  17. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urinary calculi. Results from the first 306 patients treated at the Copenhagen Municipal Stone Center with a second generation lithotriptor.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J T; Mogensen, P

    1991-01-01

    The first Danish experience with Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) using a second generation Lithotriptor (Siemens Lithostar) is reported. 306 patients underwent 392 treatments for 363 stones. There were 339 renal calculi including 5 staghorn calculi and 54 ureteral calculi. Treatments were performed under local analgesia (82%) or epidural or general anesthesia (18%) when invasive procedures had to be done in connection with the treatment. Stone fragmentation was achieved with 2487 +/- 1262 shocks. The first months stone clearance rate was 45%; 26% had fragments less than 6 mm; 29% had residual stones. Corresponding rates after 3 and 6 months were 58%, 24% and 18% and 70%, 21% and 9% respectively. Septicemia occurred in 4 patients and cardial arrhythmia in 34 patients (11%). No serious intra- or perirenal hematomas were registered. In 9% additional procedures were required and 11 patients had residual stones removed at open surgery. The used second generation lithotriptor with X-ray based stone localisation is effective for treatment of both renal calculi and ureteral calculi in situ in all three segments of the ureter.

  18. Ureteral Calculi : The Diagnostic Value of Combined KUB and Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of combined KUB and ultrasound in patients with ureteral calculi. We retrospectively reviewed the KUB and ultrasound findings in 71 cases of clinically,radiologically, and surgically confirmed ureteral calculi. We evaluated the diagnostic sensitivity of each method respectively, and then compared the sensitivity of each method with that of combined studies. The overall diagnostic sensitivities in detection of the ureteral calculi were 92.9% for KUB and 78.8% for ultrasound.The sensitivities in detection of the upper ureteral calculi were 95.1 (39 / 41) and 82.9% (34 / 41), and those in detection of the lower ureteral calculi were 90.0 (27 / 30) and 73.3% (22 / 30), respectively. On the ultrasonography, the false negative rate in detection of ureteral calculi was 21.1%. The sensitivity of ultrasound in detection of acute urinary obstruction by ureteral calculi was 87.3%. When both studies were combined, the diagnostic sensitivities were 92.9 (66 / 71), 97.5 (40 / 41) and 86.6% (26 / 30) for overall, upper and lower ureteral calculi, respectively. Combined KUB and ultrasound was a sensitive method for detection of ureteral calculi and for determination of acute urinary obstruction by reducing the number of false negative ultrasound results in patients with ureteral calculi

  19. Use of Calcurosin™ In Renal Calculi Management: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Maniar, Chintan R.; Lalit Chaudhry

    2013-01-01

    Management of renal calculi may prove to be a daunting task for physicians in certain clinical conditions such as bleeding complications, uncontrolled Blood Pressure, urinary infection, age factor, etc., these conditions also requires careful consideration. Most of the Indian patient prefers to give it a try to alternative medicine before undergoing painful surgery. Following case study shows an 83 year old male patient with three calculi in kidneys was treated with Calcurosin™ (Proprietary...

  20. Use of Calcurosin™ In Renal Calculi Management: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintan R. Maniar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of renal calculi may prove to be a daunting task for physicians in certain clinical conditions such as bleeding complications, uncontrolled Blood Pressure, urinary infection, age factor, etc., these conditions also requires careful consideration. Most of the Indian patient prefers to give it a try to alternative medicine before undergoing painful surgery. Following case study shows an 83 year old male patient with three calculi in kidneys was treated with Calcurosin™ (Proprietary Ayurvedic Medicine to avoid surgery, patient has shown promising result in subsequent investigations and at the end patient got free from renal calculi without surgical procedure.

  1. Segmentation of Ureteric and Bladder Calculi in Ultrasound Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sridhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The framework for segmenting calculi in ureter and bladder using ultrasound images is proposed in this study. Calculi are due to abnormal collection of certain chemicals like oxalate, phosphate and uric acid. These calculi can be present in kidney, urethra or in urinary bladder. The extraction of calculi in medical images is a difficult task as no standard algorithms are available. This poses a serious a problem for successful diagnosis of calculi disease. The proposed technique is specific for the extraction of calculi in ureter and bladder. This constitutes the first stage in the successful treatment of calculi disease. Approach: An algorithm is proposed to detect calculus based on the shadow it casts in ultrasound image. Calculi are present in ultrasound images as bright spots. But noise in the image also can be bright spots. So it is easy to misinterpret the presence of noise as calculi. The proposed framework thus has two phases. In phase one, five standard algorithms are modified and are used to segment the bright spots present in the ultrasound images using the intensity profile. Calculi are having intensity in the range of 10-40. So all the potential calculi as well as the noise that appear as bright spots are segmented in phase one. In phase two,a validation procedure is used to validate the presence of calculi using its acoustic shadow property in the ultrasound images. Results: Ultrasound images of twenty-seven ureteric and bladder calculi patients are used for testing the framework. The detected calculi by the proposed framework are validated against a group of experts. The Performance of the proposed method is thoroughly investigated and the accuracy of the framework is determined. The framework incorporating automated seed selected region growing algorithm is able to detect the calculi with the efficiency of 78.57%. Conclusion: The extracted calculi can further be analyzed for taking decision about the treatment procedures. The proposed system is helpful for taking decision about the treatment procedures. The proposed system is helpful for clinicians as a decision support tool. This system can also be useful as educational aid for assisting or decision making in the treatment of calculus disease.

  2. Factores predictivos de éxito tras una sesión única de litotricia extracorpórea de cálculos urinarios a las tres semanas de seguimiento: Factors Predicting Success after Three Weeks of Follow-Up / Single-Session Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Urinary Calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Vivaldi; M.I., Fernández; J.F., López; F., Fuentes; C., Urzúa; A., Krebs; A., Domenech; P.A., Figueroa; P., Pizzi; M., Westendarp; N., Zambrano; M., Castro; L.F., Coz.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar factores predictivos de éxito después de una sesión única de litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque (LEOC) a las tres semanas de seguimiento. Material y métodos: Se revisaron los registros clínicos de 116 pacientes con cálculos urinarios únicos sometidos a LEOC entre octu [...] bre 2007 y agosto 2009. Las tomografías axiales computarizadas preoperatorias de todos los pacientes fueron revisadas por dos radiólogos en desconocimiento del desenlace clínico. El éxito fue definido como la desaparición completa del cálculo o la persistencia de fragmentos Abstract in english Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors of success following a single-session of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) at 3 weeks of follow-up in our center. Material and methods: The medical records of 116 patients with solitary urinary calculi who underwent single-session SWL [...] in our department between October 2007 and August 2009 were reviewed. All preoperative unenhanced computed axial tomographies were reviewed by two radiologists blinded to clinical outcome. Success was defined as complete clearance or the persistence of fragments

  3. Pharmacology for renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, B; Fabrizio, M

    2000-03-01

    Stone disease is as old as recorded history but despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, it continues to cause significant morbidity. This review summarises the current pharmacologic management of urinary calculi based upon the stone type. All patients with stone disease are advised to increase fluid intake, limit dietary protein and limit sodium. Calcium oxalate stones can be managed on a selective or non-selective basis depending on the cause of the hypercalciuria or hyperoxaluria. Agents currently in use include sodium cellulose phosphate, thiazides, orthophosphates, oral calcium supplements, pyridoxine, cholestyramine, citrate, magnesium and allopurinol. Classically, struvite stones occur in the presence of urea splitting organisms and are composed of magnesium, ammonium phosphate and carbonate apatite. The goal of treatment is to make patients stone free as bacteria retained in stone fragments lead to stone growth. Urease inhibitors, aluminium hydroxide gel, hemiacidrin, and Suby G and M solutions are infrequently used in treatment. Cystine stones are the result of an autosomal recessive disorder. D-Penicillamine, captopril and alpha-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG) are all oral agents that have proven to be efficacious. As more randomised trials are conducted and the understanding of endogenous stone inhibitors progresses, the medical management of stone disease will continue to improve. PMID:11249528

  4. Association with meteo-climatological factors and daily emergency visits for renal colic and urinary calculi in Cuneo, Italy. A retrospective observational study, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condemi, Vincenzo; Gestro, Massimo; Dozio, Elena; Tartaglino, Bruno; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Meco, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Incidence and prevalence of kidney stones are affected by genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between various meteorological factors (independent variables) and the daily number of visits to the Emergency Department (ED of the S. Croce and Carle Hospital of Cuneo for renal colic (RC) and urinary stones (UC) as the dependent variable over the years 2007-2010. The Poisson generalized regression models (PGAMs) have been used in different progressive ways. The results of PGAMs (stage 1) adjusted for seasonal and calendar factors confirmed a significant correlation ( p RR) and cumulative relative risk (RRC), indicated a relative significant effect up to 15 lag days of lag (RR > 1), with a first peak after 5 days (lag ranges 0-1, 0-3, and 0-5) and a second weak peak observed along the 5-15 lag range days. The estimated RR for females was significant, mainly in the second and fourth age group considered (19-44 and >65 years): RR for total ED visits 1.27, confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.46 (lag 0-5 days); RR 1.42, CI 1.01-2.01 (lag 0-10 days); and RR 1.35, CI 1.09-1.68 (lag 0-15 days). The research also indicated a moderate involvement of the thermal factor in the onset of RC caused by UC, exclusively in the female sex. Further studies will be necessary to confirm these results.

  5. Association with meteo-climatological factors and daily emergency visits for renal colic and urinary calculi in Cuneo, Italy. A retrospective observational study, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condemi, Vincenzo; Gestro, Massimo; Dozio, Elena; Tartaglino, Bruno; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Meco, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Incidence and prevalence of kidney stones are affected by genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between various meteorological factors (independent variables) and the daily number of visits to the Emergency Department (ED of the S. Croce and Carle Hospital of Cuneo for renal colic (RC) and urinary stones (UC) as the dependent variable over the years 2007-2010.The Poisson generalized regression models (PGAMs) have been used in different progressive ways. The results of PGAMs (stage 1) adjusted for seasonal and calendar factors confirmed a significant correlation (p?thermal parameter. Evaluation of the dose-response effect [PGAMs combined with distributed lags nonlinear models (DLNMs)-stage 2], expressed in terms of relative risk (RR) and cumulative relative risk (RRC), indicated a relative significant effect up to 15 lag days of lag (RR?>?1), with a first peak after 5 days (lag ranges 0-1, 0-3, and 0-5) and a second weak peak observed along the 5-15 lag range days. The estimated RR for females was significant, mainly in the second and fourth age group considered (19-44 and >65 years): RR for total ED visits 1.27, confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.46 (lag 0-5 days); RR 1.42, CI 1.01-2.01 (lag 0-10 days); and RR 1.35, CI 1.09-1.68 (lag 0-15 days). The research also indicated a moderate involvement of the thermal factor in the onset of RC caused by UC, exclusively in the female sex. Further studies will be necessary to confirm these results. PMID:24970114

  6. Recurrent bilateral renal calculi in a tetraplegic patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaidyanathan, S; Soni, B M

    1998-01-01

    An 18-year-old male developed C-5 complete tetraplegia following a motor-cycle accident in May 1975. The neuropathic bladder was managed by an indwelling urethral catheter. He developed recurrent episodes of urinary infection with Proteus species. In September 1975, an X-ray of the abdomen revealed small calculi in both the kidneys. In July 1976, he underwent transurethral resection of the bladder neck and division of the external urethral sphincter; subsequently, he was put on a penile sheath drainage. He continued to suffer from repeated episodes of urinary tract infection with Proteus, Providencia, and Pseudomonas species, and he was treated with antibiotics. In 1980, intravenous urography (IVU) showed two large stones in the left kidney with marked caliectasis. The IVU performed in 1984 showed an increase in the size of the calculi in the left kidney which was grossly hydronephrotic. There were clusters of small calculi in the right kidney. The left renal calculi were treated by percutaneous lithotripsy in two sessions. In 1988, an X-ray of the abdomen revealed staghorn calculus in the right kidney and recurrence of stones in the left kidney. The staghorn calculus in the right kidney was treated by percutaneous nephrostolithotomy in two sessions. In 1991, he was admitted with acute urinary infection. IVU showed a stone in the pelviureteric junction with no excretion of contrast in the left kidney. Percutaneous nephrostomy drainage was established followed by left percutaneous nephrostolithotomy. In 1992, he was found to retain large amount of urine in the bladder; subsequently, his mother was taught to perform regular intermittent catheterisations. In 1995, he was admitted with acute urine infection. Abdominal X-ray revealed recurrence of large stones in both kidneys. With multiple sessions of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL), about 80% clearance was achieved on the left side. Right staghorn renal stone awaits treatment. This case shows that recurrent urinary infection in spinal cord injury patients is a predisposing factor for renal lithiasis. These patients require annual urological evaluation. Urinary tract calculi, if detected, should be dealt with promptly to prevent renal damage due to urinary obstruction and urosepsis. Renal calculi can be treated effectively and safely by ESWL in spinal cord injury patients, thus avoiding the need for an invasive procedure. It is essential to achieve low-pressure, adequate emptying of the urinary bladder in patients with spinal cord injury in order to prevent recurrent urinary infection and its sequelae. Social issues involved in the care of a tetraplegic patient play a vital role in the implementation of ideal medical treatment and need to be addressed promptly to avoid any compromise in the quality of medical care.

  7. Endourological management of staghorn calculi: Experience in 120 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy has become a well-established, standardized procedure in the management of upper urinary tract calculi. One hundred twenty consecutive patients, aged 19-95 years (mean age, 63 years); with staghorn calculi have been managed by percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy at our hospital. The overall success rate in achieving a stone-free renal unit was 86%. Multiple nephrostomy tracts were established in more than 60% of patients. Total operative time averaged 161 minutes per patient, despite multistaged nephrolithotripsy in 24% of patients. The most common complications encountered were bleeding requiring transfusion (57%), retained fragments (14%), urinary extravasation (12%), hydrothorax or pneumothorax (5%), and urinary stricture (1.6%). Average duration of hospitalization was 12.6 days

  8. [Clinical significance of urinary calculi analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucki, O

    1981-08-01

    Base of real metaphylaxis in the renal stone disease are the analysis of stone and the research of the metabolism in blood plasma and urine. The greatest part of the happened stones is classifying in the four groups: oxalate, phosphate, uric acid and cystine. The metaphylaxis by whewellite and weddellite is the same for both species, but there is a distinction in growth and recurrence. In the phosphate stones, the section with the most different composition, a therapy postoperatively is only possible with the distinction in "acid" and "alkaline" stones. The uric acid and cystine stones need a tight supervision and metaphylaxis for all the life. On the basis of 1200 analyses with X-ray diffraction the difference of the renal stones is discussed and the deduction for a real metaphylaxis is shown. PMID:7287487

  9. Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J. C.

    2000-05-01

    Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

  10. Dissolution of uric acid calculi with systemic alkalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursh, E D; Resnick, M I

    1984-08-01

    We treated 14 patients with uric acid calculi in the renal pelvis and calices (10) or ureter (4) with constant intravenous infusion of a one-sixth molar lactate solution. Dissolution was successful in all but 2 cases. The success of therapy is believed to be related to the sustained urinary alkalization obtained with intravenous infusion compared to the intermittent alkalization that occurs when oral agents are used. PMID:6330382

  11. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF MUSA PARADISICA LINN AGAINST ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED RENAL CALCULI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha U

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ethanol extract of dried roots of Musa paradisica Linn against ethylene glycol induced renal calculi in albino wistar rats are studied in this research. A renal calculus was induced in rats by ingesting 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days and was manifested by high urinary calcium, oxalate, and low urinary magnesium contents. Simultaneous administration of 1ml (1 in 10 Musa paradisica Linn orally for 28 days along with ethylene glycol (0.75% v/v reduced urinary calcium, oxalate and elevated urinary magnesium level. It also increased urinary volume thereby reducing the tendency for crystallization. The histopathological studies confirmed the induction as degenerated glomeruli, necrotic tubule and inflammatory cells was observed in section of kidney from animals treated with ethylene glycol. This was reduced; however after treatment with Musa paradisica Linn. These observations enable to conclude that Musa paradisica Linn is effective against ethylene glycol induced renal calculi.

  12. Observational Calculi and Association Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Observational calculi were introduced in the 1960’s as a tool of logic of discovery. Formulas of observational calculi correspond to assertions on analysed data. Truthfulness of suitable assertions can lead to acceptance of new scientific hypotheses. The general goal was to automate the process of discovery of scientific knowledge using mathematical logic and statistics. The GUHA method for producing true formulas of observational calculi relevant to the given problem of scientific discovery was developed. Theoretically interesting and practically important results on observational calculi were achieved. Special attention was paid to formulas - couples of Boolean attributes derived from columns of the analysed data matrix. Association rules introduced in the 1990’s can be seen as a special case of such formulas. New results on logical calculi and association rules were achieved. They can be seen as a logic of association rules. This can contribute to solving contemporary challenging problems of data minin...

  13. Factors affecting calcium oxalate dihydrate fragmented calculi regrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchis P

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL to treat calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD renal calculi gives excellent fragmentation results. However, the retention of post-ESWL fragments within the kidney remains an important health problem. This study examined the effect of various urinary conditions and crystallization inhibitors on the regrowth of spontaneously-passed post-ESWL COD calculi fragments. Methods Post-ESWL COD calculi fragments were incubated in chambers containing synthetic urine varying in pH and calcium concentration: pH = 5.5 normocalciuria (3.75 mM, pH = 5.5 hypercalciuria (6.25 mM, pH = 6.5 normocalciuria (3.75 mM or pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria (6.25 mM. Fragment growth was evaluated by measuring increases in weight. Fragment growth was standardized by calculating the relative mass increase. Results Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM crystals formed on COD renal calculi fragments under all conditions. Under pH = 5.5 normocalciuria conditions, only COM crystals formed (growth rate = 0.22 ± 0.04 ?g/mg·h. Under pH = 5.5 hypercalciuria and under pH = 6.5 normocalciuria conditions, COM crystals and a small number of new COD crystals formed (growth rate = 0.32 ± 0.03 ?g/mg·h and 0.35 ± 0.05 ?g/mg·h, respectively. Under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions, large amounts of COD, COM, hydroxyapatite and brushite crystals formed (growth rate = 3.87 ± 0. 34 ?g/mg·h. A study of three crystallization inhibitors demonstrated that phytate completely inhibited fragment growth (2.27 ?M at pH = 5.5 and 4.55 ?M at pH = 6.5, both under hypercalciuria conditions, while 69.0 ?M pyrophosphate caused an 87% reduction in mass under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions. In contrast, 5.29 mM citrate did not inhibit fragment mass increase under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions. Conclusion The growth rate of COD calculi fragments under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions was approximately ten times that observed under the other three conditions. This observation suggests COD calculi residual fragments in the kidneys together with hypercalciuria and high urinary pH values may be a risk factor for stone growth. The study also showed the effectiveness of specific crystallization inhibitors in slowing calculi fragment growth.

  14. How accurate is unenhanced multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for localization of renal calculi?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetschi, Stefan, E-mail: goetschi@gmx.net [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Umbehr, Martin, E-mail: martin.umbehr@triemli.ch [Urology Clinic, Department of Surgery, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Ullrich, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.ullrich@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Glenck, Michael, E-mail: michael.glenck@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Suter, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.suter@triemli.ch [Urology Clinic, Department of Surgery, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Weishaupt, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.weishaupt@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between unenhanced MDCT and intraoperative findings with regard to the exact anatomical location of renal calculi. Design, setting, and participants: Fifty-nine patients who underwent unenhanced MDCT for suspected urinary stone disease, and who underwent subsequent flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) as treatment of nephrolithiasis were included in this retrospective study. All MDCT data sets were independently reviewed by three observers with different degrees of experience in reading CT. Each observer was asked to indicate presence and exact anatomical location of any calcification within pyelocaliceal system, renal papilla or renal cortex. Results were compared to intraoperative findings which have been defined as standard of reference. Calculi not described at surgery, but present on MDCT data were counted as renal cortex calcifications. Results: Overall 166 calculi in 59 kidneys have been detected on MDCT, 100 (60.2%) were located in the pyelocaliceal system and 66 (39.8%) in the renal parenchyma. Of the 100 pyelocaliceal calculi, 84 (84%) were correctly located on CT data sets by observer 1, 62 (62%) by observer 2, and 71 (71%) by observer 3. Sensitivity/specificity was 90-94% and 50-100% if only pyelocaliceal calculi measuring >4 mm in size were considered. For pyelocaliceal calculi {<=}4 mm in size diagnostic performance of MDCT was inferior. Conclusion: Compared to flexible URS, unenhanced MDCT is accurate for distinction between pyelocaliceal calculi and renal parenchyma calcifications if renal calculi are >4 mm in size. For smaller renal calculi, unenhanced MDCT is less accurate and distinction between a pyelocaliceal calculus and renal parenchyma calcification is difficult.

  15. How accurate is unenhanced multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for localization of renal calculi?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between unenhanced MDCT and intraoperative findings with regard to the exact anatomical location of renal calculi. Design, setting, and participants: Fifty-nine patients who underwent unenhanced MDCT for suspected urinary stone disease, and who underwent subsequent flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) as treatment of nephrolithiasis were included in this retrospective study. All MDCT data sets were independently reviewed by three observers with different degrees of experience in reading CT. Each observer was asked to indicate presence and exact anatomical location of any calcification within pyelocaliceal system, renal papilla or renal cortex. Results were compared to intraoperative findings which have been defined as standard of reference. Calculi not described at surgery, but present on MDCT data were counted as renal cortex calcifications. Results: Overall 166 calculi in 59 kidneys have been detected on MDCT, 100 (60.2%) were located in the pyelocaliceal system and 66 (39.8%) in the renal parenchyma. Of the 100 pyelocaliceal calculi, 84 (84%) were correctly located on CT data sets by observer 1, 62 (62%) by observer 2, and 71 (71%) by observer 3. Sensitivity/specificity was 90–94% and 50–100% if only pyelocaliceal calculi measuring >4 mm in size were considered. For pyelocaliceal calculi ?4 mm in size diagnostic performance of MDCT was inferior. Conclusion: Compared to flexible URS, unenhanced MDCT is accurate for distinction between pyelocaliceal calculi and renal parenchyma calcifications if renal calculi are >4 mm in size. For smaller renal calculi, unenhanced MDCT is less accurate and distinction between a pyelocaliceal calculus and renal parenchyma calcification is difficult.

  16. Treatment of Renal Calculi with Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy: How applications of this method have expanded

    OpenAIRE

    Eberwein, P. M.; Denstedt, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    In 12 years, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has replaced other treatment techniques for most surgical calculi in the upper urinary tract. Worldwide clinical series have documented its efficacy. Technological advances and modifications have significantly expanded the clinical applications of this technique.

  17. Clinical experience with the Swiss LithoClast® Master in treatment of bladder calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingo, Pernille Skjold; Ryhammer, Allan Maltha

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and objective. Bladder calculi account for 5% of urinary tract calculi in the western world and many different treatment modalities have been presented throughout the decades. We report our clinical experience using the Swiss LithoClast® Master (SLM). Materials and Methods. The SLM is a rigid, hand-held endourological probe including a pneumatic lithotriptor and an ultrasonic lithotriptor. Attached to the ultrasonic modality is a suction system. The two lithotriptor modalities are controlled by a footswitch, and can be activated separately or simultaneously. The SLM is used via a rigid endoscope. Indications for treatment were medical complaints like hematuria, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), recurrent bursts of balloon in indwelling catheters, and difficulties performing clean intermittent self-catheterisation (CISC). Results. From August 1st 2009 to August 1st 2011, 27 patients were treated for bladder calculi (24 men). Five had a neurogenic voiding dysfunction, 3 had a prostate cancer, and 19 suffered from benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) or detrusor muscle insufficiency. Median age was 74 years (range 45-86 years). Stone clearance was obtained in 26 (96%) patients. Stone burden was one or multiple bladder calculi. Median stone size of the largest stone in each patient was 20 (5 - 40) mm. Under the same anaesthesia two patients underwent a TURP due to a very large prostate. Median lithotripsy time was 60 (range 20-144) minutes. All patients were discharged within 24 hours. Conclusion. The method described is a safe and quick method for endoscopic lithotripsy of bladder calculi rendering the patients stone free in the vast majority of cases. The procedure can be performed as day case surgery. Keywords: Bladder calculi, lithotripsy, Swiss Lithoclast, transurethral prostatectomy.

  18. Associations of diet and breed with recurrence of calcium oxalate cystic calculi in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Heidi S; Swecker, William S; Becvarova, Iveta; Weeth, Lisa P; Werre, Stephen R

    2015-05-15

    Objective-To evaluate the long-term risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) cystic calculi in dogs of various breeds fed 1 of 2 therapeutic diets. Design-Retrospective cohort study. Animals-135 dogs with a history of CaOx cystic calculi. Procedures-Medical records for 4 referral hospitals were searched to identify dogs that had had CaOx cystic calculi removed. Owners were contacted and medical records evaluated to obtain information on postoperative diet, recurrence of signs of lower urinary tract disease, and recurrence of cystic calculi. Dogs were grouped on the basis of breed (high-risk breeds, low-risk breeds, and Miniature Schnauzers) and diet fed after removal of cystic calculi (diet A, diet B, and any other diet [diet C], with diets A and B being therapeutic diets formulated to prevent recurrence of CaOx calculi). Results-Breed group was a significant predictor of calculi recurrence (as determined by abdominal radiography or ultrasonography), with Miniature Schnauzers having 3 times the risk of recurrence as did dogs of other breeds. Dogs in diet group A had a lower prevalence of recurrence than did dogs in diet group C, but this difference was not significant in multivariable analysis. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that Miniature Schnauzers had a higher risk of CaOx cystic calculi recurrence than did dogs of other breeds. In addition, findings suggested that diet may play a role in decreasing recurrence, but future prospective studies are needed to validate these observations. PMID:25932935

  19. A rare entity in adults: Bilateral Hutch diverticulum with calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telli, Onur; Guclu, Adil Gucal; Haciyev, Perviz; Burgu, Berk; Gogus, Cagatay

    2015-01-01

    Congenital bladder diverticulum (CBD) is a very uncommon entity in adults. CBD could be unilateral or bilateral and is caused by a congenital weakness in the bladder musculature. CBD is differentiated from the paraureteral or Hutch type of diverticula. A 42-year-old male presented with bilateral Hutch diverticulum and multiple diverticulum calculus on intravenous pyelography. Cystoscopy revealed bladder diverticulum just medial to the left ureteral orifice with multiple calculi; the patient successfully underwent endoscopic laser cystolithotripsy with resolution of his urinary tract infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report presenting stone formation of CBD in an adult. PMID:26029313

  20. Preliminary feasibility study of FTIR microscopic mapping system for the rapid detection of the composited components of prostatic calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ted Hueih-Shing; Lin, Shan-Yang; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Cheng, Wen-Ting

    2011-06-01

    Awareness of the chemical composition of prostatic calculi is of great importance for pathogenesis of prostatic lithiasis, the feasibility of FTIR microspectroscopic mapping system used for rapidly screening and detecting the real composited components of prostatic calculi in a short time was initially evaluated. Prostatic calculi were retrieved during transurethral resection of the prostate from nine patients diagnosed having benign prostatic hyperplasia with lower urinary tract symptoms. The level of serum prostatic-specific antigen was within 0-12.63 ng/ml. The calculi samples were examined and compared using FTIR microspectroscopic mapping system, or the traditional FTIR and Raman microspectroscopies. The traditional FTIR microspectroscopic results indicate that nine calculi samples mainly consisted of carbonated HA (hydroxyapatite), but calcium oxalate (undifferentiated) might be also detected in some samples. However, Raman spectral results could detect three components, HA, COM (calcium oxalate monohydrate) or COD (calcium oxalate dihydrate) separated in nine samples. Different compositions in the prostatic calculi were obtained by both spectroscopic detections with manual single-point random analysis implying that both manually traditional methods were failed to provide the real chemical composition of the prostatic calculi in a short time. The FTIR microscopic mapping system via point-by-point mapping analysis evidenced that it could rapidly detect all the complicated components distributed within the prostatic calculi rather than uncertain components detected by traditional FTIR or Raman microspectroscopy. More studies should be carried out in future. This preliminary result suggests that the FTIR mapping better characterizes the stone composition over single-point FTIR and Raman microscopic analysis in prostatic calculi. PMID:20967440

  1. The feasibility of using microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography for detection and evaluation of renal calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Caijun; Nie, Liming; Lou, Cunguang; Xing, Da

    2010-09-01

    Imaging of renal calculi is important for patients who suffered a urinary calculus prior to treatment. The available imaging techniques include plain x-ray, ultrasound scan, intravenous urogram, computed tomography, etc. However, the visualization of a uric acid calculus (radiolucent calculi) is difficult and often impossible by the above imaging methods. In this paper, a new detection method based on microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography was developed to detect the renal calculi. Thermoacoustic images of calcium oxalate and uric acid calculus were compared with their x-ray images. The microwave absorption differences among the calcium oxalate calculus, uric acid calculus and normal kidney tissue could be evaluated by the amplitude of the thermoacoustic signals. The calculi hidden in the swine kidney were clearly imaged with excellent contrast and resolution in the three orthogonal thermoacoustic images. The results indicate that thermoacoustic imaging may be developed as a complementary method for detecting renal calculi, and its low cost and effective feature shows high potential for clinical applications.

  2. Computed tomographic analysis of renal calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in vitro study sought to determine the feasibility of using computed tomography (CT) to analyze the chemical composition of renal calculi and thus aid in selecting the best treatment method. Sixty-three coded calculi were scanned in a water bath. Region-of-interest measurements provided the mean, standard deviation, and minimum and maximum pixel values for each stone. These parameters were correlated with aspects of the stones' chemical composition. A multivariate analysis showed that the mean and standard deviation of the stones' pixel values were the best CT parameters for differentiating types of renal calculi. By using computerized mapping techniques, uric acid calculi could be perfectly differentiated from struvite and calcium oxalate calculi. The latter two types also were differentiable, but to a lesser extent. CT has a potential role as an adjunct to clinical and laboratory methods for determining the chemical composition of renal calculi in an effort to select optimal treatment

  3. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for lower pole calculi smaller than one centimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Chaussy, Christian; Bergsdorf, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has revolutionized the treatment of urinary calculi and became the accepted standard therapy for the majority of stone patients. Only for stones located in the lower calix, ESWL displayed a limited efficacy. Since the stone-free rate seemed to be preferential, endoscopic maneuvers like percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) have been proposed as the primary approach for this stone localization.

  4. Normalisation for Dynamic Pattern Calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Bonelli, Eduardo; Kesner, Delia; Lombardi, Carlos; Rios, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The Pure Pattern Calculus (PPC) extends the lambda-calculus, as well as the family of algebraic pattern calculi, with first-class patterns; that is, patterns can be passed as arguments, evaluated and returned as results. The notion of matching failure of the PPC not only provides a mechanism to define functions by pattern matching on cases but also supplies PPC with parallel-or-like, non-sequential behaviour. Therefore, devising normalising strategies for PPC to obtain well-behaved implement...

  5. Verification of Stochastic Process Calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic process calculi represent widely accepted formalisms within Computer Science for modelling nondeterministic stochastic systems in a compositional way. Similar to process calculi in general, they are suited for modelling systems in a hierarchical manner, by explicitly specifying subsystems as well as their interdependences and communication channels. Stochastic process calculi incorporate both the quantified uncertainty on probabilities or durations of events and nondeterministic choices between several possible continuations of the system behaviour. Modelling of a system is often performed with the purpose to verify the system. In this dissertation it is argued that the verification techniques that have their origin in the analysis of programming code with the purpose to deduce the properties of the code's execution, i.e. Static Analysis techniques, are transferable to stochastic process calculi. The description of a system in the syntax of a particular stochastic process calculus can be analysed in a compositional way, without expanding the state space by explicitly resolving all the interdependencies between the subsystems which may lead to the state space explosion problem. In support of this claim we have developed analysis methods that belong to a particular type of Static Analysis { Data Flow / Pathway Analysis. These methods have previously been applied to a number of non-stochastic process calculi. In this thesis we are lifting them to the stochastic calculus of Interactive Markov Chains (IMC). We have devised the Pathway Analysis of IMC that is not only correct in the sense of overapproximating all possible behaviour scenarios, as is usual for Static Analysis methods, but is also precise. This gives us the possibility to explicitly decide on the trade-o between precision and complexity while post-processing the analysis results. Another novelty of our methods consists in the kind of properties that we can verify using the results of the Pathway Analysis. We can check both qualitative and quantitative properties of IMC systems. In particular, we have developed algorithms for constructing bisimulation relations, computing (overapproximations of) sets of reachable states and computing the expected time reachability, the last for a linear fragment of IMC. In all the cases we have the complexities of algorithms which are low polynomial in the size of the syntactic description of a system. The presented methods have a clear application in the areas of embedded systems, (randomised) protocols run between a fixed number of parties etc.

  6. Analysis of renal calculi by X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe: a comparison of two methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed 48 renal calculi by X-ray powder diffraction and electron microprobe techniques. In 35 of these, the presence of a minor constituent, not detected by X-ray diffraction, was revealed--hydroxyapatite was found in 24 stones, struvite in 6, and calcium oxalate in 5. The results of this study, as well as others, show that incomplete assignment of the crystalline constituents of urinary calculi is an inherent risk of the X-ray method and that conclusions concerning total chemical composition should be based on X-ray diffraction analyses coupled with data obtained from other analytical procedures

  7. Concurrency Models with Causality and Events as Psi-calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Normann,Håkon; Prisacariu, Cristian; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Psi-calculi are a parametric framework for nominal calculi, where standard calculi are found as instances, like the pi-calculus, or the cryptographic spi-calculus and applied-pi. Psi-calculi have an interleaving operational semantics, with a strong foundation on the theory of nominal sets and process algebras. Much of the expressive power of psi-calculi comes from their logical part, i.e., assertions, conditions, and entailment, which are left quite open thus accommodating a...

  8. Stochastic Simulation of Process Calculi for Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Phillips; Matthew Lakin; Loïc Paulevé

    2010-01-01

    Biological systems typically involve large numbers of components with complex, highly parallel interactions and intrinsic stochasticity. To model this complexity, numerous programming languages based on process calculi have been developed, many of which are expressive enough to generate unbounded numbers of molecular species and reactions. As a result of this expressiveness, such calculi cannot rely on standard reaction-based simulation methods, which require fixed numbers o...

  9. New alternatives for minimally invasive management of uroliths: lower urinary tract uroliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defarges, Alice; Dunn, Marilyn; Berent, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    In small animals, removal is indicated for lower urinary tract calculi that are not amenable to medical dissolution and are causing, or may cause, urinary tract obstruction, inflammation, or recurrent infection. Surgical removal of lower urinary tract uroliths by cystotomy or urethrotomy has been the traditional method. The current standard of care for human urinary tract stones involves the use of lithotripsy and is minimally invasive. This article reviews the current literature on the various minimally invasive options available for managing lower urinary tract stones in small animal veterinary patients. Options for managing nephroliths and ureteroliths will be presented in forthcoming companion articles. PMID:23532727

  10. FT-Raman spectral analysis of human urinary stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, R.; Raja, A.; Thiruppathi, G.

    2012-12-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy is the most useful tool for the purpose of bio-medical diagnostics. In the present study, FT-Raman spectral method is used to investigate the chemical composition of urinary calculi. Urinary calculi multi-components such as calcium oxalate, hydroxyl apatite, struvite and uric acid are studied. FT-Raman spectrum has been recorded in the range of 3500-400 cm-1. Chemical compounds are identified by Raman spectroscopic technique. The quantitative estimations of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) 1463 cm-1, calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD) 1478 cm-1, hydroxyl apatite 959 cm-1, struvite 575 cm-1, uric acid 1283 cm-1 and oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate) 2129 cm-1 are calculated using particular peaks of FT-Raman spectrum. The quantitative estimation of human urinary stones suitable for the single calibration curve was performed.

  11. Holmium laser lithotripsy of bladder calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaghler, Marc A.; Poon, Michael W.

    1998-07-01

    Although the overall incidence of bladder calculi has been decreasing, it is still a significant disease affecting adults and children. Prior treatment options have included open cystolitholapaxy, blind lithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, and visual lithotripsy with ultrasonic or electrohydraulic probes. The holmium laser has been found to be extremely effective in the treatment of upper tract calculi. This technology has also been applied to the treatment of bladder calculi. We report our experience with the holmium laser in the treatment of bladder calculi. Twenty- five patients over a year and a half had their bladder calculi treated with the Holmium laser. This study was retrospective in nature. Patient demographics, stone burden, and intraoperative and post-operative complications were noted. The mean stone burden was 31 mm with a range of 10 to 60 mm. Preoperative diagnosis was made with either an ultrasound, plain film of the abdomen or intravenous pyelogram. Cystoscopy was then performed to confirm the presence and determine the size of the stone. The patients were then taken to the operating room and given a regional or general anesthetic. A rigid cystoscope was placed into the bladder and the bladder stone was then vaporized using the holmium laser. Remaining fragments were washed out. Adjunctive procedures were performed on 10 patients. These included transurethral resection of the prostate, transurethral incision of the prostate, optic internal urethrotomy, and incision of ureteroceles. No major complications occurred and all patients were rendered stone free. We conclude that the Holmium laser is an effective and safe modality for the treatment of bladder calculi. It was able to vaporize all bladder calculi and provides a single modality of treating other associated genitourinary pathology.

  12. Actor Network Procedures as Psi-calculi for Security Ceremonies

    OpenAIRE

    Prisacariu, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    The actor network procedures of Pavlovic and Meadows are a recent graphical formalism developed for describing security ceremonies and for reasoning about their security properties. The present work studies the relations of the actor network procedures (ANP) to the recent psi-calculi framework. Psi-calculi is a parametric formalism where calculi like spi- or applied-pi are found as instances. Psi-calculi are operational and largely non-graphical, but have strong foundation b...

  13. [XRD, FTIR and thermoluminescence spectra of different types of urinary stones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; He, Jie-Yu; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2011-08-01

    Using thermoluminescence spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the chemical compositions of four types of kidney stones were investigated. They are calcium oxalate, uric acid, calcium phosphate and magnesium ammonium phosphate calculi (struvite). Experimental results showed that in the 305 cases of stones, calculi oxalate stones were found to account for 63%, uric acid stones 22%, calcium phosphate stones 8%, struvite 5%, and the stones with other compositions 2%. There were significant differences in the thermoluminescence spectra among the 4 types of urinary stones, which can provide an important basis for the clinic diagnosis of urinary stone types. PMID:22007431

  14. A criterion for separating process calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Banti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new criterion, replacement freeness, to discern the relative expressiveness of process calculi. Intuitively, a calculus is strongly replacement free if replacing, within an enclosing context, a process that cannot perform any visible action by an arbitrary process never inhibits the capability of the resulting process to perform a visible action. We prove that there exists no compositional and interaction sensitive encoding of a not strongly replacement free calculus into any strongly replacement free one. We then define a weaker version of replacement freeness, by only considering replacement of closed processes, and prove that, if we additionally require the encoding to preserve name independence, it is not even possible to encode a non replacement free calculus into a weakly replacement free one. As a consequence of our encodability results, we get that many calculi equipped with priority are not replacement free and hence are not encodable into mainstream calculi like CCS and pi-calculus, that instead are strongly replacement free. We also prove that variants of pi-calculus with match among names, pattern matching or polyadic synchronization are only weakly replacement free, hence they are separated both from process calculi with priority and from mainstream calculi.

  15. Flow Logic for Process Calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the ?-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction and adequacy results), and a Moore Family result showing that a least solution always exists, as well as providing insights on how to implement the analysis. We then show how to strengthen the analysis technology by introducing reachability components, interaction points, and localized environments, and finally, we extend it to a relational analysis. A Flow Logic is a program logic---in the same sense that a Hoare’s logic is. We conclude with an executive summary presenting the highlights of the approach from this perspective including a discussion of theoretical properties as well as implementation considerations. The electronic supplements present an application of the analysis techniques to a version of the ?-calculus incorporating distribution and code mobility; also the proofs of the main results can be found in the electronic supplements.

  16. A criterion for separating process calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Banti, Federico; Tiezzi, Francesco; 10.4204/EPTCS.41.2

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new criterion, replacement freeness, to discern the relative expressiveness of process calculi. Intuitively, a calculus is strongly replacement free if replacing, within an enclosing context, a process that cannot perform any visible action by an arbitrary process never inhibits the capability of the resulting process to perform a visible action. We prove that there exists no compositional and interaction sensitive encoding of a not strongly replacement free calculus into any strongly replacement free one. We then define a weaker version of replacement freeness, by only considering replacement of closed processes, and prove that, if we additionally require the encoding to preserve name independence, it is not even possible to encode a non replacement free calculus into a weakly replacement free one. As a consequence of our encodability results, we get that many calculi equipped with priority are not replacement free and hence are not encodable into mainstream calculi like CCS and pi-calculus, t...

  17. AN UNASCENDED RIGHT KIDNEY WITH LEFT SIDED URETERIC CALCULI: A CADAVERIC CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meril Ann Soman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies of the urinary system constitute approximately 30% of all the congenital malformations. There are various associated anomalies involving number, size, shape, position and vascularity of the kidneys. Unascended kidneys refers to a halt in the migration of the kidneys during their normal embryological development. Defect in the ascent of the kidneys are closely related with variations in the branching pattern of aorta. Here we report a case of an unilateral unascended right kidney in a male cadaver encountered during routine medical dissection. A left sided ureteric calculi was also seen as an incidental finding in the same cadaver. Ureterolithiasis occurs worldwide in all sets of population with 80% of the stones found in the male sex in the age group of 30- 60 years. There are various factors which favour the formation of ureteric calculi which includes geographical, socio-economical as well as the mineral content of water consumed and some general medical causes. An attempt has been made to document the causes for this variation and the preventive measures that can be adopted to prevent the formation of ureteric calculi.

  18. Rhazes, a Genius Physician in Diagnosis and Treatment of Kidney Calculi in Medical History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Changizi Ashtiyani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya Razi, known in the west as Rhazes (865 to 925 AD, was born in the ancient city of Rayy, near Tehran, Iran. He was a renowned physician in medical history and not only followed Hippocrates and Galen, but also greatly extended the analytical approach of his predecessors. Based on the existing documents, he was known as the most distinguished character in the world of medicine up to the 17th century. A great number of innovations and pioneering works in the medical science have been recorded in the name of Rhazes. His fundamental works in urology as part of his research in the realm of medicine have remained unknown. Pathophysiology of the urinary tract, venereal diseases, and kidney and bladder calculi are among his main interests in this field. He also purposed and developed methods for diagnosis and treatment of kidney calculi for the first time in medical history. He also presented a very exact and precise description of neuropathic bladder followed by vertebral fracture. He advanced urine analysis and studied function and diseases of the kidneys. Rhazes recommendations for the prevention of calculi are quite scientific and practical and in accordance with current recommendations to avoid hypercalciuria and increased saturation of urine. Rhazes was not only one of the most important Persian physician-philosophers of his era, but for centuries, his writings became fundamental teaching texts in European medical schools. Some important aspects of his contributions to medicine are reviewed.

  19. Mobility in process calculi and natural computing

    CERN Document Server

    Aman, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    The design of formal calculi in which fundamental concepts underlying interactive systems can be described and studied has been a central theme of theoretical computer science in recent decades, while membrane computing, a rule-based formalism inspired by biological cells, is a more recent field that belongs to the general area of natural computing. This is the first book to establish a link between these two research directions while treating mobility as the central topic. In the first chapter the authors offer a formal description of mobility in process calculi, noting the entities that move

  20. Spectroscopic study of the inhibition of calcium oxalate calculi by Larrea tridentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinales, Luis Alonso

    The causes of urolithiasis include such influences as diet, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors which have been documented as sources that aggravate urinary calculi depositions and aggregations, and, implicitly, as causes of urolithiasis. This study endeavors to detail the scientific mechanisms involved in calcium oxalate calculi formation, and, more importantly, their inhibition under growth conditions imposed by the traditional medicinal approach using the herbal extract, Larrea tridentata. The calculi were synthesized without and with Larrea tridentata infusion by employing the single diffusion gel technique. A visible decrease in calcium oxalate crystal growth with increasing amounts of Larrea tridentata herbal infusion was observed in photomicrographs, as well as a color change from white-transparent for pure crystals to light orange-brown for crystals with inhibitor. Analysis of the samples, which includes Raman, infrared absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques, demonstrate an overall transition in morphology of the crystals from monohydrate without herbal extract to dihydrate with inhibitor. Furthermore, the resulting data from Raman and infrared absorption support the possibilities of the influences, in this complex process, of NDGA and its derivative compounds from Larrea tridentata, and of the bonding of the magnesium of the inhibitor with the oxalate ion on the surface of the calculi crystals. This assumption corroborates well with the micrographs obtained under higher magnification, which show that the separated small crystallites consist of darker brownish cores, which we attribute to the dominance of growth inhibition by NDGA, surrounded by light transparent thin shells, which possibly correspond to passivation of the crystals by magnesium oxalate. The SEM results reveal the transformation from the dominant monoclinic structure of the calcium oxalate crystals grown alone to the tetragonal dipyramidal crystal structure of the calcium oxalate crystals grown with Larrea tridentata. Comparison between XRD experimental and simulated data, besides corroborating with our previous results, show that each sample is a combination of different structures.

  1. Native and contrast-radiographic examination of the urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govor?in Mira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Plain x-rays and contrast urography are important for diagnosing urinary tract diseases. The first plain film of the urinary tract was made in 1896, and the first tests using contrasts started in 1904. Excretory urography has been used since 1930. Plain film of the urinary tract Plain films of the urinary tract are used in the kidney area, the area of the ureter and urinary bladder. They also show structures (lumbar and sacral spine and pelvis, muscles (m. iliopsoas as well as calculi. Excretory urography X-ray visualization of the urinary tract with contrast substances is intravenous urography. It is used for diagnosing diseases of the upper urinary system with symptoms such as: pain, colic, hydronephrosis, as well as acute cortical infections, urinary bladder tumors, etc. Retrograde urography Retrograde urography is a procedure recommended when either the pyelocalyx system or the ureter are not seen unilaterally or bilaterally. Cystography and urethrocystography Cystography is used to visualize the bladder. It is recommended in case of intravesical obstruction. Urethrocystography is a technique for investigation of the anterior and prostatic urethra as well as the neck of the urinary bladder. Conclusion Plain film of the urinary tract, excretory urography, retrograde pyelography, cystography and urethrocystography, used along with ultrasonography, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance, are useful diagnostic procedures which provide accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.

  2. The metabolism of silicon in the rat and its relation to the formation of artificial siliceous calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KELLER, R F; LOVELACE, S A

    1959-06-01

    The urinary excretion of silicon in the rat was found to be enhanced beyond normal levels by the administration of various chemical forms of silicon. The excretion was enhanced to a much greater degree by the administration of ethyl silicate than by magnesium trisilicate, sodium metasilicate, or water glass. The tolerance level of rats to sustained daily doses of ethyl silicate fed via stomach tube was approximately 15 to 30 mg. of silicon per rat per day. Urinary silicon excretion was found to be a straight line function of the concentration of ethyl silicate administered, via stomach tube, with approximately 18 per cent of the administered silicon appearing in the urine at all levels tested. Using sustained dietary additions of ethyl silicate as a means of enhancing urine silicon levels, artificial siliceous urinary calculi were consistently produced on zinc pellets implanted in the bladders of rats. PMID:13654631

  3. More on differential calculi on bicrossproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend a previous classification of differentials and Cartan calculus on the bicrossproduct quantum group k(M)-blacktriangleright triangleleft-kG to its dual Hopf algebra H = kM-triangleright blacktriangleleft-k(G). It turns out that the usual bicovariant differential calculi on kM and on k(G) extend naturally to H. We explicitly work out the examples of kZ2-triangleright blacktriangleleft (Z3) and kZ6-triangleright 3). (author)

  4. Cyclic and Inductive Calculi are equivalent

    CERN Document Server

    Voicu, Razvan

    2011-01-01

    Brotherston and Simpson [citation] have formalized and investigated cyclic reasoning, reaching the important conclusion that it is at least as powerful as inductive reasoning (specifically, they showed that each inductive proof can be translated into a cyclic proof). We add to their investigation by proving the converse of this result, namely that each inductive proof can be translated into an inductive one. This, in effect, establishes the equivalence between first order cyclic and inductive calculi.

  5. Relationship between the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi and surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi and the surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi was examined. Thirty-seven staghorn calculi in 35 cases, which were treated with percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) between 1995 and 2007 in Saga University Hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. The number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi was counted based on the radiographic findings of kidney ureter bladder (KUB), intravenous pyelography (IVP) and CT. The surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi were evaluated according to the number of PCNL sessions, the total number of surgical treatments including transurethral ureterolithotripsy (TUL) and shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), the hospitalization period, the stone-free rate and the residual stone rate. The average stone size was 45.1 mm (21-99 mm). The average number of PCNL sessions was 2.5 times. TUL and SWL were conducted in combination with PCNL in 4 and 25 cases, retrospectively. According to the increase in the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi, the number of PCNL sessions, the total number of surgical treatments and the hospitalization period all increased. In cases where staghorn calculi occupied 3 or more calyces, a lower stone-free rate and a higher residual stone rate were observed, compared with those cases where calculi occupied only 2 calyces. Evaluating the number of calyces occupied by staghorn calculi seems to be one of td by staghorn calculi seems to be one of the useful indicators for a preoperative assessment of surgical difficulties in the treatment of staghorn calculi. (author)

  6. Accuracy of Radiological Features for Predicting Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Success for Treatment of Kidney Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arshadi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: Our aim was to assess the accuracy of radiological characteristics observed by the urologist in estimating the success rate of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL in patients with kidney calculi.

    Materials and Methods: Patients with kidney calculi sized 10 mm to 15 mm who underwent SWL in our center were enrolled. One urologist estimated the success chance of SWL based on plain abdominal radiography. Accordingly, the patients were categorized into 2 groups with more than 75% chance of fragmentation (group 1 and with 50% to 75% estimated chance of fragmentation (group 2. Factors used for estimation included calculus shape, homogeneity, and density as compared with the adjacent 12th rib. The estimations were compared with the resulted stone-free rate after a 3-month follow-up.

    Results: A total of 137 patients were studied, of whom, 92 (67.2% were categorized in group 1 and 45 (32.8% in group 2, before the lithotripsy. Successful treatment was recorded in 101 patients (73.7%. Eighty-five patients with favorable estimated chance of successful lithotripsy (92.4% had successful SWL, and 29 with less favorable estimate (64.4% did not have successful fragmentation following 2 sessions of SWL (P < .001. The sensitivity and specificity of radiological parameters for prediction of treatment success were 84.2% and 80.6%, respectively.

    Conclusion: We found that certain radiographic features of urinary calculi such as calculus density, as compared with the adjacent bone, and calculus shape could have predictive impression for the success rate of SWL.

  7. Urinary incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the bladder Urinary tract infection or inflammation Weight gain Causes that may be more long-term: Alzheimer's disease Bladder cancer Bladder spasms Depression Large prostate in men Nervous system conditions, such ...

  8. Urinary casts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... examined under the microscope during a test called urinalysis . Urinary casts may be made up of white ... of the urologic patient: history, physical examination, and urinalysis. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et ...

  9. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can ... or lift a heavy object. This is stress incontinence. If bladder muscles become too active, you may ...

  10. A standardisation proof for algebraic pattern calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Kesner, Delia; Ríos, Alejandro; 10.4204/EPTCS.49.5

    2011-01-01

    This work gives some insights and results on standardisation for call-by-name pattern calculi. More precisely, we define standard reductions for a pattern calculus with constructor-based data terms and patterns. This notion is based on reduction steps that are needed to match an argument with respect to a given pattern. We prove the Standardisation Theorem by using the technique developed by Takahashi and Crary for lambda-calculus. The proof is based on the fact that any development can be specified as a sequence of head steps followed by internal reductions, i.e. reductions in which no head steps are involved.

  11. Diagnosis of ureteral calculi using ultrasonography, intravenous urography and unenhanced Helical Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govor?in Mira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography Ultrasonography is an efficient tool in the detection of calculi in the pyelocalyx system, but it may not be sufficient for the area of renal pelvis and ureter, as well as for the ureter and the ureterovesical junction. Intravenous urography Radiolucent stones, dilatation of the ureter and of the pyelocalyx system were identified on the urogram, which are common signs of ureter calctilosis. Defects in the contrast can be caused by blood clots and papillary or malignant tumors of the ureter, thus causing a differential diagnosis problem. Unenhanced Helical Computed Tomography Noncontrast spiral CT is useful for detection for calculi as small as 3mm. It can identify their localization and size without enlargements. The primary and secondary CT signs also confirm the established diagnosis. Conclusion The noncontrast spiral CT is a highly precise method for assessment of kidney pain. It is a reliable and rapid diagnostic modality for the detection of urinary stones which differentiates them from blood clots, tumors, air and other factors which create a differential diagnosis problem.

  12. Success Factors of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL for Renal & Ureteric Calculi in Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Fadil Abid

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to define factors that have a significant impact on the stone-free rate after ESWL. Methods: A total of 417 patients harboring renal or ureteral stones underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL between October 2008 and July 2012. Eighty five patients were lost on follow up. The remaining (n = 332. All patients were >18 yr of age. Siemens and SLX-F2 electromagnetic machines were used to impart shock waves. Patients were stratified according to localization (pelvic, calyceal, or ureteral stones and stone size (up to 10 mm, 10 - 20 mm, and >20 mm. Result: The overall success rate was 251/332 (75.6% achieve stone free status. Repeated ESWL sessions were needed in 258 (61.9%. Of eleven variables were studied including age, sex, side, location (pelvic, calyx, ureter, ureteric stent, previous renal surgery, stone size, number of shock waves, opacity of stone, renal system state, and type of lithotripter, three variables were significantly affect the success rate namely stone size, number of shock waves and location of stone. Conclusions: ESWL remains one of the most commonly utilized treatments for patients with upper urinary tract calculi; Stone diameter, location, and number of shock waves, are the most important predictors determining stone clearance after ESWL of renal and ureteric calculi. To optimize treatment outcomes with ESWL the presence of treating urologist is essential to optimize the final result.

  13. Phosphates precipitating from artificial urine and fine structure of phosphate renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, F; Sohnel, O; Vilacampa, A I; March, J G

    1996-01-15

    Phosphates precipitating from artificial urine in the pH range 6-8 were identified using X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The influence of magnesium and citrate on phases precipitating from urine was established. From urine containing a normal quantity of magnesium (around 70 ppm), brushite accompanied by hydroxyapatite (HAP) precipitated at pH 7.0. HAP was formed exclusively from magnesium deficient urine at pH 7.0. Newberyite, octacalcium phosphate and whitlockite were not identified. The chemical and phase composition and inner fine structure of 14 phosphate calculi were studied. Three types of stones were distinguished based on their magnesium content: (i) stones rich in magnesium composed of struvite, hydroxyapatite and abundant organic matter, (ii) stones with low magnesium content constituted by calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, up to 5% of struvite, considerable amount of organic matter and occasionally brushite, and (iii) calculi without magnesium consisting of brushite, hydroxyapatite and little organic matter. Conditions prevaling during stone-formation assessed for each type of stone were confirmed by corresponding urinary biochemical data and corroborate the in vitro studies of phosphates precipitation. PMID:8919201

  14. 99mTc-DTPA renography before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to evaluate 99mTc-DTPA renography before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Twelve patients with renal calculi were examined in this study. In three patients, bilateral kidneys were treated with ESWL. Sequential renal images of the vascular phase, and the functional and excretory phases were taken using a gamma camera (ZLC 7500, Siemens), after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of 99mTc-DTPA. Renograms were generated using data stored every 10 seconds for a period of 30 minutes by computer (Scintipac-2400, Shimadzu). Some treated kidneys were enlarged and/or showed uniform retention of radioactivity on sequential images, within a week after ESWL. Renogram patterns after ESWL were varied in each patient. The renogram findings after ESWL seemed to be affected by the presence or absence of stone fragments in the urinary tract. (author)

  15. SEM and X-ray microanalysis of human prostatic calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculi removed from human prostates affected with nodular hyperplasia were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and EDAX system. The general spectrum was made up of Na, Al, Mg, S, P, Ca and Zn. Two types of stone were identified morphostructurally and microanalytically: calculi type I of nodular surface with high peaks of S, and calculi type II polyfaceted with high peaks of P and Ca. Their formation from corpora amylacea and/or exogenous constituents is discussed. The superficial deposit of Zn suggests its incorporation from the prostatic liquid and does not seem to play an important role in the genesis

  16. Outpatient bilateral supracostal tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy for staghorn calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorovic, Andrea; Wilson, James W.L.; Beiko, Darren

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the surgical procedure of choice to treat staghorn calculi. Most centres perform PCNL as the traditional inpatient procedure. However, outpatient PCNL has been successfully attempted and represents a feasible method of reducing hospital costs. We report the case of a 35-year-old female who underwent outpatient simultaneous PCNL for bilateral renal staghorn calculi. The patient was discharged in stable condition less than 3 hours following the procedure with minimal discomfort. To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first to describe a successfully completed outpatient bilateral supracostal tubeless PCNL for staghorn calculi. PMID:24839499

  17. SEM and X-ray microanalysis of human prostatic calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilches, J.; Lopez, A.; De Palacio, L.; Munoz, C.; Gomez, J.

    1982-02-01

    Calculi removed from human prostates affected with nodular hyperplasia were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and EDAX system. The general spectrum was made up of Na, Al, Mg, S, P, Ca and Zn. Two types of stone were identified morphostructurally and microanalytically: calculi type I of nodular surface with high peaks of S, and calculi type II polyfaceted with high peaks of P and Ca. Their formation from corpora amylacea and/or exogenous constituents is discussed. The superficial deposit of Zn suggests its incorporation from the prostatic liquid and does not seem to play an important role in the genesis.

  18. Urinary diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautmann, Richard E; Abol-Enein, Hassan; Hafez, Khaled; Haro, Isao; Mansson, Wiking; Mills, Robert D; Montie, James D; Sagalowsky, Arthur I; Stein, John P; Stenzl, Arnulf; Studer, Urs E; Volkmer, Bjoern G

    2007-01-01

    A consensus conference convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Société Internationale d'Urologie (SIU) met to critically review reports of urinary diversion. The world literature on urinary diversion was identified through a Medline search. Evidence-based recommendations for urinary diversion were prepared with reference to a 4-point scale. Many level 3 and 4 citations, but very few level 2 and no level 1, were noted. This outcome supported the clinical practice pattern. Findings of >300 reviewed citations are summarized. Published reports on urinary diversion rely heavily on expert opinion and single-institution retrospective case series: (1) The frequency distribution of urinary diversions performed by the authors of this report in >7000 patients with cystectomy reflects the current status of urinary diversion after cystectomy for bladder cancer: neobladder, 47%; conduit, 33%; anal diversion, 10%; continent cutaneous diversion, 8%; incontinent cutaneous diversion, 2%; and others, 0.1%. (2) No randomized controlled studies have investigated quality of life (QOL) after radical cystectomy. Such studies are desirable but are probably difficult to conduct. Published evidence does not support an advantage of one type of reconstruction over the others with regard to QOL. An important proposed reason for this is that patients are subjected preoperatively to method-to-patient matching, and thus are prepared for disadvantages associated with different methods. (3) Simple end-to-side, freely refluxing ureterointestinal anastomosis to an afferent limb of a low-pressure orthotopic reconstruction, in combination with regular voiding and close follow-up, is the procedure that results in the lowest overall complication rate. The potential benefit of "conventional" antireflux procedures in combination with orthotopic reconstruction seems outweighed by the higher complication and reoperation rates. The need to prevent reflux in a continent cutaneous reservoir is not significantly debated, and this should be done. (4) Most reconstructive surgeons have abandoned the continent Kock ileal reservoir largely because of the significant complication rate associated with the intussuscepted nipple valve. PMID:17280907

  19. Computerised tomography localisation of intrarenal calculi prior to nephrolithotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the EMI CT 5005 scanner in patients with renal calculus disease is described. This investigation was found to be a useful aid in the accurate localisation of calculi within the renal collecting system prior to surgery. (author)

  20. Lower pole calculi larger than one centimeter: Retrograde intrarenal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Andreas J.; Bach, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Controversy remains on how to treat lower pole calculi between 1 and 2 cm of size. Treatment options like shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) or percutaneous stone treatment (PCNL) are associated with poor stone-free rates or high morbidity.

  1. Laser lithotripsy in the treatment of ureteral calculi.

    OpenAIRE

    Psihramis, K E; Buckspan, M B

    1990-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of laser lithotripsy with a flash-lamp-pumped tunable dye laser in the treatment of ureteral calculi that were too large for direct extraction and that could not be treated with or had not responded to extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) or forms of ureteroscopic lithotripsy other than laser lithotripsy. In 20 (74%) of the 27 patients the laser alone successfully fragmented the calculi into pieces small enough to pass spontaneously or to be easily extrac...

  2. Combined calculi for photon orbital and spin angular momenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, N. M.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Wavelength, photon spin angular momentum (PSAM), and photon orbital angular momentum (POAM), completely describe the state of a photon or an electric field (an ensemble of photons). Wavelength relates directly to energy and linear momentum, the corresponding kinetic quantities. PSAM and POAM, themselves kinetic quantities, are colloquially known as polarization and optical vortices, respectively. Astrophysical sources emit photons that carry this information. Aims: PSAM characteristics of an electric field (intensity) are compactly described by the Jones (Stokes/Mueller) calculus. Similarly, I created calculi to represent POAM characteristics of electric fields and intensities in an astrophysical context. Adding wavelength dependence to all of these calculi is trivial. The next logical steps are to 1) form photon total angular momentum (PTAM = POAM + PSAM) calculi; 2) prove their validity using operators and expectation values; and 3) show that instrumental PSAM can affect measured POAM values for certain types of electric fields. Methods: I derive the PTAM calculi of electric fields and intensities by combining the POAM and PSAM calculi. I show how these quantities propagate from celestial sphere to image plane. I also form the PTAM operator (the sum of the POAM and PSAM operators), with and without instrumental PSAM, and calculate the corresponding expectation values. Results: Apart from the vector, matrix, dot product, and direct product symbols, the PTAM and POAM calculi appear superficially identical. I provide tables with all possible forms of PTAM calculi. I prove that PTAM expectation values are correct for instruments with and without instrumental PSAM. I also show that POAM measurements of "unfactored" PTAM electric fields passing through non-zero instrumental circular PSAM can be biased. Conclusions: The combined PTAM calculi provide insight into mathematically modeling PTAM sources and calibrating POAM- and PSAM-induced measurement errors.

  3. Sclerosing cholangitis and biliary tract calculi--primary or secondary?

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorny, C S; McCaughan, G. W.; Gallagher, N D; Selby, W S

    1992-01-01

    The clinical features of 61 patients with sclerosing cholangitis were reviewed. This group included 23 patients with biliary tract calculi, commonly considered as excluding the diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis. The aim of this study was to compare these 23 patients (group A) with 38 patients with sclerosing cholangitis free of calculi (group B). Both groups had the following features in common: (i) age at presentation, (ii) incidence of inflammatory bowel disease, (iii) extent of r...

  4. Ureteroscopy Assisted Retrograde Nephrostomy for Complete Staghorn Renal Calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahara, Takashi; Ito, Hiroki; Terao, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Takehiko; Uemura, Hiroji; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Matsuzaki, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Complete staghorn calculi are typically managed with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). However, dilating nephrostomy and inserting a nephro access sheath can be difficult to perform without hydronephrosis. We reported the procedure of ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy (UARN) during PCNL. UARN is effective without dilating the renal collecting system in cases of complete staghorn calculi. A 63-year old female with a left complete staghorn renal calculus was referred to our hospit...

  5. Outpatient bilateral supracostal tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy for staghorn calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Kokorovic, Andrea; Wilson, James W. L.; Beiko, Darren

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the surgical procedure of choice to treat staghorn calculi. Most centres perform PCNL as the traditional inpatient procedure. However, outpatient PCNL has been successfully attempted and represents a feasible method of reducing hospital costs. We report the case of a 35-year-old female who underwent outpatient simultaneous PCNL for bilateral renal staghorn calculi. The patient was discharged in stable condition less than 3 hours following the procedure w...

  6. First Order Calculi with Values in Right--Universal Bimodules

    OpenAIRE

    Borowiec, A.; Kharchenko, V. K.; Oziewicz, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to show how calculi on unital associative algebra with universal right bimodule generalize previously studied constructions by Pusz and Woronowicz [1989] and by Wess and Zumino [1990] and that in this language results are in a natural context, are easier to describe and handle. As a by--product we obtained intrinsic, coordinate--free and basis--independent generalization of the first order noncommutative differential calculi with partial derivatives.

  7. Análise do impacto do progresso tecnológico nos custos do tratamento hospitalar: o caso do tratamento para litíase urinária no Hospital Universitário de Brasília Analysis of the technological change impact in the costs in hospital treatment: the case study of the treatment for urinary calculi in hospital in university hospital of Brasília

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Souza Costa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O progresso tecnológico na área de saúde tem provocado a elevação dos custos da assistência médica, preocupando a população mundial, os agentes privados e os responsáveis pelas políticas públicas. Estetrabalho apresenta uma análise do impacto do progresso tecnológico - delimitado, neste estudo, à incorporação de equipamentos médicos - nos custos do tratamento hospitalar. Para cumprir o objetivo, foram escolhidos ostratamentos médicos para litíase urinária - litotripsia e cirurgia - devido ao histórico de relevantes avanços tecnológicos. O estudo de caso foi realizado no Serviço de Litotripsia e no Centro Cirúrgico do Hospital Universitário de Brasília (HUB, no período de 2001 a 2003. Foram comparados os custos e as receitas diferenciais das alternativas de tratamento para calculose urinária em quatro opções de decisão. Para testar a robustez dos resultados, foi incorporada a variável incerteza, por meio de simulações no sistema Crystall Ball, realizando 50.000 iterações. Os principais impactos do progresso tecnológico nos custos do tratamento paralitíase urinária são: aumento da capacidade instalada, geração de despesa com obsolescência e aumento das receitas.The technological progress in the field of health has been triggering rises of medical assistance costs, worrying the world-wide population, private agents and the responsible ones for public policies. This search presents an analysis of technological evolution impact - here, bounded to the medical equipments incorporation - on thehospital treatment costs. In order to accomplish the objective, the medical care for urinary lithiasis - lithotripsyand surgery - had been chosen due to the record of meaningful technological advances. The case study wascarried through at the Lithotripsy Service and Hospital Universitário de Brasília (HUB Surgical Center from 2001to 2003. The costs and incomes - differential items inherent to options for urinary calculosis treatment - were compared in four proposals. As a means to prove the results robustness the variable uncertainty wasincorporated through simulations at the Crystal Ball system, achieving 50.000 iterations. The main impacts from technological progress on the medical care for urinary lithiasis costs are: increase of the installed capacity, generation of expense with obsolescence and increase of revenues.

  8. Análise do impacto do progresso tecnológico nos custos do tratamento hospitalar: o caso do tratamento para litíase urinária no Hospital Universitário de Brasília / Analysis of the technological change impact in the costs in hospital treatment: the case study of the treatment for urinary calculi in hospital in university hospital of Brasília

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia de Souza, Costa; César Augusto Tibúrcio, Silva.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O progresso tecnológico na área de saúde tem provocado a elevação dos custos da assistência médica, preocupando a população mundial, os agentes privados e os responsáveis pelas políticas públicas. Estetrabalho apresenta uma análise do impacto do progresso tecnológico - delimitado, neste estudo, à in [...] corporação de equipamentos médicos - nos custos do tratamento hospitalar. Para cumprir o objetivo, foram escolhidos ostratamentos médicos para litíase urinária - litotripsia e cirurgia - devido ao histórico de relevantes avanços tecnológicos. O estudo de caso foi realizado no Serviço de Litotripsia e no Centro Cirúrgico do Hospital Universitário de Brasília (HUB), no período de 2001 a 2003. Foram comparados os custos e as receitas diferenciais das alternativas de tratamento para calculose urinária em quatro opções de decisão. Para testar a robustez dos resultados, foi incorporada a variável incerteza, por meio de simulações no sistema Crystall Ball, realizando 50.000 iterações. Os principais impactos do progresso tecnológico nos custos do tratamento paralitíase urinária são: aumento da capacidade instalada, geração de despesa com obsolescência e aumento das receitas. Abstract in english The technological progress in the field of health has been triggering rises of medical assistance costs, worrying the world-wide population, private agents and the responsible ones for public policies. This search presents an analysis of technological evolution impact - here, bounded to the medical [...] equipments incorporation - on thehospital treatment costs. In order to accomplish the objective, the medical care for urinary lithiasis - lithotripsyand surgery - had been chosen due to the record of meaningful technological advances. The case study wascarried through at the Lithotripsy Service and Hospital Universitário de Brasília (HUB) Surgical Center from 2001to 2003. The costs and incomes - differential items inherent to options for urinary calculosis treatment - were compared in four proposals. As a means to prove the results robustness the variable uncertainty wasincorporated through simulations at the Crystal Ball system, achieving 50.000 iterations. The main impacts from technological progress on the medical care for urinary lithiasis costs are: increase of the installed capacity, generation of expense with obsolescence and increase of revenues.

  9. Nonlocal Operational Calculi for Dunkl Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan H. Dimovski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The one-dimensional Dunkl operator $D_k$ with a non-negative parameter $k$, is considered under an arbitrary nonlocal boundary value condition. The right inverse operator of $D_k$, satisfying this condition is studied. An operational calculus of Mikusinski type is developed. In the frames of this operational calculi an extension of the Heaviside algorithm for solution of nonlocal Cauchy boundary value problems for Dunkl functional-differential equations $P(D_ku = f$ with a given polynomial $P$ is proposed. The solution of these equations in mean-periodic functions reduces to such problems. Necessary and sufficient condition for existence of unique solution in mean-periodic functions is found.

  10. Percutaneous Treatment of Bladder Calculi in Children: 5 Years Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Movarekh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous cystolithotripsy in children.Materials and Methods: Thirty children (27 boys and 3 girls; mean age, 6.06 ± 2.64 years; range, 1.5 to 12 years with bladder calculi underwent percutaneous stone removal. The mean size of the largest diameters of the calculi was 24.8 ± 8.47 mm (range, 13 mm to 50 mm. Under general anesthesia, a 1-cm incision was made 1 to 2 cm above the pubic symphysis. A 26-F nephroscope was introduced into the bladder following tract dilation, and the calculi were removed. If the calculi were larger than 1 cm, fragmentation was performed. The procedure was done without fluoroscopy. Finally, a urethral catheter was placed for 48 hours.Results: All patients became stone free. The mean operative time was 23.13 ± 8.38 minutes (range, 12 to 40 minutes. All patients were discharged 24 hours after operation, except 1, who was hospitalized 2 more days for suprapubic pain and severe irritating symptoms. No significant intraoperative or postoperative complications were seen.Conclusion: Percutaneous suprapubic cystolithotripsy is an efficient and safe technique for treating bladder calculi in children. We recommend this technique for treating large bladder calculi (larger than 1 cm in children.

  11. Shockwave lithotripsy in patients with renal calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to demonstrate the efficacy of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in the primary treatment of 1647 patients with renal calculi using a Dornier Doli U/50 lithotripter. One thousand six hundred forty-seven patients underwent SWL as day-cases at King Abdulaziz Hospital, Saudi Arabia between October 2001 and July 2007, using intravenous sedation (Pethidine 1mg/kg and Midazolam 5-10mg) for analgesia in 85.5% of the patients. The treatment outcome of 2241 renal calculi was analyzed and stratified according to the size and site of the stones. Recorded data included shock waves intensity, number of shocks, treatment time, analgesia stone related factors such as size, site, number, nature, composition and any related complications. The stones were grouped into 5 groups, according to the largest stone size in the kidney. Patients were followed up for 6-18 months, mean of 13 months. Complete clearance of the stones occurred in 2154 kidneys (89.5%). At 3-months follow-up, the overall treatment rate was 57.2% and for each group it was 132 (23.5%) for Group I, 254 (36.1%) for Group II, 473 (85.5%) for Group III, 278 (100%) for Group IV and 147 (100%) for Group V. Treatment failed in 87 patients with stone size of 30-39 mm. Fifty-six were solitary pelvic stones treated with ureteroscopy, while 31 were calyceal stoned treated by other modalities such as per-cutaneousnephro-lithotomy. The most common complication was pyelonephritis with or without obstruction. Shock wave lithoh or without obstruction. Shock wave lithotripsy treatment was a successful primary management of renal stones of variable sizes in 89.5% of the treated kidneys. (author)

  12. The composition of urinary stones in central sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine chemical analysis of urinary stones of central sindh. Study design: Prospective and randomized study. Setting: Department of Surgery and Pathology of Peoples University of Medical and Health Sciences Nawabshah. Duration of study: Three years from May 2008 to May 2011. Material and Methods: Total 106 urolith patients who underwent open stone surgery were included in the study. EDTA Titration used for determination of calcium ions and determination of oxalate, phosphate, magnesium, ammonia, uric acid and cystine stones was carried out using spectrophotometer. These patients were asked to fill out a proforma with parameters of age, sex, radiological location of stone and chemical composition of surgically recovered stones. The stone analysis findings were reviewed and compared with other reported series Results: In this study 75(70.75%) patients were male and 31 (29.25%) female. Male to female ratio was of 2.41:1. The age ranged from 1 to 70 years with the mean of 22.69 years. The peak incidence of upper urinary tract stone in 20-30 years and lower urinary tract stones in both sexes was under 10 years. Anatomical location of stone showed 48(45.29%) renal, 13(12.26%) ureteric and 45(42.45%) bladder calculi. Chemical analysis revealed 56(52.8%) calcium oxalate, 7(6.6%) calcium phosphate, 11(10.3%) ammonium urate, 18(16.9%) uric acid, 13(12.2%) Sturvite and 1(0.9%) cystine calculi. Conclusion: It was concluded that urolithiasis is predominantly male disease. No age group was spared to stone disease. Calcium oxalate, uric acid, ammonium urate and mixed calculi are the main types in our study due to poor nutritional status, poverty and inadequate health facilities. Considering that knowledge of stone composition is of utmost importance to modify the incidence of urolithiasis. (author)

  13. Experiencia clínica y resultados en el tratamiento de 4402 pacientes con cálculos urinarios únicos con el litotritor extracorpóreo Dornier MFL-5000 / Clinical experience and results iun the treatment of 4402 patients with solitary urinary calculi with the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter Dornier MFL-500

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto, Palacios; Filipe, Rodrigues; Mário Jorge, Soares; Adérito, Morais; Apolinário, Mendes; Jorge, Pinheiro.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Presentamos la casuística de nuestro servicio en el tratamiento de la litíasis urinaria así como la efectividad del litotritor Dornier MFL-5000 Métodos: Tratamos en 12 años un total de 6602 pacientes con un número total de sesiones de litotricia de 17120. Realizamos el estudio del éxito de [...] l tratamiento de los 4402 pacientes que presentaban un cálculo, según el tamaño y la localización. Resultados: No hubo complicaciones mayores y apenas 43 pacientes tuvieron calle litiásica. Realizamos el tratamiento de 4402 cálculos. Para todos los cálculos independientemente de su localización y tamaño supone que 2615 (59,4%) se han tratado en una sesión, 801 (18,2%) en dos, 379 (8,6%) en tres, 213 (4,8%) en cuatro y 372 (8,4%) en cinco o más sesiones. Conclusiones: El litotritor MFL-5000 ha permitido el tratamiento de la litiasis urinaria en todas las edades, con unos porcentajes de retratamiento y un número de tratamientos por cálculo similar a otros autores, sin necesidad de analgesia ni medidas anestésicas, salvo en apenas aquellos pacientes de menor edad. Abstract in english Objectives: To report the series of our Urology Department in the treatment of urinary stone disease with extracorporeal lithotripsy as well as the effectiveness of the Dornier lithotripter MFL-5000. Methods: 6.602 patients were treated by extracorporeal lithotripsy during 12 years with a total of 1 [...] 7.120 sessions. We examined the treatment outcome of 4.402 patients with a solitary stone, accordingly to stone size and localization. Results: There were no major complications and only 43 patients experienced "calle litiásica". We treated 4.402 stones. For all stones, independently of size and localization, 2615 (59.4%) were treated in one session, 801 (18.2%) required two sessions, 379 (8.6%) 3 sessions, 213 (4.8%) 4 sessions and 373 (8.4%) 5 or more sessions. Conclusion: The Dornier MFL-5000 lithotripter successfully treated urinary stone disease in patients of all age groups with a retreatment rate and number of sessions per stone similar to other studies, without analgesia or anesthetic procedures, except in the younger age group.

  14. On the Expressiveness of Markovian Process Calculi with Durational and Durationless Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Bernardo

    2010-01-01

    Several Markovian process calculi have been proposed in the literature, which differ from each other for various aspects. With regard to the action representation, we distinguish between integrated-time Markovian process calculi, in which every action has an exponentially distributed duration associated with it, and orthogonal-time Markovian process calculi, in which action execution is separated from time passing. Similar to deterministically timed process calculi, we show ...

  15. Urinary Incontinence in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organizations?? . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Urinary Incontinence in Children Page Content On this page: What ... Research For More Information Acknowledgments What is urinary incontinence (UI) in children? Urinary incontinence is the loss ...

  16. Existence families, functional calculi and evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    deLaubenfels, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This book presents an operator-theoretic approach to ill-posed evolution equations. It presents the basic theory, and the more surprising examples, of generalizations of strongly continuous semigroups known as 'existent families' and 'regularized semigroups'. These families of operators may be used either to produce all initial data for which a solution in the original space exists, or to construct a maximal subspace on which the problem is well-posed. Regularized semigroups are also used to construct functional, or operational, calculi for unbounded operators. The book takes an intuitive and constructive approach by emphasizing the interaction between functional calculus constructions and evolution equations. One thinks of a semigroup generated by A as etA and thinks of a regularized semigroup generated by A as etA g(A), producing solutions of the abstract Cauchy problem for initial data in the image of g(A). Material that is scattered throughout numerous papers is brought together and presented in a fresh, ...

  17. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  18. Intracorporeal Lithotripsy for Ureteral Calculi Using Swiss Lithoclast : SKIMS Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hamid, M. Saleem Wani, B. S. Wazir

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available At present the techniques available for performing intracorporeal lithotripsy include electrohydraulic,ultrasonic, laser, and ballistic lithotripsy. We present our experience with a unique technology forperforming intracorporeal lithotripsy, namely the Swiss lithoclast, which is a form of ballistic lithotripsy.This simple and inexpensive device uses compressed air to activate a solid probe in a manner similarto that of a jackhammer. We report the use of this lithoclast in 92 patients involving a total of 95ureteral calculi. The lithoclast successfully fragmented 81 of the 95 calculi, a success rate of 85.26%.There were no major complications directly related to the use of this device. The Swiss lithoclastseems to be a safe, effective and an inexpensive means of performing intracorporeal lithotripsy forureteral calculi

  19. Concave Urinary Crystallines: Direct Evidence of Calcium Oxalate Crystals Dissolution by Citrate In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yun-Feng; Xu, Meng; Zhang, Guang-Na; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The changes in urinary crystal properties in patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) calculi after oral administration of potassium citrate (K3cit) were investigated via atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), and zeta potential analyzer. The AFM and SEM results showed that the surface of urinary crystals became concave, the edges and corners of crystals became blunt, the average size of urinary crystallines decreased significantly, and aggregation of urinary crystals was reduced. These changes were attributed to the significant increase in concentration of excreted citrate to 492 ± 118?mg/L after K3cit intake from 289 ± 83?mg/L before K3cit intake. After the amount of urinary citrate was increased, it complexed with Ca2+ ions on urinary crystals, which dissolved these crystals. Thus, the appearance of concave urinary crystals was a direct evidence of CaOx dissolution by citrate in vivo. The XRD results showed that the quantities and species of urinary crystals decreased after K3cit intake. The mechanism of inhibition of formation of CaOx stones by K3cit was possibly due to the complexation of Ca2+ with citrate, increase in urine pH, concentration of urinary inhibitor glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and the absolute value of zeta potential after K3cit intake. PMID:24363634

  20. Labelled Lambda-calculi with Explicit Copy and Erase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Fernández

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present two rewriting systems that define labelled explicit substitution lambda-calculi. Our work is motivated by the close correspondence between Levy's labelled lambda-calculus and paths in proof-nets, which played an important role in the understanding of the Geometry of Interaction. The structure of the labels in Levy's labelled lambda-calculus relates to the multiplicative information of paths; the novelty of our work is that we design labelled explicit substitution calculi that also keep track of exponential information present in call-by-value and call-by-name translations of the lambda-calculus into linear logic proof-nets.

  1. PCNL in the Management of Lower Pole Caliceal Calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Amir Mohsen Ziaee; Abdollah Nasehi; Abbas Basiri,1 ,1 ,2 3; Nasser Simforoosh; AbdolKarim Danesh; Farzaneh Sharifi Aghdas; Ali Tabibi, ,

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Several therapeutic methods are used in the management of lower pole caliceal calculi. This survey has been conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the management of lower pole calculi.

  2. Laparoscopic Management of Ureteral Calculi: A Report of 123 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Farhat Farrokhi; Hamidreza Abdi; Ali Tabibi, ,; Farzaneh Sharifiaghdas; Seyed Amir Mohsen Ziaee; Abdolkarim Danesh; Abbas Basiri; Nasser Simforoosh

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic surgery for the management of ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods: We performed 123 laparoscopic calculus removal in 103 men and 31 women. Indications for the procedure were extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy or transureteral lithotomy failure and large calculus. The mean age of the patients was 39.6 ± 13.8 years. The calculi were between 1 and 5.6 cm and located in the upper, middle, and lower ureter in 9...

  3. Acute urinary retention as a late complication of subcutaneous liquid silicone injection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luongo de Matos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute urinary retention is characterized by a sudden interruption of urinary output; urine is retained in the bladder due to either functional or obstructive anatomic factors, and cannot be voided. The main causes of acute urinary obstruction are benign prostatic hyperplasia, constipation, prostate adenocarcinoma, urethral stenosis, clot retention, neurological disorders, following surgery, calculi, drugs, or urinary tract infections. A transvestite patient, aged 55 years, described having had liquid silicone subcutaneously injected in various parts of the body, the last one four years ago. He complained of absent urinary output during the last 14 hours. The physical examination revealed skin deformation due to migration of implants; a hard nodule (characterized as a foreign body was present in the preputium and a diagnosis of acute urinary retention was made; an unsuccessful attempt to exteriorize the glans for urinary catheterization, was followed by therapeutic cystostomy. Acute urinary retention has not been mentioned in the medical literature as a complication of liquid silicone subcutaneous injection.

  4. Major Constituents, Free Amino Acids and Metal Levels in Renal Calculi from Multan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Shad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal calculi collected from adult male/female patients of Multan, Pakistan were analyzed for major constituents, free amino acids and metallic contents. Composition of calculi (whole powder was determined by chemical method using stone analysis kit. Thirteen distinct types of renal calculi were identified. Most of the calculi were compound in nature, however, some simple calculi containing calcium oxalate only were also found. Two dimensional descending paper chromatography was used to identify free amino acids in some prominent classes of renal calculi. Arginine, aspartinine, glycine, leucine, isoleucine and tryptophan were found in nearly all the calculi whereas glutamic acid, histidine, hydroxyproline, phenylalanine, threonine and tryosine occurred randomly. Analysis of major (Na, K, Ca and Mg and trace (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Mn elements in the calculi was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Elements such as Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn have shown their presence in nearly all the calculi however Pb, Ni, Mn and Cu levels were below the limit of detection. This study has revealed useful information about the chemical nature of renal calculi from Multan region. It will be helpful in adopting preventive strategies to minimize stone formation and their reoccurrence.

  5. Safety and efficacy of transurethral pneumatic lithotripsy for bladder calculi in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of transurethral pneumatic lithotripsy for bladder calculi in children. Method: The study included 100 children up to 15 years of age undergoing pneumatic cystolithoclast for bladder stones. The descriptive study was conducted from September 2006 to February 2007 at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi. The inclusion criteria was children up to 15 years of age with a bladder stone of up to 3 cm, pre-operative negative urine culture, no coagulopathy and fit for general anaesthesia. An X-ray and ultrasound of Kidney and Urinary Bladder (KUB) was mandatory. The procedure was done under general anaesthesia with a single dose of pre-operative antibiotic. A mini-scope of 4 FR or a semi-rigid ureteroscope of 7/8.5 FR with pneumatic wolf lithoclast was used for the fragmentation of stones. Duration of procedure, any per-operative and post-operative complications and the duration of hospital stay were recorded. Post-operatively, the patient underwent ultrasound Kidney and Urinary Bladder at the first follow-up to assess stone clearance after one week. Result: Mean patients age was 4.95+-3.3 years. The male-to-female ratio was 11.5: 1 The mean hospital stay was 9.2 +- 2.5 hours. The mean operating time was 25 (10 -65) minutes. Ten (10%) patients developed minor complications out of which 5 (5%) developed haematuria and 4 (4%) developed difficulty in passing urine. One (1%) of the patients developed post-opere (1%) of the patients developed post-operative retention of urine. All the patients were stone free after the procedure. Conclusion: The transurethral pneumatic lithoclast is very effective and safe in children with bladder stones up to 3 cm. (author)

  6. Diagnosis and surgical management of obstructive ureteral calculi in cats: 11 cases (1993-1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate diagnostic methods, surgical treatment, perioperative management, and renal function of cats with obstructive calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Retrospective case series. 11 cats that underwent surgery for removal of calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Medical records were reviewed, and the following information was recorded: signalment; results of physical examination, clinicopathologic analyses, and abdominal imaging; surgical procedure; postoperative management; and results of ureterolith quantitative analysis. Ureteroliths in the proximal portion of the ureter were removed from 5 cats (pyelotomy, 1 cat; unilateral ureterotomy, 2 cats; bilateral ureterotomies, 2 cats). Calculi in the middle and distal part of the ureter were removed by partial ureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy (6 cats). Ten cats recovered from surgery and were discharged from the hospital. One cat died from unknown causes 4 months after surgery, and 1 cat had a nephrectomy elsewhere 5 weeks after ureterolith removal. Eight cats were evaluated 12 to 20 months after surgery. Of these, 2 cats that were markedly azotemic before surgery improved after surgery, and 2 cats developed nephroliths after surgery. Also, of 5 cats that had nephroliths that were not removed at the time of surgery, 4 still had visible nephroliths. One cat had recurrent ureteral obstruction from a ureterolith and persistent urinary tract infection. Ureteroliths or ultrasonographic evidence of ureteral obstruction were not detected in other cats. A combination of microsurgical techniques and intensive postoperative care is necessary to minimize morbidity of cats after removal of a ureterolith. Renal function may improve or stabilize after removal of the ureteral obstruction

  7. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy of Kidney Calculi in Horseshoe Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zolfaghari

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL in horseshoe kidneys with calculi. Materials and Methods: Between 1995 and 2005, we performed PCNL in 9 patients with horseshoe kidney. In 3 of them, there was a single calculus and the rest had multiple calculi in the pelvis and at least 1 in the calyxes. Ultrasonography, plain abdominal radiography, and intravenous urography (IVU were performed in all patients. We used fluoroscopy for entering the system and then, pneumatic or ultrasonic lithotripsy was used. Results: In all except 1 patient (88.9% we could access the system. Single calculi in 3 patients were removed. In 5 patients with multiple calculi, the calculus causing obstruction was removed, and in 3, the calculi located in the calyxes were removed too. Consequently, 66.7% were stone-free at the end of the procedure. In 2 patients, there were residual calculi in the calyxes and they underwent candidates for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Conclusion: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy can be used in patients with horseshoe kidney if the patient selection is appropriate and the surgeon is experienced enough. The success rate and complications are the same as the patients with normal anatomy. However, access to the lower calyx is more difficult due to its anatomic status.

  8. Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

  9. Tutorial on separation results in process calculi via leader election problems

    OpenAIRE

    Vigliotti, Maria Grazia; Phillips, Iain; Palamidessi, Catuscia

    2007-01-01

    We compare the expressive power of process calculi by studying the problem of electing a leader in a symmetric network of processes. We consider the \\pi-calculus with mixed choice, separate choice and internal mobility, value-passing CCS and Mobile Ambients, together with other ambient calculi (Safe Ambients, the Push and Pull Ambient Calculus and Boxed Ambients). We provide a unified approach for all these calculi using reduction semantics.

  10. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy and Transureteral Lithotripsy in the Treatment of Impacted Lower Ureteral Calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Armin Iranpour; Saeed Zand; Mohammad Nadjafi-Semnani; Abbas Basiri; Seyyed Amir Mohsen Ziaee

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) with ureteroscopy followed by transureteral lithotripsy (TUL) for the treatment of impacted distal ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 patients with solitary impacted distal ureteral calculi were assigned into 2 groups of treatment with SWL (42 patients) and TUL (54 patients) with a 6.9-F semirigid ureteroscope. Characteristics of the patients and the calculi, treatment parameters, clin...

  11. Transureteral Lithotripsy Versus Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Management of Upper Ureteral Calculi: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolrasoul Mehrsai; Kamran Moradi; Amir Reza Abedi; Ala Emamzadeh; Mohammad Reza Nikoobakht

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to compare transureteral lithotripsy (TUL) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in the management of upper ureteral calculi larger than 5 mm in diameter. Materials and Methods: Patients who had upper ureteral calculi greater than 5 mm in diameter were enrolled in this clinical trial. The calculi had not responded to conservative or symptomatic therapy. Semirigid ureteroscopy and pneumatic lithotripsy were used for TUL in 52 patients and SWL was performe...

  12. Epidural anesthesia is effective for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of pancreatic and biliary calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Darisetty; Manu Tandan; Duvvuru Nageshwar Reddy; Rama Kotla; Rajesh Gupta; Mohan Ramchandani; Sandeep Lakhtakia; Guduru Venkat Rao; Rupa Banerjee

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of thoracic epidural analgesia for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL).METHODS: ESWL is an effective, non-invasive technique for the treatment of difficult pancreatic and large bile duct calculi. The procedure is often painful and requires large doses of analgesics. Many different anesthetic techniques have been used. Patients with either large bile duct calculi or pancreatic duct calculi which could not be extracted by routine endoscopic methods were se...

  13. Urinary Incontinence in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organizations?? . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Urinary Incontinence in Men Page Content On this page: What ... exercises? Hope through Research For More Information Urinary incontinence (UI) is the accidental leakage of urine. At ...

  14. Urinary incontinence products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are many products to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which product to choose based ... and dry your skin. WHERE TO BUY URINARY INCONTINENCE PRODUCTS You can find most products at your ...

  15. Endoscopic removal of residual calculi from horse-shoe kidney and ureter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samodai, L; Varga, J; el-Seaghy, A A; Pajor, L; Frang, D

    1989-01-01

    Ureteroscope and pyeloscope were used for removing residual calculi following open operation of horseshoe kidney. Endoscopic nephrolithotomy is suitable for preventing complications of open operations. PMID:2596242

  16. [Infection and urinary lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyere, F; Traxer, O; Saussine, C; Lechevallier, E

    2008-12-01

    Urinary infection is a risk factor for lithiasis. Urinary tract infection is a factor of gravity of urinary stone. The stone can exist before the infection which colonizes the stone, infected stone. The infection can be the cause of the stone, infectious stone (struvite stone). Infectious stones can be secondary to a non urinary infectious agent, oxalobacter formigenes (OF) and nanobacteria. The first-line treatment of struvite stone is percutaneous surgery. Perioperative antibiotics, renal urines and stone cultures are obligatory. PMID:19033073

  17. Bacterial spectrum of urine in staghorn calculi nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogan ?.I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the role of the bacterial spectrum of urine in the development and clinical course of staghorn calculi nephrolithiasis. Patients and Methods. From 2008 to 2010 in the urological department of Rostov State Medical University urine culture was assessed in 86 patients with staghorn calculi. Mean age was 50,4±5,9 (25-73 years. Results: Most of the patients with staghorn calculus (89,5% have microbial contamination of urine, which has a high correlation with leucocituria, and the spectrum of microorganisms often has the various bacterial associations, which caused more infection complications during treatment. Conclusion: In the urine urease-producing bacteria, E. Coli, gram-positive organisms, nonclostridial anaerobic bacteria were predominated

  18. [Effect of magnetic water on urinary calculi--an experimental and clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y S; Wu, H W

    1987-09-01

    In recent years, many hospitals in China have employed magnetized water in the treatment of urolithiasis with quite satisfactory results. Since 1979, we have carried out the following basic researches: (1) We compared the effectiveness of several different types of apparatus producing magnetized water and found that the best type was the Shanghai JW-1 mode apparatus with 1,350 gauss and to-and-fro magnetizing for 12 times. (2) We had tested the solubility of oxalate, uric acid and phosphate urolith both in ordinary and in magnetized water and found that phosphate urolith had better solubility in the latter. (3) The physical and chemical characteristics of magnetized water were studied, and the calcium crystals were found to be also soluble in it. (4) Experiments on fishes living in magnetized water showed that in their kidneys the amount of calcium crystals and tissue calcium level were lower than those in ordinary water. The basic theory of treatment of urolithiasis with magnetized water is discussed. PMID:3687254

  19. Quantong Recipe integrated with ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy for ureteral calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic surgery of Western medicine has developed rapidly in treating ureteral calculi while traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapy also has its advantage, thus the integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapy may have an even better efficacy in dealing with this problem.Objective: To observe the clinical effects of sequential therapy of Quantong Recipe, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, combined with ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy on ureteral ...

  20. Equivalences and calculi for formal verification of cryptographic protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Borgstro?m, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Security protocols are essential to the proper functioning of any distributed system running over an insecure network but often have flaws that can be exploited even without breaking the cryptography. Formal cryptography, the assumption that the cryptographic primitives are flawless, facilitates the construction of formal models and verification tools. Such models are often based on process calculi, small formal languages for modelling communicating systems. The spi calculus, a process calcul...

  1. Conformal and Poincare tensor calculi in N=1 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the superconformal tensor calculus for N=1 supergravity in a complete form; irreducible multiplets, their multiplication and embedding formulae and invariant action formulae. It is further clarified in detail how the various versions of N=1 Poincare supergravity (i.e. with different sets of auxiliary fields) are reproduced from the unique superconformal theory. The tensor calculi for all the known versions of Poincare supergravity are derived explicitly. (orig.)

  2. The efficacy of tamsulosin in lower ureteral calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griwan M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There has been a paradigm shift in the management of ureteral calculi in the last decade with the introduction of new less invasive methods, such as ureterorenoscopy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. Aims: Recent studies have reported excellent results with medical expulsive therapy (MET for distal ureteral calculi, both in terms of stone expulsion and control of ureteral colic pain. Settings and Design: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting and MET with tamsulosin. Materials and Methods: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting (Group I and MET with tamsulosin (Group II in 60 patients, with a follow up of 28 days. Statistical Analysis: Independent ?t? test and chi-square test. Results: Group II showed a statistically significant advantage in terms of the stone expulsion rate. The mean number of episodes of pain, mean days to stone expulsion and mean amount of analgesic dosage used were statistically significantly lower in Group II (P value is 0.007, 0.01 and 0.007, respectively as compared to Group I. Conclusions: It is concluded that MET should be considered for uncomplicated distal ureteral calculi before ureteroscopy or extracorporeal lithotripsy. Tamsulosin has been found to increase and hasten stone expulsion rates, decrease acute attacks by acting as a spasmolytic, reduces mean days to stone expulsion and decreases analgesic dose usage.

  3. Comparative study of minimally invasive endoscopic surgery and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL for proximal ureteral calculi in pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-qing GUO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective?To observe and compare the therapeutic effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL and minimally invasive endoscopic surgery (URL/PCNL for proximal urinary calculi in pilots. Methods?A retrospective analysis was conducted for the clinical data of 115 pilots who had received ESWL, URL and PCNL for the treatment of proximal urinary tract calculi from Sep, 2005 to Sep, 2012. The patients were divided into two groups according to the way of treatment: ESWL group (n=83 and URL/PCNL group (n=32. In ESWL group, the patients received ESWL for a maximum of 3 times. In URL/PCNL group, the patients received URS or PCNL after ESWL for 3 times without lithecbole. Results?All the patients were male and the mean age was 36.1±9.1 years. The average diameter of the stones was 0.68±0.22cm in ESWL group and 0.78±0.25cm in URL/PCNL group. There was no significant difference in stone diameter between the two groups (P=0.526. The rate of qualification for flying was 68.7% in ESWL group and 81.3% in URL/PCNL group (URL 80.0%, PCNL 100%, showing a significant difference (P=0.002. In ESWL group, the rate of qualification for flying of pilots harboring renal and proximal ureteral stone, middle ureteral stone and distal ureteral stone was 64.3%, 88.9% and 33.3% respectively, with a significant difference (P=0.023. The rate of flying qualification of pilots harboring proximal ureteral stone, middle ureteral stone and distal ureteral stone was 71.4%, 86.7% and 87.5% respectively after URL, and there was no significant difference (P=0.174. Among the five patients who received URL but did not achieve satisfactory effect, two had stones retreated to the renal pelvis during the operation, and in two patients distal ureter was too narrow to allow passage of ureteroscope, and the ureteroscope was enveloped by inflammatory polyp in one patient. Conclusion?URL/PCNL maybe more effective than ESWL in the treatment of proximal urinary calculus in pilots, and it may enable them to fly again. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.12.14

  4. Analysis of urinary stone components by x-ray coherent scatter: characterizing composition beyond laboratory x-ray diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoenergetic x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis is an established standard for the assessment of urinary stone composition. The inherent low energy of x-rays used (8 keV), however, restricts penetration depth and imposes a requirement for small powdered samples. A technique capable of producing detailed information regarding component structural arrangements in calculi non-destructively would provide clearer insights into causes of formation and subsequent growth and allow the selection of more appropriate courses of therapy. We describe a new method based on the detection of coherent scatter (CS) in stone components using polyenergetic x-rays (70 kVp) from diagnostic equipment. While the higher energy allows the analysis of intact calculi, the polyenergetic source causes an angular broadening of measured CS patterns. We show that it is possible to relate the polyenergetic (CS) and monoenergetic (XRD) measurements through a superposition integral of the monoenergetic XRD cross-section with a function representative of the polyenergetic spectrum used in CS. Experimentally acquired diffractometry cross-sections of the seven major urinary stone components were subjected to this operation, revealing good agreement of diffraction features with CS. Therefore, our CS analysis is sensitive to stone component structure, similar to conventional XRD analysis. This indicates that CS analysis can be used as a basis to classify urinary calculi by composition. The potential of identili by composition. The potential of identifying stone components non-destructively was demonstrated from a tomographic CS analysis of a stone-mimicking phantom. Tomographic composition maps were generated from CS patterns, showing the structural arrangement of multiple stone components within the phantom. CS analysis has the ability to detect components in the presence of many others. The ability to perform CS measurements in intact calculi would allow for the identification of stone structures critical to patient metaprophylaxis

  5. [Pathophysiology, diagnosis and conservative therapy of non-calcium kidney calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochreiter, W; Knoll, Th; Hess, B

    2003-02-01

    While calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate make up at least 80% of all kidney stones, infection-induced and uric acid stones occur in 10% and 8%, respectively. Although any type of stone may become infected, the term "infection stones" means that stone formation exclusively depends on urease-producing bacteria. The splitting of urea leads to a rise in urinary pH which may induce crystallization of struvite (magnesium-ammonium-phosphate), the major constituent of infection stones, or carbonate apatite. Struvite stones account for the majority of staghorn calculi. They can grow quite large and may fill the entire collecting system. Patients with struvite stones may present with acute flank pain or remain completely asymptomatic. The cure of infection stones requires complete removal of the stone material. For uric acid crystallization and stone formation, low urine pH (below 5.5) is a more important risk factor than increased urinary uric acid excretion. Main causes of low urine pH are tubular disorders (including gout), chronic diarrheal states or severe dehydration. Accordingly, the treatment of uric acid stones consists not only of hydration (urine volume above 2000 ml per day), but mainly of urine alkalinization to pH values between 6.2 and 6.8. Urinary uric acid excretion can be reduced by a low-purine diet as well as--in case of recurrent uric acid stones and/or gout--by allopurinol. Cystinuria is a rare hereditary gene disorders with impaired tubular reabsorption of cystine. Stone formation occurs as a consequence of cystine's relatively low solubility at urine pH levels below 8. Only symptomatic diet and drug treatments are currently available, with urine dilution and urine alkalinization being the most efficient ones. Cystine stones respond poorly to shockwave lithotripsy, so that invasive procedures may regularly be necessary. 2,8-dihydroxy-adenine stones occur as a consequence of an enzyme deficiency that involves purine metabolism. These resulting stones are not visible by fluoroscopy and are therefore often misinterpreted as uric acid stones. Low-purine diet and allopurinol reduce the frequency of stone formation. PMID:12649987

  6. FT-IR spectroscopic, thermal analysis of human urinary stones and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, R.; Raja, A.; Thiruppathi, G.

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, FT-IR, XRD, TGA-DTA spectral methods have been used to investigate the chemical compositions of urinary calculi. Multi-components of urinary calculi such as calcium oxalate, hydroxyl apatite, struvite and uric acid have been studied. The chemical compounds are identified by FT-IR spectroscopic technique. The mineral identification was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction patterns as compared with JCPDS reported values. Thermal analysis techniques are considered the best techniques for the characterization and detection of endothermic and exothermic behaviors of the urinary stones. The percentages of each hydrate (COM and COD) are present together, in the presences of MAPH or UA. Finally, the present study suggests that the Urolithiasis is significant health problem in children, and is very common in some parts of the world, especially in India. So that present study is so useful and helpful to the scientific community for identification of latest human health problems and their remedies using spectroscopic techniques.

  7. Urinary nitrite in symptomatic and asymptomatic urinary infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, H R; McCredie, D. A.; Ritchie, M A

    1987-01-01

    The dipstrip test for urinary nitrite is fairly unreliable in symptomatic urinary infections and only 104 (52%) of 200 symptomatic children with urinary infection attending an emergency department had a positive result. The test yielded positive results, however, in 83 of 100 outpatients with largely asymptomatic urinary infection attending a follow up clinic because of known predisposition to urinary infection. This difference was highly significant. The finding of urinary nitrite is highly ...

  8. O que há de novo no diagnóstico e tratamento da litíase urinária? What's new in the diagnosis and management of urinary lithiasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mazzucchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Atualizar aspectos do diagnóstico e do tratamento da litíase urinária. MÉTODOS. Uma revisão dos principais artigos publicados sobre o tema em revistas indexadas no "Medline" entre 1979 e 2009. RESULTADOS. A ocorrência de cálculos é maior em pacientes com IMC > 30. A TC sem contraste promove o diagnóstico correto em até 98% dos casos. O uso de bloqueadores alfa-adrenérgicos aumenta a eliminação de cálculos ureterais menores que 8 mm em 29%. O índice de pacientes livres de cálculo após LEOC varia entre 35% e 91%, conforme seu tamanho e localização. Cálculos renais maiores que 2 cm são eliminados pela NLPC entre 60% e 100% dos casos. Cálculos de ureter distal são tratados com sucesso em até 94% dos casos pela ureteroscopia semirrígida contra 74% da LEOC. Já para cálculos de ureter superior as taxas de sucesso situam-se entre 77% e 91% para ureteroscopia e 41% e 82% para a LEOC. CONCLUSÃO. A associação da calculose urinária com obesidade e Diabetes mellitus está bem estabelecida. A TC sem contraste é atualmente o padrão-ouro no diagnóstico da litíase urinária. A LEOC é o método de eleição em nosso meio para tratamento de cálculos renais menores que 2 cm e com densidade tomográfica OBJECTIVE. To review developments in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary lithiasis. METHODS. A review of the most important articles on the subject published in Medline indexed periodicals between 1979 and 2009.RESULTS. Stones occur with greater frequency among people with BMI > 30. Computerized tomography without contrast provides the correct diagnosis in up to 98% of cases. Alpha-adrenergic blockers increase elimination of ureteral calculi smaller than 8 mm by 29%. The proportion of patients free from calculi after ESWL varies from 35% to 91%, depending on size and location. In between 60% and 100% of cases, renal calculi larger than 2 cm are eliminated with PCNL. Calculi of the distal ureter are successfully treated in up to 94% of cases using semi-rigid ureteroscopy, compared to 74% using ESWL. For calculi of the upper ureter success rates are around 77% and 91% for ureteroscopy and 41% and 82% for ESWL. CONCLUSION. The association between urinary lithiasis and Diabetes mellitus, is well-established. Computerized tomography without contrast is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of urinary lithiasis. In Brazil, ESWL is the method of choice for treating renal calculi smaller than 2 cm and with tomographic density < 1000 HU, except those of the lower pole, where the ideal limit for treatment is 1 cm. Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy is the best method of treating renal calculi larger than 2 cm and semi-rigid ureteroscopy is the best treatment for calculi of the distal ureter. Flexible ureteroscopy is an option for calculi of the upper ureter and renal calculi smaller than 1.5 cm that do not respond to ESWL or where PCNL is contraindicated.

  9. Laparoscopic Management of Ureteral Calculi: A Report of 123 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Farrokhi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic surgery for the management of ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods: We performed 123 laparoscopic calculus removal in 103 men and 31 women. Indications for the procedure were extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy or transureteral lithotomy failure and large calculus. The mean age of the patients was 39.6 ± 13.8 years. The calculi were between 1 and 5.6 cm and located in the upper, middle, and lower ureter in 90 (73.2%, 20 (16.3%, and 13 (10.5% patients, respectively. Ureteral stent was used in 52 (42.3% patients. We used 3 ports for camera and instruments. Intraperitoneal approach was used in 104 (84.6% and extraperitoneal in 19 (15.4%. Results: The mean operative time was 143.2 ± 60.5 minutes. One hundred and nineteen patients (96.7% became stone free. Minor complications occurred in 14 (11.4% patients. Conversion to open surgery was required in 1 patient due to migration of the calculus to the peritoneum after removal from the ureter. Intra-abdominal hematoma led to reoperation 1 day after the surgery in 1 patient. Operative time was different significantly between extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal approaches (171.3 ± 91.3 minutes and 137.3 ± 52.2 minutes, respectively; P = .02. Conclusion: Our results confirm the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic removal of ureteral calculi in selected groups of patients, taking the advantage of this minimally invasive procedure such as better cosmetic results and patient’s satisfaction.

  10. PCNL in the Management of Lower Pole Caliceal Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amir Mohsen Ziaee

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Purpose: Several therapeutic methods are used in the management of lower pole caliceal calculi. This survey has been conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the management of lower pole calculi.

    Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients, 43 males and 12 females with a mean age of 41.5 (range 11 to 75 years, who had suffered from lower pole caliceal calculi and treated by standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL between 1997 and 2001, were enrolled in this study. The stones were classified as follows: small (less than 25 mm, intermediate (25 to 34 mm and large (more than 35 mm. Mean follow-up was 6.2 months (range 2 weeks to 34 months.

    Results: The stones were completely extracted by one session PCNL in 43 patients (79%. Repeat PCNL was needed in one patient and another method was used for stone extraction in another patient. Regarding the size of stone, 88%, 79%, and 74% of small, intermediate, and large stones were completely extracted, respectively. No major complication was noted.

    Conclusion: PCNL has high success rate in patients with stones larger than 2 cm and its morbidity would be low, provided that it is performed by skilled surgeons.

  11. In-vivo labelling of renal calculi with technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of labelling renal calculi in-vivo with 99Tcsup(m) methylene diphosphonate is described. The way in which this enables the stones to be located both before and during surgical removal is discussed. (author)

  12. Radiologic contribution to the extracorporeal lithotripsy treatment of calyceal diverticular calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed the radiologic studies in 19 patients with calyceal diverticular calculi treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy (EL) in order to establish criteria predicting successful outcome. Pre-EL imaging was performed to evaluate the size of calculus in relation to the diverticular cavity, and the width of the connection of the diverticulum to the adjacent calyx. Post-EL studies were performed to assess fragmentation and passage of fragments. EL fragmented calculi in 15 diverticula with cavities larger than stone volume. Complete passage of fragments was shown in five patients and partial passage in two, all with wide diverticular necks. No passage was seen in eight diverticular with fragmented calculi, five of which had narrow or nondemonstrable necks. The radiologic demonstration of large diverticular correlates well with effective EL fragmentation, and a wide neck results in satisfactory fragment passage. Calculi in tight, narrowly communicating diverticula are unlikely to respond to EL

  13. A Syntactic Correspondence between Context-Sensitive Calculi and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    We present a systematic construction of environment-based abstract machines from context-sensitive calculi of explicit substitutions, and we illustrate it with ten calculi and machines for applicative order with an abort operation, normal order with generalized reduction and call/cc, the lambda-mu-calculus, delimited continuations, stack inspection, proper tail-recursion, and lazy evaluation. Most of the machines already exist but have been obtained independently and are only indirectly related to the corresponding calculi. All of the calculi are new and they make it possible to directly reason about the execution of the corresponding machines. In connection with the functional correspondence between evaluation functions and abstract machines initiated by Reynolds, the present syntactic correspondence makes it possible to construct reduction-free normalization functions out of reduction-based ones, which was an open problem in the area of normalization by evaluation.

  14. Ureteroscopic and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Rather Large Renal Pelvis Calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Mehri Baghban Haghighi; Kamyar Tavakkoli Tabasi

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the results and complications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) plus retrograde ureteroscopic lithotripsy using laser and pneumatic lithotriptors with SWL monotherapy for renal pelvic calculi between 2 cm and 3 cm. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 patients with 2- to 3-cm pelvic calculi were assigned into groups 1 and 2, including 22 and 33 patients, respectively. Patients in group 1 first underwent laser pneumatic lithotr...

  15. Anti-Urolithiatic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Pedalium Murex Linn. Fruits on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyesh R. Mandavia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate effect of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits on experimentalmodel of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided in 6 groups.Normal controls received distilled water for 28 days. Other five groups received ethylene glycol(1% v/v in distilled water for 28 days. Pedalium murex ethanolic extract was given 200 mg/kgand 400 mg/kg orally in distilled water for 28 days in prophylactic groups (III and IV and from15th to 28th days in treatment groups (V and VI. The urea, creatinine, random blood sugar, aspartateaminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and calcium weremeasured on 28th day. 24 hr urinary oxalate and volume were measured on day 0 and 28. On day28, kidneys were removed, weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. Calcium oxalatecrystallization was evaluated by renal histopathology and in-vitro method of mineralization.All parameters were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis or one-way ANOVA with post-hoc test.Results: Pedalium murex showed significant improvement in renal function and kidney weight inprophylactic groups as compared to ethylene glycol controls. It did not show any effect on urinaryoxalate, urine volume and any other serological parameters. Calcium oxalate crystallization wassignificantly reduced in all the Pedalium murex treated groups (P < .05. Calcium oxalate and phosphatemineralization were also inhibited by 33% and 57%.Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex fruits possess significant activity for preventionof renal calculi.

  16. O que há de novo no diagnóstico e tratamento da litíase urinária? / What's new in the diagnosis and management of urinary lithiasis?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Mazzucchi; Miguel, Srougi.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Atualizar aspectos do diagnóstico e do tratamento da litíase urinária. MÉTODOS. Uma revisão dos principais artigos publicados sobre o tema em revistas indexadas no "Medline" entre 1979 e 2009. RESULTADOS. A ocorrência de cálculos é maior em pacientes com IMC > 30. A TC sem contraste promov [...] e o diagnóstico correto em até 98% dos casos. O uso de bloqueadores alfa-adrenérgicos aumenta a eliminação de cálculos ureterais menores que 8 mm em 29%. O índice de pacientes livres de cálculo após LEOC varia entre 35% e 91%, conforme seu tamanho e localização. Cálculos renais maiores que 2 cm são eliminados pela NLPC entre 60% e 100% dos casos. Cálculos de ureter distal são tratados com sucesso em até 94% dos casos pela ureteroscopia semirrígida contra 74% da LEOC. Já para cálculos de ureter superior as taxas de sucesso situam-se entre 77% e 91% para ureteroscopia e 41% e 82% para a LEOC. CONCLUSÃO. A associação da calculose urinária com obesidade e Diabetes mellitus está bem estabelecida. A TC sem contraste é atualmente o padrão-ouro no diagnóstico da litíase urinária. A LEOC é o método de eleição em nosso meio para tratamento de cálculos renais menores que 2 cm e com densidade tomográfica Abstract in english OBJECTIVE. To review developments in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary lithiasis. METHODS. A review of the most important articles on the subject published in Medline indexed periodicals between 1979 and 2009.RESULTS. Stones occur with greater frequency among people with BMI > 30. Computerized [...] tomography without contrast provides the correct diagnosis in up to 98% of cases. Alpha-adrenergic blockers increase elimination of ureteral calculi smaller than 8 mm by 29%. The proportion of patients free from calculi after ESWL varies from 35% to 91%, depending on size and location. In between 60% and 100% of cases, renal calculi larger than 2 cm are eliminated with PCNL. Calculi of the distal ureter are successfully treated in up to 94% of cases using semi-rigid ureteroscopy, compared to 74% using ESWL. For calculi of the upper ureter success rates are around 77% and 91% for ureteroscopy and 41% and 82% for ESWL. CONCLUSION. The association between urinary lithiasis and Diabetes mellitus, is well-established. Computerized tomography without contrast is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of urinary lithiasis. In Brazil, ESWL is the method of choice for treating renal calculi smaller than 2 cm and with tomographic density

  17. Arithmetical proofs of strong normalization results for symmetric lambda calculi

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2009-01-01

    We give arithmetical proofs of the strong normalization of two symmetric $\\lambda$-calculi corresponding to classical logic. The first one is the $\\bar{\\lambda}\\mu\\tilde{\\mu}$-calculus introduced by Curien & Herbelin. It is derived via the Curry-Howard correspondence from Gentzen's classical sequent calculus LK in order to have a symmetry on one side between "program" and "context" and on other side between "call-by-name" and "call-by-value". The second one is the symmetric $\\lambda \\mu$-calculus. It is the $\\lambda \\mu$-calculus introduced by Parigot in which the reduction rule $\\mu'$, which is the symmetric of $\\mu$, is added. These results were already known but the previous proofs use candidates of reducibility where the interpretation of a type is defined as the fix point of some increasing operator and thus, are highly non arithmetical.

  18. Notes on the differential calculi on quantum linear groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This talk is devoted to the problem of constructing differential calculi on quantum linear groups. Based on the natural algebraic postulates, we examine the possible commutation relations for the GLq(N)- and SLq(N)-invariant differential forms and vector fields. It turns out that there exist several families of admissible commutation rules for GLq(N), but, in contrast. the commutation prescription for SLq(N) is unique. The stochastic quantization of dissipative systems is discussed. It is shown that in order to stochastically quantize a sys- tem with dissipation, one has to restrict the Fourier transform of the space-time variable to the positive half domain in the complex plane. This breaks the time-reversal invariance, which manifests itself in the formulation through the re- sulting noninvaxiant forms for the propagators. The relation of the stochastic approach with the Caldeira and Leggett path-integral method is also analyzed

  19. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urinary tract infections (UTI) By identifying and treating vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Keep bladder pressures low To help to ... preventing, but not treating, UTIs. What is VUR? Vesicoureteral reflux means that urine moves upward from the bladder ...

  20. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: A problem in the urinary tract, called vesicoureteral reflux . This condition, which is most often present at ... when the child has had repeat infections or vesicoureteral reflux. After antibiotics are finished, your child's health care ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... along with a physical exam. Testing your urine (urinalysis) can also help your doctor identify what type ... Doctor Do I need any tests, such as urinalysis? What is the likely cause of my urinary ...

  2. Fine structure and mineral components of primary calculi in some human prostates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaka, Tetsuo; Hirayama, Akihiko; Sano, Tsuneyoshi; Debari, Kazuhiro; Mayahara, Mitsuori; Nakamura, Masanori

    2008-08-01

    The fine structure of prostatic calculi has not been elucidated yet, although the chemical components were reported in detail. We studied the primary or endogenous calculi removed from eight human prostates by secondary scanning electron microscopy, backscattered electron imaging, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis and X-ray diffraction. The primary calculi containing Mg, Zn and S, besides Ca and P were basically classified into four stone groups (I-IV) by fine structure and mineral components. Stone I had the core deposits of calcospherites showing concentric rings and the laminated deposits concentrically around the core. Their deposits were identified as apatite. Stone II was occupied with the calcospherite deposits of apatite although the stone growth showed a rough concentric formation. Stone III contained the core of calcospherites and concentric laminated structures, similar to a smaller type of group I, whereas the wider peripheral region was deposited with needle-like structures, identified as calcium oxalates. Stone IV had the core deposits containing small hexahedral structures, identified as whitlockite, which were surrounded with several incompletely concentric laminated bands of apatite. Whitlockite crystals were also found between the fused large calculi. The initial and formative calculi were basically observed as the deposition of mineralizing spherical structures suggesting variously sized corpora amylaceous bodies. Thus, the primary prostatic calculi of stones I-III will begin from the mineralization of amylaceous bodies as a core, while the organic substances, which form stone IV, might be derived from the simple precipitation of prostatic secretion. PMID:18596057

  3. Porfirinas en Cálculos Renales (Revisión) / Porphyrins in renal calculi (Review)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MªL., Traba Villameytide.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Hemos realizado una revisión del contenido de porfirinas en una clase peculiar de cálculos renales. Estos son negros como el carbón y presentan un espectro infrarrojo (EIR) similar al conocido como "materia orgánica", el cual no indica la clase de sustancia a la que corresponde. Otros tipos de cálcu [...] los renales, principalmente de pequeño tamaño y eliminados espontáneamente, pueden tener un compuesto oscuro o negro de forma difusa o aislada y presentan un espectro de IR similar al de "materia orgánica". Después de observar que la hemoglobina presentaba un espectro de IR de "materia orgánica", estudiamos, por cromatografía en capa fina, un método sensible para la determinación de porfirinas, la presencia de porfirinas en diversos tipos de cálculos renales negros y oscuros, ya que las porfirinas son los precursores del grupo hemo. Este trabajo ha puesto de manifiesto dos tipos de porfirinas: la coproporfirina, en pacientes que padecen hepatopatías, y la uroporfirina y heptacarboxilporfirina en pacientes con algún tipo de porfiria o bien con fracaso renal crónico. Abstract in english We performed a review of the porphyrines content in a type of black, charcoal-like, renal calculi exhibiting infrarred spectra (IRS) similar to those characteristic of "organic material" which has not yet been fully elucidate. Several other types of renal calculi, mainly those of small size, spontan [...] eous passage renal stone, may also have diffuse or isolated dark charcoal components showing "organic material" IRS. After observing that haemoglobin has an "organic material" IRS, we studied, by a sensitive thin layer chromatography method, the presence of porphyrines in several types of dark or charcoal renal stones, since porphyrines are the physiological precursors of haemo group biosynthesis. We found two types of porphyrine content: coproporphyrin, in patients suffering from hepatopathy, and uroporphyrin and heptacarboxil-porphyrin in patients with some types of porphyria or with chronic renal failure.

  4. URINARY MELATONIN IN DEPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Devi, S. Parvathi; Srinivasan, V.

    1983-01-01

    This report is based on a study of 12 cases of depression (8 endogenous, 4 neurotic) with a view to explore the possible association between urinary melatonin and the illness prior to and following treatment. While cases of endogenous depression had low 24 hour as well as nocturnal urinary melatonin levels, the neurotic depressives showed higher than normal levels. A rise in the 24 hour melatonin levels occurred in all cases of endogenous depression though this did not apply, to the nocturnal...

  5. Comparative Study of Lithotripsy and PCNL for 11-15 mm Lower Caliceal Calculi In Community Health Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Wankhade, Narendra Haribhau; Gadekar, Jayant; Shinde, Babaji B.; Tatte, Julie Anand

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is not a popular procedure in smaller sized calculi due to its invasive nature, complications and need for anesthesia. Small sized lower caliceal calculi are generally treated by ESWL but have significantly less clearance rate in spite of several sittings. Here we want to study the efficacy and safe of both procedures in 11 to 15 mm lower caliceal calculi.

  6. Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic effect of aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. leaves using ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apexa Bhanuprasad Shukla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anti-urolithiatic effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (B. pinnatum on ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six Wistar male rats were randomly divided into six equal groups. group A animals received distilled water for 28 days. Group B to group F animals received 1% v/v ethylene glycol in distilled water for 28 days and group B served as ethylene glycol control. Groups C and D (preventive groups received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively for 28 days. Groups E and F (treatment groups received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively from 15th to 28th day. On days 0 and 28, 24 hrs urine samples were collected for urinary volume and urinary oxalate measurement. On day 28, blood was collected for serum creatinine and blood urea level monitoring. All animals were sacrificed and kidneys were removed, weighed, and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate crystals deposition. Results: Administration of aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum reduced urine oxalate level significantly, as compared with Group B (p

  7. Ureteral Calculi in Children: What is Best as a Minimally Invasive Modality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammadmehdi Hosseini Moghaddam

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Minimally invasive treatment of ureteral calculi in children is a challenging topic. In an evidence-based review, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL and ureteroscopic modalities for this group of patients.Materials and Methods: In this study, we performed a comprehensive systematic review on articles appeared in the PubMed from 1998 to March 2008. We selected all papers addressing SWL or ureteroscopic management of the ureteral calculi in children and determined the level of evidence of the presenting data.Results: Thirty-nine articles were reviewed and 24 with valid information on SWL or ureteroscopic management of the pediatric ureteral calculi were analyzed. Six articles (25% were randomized controlled trials and 18 (75% were retrospective case-controls or case series. The following data were extracted from the 24 articles: in SWL groups, overall success rate was 84.1% (range, 71% to 100% for the upper ureteral calculi and 76.2% (range, 19% to 91% for the lower ureteral calculi. Only 61% of the patients had only 1 treatment course, while 8% and 31% of the cases required 2 and more than 2 sessions of treatment, respectively. With ureteroscopic management, the overall success rates were 93.2% (range, 81% to 100% and 74.4% (range, 20% to 100% in the lower and upper ureteral calculi, respectively. Conclusion: The main limitations of the series on minimally invasive treatment of pediatric ureteral calculi are lack of powerful randomized controlled trials or prospective data and insufficient patient numbers. Therefore, it is difficult to draw absolute conclusions about successful treatment based on current knowledge.

  8. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs

  9. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blickman, J.G.

    1991-02-06

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs.

  10. Treatment of urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, E S

    2000-10-01

    The treatment of urinary incontinence is a dynamic and evolving field. New therapies, techniques, and procedures, as well as some subtle refinements in treatments currently used, offer hope for the millions of people suffering from this condition. Recent attention has been directed toward reevaluating the efficacy and durability of some standard treatments for stress urinary incontinence, including pelvic floor exercise, bladder neck suspensions, and pubovaginal slings. Occlusive or supportive devices have evolved into a suitable alternative in some patients. Extracorporeal magnetic therapy and alternative periurethral injectable agents may offer additional treatment strategies for the relief of symptomatic stress urinary incontinence. New drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder and urge urinary incontinence have been introduced recently and, in combination with neuromodulation, offer the first new treatments for this condition in over 25 years. Yet, as rapidly as new therapies become available for the treatment of urinary incontinence, problems have become evident with some that were introduced just a short time ago. Thus, cautious skepticism regarding these "new and improved" treatments should be maintained until long-term data become available with respect to safety, efficacy, and durability. PMID:12084319

  11. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  12. Work-up of urinary tract infection in infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, H K; Ilaslan, H; Finkelstein, M S

    2001-06-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants and children demands rapid differentiation between upper UTI (pyelonephritis) and lower UTI (cystitis) for prompt treatment to be initiated so that renal damage is minimized. This pictorial review presents a wide gamut of structural and functional abnormalities of the urinary tract that may predispose infants and children to UTI, including vesicoureteral reflux, upper urinary tract obstruction (ureteropelvic junction obstruction), lower urinary tract obstruction (primary megaureter, ureterovesical junction obstruction, posterior urethral valve, ectopic ureterocele with or without associated duplex collecting system), neurogenic problems (dysfunctional voiding), calculi, and parenchymal scars. Sonography (ultrasound [US]) is the imaging modality of choice for assessment of renal size, growth (serial sonograms), texture, and blood flow. Other modalities used to work-up UTI in the pediatric patient include fluoroscopic voiding cystourethrogram, nuclear voiding cystourethrogram, and nuclear renal scintigraphy (NRS). Excretory urography is no longer recommended in the routine evaluation of childhood UTI because information regarding anatomy and function (qualitative and quantitative) can be better assessed with US and NRS, respectively. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are primarily reserved for complex cases in which a definitive diagnosis cannot be made with routine imaging. Algorithms for work-up of UTI in various pediatric age groups are presented. PMID:12973080

  13. The severity of infection stones compared to other stones in the upper urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenabo, L; Hedelin, H; Pettersson, S

    1985-01-01

    A retrospective study of the case records of 391 adult patients with spontaneously passed or surgically removed concrements from the upper urinary tract during the period 1982-1983 was performed. According to chemical analysis, 66% of the stones were calcium stones, 30% were infection stones, 4% were uric acid/urate stones and 1% were cystine stones. Of the infection stones 12 (10%) were staghorn calculi. The infection stones placed a greater strain on the patients than the calcium stones. Thus, infection stones were significantly more often recurrent stones and required surgery significantly more often than the calcium stones. Only 6% of the patients with infection stones had proved abnormalities predisposing to upper urinary tract infection. Urinary tract infection with a urease-producing microorganism was detected in only 52% of the patients with infection stones. As infection with a urease-producing microorganism is a prerequisite for the formation of infection stones in the urinary tract a careful microbiological investigation to find and treat the infection responsible for the stone formation is mandatory. PMID:4089554

  14. Shock wave therapy for the destruction of renal calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using focussed shock waves, kidney stones can be disintegrated without having recourse to surgical measures, so that the concrements can be excreted via the urinary tract. The success of this therapy strongly depends on an exact adjustment of the target by the aid of radiography. The method applied is explained in this article, and the experience gained with 400 patients is summarized. (orig.)

  15. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of surgeries that help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ... sling procedures are done to treat stress urinary incontinence. Before discussing surgery, your doctor will have you ...

  16. Pseudotumor of urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of an old male is presented who had postoperative spindle cell nodule of urinary bladder. This benign condition mimics a sarcoma. However, the treatment modalities and the outcome are entirely different. Inflammatory pseudotumor/PSCN and leiomyosarcoma of the bladder overlap in clinical and immunohistochemical findings but are histologically as well as clinically distinct, correlating with different natural histories. Inflammatory Pseudotumors'/ PSCN are benign, not prone to metastasize, and is outside the spectrum of low-grade inflammatory sarcoma of urinary bladder. (author)

  17. On the Expressiveness of Markovian Process Calculi with Durational and Durationless Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bernardo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Several Markovian process calculi have been proposed in the literature, which differ from each other for various aspects. With regard to the action representation, we distinguish between integrated-time Markovian process calculi, in which every action has an exponentially distributed duration associated with it, and orthogonal-time Markovian process calculi, in which action execution is separated from time passing. Similar to deterministically timed process calculi, we show that these two options are not irreconcilable by exhibiting three mappings from an integrated-time Markovian process calculus to an orthogonal-time Markovian process calculus that preserve the behavioral equivalence of process terms under different interpretations of action execution: eagerness, laziness, and maximal progress. The mappings are limited to classes of process terms of the integrated-time Markovian process calculus with restrictions on parallel composition and do not involve the full capability of the orthogonal-time Markovian process calculus of expressing nondeterministic choices, thus elucidating the only two important differences between the two calculi: their synchronization disciplines and their ways of solving choices.

  18. Analytical investigation of salivary calculi, by mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabot, Jean-François; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Delahougue, Katia; Faure, Frédéric; Machon, Christelle; Hartmann, Daniel-Jean

    2012-05-01

    Sialolithiasis is common in salivary glands, especially in the submandibular and parotid ducts. X-Ray diffractometry was the principal technique used for their analysis, sometimes associated with scanning electron microscopy. Hydroxyapatite was the most frequently described constituent, in association with whitlockite and other calcium phosphates as brushite or octocalcium phosphate. Proteic matter was detected, as mucoproteins, albumin, nucleoproteins or as degenerative bacterial matter. This study presents the identification of constituents by mid-infrared spectrometry of 74 sialoliths. Their successive layers are analyzed from their crust to the nucleus, using absorbance measurements. Spectra are compared with reference mixtures of two or more constituents. Approximately 99% of sialoliths are constituted of calcium phosphates, under carbonated forms. More than three-quarters contain proteins, in which mucins represent the majority and albumin is found in 10% of all the specimens. Only 7% calculi are an association of two constituents, 66% are made of three and 27% have four or more components. For the 74 studied sialoliths, no specimen contains hydroxyapatite; but they are composed of carbonate apatites with irregular microcrystallized forms, even if proteins are present. Some of them have a pure protein nucleus, surrounded by carbonate apatite layers; the other stones are made of internal layers of apatites and covered with a dense and varnished crust of proteins. PMID:22416268

  19. Kidneys and urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies

  20. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with the Chiba needle in patients with biliary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a prospective study, 276 consecutive patients were evaluated using percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) with a Chiba needle prior to surgery for cholestasis. Biliary calculi were diagnosed in 109 patients. The success rate was 92.4% overall, 93.6% among patients with biliary calculi, 83.3% in those with cholelithiasis, 97.3% in those with choledocholithiasis, and 100.0% in those with intrahepatic stones. The overall morbidity rate was 4.6%, including hemoperitoneum in 1.8% and bile leakage in 2.8%. There were no deaths. This technique offers a more definitive diagnosis than noninvasive procedures, especially with small calculi, but is also more traumatic. PTC may play an important role when noninvasive methods are inconclusive or in difficult cases, particularly following surgery on the common bile duct

  1. Metabolic changes after urinary diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Aa, Frank; Joniau, Steven; Van Den Branden, Marcel; Van Poppel, Hein

    2011-01-01

    Urinary diversion is performed on a regular basis in urological practice. Surgeons tend to underestimate the metabolic effects of any type of diversion. From the patient's perspective, diarrhea is the most bothersome complaint after urinary diversion. This might be accompanied by malabsorption syndromes, such as vitamin B12 deficiency. Electrolyte abnormalities can occur frequently such as hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, or less frequently such as hypokalemia, hypocalcaemia, and hypomagnesaemia. Bone health is at risk in patients with urinary diversion. Some patients might benefit from vitamin D and calcium supplementation. Many patients are also subject to urinary calculus formation, both at the level of the upper urinary tract as in intestinal reservoirs. Urinary diversion can affect hepatic metabolism, certainly in the presence of urea-splitting bacteria. The kidney function has to be monitored prior to and lifelong after urinary diversion. Screening for reversible causes of renal deterioration is an integral part of the followup. PMID:21687576

  2. Solo Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Management of Upper Ureteral Calculi With Hydronephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaiyah Girish

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL outcomes as a solo therapy in patients with upper ureteral calculi and varying degrees of hydronephrosis.Materials and Methods: Eighty patients with upper ureteral calculi and a body mass index between 19.5 kg/m2 and 22.5 kg/m2 were included. They were categorized into 4 groups according to the severity of hydronephrosis as seen on ultrasonography and intravenous urography: group 1, no dilatation; group 2, mild dilatation; group 3, moderate dilatation; and group 4, severe dilatation of the pyelocaliceal system. The size of calculi, time to calculus clearance, success rate of solo SWL, and the need for additional therapeutic methods were recorded and compared between the four groups of patients. Results: The median size of the calculi was 13.5 mm, and the mean time to calculus clearance was 56.0 ± 24.2 days. In 71.3% of the patients, solo SWL was successful in the treatment of the calculi. Twenty-three patients required other therapies including double-J stenting, ureteroscopy, and nephrolithotomy. The patients without hydronephrosis and those with severe hydronephrosis (groups 1 and 4 showed a significant difference in the days to clearance of the calculus (mean, 31.7 days versus 85.6 days; P Conclusion: Patients with upper ureteral calculi and mild hydronephrosis can be effectively treated with solo SWL therapy. In those with moderate hydronephrosis, clearance takes longer or requires secondary interventions. In patients with severe hydronephrosis, we recommend alternative/adjunctive procedures.

  3. Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer implant calcification mimicking distal ureteral calculi on ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Aaron T D; Guerra, Luis; Leonard, Michael

    2010-05-01

    We report 2 patients with a history of vesicoureteral reflux who were treated with intraureteral and/or subtrigonal injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer; they later developed calcification within the region of injection, as seen on ultrasound, which mimicked ureterovesical junction calculi. The radiologist reporting the studies suggested the presence of a distal ureteric calculus in the first case and a distal ureteric calcification in the second case. The ultrasound findings were incidental with no hydronephrosis and both patients were asymptomatic without hematuria. Follow-up ultrasound studies remained unchanged. Calcification of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer implants may mimic distal ureteral calculi, and careful initial observation is recommended. PMID:19683806

  4. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy monotherapy of staghorn calculi with Dornier MFL 5000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilker, N Y; Alican, Y; Simsek, F; Türkeri, L N; Akdas, A

    1993-08-01

    A retrospective study was conducted of the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) monotherapy for the management of 31 patients with staghorn calculi (mean size 5.2 cm2). Five patients were lost to follow-up, 10 were stone-free in the end, and 11 had effective disintegration with small residual fragments. The remaining five patients required open surgery because of insufficient stone fragmentation. According to our data, SWL monotherapy is not sufficient for achieving stone-free status in patients with staghorn calculi, but it relieves obstruction and decreases the stone bulk in the majority of them. PMID:8252018

  5. Analytical scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microdiffractometry of renal calculi using etched plastic sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the technique and illustrate results of renal calculi analyses utilizing correlative analytical scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microdiffractometry on the same 100 micrometer Spurr embedded sections. Essential to the technique is the employment of an extremely sensitive x-ray microdiffractometer, and for morphological analysis, pretreatment of the sections with a sodium ethoxide etching solution. This technique facilitates more precise identification of crystalline constituents especially calcium apatite and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (struvite). Further, the technique permits detection and mapping of both crystalline and amorphous constituents within calculi

  6. Weak Convergence and Vector-Valued Functions: Improving the Stability Theory of Feynman's Operational Calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a theorem that establishes a relation between continuous, norm-bounded functions from a metric space into a separable Hilbert space and weak convergence of sequences of probability measures on the metric space. After establishing this result, it's application to the stability theory of Feynman's operational calculi will be illustrated. We will see that the existing time-dependent stability theory of the operational calculi will be significantly improved when the operator-valued functions take their values in LH,H a separable Hilbert space

  7. Litiasis prostática: cálculos silentes / Prostatic calculi: silent stones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H., Köseoglu; G., Aslan; B.H., Sen; B., Tuna; K., Yörükoglu.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivos: En la práctica urológica se encuentran con frecuencia cálculos prostáticos durante la resección transuretral de la próstata. Nuestro objetivo era demostrar las propiedades físicas y químicas de los cálculos prostáticos, así como determinar la posible relación entre la infla [...] mación de la próstata y los cálculos prostáticos. Métodos: Se incluyó en el estudio a pacientes consecutivos (excluidos los sujetos con PSA>4ng/ml y urolitiasis) sometidos a resección transuretral de la próstata (RTUP) en quienes se observaron cálculos prostáticos. Se analizó la composición química de los cálculos prostáticos obtenidos de cada paciente durante la RTUP, que se observaron también al microscopio electrónico (MEB) para determinar su estructura y morfología superficial. El uroanatomopatólogo valoró las muestras para emitir el diagnóstico definitivo y determinar la existencia y el grado de la inflamación. Resultados: Se incluyó en el estudio a cinco pacientes. Se obtuvieron de cada paciente al menos tres (de 3-8) muestras de cálculos (con un diámetro de 1-5mm). Los cálculos tenían una composición mixta de fosfato cálcico y carbonato cálcico. En la MEB se observó que los cálculos tenían una superficie lobular formada por pequeñas esferas. El examen histopatológico de las muestras de RTUP reveló hiperplasia prostática benigna acompañada de inflamación entre leve e intensa. Conclusiones: Los cálculos prostáticos son cálculos de calcio precipitados concéntricamente situados dentro de los conductillos prostáticos con una morfología granular arracimada. Estos cálculos prostáticos parecen ir acompañados de inflamación histopatológica. Abstract in english Introduction: Introduction and Objectives Prostate stones are frequently encountered during transurethral resection of the prostate in urology practice. We aimed to demonstrate the physical and chemical properties of prostate stones. We also aimed to determine possible relationship between inflammat [...] ion of prostate gland and prostate stones. Methods: The consecutive patients (excluding subjects with PSA>4ng/ml and urolithiasis), who underwent TURP operation and who were observed to have prostatic calculi during TURP, were included in the study. The prostatic stones obtained from each patient during TURP were analysed for chemical composition and observed under electron microscopy (SEM) for structure and surface morphology. The pathological specimens were assessed by the uropathologist for the final diagnosis and existence and degree of inflammation. Results: Five patients were included in the study. From each patient at least three (range 3-8) samples of stones (diameter varying from 1mm up to 5mm) were obtained. The stones were made of mixed composition of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. The stones were found to have lobular surface made up of small spheres under SEM. Histopathological examination of the TURP specimens revealed being prostatic hyperplasia accompanied with inflammation of mild to severe degree. Conclusions: Prostatic stones are concentrically precipitated calcium stones within the prostatic ductuli with granular grape like morphology. Histopathological inflammation seems to be associated with these prostatic calculi.

  8. Urinary incontinance in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Tiryaki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Most common cause of childhood incontinence is enuresis nocturna which is characterized with spontaneus resolution and physiologically normal voiding. Although most cases are not related to any structural or neurological abnormality, it is important to properly diagnose a child who presents with wetting. A thorough medical history will delineate the pattern of incontinence and additional investigations are indicated in only selected patients. If the physician can identify the voiding disorder and treat the cause not the symptom, will minimize the effects of the condition on the child's social development and also prevent the possible injuries to upper urinary tract. Therefore, this review will mostly focus on differential diagnosis of the causes of urinary incontinence. (Turk Arch Ped 2009; 44 Suppl: 90-3

  9. Female urinary incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Abdool, Zeelha

    1980-01-01

    Urinary incontinence affects approximately a quarter of a billion people worldwide. It is associated with high economic costs, psychological morbidity and adverse effects on the quality of life. Despite this, few women seek help for this condition either due to embarrassment and unwillingness to discuss the symptom with their family member or friend or, acceptance of the disorder as a natural part of aging or being unaware that treatment exists. More resources are utilised in maintaining pati...

  10. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalyses of the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalyses in the study of dental calculus showed that such studies provided confirmatory and supplementary data on the morphological features of human dental calculi but gave only limited information on the identity of the crystalline or inorganic components. This study aimed to explore the potential of combined SEM and microanalyses in the identification of the crystalline components of the human and animal dental calculi. Human and animal calculi were analyzed. Identification of the crystalline components were made based on the combined information of the morphology (SEM) and Ca/P molar ratios of the crystals with the morphology and Ca/P molar ratio of synthetic calcium phosphates (brushite or DCPD; octacalcium phosphate, OCP; Mg-substituted whitlockite, beta-TCMP; CO3-substituted apatite, (CHA); and calcite. SEM showed similarities in morphological features of human and animal dental calculi but differences in the forms of crystals present. Microanalyses and crystal morphology data suggested the presence of CaCO3 (calcite) and CHA in the animal (cat, dog, tiger) and of OCP, beta-TCMP and CHA in human dental calculi. X-ray diffraction and infrared (IR) absorption analyses confirmed these results. This exploratory study demonstrated that by taking into consideration what is known about the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi, combined SEM and m animal dental calculi, combined SEM and microanalyses can provide qualitative identification

  11. Epidural anesthesia is effective for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of pancreatic and biliary calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Darisetty

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of thoracic epidural analgesia for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL.METHODS: ESWL is an effective, non-invasive technique for the treatment of difficult pancreatic and large bile duct calculi. The procedure is often painful and requires large doses of analgesics. Many different anesthetic techniques have been used. Patients with either large bile duct calculi or pancreatic duct calculi which could not be extracted by routine endoscopic methods were selected. Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA was routinely used in all the subjects unless contraindicated. Bupivacaine 0.25% with or without clonidine was used to block the segments D6 to D12. The dose was calculated depending on the age, height and weight of the patient. It was usually 1-2 mL per segment blocked.RESULTS: Ninety eight percent of the 1509 patients underwent ESWL under TEA. The subjects selected were within American Society of Anesthesiologists grade?I?to?III. ESWL using EA permitted successful elimination of bile duct or pancreatic calculi with minimal morbidity. The procedure time was shorter in patients with TEA than in those who underwent ESWL under total intravenous anesthesia.CONCLUSION: Almost all patients undergoing ESWL with EA had effective blocks with a single catheter insertion and local anesthetic injection.

  12. Elementos no frecuentes en cálculos renales / Unusual elements in renal calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.L., Rodríguez-Miñón Cifuentes; E., Salvador; MªL., Traba Villameytide.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó un grupo de 54 cálculos expulsados espontáneamente después de padecer un cólico nefrítico. Dos grupos de cálculos fueron encontrados: papilares y no papilares. Todos los cálculos fueron analizados por espectroscopia infrarroja y por microscopia electrónica de barrido y EDAX. Al ser analiz [...] ados los cálculos por EDAX se detectaron los siguientes elementos químicos; C, N, O, Na, S, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn. El posible origen de estos elementos es analizado en este trabajo. Abstract in english A group of 54 renal calculi were spontaneously passed renal stone after a nephritic colic. Two groups of calculi were found: papillary and non-papillary calculi. All calculi were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and electronic microscopy scan (EMS) and EDAX. When the stones were analyzed with EDAX, [...] elements such as C, N, O, Na, S, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn were detected. The possible origin of these elements is discussed in this work.

  13. Catheter associated urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributab...

  14. Multislice computed tomography urography in the diagnosis of urinary tract diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoli? Olivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Multislice computed tomography (MSCT has triggered considerable changes in uroradiological imaging. The aim of this study was to establish the place of MSCT urography (MSCTU in comparison with intravenous urography (IVU and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of MSCT in the evaluation of urothelial abnormalities. Methods. This prospective study included 120 patients with a high clinical suspicion of urinary tract diseases divided into two groups. The group I consisted of 60 patients with macroscopic hematuria, bladder carcinoma and malignant pelvic tumors after radiotherapy or operation. They underwent both IVU and MSCTU. The group II included 60 patients (? 40 years old with retroperitoneal and malignant pelvic tumors, complicated pyelonephritis, microscopic hematuria, acute urinary tract obstruction (without visible calculi on unenhanced scans, and they were submitted to computed tomography with additional scan phase enabling MSCTU. Results. Compared with IVU, MSCTU is more sensitive for the detection of urinary tract diseases (parenchymal changes, renal tumors, urolithiasis, fibrosis and extraurinary processes. MSCTU is more specific than IVU for renal parenchymal abnormalities, tumors of the excretory system, urolithiasis, bladder tumors, fibrosis and extraurinary diseases. MSCTU is equally sensitive, but more specific for hydronephrosis compared to MSCT. The diagnosis made by the use of MSCTU in patients with macroscopic and microscopic hematuria and with obstruction not caused by stones, perfectly comply with operative findings and histological diagnosis. Conclusion. The obtained results support MSCTU to be the modality of choice in the diagnostic algorithm of patients with macroscopic hematuria and in the evaluation of microscopic hematuria and unexplained obstruction of the urinary tract. The only remaining role for IVU in our institution is imaging of the upper urinary tract in patients with hematuria under the age of 40.

  15. El artefacto de centelleo en la caracterización de los cálculos urinarios / Role of twinkling artifact in characterization of urinary calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Alan; H., Koçoglu; S., Kosar; O., Karatag; A., Resit Ersay; A., Erhan.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La caracterización de los cálculos renales está cada vez cobrando mayor importancia como paso previo a la toma de decisiones terapéuticas tales como la nefrolitotomía percutánea (NLP) y la litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque (LEOC). En algunos estudios se ha publicado que el a [...] rtefacto de centelleo (artefacto de ecografía de flujo en color) puede ser de utilidad en la detección de piedras en el riñón. En este estudio se pretende dilucidar si la presencia o ausencia del artefacto de centelleo tendría alguna relación con la composición química de los cálculos. Material y método: En un estudio prospectivo se incluyó a pacientes con cálculos renales de > 0,5cm. Se examinó a 70 pacientes mediante rayos X, pielografía intravenosa, tomografía computarizada sin contraste y ecografía doppler espectral y a color. El artefacto se consideró de grado 1 si sólo ocupaba una parte de la sombra acústica, considerándose de grado 2 si ocupaba la totalidad de la sombra. Se trató a los pacientes con cálculos de menos de 2cm con LEOC, y a aquellos con piedras de mayor tamaño se les derivó a tratamiento con NLP. Resultados: No se detectó artefacto alguno (grado 0) en 11 sujetos, detectándose el grado 1 en 25 y el grado 2 en 24. Se encontró una relación significativa entre el aumento en artefactos de centelleo y tamaño del cálculo (p Abstract in english Introduction: Stone characterization is becoming important before decision of treatment such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Some studies have reported that the twinkling artifact (color-flow ultrasonography artifact) may be useful to detect u [...] rinary stones. This study aims to determine whether the presence or absence of the twinkling artifact is correlated with the chemical composition of the stones. Material and method: Patients with renal stones > 0.5cm were included in a prospective study. Sixty patients were examined with x-ray film, intravenous pyelography, non-contrast computerized tomography, and color and spectral doppler ultrasonography. The artifact was considered grade 1 when occupied only one portion of the acoustic shadowing and when the artifact occupied the entire acoustic shadowing was considered grade 2. Patients with stones smaller than 2 cm were treated with SWL and patients with stones larger than 2cm were treated with PCNL. Results: No artifact (grade 0) was detected in 11 subjects, grade 1 in 25 and grade 2 in 24. Significant relationship was found between the increase in twinkling artifact and stone size (p

  16. The role of the plain radiograph and renal tract ultrasound in the management of children with renal tract calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIMS: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the relative efficacy of plain abdominal radiographs and detailed renal tract ultrasound (US) examination in the diagnosis and follow-up of children with renal tract calculi. METHODS: The records and imaging studies of 28 paediatric patients who had presented with proven renal tract calculi over a period of 5 years were examined. RESULTS: In 23 (82%) patients, US was the first investigation. All these patients also had plain radiographs. Plain radiographs were the first investigation in five (18%) patients. All renal calculi (100%) visible on plain films were demonstrated on US. Furthermore, detailed US often provided other clinically significant findings that were not apparent on plain films. CONCLUSION: As a result of this study it is recommend that detailed US should be the investigation of choice in children with suspected renal tract calculi. Smith, S.L. (2000)

  17. Robust detection of renal calculi from non-contract CT images using TV-flow and MSER features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianfei; Wang, Shijun; Linguraru, Marius George; Summers, Ronald M.

    2013-03-01

    Renal calculi are one of the most painful urologic disorders causing 3 million treatments per year in the United States. The objective of this paper is the automated detection of renal calculi from CT colonography (CTC) images on which they are one of the major extracolonic findings. However, the primary purpose of the CTC protocols is not for the detection of renal calculi, but for screening of colon cancer. The kidneys are imaged with significant amounts of noise in the non-contrast CTC images, which makes the detection of renal calculi extremely challenging. We propose a computer-aided diagnosis method to detect renal calculi in CTC images. It is built on three novel techniques: 1) total variation (TV) flow to reduce image noise while keeping calculi, 2) maximally stable extremal region (MSER) features to find calculus candidates, 3) salient feature descriptors based on intensity properties to train a support vector machine classifier and filter false positives. We selected 23 CTC cases with 36 renal calculi to analyze the detection algorithm. The calculus size ranged from 1.0mm to 6.8mm. Fifteen cases were selected as the training dataset, and the remaining eight cases were used for the testing dataset. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values were 0.92 in the training datasets and 0.93 in the testing datasets. The testing dataset confidence interval for AUC reported by ROCKIT was [0.8799, 0.9591] and the training dataset was [0.8974, 0.9642]. These encouraging results demonstrated that our detection algorithm can robustly and accurately identify renal calculi from CTC images.

  18. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  19. Urinary infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Om Prakash; Abhinay, Abhishek; Prasad, Rajniti

    2013-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common infection in infants and children. During infancy, boys are more commonly affected than girls and thereafter, female preponderance is found. Presentation varies among different age groups. Clinical features in neonates and young infants are non-specific, manifest as septicemia where a high index of suspicion is needed. Older children typically present as simple or complicated UTI. Rapid diagnosis, institution of early treatment and further evaluation by imaging modalities are of utmost importance. The prevention of recurrent UTI and detection of congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract are major objectives in the management. Use of ultrasound is required to detect underlying congenital abnormalities, whereas voiding cystourethrogram and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan are useful in the diagnosis of obstructive uropathy and vesicoureteric reflux and renal scar, respectively. The children requiring surgical interventions are to be recognised early to prevent recurrent UTI. The treatment of vesicoureteric reflux by chemoprophylaxis in lower grades and surgical treatment in higher grades are important consideration in prevention of recurrent UTI. This is required to prevent renal parenchymal damage and scarring that can cause hypertension and progressive renal insufficiency in later life. PMID:23881478

  20. Probabilistic Models and Process Calculi for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Due to the wide use of communicating mobile devices, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have gained in popularity in recent years. In order that the devices communicate properly, many protocols have been proposed working at different levels. Devices in an MANET are not stationary but may keep moving, thus the network topology may undergo constant changes. Moreover the devices in an MANET are loosely connected not depending on pre-installed infrastructure or central control components, they exchange messages via wireless connections which are less reliable compared to wired connections. Therefore the protocols for MANETs are usually more complicated and error-prone. In this thesis we discuss different models and their underlying theories which will facilitate the verification of protocols for MANETs. Process calculi have been used successfully as a formal method to verify and analyze functional behaviors of concurrent systems e.g. free of deadlock, and they also have been extended with probability to verify quantitative properties e.g. “the sent message will arrive at the destination in 5 seconds with probability no less than 0.99”. In this thesis we extend the framework to deal with special issues in MANETs e.g. mobility and unreliable connections. Specially speaking, 1. We first propose a discrete probabilistic process calculus with which we can model in an MANET that the wireless connection is not reliable, and the network topology may undergo changes. We equip each wireless connection with a probability, and moreover we allow these probabilities to be changed according to some mobility rule to model the changes of the network topology. 2. Secondly we extend the discrete probabilistic process calculus in several directions: i) Generalize the notions of mobility rules which allow to change part of a network topology depending on an exponentially distributed random delay and a network topology constraint. ii) Introduce stochastic time behavior for processes running at network nodes. iii) A novel abstraction is proposed where several broadcasts may be simulated by one. 3. Various behavioral equivalences and their logical characterizations have been proposed to combat the infamous states space explosion problem of PAs, but unfortunately it is well known that the behavioral equivalences are strictly stronger than the logical equivalences induced by PCTL or PCTL*. We address this problem in this thesis by introducing a sequence of strong bisimulations, which will converge to the PCTL or PCTL* equivalence eventually. This work is then extended to CTMDPs. 4. Recently, MAs have been proposed as a compositional behavior model supporting both probabilistic transitions and exponentially distributed random delays. In this thesis, we introduce both early and late semantics for MAs based on which we define the early and late weak bisimulation respectively. We also show that the early weak bisimulation coincides with the previous variants while the late weak bisimulation is strictly coarser than them.

  1. Urolitíase no alotransplante renal / Urinary lithiasis in renal allografts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adauto José, Cologna; Antonio Carlos Pereira, Martins; Haylton Jorge, Suaid; Silvio, Tucci Júnior; Rodolfo Borges dos, Reis; Ricardo Mesquita, Paschoal; André Luis Alonso, Domingos; Lucy Vieira da, Silva-Lima.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A litíase urinária é uma complicação incomum no alotransplante renal, a incidência varia de 0,02 a 3,4%. A maioria dos cálculos forma-se após o transplante, porém alguns podem ser transferidos junto com o enxerto para o hospedeiro. O tratamento desta complicação está baseado em alguns caso [...] s descritos na literatura. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de relatar a incidência da litíase renal no paciente com transplante renal, assim como a conduta adotada no HCFMRPUSP. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 953 pacientes submetidos a transplante renal no HCFMRPUSP, de fevereiro 1968 a maio de 2003. A idade média foi de 47,2 anos (35 a 63 anos). Em 09 pacientes, o rim foi proveniente de doador cadáver e apenas 01 doador vivo. RESULTADOS:Foram diagnosticados 10 casos de litíase (1,05%). Em 02 pacientes (20%) o cálculo foi diagnosticado no intraoperatório, em 01 (10%) no peri-operatório (5º. dia), os 07 restantes (70%) no pós-operatório tardio. Em 04 pacientes (57%) não havia sintomatologia específica, 02 (29%) apresentaram ITU, em 03 (43%) ocorreu elevação da creatinina sérica. De 8 pacientes com litíase no pós-operatorio, em 06 os cálculos estavam localizados no rim e 02 no ureter. Dos pacientes com cálculos renais, 02 foram observados, 02 submetidos a LECO, 01 a nefrolitripsia percutânea, 01 à pielolitotomia. Em 01 paciente com cálculo ureteral foi realizada pielovesicostomia (cálculo + estenose), no outro paciente foi feita a ureterorrenoscopia retrógrada. CONCLUSÃO: A urolitíase é complicação rara no transplante renal, a conduta terapêutica no pós-operatório tardio é semelhante à da população geral. Abstract in english Purpose: Urinary lithiasis is an uncommon complication in recipient of kidney allografts. The prevalence varies from 0.02 to 3.4%. The majority of calculi arises de novo in the recipient, however some of them are transferred with the transplanted kidney. The treatment relies on few reports published [...] previously. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of lithiasis as well as the treatment in an university hospital. METHODS: We analyzed 953 recipients of renal transplant undertaken in Hospital das Clínicas - FMRP-USP, from February of 1968 to May of 2003. The mean age of patients bearing lithiasis was 47.2 years (range 35 to 63 years). RESULTS: The prevalence of lithiasis was 10/953 (1.0%). Nine patients received kidneys from cadaver donor and 1 from living donor. The diagnosis occurred during the surgery in 2 (20%), within few days after transplantation in 1 (10%) and in the late postoperative period in 7 (70%). Seven patients had no complains, 2 had associated urinary tract infection and 1 a rise in serum creatinine. Of 8 cases with lithiasis in the postoperative period, the stones were localized in the kidney in 6 and in the ureter in 2. Renal calculi were managed as follows: watchful-waiting - 2, extracorporeal lithotrypsy - 2, percutaneous nepholithotrypsy - 1 and open pyelolithomy - 1. One patient with ureteric lithiasis associated ureteral stenosis underwent a pyelo-vesicostomy. The other patient with ureteric lithiasis was treated by retrograde endoscopic ureterolithothrypsy. CONCLUSION: Urinary lithiasis is rare in transplanted kidneys and can be managed as to the general population.

  2. Classification of Differential Calculi on $U_{q}(b_{+})$, Classical Limits, and Duality

    CERN Document Server

    Oeckl, Robert

    1999-01-01

    We give a complete classification of bicovariant first order differential calculi on the quantum enveloping algebra U_q(b+) which we view as the quantum function algebra C_q(B+). Here, b+ is the Borel subalgebra of sl_2. We do the same in the classical limit q->1 and obtain a one-to-one correspondence in the finite dimensional case. It turns out that the classification is essentially given by finite subsets of the positive integers. We proceed to investigate the classical limit from the dual point of view, i.e. with ``function algebra'' U(b+) and ``enveloping algebra'' C(B+). In this case there are many more differential calculi than coming from the q-deformed setting. As an application, we give the natural intrinsic 4-dimensional calculus of kappa-Minkowski space and the associated formal integral.

  3. Proceedings Third Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi 2009

    CERN Document Server

    Ciobanu, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    This volume contains the accepted papers at the third Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi, held in Bologna on 5th September 2009. The papers are devoted to both membrane computing and biologically inspired process calculi, as well as to other related formalisms. The papers of this volume are selected by the programme committee due to their quality and relevance; they have defined an exciting programme highlighting interesting problems and stimulating the search for novel ways of describing related biological phenomena. In addition, we had an invited talk given by Luca Cardelli on a spatial process algebra for developmental biology. Membrane systems were introduced as a class of distributed parallel computing devices inspired by the observation that any biological system is a complex hierarchical structure, with a flow of materials and information that underlies their functioning. The emphasis is on the computational properties of the model, and it makes use of automata, la...

  4. Cystic calculi removal in African spurred Tortoise (Geochelone sulcata using transplstron coeliotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Che' Amat

    Full Text Available The present report was carried out to manage a case of calculi in the bladder of African spurred tortoise. A 6 year old African spurred tortoise presented with history of anorexia and whitish discharged from the vent. Upon physical examination, the tortoise were 10% dehydrated, hindlegs muscle wasting and whitish materials came out from the vent. Plain radiograph revealed increased radiopacity in the bladder and also both right and left kidney. Contrast gastrointestinal radiograph showed less possibility of foreign body. Inconclusive radiological findings required the decision to proceed with exploratory transplastron coeliotomy by using dental burr. About 4 cm solid, hard whitish mass was removed from the bladder and both kidney was congested with whitish material. The findings were suggestive for urates crystal calculi based on histology result. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 489-492

  5. Swapping: a natural bridge between named and indexed explicit substitution calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelzon, Ariel; Ziliani, Beta; 10.4204/EPTCS.49.1

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to the presentation of lambda_rex, an explicit substitution calculus with de Bruijn indexes and a simple notation. By being isomorphic to lambda_ex - a recent formalism with variable names -, lambda_rex accomplishes simulation of beta-reduction (Sim), preservation of beta-strong normalization (PSN) and meta-confluence (MC), among other desirable properties. Our calculus is based on a novel presentation of lambda_dB, using a swap notion that was originally devised by de Bruijn. Besides lambda_rex, two other indexed calculi isomorphic to lambda_x and lambda_xgc are presented, demonstrating the potential of our technique when applied to the design of indexed versions of known named calculi.

  6. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy versus ureteroscopy for distal ureteric calculi: efficacy and patient satisfaction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ibrahim F., Ghalayini; Mohammed A., Al-Ghazo; Yousef S., Khader.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and ureteroscopy (URS) for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi with respect to patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND MHETODS: This is a prospective study where a total of 212 patients with solitary, radiopaque dis [...] tal ureteral calculi were treated with ESWL (n = 92) using Dornier lithotriptor S (MedTech Europe GmbH) or URS (n = 120). Patient and stone characteristics, treatment parameters, clinical outcomes, and patient satisfaction were assessed for each group. RESULTS: The 2 groups were comparable in regard to patient age, sex, stone size, and side of treatment. The stone-free status for ESWL and URS at 3 months was 81.5% and 97.5%, respectively (p

  7. Ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy for lower calyx calculi in horseshoe kidney: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahara Takashi; Ito Hiroki; Terao Hideyuki; Tanaka Katsuyuki; Ogawa Takehiko; Uemura Hiroji; Kubota Yoshinobu; Matsuzaki Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction We previously reported on the effectiveness of ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy during percutaneous nephrolithotomy and report two cases of lower calyx calculi in horseshoe kidney that were successfully treated with ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy. During the ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy procedure, a ureteroscope is advanced in the desired calyx and a Lawson retrograde nephrostomy puncture wire is inserted. The wire is advanced th...

  8. Ethanolic Extract of Nigella Sativa L Seeds on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Kidney Calculi in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Parizady; Zahra Hadjzadeh; Alireza Khoei; Mousa-Al-Reza Hadjzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa L (NS) seeds on kidney calculi in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group A received tap drinking water for 30 days (intact control). Groups B, C, and D received 1% ethylen glycol for induction of calcium oxalate calculus formation. As the preventive, and treatment subjects, rats in groups C and D received ethanolic extract of ...

  9. Clinical comparison of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy in treating renal calculi.

    OpenAIRE

    N. Mays; Challah, S.; Patel, S.; Palfrey, E; Creeser, R.; Vadera, P; Burney, P.

    1988-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy for efficacy in treating renal calculi. DESIGN: Non-randomised multicentre cohort study with 3 month follow up and 13 month data collection period. SETTING: Lithotripter centre in London, tertiary referral hospital, and urological clinics in several secondary and tertiary care centres. PATIENTS: 933 of 1001 patients treated by lithotripsy at the lithotripter centre were compared with 195 treated...

  10. Proteomic analysis of renal calculi indicates an important role for inflammatory processes in calcium stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Michael L; Cummins, Timothy D; Wilkey, Daniel W; Salyer, Sarah A; Powell, David W; Klein, Jon B; Lederer, Eleanor D

    2008-10-01

    Even though renal stones/calculi occur in approximately 10% of individuals, they are an enormous economic burden to the entire US health system. While the relative metabolic composition of renal calculi is generally known, there is no clear understanding of the genetics of renal stone formation, nor are there clear prognostic indicators of renal stone formation. The application of proteomics to the analysis of renal calculi axiomatically holds that insight into renal stone pathobiology can be gained by a more comprehensive understanding of renal calculus protein composition. We analyzed isolated renal stone matrix proteins with mass spectrometric and immunohistochemical methods identifying 158 proteins with high confidence, including 28 common proteins. The abundant proteins included those identified previously in stones and proteins identified here for the first time, such as myeloid lineage-specific, integral membrane and lipid regulatory proteins. Pathway analyses of all proteins identified suggested that a significant fraction of the most abundant matrix proteins participate in inflammatory processes. These proteomic results support the hypothesis that stone formation induces a cellular inflammatory response and the protein components of this response contribute to the abundant stone matrix proteome. PMID:18701630

  11. Improved effectiveness and safety of flexible ureteroscopy for renal calculi (<2 cm): A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuqiu; Xu, Bin; Liu, Ning; Jiang, Hua; Zhang, Xiaowen; Yang, Yu; Liu, Jing; Sha, Guozhu; Zhu, Weidong; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We discuss the efficacy and safety of flexible ureteroscopy for renal calculi with a burden of <2 cm, as well as the prevention and treatment of complications. Methods: A total of 108 renal calculi with flexible ureteroscopy and holmium laser treatment were retrospectively analyzed. The stone-free rate was evaluated. The effectiveness, safety, surgical technique, incidence of complications, and relevant treatments were analyzed. Results: All patients underwent only one lithotripsy procedure. The success rate of flexible ureteroscopy was 97.2% (105/108). Among the 105 cases, the total lithotripsy success rate was 97.1% (101/105). The total stone-free rate after 8 weeks post-operation was 94.3% (99/105), the stone-free rate of the lower calyx was 85.7% (30/35); it was 98.6% (69/70) in the middle–upper calyceal and renal pelvis. The incidence of complications was 12.9% (14/108). None of the patients had serious adverse outcomes. Conclusion: Flexible ureteroscopy represents an optimal treatment option for selected renal calculi with burden of <2 cm. The effectiveness and safety of flexible ureteroscopy can be further improved through reasonable preoperative evaluation and advances in surgical techniques, as well as a better understanding of the inducement and treatment of complications. PMID:26029294

  12. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi, experience of first 100 cases at Jinnah Hospital, Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), where available, has become the preferred treatment modality for majority of renal calculi. Nevertheless because of low morbidity and strong patient endorsement there is a natural tendency of over using it. We report the experience of first 100 patients of renal calculi treated at Lithotripsy Center, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore between November 1993 and October 1995.. All patients were treated on an out patients basis. In this prospective study patients were divided into three groups depending upon the initial stone size (Group 1 2.1 to 3 cm). Twenty-eight patients were lost to follow-up. Analysis of data revealed a success rate of 89.5%, 65.8% and 33.3% in Group-I, II and III respectively at the end of 3 months follow-up. Morbidity was directly procedures to stone burden, while success was inversely related to stone burden. Complications requiring auxiliary procedures were seen in none of the patients of Group-I while in 17.1% and 25% of the patients of Group-II and III respectively. Failure of the procedure demanding for an open intervention was seen in none of the patients of Group II and III respectively. We concluded that selection of patients is key to successful management of the renal calculi with ESWL. (author)

  13. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limit...

  14. Metabolic Changes after Urinary Diversion

    OpenAIRE

    Hein van Poppel; Marcel Van Den Branden; Steven Joniau; Frank Van der Aa

    2011-01-01

    Urinary diversion is performed on a regular basis in urological practice. Surgeons tend to underestimate the metabolic effects of any type of diversion. From the patient's perspective, diarrhea is the most bothersome complaint after urinary diversion. This might be accompanied by malabsorption syndromes, such as vitamin B12 deficiency. Electrolyte abnormalities can occur frequently such as hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, or less frequently such as hypokalemia, hypocalcaemia,...

  15. Telocytes in the urinary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yonghua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telocytes, a new type of interstitial cells, have been identified in many organs in mammals. The present studies aimed at investigating the ultrastructure, distribution and interactions of telocytes with surrounding cells in the urinary system of rats, to confirm the existence of telocytes in kidneys, ureter and urinary bladder. Methods Samples of kidney, ureter, or urinary bladder were harvested for the ultrastructure by the electron microscope. The primary culture of telocytes was performed to investigate the dynamic alterations. Results Telocytes mainly located in the sub-capsular space of kidney, or between smooth muscle bundles and in the lamina propria of ureter and urinary bladder. Telocytes established numerous contacts with macrophages in the sub-capsular space of kidney, or with smooth muscle cells, nerve endings as well as blood capillaries in the ureter and urinary bladder. The complete morphology of telocytes with telopodes was observed clearly through the primary cell culture from the kidney tissues of rats. Conclusions Our data evidenced the existence of telocytes in the urinary system, which may contribute to the tissue reparation and regeneration.

  16. Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter and struvite calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Danielo Garcia de, Freitas; Adriano Scaff, Garcia; Osvaldo de, Freitas Filho.

    1999-05-06

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A associação de carcinoma primário de ureter e litíase é muito rara, sendo observado em 30 a 50% o carcinoma de células escamosas. Relatamos um caso raro de carcinoma de células transicionais e cálculo de estruvita.RELATO DE CASO: Descreve-se caso raro de carcinoma primário de ureter assoc [...] iado a cálculo corariforme. A apresentação clínica inicial estava predominantemente ligada ao quadro de litíase renal, não detectando-se o tumor pela urografia excretora, cistoscopia ou ultrassonografia. Dois meses após a eliminação do cálculo, a paciente evoluiu com alterações clínicas importantes, sendo então diagnosticado carcinoma de células transicionais de ureter, grau III. Nefroureterectomia radical e quimioterapia M.V.A.C. foram tentadas, sem sucesso. Enfatizamos a dificuldade diagnóstica na concomitância das duas patologias e a rápida evolução do caso, ao nosso ver, diretamente ligada ao grau tumoral. Abstract in english CONTEXT: The association of primary carcinoma of the ureter and lithiasis is extremely rare. We report a rare case of a primary carcinoma of the ureter with corariform calculus. CASE REPORT: 60-year-old phaeodermal female, reported a history of right-side nephritic colic, hyperthermia and pyuria dur [...] ing the past 20 years and had received treatment for urinary infections a number of times. The first clinical presentation was related to lithiasis and the tumor had not been shown up by excretory urography, cystoscopy or ultrasonography. Two months after the calculus had been eliminated, the patient began to have serious symptoms and a grade III transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter was discovered. Total nephroureterectomy and M.V.A.C. (Metotrexate + Vinblastina + Doxo Rubicina + Cisplatina) chemotherapy were tried unsuccessfully. In this report we emphasize the diagnostic difficulty caused by the concomitant presence of the two pathologies. In our opinion, the rapid evolution in this case is directly related to the high grade of the tumor.

  17. Transureteral Lithotripsy Versus Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Management of Upper Ureteral Calculi: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrasoul Mehrsai

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: Our aim was to compare transureteral lithotripsy (TUL and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL in the management of upper ureteral calculi larger than 5 mm in diameter. Materials and Methods: Patients who had upper ureteral calculi greater than 5 mm in diameter were enrolled in this clinical trial. The calculi had not responded to conservative or symptomatic therapy. Semirigid ureteroscopy and pneumatic lithotripsy were used for TUL in 52 patients and SWL was performed in 48. Analysis of the calculi compositions was done and the patients were followed up by plain abdominal radiography and ultrasonography 3 month postoperatively. Results: The stone-free rates were 76.9% in the patients of the TUL group and 68.8% in the patients of the SWL group. These rates in the patients with mild or no hydronephrosis were 85.7% and 59.1% for the SWL and TUL groups, respectively. In the TUL group, half of the patients with no hydronephrosis developed upward calculus migration. The stone-free rates were 75.0% and 89.3% for the patients with moderate hydronephrosis and 70.0% and 100.0% for those with severe hydronephrosis in the SWL and TUL groups, respectively. All of the failed cases were treated by double-J stenting and TUL or SWL successfully. There were no serious complications. Upward calculus migration after TUL was more frequent in cases with no hydronephrosis or mild hydronephrosis (41.0%. Conclusion: Upper ureteral calculi smaller than 1 cm can be safely and effectively managed using semirigid ureteroscopy and pneumatic lithotripsy. However, the SWL approach has still its role if an experienced endourologist is not available.

  18. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy and Transureteral Lithotripsy in the Treatment of Impacted Lower Ureteral Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Iranpour

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL with ureteroscopy followed by transureteral lithotripsy (TUL for the treatment of impacted distal ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 patients with solitary impacted distal ureteral calculi were assigned into 2 groups of treatment with SWL (42 patients and TUL (54 patients with a 6.9-F semirigid ureteroscope. Characteristics of the patients and the calculi, treatment parameters, clinical outcomes, and patients’ satisfaction were assessed for each group as well as efficiency quotient. Results: Demographic characteristics of the patients in the 2 groups were similar as well as the sizes of the calculi. The stone-free rate, 2 months postoperatively, was 71.4% in the patients of the SWL group and 88.9% in those of the TUL group. The efficiency quotient was 56% and 81% for the SWL and TUL groups, respectively (P = .004. Retreatment rate was 26.2% (11 patients and 9.3% (5 patients for the SWL and TUL groups, respectively (P = .027. Thirty patients in the SWL group (71.4% and 52 in the TUL group (96.3% were satisfied with their treatment (P = .001. There were no major complications in neither of the groups. Minor complications (pain and hematuria were more common in the TUL group. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, TUL seems to be more effective than SWL in the treatment of impacted lower ureteral calculi sized smaller than 12 mm, and patients are more satisfied with this treatment method.

  19. Urinary stone size estimation: a new segmentation algorithm-based CT method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The size estimation in CT images of an obstructing ureteral calculus is important for the clinical management of a patient presenting with renal colic. The objective of the present study was to develop a reader independent urinary calculus segmentation algorithm using well-known digital image processing steps and to validate the method against size estimations by several readers. Fifty clinical CT examinations demonstrating urinary calculi were included. Each calculus was measured independently by 11 readers. The mean value of their size estimations was used as validation data for each calculus. The segmentation algorithm consisted of interpolated zoom, binary thresholding and morphological operations. Ten examinations were used for algorithm optimisation and 40 for validation. Based on the optimisation results three segmentation method candidates were identified. Between the primary segmentation algorithm using cubic spline interpolation and the mean estimation by 11 readers, the bias was 0.0 mm, the standard deviation of the difference 0.26 mm and the Bland-Altman limits of agreement 0.0±0.5 mm. The validation showed good agreement between the suggested algorithm and the mean estimation by a large number of readers. The limit of agreement was narrower than the inter-reader limit of agreement previously reported for the same data. (orig.)

  20. In vitro crystallization, characterization and growth-inhibition study of urinary type struvite crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Chetan K.; Joshi, Mihir J.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of urinary stones, known as nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis, is a serious, debilitating problem throughout the world. Struvite—NH4MgPO4·6H2O, ammonium magnesium phosphate hexahydrate, is one of the components of urinary stones (calculi). Struvite crystals with different morphologies were grown by in vitro single diffusion gel growth technique with different growth parameters. The crystals were characterized by powder XRD, FT-IR, thermal analysis and dielectric study. The powder XRD results of struvite confirmed the orthorhombic crystal structure. The FT-IR spectrum proved the presence of water of hydration, metal-oxygen bond, N-H bond and P-O bond. For thermal analysis TGA, DTA and DSC were carried out simultaneously. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of dehydration/decomposition process were calculated. Vickers micro-hardness and related mechanical parameters were also calculated. The in vitro growth inhibition studies of struvite by the juice of Citrus medica Linn as well as the herbal extracts of Commiphora wightii, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn and Rotula aquatica Lour were carried out and found potent inhibitors of struvite.

  1. [Urinary incontinence and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, G; Fritel, X; Capmas, P; Pourcelot, A-G; Fernandez, H

    2012-06-01

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than or equal to 30kg/m(2), promotes pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence (UI) and genital prolapse. Datas from cohort studies found an association between high BMI and the onset of UI. This association seems to be predominant with for mixed UI and stress UI. For the urge UI and overactive bladder syndrome, the analysis of the literature found a weaker association. The weight is therefore the only modifiable risk factor. Thus, the weight loss by a hypocaloric diet associated with pelvic floor muscle training should be the front line treatment in the obese patient suffering from UI. Bariatric surgery can be discussed in the most obese patient, even if the risk/benefit balance should be weighed because of significant morbidity of this surgery. The results of sub urethral sling (by retropubic tension-free vaginal tape or transobturator sling) in obese patients appear to be equivalent to those obtained in patients of normal weight. Datas on per- and postoperative complications for suburethral slings are reassuring. PMID:22516035

  2. Litotricia extracorpórea en litiasis en pacientes con derivación urinaria / Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urolithiasis in patients with urinary diversion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Vega Vega; D., García Alonso; L., Parra Muntaner; J.M., Sánchez Merino; J., García Alonso.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Exponemos nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento de litiasis en pacientes con derivación urinaria. Hemos tratado 5 pacientes con litiasis en el tracto urinario superior tras cistectomía y derivación urinaria. El tratamiento se ha hecho con monoterapia por ondas de choque con el litotritor Lithostar M [...] odularis de Siemens. El tamaño medio de las litiasis fue de 1,95 cm (rango 1 a 3,5 cm). El número medio de sesiones ha sido 2,6, con 3961 ondas de choque de media por sesión. Hemos conseguido un 100% de pacientes libres de litiasis, indicando que la litotricia extracorpórea tiene unos buenos resultados en el tratamiento de las litiasis en pacientes con derivación urinaria, siendo el tratamiento de elección en estos pacientes, con muy baja morbilidad y alta eficacia, comparable a los pacientes sin derivación urinaria. Abstract in english We evaluate the efficacy of ESWL in the management of calculi in patients with urinary diversion. We treated 5 patients who suffered from urinary lithiasis after urinary diversion post cistectomy. We managed the patients with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in monotherapy with a Siemens Lithos [...] tar Modularis device. Mean stone size (long axis) was 1.95 cm (range 1 to 3.5 cm). The mean shockwave number per session was 2.6 per patient. Stone free result was 100%. We conclude that ESWL technique can provide acceptable results in patients with urinary diversion and can be used as first choice treatment in these type of patients due to its minimal morbidity and excellent results, equivalent to those achieved in patients without urinary diversion.

  3. La incontinencia urinaria / Urinary incontinence

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. E., Robles.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available La incontinencia urinaria, entendida como cualquier pérdida involuntaria de orina, constituye un problema médico y social importante. Puede clasificarse en incontinencia urinaria de esfuerzo, incontinencia urinaria de urgencia e incontinencia urinaria mixta, principalmente. Las proporciones de estos [...] tres tipos principales de incontinencia urinaria son difíciles de establecer y varían notablemente según las fuentes, pero, podrían estar en torno a 40, 33 y 20%, respectivamente. Su diagnóstico requiere una correcta historia clínica y exploración física, junto con algunas exploraciones complementarias. El primer escalón terapéutico lo constituyen las medidas higiénico-dietéticas y las técnicas de modificación de la conducta. El tratamiento farmacológico es específico para cada tipo de incontinencia urinaria, utilizándose anticolinérgicos e inhibidores de la recaptación de serotonina. Por último, las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas tienen su papel ante el fracaso de los tratamientos conservadores o frente a incontinencia urinaria severa. Abstract in english Urinary incontinence, understood as any involuntary loss of urine, constitutes an important medical and social problem. It can be classified as stress urinary incontinence, urgent urinary incontinence or mixed urinary incontinence. The proportions of these three types of urinary incontinence are dif [...] ficult to establish and vary notably between sources, but they might be about 40, 33 and 20% respectively. Its diagnosis requires a correct clinical history and physical exploration, together with some complementary explorations. The first therapeutic step consists of hygienic-dietary measures and behaviour modification techniques. Pharmacological treatment is specific for each type of urinary incontinence, using anticholinergics and inhibitors of serotonin reuptake. Finally, different surgical techniques have a role in cases where conservative treatments fail or when dealing with severe urinary incontinence.

  4. Female urinary incontinence rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, P

    2004-08-01

    Pelvic floor rehabilitation (PFR) is an important and recommended strategy for the treatment of many urogynecological disorders including urinary incontinence (UI). The recognised pioneer of PFR is the American gynecologist Arnold Kegel who, over 50 years ago, proposed pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME) to prevent and/or treat female UI. Kegel's techniques were successfully used by others too, but as the years passed these techniques sank into unjustified oblivion. In the 1980s in Europe the medical world's interest in PFME techniques gained ground, contemporaneously with functional electrical stimulation (FES) and biofeedback (BFB). As a general rule, the least invasive and least dangerous procedure for the patient should be the first choice, and behavioural and rehabilitative techniques should be considered as the first line of therapy for UI. The behavioural approaches in women with UI and without cognitive deficits are tailored to the patient's underlying problem, such as bladder training or retraining (BR) for urge UI. BR has many variations but generally consists of education, scheduled voiding, and positive reinforcements. The rehabilitative approaches comprise BFB, FES, PFME, and vaginal cones (VC). BFB allows the subject to modify the unconscious physiological events, while FES is aimed at strengthening perineal awareness, increasing the tone and trophism of the pelvic floor, and inhibiting detrusor overactivity. PFME play an extremely important role in the conservative treatment of UI and overactive bladder, and many studies have demonstrated their effectiveness. Many authors have used the different methods for PFR in a heterogeneous manner: the best results were obtained when protocols requiring the contemporary use of 2 or more techniques were followed. PMID:15377984

  5. Urinary incontinence in familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, J; Axelrod, F B; Maayan, C; Stringer, J; Smilen, S W

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence in women with familial dysautonomia (FD). A telephone survey was conducted on 68 known surviving female FD patients over 13 years of age registered with the Dysautonomia Centers in the USA and Israel. The mean age of the surveyed group was 27.1+/-9.8 years and 99% of the patients were nulliparous. The overall reported prevalence of urinary incontinence was 82% (n=56). Of the patients with incontinence, 59% (n=33) reported stress incontinence, 11% (n=6) reported urge incontinence, and 30% (n=17) reported symptoms of both, or mixed incontinence. In most women urinary loss was both small and infrequent, but 36% of women (n=20) with incontinence experienced a loss sufficient to necessitate the use of protection (panty liners, pads or diapers); in 7% (n=4) such loss occurred daily. Twelve per cent of all women with FD surveyed experienced primary nocturnal enuresis and 26% experienced nocturia. The prevalence of urinary incontinence is high in young female patients with familial dysautonomia. Neurophysiologic testing in this population may provide a better understanding of the role of the autonomic nervous system in urinary incontinence. PMID:12955345

  6. Comparative Study of Lithotripsy and PCNL for 11-15 mm Lower Caliceal Calculi In Community Health Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadekar, Jayant; Shinde, Babaji B.; Tatte, Julie Anand

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is not a popular procedure in smaller sized calculi due to its invasive nature, complications and need for anesthesia. Small sized lower caliceal calculi are generally treated by ESWL but have significantly less clearance rate in spite of several sittings. Here we want to study the efficacy and safe of both procedures in 11 to 15 mm lower caliceal calculi. Materials and Methods: We present comparative study of lithotripsy and PCNL in 11-15 mm lower caliceal calculi in our hospital. Total 156 patients were studied 78 underwent lithotripsy and 78 underwent PCNL. We compared results in the form of clearance rate, the number of settings needed, hospital stay, need for anesthesia, blood transfusion rate, chest complication, the incidence of sepsis, the need for another procedure, need for stenting in either group. Results: We found a 67.95% clearance rate in SWL group and 97.43% clearance rate in PCNL group. Hospital stay was minimum in SWL group and was 46 hours in PCNL group. The procedure time was 42 minutes in PCNL and it was 114 mins in SWL (considering all settings). The rest of the complications like chest complication, sepsis and bleeding were negligible due to the small size of calculi. Conclusion: In a small sized LPC calculi, PCNL is gaining increased popularity due to lower complication and high safety and complete clearance rate. It is wide accepted by society as the patient is totally stone free at the end of the procedure. SWL is less invasive but less effective and has given significant discomfort to patients. PMID:25121001

  7. Comparison of pyelolithotomy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with pelvis renalis calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Tu?cu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare, retrospectively, results of cases undergoing pyelolithotomy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL for pelvis renalis (PR calculi in our clinic. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients had undergone PNL between December 2004-June 2006 and 46 patients undergone pyelolithotomy between January 2005-August 2006 for PR calculi. Percutaneous intervention was performed under C-armed ?ouroscopy on patients in prone position. A subcostal ?ank approach was used for pyelolithotomy. Results: Mean age was 44±11 and 42±8 years for PNL and pyelolithotomy groups, respectively. Mean operative time was 140.6 minutes in PNL group. Stone-free rate was 93.33% and when residual fragments<4mm accepted clinically insignificant increased to 98.33% in PNL group. Differences between pre and postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit were 1.34 gr/dl and 4.22, respectively. Blood transfusion required in 3 (5% patients during early postoperative period. A postoperative fever of 39.5°C occured in one patient. Mean operative time was 165.3 minutes in pyelolithotomy group. Stone-free rate was 100%. Differences between pre and postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit were 1.17 gr/dl and 3.42, respectively. Blood transfusion during early postoperative period required in 2 (4.35% patients. A double-j catheter was inserted in 19 patients. Mean duration for nephrostomy removal and mean hospital stay in PNL group were 2.30 and 3.50 days, respectively. Mean duration for drain removal and mean hospital stay in pyelolithotomy group were 3.45 and 5.20 days, respectively. Conclusion: Indications of open stone surgery have been changed and it became to be used only for difficult cases. Our results show that PNL is successful in treatment of PR calculi.

  8. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy versus ureteroscopy for distal ureteric calculi: efficacy and patient satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim F. Ghalayini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL and ureteroscopy (URS for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi with respect to patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND MHETODS: This is a prospective study where a total of 212 patients with solitary, radiopaque distal ureteral calculi were treated with ESWL (n = 92 using Dornier lithotriptor S (MedTech Europe GmbH or URS (n = 120. Patient and stone characteristics, treatment parameters, clinical outcomes, and patient satisfaction were assessed for each group. RESULTS: The 2 groups were comparable in regard to patient age, sex, stone size, and side of treatment. The stone-free status for ESWL and URS at 3 months was 81.5% and 97.5%, respectively (p < 0.0001. In addition, 88% of patients who underwent ESWL versus 20% who underwent URS were discharged home the day of procedure. Minor complications occurred in 3.3% and 8.3% of the ESWL and URS groups, respectively (p = 0.127. No ureteral perforation or stricture occurred in the URS group. Postoperative flank pain and dysuria were more severe in the URS than ESWL group, although the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.16. Patient satisfaction was high for both groups, including 94% for URS and 80% for ESWL (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: URS is more effective than ESWL for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi. ESWL was more often performed on an outpatient basis, and showed a trend towards less flank pain and dysuria, fewer complications and quicker convalescence. Patient satisfaction was significantly higher for URS according to the questionnaire used in this study.

  9. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, E.; Pereira, J.; Corbusier, F.; Demeter, P.; Bali, Ma

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder in a 31 year-old woman. She presented at the emergency room with low abdominal pain and urinary symptoms. Abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and revealed asymmetric thickening of the urinary bladder wall. Cystoscopy with urinary cytology revealed a benign nature of the process. The patient underwent partial cystectomy an...

  10. Treating urinary incontinence in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ellie

    2010-11-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common hidden problem which affects up to 30% of older people (Nazarko, 2008). It is often ignored or not treated effectively and often women suffering with urinary incontinence do not present to primary care practitioners, as they perceive it as an inevitable consequence of ageing. This article aims to discuss the types of urinary incontinence and treatments available to older women presenting with urinary incontinence in primary care. PMID:21079556

  11. Biofilm infections of urinary tract.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holá, V.; R?ži?ka, F.; Horáková, L.; Renata, R.; Horká, Marie

    Istanbul , 2008. s. 232. [International Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology /12./. 05.08.2008-09.08.2008, Istanbul ] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAAX00310701 Keywords : catheter related urinary tract infections * affection of culture conditions * capillary isoelectric focusing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  12. The history of urinary diversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadži-?oki? Jovan B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The earliest attempt to divert urine flow from the ureters to the intestine, was performed in 1851 by John Simon. In the absence of antibiotics, ureterosigmoidostomy and its modifications during the 19th and early 20th century have been associated with high rate of surgical and metabolic complications. In 1910, Robert Coffey demonstrated a new method for ureterointestinal anastomosis, which renovated primary enthusiasm in ureterosigmoidostomy and it gained broad popularity during the next forty years. In 1950, Ferris and Odel reported 80% incidence of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis following ureterosigmoidostomy. Based on further investigations by Lapides in 1951, Parsons, Powel and Pyrah in 1952, and Stamey in 1956, which clearly demonstrated that hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is inevitable complication of ureterosigmoidostomy, this urinary diversion lost its popularity. In 1950’s ileal conduit, popularized by Bricker, became the gold standard for the subsequent 35 years. Early attempts for continent urinary diversion occurred form 1888, by Guido Tizzoni and Alfonso Poggi, while the first reservoir-type ileal loop urinary diversion was performed by Cuneo in 1911. By better understanding of principles of detubularization, based on works of Kock and principles of clean intermittent catheterization, established by Lapides, interest in continent urinary diversion has increased. Up to date, various continent cutaneous stomal reservoirs, sigmoidorectal pouches and orthotopic bladder substitutes have been described. Regarding encouraging improvements in biocompatible materials, alloplastic bladder replacement could be the next step for the future in bladder replacement surgery.

  13. Managing urinary incontinence: what works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarenis, I; Cardozo, L

    2014-12-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common condition, which, although not life-threatening, impairs the health-related quality of life of affected individuals. All women complaining of incontinence require a basic assessment and those with complex or refractory symptoms may benefit from urodynamic studies. Initial treatment includes lifestyle advice, behavioral modifications, bladder retraining and pelvic floor muscle training. For those women with persistent stress urinary incontinence following conservative therapy, surgical management might be considered. The development of the minimally invasive, retropubic, synthetic, mid-urethral sling procedures has revolutionized stress incontinence surgery and reduced the popularity of 'traditional' procedures, such as colposuspension and autologous fascial sling. In an attempt to reduce further the morbidity, transobturator and single-incision slings have been introduced. While antimuscarinic agents are the mainstay of the current medical management of urgency urinary incontinence, a recently developed selective ?3-adrenergic receptor agonist (mirabegron) offers an alternative pharmacological option. Modalities such as intravesical botulinum toxin and neuromodulation (peripheral or sacral) are available to women with refractory urgency incontinence. Finally, when all other options have been explored and proven unsuccessful, inappropriate or not feasible, reconstructive surgery or catheter insertion might be considered as a last resort. The aim of this paper is to review conservative, medical and surgical management for urinary incontinence by using the best available evidence in the literature. PMID:25196507

  14. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Elsa; Pereira, José; Corbusier, Florence; Demeter, Pieter; Bali, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder in a 31 year-old woman. She presented at the emergency room with low abdominal pain and urinary symptoms. Abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and revealed asymmetric thickening of the urinary bladder wall. Cystoscopy with urinary cytology revealed a benign nature of the process. The patient underwent partial cystectomy and the pathologic examination of the specimen revealed an inflammatory pseudotumor. We reviewed the clinical, imaging and pathological features of the inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder and discussed its differential diagnosis. PMID:25926919

  15. Ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy for lower calyx calculi in horseshoe kidney: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawahara Takashi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We previously reported on the effectiveness of ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy during percutaneous nephrolithotomy and report two cases of lower calyx calculi in horseshoe kidney that were successfully treated with ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy. During the ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy procedure, a ureteroscope is advanced in the desired calyx and a Lawson retrograde nephrostomy puncture wire is inserted. The wire is advanced through the calyx to exit the skin. The wire is then used for the percutaneous dilation. Case presentation Case 1 was a 68-year-old man who was shown on radiography to have left lower calyx calculi (19?×?15mm, 7?×?5mm, and 7?×?3mm in horseshoe kidney. Case 2 was a 36-year-old woman shown on radiography to have a left lower calyx calculus (10?×?8mm in horseshoe kidney. Conclusions Both patients were stone-free after ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy is a promising procedure for safely and effectively treating lower calyx stones in horseshoe kidney.

  16. Laboratory coherent-scatter analysis of intact urinary stones with crystalline composition: a tomographic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of urinary stone composition and structure provides important insights in guiding treatment and preventing recurrence. No current method can successfully provide information relating structure and composition of intact stones. We are developing a tomographic technique that uses measures of coherently scattered diagnostic x-rays to yield stone composition. Coherent-scatter (CS) properties depend on molecular structure and are, therefore, sensitive to material composition. Powdered, amorphous or polycrystalline materials with no significant orientation produce circularly symmetric CS patterns. However, in materials with preferred crystallite orientation, like urinary stones, bright spots in CS patterns are observed. This compromises a composition analysis based on comparing CS measurements from calculi to a library of CS signatures from powdered chemicals. We show that a computed tomographic reconstruction of CS measurements using filtered backprojection (CSCT) effectively eliminates bright spots and yields CS patterns equivalent to powdered materials. This allows for direct comparison with a powdered chemical reference library to establish composition. Validation is achieved through a tomographic CS analysis of an aluminium (Al) rod phantom. Much like calculi, CS patterns from a solid polycrystalline Al rod exhibit diffraction spots, absent in the ring-like Al powder CS pattern. We show that the reconstructed Al CS cross-section is equivalent to its powdered oss-section is equivalent to its powdered counterpart and results in clearly defined composition images. The potential of CSCT to identify stone composition is demonstrated through images of intact stones deemed chemically pure by infrared spectroscopy. Computed tomographic reconstruction of CS signals allowed the generation of composition maps, showing the distribution of stone components. These images provide strong evidence that current laboratory techniques risk missing critical stone components due to inadequate sampling. This is of particular importance since follow-up treatments are based on these composition analyses. CS analysis can distinguish common stone components and can provide topographic composition maps of intact stones. Such details offer invaluable clinical information regarding stone formation, treatment and follow-up, and thus support the development of CS analysis as a laboratory stone analysis technique

  17. Cases of polycystic kidney associated with right renal calculi and right perirenal abscess diagnosed preoperably by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) was used in 2 patients with polycystic kidney associated with right renal calculi and right perirenal abscess and definitive diagnostic informations were obtained preoperably. Therefore, CT was proved to be very valuable with its diagnostic accuracy and less complications compared with other diagnostic methods in recent urologic fields. (author)

  18. [Effect of urinary pH value on the composition of urinary nanocrystals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Jing; Wan, Mu-Hua; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2009-01-01

    The effect of urinary pH value on the composition of urinary nanocrystals was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The differentiation of composition of urinary nanocrystals not only occurred between the people with different urinary pH, but also occurred in the same person when his or her urinary pH changed. At lower urinary pH (such as pHcalcium oxalate etc. However, most of these components are urate, phosphate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, calcium oxalate etc at higher urinary pH (such as pH>6.2). Combining XRD and FTIR methods, t he compositions o f urinary nanocrystals can b edetermined accurately. It is helpful to exploring the cause of urinary stones. PMID:19385256

  19. Defective urinary crystallization inhibition and urinary stone formation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauricio, Carvalho; Jody P., Lulich; Carl A., Osborne; Yasushi, Nakagawa.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nephrocalcin (NC) is a glycoprotein produced in the kidney and inhibits calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has been separated into 4 isoforms (A, B, C, and D) and found that (A + B) are more abundant than (C + D) in urine of healthy subjects, but the reverse is seen in human urine o [...] f kidney stone patients. To further examine the role of this protein in inhibition of urinary crystallization, nephrocalcin isoforms were purified from 2 genetically pure dog species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied healthy Beagles, known to be non-stone forming dogs, and Mini-Schnauzers, known to be calcium oxalate stone formers. NC was isolated and purified from each group. Urinary biochemistry and calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibition were measured. RESULTS: Specific crystal growth inhibition activity was significantly higher in non-stone forming dogs (9.79 ± 2.25 in Beagles vs. 2.75 ± 1.34 of Mini-Schnauzers, p

  20. Major Odorants Released as Urinary Volatiles by Urinary Incontinent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Young Sa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, volatile urinary components were collected using three different types of samples from patients suffering from urinary incontinence (UI: (1 urine (A; (2 urine + non-used pad (B; and (3 urine + used pad (C. In addition, urine + non-used pad (D samples from non-patients were also collected as a reference. The collection of urinary volatiles was conducted with the aid of a glass impinger-based mini-chamber method. Each of the four sample types (A through D was placed in a glass impinger and incubated for 4 hours at 37 °C. Ultra pure air was then passed through the chamber, and volatile urine gas components were collected into Tedlar bags at the other end. These bag samples were then analyzed for a wide range of VOCs and major offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs, carbonyls, trimethylamine (TMA, ammonia, etc.. Among the various odorants, sulfur compounds (methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, butylaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde were detected above odor threshold and predicted to contribute most effectively to odor intensity of urine incontinence.

  1. Bedside Diagnosis Of Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, John

    1985-01-01

    Urinary incontinence usually presents as stress incontinence, unstable bladder, incontinence of psychomotor impairment, or neurogenic bladder. While diagnosis may sometimes require specialist investigation, it is often possible on clinical grounds. The otherwise well woman with a long history of incontinence will have either stress incontinence or an unstable bladder; the differences are defined. The ill patient with a short history of incontinence associated with impaired alertness or mobili...

  2. Urinary Incontinence in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Ouslander, Joseph G.

    2001-01-01

    Probably 20% of community dwelling older adults have enough incontinence to limit some aspect of their lives. Affected individuals go to great lengths to deny and hide urinary incontinence, which can pose physical and psychosocial impediments to the enjoyment of life. There are differing pathophysiologies of incontinence and what helps one type may not help and may in fact worsen another. Problems of incontinence can be associated with major neurological damage or can be functional or iatroge...

  3. Promoting urinary continence in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, Alison

    2014-10-28

    Continence promotion involves informing and educating the public and healthcare professionals that urinary incontinence is not an inevitable part of ageing, and can be treated or at least made more manageable. While awareness of urinary continence is improving slowly, the taboo around discussing incontinence remains. Women are at increased risk of developing urinary incontinence as they grow older because of physiological, functional and cognitive changes. Healthcare professionals can identify women with bladder symptoms by routinely asking trigger questions and can promote continence through education about lifestyle choices that aggravate or ameliorate urinary incontinence. This article discusses the main risk factors associated with urinary incontinence in older women and the ways in which healthcare professionals can help to identify those with symptoms of urinary incontinence. PMID:25335630

  4. A novel ureter dilatation method for replacing hydromantic perfusion pump during ureteroscopic lithotripsy in patients with ureteral calculi and ibroepithelial polyps

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tengcheng; Fang, Youqiang; Wu, Jieying; Zhou, Xiangfu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical value of a novel ureter dilatation method during ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy in patients with ureteral calculi and polyps. Clinical information of 86 patients with ureter calculi and polyps who underwent ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy was reviewed. A cavity-distention machine was used in 44 cases to inject normal saline for keeping clear operation view (cavity-distention machine-assisted group). A high handled water bag with artificial wa...

  5. Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo, Hisano; Homero, Bruschini; Antonio Carlos, Nicodemo; Miguel, Srougi.

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent urinary tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are ava [...] ilable, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower urinary tract infections, including in vitro studies and clinical trials.

  6. Why do women have stress urinary incontinence?

    OpenAIRE

    DeLANCEY, John O. L.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews progress made in understanding the causes of stress urinary incontinence. Over the last century, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain stress urinary incontinence. These theories are based on clinical observations and focus primarily on the causative role of urethral support loss and an open vesical neck. Recently these hypotheses have been tested by comparing measurements of urethral support and function in women with primary stress urinary incontinence to asy...

  7. Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Hisano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent urinary tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are available, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower urinary tract infections, including in vitro studies and clinical trials.

  8. Female urinary incontinence: effective treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R A; Arruda, R M; Bortolini, M A T

    2015-04-01

    Urinary incontinence is a dysfunction that tremendously affects women's quality of life, involving social, emotional and economic aspects. Although various treatments for urinary incontinence have been described, it is important to know which of them are truly effective. This review seeks to determine the current available therapies for women with stress urinary incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome, based on the best scientific evidence. PMID:25307986

  9. Mechanism of Urinary Calcium Regulation by Urinary Magnesium and pH

    OpenAIRE

    Bonny, Olivier; Rubin, Adam; Huang, Chou-long; Frawley, William H.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Moe, Orson W.

    2008-01-01

    Urinary magnesium and pH are known to modulate urinary calcium excretion, but the mechanisms underlying these relationships are unknown. In this study, the data from 17 clinical trials in which urinary magnesium and pH were pharmacologically manipulated were analyzed, and it was found that the change in urinary calcium excretion is directly proportional to the change in magnesium excretion and inversely proportional to the change in urine pH; a regression equation was generated to relate thes...

  10. Use of urinary gram stain for detection of urinary tract infection in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan, Su?kru?; Caksen, Hu?seyin; Rastgeldi, Levent; Uner, Abdurrahman; Oner, Ahmet Faik; Odabas?, Dursun

    2002-01-01

    In this study, urinary culture, urinary Gram stain, and four tests within the urinalysis, leukocyte esterase, nitrite, microscopyfor bacteria, and microscopyforpyuria, were examined in 100 children with symptoms suggesting urinary tract infection. Our purpose was to determine the validity of the urinary Gram stain compared with a combination of pyuria plus Gram stain and overall urinalysis (positiveness of nitrite, leukocyte esterase, microscopy for bacteria, or microscopy for white blood cel...

  11. Riemannian curvature of the noncommutative 3-sphere via pseudo-Riemannian calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Arnlind, Joakim

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate to what extent the calculus of classical (pseudo-)Riemannian manifolds can be extended to a noncommutative setting, we introduce pseudo-Riemannian calculi of modules over noncommutative algebras. In this framework, it is possible to prove an analogue of Levi-Civita's theorem, stating that there exists at most one torsion-free and metric connection for a given (metric) module, satisfying the requirements of a real metric calculus. Furthermore, the corresponding curvature operator has the same symmetry properties as the classical Riemannian curvature. As our main motivating example, we consider a pseudo-Riemannian calculus over the noncommutative 3-sphere and explicitly determine the torsion-free and metric connection, as well as the curvature operator together with its scalar curvature.

  12. Tratamiento no quirúrgico de la litiasis biliar Non-Surgical treatment of biliary calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Franco

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Se describen diversos procedimientos para el tratamiento no quirúrgico de la colelitiasis: la administración de ácidos billares orales, la litotripsia extracorpórea, la colecistostomía percutánea, la escleroterapia de la vesícula y la litotripsia mecánica; se consignan las indicaciones, ventajas, desventajas y limitaciones de cada uno de ellos.

    Several procedures are described for non-surgical treatment of biliary calculi, namely: oral administration of bile acids, extracorporeal shock-wave lithotrypsy I percutaneous cholecystostomy I gallbladder sclerotherapy

    and mechanicallithotrypsy. lndications, advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each procedure are discussed.

  13. Ureteroscopic and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Rather Large Renal Pelvis Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Baghban Haghighi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the results and complications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL plus retrograde ureteroscopic lithotripsy using laser and pneumatic lithotriptors with SWL monotherapy for renal pelvic calculi between 2 cm and 3 cm. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 patients with 2- to 3-cm pelvic calculi were assigned into groups 1 and 2, including 22 and 33 patients, respectively. Patients in group 1 first underwent laser pneumatic lithotripsy and insertion of a double-J ureteral catheter and then underwent SWL 2 to 4 weeks thereafter. In group 2, the patients underwent SWL after double-J ureteral catheter insertion. The stone-free rate, complications, and cost effectiveness were evaluated 3 months postoperatively. Results: Five patients (22.7% in group 1, had their calculi completely fragmented after ureteroscopy and retrograde lithotripsy without any need for further SWL. In 9 patients (40.9%, after a single session of SWL, and in 3 (13.6%, after 2 sessions, fragmentation was completed. In group 2, successful treatment was achieved after 1 and 2 SWL sessions in 6 (18.2% and 8 (24.2% patients, respectively. The stone-free rate was significantly higher in the patients of group1 than those in group 2 (77.3% versus 42.4%, respectively; P = .01. The period of anesthesia was 23.1 minutes (during ureteroscopy in group 1 and 13.2 minutes in group 2 (during cystoscopy or ureteroscopy and insertion of ureteral catheter. No significant complication was reported in neither of the groups. The mean costs of the treatment were US $ 400 and US $ 370 in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: Ureteroscopic lithotripsy before SWL is a rational method for the treatment of the rather large renal pelvic calculi with fairly acceptable costs.

  14. Changes in DMSA scan after PCNL procedure in children with renal calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is an established technique for the management of renal calculi. However there is limited data on the effects of PCNL on the renal parenchyma especially in the paediatric population. This study was aimed to determine the effects of PCNL on the renal parenchyma in children with renal calculi using DMSA scan. Medical records of 37 patients who had undergone PCNL over a five-year period from 1999 to 2003 were reviewed. Details of imaging were not available in 11 patients and these were excluded from the study; only patients who had both preoperative and post operative DMSA scans or a normal postoperative DMSA scan were included. 26 patients (26 renal units) were therefore available for the review. The age of the patients ranged from 1 year to 12.5 years (median, 3.75 years) at the time of PCNL. DMSA scans was done from 1 day to 47 months (median, 2 months) before the PCNL and 2 months to 27 months (median, 3.5 months) after the procedure. Two independent observers interpreted the scans and any discrepancy was reviewed and the Conclusion was reached with mutual agreement. Regions of interest around each kidney were drawn to determine the percent uptake of DMSA. 20 patients (76.9%) showed no change or improvement in post-procedure scans. The uptake of DMSA was 43.63±10.11% (mean±SD) before and 42.79±11.80% after the PCNL procedure. This change did not reach the statistically significant level (p=0.334). Hence DMSA scans showed that PC0.334). Hence DMSA scans showed that PCNL procedure does not produce significant changes in the renal parenchyma in more than three quarters of the patients who undergo this procedure. (authors)

  15. Factors affecting treatment success of staghorn calculi: stone burden or stone locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahad?r Can Balc?

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the results and comlications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL treatment in patients with staghorn calculi.Materials and methods: We performed multi-access PCNL in 54 patients with staghorn stones in our department between 2004 to 2007. Of these patients, 2 access tracts were used for 41, 3 access tracts for 8, and 4 access tracts for 5 patients. The mean stone burden was 10.7 cm2 for 2 access group, 11.7 cm2 for 3 access group, and 11.2 cm2 for 4 access group. Preoperative data including stone surface area, stone locations, and patient demograghics were recorded. Access number, transfusion rate, and operative duration were recorded intraoperatively. Stone-free rates and need for opioids were determined postoperatively.Results: Transfusion rate was 24.3% in 2 access group, 37.5% in 3 access group, and 80% in 4 access group. The mean operative duration was 145, 157, and 189 sec in 2, 3, and 4 access groups, respectively. Stone-free rate was 63.4%, 50%, and 20%; need of opioids was 4.8%, 25%, and 60% in three groups. Two A-V fistulas, one in 3 access group and the other in 4 access group, were treated by chemoembolisation.Conclusion: Stone burden is not the most important factor for stone-free rates in complex and branched renal calculi. Different caliceal locations of stones is more predictive for stone-free rates for staghorn stones. Increased access number is associated with more blood transfusion, long operative duration, more complications, and more opioid needs.

  16. Use of traditional Chinese medicine in the management of urinary stone disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Miyaoka; Manoj, Monga.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the evidence-based literature supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine Kampo herbal and Acupuncture in stone disease management. Materials and Methods: Four of the most commonly used herbal components of Kampo medicine in the treatment of stone disease are described ac [...] cording to their in vitro and in vivo effects. We also reviewed the role of Acupuncture in urologic clinical setting as well as its proposed mechanisms of action and results. Medline database was assessed using isolated and conjugated key words (Chinese Medicine, Kampo, Chinese Herbal, Calculi, Stone Disease, Kidney, Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine). Articles were reviewed and summarized. Results: Herbal medicine has been proven to be free from side-effects and therefore suitable for long term use therapy. Its antilithic beneficial effects include increased urinary volume, increased magnesium excretion (Takusya), inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate aggregation (Takusya, Wulingsan and Desmodyum styracyfolium), inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation and hydroxyapatite internalization (Wulingsan). In contrast, acupuncture, has shown to be effective as a pre-treatment anxiolytic and analgesic during colic pain and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment, reducing the need for complementary sedative drugs. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine is promising as regards its role in stone prevention. An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each procedure differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics. Similarly, standardization of Kampo formulations and acceptable clinical endpoints (imaging vs. symptomatic events) is needed.

  17. Use of traditional Chinese medicine in the management of urinary stone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Miyaoka

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the evidence-based literature supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine Kampo herbal and Acupuncture in stone disease management. Materials and Methods: Four of the most commonly used herbal components of Kampo medicine in the treatment of stone disease are described according to their in vitro and in vivo effects. We also reviewed the role of Acupuncture in urologic clinical setting as well as its proposed mechanisms of action and results. Medline database was assessed using isolated and conjugated key words (Chinese Medicine, Kampo, Chinese Herbal, Calculi, Stone Disease, Kidney, Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine. Articles were reviewed and summarized. Results: Herbal medicine has been proven to be free from side-effects and therefore suitable for long term use therapy. Its antilithic beneficial effects include increased urinary volume, increased magnesium excretion (Takusya, inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate aggregation (Takusya, Wulingsan and Desmodyum styracyfolium, inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation and hydroxyapatite internalization (Wulingsan. In contrast, acupuncture, has shown to be effective as a pre-treatment anxiolytic and analgesic during colic pain and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment, reducing the need for complementary sedative drugs. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine is promising as regards its role in stone prevention. An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each procedure differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics. Similarly, standardization of Kampo formulations and acceptable clinical endpoints (imaging vs. symptomatic events is needed.

  18. FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAQs (frequently asked questions) “Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection” about What is “catheter-associated urinary tract infection”? A urinary tract infection (also called “UTI”) is an infection in ...

  19. Urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion in urolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Akcay, T.; Konukoglu, D.; Dincer, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Urinary glycosaminoglycan (GAG) excretion was measured in children with idiopathic urolithiasis (15 girls and 10 boys; mean (SD) age 6.2 (2.4) years) and in healthy controls (10 girls and 14 boys; mean (SD) age 6.8 (3.8) years). GAG excretion was expressed as a GAG/creatinine (mg/g) ratio and was evaluated using dimethylmethylene blue. In healthy control children, the mean (SD) GAG/creatinine ratio was 31.67 (12.76) and it was similar in girls and boys. The children with idi...

  20. [Urinary schistosomiasis in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskind, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    First described by Theodor Bilharz in 1851, Schistosoma haematobium, the worm responsible for urinary schistosomiasis, was a major health problem along the Nile Valley until the present days. Haematuria, the main symptom of this parasitic disease, was known and treated in Egyptian medical papyri since 1550 B.C. A relationship between haematuria and the god Seth was envisaged. Sir Marc Armand Ruffer, pioneer of paleopathology, found (1910) calcified Schistosoma eggs in Egyptian mummies of the xxth dynasty, establishing that bilharzia plagued ancient Egypt people. The ELISA method demonstrated the Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen in 45% of mummies studied. PMID:19617021

  1. [Urinary incontinence after prostatic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby, Hans Jørgen; Nordling, Jørgen

    2007-05-14

    The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence after prostatic surgery for benign disease is 0-2% and 5-35% after surgery for malignant disease. After radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer spontaneous improvement of stress incontinence occurs up to 1 year after surgery. Medical treatment with doloxetine (a serotonine-noradrenaline-reuptake inhibitor) and minimal invasive treatments like urethral bulking and male sling procedures are only effective against minor stress incontinence. Implantation of artificial urethral sphincter prosthesis remains gold standard for effective treatment and lasting effect. PMID:17553370

  2. Imaging in urinary tract infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Gleeson, F. V.; Gordon, I.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship of vesicoureteric reflex (VUR) and renal scarring was studied in 94 children (188 kidneys) with proved urinary tract infection in a district general hospital. There were 61 girls and 33 boys, with nine girls and 17 boys aged less than 1 year, 31 girls and nine boys aged between 1 and 5 years, the remaining 28 children were over 5 years of age. All children had a micturating cystourethrogram and a 99mTc (technetium) dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan. Forty two of the 188 kid...

  3. The Sound and Complete R-Calculi with Respect to Pseudo-Revision and Pre-Revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The AGM postulates ([1] are for the belief revision (revision by a single belief, and the DP postulates ([2] are for the iterated revision (revision by a finite sequence of beliefs. Li [3] gave an R-calculus for R-configurations ?|?, where ? is a set of literals, and ? is a finite set of formulas. We shall give two R-calculi such that for any consistent set ? and finite consistent set ? of formulas in the propositional logic, in one calculus, there is a pseudo-revision ? of ? by ? such that   is provable and  and in another calculus, there is a pre-revision ? of ? by ? such that  is provable,  and  for some pseudo-revision ?; and prove that the deduction systems for both the R-calculi are sound and complete with the pseudo-revision and the pre-revision, respectively.

  4. Retención urinaria aguda por cálculo prostático: a propósito de un caso / Debut endometriosis with urinary manifestations: report of two cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando S., Fernández Marichal; Rafael, Toirán García; Ahimara, Varela Álvarez; Orlando, Segura Roque.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: los cálculos prostáticos son frecuentes después de los 50 años presentando infecciones urinarias y dificultad miccional cuando son de gran tamaño. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de un paciente con un cálculo prostático de gran tamaño que provocó retención urinaria aguda, al examen dig [...] ital rectal apareció una próstata de consistencia firme que impresionaba crepitar a la palpación. Resultados: se le realiza extracción del cálculo prostático a través de incisión longitudinal de la cápsula prostática y vejiga en el Hospital Docente de Oncología María Curie de Camagüey, en agosto del 2014. El paciente egresó a los 7 días después del tratamiento quirúrgico, con seguimiento por consulta externa. Conclusiones: la litiasis prostática de gran tamaño puede ser causa de retención urinaria aguda, aunque su presentación no sea frecuente. Abstract in english Background: prostatic calculi are frequent after 50 years old and cause urinary infections and urination difficulty when they are large. Clinical case: the case of a patient with a large prostatic calculus which caused acute urinary retention is presented. When making the digital rectal exam, a pros [...] tate of firm consistency that impressed because it felt crepitant at touching, could be perceived. Results: the extraction of the prostatic calculus was made through the longitudinal incision of the capsule of prostate and the bladder in the Maria Curie Teaching Oncological Hospital of Camagüey, in August, 2014. The patient was discharged seven days after the surgical treatment. A follow-up care was established. Conclusions: a large prostatic lithiasis can be the cause of acute urinary retention, although its presentation is infrequent.

  5. Hypercalciuria in children with urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahzadeh M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed this prospective study to determine the urinary calcium to creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr in children with different urinary symptoms. We studied 523 children in our neph-rology clinic with an age range of 3 to 14 years (mean= 8 and male to female ratio of 0.61. All the children had at least one of the urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, frequency, urgency, abdo-minal and/or flank pain, diurnal incontinence or enuresis, microscopic hematuria, urinary tract infection or urolithiasis. Fasting urine was collected for measuring calcium and creatinine and the results were compared to the values for the normal Iranian children. Ca/Cr ratio of more than 0.2 (mg/mg was considered as hypercalciuria. Of all the patients, 166 (31.3% were hypercalciuric. Urine Ca/Cr ratio was significantly higher in all the subgroups with one or more of the urinary symptoms (P< 0.001. We conclude that urine Ca/Cr ratio is significantly increased in children with all types of urinary symptoms. We recommend measuring urinary calcium in all children with urinary tract symptoms, especially if unexplained.

  6. Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because…

  7. Application of fast-track surgery concept in perioperative patients with biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hua

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the advantage and safety of the concept of fast-track surgery (FTS applied in perioperative patients with biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis. MethodsFifty-two patients undergoing operation for biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis from January 2011 to September 2013 were included in this study. These patients were randomly divided into FTS group (n = 30 and control group (n = 22. Patients in the FTS group received perioperative care measures guided by FTS concept, while patients in the control group received traditional perioperative management measures. The intraoperative situation of patients, time to postoperative recovery of intestinal function, length of postoperative hospital stay, total medical expenses during hospitalization, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Continuous data and categorical data were compared by t-test and ?2 test, respectively. ResultsAs compared with the control group, the FTS group had significantly time to postoperative recovery of intestinal function (t = 2.239, P = 0.045, a significantly shortened length of postoperative stay (t = 4.246, P = 0.038, and significantly reduced total medical expenses during hospitalization (t = 3.045, P = 0.033. No significant difference in postoperative complications was observed between the two groups (P?0.05. ConclusionThe concept of FTS can be safely and effectively applied in perioperative patients with biliary calculi and liver cirrhosis, which can accelerate rehabilitation without increasing the risk of surgery.

  8. Symptomatic small non-obstructing lower ureteric calculi: comparison of ureteroscopy and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andankar M

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the success, efficacy and complications of ureteroscopy (URS and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL for the treatment of symptomatic small non obstructing lower ureteric calculi. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective non-randomised study was conducted simultaneously at two urological referral centres, included 280 patients with symptomatic small (4-10 mm lower ureteric calculi (situated below the sacroiliac joint, with good renal function on intravenous urography. Patients were offered both the treatment options. One hundred and sixty patients chose ureteroscopy, whereas 120 patients were treated by ESWL. Standard techniques of ureteroscopy and ESWL were employed. Patients were followed-up to assess the success rates and complications of the two procedures. RESULTS: Ureteroscopy achieved complete stone clearance in one session in 95% of patients. In six patients ureteroscopy had failed initially and was later accomplished in second session improving the success rate to 98.7%. Two patients had a proximal migration of calculus that needed ESWL. Of the 120 patients treated by ESWL, 90% achieved stone free status at three months. Ureteroscopy was needed for twelve patients (10% where ESWL failed to achieve stone clearance. There were no significant ESWL related complications. ESWL was administered on outpatient basis, while patients needed hospitalisation and anaesthesia for ureteroscopy. CONCLUSION: ESWL can be the primary mode of treatment for symptomatic small non-obstructing lower ureteric calculi as it is minimally invasive and safe. Ureteroscopy can be offered to patients who demand immediate relief or when ESWL fails.

  9. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nIn the name of God. Dear colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great honor to be here. Bladder dysfunction is serious enough to seek serious help. If you may know I am working in a private clinic which it is impossible to follow the patients so this lecture is based on unusual and rare cases who came to me. Bladder dysfunction (BD is common among 30% of young and old people who are suffering from it, however it is more common in old ages. According to a research, women are more involved as in men which prostate has a role is more common. The usual cases were: "n1. A young girl, aged 20, who had to wake up five times during the night to micturate. "n2. Also a lady said when I roll in bed I wet myself. "n3. A young lady who always had to use a pad. "n4. A man said I can’t use underground. "n5. I cannot go out since I have to micturate every hour. "n6. One said I have to wake up every hour at night. "n7. Young people say we have to micturate 3-4 times at night. "n8. A young man said as soon as I feel to micturate I empty my bladder before I’ve reached the WC and I wet myself to the ankle, how could I have a job? "n9. Some women wet themselves when they cough. "nIn order to know and diagnosis, the physiology of bladder function must be known. "nThe bladder is divided into two parts: "nThe Dom, which is innervated by Beta-Adrenergic. It relaxes the bladder in order to comply the urine. "nFrom the orifice of the urether and posterior ridge of the trigon to the bladder neck or internal sphincter. The prostatic urethra plays a major role in conti- nence. It has two parts,   "n1: From the bladder neck to V.M. this is enclaved by extension of detrusor muscles like a sleeve. These muscles contract during ejaculation to prevent retrograde ejaculation. "nDistal urethra from V.M. to the external sphincter which is covered by voluntary muscles. "nThe internal pressure of the urethra is higher than the bladder. If the pressure of the bladder rises, the internal pressure of the urethra should also increase. In women, the internal pressure of the urethra is short, and even if it has poorly developed they wet themselves when they cough. "nThe causes of BD: "nAs you see there are 17 causes, which 11 are related to the bladder. The bladder is responsible for retaining the urine and voiding. "nPathophysiology: "nThe bladder and sphincter should work in a coordinated manner: "nDuring the course of a day, an average person will void approximately 4-8 times. The urinary bladder is in storage mode for most of the day, allowing an individual to engage in more important activities than urination. "nNormal bladder function consists of 2 phases—filling and emptying. The normal micturition cycle requires the urinary bladder and the urethral sphincter working together as a coordinated unit to store and empty urine. During urinary storage, the bladder acts as a low-pressure receptacle, while the urinary sphincter maintains high resistance to urinary flow to keep the bladder outlet closed. During urine elimination, the bladder contracts to expel urine while the urinary sphincter opens (low resistance to allow unobstructed urinary flow and bladder emptying. "nFilling phase: "nDuring the filling phase, the bladder accumulates increasing volumes of urine while the pressure inside the bladder remains low. The pressure within the bladder must be lower than the urethral pressure during the filling phase. If the bladder pressure is greater than the urethral pressure (resistance, urine will leak out. "nThe filling of the urinary bladder depends on the intrinsic viscoelastic properties of the bladder and the inhibition of the parasympathetic nerves. Thus, bladder filling is primarily a passive event. "nSympathetic nerves also facilitate urine storage in the following ways: "nSympathetic nerves inhibit the parasympathetic nerves from triggering bladder contractions. "

  10. Imaging in urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, F V; Gordon, I

    1991-11-01

    The relationship of vesicoureteric reflex (VUR) and renal scarring was studied in 94 children (188 kidneys) with proved urinary tract infection in a district general hospital. There were 61 girls and 33 boys, with nine girls and 17 boys aged less than 1 year, 31 girls and nine boys aged between 1 and 5 years, the remaining 28 children were over 5 years of age. All children had a micturating cystourethrogram and a 99mTc (technetium) dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan. Forty two of the 188 kidneys were scarred and 70 of the kidneys had VUR. Only 37.1% of the kidneys with reflux were scarred but 61.9% of the scarred kidneys had VUR. In children of less than 1 year, 48% of kidneys with VUR were scarred whereas 70.6% of scarred kidneys had reflux. In children between 1 and 5 years of age only 36.4% of kidneys with VUR were scarred but 63.2% of scarred kidneys had VUR. There is good correlation between the detection of a scarred kidney on DMSA and the presence of vesicoureteric reflux. However the detection of reflux particularly in children over 1 year of age shows poor correlation with renal scarring. This suggests that the primary imaging in children over 1 year of age presenting with a urinary tract infection should be of the kidney: a cystogram should be performed only if the DMSA scan is abnormal. PMID:1661570

  11. Urinary calprotectin and posttransplant renal allograft injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Borst, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144 incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r?=?-0.33; P<0.001). Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98; specificity, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.66). Higher urinary calprotectin concentrations predicted impaired kidney function 4 weeks after transplantation, as well as 6 months and 12 months after transplantation. When data were analyzed using the urinary calprotectin/creatinine-ratio similar results were obtained. Urinary calprotectin was superior to current use of absolute change of plasma creatinine to predict allograft function 12 months after transplantation. Urinary calprotectin predicted an increased risk both in transplants from living and deceased donors. Multivariate linear regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation.

  12. Management of ureteral calculi and medical expulsive therapy in emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Picozzi C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Ureteral stones are a common problem in daily emergency department practice. Patients may be offered medical expulsive therapy (MET1 to facilitate stone expulsion and this should be offered as a treatment for patients with distal ureteral calculi, who are amenable to waiting management. Emergency department clinicians and family practitioners are often in the front line regarding the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic nephrolithiasis and this commentary is dedicated to them because their decisions directly influence the outcome of the acute stone episode and appropriate referral patterns. Materials and Methods : The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to understand the role of MET in the treatment of obstructing ureteral calculi. A bibliographic search covering the period from January 1980 to March 2010 was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE. The searches were restricted to publications in English. This analysis is based on the 21 studies that fulfilled the predefined inclusion criteria. Results : A metaregression analysis of expulsion time showed a statistically significant advantage in the experimental group, in which the mean expulsion time was 6.2 days compared to 10.3 days in controls. The treatment effect on expulsion rate (P = 0.53 was partially lost as the size of the stones decreased because of the high spontaneous expulsion rate of small stones and the expulsion time was not influenced by pharmacological treatment (P = 0.76 if the stone size was smaller than 5 mm. Analysis of the tamsulosin database : A total of 1283 participants were included in the 17 studies. These studies showed that compared to standard therapy or placebo, tamsulosin had significant benefits, being associated with both a higher stone expulsion rate (P < 0.001 and reduction of the expulsion time (P = 0.02. Reductions in the need for analgesic therapy, hospitalization and surgery are also shown. Analysis of the nifedipine database : The number of participants in each trial ranged from 25 to 70. Compared to standard therapy, the use of nifedipine significantly improved the spontaneous stone expulsion rate (P < 0.001. The mean expulsion time was slightly, but not statistically significantly, different (P = 0.19 between the treatment and control groups. A possible benefit of nifedipine, in terms of significantly reducing the doses of analgesics required, was reported in three studies. There was no difference between the tamsulosin- and nifedipine-treated groups with regard to expulsion time (P = 0.17 or expulsion rate (P = 0.79. Conclusions : Despite all its advantages, MET is rarely used, representing a failure of the translation of medical science into practice. These data raise concerns not only about the quality of care of patients who could benefit from resolution of stones without anaesthetic and surgical risks but also with regard to potential cost savings. MET should be offered as a treatment for patients with distal ureteral calculi who are amenable to a waiting management.

  13. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Prone and Supine Positions for Patients with Upper Ureteral Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Tavoosi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment of upper ureteral calculi with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL in the supine and prone positions.

    Materials and Methods: A total of 68 patients with upper ureteral calculi underwent SWL. In 35 patients, the procedure was performed in the supine position (group 1, while in the 33 remainders, it was performed in the prone position (group 2. The stone-free rate, the number of SWL sessions required, and the number of shocks per treatment session were compared between the 2 groups.

    Results: The mean calculus size was 12.4 ± 3.1 mm and 12.2 ± 2.9 mm in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The stone-free rate was 81.8% in group 1 and 82.9% in group 2 (P = .91. The number of sessions for achieving the stone-free status was similar in the patients of the 2 groups (1.9 ± 0.8 in group 1 versus 1.9 ± 0.8 in group 2; P = .79. The mean number of shock waves per treatment session was not significantly different between the 2 groups. No major complications were seen and none of the patients required hospitalization, placement of a ureteral catheter, or a double-J stent.

    Conclusion: Our study showed that in the prone position, treatment of the upper ureteral calculi by SWL is as safe and effective as the supine position.

  14. Inguinal Herniation of the Urinary Bladder Presenting as Recurrent Urinary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Amit; Roy-Shapira, Aviel; Shelef, Ilan; Shaked, Gadi; Koyfman, Leonid; Borer, Abraham; Klein, Moti

    2015-01-01

    Herniation of the urinary bladder into the inguinal canal is an uncommon finding, observed in 0.5–4% of inguinal hernias (Curry (2000)). It is usually associated with other conditions that increase intra-abdominal pressure such as bladder neck obstruction due to prostatic hypertrophy. Consequently, in men, it is usually associated with some degree of urinary retention. We present a 42-year-old man in whom herniation of the urinary bladder was the cause of urinary retention, and not vice versa. The patient was on tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist (TNFA) (Etanercept) for severe Ankylosing spondylitis. Initially, the urinary retention was thought to be a side effect of the medication, but after the drug was discontinued, urinary retention persisted. CT and MRI demonstrated huge herniation of the urinary bladder into the inguinal canal. Immediately after the hernia was repaired, bladder function was restored. TNF treatment was restarted, and no further urinary symptoms were observed in the next two years of follow-up. In this case, the primary illness and its treatment were distracting barriers to early diagnosis and treatment. In younger patients with a large hernia who develop unexpected urinary retention, herniation of the urinary bladder should be highly considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26075132

  15. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium ?0.88 ?g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 ?g/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium ?0.88 ?g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 ?g/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium ?0.88 ?g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 ?g/g creatinine

  16. Urinary infection and transurethral prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collste, L G; Törnqvist, H

    1978-01-01

    Positive preoperative urine cultures were obtained from 31 of 107 patients who underwent transurethral prostatectomy (TUR). The incidence was 59% among the patients who had had indwelling catheter and 15% in the non-catheterized cases. Of the 76 patients whose urine was sterile before TUR, 24 (32%) became infected in connection with the operation or in the immediate postoperative period. The length of hospital stay after TUR averaged 7.2 days for the patients with sterile urine postoperatively and 10.3 days for those with infected urine, a non-significant difference, partly explained by circumstances other than the infection. The postoperative urinary infections were not associated with serious complications. Postoperative epididymitis occurred in three patients. The mortality was nil. PMID:635488

  17. Dietary protein-induced increases in urinary calcium are accompanied by similar increases in urinary nitrogen and urinary urea: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihuniak, Jessica D; Simpson, Christine A; Sullivan, Rebecca R; Caseria, Donna M; Kerstetter, Jane E; Insogna, Karl L

    2013-03-01

    To determine the usefulness of urinary urea as an index of dietary protein intake, 10 postmenopausal women were enrolled in and completed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over feeding trial from September 2008 to May 2010 that compared 10 days of a 45-g whey supplement with 10 days of a 45-g maltodextrin control. Urinary nitrogen, urinary calcium, urinary urea, and bone turnover markers were measured at days 0, 7, and 10. Paired sample t tests, Pearson's correlation statistic, and simple linear regression were used to assess differences between treatments and associations among urinary metabolites. Urinary nitrogen/urinary creatinine rose from 12.3±1.7 g/g (99.6±13.8 mmol/mmol) to 16.8±2.2 g/g (135.5±17.8 mmol/mmol) with whey supplementation, but did not change with maltodextrin. Whey supplementation caused urinary calcium to rise by 4.76±1.84 mg (1.19±0.46 mmol) without a change in bone turnover markers. Because our goal was to estimate protein intake from urinary nitrogen/urinary creatinine, we used our data to develop the following equation: protein intake (g/day)=71.221+1.719×(urinary nitrogen, g)/creatinine, g) (R=0.46, R(2)=0.21). As a more rapid and less costly alternative to urinary nitrogen/urinary creatinine, we next determined whether urinary urea could predict protein intake and found that protein intake (g/day)=63.844+1.11×(urinary urea, g/creatinine, g) (R=0.58, R(2)=0.34). These data indicate that urinary urea/urinary creatinine is at least as good a marker of dietary protein intake as urinary nitrogen and is easier to quantitate in nutrition intervention trials. PMID:23438496

  18. [Investigation of typical melamine urinary stones using infrared spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Min-Zhen; Li, Qing-Yun; Liu, Ren-Ming; Kang, Yi-Pu; Wang, Kun-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Guo

    2010-02-01

    A typical melamine kidney stone confirmed by some medicine expert was collected from the first people's hospital of Yunnan. The kidney stone was adequately determined by PE corporation spectra 100(with resolution of 1 cm(-1)). The stone samples for FTIR analysis were prepared using the KBr pellet technique, where 2 mg of the pretreated stone powder was mixed with 200 mg of analytical grade KBr using an agate pestle and mortar. The digital spectrum was then scanned in the mid-infrared region from 4 000 to 400 cm(-1) at room temperature. The appearing bands between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 487, 3 325, 3 162 and 2 788 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 694, 1 555, 1 383, 1 340, 1 189 and 1 122 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 782, 748, 709, 624, 585, 565 and 476 cm(-1). It was found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with cat kidney stone, which was from cats that died after consuming the contaminated food, and confirmed that these deposits were primarily composed of melamine and cyanuric acid compared to the IR spectra of calculi in literature. It was also found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with popular kidney stone by comparison with the IR spectra of calculi in literature. The spectrum of calculi was 50% respectively similar with melamine and uric acid as compared with the IR spectrum. It was found that the main constituent of calculi was melamine itself and uric acid as compared with the IR spectra of calculi and melamine: (1 : 1), because the spectrum of calculi was 83. 3% similar to melamine and uric acid (1 : 1). The appearing bands of melamine and uric acid (1 : 1) between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 469, 3 419, 3 333, 3 132, 3 026, 2 827 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 696, 1 656, 1 555, 1 489, 1 439, 1 350, 1 311, 1 198, 1 124 and 1 028 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 878, 814, 784, 745, 708, 619, 577 and 475 cm(-1). PMID:20384125

  19. Anti-Urolithiatic Effect of Cow Urine Ark on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.B, Shukla; D.R, Mandavia; M.J, Barvaliya; S.N, Baxi; C.B, Tripathi.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To investigate the anti-urolithiatic effect of cow urine ark (medicinal distilled cow urine) on ethylene glycol (EG) induced renal calculi. Materials and Methods 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups. Group I animals served as vehicle control and received distilled [...] water for 28 days. Group II to VI animals received 1% v/v EG in distilled water for 28 days. Group II served as EG control. Group III and IV (preventive groups) received cow urine ark orally for 28 days in doses of 1 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg, respectively. Group V and VI (treatment groups) received 1 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg cow urine ark orally, respectively from 15th to 28th days. 24-hour urine samples were collected on day 0 and 28. Urine volume and oxalate levels were measured. On day 28, blood was collected for biochemical parameters. Animals were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested, weighed and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. To calculate the percentage of inhibition of mineralization, simultaneous flow static in-vitro model was used. Results EG significantly increased urine oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea level; kidney weight and CaOx deposits. Provision of cow urine ark resulted in significantly lower levels of urine oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea and CaOx depositions as compared to Group II. (p value

  20. Endoscopically controlled laser lithotripsy of salivary gland calculi and the problem of fiber wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschepe, Johannes; Gundlach, Peter; Leege, Nils; Hopf, Juergen U. G.; Mueller, Gerhard J.; Scherer, Hans H.

    1992-08-01

    Seventy-three patients suffering from sialolithiasis were treated by endoscopically controlled, laser-induced lithotripsy (LIL). The non-sedated patients were treated under local anaesthetic with specially developed endoscopes with a diameter laser fiber was then positioned on the concrement which was finally fragmented while being monitored using a pulsed excimer laser (308 nm), a dye laser (504 nm), and an Alexandrite laser (755 nm). In all cases a complete fragmentation of the stone was achieved. This approach to laser lithotripsy of salivary gland calculi with endoscopic monitoring represents a novel method which permits an out-patient treatment under local anaesthetic with a minimum inconvenience to the patient. In `in vitro' experiments the effectiveness of the stone destruction (plasma formation rate, the number of pulses required to fragment the stone, and fragment size) were tested. The quantitative assessment of the fiber end surface during direct contact and the determination of the shape and size of the broken fiber pieces have been tested. A possibility to avoid the fiber wear was developed. It's called `Index Matching' and needs a special endoscopic integrated flushing system.

  1. Considerations in Minimally Invasive Surgery for Renal and Ureteric Calculi: A Bicenter Quality Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltings, Saskia; Roshani, Hossain; Leenarts, Joost; Pelger, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of minimally invasive surgery is increasing. Evaluating the quality of care brings new sights in the optimization of operating techniques. Methods We included all procedures performed in two hospitals during 2010 and 2011. A total of 264 patients were included in the ureterorenoscopy (URS) group and 77 patients in the percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy (PCNL) group. Data were gathered by retrospectively reviewing medical records. Results Mean stone diameter in the URS group was 9 mm. Patients suffered from a single stone in 79% of the cases. Calculi in the distal ureter, defined as the part of the ureter below the lower border of the sacroiliac joint, were most likely to be removed. A stone-free status was reached in 69% of the cases using URS. Mean stone diameter in the PCNL group was 23 mm. PCNL was successful in 70% of the cases in Haga Hospital versus 53% in Medisch Centrum Haaglanden. Incidence of complications was comparable between the hospitals (p = 0.5). Outcome and quality of both PCNL and URS was not influenced by sex, age or body mass index. Conclusion The clinical results were comparable with results in the literature. Further improvement can be made by optimization of technical aspects and centralization of treatment by urologists experienced in minimally invasive techniques. PMID:24917772

  2. [Conservative treatment in male urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Anding, R

    2014-03-01

    Prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of urinary incontinence are well studied in women; however, studies on male urinary incontinence focus on incontinence following surgery of the bladder or prostate, predominantly incontinence after radical prostatectomy. Aging men suffer from incontinence, most frequently urge incontinence (overactive bladder, OAB), nearly as often as women do.The domain of conservative therapy of urinary stress incontinence in men is pelvic floor training. It remains unclear whether biofeedback procedures, electrostimulation therapy, or magnetic stimulation therapy can enhance pelvic floor training. There are data suggesting that an off-label therapy with Duloxetin®, a selective serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI), improves urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy. Antimuscarinic agents in combination with bladder training have been proven as safe and effective treatment in men with OAB. Data, however, suggest that men with OAB are far less frequently treated than women. PMID:24585116

  3. Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tape is surgery to help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ... free vaginal tape is placed to treat stress incontinence. Before discussing surgery, your doctor will have you ...

  4. An Unusual Case of Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Eric R.; Unwala, Darius J.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary incontinence and hematuria are frequent complaints evaluated by urologists often with readily identifiable etiologies. Occasionally, an unlikely source is found. We present an unusual case of urinary incontinence and hematuria in an elderly female. Evaluation revealed that the complaints were due to a large cyst emanating from her right hip which was the result of a previous right hip arthroplasty in 1970 with three subsequent revisions. Her symptoms resolved spontaneously and the cys...

  5. Urinary oxalate excretion in urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Neuhaus, T.; Belzer, T.; Blau, N.; Hoppe, B.; Sidhu, H.; Leumann, E.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate urinary oxalate excretion in children with urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis and to classify hyperoxaluria (HyOx).?METHODS—A total of 106 patients were screened. In those in whom the oxalate: creatinine ratio was increased, 24 hour urinary oxalate excretion was measured. Liver biopsy and/or genomic analysis was performed if primary hyperoxaluria (PH) was suspected. Stool specimens were examined for Oxalobacter formigenes in HyOx not related to...

  6. Breast Cancer Metastatic to the Urinary Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, Jennifer; Beckman, Edwin N.; Winters, J. Christian

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is common and has the potential to spread to multiple organs. This article describes metastasis to the urinary bladder. In most instances, breast cancer metastatic to the bladder is associated with other pelvic organ metastasis. In patients with known metastatic breast cancer, bladder screening is not warranted. However, if lower urinary tract symptoms persist, an evaluation of the bladder should be considered to rule out metastatic involvement.

  7. Management of childhood urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mcaloon, J.; Jenkins, J. G.; Lim, J H K

    1985-01-01

    Experience with childhood urinary tract infection is reviewed in conjunction with recent information on the management of the problem by family practitioners in the same health board. The need for bacteriological confirmation of the diagnosis in every case is confirmed and the importance of radiological investigation of the urinary tract after a first infection irrespective of age or sex is emphasised, as 17% of intravenous pyelograms and 31% of micturating cystogram examinations showed signi...

  8. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1990-01-01

    This review presents reported cure and improvement rates of stress urinary incontinence in women obtained by different treatment modalities. Apart from the urodynamic findings, histological and histochemical changes of the pelvic floor may be clinically relevant to treatment in the future. Long-term cure and improvement rates achieved by non-surgical treatment (physiotherapy, biofeedback, bladder training, electrostimulation) are commented on. These rates range from 40-60% for physiotherapy and electrostimulation but are considerably less after biofeedback and bladder training. Pharmacotherapy is unlikely to offer more than a placebo effect. Studies of a single surgical procedure usually report high cure rates. In making the appropriate choice of operation the best guidelines are the cure rates from comparative or prospective randomized reports. From such studies an abdominal retropubic suspension operation (cure rates after five years 57-78 %) is more likely to help the patient than an anterior colporrhaphy (cure rates 31-70 %) or a transvaginal needle bladder neck suspension (cure rates 39-61 %). In selected patients sling procedures or the use of artificial sphincters may produce excellent results (70-80 %). To estimate the results of different treatments urine loss should be assessed objectively and physical restrictions and hygienic and social implications taken into account. A method of pre- and post-treatment "performance scores" should be developed.

  9. Urinary Peptide Levels in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungli Prakash

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peptide levels in urine are found to be decreased in renal failure. In the current study urinary peptide levels were determined in chronic renal failure (CRF patients. Method: 86 CRF patients and 80 healthy controls were selected for the study. Urinary proteins and peptide levels were determined by spectrophotometer based Lowry and Bradford methods. Urinary creatinine levels were determined by clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: There was significant decrease in urinary peptide levels in CRF patients and Urinary % peptides were significantly decreased in CRF patients as compared to healthy controls. Urinary % peptides correlated negatively with proteinuria. Conclusion: we have found decrease in urinary peptides and % urinary peptides in CRF patients and possibly measurement of % urinary peptides may possibly serve as better indicator in early detection of impairment in renal function.

  10. Effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on intrahepatic biliary calculi developing after choledochal cyst surgery: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?enyüz, Osman Faruk; Gül?en, Fatih; Gökhan, Okan; Emre, ?enol; Ero?lu, Egemen

    2015-05-01

    The development of intra- and extrahepatic bile duct stones has been reported as one of the most serious complications after choledochal cyst excision with biliary-enteric reconstruction through Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (HJ). Here, we report our experience with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in a case of giant intrahepatic stones developing after choledochal cyst surgery. ESWL is an excellent therapeutic modality for large intrahepatic biliary calculi, and after dilating the HJ anastomosis percutaneously, it can be offered as first-line therapy to these patients. PMID:26006206

  11. Effect of Thymoquinone on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Kidney Calculi in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Behnam Rassouli

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of thymoquinone, a major component of Nigella Sativa seeds on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats.

    Materials and Methods: Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (intact control, ethylene glycol control, and 4 experimental groups and treated for 28 days according to the protocol of the study. The rats in experimental groups received ethylene glycol and intraperitoneal injection of thymoquinone either from the first day of the study or the 15th day, with either doses of 5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg. Blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected at baseline and on day 28. Urine oxalate and citrate and serum electrolytes were also measured. On day 29, all rats were decapitated and their kidney specimens were studied.

    Results: On day 28, urine oxalate concentration significantly decreased in the experimental groups compared to the ethylene glycol group (P < .001. Also, serum calcium levels were significantly higher in the experimental groups (P = .001. Calcium oxalate deposits were smaller in the experimental groups than the ethylene glycol group. The mean number of deposits was lower in these groups, too (P < .001. Treatment with the lower dose of thymoquinone was associated with fewer deposits.

    Conclusion: Thymoquinone significantly decreased the number and size of calcium oxalate deposits in the renal tubules. The dose and duration of treatment, however, does not have a linear relation with the outcomes. Further studies on thymoquinone as a preventive and therapeutic drug for kidney calculi are suggested.

  12. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p <0.01). Four patients had incomplete renal tubular acidiosis (iRTA), 3 had hypercalciuria, and 5 patients had hypocitraturia. The 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium was increased in the females with MSK (5.23 +/- 0.78 mmol) compared to the healthy females (3.49 +/- 0.29 mmol) (p <0.02), and increased in MSK patients with iRTA (7.32 +/- 1.45 mmol) compared to patients with normal urinary acidification (3.83 +/- 0.12 mmol) (p <0.01). The patients with iRTA had reduced levels of plasma standard bicarbonate (20.5 +/- 1.0) after fasting compared to patients with normal urinary acidification (23.8 +/- 0.8) and healthy women (22.7 +/- 0.6) (p <0.01), and reduced levels of 24-hour urinary excretion of citrate (0.93 +/- 0.25 mmol) compared to patients with normal urinary acidification (3.58 +/- 0.51) and healthy women (2.78 +/- 0.49) (p <0.005). A positive correlation was found between the degree of acidosis during ammonium chloride loading and urinary excretion of calcium (r = 0.71, p = 0.02), and a negative correlation between the degree of acidosis during ammonium chloride loading and urinary citrate excretion (r = 0.87, p = 0.001). The results suggest that defective urinary acidification might play an important role in the mechanism of hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia in patients with medullary sponge kidney.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Can Computed Tomography Scout Radiography Replace Plain Film in the Evaluation of Patients with Acute Urinary Tract Colic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) scout view in detecting ureteral stones and whether CT scout radiography can replace plain film in the evaluation of patients with acute urinary tract colic. Material and Methods: Between January 2000 and 2002, 110 patients with ureterolithiasis were prospectively evaluated for the detection of ureteral stones on CT scout radiographs. The findings were compared with those of plain films. All patients were examined with plain film, CT scout radiography, and unenhanced helical CT. CT scans were performed within 24 h of plain films. Each CT scout radiograph was interpreted without knowledge of the findings on plain film. Results: 111 stones were detected by unenhanced helical CT. Mean stone size was 3.9 mm (range 1-10 mm). Of all stones, 57 (52%) were visible on plain film; 44 (40%) were seen on CT radiographs. The sensitivity of 79 small stones (5 mm), the sensitivity of CT scout radiography was 66% and of abdominal radiography 87.5%. Conclusion: In this study, plain film was more sensitive than CT scout radiography in revealing ureteral calculi. However, the detection of stones 5 mm or larger had a sensitivity of 66% on CT scout radiographs; 77% (44/57) of the stones visible on plain films were also seen on CT scout radiographs. We therefore believe that CT scout radiography can be used as a baseline study in mosphy can be used as a baseline study in most patients with big ureteral stones

  14. Evaluation of Urinary Stones Ex Vivo With Micro-Computed Tomography: Preliminary Results of an Investigational Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Huri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the ultrastructural features of the urinary stonesremoved with endoscopic stone surgery, using micro computed tomography(micro-CT.Materials and Methods: Patients who had endoscopic surgery for renalor ureteral stones removal were included in this study. After surgery, thestones were classified into three groups and investigated with Skyscan 1174micro-CT. Group I underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL withultrasonic lithotripsy; group II had ureteroscopic stone surgery (USS withpneumatic lithotripsy; and group III (the control group had stone removalwith USS or PNL without lithotripsy. Stone homogeneity, voids, and theinternal structure of the stones were evaluated. Chi-square test was used toevaluate the difference statistically. P values less than .05 were consideredstatistically significant.Results: A total of 24 “calcium oxalate monohydrate” stones from 24patients were scanned with micro-CT. Stones treated with ultrasoniclithotripsy (group I were more fragile, fragmented, and cracked than thosetreated with the pneumatic lithotripsy (group II; P = .01. Stones in groupII were more homogeneous and smooth than those in group I and resembled those of the control group (P = .02. Homogeneous, non-fragile stones andheterogeneous, fragile calculi were seen in all groups.Conclusion: The stone fragility could be confirmed by micro-CTinvestigation. Ultrasonic lithotripters increase the stone fragility, which isdemonstrated with increased heterogeneity by micro-CT.

  15. Urinary tract injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As shown by literature data, abdominal trauma in children is responsible for 14% of deaths, whereas in adults for 10%. Although abdominal traumas in children can be severe and lead to massive blood loss, most children die because of accompanying traumas of the thorax and head. It validates the surgical rule concerning abdominal traumas 'investigate aggressively, manage conservatively'. Posttraumatic injury of the urinary system is not frequent in children and its specificity (compared with adults), depends on greater susceptibility to external aggressive factors. Blunt trauma is the cause of renal parenchyma injury and acceleration/deceleration injury affects the excretory system and vessels. Extension mechanism is the cause of ureter avulsion and/or thrombus formation in stretched renal vessels- it is characteristic in children with non-accidental traumas. Bladder and urethra injuries are rare in children. During car accidents, a rupture of full bladder (seat belt injury) or bladder perforation by fractured bones of the pelvis is possible. We analyzed all hospitalizations of abdominal trauma in our surgical ward in the year 2004 (70 cases). Renal injuries were found in 6 children (8.6%). Thanks to five-year clinical experience of our hospital, on the average only 1-2 cases per annum needed operation. The management of renal injuries involves first of all conservative treatment. This publication has educational character and may serve as a valuable reminder of the useay serve as a valuable reminder of the useful knowledge in daily cooperation between the emergency room, radiology department and surgical ward. Based on available literature from recent few years, we quote suggested renal injuries classifications and procedures.This publication contains only images from our department of radiology archives. Clinical symptoms are often not appropriate for blunt abdominal traumas diagnosis. Owing to clinical status, which is difficult to interpret, fast and complete radiological diagnosis is necessary for proper treatment of children after abdominal trauma. Further complications of renal injuries may affect the further growth of the child. (author)

  16. Urinary infection before and after prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmand Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of pre and post prostatectomy related urinary tract in-fection and its correlation with peri-operative events, we studied 120 patients who underwent pros-tatectomy due to benign prostatic hypertrophy from September 2005 to September 2006. Urine cultures were performed before the operations, after a week, and three months later. Data including prostate volume, prostatic specific antigen (PSA, post voiding residue (PVR and histopathological reports as well as the duration of urinary leak, bladder irrigation, hospitalization, and catheterization were studied. The mean age of the studied patients was 70.5 ± 8 years. Significant preoperative bac-teriuria was revealed in 18 (15% patients of whom 14(77% patients developed negative cultures following the operation. Postoperative bacteriuria was detected in 9(7.5% patients who negative urine cultures preoperatively. Pre and post operative micro-organisms were different in the majority of the cases. The mean PSA was higher in patients with a positive history of infection. Following prostatectomy, patients with positive urine cultures had significantly longer urinary leakage, cathe-terization, and hospital stays compared with those who remained culture negative. We conclude that the incidence of positive urine culture pri-prostatectomy for BPH can be improved by appropriate antibiotic therapy, and the risk factors for postoperative urinary infection include preoperative infec-tion, prolonged urinary leakage, catheterization, and hospital stay. The elevated PSA may be a risk factor.

  17. Bacterial urinary tract infections in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J E; Andriole, V T

    1997-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus has a number of long-term effects on the genitourinary system. These effects predispose to bacterial urinary tract infections in the patient with diabetes mellitus. Bacteriuria is more common in diabetic women than in nondiabetic women because of a combination of host and local risk factors. Upper tract infection complications are also more common in this group. Diabetic patients are at higher risk for intrarenal abscess, with a spectrum of disease ranging from acute focal bacterial pyelonephritis to renal corticomedullary abscess, to the renal carbuncle. A number of uncommon complicated urinary tract infection complications occur more frequently in diabetics, such as emphysematous pyelonephritis and emphysematous pyelitis. Because of the frequency and severity of urinary tract infection in diabetic patients, prompt diagnosis and early therapy is warranted. A plain abdominal radiograph is recommended as a minimum radiographic screening tool in the patient with diabetes presenting with systemic signs of urinary tract infection. Ultrasonography or further radiographic studies such as CT scanning may also be warranted, depending on the clinical picture, to identify upper urinary tract complications early for appropriate intervention. PMID:9378933

  18. Validity of urinary monoamine assay sales under the “spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Marty Hinz1, Alvin Stein2, Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, Neuro Research Clinics Inc, Cape Coral, FL; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL; 3Laboratory, Fairview Regional Medical Center-Mesabi, Hibbing, MN, USAAbstract: Spot baseline urinary monoamine assays have been used in medicine for over 50 years as a screening test for monoamine-secreting tumors, such as pheochromocytoma and carcinoid syndrome. In these disease states, when the result of a spot baseline monoamine assay is above the specific value set by the laboratory, it is an indication to obtain a 24-hour urine sample to make a definitive diagnosis. There are no defined applications where spot baseline urinary monoamine assays can be used to diagnose disease or other states directly. No peer-reviewed published original research exists which demonstrates that these assays are valid in the treatment of individual patients in the clinical setting. Since 2001, urinary monoamine assay sales have been promoted for numerous applications under the “spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model”. There is no published peer-reviewed original research that defines the scientific foundation upon which the claims for these assays are made. On the contrary, several articles have been published that discredit various aspects of the model. To fill the void, this manuscript is a comprehensive review of the scientific foundation and claims put forth by laboratories selling urinary monoamine assays under the spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model.Keywords: monoamine, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, urine, urinary

  19. Herbs In Treatment Of Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Wasamwar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that urinary tract is very common source of infection and UTIs are second most common reason people visit their doctors each year. Escherichia coli is responsible for large majority of UTIs. UTIs is most commonly diagnosed bacterial infection in woman. Population at risk of complication include older woman, pregnant woman. Continuous antibiotics prophylaxis are used to treat and prevent recurrent urinary tract infections, frequent antibiotic use can result in vaginal and intestinal dysbiosis as well as antibiotic resistance. Thus, it is desirable to seek alternative methods of prevention and treatment of simple UTIs. Few herbal antimicrobial agents Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry, Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry; Blueberry, Berberine, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (Bearberry are proved to be very effective in preventing and treating urinary tract infections.

  20. Urinary infections in children: main radiological alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present 120 cases of urinary tract infection in children. Radiological evaluation of every child with urinary tract infection included both excretory urography and voiding cyst urethrography. Fifty eight percent of the children were found to have urinary anomalies. Reflux was present in 26.6% of the cases and congenital anomalies in 25%. Among the latter, duplication of collecting system and pyeloureteral and ureterovesical stenosis were the more frequent findings. Hypo tony of the collecting systems, loss of cortical renal tissue and irregularities of the renal contour were the main radiological signs. The delay in performing the radiological evaluation (46% of the children presenting radiological abnormalities were examined only one year after the beginning of the symptoms) contributed to a greater incidence of irreversible lesions, showing therefore that it should be done immediately. A scheme for radiological investigation is also proposed. (author)

  1. Urinary tract infection: diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarko, Linda

    Healthcare interventions can be episodic, and a target-based culture can lead to clinicians focusing on treating and discharging a person in a certain time frame to meet targets. When health care is delivered in pressurized acute environments, a holistic approach to a person's health may be lost. Urinary tract infection is the most common healthcare-acquired infection in the UK, and treatment in an acute setting may be episodic. This case study of an 85-year-old female with a urinary tract infection illustrates how viewing each episode of care in isolation can lead to sub-optimal care that does not address the underlying causes of problems. Drawing on the evidence regarding best practice in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of urinary tract infection, it shows how holistic evidence-based care can address underlying problems, reduce the risk of infection and adverse events, provide high quality care and deliver successful patient outcomes. PMID:19966741

  2. Radiology of trauma to kidney and lower urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents are trauma to kidney, imaging of kidney trauma, management of renal trauma, delayed complications, trauma to the lower urinary tract, trauma to urinary bladder, radiologic diagnosis, ethiology of blunt bladder injury, urethal injury (6 refs.)

  3. Binary Vegetative Management of the Lower Urinary Tract Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim B. Berdichevskii

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the neurophysiology of the bladder and the lower urinary tract function and discuss logical concepts for the development of novel drug therapy for patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  4. Urinary Incontinence Treatments for Women (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... synonyms Find synonyms Find exact match Print URINARY INCONTINENCE OVERVIEW Many women suffer from urinary leakage. Treatments ... types of leakage in women, stress and urgency incontinence. These treatments also apply to women who have ...

  5. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  6. Urinary catheterization in gynecological surgery: When should it be removed?

    OpenAIRE

    Fattah, Adly N. A.; Santoso, Budi I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate time for urinary catheter removal following a gynecological surgery.Methods: Critical appraisal of clinical trial articles were conducted. It was aimed to answer our clinical question whether 24-hour postoperative urinary catheter removal is superior compared to other durations in avoiding postoperative urinary retention (PUR) and urinary tract infection (UTI). The search was conducted on the Cochrane Library® and PubMed...

  7. Management of failed stress urinary incontinence surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Lara S; Rovner, Eric S

    2014-08-01

    With the increasing volume of surgery being performed for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI), especially with the widespread use of midurethral slings (MUS), recurrent urinary incontinence is becoming an increasingly common condition. Various preoperative and intraoperative factors have been associated with failed SUI surgery. Treatment options for failed SUI surgery include conservative management and/or surgical management, which include pubovaginal sling, MUS, retropubic suspension, periurethral bulking agents, and artificial sphincters. The choice of treatment option will depend on the etiology of the patient's failure, patient comorbidities, and patient preference. PMID:24916327

  8. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  9. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie de Rouen, Laboratoire Quant-If, Rouen (France); Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); CRLCC Henri Becquerel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rouen (France); Avni, Fred E. [Free University of Brussels, Department of Radiology, Erasmus Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  10. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Farzana Hamid; Md. Rafiqul Islam; Nibedeta Paul; Nadia Nusrat; Rafia Parveen

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species) and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an importa...

  11. Ethanolic Extract of Nigella Sativa L Seeds on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Kidney Calculi in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Parizady

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa L (NS seeds on kidney calculi in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group A received tap drinking water for 30 days (intact control. Groups B, C, and D received 1% ethylen glycol for induction of calcium oxalate calculus formation. As the preventive, and treatment subjects, rats in groups C and D received ethanolic extract of NS, 250 mg/kg, in drinking water since day 0 and day 14, respectively. Urine was collected on days 0, 7, 14, and 30 of the study period. After 30 days, the kidneys were removed and prepared for histologic evaluation of calcium oxalate deposits. Urine calcium oxalate concentrations were determined by atomic absorption. Results: The number of CaOx deposits was significantly greater in group B (P = .001. Calcium oxalate concentrations in the urine on days 14 and 30 increased significantly in group B and were higher than those in group C (P = .006 and P = .002, respectively. Urine oxalate concentration in group D decreased on day 30 and was lower than that in group B (P = .04. Conclusion: Treatment of rats with ethanolic extract of NS reduced the number of calcium oxalate deposits in a group of rats that received ethanolic extract of NS. The NS could also lower the urine concentration of calcium oxalate. We suggest further studies on the therapeutic and preventive effects of the NS on kidney calculus formation in human.

  12. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Agarwala, Sandeep [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Prerna; Kumar, Sunesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, New Delhi (India)

    2006-10-15

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  13. Validity of urinary monoamine assay sales under the “spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model”

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Uncini, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Spot baseline urinary monoamine assays have been used in medicine for over 50 years as a screening test for monoamine-secreting tumors, such as pheochromocytoma and carcinoid syndrome. In these disease states, when the result of a spot baseline monoamine assay is above the specific value set by the laboratory, it is an indication to obtain a 24-hour urine sample to make a definitive diagnosis. There are no defined applications where spot baseline urinary monoamine assays can be used to diagno...

  14. STABILITY OF URINARY METABOLITES OF STRAWBERRY ANTHOCYANINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stability of urinary metabolites of strawberry anthocyanins was investigated. Healthy adult volunteers consumed 200g of pureed strawberries as a bolus dose and urine was collected and pooled. Urine was acidified with 1/5 the volume of 0.44M TFA, and malvidin-3-galactose was added as an interna...

  15. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Hamid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

  16. Pyoderma gangrenosum and urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra A

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of pyoderma gangrenosum is reported in a 52 - year - old man who had skin lesions without any association. On investigation urinary tract infection was detected. Treatment of UTI led to spontaneous healing of the lesions in short period thus avoiding the need of oral corticosteroids.

  17. Urinary biomarkers in prenatally diagnosed unilateral hydronephrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mia Gebauer; NØrregaard, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of prenatal ultrasonography as a screening method entails an increasing number of infants diagnosed with prenatal hydronephrosis. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction accounts for 35% of prenatal hydronephrotic cases. Urinary tract obstruction that occurs during early kidney development affects renal morphogenesis, maturation and growth, and in the most severe cases this will ultimately cause renal insufficiency. A major challenge in the clinical management of these patients is to preserve renal function by selection of the 15%-20% who require early surgical intervention, leaving those for whom watchful waiting may be appropriate because of spontaneous resolution/stabilization without significant loss of renal function. Today, this requires medical surveillance, including repetitive invasive diuretic renograms relying on arbitrary threshold values, and therefore there is a need for non-arbitrary, non-invasive urinary biomarkers that may be used as predictors for renal structural changes and/or decreasing renal function, and thereby provide the surgeon with more clear indications for surgical intervention. In this review, we summarize the currently well-known facts about urinary biomarkers in ureteropelvic junction obstruction concerning renal function, and we also suggest potential novel urinary biomarkers.

  18. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  19. Urinary proteome analysis in congenital bilateral hydronephrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    StØdkilde, Lene; Madsen, Mia Gebauer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. A proteomics strategy was applied to map protein changes in urine after relief of congenital bilateral hydronephrosis to identify proteins correlated with the pathophysiological processes in congenital obstructive nephropathy as potential urinary biomarkers. Material and methods. Urine samples from 10 infants with bilateral abnormal drainage from the kidneys were collected at the time of relief from obstruction, and after 2 and 4 weeks. Proteomics techniques were used on samples from three patients for identification of protein changes between the three time-points, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used on samples from all 10 patients for validation of five selected proteins. Results. Mass spectrometry quantified 315 protein hits, out of which 33 proteins showed significantly changed urinary excretion between the time-points. Validation by ELISA showed high urinary excretion of fibrinogen, plasminogen, transthyretin and transferrin at the time of relief from obstruction, followed by a significant reduction. In contrast, Tamm-Horsfall protein exhibited the reverse pattern. Conclusion. Using a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach, this study identified 33 proteins related to congenital bilateral hydronephrosis, and pinpointed a panel of five proteins consistently linked to this congenital kidney disorder as potential urinary biomarkers.

  20. Urinary Incontinence: Causes and Methods of Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the third of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. Here, the author introduces the types and physiology of urinary incontinence. The author also…

  1. Validity of urinary monoamine assay sales under the "spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Uncini, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Spot baseline urinary monoamine assays have been used in medicine for over 50 years as a screening test for monoamine-secreting tumors, such as pheochromocytoma and carcinoid syndrome. In these disease states, when the result of a spot baseline monoamine assay is above the specific value set by the laboratory, it is an indication to obtain a 24-hour urine sample to make a definitive diagnosis. There are no defined applications where spot baseline urinary monoamine assays can be used to diagnose disease or other states directly. No peer-reviewed published original research exists which demonstrates that these assays are valid in the treatment of individual patients in the clinical setting. Since 2001, urinary monoamine assay sales have been promoted for numerous applications under the "spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model". There is no published peer-reviewed original research that defines the scientific foundation upon which the claims for these assays are made. On the contrary, several articles have been published that discredit various aspects of the model. To fill the void, this manuscript is a comprehensive review of the scientific foundation and claims put forth by laboratories selling urinary monoamine assays under the spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model. PMID:21912487

  2. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitcomb EL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative approaches is effective in reducing urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered as a first line treatment for overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence.Keywords: urinary incontinence, obesity, women

  3. Efect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Hypericum Perforatum L. Leaves on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Kidney Calculi in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khalili

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum leaves on the kidney calculi in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Groups 2, 3, and 4 received ethylene glycol (EG 1% + ammonium chloride (0.5%-added drinking water as a stone inducer. The H. Perforatum solution was fed at the same time of EG application and was repeated once for two days until the end of the experimental period. Group 1 (control; n = 10 was provided free access to food and normal drinking water. Group 2 (EG; n = 12 received EG-ammonium chloride-added drinking water and was fed with normal chow. Groups 3 and 4 (n = 15, as EG-treatment groups, received H. Perforatum in low (300 mg/kg and high (500 mg/kg doses, respectively. After 28 days, the kidneys were removed and prepared for histologic evaluation of calcium oxalate deposits. RESULTS: Urine level of free calcium in groups EG and EG + H. perforatum (300 mg/kg and phosphorous in EG + H. perforatum (500 mg/kg significantly decreased compared to controls (P < .01; P < .05; and P < .05, respectively. Treatment of the rats with high dose of H. Perforatum (500 mg/kg markedly reduced decrementing effect of EG on serum level of free calcium (P < .05. Histological experiments showed that chronic feeding of H. perforatum (300 and 500 mg/kg, orally could significantly reduce the size and number of calcium oxalate deposits in EG group. CONCLUSION: Chronic treatment of rats with hydroalcoholic extract of H. perforatum reduced the size and number of calcium oxalate deposits in EG-induced calculi.

  4. Urinary calcium excretion in enterally fed disabled children

    OpenAIRE

    A. Shetty; Carlin, J.; Mughal, M

    2001-01-01

    The urine calcium/creatinine (Ca/Cr) ratio was measured in 17 enterally tube fed disabled children. Urine Ca/Cr ratios were inversely related to dietary calcium intake in immobile children (r = ?0.57, p < 0.05) but not in those who were able to stand or walk (mobile children) (r = 0.4, p = 0.51). None of the subjects had evidence of nephrocalcinosis or renal calculi detectable by renal ultrasonography.??

  5. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk ofuced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: ? Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. ? We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. ? The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. ? Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. ? Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  6. Incontinencia urinaria post-prostatectomía: El esfinter artificial / Urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy: Urinary artificial sphinter

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando, Rodríguez Escobar; Pedro, Arañó Bertrán.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El esfínter artificial (EA) es actualmente el tratamiento considerado como "gold standard" en el tratamiento de la incontinencia urinaria post prostatectomía radical. La incontinencia de orina post prostatectomía radical es una complicación que se presenta en un 5-25% de los pacientes sometidos a es [...] te tratamiento. Esta complicación genera en los pacientes un deterioro importante en cuanto a su calidad de vida. Tratamientos conservadores y mínimamente invasivos han sido utilizados sin éxito, como por ejemplo los ejercicios de Kegel, el uso de absorbentes, farmacoterapia y electroestimulación o cirugía menor como los inyectables. Esta revisión resume las ventajas y complicaciones del esfínter artificial y su efectividad en el manejo de la incontinencia urinaria tras una prostatectomía radical. Abstract in english Urinary artificial sphincter (UAS) is currently the gold standard treatment for urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. 5-25% of the patients undergoing radical prostatectomy develop urinary incontinence. This complication generates important deterioration in the quality of life of these p [...] atients. Conservative and minimally invasive treatments, such as Kegel exercises, use of pads, drugs, and electrostimulation, or minor surgery have been used without success. This review summarizes the advantages and complications of the urinary artificial sphincter and its efficacy in the management of urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy.

  7. Urinary Biomarkers at Early ADPKD Disease Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Petzold, Katja; Poster, Diane; Krauer, Fabienne; Spanaus, Katharina; Andreisek, Gustav; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Pavik, Ivana; Ho, Thien Anh; Serra, Andreas L.; Rotar, Laura

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by a decline in renal function at late disease stage when the majority of functional renal parenchyma is replaced by cystic tissue. Thus, kidney function, assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) does not well represent disease burden in early disease. Here, we investigated various urinary markers for tubular injury and their association with disease burden in ADPKD patients at early disease cours...

  8. Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma experimental models

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Oliveira Reis; Wagner José Fávaro; Valéria Helena Alves Cagnon; Ubirajara Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Cancer research on animals is an important complement to clinical investigations. Particularly, the use of animal models in researches on urinary tract cancer has a primary role in demonstrating that carcinogenesis is a multiple-stage process. These models are used to induce tumors in order to analyze the development of immunity, chemotherapy, and new techniques. This article discusses the role of animal models using rodents in urothelial carcinoma, the validity of animal models in carcinogen...

  9. Multistage carcinogenesis in the urinary bladder.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, S. M.; Greenfield, R E; Ellwein, L B

    1983-01-01

    The induction of cancer of the urinary bladder is a multi-stage process involving multiple exogenous and endogenous factors. Based on the classical initiation-promotion model, we have used N-[4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]formamide (FANFT) as initiator and sodium saccharin (SAC) or tryptophan as promoters. These latter chemicals have the properties expected of promoters: induction of hyperplasia, reversibility and nonmutagenicity. Also, tumors were induced whether the promoter was administe...

  10. Animal Models of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hai-hong; Damaser, Margot S.

    2011-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common health problem significantly affecting the quality of life of women worldwide. Animal models that simulate SUI enable the assessment of the mechanism of risk factors for SUI in a controlled fashion, including childbirth injuries, and enable preclinical testing of new treatments and therapies for SUI. Animal models that simulate childbirth are presently being utilized to determine the mechanisms of the maternal injuries of childbirth that lead to S...

  11. Assessing drug influences on urinary albumin excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Monster, Taco Bo Michiel

    2003-01-01

    Microalbuminuria, defined as a urinary albumin excretion of 30-300 mg per 24 hours, was first recognised as a risk marker for diabetic renal disease but it is suggested that microalbuminuria is a marker for renal disease in the general population too. It is thought to reflect endothelial damage and an early sign of atherosclerosis. Indeed, microalbuminuria appears to be a risk marker for cardiovascular morbidity and mortalityas well. This thesis explored the extent in which drug use could ...

  12. Biocide Activity against Urinary Catheter Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Malic, Sladjana; Jordan, Rachael P. C.; Waters, Mark G. J.; Stickler, David J.; Williams, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial effects of essential oils against bacteria associated with urinary catheter infection was assessed. Tests were performed on 14 different bacterial species cultured either planktonically or as biofilms. Biofilms were found to be up to 8-fold more tolerant of the test agents. Higher antimicrobial tolerance was also evident in tests conducted in artificial urine. Eugenol exhibited higher antimicrobial effects against both planktonic cells and biofilms than did terpinen, tea tree oi...

  13. Biocide activity against urinary catheter pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malic, Sladjana; Jordan, Rachael P C; Waters, Mark G J; Stickler, David J; Williams, David W

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial effects of essential oils against bacteria associated with urinary catheter infection was assessed. Tests were performed on 14 different bacterial species cultured either planktonically or as biofilms. Biofilms were found to be up to 8-fold more tolerant of the test agents. Higher antimicrobial tolerance was also evident in tests conducted in artificial urine. Eugenol exhibited higher antimicrobial effects against both planktonic cells and biofilms than did terpinen, tea tree oil, and cineole. PMID:24247129

  14. Urinary retention in women and sacral neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2010-12-01

    The remit of this article is to provide an overview of urinary retention in women, taking into account the predisposing factors, aetiology, investigations and treatments. The information presented is based on a widespread search of the English literature using multiple library sites on the internet and on personal experience. Urinary retention occurs when there is impaired bladder emptying, resulting in a high post-void urinary residual. It is often associated with restricted voiding. The aetiology is manifold and thus the symptomatic patient may present to the urologist, gynaecologist, neurologist or physician. Once the problem is identified, and predisposing factors excluded (e.g. opiates), the patient has to be investigated fully. In the Department of Uro-Neurology at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery in the UK, we advocate the use of urethral sphincter assessments, including urethral pressure studies, ultrasound volume assessment and electromyography. This article will take a detailed look at all aspects of assessing these patients. In those in whom diagnosis is reached, sacral neuromodulation (SNM) is the treatment of choice. As a modality, SNM has its supporters but also its detractors. Thus, it is essential that all patients are fully counselled before undergoing this surgery. Urinary retention in women is still poorly understood. This article serves to demystify the issues raised in having this condition, by looking closely at the currently known science. It is clear that some patients may be diagnosed with Fowler's syndrome and may thus be more treatable by SNM than others, but this still leaves a significant proportion of patients with no diagnosis and no satisfactory therapy. A great deal of work still needs to be done on the understanding of the pathogenesis, the provision of more distinct investigations and the development of better treatment modalities. PMID:20972545

  15. Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Urinary Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Moulay Hassan Farih; Jalal Eddine El Ammari; Mohammed Jamal El Fassi; Youness Ahallal

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Primary melanoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. As far as we know, 19 cases have been reported worldwide, usually as case reports. Case Presentation. We present a 71-year-old male patient presented with a 2-month history of hematuria. Ultrasonography revealed a 5-cm-size mass located in the bladder trigone. A transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) revealed a malignant melanoma. Evaluation for metastatic disease was negative. T...

  16. The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis was performed in two hundred and five patients at the Clinical Hospital of the University of de State of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), in the period of 1962 to 1982. Clinical, radiological and pathological findings of ten cases of pionephrosis submitted to nephrectomy, and two cases of vesical enlargement by coloncystoplasty were related. Excretory urograms constitutes the most important radiological exam in reaching a diagnosis, followed by retrograde urograms. (author)

  17. Metabolic assessment in patients with urinary lithiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmen R., Amaro; Jose, Goldberg; Joao L., Amaro; Carlos R., Padovani.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metabolic investigation in patients with urinary lithiasis is very important for preventing recurrence of disease. The objective of this work was to diagnose and to determine the prevalence of metabolic disorders, to assess the quality of the water consumed and volume of diuresis as po [...] tential risk factors for this pathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 182 patients older than 12 years. We included patients with history and/or imaging tests confirming at least 2 stones, with creatinine clearance > 60 mL/min and negative urine culture. The protocol consisted in the collection of 2, 24-hour urine samples, for dosing Ca, P, uric acid, Na, K, Mg, Ox and Ci, glycemia and serum levels of Ca, P, Uric acid, Na, K, Cl, Mg, U and Cr, urinary pH and urinary acidification test. RESULTS: 158 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among these, 151 (95.5%) presented metabolic changes, with 94 (62.2%) presenting isolated metabolic change and 57 (37.8%) had mixed changes. The main disorders detected were hypercalciuria (74%), hypocitraturia (37.3%), hyperoxaluria (24.1%), hypomagnesuria (21%), hyperuricosuria (20.2%), primary hyperparathyroidism (1.8%) secondary hyperparathyroidism (0.6%) and renal tubular acidosis (0.6). CONCLUSION: Metabolic change was diagnosed in 95.5% of patients. These results warrant the metabolic study and follow-up in patients with recurrent lithiasis in order to decrease the recurrence rate through specific treatments, modification in alimentary and behavioral habits.

  18. Urinary proteomics in diabetes and CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Kasper; Mischak, Harald; Dakna, Mohammed; Zürbig, Petra; Novak, Jan; Julian, Bruce A; Good, David M; Coon, Joshua J; Tarnow, Lise; Rossing, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Urinary biomarkers for diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, and nondiabetic proteinuric renal diseases were sought. For 305 individuals, biomarkers were defined and validated in blinded data sets using high-resolution capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. A panel of 40 biomarkers distinguished patients with diabetes from healthy individuals with 89% sensitivity and 91% specificity. Among patients with diabetes, 102 urinary biomarkers differed significantly between patients with normoalbuminuria and nephropathy, and a model that included 65 of these correctly identified diabetic nephropathy with 97% sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, this panel of biomarkers identified patients who had microalbuminuria and diabetes and progressed toward overt diabetic nephropathy over 3 yr. Differentiation between diabetic nephropathy and other chronic renal diseases reached 81% sensitivity and 91% specificity. Many of the biomarkers were fragments of collagen type I, and quantities were reduced in patients with diabetes or diabetic nephropathy. In conclusion, this study shows that analysis of the urinary proteome may allow early detection of diabetic nephropathy and may provide prognostic information. PMID:18448586

  19. Urinary Proteomics in Diabetes and CKD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Kasper; Mischak, Harald; Dakna, Mohammed; Zürbig, Petra; Novak, Jan; Julian, Bruce A.; Good, David M.; Coon, Joshua J.; Tarnow, Lise; Rossing, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Urinary biomarkers for diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, and nondiabetic proteinuric renal diseases were sought. For 305 individuals, biomarkers were defined and validated in blinded data sets using high-resolution capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. A panel of 40 biomarkers distinguished patients with diabetes from healthy individuals with 89% sensitivity and 91% specificity. Among patients with diabetes, 102 urinary biomarkers differed significantly between patients with normoalbuminuria and nephropathy, and a model that included 65 of these correctly identified diabetic nephropathy with 97% sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, this panel of biomarkers identified patients who had microalbuminuria and diabetes and progressed toward overt diabetic nephropathy over 3 yr. Differentiation between diabetic nephropathy and other chronic renal diseases reached 81% sensitivity and 91% specificity. Many of the biomarkers were fragments of collagen type I, and quantities were reduced in patients with diabetes or diabetic nephropathy. In conclusion, this study shows that analysis of the urinary proteome may allow early detection of diabetic nephropathy and may provide prognostic information. PMID:18448586

  20. Recurrent urinary tract infections in females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncomplicated Urinary tract infections are common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, with mean annual incidence of 15% and 10% in those aged 15-39 and 40-79 years, respectively. Urinary tract infection (UTI), with its diverse clinical syndromes and affected host groups, remains one of the most common but widely misunderstood and challenging infectious diseases encountered in clinical practice. Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) present a significant problem for women and a challenge for the doctors who care for them. The diagnosis of uncomplicated UTI can be achieved best by a thorough assessment of patient symptoms with or without the addition of a urine dipstick test. Treatment should be based on the most recent guidelines, taking into account resistance patterns in the local community. The patient who suffers from recurrent UTIs can be treated safely and effectively with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital therapy, or self-initiated treatment. This review article covers the latest trends in the management of recurrent UTI among women. Further research is needed regarding rapid diagnosis of UTI, accurate presumptive identification of patients with resistant pathogens, and development of new antimicrobials for drug-resistant UTI. (author)

  1. Pharmacology of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennenberg, Martin; Stief, Christian G; Gratzke, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Pharmacology of the lower urinary tract provides the basis for medical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Therapy of LUTS addresses obstructive symptoms (frequently explained by increased prostate smooth muscle tone and prostate enlargement) in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and storage symptoms in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). Targets for medical treatment include G protein-coupled receptors (?1-adrenoceptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, ?3-adrenoceptors) or intracellular enzymes (5?-reductase; phosphodiesterase-5, PDE5). Established therapies of obstructive symptoms aim to induce prostate smooth muscle relaxation by ?1-blockers or PDE5 inhibitors, or to reduce prostate growth and volume with 5?-reductase inhibitors. Available options for treatment of OAB comprise anitmuscarinics, ?3-adrenoceptor agonists, and botulinum toxin A, which improve storage symptoms by inhibition of bladder smooth muscle contraction. With the recent approval of ?3-antagonists, PDE inhibitors, and silodosin for therapy of LUTS, progress from basic research of lower urinary tract pharmacology was translated into new clinical applications. Further targets are in preclinical stages of examination, including modulators of the endocannabinoid system and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. PMID:24744518

  2. Metabolic assessment in patients with urinary lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen R. Amaro

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metabolic investigation in patients with urinary lithiasis is very important for preventing recurrence of disease. The objective of this work was to diagnose and to determine the prevalence of metabolic disorders, to assess the quality of the water consumed and volume of diuresis as potential risk factors for this pathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 182 patients older than 12 years. We included patients with history and/or imaging tests confirming at least 2 stones, with creatinine clearance > 60 mL/min and negative urine culture. The protocol consisted in the collection of 2, 24-hour urine samples, for dosing Ca, P, uric acid, Na, K, Mg, Ox and Ci, glycemia and serum levels of Ca, P, Uric acid, Na, K, Cl, Mg, U and Cr, urinary pH and urinary acidification test. RESULTS: 158 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among these, 151 (95.5% presented metabolic changes, with 94 (62.2% presenting isolated metabolic change and 57 (37.8% had mixed changes. The main disorders detected were hypercalciuria (74%, hypocitraturia (37.3%, hyperoxaluria (24.1%, hypomagnesuria (21%, hyperuricosuria (20.2%, primary hyperparathyroidism (1.8% secondary hyperparathyroidism (0.6% and renal tubular acidosis (0.6. CONCLUSION: Metabolic change was diagnosed in 95.5% of patients. These results warrant the metabolic study and follow-up in patients with recurrent lithiasis in order to decrease the recurrence rate through specific treatments, modification in alimentary and behavioral habits.

  3. Biomonitoring Equivalents for interpretation of urinary fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, L L; Hays, S M; Vezina, A; Deveau, M; St-Amand, A; Nong, A

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to fluoride is widespread due to its natural occurrence in the environment and addition to drinking water and dental products for the prevention of dental caries. The potential health risks of excess fluoride exposure include aesthetically unacceptable dental fluorosis (tooth mottling) and increased skeletal fragility. Numerous organizations have conducted risk assessments and set guidance values to represent maximum recommended exposure levels as well as recommended adequate intake levels based on potential public health benefits of fluoride exposure. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are estimates of the average biomarker concentrations corresponding to such exposure guidance values. The literature on daily urinary fluoride excretion rates as a function of daily fluoride exposure was reviewed and BE values corresponding to the available US and Canadian exposure guidance values were derived for fluoride in urine. The derived BE values range from 1.1 to 2.1mg/L (1.2-2.5?g/g creatinine). Concentrations of fluoride in single urinary spot samples from individuals, even under exposure conditions consistent with the exposure guidance values, may vary from the predicted average concentrations by several-fold due to within- and across-individual variation in urinary flow and creatinine excretion rates and due to the rapid elimination kinetics of fluoride. Thus, the BE values are most appropriately applied to screen population central tendency estimates for biomarker concentrations rather than interpretation of individual spot sample concentrations. PMID:25863192

  4. Increased urinary nitrate excretion in rats with adjuvant arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Stichtenoth, D O; Gutzki, F M; Tsikas, D.; N. Selve; Bode-Böger, S M; Böger, R H; Frölich, J C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--In rats with adjuvant arthritis measurements were taken of the urinary excretion of nitrate, reflecting endogenous nitric oxide (NO) formation, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). METHODS--Urinary nitrate was determined by gas chromatography, cGMP by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS--A significant (p < 0.001), more than three fold increase of urinary nitrate excretion was found in rats 20 days after induction of adjuvant arthritis compared with non-arthritic rats. There was no sig...

  5. Nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Hee; Lee, Sun Wha; Han, Woon Seup [Ewha Womans Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma is a benign metaplastic lesion of the urinary tract occurring most frequently at the urinary bladder. It is very rare, especially in children. We describe the US, CT and MRI findings of nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder in an 8-year-old girl who suffered rupture of the bladder, urethra and vagina after a traffic accident and whose condition was complicated by urethral stricture and vesicoureteral reflux.

  6. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: Diagnosis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Wm Lane M

    1990-01-01

    The history and the physical examination are important and rewarding in the assessment of urinary tract infection in children. Urinary tract infection is usually an ascending infection; periurethral colonization is fundamental to its pathogenesis. It is important to treat predisposing factors, such as poor personal hygiene, diarrhea, and diaper rash. Parents should be specifically instructed on the proper procedures for introital and foreskin cleansing. To minimize the risk of urinary tract i...

  7. Urinary tract infections in infants and children: Diagnosis and management

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Joan L.; Finlay, Jane C.; Lang, Mia Eileen; Bortolussi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have resulted in major changes in the management of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children. The present statement focuses on the diagnosis and management of infants and children >2 months of age with an acute UTI and no known underlying urinary tract pathology or risk factors for a neurogenic bladder. UTI should be ruled out in preverbal children with unexplained fever and in older children with symptoms suggestive of UTI (dysuria, urinary frequency, hematuria, abdominal p...

  8. Migrated embolization coil: A rare cause of urinary tract obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Bhageria, Anand; Seth, Amlesh; Bora, Girdhar S.

    2012-01-01

    Refractory bleeding following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is mainly due to formation of pseudoaneurysm. Transarterial embolization is required to control the bleeding in such cases. We report a case of post-PCNL hematuria in whom angioembolization was done. An early erosion of the embolization coil from the renal vasculature into the urinary collecting system occurred, causing urinary tract obstruction and urinary tract infection (UTI). The coil was retrieved ureteroscopically after c...

  9. Response of urinary sodium excretion to elevated intravesical pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangas, N; Parashou, E; Lymberi, M; Kehayas, P

    1993-01-01

    This experimental study was designed to investigate the possibility of an interaction between elevated intravesical pressure and urinary sodium excretion. Fourteen male New Zealand rabbits were used. After performing a ureterocutaneous diversion, urinary sodium excretion was measured in two situations: with the bladder empty and with the bladder overdistended and an intravesical pressure of 60 cm H2O. There was a significant decrease in urinary sodium excretion at an elevated intravesical pressure. The urinary sodium excretion returned to normal after relief of the pressure. The results suggest the existence of a neurogenic pathway activated by the elevated intravesical pressure. PMID:8212412

  10. A prospective study of urinary tract infection during pelvic radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialas, I.; Bessell, E.M.; Sokal, M. (Nottingham General Hospital (United Kingdom). Hogarth Centre of Radiotherapy and Oncology); Slack, R. (Nottingham Univ. Hospital (UK))

    1989-12-01

    The frequency of urinary tract infection before and during pelvic radiotherapy was studied prospectively in 172 patients who were not catherised and had not had instrumentation for at least 4 weeks prior to radiotherapy. The incidence of urinary tract infection prior to radiotherapy was 17% and a further 17% of patients develped a urinary tract infection during radiotherapy. Mid-stream specimens of urine (MSU) should be examined for infection on a weekly basis during pelvic radiotherapy not only to identify this additional 17% of patients but also to detect those patients who have persistent urinary tract infection in spite of treatment with appropriate antibiotics. (author). 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs.

  11. A prospective study of urinary tract infection during pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of urinary tract infection before and during pelvic radiotherapy was studied prospectively in 172 patients who were not catherised and had not had instrumentation for at least 4 weeks prior to radiotherapy. The incidence of urinary tract infection prior to radiotherapy was 17% and a further 17% of patients develped a urinary tract infection during radiotherapy. Mid-stream specimens of urine (MSU) should be examined for infection on a weekly basis during pelvic radiotherapy not only to identify this additional 17% of patients but also to detect those patients who have persistent urinary tract infection in spite of treatment with appropriate antibiotics. (author). 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  12. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  13. Observations on urinary 17-ketosteroids in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh R

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary 17-ketosteroids (17-KS have been estimated and correlated with different stages of breast cancer in this study. We observed marked increase in urinary 17-KS in advanced stages of the disease. Further, we noticed a positive correlation between urinary 17-KS levels and the progress of the disease. Thus, estima-tion of urinary 17-KS may prove to be of some prognostic value and may help the clinicians concerned in the clinical evaluation of the stage and the progress of the disease.

  14. Update on duloxetine for the management of stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Basu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Maya Basu, Jonathan RA DuckettDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medway Maritime Hospital, Gillingham, Kent, UKAbstract: Duloxetine is a relatively balanced serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI, which is the first drug with widely proven efficacy to have been licensed for the medical treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI. Despite favorable results from randomized controlled trials, surgical management continues to be the mainstay of treatment for SUI. In this review we explore the pharmacology of duloxetine in the nervous system and lower urinary tract, and the evidence for its use in the management of women with urinary incontinence.Keywords: duloxetine, stress urinary incontinence, overactive bladder

  15. Effects of urinary bladder distention on location of the urinary bladder and urethra of healthy dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the anatomic location of the distended and empty urinary bladders and urethras of healthy adult male and female dogs and cats by retrograde urethrocystography revealed substantial variations. In 15 dogs in lateral recumbency with empty bladder lumens, the caudal portion of the urinary bladder was within the pelvic canal in 5 of 7 male and 5 of 8 female dogs. In female dogs examined in ventrodorsal recumbency, only 4 of 8 had the empty urinary bladders in part within the pelvic canal. After luminal distention, 3 of 7 male and 3 of 8 female dogs, while in lateral recumbency, had the urinary bladders in part intrapelvically. However, when female dogs were placed in ventrodorsal recumbency, only 1 of 7 urinary bladders was in part within the pelvis. The urinary bladders of 14 cats were consistently within the abdominal cavity, irrespective of whether the bladder lumen was distended or empty. Urethral flexures occurred in dogs with intrapelvic bladders that were distended or empty. Urethral flexures were not found in cats. The urethras of dogs and cats in lateral recumbency were generally closer to the floor of the pelvis after urinary bladder distention than when the bladder was empty. The urethra of the dogs and cats in ventrodorsal recumbency was to the left or right of or on the midsagittal plane, whether the urinary bladder was empty or distended. A greater degree of lateral displacement was encountered in ventrodorsal recumbency after urinary bladder distention

  16. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Vahlensieck, W; Bauer, H W; Weidner, W; Piechota, H J; Naber, K G

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequent bacterial infections in the community and health care setting. Mostly young and, to some extent, postmenopausal women are affected by recurrent UTI (rUTI) defined as ?3 UTI/year or ?2 UTI/half year. In contrast, rUTI is rare in healthy men. On the other hand, rUTI are frequently found in female and male patients with complicating urological factors, e.g. urinary catheters, infection stones. Remediable predisposing factors in uncomplicated rUTI in women are rare. In complicated rUTI the success depends mainly on the possibility to eliminate or at leastimprove the complicating risk factors. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis or postcoital prophylaxis, if there is close correlation with sexual intercourse, are most effective to prevent rUTI. Nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim (or cotrimoxazole), and fosfomycin trometamol are available as first-line drugs. Oral cephalosporins and quinolones should be restricted to specific indications. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the number of uropathogens in the gut and/or vaginal flora and reduces bacterial "fitness". Given the correct indication, the recurrence rate of rUTI can be reduced by about 90%. Due to possible adverse events and the concern of selecting resistant pathogens, according to the guidelines of the European Association of Urology antimicrobial prophylaxis should be considered only after counselling, behavioural modification and non-antimicrobial measures have been attempted. In postmenopausal patients vaginal substitution of oestriol should be started first. Oral or parenteral immunoprophylaxis is another option in patients with rUTI. Other possibilities with varying scientific evidence are prophylaxis with cranberry products, specific plant combinations or probiotics. The prophylaxis of catheter-associated UTI should employ strategies which result in a reduction of frequency and duration of catheter drainage of the urinary tract. The currently available catheter materials have only little influence on reducing catheter-associated rUTI. PMID:23538307

  17. [Modern approaches to urinary incontinence in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici?, D

    1991-01-01

    Joint embryonic development from the front part of the urogenital sinus caused anatomic, topographic and to some degree functional interdependence of the urogenital system. This is the reason they have the same supporting system that if weak or impaired causes changes in both systems. Concretely, descensus uteri accompanied with descensus vaginae causes lowering of the base of the bladder, its neck and urethra. Due to such topographic change, residual volumes of urine remain in lowered base of the bladder and because of disturbed respective angles between the bladder and urethra, responsible for the function of urination, there is incontinence during every physical activity. Hippocrates mentioned that phenomenon, but the scientific identification of etiology and therapy of this disease dates from the very beginning of this century. The diagnostics was the past medical history and genital examination. In 1940 scientific interpretation begun in the field of uro-gynecology, it made progress during the World War II in Sweden and USA and after the war, somewhere earlier and somewhere later in other parts of the world. In our country the rudiment was noted in 1935 in Zagreb where it had developed after the war. There are different types of urinary incontinence, absolute and relative, all of them can be easily differentiated today. Since incontinence during physical activity (relative, orthostatic, stress, static) is most frequently found and that its consequences are most difficult, the emphasis is given to that type of urinary incontinence. The sophisticated clinical tests, roentgenoscopic and ultrasound examinations, urodynamics, electromyography, neurologic tests, vaginotonography, studies of urine flow make possible to obtain precise differential diagnosis of all types of urinary incontinence.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1961083

  18. Assessment of infective urinary tract disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixt, R.; Stokland, E. [Goteborg, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital/Ostra (Sweden). Dept. of Pediatric Clinical Physiology and Dept. of Pediatric Radiology

    1998-06-01

    Urinary tracts infection (UTI) is common in children, particularly in the youngest age groups. There is a risk for progressive deterioration of renal function in these children if aggravating factors such as gross reflux and/or outflow obstruction of the urinary tract are present. In this review the pros and cons of available scintigrafic and radiological imaging techniques for the work-up of these children are presented. Ultrasound can be used in the acute phase to exclude obstruction but can not reliably show transient or permanent parenchymal lesions. The presence of reflux can be established with X-ray or direct nuclide cystography. The X-ray technique gives good morphological information and has a grading system with prognostic relevance. Both techniques are invasive and great care must be taken to keep the radiation burden down with the X-ray technique. Indirect nuclide cystography following a renographic study is non-invasive but has a lower sensitivity than direct techniques. More experience is needed with the indirect technique to evaluate the consequences of its apparently low sensitivity. Urography has a limited place in the acute work-up of urinary tract infection but can be used to look for renal scarring 1-2 years after an acute pyelonephritis. The {sup 99m}Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan can be used during the acute UTI to show pyelonephritic lesions with good accuracy and/or during the follow-up after six months to show permanent lesions. The acute DMSA scan can be omitted.

  19. Appendix carcinoma invading the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, S E; Hohenfellner, M; Eggersmann, C; Lampel, A; Golz, R; Thüroff, J W

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of an appendix carcinoma invading the urinary bladder. In contrast to other bowel tumors invading the bladder, history and symptoms were consistent with a primary bladder tumor. This is due to the unique anatomical position of the appendix where the tumor did not hinder passage of bowel contents or cause melena. Findings on physical examination as well as diagnostic imaging and transurethral resection were inconclusive. Consideration of local progression of an appendix carcinoma is an important differential diagnosis. In contrast to other vesical or extravesical T4 tumors, the appendix carcinoma offers a good chance for resection en bloc by right-sided hemicolectomy and partial cystectomy. PMID:9096277

  20. Retroperitoneal lipoma arising from the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisato Kobayashi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Retroperitoneal benign lipomas are extremely rare and represent about 2.9% of all primary retroperitoneal tumors. About 80% of the tumors in the retroperitoneal cavities are malignant neoplasms. We experienced a case of a retroperitoneal lipoma simulating an ovarian mature cystic teratoma. A diagnosis was correctly made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI prior to surgery, and a total tumorectomy was performed. The retroperitoneal lipoma was recognized to have arisen from the urinary bladder. Histological sections revealed a tumor consisting of typical adipose cells without atypia. These types of lipomas should be carefully followed-up because they often recur and undergo malignant transformations.

  1. Introital ultrasonography in female urinary incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of introital ultrasonography in the assessment of female urinary incontinence. Introital ultrasonography was performed in fifteen with stress urinary incontinence(mean age 50) and six patients without symptoms of incontinence(mean age 37). Using a sagittal section of the anterior pelvis in the plane of the symphysis pubis the posterior urethrovesical angle, the pubourethral distance and the pubo-yregrak abgle were measured at rest and during stress(Valsalva's maneuver state). The student T-test and the ANOVA test were used in statistical analysis. The posterior urethrovesical angels of the controls were 125.3 deg (±10.9) at rest and 125.7 deg (±7.6) during stress. In the patients, the corresponding angles were135.3 deg (±11.3) and 139.6 deg(±10.8). The posterior urethrovesical angles increased 0.3 deg (±4.7) in the controls and 5.6 deg (±4.0) in the patients(p=0.018). In the controls, the pubo-urethral distances were 21.8 mm(±5.8) at rest and 18.2 mm(±7.1) during stress, while in the patients these distances were 18.4 mm(±3.9) and 12.6 mm(±4.4). The pubo-urethral distance decreased 3.5 mm (±1.5) in the controls and 5.8 mm (±2.3) in the patients(p=0.039). In the patients with mild incontinence(Grade I), the posterior urethrovesical angles increased 3.4 deg (±2.8) : 132.3 deg (±12.5) at rest and 135.6 deg (12.8) during stress. In the patients with moderate incontinence(Grade II), the angles increased 8.1 deg(±3.8) : 136.0 deg(±.1 deg(±3.8) : 136.0 deg(±6.5) at rest and 144.1 deg((±5.9) during stress. The change of the posterior urethrovesical angle was related to the grade of urinary incontinence in the patients(p<0.05). There was no statistical significancy in the pubo-urethral angle (p=0.315). Introital ultrasonography may be useful for assessment of stress urinary incontinence

  2. Non-invasive localization of urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New methods to localize the source of bacteriuria were evaluated in monkeys with experimental urinary tract infection. A high level of diagnostic accuracy was obtained with the combined study of antibody-coated urinary bacteria by immunofluorescence, 131I hippuran scintiphotos in the hydropenic state and 67gallium citrate scintiphotos. Unique patterns were found, which differentiate cystitis, ureteritis, pyelonephritis and renal or perinephric abscesses

  3. Biomaterials in urinary incontinence and treatment of their complications

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, Philippa; Morley, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Biomaterials integrate with the anatomy and provide support to the weakened area. They are generally synthetic, but natural substances are also used. These substances are being increasingly used in stress urinary incontinence. This article discusses the various biomaterials, minimally invasive techniques, and recent advances for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. In addition, their complications and subsequent management are explored.

  4. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of ureteroscopic lithotripsy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on ureteral calculi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yahong, Xu; Yi, Lu; Jian, Li; Shunwen, Luo; Yang, Liu; Zhigang, Jia; Ping, Chen; Yu, Guo; Qihua, Zhao; Xiaoping, Ma; Shufang, Jia.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To re-evaluated the clinic efficacy of ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URS) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on ureteral calculi with Cochrane systematic reviews in this paper. METHODS: We searched clinical randomized controlled trials and prospective controlled trials in d [...] atabases such as Cochrane library, Medline, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, PubMed. Pooled estimate of risk ratios (RRs), standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as measure of effect sizes. Summary effect estimates were also stratified by sample size, study design and study region. The overall effect sizes were derived using a random-effects model or fixed-effects model when appreciated, and meta-analysis were conducted with software RewMan 5.0. RESULTS: The meta-analysis suggested that there were significant differences of post-treatment stone free rate, repeat treatment rate, patients' satisfaction, incidence of postoperative complications, operation time and hospital stays between ESWL treatment cases and URS treatment cases. But in the sample sizes analysis, there were no significant differences of the post-treatment stone free rate and repeat treatment rate when the sample sizes were less than 100. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the ureteroscopic lithotripsy treatment, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment provided a significantly lower post-treatment stone free rate, but it also obviously brought out less postoperative complications, shorter operation time and hospital stays.

  5. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis studies of several human calculi containing calcium phosphate crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaka, T; Debari, K; Sano, T; Yamada, M

    1994-01-01

    Human calcium phosphate calculi: two sialoliths, a urolith, a rhinolith, and a tonsillolith were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The sialoliths and urolith had appositional shells with thick cortices, respectively, around several nuclei composed of calcospherulites and a rubber-film fragment. The rhinolith had a thin cortex with appositional laminations around a glomerulus-like mass of calcified cotton-like strings. The tonsillolith had a rough cortex with appositional laminations. Its porous interior was composed of numerous calcified conglomerates with microorganisms and calcified masses with fine appositional laminations around the conglomerates. The major crystals were identified as biological apatites (AP) with a sand-grain rather than a needle-like shape, and plate-shaped octacalcium phosphate (OCP). The AP deposits of the rhinolith probably were associated with magnesium (Mg) phosphates or contained Mg. No OCP was found in the rhinolith. The AP deposits were mainly formed by extracellular calcification. Hexahedral crystals, identified as Mg-containing whitlockite (WH), were precipitated in the internal spaces of the AP and OCP deposits. The rhinolith nucleus consisted of WH crystal deposits only. PMID:7701299

  6. Experience of MR urography for urinary tract obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Hirofumi; Yamane, Akifumi; Wataru, Shodo [Yoka Hospital, Hyogo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    Recently the diagnostic technique of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has developed rapidly, becoming one of the most effective methods of diagnosis, for urological disease, apart from ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT). Nine patients with urinary tract obstruction were examined with a modified, heavily T2-weighted fast spine-echo pulse sequence (MR urography) between October, 1995, and August, 1997. Without the use of contrast medium we were able to discern urinary tract obstruction which could not be discerned by intravenous pyelography (IVP) or retrograde pyelography (RP). In conclusion, MR urography is able to provide fine details whilst reflecting renal function in cases of urinary tract obstruction which IVP and RP can not, for example a decrease in renal function, large prostatic hypertrophy, gross hematuria, lower ureteral tract disease, urinary diversion and urinary tract obstruction in children. (author)

  7. Urinary symptoms in Parkinson's disease: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Sousa Raimundo Nonato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a cross-sectional study involving 61 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD who were consecutively examined and compared to a control group with 74 subjects. Only patients who fulfilled the standard diagnostic criteria for PD and whose brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal were included. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of inferior urinary tract symptoms in PD and to study the possible association between clinical factors to urinary dysfunction. ln the patient group, 39.3% presented urinary symptoms when compared to 10.8% in the control group. All symptomatic patients presented irritative symptoms. The most common irritative symptom PD was nocturia, followed by frequency and urinary incontinence. Around 25% of the patients presented functional obstructive symptoms determined by the disease. The most frequent obstructive symptom was incomplete emptying of the bladder. Only the age of the patients and control group were correlated with urinary dysfunction.

  8. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav M Jelic

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomislav M Jelic1, Rod Roque1, Uzay Yasar2, Shayna B Tomchin1, Jose M Serrato2, Samuel G Deem3, James P Tierney3, Ho-Huang Chang11Department of Pathology Charleston Area Medical Center, Charleston WV, USA; 2Urology Center of Charleston, Charleston WV, USA; 3Urologic-Surgical Assoc. of Charleston, Charleston WV, USAAbstract: Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria. We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.Keywords: calcifying nanoparticles, nanobacteria, encrusted cystitis

  9. Granular cell tumors of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayani Naila

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granular cell tumors (GCTs are extremely rare lesions of the urinary bladder with only nine cases being reported in world literature of which one was malignant. Generally believed to be of neural origin based on histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies; they mostly follow a clinically benign course but are commonly mistaken for malignant tumors since they are solid looking, ulcerated tumors with ill-defined margins. Materials and methods We herein report two cases of GCTs, one benign and one malignant, presenting with gross hematuria in a 14- and a 47-year-old female, respectively. Results Histopathology revealed characteristic GCTs with positive immunostaining for neural marker (S-100 and negative immunostaining for epithelial (cytokeratin, Cam 5.2, AE/A13, neuroendocrine (neuron specific enolase, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin and sarcoma (desmin, vimentin markers. The benign tumor was successfully managed conservatively with transurethral resection alone while for the malignant tumor, radical cystectomy, hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, anterior vaginectomy, plus lymph node dissection was done. Both cases show long-term disease free survival. Conclusion We recommend careful pathologic assessment for establishing the appropriate diagnosis and either a conservative or aggressive surgical treatment for benign or localized malignant GCT of the urinary bladder, respectively.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done according to age-group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates. A total of 803 urine culture positive patients were studied of whom 81.6% were females and 18.4% were males. The common micro-organisms isolated were E. coli (78.58%), Klebsiella (5.48%), Proteus and Staphylococcus. About 89% of the E. coli isolated showed sensitivity to cephtizoxin, 83.9% to gentamycin and 83.2% to ciprofloxacin; the highest resistance was shown to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Surveys of this nature will give a clear idea about the bacteriologic profile in a given institution as well their antibiotic sensitivity profile. This will act as a guide to commencing empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary infections until such time culture reports are available. (author)

  11. Mechanical devices for urinary incontinence in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipp, Allyson; Shaw, Christine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incontinence can have a devastating effect on the lives of sufferers with significant economic implications. Non-surgical treatments such as pelvic floor muscle training and the use of mechanical devices are usually the first line of management, particularly when a woman does not want surgery or when she is considered unfit for surgery. Mechanical devices are inexpensive and do not compromise future surgical treatment. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether mechanical devices are useful in the management of adult female urinary incontinence. SEARCH METHODS: For this second update we searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO ICTRP and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings (searched 21 August 2014), EMBASE (January 1947 to 2014 Week 34), CINAHL (January 1982 to 25 August 2014), and the reference lists of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of mechanical devices in the management of adult female urinary incontinence determined by symptom, sign or urodynamic diagnosis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The reviewers assessed the identified studies for eligibility and risk of bias and independently extracted data from the included studies. Data analysis was performed using RevMan software (version 5.3). MAIN RESULTS: One new trial was identified and included in this update bringing the total to eight trials involving 787 women. Three small trials compared a mechanical device with no treatment and although they suggested that use of a mechanical device might be better than no treatment, the evidence for this was inconclusive. Four trials compared one mechanical device with another. Quantitative synthesis of data from these trials was not possible because different mechanical devices were compared in each trial using different outcome measures. Data from the individual trials showed no clear difference between devices, but with wide confidence intervals. One trial compared three groups: a mechanical device alone, behavioural therapy (pelvic floor muscle training) alone and behavioural therapy combined with a mechanical device. While at three months there were more withdrawals from the device-only group, at 12 months differences between the groups were not sustained on any measure. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The place of mechanical devices in the management of urinary incontinence remains in question. Currently there is little evidence from controlled trials on which to judge whether their use is better than no treatment and large well-conducted trials are required for clarification. There was also insufficient evidence in favour of one device over another and little evidence to compare mechanical devices with other forms of treatment.

  12. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a new noninvasive treatment modality for urinary stones, and it sometimes is to necessitate endourologic techniques. ESWL with an Edap lithotripter which uses piezo-electric elements, was performed in 142 cases (130 patients) with urinary stones including 68 in calices, 30 in pelves, and 44 in ureters. Technical factors were 100 storages at 5 to 10 pulse rates/sec and 70-100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes (15-90) for renal stones, and 200 storages at 20 pulse rates/sec and 100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes for ureteral stones in a single treatment under stone localization by 5 MHz ultrasonic sector scanner. All patients were treated at Kangnam St.Mary's Hospital of Catholic University Medical College during the 5 months period from May 1, 1987. Every patient had pre-treatment chest, plain abdomen, intravenous urogram and ultrasonogram studies and post-treatment follow-up abdominal radiograms in 1 to 3 months after ESWL.The overall success rate of ESWL in 142 cases was 94.4%. Eight out of 142 cases were successful. Thus, 134 cases were analysed. Of these, 58 cases (43.3%) received one treatment, 33 cases (24.6%) two treatments, 16 cases (11.9%) three treatments and 27 cases (20.2%) more than four treatments. Renal stones were more successfully treated (98.0%) than ureteral stones (88.1%), and calyceal stones presented the highest success rate (98.5%). The stones as small as 5 to 10 mm in size were easily s small as 5 to 10 mm in size were easily fragmented and the stones of round of oval shape were more easily pulverized than those of staghorn or amorphous shape. The adjunctive endourlogic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy, ureteral catheterization or internal ureteral stenting with a double pigtail catheter were required in 17 cases (11.9%). Complications of ESWL for urolithiasis included hematuria (84.5%), flank pain (8.5%) and fever (5.6%), which were controlled without specific treatment. ESWL using ultrasonic localization was the effective procedure for treatment of the urinary stones

  13. Urinary IL-6: a marker for mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C; Richards, N; Howie, A J; Richardson, K; Michael, J; Adu, D; Emery, P

    1991-10-01

    A prospective study of plasma and urinary interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels was performed in 54 patients undergoing renal biopsy to determine whether detectable urinary IL-6 was a reliable marker for mesangial proliferation. Interleukin-6 was found in both the urine and plasma of seven patients, the urine alone of 15 patients, and the plasma alone of two patients. Interleukin-6 was not detected in the urine or the plasma of the remaining 30 patients, the urine of 10 healthy controls or the urine of 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis with raised plasma IL-6. Interleukin-6 was found in the urine of only one out of an additional seven patients with lupus nephritis. Urinary IL-6 was associated with a variety of renal abnormalities and was not restricted to those with mesangial hypercellularity. Furthermore, many patients with mesangial hypercellularity did not have detectable urinary IL-6. There was no correlation between urinary IL-6 and plasma IL-6, urinary albumin excretion or urinary creatinine. These results suggest that IL-6 detected in the urine is a marker of renal IL-6 production, but not specifically of mesangial hypercellularity. The patients with IL-6 in the urine had a mean serum creatinine significantly higher than those without IL-6. It is not possible to distinguish at present whether IL-6 contributes to renal dysfunction or whether it reflects renal damage. PMID:1914227

  14. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko

    2010-01-01

    Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100 Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans to compare the intake and metabolism. Dietary determinants of lignan intake and their urinary excretion were also determined. The mean intake of lignans was 1224 (sd 539) mug/d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intakeof water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4 % by the intake of lariciresinol. Although the assessed intake of lignans corresponded well with the urinary excretion of lignans, the enterolactone production in the human body depended more on the dietary sources of lignans than the absolute intake of lignans.

  15. A Comparison Between Foley and Nelatone Urinary Catheters in Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Saeed; Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinpour, Mehrdad; Farokhi, Shima; Sharif, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urinary catheterization is one of the main measures used to treat and care for hospitalized patients. Several complications have been attributed to the presence of latex with routine Foley catheters. Therefore, some studies have recommended that Nelatone catheters be substituted for the ordinary Foley catheters to prevent these complications. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the rates of urinary tract infection (UTI) in rabbits catheterized either with Foley or with Nelatone catheters. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 60 rabbits that were randomly assigned to three groups of twenty. The first group was catheterized using Nelatone catheter; the second group was catheterized using Foley catheter and the third group was studied without performing any catheterization. After seven days, urine samples were collected using suprapubic aspiration and were sent to the laboratory for culture. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Moreover, chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for data analysis. Results: At the end of the study, four cases in the Nelatone group and 12 cases in the Foley group presented with UTI (P = 0.01). No positive urine cultures were found in the control group. Conclusions: The Nelatone catheters, compared with the Foley ones, had a lower risk of UTI in the long term use. Verifying this claim by further studies can have an important role in reducing UTIs in patients using urinary catheters. PMID:25830158

  16. Urinary catheterization: selection and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomfret, Ian

    2007-08-01

    Urinary catheterization is a common medico-nursing procedure in both acute and primary care. There is a variety of catheters and associated equipment available on prescription in the UK, how do nurses and other healthcare staff ensure that patients are able to access the most appropriate products for their individual needs? This article will look at the common reasons for catheterization and the rationale for the selection procedures in selecting the optimum method of catheterization, equipment selection and management options to ensure best practice for patient care. Different methods of catheterization, intermittent and indwelling, both urethral and suprapubic, will be considered in regard to preventing infection and providing optimum catheter management. PMID:17851299

  17. Urinary stones in pediatric age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Önen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The presenting symptoms of stone disease in children are rather different than the adult patients.US, direct urinary X-ray exam or/and computarized tomography are the diagnostic tools of choice.In case of obstruction,infection,or in the presence of larger stones prone to obstructive signs are the candidates of surgical intervention. In case of acute conditions insertion of JJ stents or percutaneous nephrostomy can be a solution.Asymptomatic and small stones should be treated by minimal invazive procedures such as. ESWL, URS or PNL. According to the results of biochemical analysis, medical treatment or/and dietary recommendations ar very important for the long term prophylaxis. (Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45 Suppl: 104-9

  18. Research Concerning the Correlations Between Urinary Tract Infections and Congenital Malformations of the Renourinary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moréh Zsuzsanna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital malformations of the urinary system are risk factors for the development of urinary tract infections (UTI. Besides the severity of the malformation, urinary infection is always associated with poor prognosis for these patients. Late discovery of the malformation background, after several urinary tract infection episodes, contributes to the development of chronic pyelonephritis that may lead to chronic renal failure.

  19. Surgical Management of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Sharifi-Aghdas

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This review evaluates the most recent knowledge regarding surgical management of stress urinary incontinence.Materials and Methods: A comprehensive MEDLINE search was performed, limited to those articles published from 1995 to 2005; 470 articles were reviewed. The most relevant of which were considered, and additional ones were selected by reviewing these studies’ bibliographies. Overall, 53 articles were selected and used in this study.Results: Few randomized controlled trials have been done. The best results of retropubic procedures are seen when the intrinsic urethral sphincter is competent and its effectiveness is sustained in the long term. A laparoscopic approach, although less popular and with a lower short-term cure rate, is an alternative. Sling surgeries can be the first-line treatment for all types of stress urinary incontinence. Autologous grafts are still considered the gold standard, but synthetic materials such as tension-free tape have comparable results with standard open retropubic procedures. Still, long-term–cure and complication rates have not yet been elucidated. Using urethral bulking agents is the least invasive approach, applicable in both intrinsic sphincter deficiency and urethral hypermobility. However, it has a poor long-term outcome and necessitates repeat injections.Conclusion: Long-term data suggest that Burch colposuspension and sling procedures produce similar objective cure rates. New synthetic suburethral slings such as tension-free vaginal tape have gained popularity in recent years. Complications of traditional and newer suburethral slings are declining, but they still occur and often are associated with serious morbidity. New therapies should be studied in randomized clinical trials and compared with conventional approaches.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in lower urinary tract endometriosis: iconographic essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the endometrial cavity and myometrium. Although this is a frequent disease with multifactorial causes, involvement of the lower urinary tract is rare. Magnetic resonance imaging is highly sensitive, specific and accurate in the diagnosis of endometriosis in the lower urinary tract, especially for allowing the identification of lesions obscured by adhesions or with subperitoneal extension. The present iconographic essay presents the main magnetic resonance imaging findings of the lower urinary tract involvement by endometriosis. (author)

  1. Rare pseudotumors of the urinary bladder in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G.; Ahlhelm, F.; Altmeyer, K.; Kramann, B.; Uder, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Aliani, S. [Dept. of Pediatrics, University Hospital, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Remberger, K. [Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Schoenhofen, H. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital, Neunkirchen/Kohlhof (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    We report two cases of inflammatory pseudotumors of the urinary bladder, one case of a chronic granulomatous pseudotumor (CGT) and one case of a pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic (fibromyxoid) tumor (PMT). Both tumors resembled malignancies such as rhabdomyosarcomas regarding clinical appearance and imaging findings and represent rare urinary bladder tumors. The imaging findings on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI as well as histological specimen are presented. Final diagnosis was made following elective surgery. Differential diagnosis of urinary bladder tumors as well as the imaging findings of these clinically comparable cases are discussed. Awareness of these benign lesions may prevent patients from inappropriate therapies such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. (orig.)

  2. Urinary FSP1 Is a Biomarker of Crescentic GN

    OpenAIRE

    Iwano, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Yukinari; Iwamoto, Takaaki; Nakatani, Kimihiko; Matsui, Masaru; Kubo, Atsushi; Akai, Yasuhiro; Mori, Toshio; Saito, Yoshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1)–expressing cells accumulate in damaged kidneys, but whether urinary FSP1 could serve as a biomarker of active renal injury is unknown. We measured urinary FSP1 in 147 patients with various types of glomerular disease using ELISA. Patients with crescentic GN, with or without antinuclear cytoplasmic antibody–associated GN, exhibited elevated levels of urinary FSP1. This assay had a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 90.2% for crescentic GN in this...

  3. Antibacterial activity of Barringtonia acutangula against selected urinary tract pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barringtonia acutangula (L. Gaertn belonging to family Barringtoniaceae was investigated to evaluate In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanolic, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts against Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli the major urinary tract infection causing pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. Ethanol (95% extract exhibited broader spectrum of inhibition followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts against the urinary tract pathogens under test. An attempt has been made to compare the activity of extracts with standard antibiotics against selected urinary tract infection causing pathogens.

  4. Detection of anabolic steroid administration: ratio of urinary testosterone to epitestosterone vs the ratio of urinary testosterone to luteinizing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, P J; MacIndoe, J H; Yates, W R; Scott, S D; Holman, T L

    1997-05-01

    Our goal in this study was to determine whether the urinary ratio of testosterone to luteinizing hormone (T/LH) as an indicator of exogenous anabolic steroid (AS) use is superior to the urinary ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E). After 2 weekly placebo injections, 19 subjects were given testosterone cypionate (TC) injections of 250 or 500 mg/week for 14 weeks followed by 14 weekly placebo injections. Patients were considered to have ceased taking TC if they tested negative 9 weeks after their last injection. For detection of illicit or supraphysiological TC (AS) use, the urinary T/E ratio of > or = 6 yielded a false-negative rate of 46% and a false-positive rate of 4%. However, a urinary T/LH ratio of > or = 30 produced a false-negative rate of only 24% and a false-positive rate of 13%. We conclude that the urinary T/LH ratio of > or = 30 is a more sensitive marker of AS use than the urinary T/E ratio of > or = 6 and remains sensitive for twice as long as urinary T/E. PMID:9166223

  5. Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type: a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abbas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare disease. It occurs in 0.5-2% of all bladder cancers and is discussed as the malignant counterpart of nephrogenic adenomas. We report a 46-year-old white female presented with gross hematuria for clinical examination. Histopathology revealed pT2, Pn1, L1, G2 adenocarcinoma of the bladder and carcinoma in situ according to the TNM classification. Computed tomography scan diagnostic was unremarkable. Patients with adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder should be treated vigorously and without time delay. Only 7 cases of adenocarcinoma in the urinary bladder (mesonephroid have been described until now. We present a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type that early diagnosed and till now 3 months after the cystectomy without symptoms and without complications.

  6. International Spinal Cord Injury Urinary Tract Infection Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetz, L L; Cardenas, D D

    2013-01-01

    To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research.

  7. The procedures that confirm and localize a urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory procedures are described that should be used after taking the history and noting the clinical findings. They included haematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, survey and contrast radiography, additional diagnostic techniques and localizing the urinary tract infection

  8. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of a female patient with slow evolution urinary symptoms and unspecific imaging findings, suggesting malignant etiology, although the final diagnosis was an inflammatory pseudotumor of bladder, is reported. (author)

  9. Products for Children with Enuresis and Daytime Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Products for Children with Enuresis and Daytime Urinary Incontinence The products listed here are designed for children with bedwetting (enuresis) or daytime bladder control problems (incontinence or ...

  10. Urinary excretion of mutagens in coke oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonfero, E; Granella, M; Marchioro, M; Barra, E L; Nardini, B; Ferri, G; Foà, V

    1995-03-01

    The influence of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on urinary mutagenic activity was assessed in 75 coke oven workers, using a highly sensitive bacterial mutagen technique (extraction with C18 resin and liquid micro-preincubation test on strain TA98 of Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of metabolizing and deconjugating enzymes). Exposure to PAHs was assessed according to the urinary excretion of 1-pyrenol; the main confounding factors were checked by the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the levels of nicotine and its metabolites in urine, or by ascertaining whether recommended dietary restrictions had been followed. Of the 20 urine samples which turned out to be positive (producing at least double the number of spontaneous revertants), 19 (95%) belonged to smokers. Only one non-smoker had obvious urinary mutagenic activity, and was highly exposed occupationally to PAHs (urinary 1-pyrenol of 3.930 mumol/mol of creatinine). Of the five urine samples from subjects who had not followed the recommended diet, two (40%) were clearly mutagenic. Multiple regression analysis (n = 67) showed that the presence of samples positive for urinary mutagenic activity depended only on smoking habits, if this confounding factor was assessed according to the number of cigarettes smoked per day, while the significant influence of exposure to PAH could be shown when the confounding factor was objectively estimated according to the urinary levels of nicotine and its metabolites. Assessment of the mutagenic potency of urinary extracts (net revertants/mmol creatinine) confirmed the strong influence of smoking habits on urinary mutagenic activity (all smokers 2156 +/- 2691 versus non-smokers 939 +/- 947 net revertants/mmol creatinine; Mann-Whitney test: P coke oven workers depended on exposure to PAHs, tobacco smoking habits, and consumption of fried, grilled or barbecued meat. Increased urinary mutagenic activity strengthens epidemiological evidence of the increased risk of renal and urinary tract tumours in these workers. The presence of mutagenic metabolites in urine as a result of occupational exposure to PAH may be demonstrated only by using highly sensitive techniques for assessing urinary mutagenic activity in studies which include careful checking of the main confounding factors. PMID:7697812

  11. Nomograms to predict late urinary toxicity after prostate cancer radiotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu, Romain; Arango, Juan David Ospina; Beckendorf, Véronique; Delobel, Jean-Bernard; Messai, Taha; Chira, Ciprian; BOSSI, ALBERTO; Le Prisé, Elisabeth; Guerif, Stéphane; Simon, Jean-Marc; Dubray, Bernard; Zhu, Jian; Lagrange, Jean-Léon; Pommier, Pascal; Gnep, Khemara

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze late urinary toxicity after prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT): symptom description and identification of patient characteristics or treatment parameters allowing for the generation of nomograms. METHODS: Nine hundred and sixty-five patients underwent RT in seventeen French centers for localized prostate cancer. Median total dose was 70 Gy (range, 65-80 Gy), using different fractionations (2 or 2.5 Gy/day) and techniques. Late urinary toxicity and the corresponding sympto...

  12. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao A Venket

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03 with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body.

  13. Renal scintigraphy in children with first febrile urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urinary tract infection is one of the most frequent bacterial infections in the childhood. Two hundred eleven children diagnosed as first febrile urinary tract infection patients were studied and performed Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in the acute phase of infection. The results were correlated to the duration and intensity of the fever before the diagnosis, to the acute phase reactants (hemogram, erythrosedimentation and reactive-C protein) and to the results of imaging studies (renal ultrasound and mictional uretrocystography)

  14. Management of incurable urinary fistulas by percutaneous ureteral occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J L; Maroney, T P; Lacey, C G

    1987-12-01

    Women with large urinary tract fistulas in the presence of advanced incurable gynecologic cancer are a difficult problem. In the past, treatment has usually been either inadequate or highly morbid. We have palliated three women with large incurable urinary tract fistulas by occluding the distal ureters with isobutyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Bucrylate) and implanting permanent bilateral percutaneous nephrostomies. This technique is easily performed and effective, and has few complications. PMID:3684136

  15. Urinary Bisphenol A and Obesity in US Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Ruchi; Xiao, Jie; Shankar, Anoop

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity, a major public health problem, can lead to cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Studies have implicated exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a commonly used chemical, in the development of obesity in adults. However, literature is limited on this association in children. We examined the association between urinary BPA and obesity in children aged 6–18 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2008). The primary exposure was urinary BPA and the outc...

  16. Prevalence of urinary tract infection in homosexual and heterosexual men.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, A. P.; Tovey, S. J.; Adler, M. W.; Grüneberg, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    Homosexual practices might be expected to result in an increase in urinary tract infection in adult men. Midstream urine specimens were collected from 200 homosexual and 205 heterosexual men attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. Three specimens from each group yielded more than 10(5) Escherichia coli per ml. The prevalence of urinary tract infection among homosexuals was therefore similar to that in the heterosexual population.

  17. Olanzapine as a Cause of Urinary Incontinence: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mobolaji Usman Dada; Lateef Olutoyin Oluwole; Patrick T Adegun; Tareo, Peter O

    2012-01-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is one of the most commonly used antipsychotics. Though olanzapine is commonly associated with endocrine side effects, it is generally well tolerated by most patients and is rarely associated with urinary incontinence. This report highlights the case of a 23 -year old male patient with schizophrenia who developed severe urinary incontinence following the use of olanzapine. No medications were given to relieve the incontinence contrary to some other stud...

  18. Urinary kallikrein: a physiological regulator of epithelial Na+ absorption.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, S. A.; Alles, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    The apical membrane of the mammalian urinary bladder contains two populations of ionic conductances--one Na+ selective and amiloride blockable, the other cation selective and amiloride insensitive (a leak channel). Addition of kallikrein (an enzyme of unknown function normally found in urine) to the mucosal solution of the mammalian urinary bladder epithelium resulted in the loss (over a 2-hr period) of amiloride-sensitive Na+ current and an increase in the leak current that is amiloride inse...

  19. Antibiotic resistance in children with complicated urinary tract infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Yildiz; Nurdan Kural; Gul Durmaz; Coskun Yarar; Ilknur Ak; Nevbahar Akcar

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the resistance of antibiotics for complicated urinary tract infection (UTI), including urinary tract anomaly (UTA), for empirical antibiotic therapy of complicated UTI. METHODS Four hundred and twenty urine isolates were obtained from 113 patients with recurrent UTI, who used prophylactic antibiotics between February 1999 and November 2004 in the Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey. RESULTS Reflux was found to be the most important predispo...

  20. Identification of Urinary Peptide Biomarkers Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Stalmach, Angelique; Johnsson, Hanna; McInnes, Iain B.; Husi, Holger; Klein, Julie; Dakna, Mohammed; Mullen, William; Mischak, Harald; Porter, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis are associated with improved outcomes but current diagnostic tools such as rheumatoid factor or anti-citrullinated protein antibodies have shown limited sensitivity. In this pilot study we set out to establish a panel of urinary biomarkers associated with rheumatoid arthritis using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. We compared the urinary proteome of 33 participants of the Scottish Early Rheumatoid Arthritis inception...

  1. Duloxetine in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Jost, Wolfgang H; Marsalek, Parvaneh

    2005-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is the most common form of urinary incontinence and occurs more frequently in women than in men. Duloxetine is a balanced dual serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibitor and shows no relevant binding affinity for histaminergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic, and adrenergic receptors. The efficacy of duloxetine in SUI is based on the inhibition of the presynaptic reuptake of 5-HT and NE in Onuf's nucleus of the sacral spinal cord, whereby it may i...

  2. Urethral overdilatation in females with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, D. M.; Goldman, M.; Farrar, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    The long-term results of using the Otis urethrotome as a dilator only in females with lower urinary tract symptoms are reported. Out of 103 patients, 80% were symptomatically improved or cured at initial follow up and this was maintained at 18 months in 62% of cases. Optimal, long-term results (78% improvement or cure) were obtained in the subgroup of patients who had recurrent urinary tract infections. The results compare favourably with those reported following urethrotomy. The advantages o...

  3. Urinary thioether of employees of a chemical plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, H; Savolainen, H; Kilpikari, I

    1978-08-01

    The thiols in the morning urine of 224 employees of a chemical plant were determined after alkaline hydrolysis of all urinary thioethers. The highest thioether excretion was found in rubber workers and radial tyre builders in comparison with clerks, plastic monomer mixers and footwear preparers. Smoking and medication tended to increase thioether excretion. Urinary thioether determination may prove to be a valuable tool in assessing exposure to mixtures of chemicals regardless of the route of absorption. PMID:698138

  4. Urinary neurotransmitter testing: considerations of spot baseline norepinephrine and epinephrine

    OpenAIRE

    Marty Hinz; Alvin Stein; Thomas Uncini

    2011-01-01

    Marty Hinz1 Alvin Stein2 Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics Inc., Cape Coral, FL, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL, USA; 3DBS Laboratories, Duluth, MN, USABackground: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of statistical analysis of spot baseline urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine assays in correlation with spot baseline urinary serotonin and dopamine findings previously published by the authors. Our research indicates a need for physicia...

  5. An individual urinary proteome analysis in normal human beings to define the minimal sample number to represent the normal urinary proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Xuejiao; Shao Chen; Wei Lilong; Duan Jindan; Wu Shuzhen; Li Xuewang; Li Mingxi; Sun Wei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The urinary proteome has been widely used for biomarker discovery. A urinary proteome database from normal humans can provide a background for discovery proteomics and candidate proteins/peptides for targeted proteomics. Therefore, it is necessary to define the minimum number of individuals required for sampling to represent the normal urinary proteome. Methods In this study, inter-individual and inter-gender variations of urinary proteome were taken into consideration to ...

  6. The human urine virome in association with urinary tract infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Ly, Melissa; Bonilla, Natasha; Pride, David T.

    2014-01-01

    While once believed to represent a sterile environment, the human urinary tract harbors a unique cellular microbiota. We sought to determine whether the human urinary tract also is home to viral communities whose membership might reflect urinary tract health status. We recruited and sampled urine from 20 subjects, 10 subjects with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and 10 without UTIs, and found viral communities in the urine of each subject group. Most of the identifiable viruses were bacteriophage, but eukaryotic viruses also were identified in all subjects. We found reads from human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in 95% of the subjects studied, but none were found to be high-risk genotypes that are associated with cervical and rectal cancers. We verified the presence of some HPV genotypes by quantitative PCR. Some of the HPV genotypes identified were homologous to relatively novel and uncharacterized viruses that previously have been detected on skin in association with cancerous lesions, while others may be associated with anal and genital warts. On a community level, there was no association between the membership or diversity of viral communities based on urinary tract health status. While more data are still needed, detection of HPVs as members of the human urinary virome using viral metagenomics represents a non-invasive technique that could augment current screening techniques to detect low-risk HPVs in the genitourinary tracts of humans. PMID:25667584

  7. [Urinary tract infection in children: clinical analysis and investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H Y; Law, K L; Chi, C S

    1989-02-01

    The urinary tract is a common site for bacterial infection in childhood. The most important aspect of urinary tract infection in childhood is that it can lead to severe and progressive renal disease. From March 1983 to March 1987, 63 cases of suspected urinary tract infection were collected in Taichung VGH. Among them only 24 cases reached our diagnostic criteria. Eight cases were within 2 years old, which all are male. Sixteen cases were beyond 2 years old, which the ratio of male to female is 1:1. Eighteen cases presented pyuria. Ten cases had recurrent infections, among which eight cases had urinary abnormalities. The most common pathogenic organism was E. coli (44%), then Proteus (24%), Klebsiella (16%), Pseudomonas (12%). The antibiotics sensitivity test revealed 95.7% were sensitive to gentamicin and amikacin, 81% to cephalothin, 56. 5% to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Imaging studies revealed nine cases (37.5%) with urinary tract abnormalities, including vesicoureteral refluxes 6 cases, right multicystic kidney with left vesicoureteral reflux 1 case, horse-shoe kidney 1 case, atonic bladder 1 case. The ratio of male to female is 2:1. All seven cases of severe vesicoureteral refluxes received surgery. One case developed post-operative ureteral stricture. One case occurred unilateral chronic renal parenchymal disease one year later. Others were free of reflux and reinfection of urinary tract. PMID:2766067

  8. Role of the chronic bacterial infection in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgy, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether or not bacterial infection of the urinary bladder had a role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this proposition, four separate studies were conducted. The first study developed an experimental animal model where bacterial infection of the urinary bladder could be introduced and maintained for a period in excess of one year. The method of infection, inoculation of bacteria (Escherichia coli type 04) subserosally into the vesical wall, successfully caused persistent infection in the majority of animals. In the second study the temporal effects of bacterial infection on the induction of urothelial ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis were examined. Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder induced urothelial ODC with a peak in enzyme activity 6 hr after infection./sup 3/H-Thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis peaked 48 hr after infection and coincided with the urothelial hyperplasia that occurred in response to the infection. In the third study the specific bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) was given to rats concurrent with the urinary bacterial infection. In the fourth study rats were administered sodium nitrate and either dibutylamine or piperazine in the drinking water. The infected group developed bladder tumors while none were detected in the non-infected rats. From these studies it may be concluded that bacterial infection may have a significant role in the process of urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

  9. Role of the chronic bacterial infection in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether or not bacterial infection of the urinary bladder had a role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this proposition, four separate studies were conducted. The first study developed an experimental animal model where bacterial infection of the urinary bladder could be introduced and maintained for a period in excess of one year. The method of infection, inoculation of bacteria (Escherichia coli type 04) subserosally into the vesical wall, successfully caused persistent infection in the majority of animals. In the second study the temporal effects of bacterial infection on the induction of urothelial ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and 3H-thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis were examined. Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder induced urothelial ODC with a peak in enzyme activity 6 hr after infection.3H-Thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis peaked 48 hr after infection and coincided with the urothelial hyperplasia that occurred in response to the infection. In the third study the specific bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) was given to rats concurrent with the urinary bacterial infection. In the fourth study rats were administered sodium nitrate and either dibutylamine or piperazine in the drinking water. The infected group developed bladder tumors while none were detected in the non-infected rats. From these studies it may be concluded that bacterial infectiot may be concluded that bacterial infection may have a significant role in the process of urinary bladder carcinogenesis

  10. Development of the lower urinary tract and its functional disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peco-Anti? Amira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A normal development of lower urinary tract function control evolves from involuntary bladder empting (incontinence during infancy to daytime urinary continence, and finally a successful day and night continence that is generally achieved by the 5th to 7th year of age. This gradual process primarily depends on the progressive maturation of the neural control of the lower urinary tract, but it is also influenced by behavioral training that evolves through social support. Functional voiding disorders (bladder dysfunction are common problems during childhood. They are present in 5-15 % of general pediatric population, and in one-fifth of school-age children or in over one-third of patients of the pediatric urologist or nephrologist. More than half of children with bladder dysfunction have vesicoureteral reflux, and more than two-thirds have recurrent urinary tract infections. There is also a frequent association of bladder dysfunction with constipation and encopresis (dysfunctional elimination syndrome. Bladder dysfunction may cause a permanent damage to the upper urinary tract and kidneys. In addition, urinary incontinence, as the most common manifestation of bladder dysfunction can be the cause of major stress in schoolage children and have a negative effect on the child’s feeling of self-esteem. Thus, a timely detection and treatment of this group of disorders in children is highly significant.

  11. Four cases of spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Miwa, Sotaro; Takashima, Hiroshi; Takemae, Katsuro [Nagoya Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    Between November 1997 and March 2001, 4 female patients from 44 to 65 years of age with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder were analyzed. They complained of abdominal pain and had undergone an intra-pelvic gynecological operation (3 for uterine cancer, 1 for an ovarian cyst) several years before. The three with uterine cancer had also received radiation therapy. For their present condition, spontaneous urinary bladder rupture, their treatment was indwelling a urethral catheter. Two of them have had no recurrence of urinary bladder rupture after one month since having the urethral catheter indwelt. One, however, had to have the catheter re-indwelt due to unsuccessful suturing of the urinary bladder wall. The fourth patient had bilateral nephrostomy tubes due to severe radiation cystitis. Thus, one can infer that intra-pelvic gynecological operations and radiation therapy are major factors causing spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. While indwelling a urethral catheter may be effective for some patients with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder, it may be very difficult to treat more complicated cases. (author)

  12. Optimal management of urinary tract infections in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beveridge L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Louise A Beveridge1, Peter G Davey2, Gabby Phillips3, Marion ET McMurdo11Ageing and Health, Division of Medical Sciences, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, 2Health Informatics Centre, University of Dundee, 3Medical Microbiology Department, NHS TaysideAbstract: Urinary tract infections (UTI occur frequently in older people. Unfortunately, UTI is commonly overdiagnosed and overtreated on the basis of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms. The diagnosis of a UTI in the older patient requires the presence of new urinary symptoms, with or without systemic symptoms. Urinalysis is commonly used to diagnose infection in this population, however, the evidence for its use is limited. There is overwhelming evidence that asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be treated. Catheter associated urinary tract infection accounts for a significant amount of hospital-associated infection. Indwelling urinary catheters should be avoided where possible and alternatives sought. The use of narrow spectrum antimicrobial agents for urinary tract infection is advocated. Local guidelines are now widely used to reflect local resistance patterns and available agents. Guidelines need to be updated to reflect changes in antimicrobial prescribing and a move from broad to narrow spectrum antimicrobials.Keywords: urinary tract infection, elderly, review

  13. Reducing the risk of catheter-related urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarko, Linda

    Primum non nocere (first do no harm) is the ancient Latin phrase that reminds nurses that first principle of healthcare is not to harm those entrusted to our care. Yet, common healthcare interventions, such as urinary catheterization, have the potential to do patients great harm. The patient may even pay with his or her life if a urinary catheter is inserted without clinical indications or if the nurse fails to do his or her utmost to protect the patient from infection. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common of healthcare-related infection. UTI in hospital inpatients normally occurs in people who have a urinary catheter inserted. Urinary catheterization is common and although the risks of catheter-associated UTI are small, the consequences or catheter-associated UTI can be life threatening. Urinary catheterization increases morbidity by a factor of three. Restricting catheterization to those who clinically require this invasive procedure can reduce the number of people who developed infection and life threatening bacteraemia. The use of silver-coated catheters can reduce the risks of infection. Evidence based practice can further reduce risks of catheterization. It is important that informed consent is obtained prior to catheterization. If a person lacks capacity the clinician must act in the person's best interests. PMID:19062452

  14. Bladder sensory desensitization decreases urinary urgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino António

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder desensitization has been investigated as an alternative treatment for refractory detrusor overactivity. Most open and controlled clinical trials conducted with intravesical RTX showed that desensitization delays the appearance of involuntary detrusor contractions during bladder filling and decreases the number of episodes of urgency incontinence. Urgency is being recognised as the fundamental symptom of overactive bladder (OAB, a symptomatic complex which recent epidemiological studies have shown to affect more than 10% of the Western population. As anti-muscarinic drugs, the first line treatment for OAB, are far from being able to fully control urgency, the opportunity to test other therapeutic approaches is created. The present work was, therefore, designed as an exploratory investigation to evaluate the effect of bladder desensitization on urinary urgency. Methods Twenty-three OAB patients with refractory urgency entered, after given informed consent, a 30 days run-in period in which medications influencing the bladder function were interrupted. At the end of this period patients filled a seven-day voiding chart where they scored, using a 0–4 scale, the bladder sensations felt before each voiding. Then, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 10% ethanol in saline (vehicle solution and 30 days later a second seven-day voiding chart was collected. Finally, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 50 nM RTX in 10% ethanol in saline. At 1 and 3 months additional voiding charts were collected. At the end of the vehicle and 3 months period patients were asked to give their subjective impression about the outcome of the treatment and about the willingness to repeat the previous instillation. Results At the end of the run-in period the mean number of episodes of urgency per week was 71 ± 12 (mean ± SEM. After vehicle instillation, the mean number of episodes of urgency was 56 ± 11, but only 4 patients (17% considered that their urinary condition had improved enough to repeat the treatment. At 1 and 3 months after RTX the number of episodes of urgency decreased to 39 ± 9 (p = 0.002 and 37 ± 6 (p = 0.02, respectively (p indicates statistical differences against vehicle. The percentage of patients with subjective improvement after RTX and willing to repeat the instillation at a later occasion was 69%. Conclusion In OAB patients with refractory urgency bladder desensitization should be further investigated as an alternative to the standard management. Additionally, the specific effect of RTX on TRPV1 receptors suggests that urothelium and sub-urothelial C-fibers play an important role to the generation of urgency sensation.

  15. Helical CT of the urinary organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreyer, H.H.; Uggowitzer, M.M.; Ruppert-Kohlmayr, A. [Graz Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-03-01

    Despite of the diagnostic potential of conventional CT (CCT), limitations being inherent in this technology reduce its diagnostic confidence and limit clinical CT applications as 3D imaging. Helical CT (HCT) has far overcome the limitations of CCT and has become the standard CT technology. After a short overview on the technique of HCT and its advantages over CCT, the impact of HCT on the detection of disorders of the urinary organs is discussed. Due to the high quality of 3D reconstructions, vessels are visualized free of artefacts resulting in a dramatic improvement and acceptance of CT angiography, which has become a clinically important examination in the evaluation of obstructive renal artery disease. Fast HCT provides a precise assessment of the three phases of the nephrogram and it is a prerequisite for an improved depiction of abnormal vascular perfusion and impaired tubule transit of contrast material. Helical CT enables an improved characterization of cystic mass lesions reducing the diagnosis of indeterminate masses and thus facilitating a better therapeutic management. The diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas (RCC) has improved due to an increased sensitivity in detecting small RCCs, and an increased specificity in the diagnosis of neoplastic lesions. Improved staging of RCCs is the result of accurate assessment of venous tumour extension. When planning nephron-sparing surgery 3D display of the renal tumour helps to determine the resectability of the mass depicting its relation to major renal vessels and the renal collecting system. In the evaluation of renal trauma HCT provides shorter scanning time and thus fewer artefacts in the examination of traumatized patients who cannot cooperate adequately. Three-dimensional postprocessing modalities allow the assessment of the renal vascular pedicel by CT angiography and improve the demonstration of complex lacerations of the renal parenchyma. In the evaluation of the upper urinary tract unenhanced HCT has become the imaging method of choice in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of acute flank pain since it is highly sensitive and specific in detecting calculus disease. Unenhanced HCT may furthermore demonstrate causes of flank pain unrelated to urolithiasis. Gapless volume scanning and improved resolution in the z-axis during the excretory phase enables improved visualization of the renal collecting systems and ureters, resulting in a better demonstration of intraluminal and extraluminal pathology. (orig.)

  16. Increased severity of urinary tract infection and bacteremia in mice with urinary bladder injury induced by cyclophosphamide.

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, D.; Howard, E B; Montgomerie, J Z

    1982-01-01

    The effect of cyclophosphamide on urinary tract infection was studied, using Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a murine model. Urinary tract infections were produced by injecting P. aeruginosa through a urethral catheter into the bladders of mice. The number of P. aeruginosa organisms in the bladder tissue and kidneys, histopathology, peripheral leukocyte count, and antibody response to P. aeruginosa was measured. The local effect of cyclophosphamide on the bladder was determined by measuring the bla...

  17. The association between indwelling urinary catheter use in the elderly and urinary tract infection in acute care

    OpenAIRE

    Gareri Michele; Tsai Margaret; Hazelett Susan E; Allen Kyle

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of indwelling urinary catheters (IUCs) is thought to be the most significant risk factor for developing nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, it is unclear how many elderly patients have preexisting bacteriuria prior to IUC placement. The purpose of this study was to determine 1) the frequency and appropriateness of IUC use in the Emergency Department (ED) in elderly patients admitted to our acute care hospital, 2) the percentage of elderly patients ...

  18. Estudio de un cálculo intestinal en un paciente con adenocarcinoma de colón: ¿es similar a los cálculos renales? / Study of a intestinal enteroliths in human patient with colon adenocarcinome: Is it similar to renal calculi?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.L., Traba Villameytide; J.A., Orts Costa; M., Morell.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra el estudio realizado a enterolitos intestinales procedentes de un paciente de 91 años que padecía una enterolitiasis múltiple confirmada por estudio radiológico abdominal y TAC, mostrando cálculos en el tracto intestinal, renal y biliar. Además esta enterolitiasis estaba asociad [...] a a un adenocarcinoma de colon. Los enterolitos analizados proceden de una intervención quirúrgica en la que se practicó una hemicolectomía derecha. Los enterolitos se sometieron a un análisis por espectrometría de infrarrojos (IR) observándose un espectro de carbonato apatita no-estequiométrica, tipo whitloquita, posiblemente con materia orgánica. Con el fin de estudiar el posible contenido de diversos elementos químicos, se practicó un análisis por espectrometría de emisión atómica encontrándose, fundamentalmente, los iones Ca, Mg, K, Na y K (del orden de mg/100 mg de cálculo) y Zn, Ba, Mn, Fe, Cu, Si, Ti y Br en menor proporción (del orden de µg/100 mg de cálculo). Dada la morfología del cálculo y su espectro de IR (carbonato apatita no estequiométrica) se determinó la posible presencia de porfirinas por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC) encontrándose, fundamentalmente, coproporfirina (µg/g de cálculo) y en menor proporción uroporfirina, protoporfirina y hepta-carboxi porfirina. El estudio se completó con el análisis de los enterolitos mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido y EDX. El análisis por difracción de rayos X detectó la presencia de CaP4O11. Los resultados obtenidos de los diferentes análisis muestran que la composición de los enterolitos es similar a la de los cálculos renales, aunque su morfología difiera de estos. Abstract in english This work shows the study performance to intestinal enterolithis from a 91 year old patient with multiple enterolithiasis confirmed by abdominal X-ray and TAC analyses showing the presence of intestinal, renal and bile stones. This enterolithis is associated with colon adenocarcinoma. The enterolith [...] s were obtained by hemicolectomia and were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (IR), giving nonstoichiometry carbonate apatite whitloquite-like with, possibly, organic material. By atomic emission spectroscopy we found Ca, Mg, K, Na y K (mg/100 mg of calculi) and Zn, Ba, Mn, Fe, Cu, Si, Ti and Br in minor proportion (µg/100 mg of calculi). Because of calculi morphology and the IR spectra (non-stoichiometry carbonate apatite) we carried out analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and found coproporphyrin (about µg/g of calculi) and uroporphyrin, protoporphyrin and heptacarboxy-porphyrin in minor extent. Calculi were also studied by scanning electronic microscopy and EDX and X-ray diffraction giving crystals of CaP4O11. All these results show that intestinal enteroliths composition are similar to renal calculi although its morphology differs from renal calculi.

  19. Stress urinary incontinence in the female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is aimed at demonstrating the validity of conventional radiological procedures, correlated with urodynamics, in the study of female urinary stress incontinence. In a study population of 110 patients with a clinical-urodynamic diagnosis of stress incontinence, radiological evaluation was performed by means of retrograde cystography, bead chain cystourethrography, and voiding cystourethrography. Radiographic findings were correlated with urodynamic data, and in particular with urethral pressure profile (fuctional lenght of the urethra, maximum closing pressure, maximum urethral pressure). In all patients the posterior urethro-vesical angle values were higher than 100 grade centigrades; moreover, a correlation was proven to exist between an increase in the angle of front urethral inclination, the lowering and mobility of the urethro-vesical junction, and the severeness of urodynamic findings. Furtheremore, in the different stages of urodynamic severeness, urethral funnelling was most frequent, and the flattening of the posterior vesical floor in voiding cystourethrography. The high reliability of the radiographic findings, although obtained by means of conventional techniques, and the variability of the morphodynamic results confirm the importance of a combined radiographic and urodynamic study in the evaluation of stress incontinence

  20. Congenital Urinary Tract Obstruction: The Long View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Robert L

    2015-07-01

    Maldevelopment of the collecting system resulting in urinary tract obstruction (UTO) is the leading identifiable cause of CKD in children. Specific etiologies are unknown; most cases are suspected by discovering hydronephrosis on prenatal ultrasonography. Congenital UTO can reduce nephron number and cause bladder dysfunction, which contribute to ongoing injury. Severe UTO can impair kidney growth in utero, and animal models of unilateral ureteral obstruction show that ischemia and oxidative stress cause proximal tubular cell death, with later development of interstitial fibrosis. Congenital obstructive nephropathy, therefore, results from combined developmental and obstructive kidney injury. Because of inadequacy of available biomarkers, criteria for surgical correction of upper tract obstruction are poorly established. Lower tract obstruction requires fetal or immediate postnatal intervention, and the rate of progression of CKD is highly variable. New biomarkers based on proteomics and determination of glomerular number by magnetic resonance imaging should improve future care. Angiotensin inhibitors have not been effective in slowing progression, although avoidance of nephrotoxins and timely treatment of hypertension are important. Because congenital UTO begins in fetal life, smooth transfer of care from perinatologist to pediatric and adult urology and nephrology teams should optimize quality of life and ultimate outcomes for these patients. PMID:26088076

  1. Urinary tract stones - Part I: Role of radiological imaging in diagnosis and treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern management of urolithiasis requires a multi-disciplinary approach. Imaging plays a central role in both diagnosis and planning therapy of renal and ureteric calculi. This article reviews the current status of diagnosis and management of stone disease, and the contribution of radiological imaging in accurately triaging a given case to the most appropriate therapy

  2. Peripyelitis: A risk factor for urinary fistula after tubeless PCNL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, Guilherme Philomeno; Vicentini, Fabio C; Marchini, Giovanni S; Srougi, Victor; Mazzucchi, Eduardo; Srougi, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A 43 years-old man presented to our stone clinic complaining of back pain for the last 3 months. He had significant past medical history for nephrolithiasis: he had undergone unsuccessful SWL for left renal calculi five years ago and also presented with several episodes of pyelonephritis in the last months, requiring hospitalization for intravenous antibiotics. Initial laboratory work-up revealed normal serum creatinine (0.92 mg/dL) and hemoglobin levels (15.3 g/dL); urine culture was negative. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a 140 mm2 stone in the left renal pelvis with 1500 Hounsfield Units (Figure-1a); thickening of the urothelium surrounding the stone was suspected after contrast infusion (Figure-1b) and confirmed in the excretory phase (Figure-1c). PMID:25928525

  3. Urinary Tract Infection and Predisposing Factors in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Naseri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to determine the predisposing factors in children with symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI according to age and gender.Material & Methods: We reviewed prospectively 183 pediatric patients with symptomatic UTI admitted to emergency department or referred to nephrology clinic from November 2002 through July 2005. All patients underwent renal ultrasonography and voiding-cystouretherography or radionuclide cystography. Diuretic renal scan or intravenous pyelography (IVP was performed in those with urinary system dilatation. Urodynamic studies were done in patients with normal radiologic findings and recurrent infections or urinary-intestinal symptoms. Findings: Of 183 patients, 130 cases (71% were female and 53 patients (29% male. Most of the patients (61.9% were between 2-24 months old (P=0/001. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR was the most common predisposing factor in both genders (46.9% in girls and 48.9% in boys. Voiding dysfunction in girls and urinary obstruction in boys were found with a significant difference (P=0/03 for both. In all age groups, except patients?1 month, the most common predisposing factor was reflux. Reflux, urinary obstruction and nephrolithiasis were found with a significant difference in 2-24 months age group (P=0/001 for all. Conclusion: In our study vesicoureteral reflux (VUR was as common in boys as in girls, and suggested urolithiasis as a significant UTI predisposing factor. This study showed that voiding dysfunction in girls and urinary obstruction in boys are as significant predisposing factors. We suggest urodynamic studies in patients with normal radiologic findings and recurrent infections or urinary-intestinal symptoms.

  4. Screening with urinary dipsticks for reducing morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KrogsbØll, Lasse T; JØrgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary dipsticks are sometimes used for screening asymptomatic people, and for case-finding among inpatients or outpatients who do not have genitourinary symptoms. Abnormalities identified on screening sometimes lead to additional investigations, which may identify serious disease, such as bladder cancer and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Urinary dipstick screening could improve prognoses due to earlier detection, but could also lead to unnecessary and potentially invasive follow-up testing and unnecessary treatment. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to quantify the benefits and harms of screening with urinary dipsticks in general populations and patients in hospitals. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register to 8 September 2014 through contact with the Trials Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials and other study types that compared urinary dipstick screening with no dipstick screening were eligiblefor inclusion. We searched for studies that investigated the use of urinary dipsticks for detecting haemoglobin, protein, albumin, albumin-creatinine ratio, leukocytes, nitrite, or glucose, alone or in any combination, and in any setting. We planned to exclude studies conducted in patients with urinary disorders. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: It was planned that two authors would independently extract data from included studies and assess risk of bias using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. However, no studies met our inclusion criteria. MAIN RESULTS: Literature searches to 8 September 2014 yielded 4298 records, of which 4249 were excluded following title and abstract assessment. There were 49 records (44 studies) eligible for full text assessment; of these 18 studies were not RCTs and 26 studies compared interventions or controls that were not relevant to this review. Thus, no studies were eligible for inclusion. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence to assess the benefits and harms of screening with urinary dipsticks, which remain unknown.

  5. Urinary catheterization in gynecological surgery: When should it be removed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adly N.A. Fattah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate time for urinary catheter removal following a gynecological surgery.Methods: Critical appraisal of clinical trial articles were conducted. It was aimed to answer our clinical question whether 24-hour postoperative urinary catheter removal is superior compared to other durations in avoiding postoperative urinary retention (PUR and urinary tract infection (UTI. The search was conducted on the Cochrane Library® and PubMed® using keywords “postoperative urinary retention”, “postoperative catheterization” and “urinary retention AND catheterization”. Reference lists of relevant articles were searched for other possibly relevant trials.Results: Seven articles were available as full text, then appraisals of six prospective RCTs involving 846 women underwent hysterectomy and vaginal prolapse surgery were performed finding at the re-catheterization and UTI rate. Subjects in earlier-removal groups were 3 to 4 times more likely to have re-catheterization (OR = 3.10-4.0 compared to later-removal groups, while they who have it removed on 5th day were 14 times more likely to develop UTI compared with immediate group (OR = 14.786, 95% CI 3.187- 68.595.Conclusion: The 24-hour catheterization policy in hysterectomy and vaginal prolapse surgery remains most appropriate although associated with an increased risk of re-catheterization. The removal of catheter before 24 hour (6 or 12 hour could be considered to be used as one of interventions in further RCT(s to find out the best duration which would result in lowest incidence in both of UTI and  PUR. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:183-8. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i3.589Keywords: Catheter, hysterectomy, prolapse, urinary tract infection

  6. Role of scintigraphy in urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is controversy regarding the role of radiological imaging for urinary tract infection (UTI). The gold standard has been the intravenous pyelogram (IVP). Yet, the IVP has a very limited value with only about 25% of children with pyelonephritis demonstrating abnormalities. Ultrasound (US) has recently been advocated as a replacement for the poorly sensitive and poorly specific IVP. However, comparative studies between US and IVP indicate only an equivalent sensitivity and specificity. Cortical scintigraphy with Technetium-99m glucoheptonate (99mTc GH) or 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc DMSA) has also been advocated as a means of differentiating parenchymal (pyelonephritis) from nonparenchymal (lower UTI) involvement in UTI. The clinical presentation may be misleading especially in the infant and child in whom an elevated temperature, flank pain, shaking chills, or an elevated sedimentation rate are often lacking. The clinician attempts to localize the site of infection for it has a direct bearing upon the therapy. A collecting system infection can often be eradicated with a single oral dose of an appropriate antibiotic, whereas renal parenchymal involvement requires IV therapy for an extended interval. Cortical scintigraphy can localize the site of infection with a high degree of accuracy. Recent studies report a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 81% of pyelonephritis. This is in contrast to the IVP with a sensitivity of only 24% and US with a sensitivityvity of only 24% and US with a sensitivity of only 42%. The scintigraphic appearance of parenchymal infection of the kidney is a spectrum of minimal to gross defects reflecting the degree of histologic involvement that spans from a mild infection to frank abscess. Cortical scintigraphy can be used to monitor the evolution of scarring following infection. Cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc DMSA or 99mTc GH is the method of choice for the initial evaluation of UTI. 37 references

  7. Role of scintigraphy in urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, J.J.

    1988-10-01

    There is controversy regarding the role of radiological imaging for urinary tract infection (UTI). The gold standard has been the intravenous pyelogram (IVP). Yet, the IVP has a very limited value with only about 25% of children with pyelonephritis demonstrating abnormalities. Ultrasound (US) has recently been advocated as a replacement for the poorly sensitive and poorly specific IVP. However, comparative studies between US and IVP indicate only an equivalent sensitivity and specificity. Cortical scintigraphy with Technetium-99m glucoheptonate (99mTc GH) or 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc DMSA) has also been advocated as a means of differentiating parenchymal (pyelonephritis) from nonparenchymal (lower UTI) involvement in UTI. The clinical presentation may be misleading especially in the infant and child in whom an elevated temperature, flank pain, shaking chills, or an elevated sedimentation rate are often lacking. The clinician attempts to localize the site of infection for it has a direct bearing upon the therapy. A collecting system infection can often be eradicated with a single oral dose of an appropriate antibiotic, whereas renal parenchymal involvement requires IV therapy for an extended interval. Cortical scintigraphy can localize the site of infection with a high degree of accuracy. Recent studies report a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 81% of pyelonephritis. This is in contrast to the IVP with a sensitivity of only 24% and US with a sensitivity of only 42%. The scintigraphic appearance of parenchymal infection of the kidney is a spectrum of minimal to gross defects reflecting the degree of histologic involvement that spans from a mild infection to frank abscess. Cortical scintigraphy can be used to monitor the evolution of scarring following infection. Cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc DMSA or 99mTc GH is the method of choice for the initial evaluation of UTI. 37 references.

  8. Temporal resolution of urinary morbidity following prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the short-term urinary morbidity for prostate brachytherapy patients without a preimplant history of a transurethral resection of the prostate gland and who received prophylactic and prolonged ?-blockers. ?-blockers may decrease radiation-induced urethritis and increase urinary flow. Multiple clinical and treatment parameters were evaluated to identify factors associated with increased acute urinary morbidity. Materials and Methods: One hundred seventy consecutive patients without a prior history of a transurethral resection of the prostate gland underwent transperineal ultrasound guided prostate brachytherapy for clinical T1c-T3a carcinoma of the prostate gland. For all patients, an ?-blocker was initiated prior to implantation and continued at least until the international prostate symptom score (IPSS) returned to baseline levels. Clinical parameters evaluated for short-term urinary morbidity included patient age, clinical T stage, preimplant IPSS (obtained within 3 weeks of implantation), and prostate ultrasound volume. Treatment parameters included the utilization of neoadjuvant hormonal manipulation, the utilization of moderate dose external beam radiation therapy before implantation, the choice of isotope, the urethral dose, the total implant activity in millicuries, and a variety of dosimetric quality indicators (D90 and V100/V150/V200). Catheter dependency and the duration of ?-blocker dependenand the duration of ?-blocker dependency was also evaluated. On average, 11.2 IPSS surveys were obtained for each patient. Results: One hundred fifty of the 170 patients (88.2%) had the urinary catheter permanently removed on day 0. Only one patient required an urinary catheter for > 5 days. Two patients (1.2%) required a subsequent transurethral resection of the prostate gland because of prolonged obstructive/irritative symptoms. To date, no patient has developed an urinary stricture or urinary incontinence. The IPS score on average peaked at 2 weeks following implantation. This score returned to within 1 point of the antecedent value at a median of 6 weeks and a mean of 13.3 weeks. At 26 and 50 weeks, 85% and 56% of the patients, respectively, continued with ?-blockers. Of the clinical and treatment parameters evaluated for short-term urinary morbidity, only variants of the IPSS such as the maximum, maximum increase, and preimplant IPSS values correlated with time to return to the referent zone with p < 0.05. Conclusion: The return of the IPS score to baseline occurred more rapidly in our series than what has previously been reported. The 1.2% incidence of transurethral resections also compares favorably with the published literature. We believe these results may be due to maintaining the average urethral dose to approximately 115% of the prescribed dose and the prophylactic and long-term use of ?-blockers

  9. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96 %). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70 % of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ? 25 in 56 % (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8 %. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45 % (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22 % (55/255); Uric Acid 16 % (40/255); and Cystine 4 % (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies. PMID:25805105

  10. Update on biofilm infections in the urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenke, Peter; Köves, Béla

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Biofilm infections have a major role in implants or devices placed in the human body. As part of the endourological development, a great variety of foreign bodies have been designed, and with the increasing number of biomaterial devices used in urology, biofilm formation and device infection is an issue of growing importance. METHODS: A literature search was performed in the Medline database regarding biofilm formation and the role of biofilms in urogenital infections using the following items in different combinations: "biofilm," "urinary tract infection," "bacteriuria," "catheter," "stent," and "encrustation." The studies were graded using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine classification. RESULTS: The authors present an update on the mechanism of biofilm formation in the urinary tract with special emphasis on the role of biofilms in lower and upper urinary tract infections, as well as on biofilm formation on foreign bodies, such as catheters, ureteral stents, stones, implants, and artificial urinary sphincters. The authors also summarize the different methods developed to prevent biofilm formation on urinary foreign bodies. CONCLUSIONS: Several different approaches are being investigated for preventing biofilm formation, and some promising results have been obtained. However, an ideal method has not been developed. Future researches have to aim at identifying effective mechanisms for controlling biofilm formation and to develop antimicrobial agents effective against bacteria in biofilms.

  11. Urinary podocyte microparticles identify prealbuminuric diabetic glomerular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Dylan; Thibodeau, Jean-Francois; Holterman, Chet E; Burns, Kevin D; Touyz, Rhian M; Kennedy, Christopher R J

    2014-07-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are small (0.1-1.0 µm) vesicles shed from the surface of cells in response to stress. Whether podocytes produce MPs and whether this production reflects glomerular injury are unclear. We examined MP formation in cultured human podocytes (hPODs) and diabetic mice. hPODs were exposed to cyclical stretch, high glucose (HG; 25 mM), angiotensin II, or TGF-?. Urinary podocyte MPs were assessed in three mouse models of diabetic nephropathy: streptozotocin (STZ)-treated, OVE26, and Akita mice. Cyclic stretch and HG increased MP release as assessed by flow cytometry (Pfasudil blocked HG-induced podocyte MP formation. STZ-treated (8 weeks) mice exhibited increased urinary podocyte MPs compared with age-matched nondiabetic mice. Similarly, 16-week-old OVE26 mice had elevated levels of urinary podocyte MPs compared with wild-type littermates (P<0.01). In 1 week post-STZ-treated and 6- and 12-week-old Akita mice, urinary podocyte MPs increased significantly compared with those MPs in nondiabetic mice, despite normal urinary albumin levels. Our results indicate that podocytes produce MPs that are released into urine. Podocyte-derived MPs are generated by exposure to mechanical stretch and high glucose in vitro and could represent early markers of glomerular injury in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24676640

  12. Hydration and urinary pseudoephedrine levels after a simulated team game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Daniel; Dawson, Brian; Maloney, Shane K; White, James; Goodman, Carmel; Peeling, Peter

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of dehydration on urinary levels of pseudoephedrine (PSE) after prolonged repeated effort activity. Fourteen athletes performed a simulated team game circuit (STGC) outdoors over 120 min under three different hydration protocols: hydrated (HYD), dehydrated (DHY) and dehydrated + postexercise fluid bolus (BOL). In all trials, a 60 mg dose of PSE was administered 30 min before trial and at half time of the STGC. Urinary PSE levels were measured before drug administration and at 90 min postexercise. In addition, body mass (BM) changes and urinary specific gravity (USG), osmolality (OSM), creatinine (Cr), and pH values were recorded. No differences in PSE levels were found 90 min postexercise between conditions (HYD: 208.5 ± 116.5; DHY: 238.9 ± 93.5; BOL: 195.6 ± 107.3 ?g · ml(-1)), although large variations were seen within and between participants across conditions (range: 33-475 ?g · ml(-1): ICC r = .03-0.16, p > .05). There were no differences between conditions in USG, OSM, pH or PSE/Cr ratio. In conclusion, hydration status did not influence urinary PSE levels after prolonged repeated effort activity, with ~70% of samples greater than the WADA limit (>150 ?g · ml(-1)), and ~30% under. Due to the unpredictability of urinary PSE values, athletes should avoid taking any medications containing PSE during competition. PMID:24458099

  13. Antibody coating of urinary bacteria in transplanted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedasch, G; Ritz, E; Dreikorn, K; Andrassy, K

    1978-01-01

    24 patients with renal transplants were studied beyond the immediate postoperative period (greater than 8 weeks p.o.) for a period of 6 months in three weekly intervals. Quantitative bacteriology (dip slide method) and immunofluorescence microscopy (antibody coating of urinary bacteria) of the urine were regularly performed. Urinary tract infection was found in 13 of 24 patients, being permanent in 9 and episodic in 4 of the patients. There was no correlation between presence of urinary tract infection and deterioration of renal function. Mixed infection was found in 7 of the 13 patients and monoinfection in the others. In 7 out of these 13 patients, antibody coating of urinary bacteria could be demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. In 3 of the 7 cases with antibody coating, this was permanently positive, in the other 4 it was intermittently positive. In only 1 case could conversion to positive antibody coating be attributed to urological complications (pyelostomy). Both IGG and IGA were demonstrable in 6 of 7 cases with positive antibody coating and IGG exclusively was demonstrable in 1 more case. IGM was questionably positive in 1 case and complement (beta1C) could not be demonstrated in any of the patients. This investigation shows that despite immunosuppression patients with renal transplants are able to mount an immune response against urinary tract infections. PMID:347321

  14. Current practices in the management of patients with ureteral calculi in the emergency room of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Rojas Claros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Urinary lithiasis is a common disease. The aim of the present study is to assess the knowledge regarding the diagnosis, treatment and recommendations given to patients with ureteral colic by professionals of an academic hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five physicians were interviewed about previous experience with guidelines regarding ureteral colic and how they manage patients with ureteral colic in regards to diagnosis, treatment and the information provided to the patients. RESULTS: Thirty-six percent of the interviewed physicians were surgeons, and 64% were clinicians. Forty-one percent of the physicians reported experience with ureterolithiasis guidelines. Seventy-two percent indicated that they use noncontrast CT scans for the diagnosis of lithiasis. All of the respondents prescribe hydration, primarily for the improvement of stone elimination (39.3%. The average number of drugs used was 3.5. The combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids was reported by 54% of the physicians (i.e., 59% of surgeons and 25.6% of clinicians used this combination of drugs (p = 0.014. Only 21.3% prescribe alpha blockers. CONCLUSION: Reported experience with guidelines had little impact on several habitual practices. For example, only 21.3% of the respondents indicated that they prescribed alpha blockers; however, alpha blockers may increase stone elimination by up to 54%. Furthermore, although a meta-analysis demonstrated that hydration had no effect on the transit time of the stone or on the pain, the majority of the physicians reported that they prescribed more than 500 ml of fluid. Dipyrone, hyoscine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opioids were identified as the most frequently prescribed drug combination. The information regarding the time for the passage of urinary stones was inconsistent. The development of continuing education programs regarding ureteral colic in the emergency room is necessary.

  15. Olanzapine as a Cause of Urinary Incontinence: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobolaji Usman Dada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is one of the most commonly used antipsychotics. Though olanzapine is commonly associated with endocrine side effects, it is generally well tolerated by most patients and is rarely associated with urinary incontinence. This report highlights the case of a 23 -year old male patient with schizophrenia who developed severe urinary incontinence following the use of olanzapine. No medications were given to relieve the incontinence contrary to some other studies where ephedrine was used. Olanzapine was changed to trifluoperazine, and the patient's condition improved within two days. Urinary incontinence, though uncommon, is an embarrassing side effect of olanzapine which could negatively affect drug compliance. As such, clinicians should enquire about it in order to improve the patient’s health.

  16. Female urethral diverticulum associated with a large urinary calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oliveira Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The diverticula of female urethra are very uncommon, but more frequently found between the third and fifth decade of life. Diverticula area mostly relate to repeated urinary infections of the periurethral glands or urethra’s trauma. The diverticula may cause infection, calculus formation and rarely endometriosis or cancer. A case of a 65-year old Caucasian female with vaginal mass over six months is herein reported. There was no urinary loss, urethral secretion or urinary symptoms.    A cystourethrography showed diverticula with calculus inside. The patient was submitted to surgery and dismissed from the hospital on the first postoperative day. The pathologic examination revealed no malignancy. In six months of follow-up, the patient was continent with no complaints.

  17. [Intractable bacterial infections of the genito-urinary tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, M; Ohi, Y

    1994-02-01

    Bacterial infection of the genito-urinary tract in the compromised host is still one of the difficulties encountered by the urologists. The problem factors of the urinary tracts, including underlying diseases in compromised uro-patients, and how to prevent a miserable outcome are discussed. In terms of adequate and timely anti-bacterial chemotherapy, retroperitoneal abscess, recurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa urinary tract infection (UTI) and chronic bacterial prostatitis were evaluated, respectively. Recently, satisfactory anti-bacterial agents and therapeutic alternatives are available. Nevertheless, the Pseudomonas aeruginosa UTI associated with bio-film formation in catheterized, uro-patients is intractable. Adjuvant modality, as well as antibacterial chemotherapy, is recommended for successful strategy in so-called total therapy. PMID:8126905

  18. EXCEPTIONALLY RARE VARIANTS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM ANOMALIES - ROENTGEN PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade R. Babi?

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of the radiological study of the urinary system anomalies are presented on the material consisting of 8,568 urographies done from 1990 to 2001 at the Institute for Radiology, Niš. The paper shows exceptionally rare anomalies of the urinary system: a horse-shoe shaped kidney with pyelocaliceal systems in its arms and isthmus, heterolateral ectopia of the kidney with fusion, abdominal-medial ectopia of the kidney with ventral malrotation and cup hyperplasia, hypoplastic cup, triple pyeolcaliceal system, M. Lenarduzzi and blind-ending of the Y-shaped urethra. The author concludes that, for the sake of performing every day professional work, it is necessary to possess detailed knowledge of the rarest urinary system anomalies.

  19. Urinary tract infection: searching evidence for nursing care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Santos Oliveir

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Systematic review on treatment of urinary tract infection. Seeks to identify the evidence for the nursing care in the references selected, linking the actions and strategies that identify the causes and factors that can promote the occurrence of urinary tract infections; specifications of the microorganisms that cause the colonization as well as therapeutic strategy used in health scenario. The nursing care appears subliminally suggesting that the technical procedure, when carried out correctly and appropriately minimizes risks to patient. Identifies as key evidence for the occurrence of urinary tract infection the instrumentalization of the former and that a nurse with safe praticing with the customer, enables the prevention of risks with harm reduction to both and to society.

  20. Evaluation of urinalysis parameters to predict urinary-tract infection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Conrad dos, Santos; Liliana Portal, Weber; Leandro Reus Rodrigues, Perez.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the performance of automated-flow cytometry, urinalysis dipsticks and microscopic urine sediment analysis as predictors of urinary tract infection. Urine cultures were used as a reference method for comparison. Six-hundred-seventy-five urine samples from hospitalized and not hospitalize [...] d patients attended at Hospital Mãe de Deus, Porto Alegre, in south Brazil, were included in the study. Among the individual measures analyzed, intense bacteriuria in the microscopic analysis of urinary sediment gave an accuracy of 92.9%. A combination between intense bacteriuria (microscopic analysis) and >20 leukocytes per µL of urine (flow cytometry) gave a higher accuracy (97.3%). We conclude that though it is laborious, microscopic urinalysis is a good analytical tool. Taken together with flow cytometry and dipsticks, we obtained a clinically-acceptable prediction of urinary-tract infection.

  1. Evaluation of urinalysis parameters to predict urinary-tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Conrad dos Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the performance of automated-flow cytometry, urinalysis dipsticks and microscopic urine sediment analysis as predictors of urinary tract infection. Urine cultures were used as a reference method for comparison. Six-hundred-seventy-five urine samples from hospitalized and not hospitalized patients attended at Hospital Mãe de Deus, Porto Alegre, in south Brazil, were included in the study. Among the individual measures analyzed, intense bacteriuria in the microscopic analysis of urinary sediment gave an accuracy of 92.9%. A combination between intense bacteriuria (microscopic analysis and >20 leukocytes per µL of urine (flow cytometry gave a higher accuracy (97.3%. We conclude that though it is laborious, microscopic urinalysis is a good analytical tool. Taken together with flow cytometry and dipsticks, we obtained a clinically-acceptable prediction of urinary-tract infection.

  2. The role of radiotherapy in urinary bladder cancer: current status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Nader, Marta; Samir Abdallah, Hanna; Rafael, Gadia; Sebastião Francisco Miranda, Correa; Joao Luis Fernandes da, Silva; Heloisa de Andrade, Carvalho.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of urinary bladder cancer has undergone several modifications along the last decades. In the beginning, definitive RT was used as treatment in an attempt to preserve the urinary bladder; however, the results were poor compared to those of radical surger [...] y. Recently, many protocols have been developed supporting the use of multi-modality therapy, and the concept of organ preservation began to be reconsidered. Although phase III randomized clinical studies comparing radical cystectomy with bladder preservation therapies do not exist, the conservative treatment may present low toxicity and high indexes of complete response for selected patients. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the subject in order to situate RT in the current treatment of urinary bladder cancer.

  3. X-ray urodynamic diagnosis in upper urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of the methods of urodynamic study as pyelomanometry, flowmetry and ureteral electromyography, carried out under X-ray monitoring, are stressed compared to conventional uroradiographic and radioisotopic study of the upper urinary tract. Those techniques are especially valuable in case of obstruction with urinary stasis and pyelocaliceal dilatation and for prognostication of the further course of the disease. They provide information about functional fitness of the upper urinary tract contributing to a prognostic assessment of the state of renal parenchyma and pyelocaliceal system. The authors describe the introduction of the percutaneous techniques for urine withdrawal from the kidney in 46 patients. The conclusion is reached that there is a direct relationship between the state of pyelocaliceal system, obstruction duration and prognosis of the renal function which is objectively demonstrated by an original mathematical index used for postoperative results' control. 12 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig. (orig.)

  4. Pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bethany; Woodward, Sue

    2015-06-11

    The offering of pelvic floor muscle exercises to all women during their first pregnancy is recommended by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines. Pelvic floor muscles suffer significant trauma throughout pregnancy and childbirth, which may sometimes lead to urinary incontinence postpartum. However, it is uncertain how effective pelvic floor muscle exercises are in treating this incontinence. Several trials have been analysed to try to understand this question. Issues such as when the exercises were undertaken, how often they were performed and in what circumstances they were carried out, have all been considered. While it is still uncertain whether they are effective in reducing urinary incontinence postpartum, as they are non-invasive and fairly simple to carry out, they are still the first-line management for urinary incontinence postpartum with other treatments being considered if this is ineffective. PMID:26067791

  5. Scintigraphy findings in children presenting the first febrile infection of urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the more frequent bacterial infections in childhood. The aim of present research was to know the acute phase renal alterations of the first febrile infection of urinary tract

  6. Trans-obturator Tape in surgical treatment of urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafi M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a new minimally-invasive surgical procedure using trans-obturator Tape (TOT to treat female stress urinary incontinence.Methods: This clinical trial study was performed from 2003 to 2004 in the Gynecology Department of Imam Hospital, Vali-e-Asr, Tehran, Iran. A total of 35 women with stress urinary incontinence underwent the TOT procedure. All patients underwent pre-operative clinical examination, cough-stress test (full bladder, uroflowmetry and post-voiding residual volume assessment. Results: The mean age of patients was 50 years, ranging from 26 to 74 years, with an average urinary stress incontinence duration of six years. The mean time of follow-up was 14 months (at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months and the average duration of surgery was about 20 minutes. The perioperative complication rate was 9% with no vascular, nerve or bowel injuries. The rate of hemorrhagic side effects (spontaneously-absorbed hematoma and blood loss not requiring blood transfusion was 2.9%. Post-operative urinary retention and vaginal erosion occurred in one case each; the former was treated by intermittent self-catheterization. In total, 91.4% of patients were completely cured and 8.6% were improved without failure of treatment. Conclusions: The present study confirms the results obtained by Delorme and coworkers, and allows us to consider TOT as a safe, minimally invasive and efficient short-term surgical technique for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence, alone or in combination with prolapse repair. Following this study, a randomized control trial is recommended to compare TOT with the gold standard surgery for women with urinary incontinence.

  7. Etiology of urinary tract infection in scholar children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroso Jr. Ubirajara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the prevalence of vesicourethral dysfunction in children over 3 years old, comparing it with the occurrence rate for other potential factors that cause urinary infection in this age range. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 36 girls and 9 boys were assessed, with mean age of 6.4 years, ranging from 3 to 13.9 years. These children were prospectively assessed regarding the presence of symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction. These data were compared with the retrospective assessment of other potential risk factors for urinary infection. Ultrasonography was performed in 28 children and voiding cystourethrogram was performed in 26 patients. RESULTS: Vesicourethral dysfunction was diagnosed in 39 (87% of the 45 children with urinary infection. Among these 39 patients, all had voiding urgency, 30 (77% had urinary incontinence, 12 (31% pollakiuria and 3 (8% presented infrequent voiding. Vaginal discharge was evidenced in 8 (22% girls and phimosis in 2 (22% boys. Obstipation was diagnosed in 10 (22% cases. Significant post-voiding residue was detected in 4 (13% of the 28 cases assessed. Vesicoureteral reflux was evidenced in 5 (19% of the 26 patients who underwent voiding cystourethrogram. In only 2 (4% cases there was not an apparent cause for the infection. CONCLUSION: Vesicourethral dysfunction is a major cause of urinary infection in children with ages above 3 years old. In cases where voiding dysfunction in not present, other predisposing factors must be assessed. However, only 4% of the patients did not present an apparent urologic cause for the infection.

  8. Electrical Stimulation for Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Systematic Review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucas, Schreiner; Thais Guimaraes dos, Santos; Alessandra Borba Anton de, Souza; Christiana Campani, Nygaard; Irenio Gomes da Silva, Filho.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Electrical stimulation is commonly recommended to treat urinary incontinence in women. It includes several techniques that can be used to improve stress, urge, and mixed symptoms. However, the magnitude of the alleged benefits is not completely established. Objectives To determine the [...] effects of electrical stimulation in women with symptoms or urodynamic diagnoses of stress, urge, and mixed incontinence. Search Strategy: Our review included articles published between January 1980 and January 2012. We used the search terms “urinary incontinence”, “electrical stimulation”, “intravaginal”, “tibial nerve” and “neuromodulation” for studies including female patients. Selection Criteria We evaluated randomized trials that included electrical stimulation in at least one arm of the trial, to treat women with urinary incontinence. Data Collection and Analysis Two reviewers independently assessed the data from the trials, for inclusion or exclusion, and methodological analysis. Main Results A total of 30 randomized clinical trials were included. Most of the trials involved intravaginal electrical stimulation. Intravaginal electrical stimulation showed effectiveness in treating urge urinary incontinence, but reported contradictory data regarding stress and mixed incontinence. Tibial-nerve stimulation showed promising results in randomized trials with a short follow-up period. Sacral-nerve stimulation yielded interesting results in refractory patients. Conclusions Tibial-nerve and intravaginal stimulation have shown effectiveness in treating urge urinary incontinence. Sacral-nerve stimulation provided benefits in refractory cases. Presently available data provide no support for the use of intravaginal electrical stimulation to treat stress urinary incontinence in women. Further randomized trials are necessary to determine the magnitude of benefits, with long-term follow-up, and the effectiveness of other electrical-stimulation therapies.

  9. Urinary metallothionein as an indicator of cadmium body burden and of cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Z A; Tohyama, C

    1984-01-01

    There is a need to identify specific biological indicator(s) of cadmium exposure so that the renal damage can be prevented. Towards this end, we have examined the usefulness of urinary metallothionein as an indicator of cadmium body burden. It is found that, in both animals and humans, urinary metallothionein level is related to the hepatic and renal cadmium burdens. Significant correlations are also found between the urinary metallothionein and urinary cadmium and beta 2-microglobulin. Furth...

  10. The study of infectious agents of the urinary tract infections in Durrës, Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Aurora Bakaj (Çizmja); Entela Ruçi (Kulla); Mirela Lika (Cekani)

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are characterized by the presence of infectious agents in the genital-urinary tract that cannot be explained by contamination. These agents have the potential to invade the tissues of the urinary tract and adjacent structures. Settings and Design: Prospective study was done in the Health Directory in Durrës. Methods and Material: The study included all the patients who were admitted or visited the outpatient departments in the Health Directory and had urinary t...

  11. The Effect of Time Passage on False Positive Urinary Nitrite Test

    OpenAIRE

    Shokoofeh Barazandeh; Habib, A.; Nabavi, M; SH Nabavizadeh

    2003-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most prevalent pediatric diseases which, if diagnosed and treated promptly, can lead to potential severe sequelae. Positive urinary nitrite is a sensitive test to determine urinary tract infection. In this study we evaluate the effect of delayed urinalysis on the result of urinary nitrite. We studied mid-stream clean catch urine of 30 children in Imam Sajjad Hospital of Yasouj University of Medical Sciences. Specimens stored at room temperature and urinar...

  12. Urinary iodine levels in three ecological zones of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Quazi, Salamatullah; Mohiduzzaman, M.; Khan, Moududur R.; Nahar, B.; Rahman, M. Mostafizur; Islam, M. Nurul; Baquer, M.; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yusuf, Harun K. M.

    1997-01-01

    Urinary iodine levels in children (5–11 years) and in adult males and females (15–44 years) of three ecological zones (hilly, flood-prone and plains) of Bangladesh were analyzed to determine the status of biochemical iodine deficiency in the country. Data indicated that a large majority of the population all over Bangladesh have biochemical iodine deficiency urinary iodine excretion (UIE) less than the accepted cut-off level of 10 ?g/dl. Adults were deficient to comparable degrees, 31.3%...

  13. [Cri-du-chat disease: plasma and urinary amino acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, J; Rethoré, M O; Peeters, M; de Blois, M C; Rabier, D; Parvy, P; Bardet, J; Kamoun, P

    1990-01-01

    Ten cases of cri du chat disease due to a del(5)(p14p15) were observed. A highly significant excess of the plasmatic and urinary relative amount of asparagine + aspartate was detected. A highly significant excess of the relative amount of histidine was also noted in the urine but not in the plasma. Excess of asparagine + aspartate could be related to a disorder of purine metabolism. The urinary excess of histidine could be related to a disorder of the aminoacid catabolism. PMID:2369068

  14. Wine in the prevention of chronic bacterial urinary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, G S

    2003-01-01

    The observation of statistical public health data, together with lifestyle in a still native population following a strict Mediterranean diet, where local wine consumption of approximately 350 ml daily still has a primary role, demonstrates that this area, Pantelleria, also called the Black Pearl, has better regulation of common intestinal motor disorders. The incidence of chronic bacterial urinary infection is 30% lower than the national average. Further open laboratory studies should be performed to confirm our data and to elucidate whether protection against chronic bacterial urinary infection is congenital or acquired. PMID:15134378

  15. Diuretics stimulate H+ secretion in turtle urinary bladder.

    OpenAIRE

    Lief, P. D.; Mutz, B. F.; Bank, N.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of various diuretics on H+ secretion was studied in the isolated short-circuited urinary bladder of the turtle. Mucosal (urinary) chlorothiazide stimulated H+ secretion promptly, from 1.33 +/- 0.24 to 3.03 +/- 0.25 mueq/h (P less than 0.001). The effect was rapidly reversible upon washout of the drug, H+ returning to control levels, 1.37 +/- 0.26 mueq/h (P less than 0.001). Similar effects were observed with mucosal hydrochlorothiazide and mucosal ethacrynic acid/cysteine. Stimulat...

  16. Plasma and Urinary Heme Oxygenase-1 in AKI

    OpenAIRE

    Zager, Richard A.; Johnson, Ali C. M.; Becker, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    AKI induces upregulation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), which exerts cytoprotective effects and modulates the renal response to injury, suggesting that a biomarker of intrarenal HO-1 activity may be useful. Because HO-1 largely localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and has no known secretory pathway, it is unclear whether plasma or urinary levels of HO-1 reflect intrarenal HO-1 expression. We measured plasma and urinary levels of HO-1 by ELISA during the induction and/or maintenance phases of f...

  17. The role of imaging in adult acute urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, J.A.W. [Diagnostic Radiology Department, St. Bartholomew`s Hospital, West Smithfield, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    Imaging is required in only a minority of patients with urinary tract infection. Some patients who present with severe loin pain are imaged because ureteric colic is suspected. If urinary tract infection does not respond normally to antibiotics, imaging is undertaken to check for evidence of renal obstuction or sepsis. Finally, after the acute infection has been treated, imaging is required in some patients to check for factors pre-disposing to renal damage or to relapsing or recurrent infection. This review discusses the appropriate choice of imaging technique to use in each clinical situation and summarises the expected findings. (orig.). With 15 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Two-picture urography in urinary tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers analyzed separately from a urographic series 1 radiograph of the kidneys, ureters and bladder after releasing compression. The diagnosis was compared to that of the complete series in 230 consecutive urographic studies performed for recurrent urinary tract infections. The findings were in agreement in 88 per cent of the cases and no therapeutically significant change was overlooked owing to the decrease in the number of exposures. A urographic series with 2 films is described and recommended for the screening of recurrent urinary tract infections in young patients

  19. The investigation of urinary tract infections in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article outlines the role and methods used in the investigation of urinary tract infections in children. Each modality, whether it has been used in the past or begin used currently or in the future, has been discussed, together with its advantages and pitfalls. There are no hard and fast rules in the investigation of urinary tract infections. It really depends on the clinical scenario and the child. This article will hopefully provide a basis of understanding the reasons behind each investigation and their appropriate use in the child depending on their age and clinical history. (author)

  20. The role of imaging in adult acute urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging is required in only a minority of patients with urinary tract infection. Some patients who present with severe loin pain are imaged because ureteric colic is suspected. If urinary tract infection does not respond normally to antibiotics, imaging is undertaken to check for evidence of renal obstuction or sepsis. Finally, after the acute infection has been treated, imaging is required in some patients to check for factors pre-disposing to renal damage or to relapsing or recurrent infection. This review discusses the appropriate choice of imaging technique to use in each clinical situation and summarises the expected findings. (orig.). With 15 figs., 1 tab

  1. Primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix invading the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Remon; Furuya, Yuzo; Akashi, Takuya; Okumura, Akiou; Fuse, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of adenocarcinoma of the appendix invading the urinary bladder in a 75-year-old man. Although cystoscopic examination and computed tomography suggested a primary or secondary bladder tumor, repeated transurethral bladder biopsy could not confirm the neoplasm. At operation a primary neoplasm of the appendix invading the bladder was discovered and en bloc resection of the urinary bladder with the adherent cecum followed by an ileocolonic anastomosis and ureterocutaneostomy was performed. The patient died of carcinoma 13 months later. PMID:17160444

  2. Herpes zoster-associated acute urinary retention in immunocompetent patient

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvio Alencar, Marques; Juliana, Hortense.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster-associated urinary retention is an uncommon event related to virus infection of the S2-S4 dermatome. The possible major reasons are ipsilateral hemicystitis, neuritis-induced or myelitis-associated virus infection. We report a case of a 65-year-old immunocompetent female patient who pr [...] esented an acute urinary retention after four days under treatment with valacyclovir for gluteal herpes zoster. The patient had to use a vesical catheter, was treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids and fully recovered after eight weeks.

  3. Female urinary stress incontinence treated with Teflon injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; RØhl, H

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-six women with urinary stress incontinence underwent transperineal or transurethral Teflon injections. The results were classified into three grades (good, moderate, and poor). Good or moderate results were obtained in 50%. No major immediate complications or long-term side-effects were observed. This intervention is associated with a minimum of discomfort for the patient and hospitalization can be limited to 48-72 h. The procedure can be carried out with good effect on women previously classically operated on without success and it does not prevent subsequent surgical intervention for urinary incontinence should this prove necessary.

  4. The radiological diagnosis of urinary incontinence in a female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basing upon 77 patients examined the lateral cysturethrography with metallic bead chain is demonstrated as a special X-ray method in the diagnostic management of the female urinary incontinence in good reference to its diagnostic value in advance. A methodic limitation to the lateral voiding cysturethrography only means lack of information about the relations of the pathophysiologically important vesicourethral connection in 'relaxed' and 'straining' state. The clinical graduation of stress urinary incontinence shows no proportionality in quantity according to the angles of the vesico-urethral connection revealable by roentgenogram. (orig.)

  5. Etiology and method of radiologic assessment of male urinary incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary incontinence presenting after iatrogenic or other trauma to the urethral sphincters is a distressing symptom for the patient and often a troublesome problem for a surgeon. Dynamic retrograde urethrography and voiding cystourethrography can greatly assist the urologist in determining the extent of the damage to the sphincters and thence selecting the appropriate treatment. We outline a method of urethrography for the assessment of male urinary incontinence, not previously described in the radiologic literature, to be used as a radiologic adjunct to clinical and urodynamic assessment

  6. Efficacy of prophylactic gentamicin use in postoperative urinary tract infections after endoscopic procedures of the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersev, D; Dillio?lugil, O; Ilker, Y; Sim?ek, F; Akda?, A

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the efficacy of prophylactic antibiotic use was investigated. A total of 110 patients undergoing endoscopic procedures of the urinary tract were enrolled in the study. Fifty-five of the patients were treated with 8-hourly, 80 mg gentamicin sulfate of total three doses. The drug administration began just prior to the operation. Seven postoperative infections (12.7%) were detected, the same number as in the control group of 55 patients. The results confirm that there is no place for gentamicin prophylaxis in endoscopic procedures of the urinary tract. PMID:1413302

  7. Treatment of renal calculi by lithotripsy: minimizing short-term shock wave induced renal damage by using antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadi, Khaleel A; Kehinde, Elijah O; Loutfi, Issa; Mojiminiyi, Olusegun A; Al-Hunayan, Adel; Abdul-Halim, Hamdy; Al-Sarraf, Ahmed; Memon, Anjum; Abraham, Mathew P

    2008-02-01

    Treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), the preferred method of treating kidney stones <3 cm in size, has been shown to induce silent and often self-limiting acute and chronic lesions in the kidneys and adjacent organs. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to determine whether ESWL produces ischaemia and reperfusion injury in the kidneys and whether oral administration of antioxidants reduces the degree of short-term renal injury in patients treated with ESWL. The study included 120 patients with renal stones (1-3 cm in size) treated with ESWL. The patients were divided into three groups--patients in group A (n=39) served as a control group and were not given any antioxidants; patients in group B (n=41) were given two capsules of antioxidants "Nature Made R: " 2 h before ESWL, and 2 and 8 h after ESWL; and patients in group C (n=40) were given two capsules of the antioxidants 2 and 8 h after ESWL. Double 'J' stents were inserted in patients before treatment with ESWL. Blood and urine samples were obtained from all patients just before the start of treatment with ESWL, and at 2 and 24 h and on 7th and 28th day after ESWL. Serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), alpha-tocopherol, cholesterol, albumin and ascorbic acid, and alpha-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio were determined. Urinary levels of albumin and beta(2) microglobulin were also determined as measures of renal tubular injury. At 24 h after ESWL, patients given antioxidants (groups B + C) had significantly reduced mean serum concentration of MDA (P<0.001); higher levels of serum ascorbic acid (P<0.001) and serum albumin (P<0.001); lower alpha-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio, lower urinary albumin and beta(2 )microglobulin levels compared with patients who did not receive antioxidants (group A). These findings suggest that treatment with ESWL generates free radicals through ischaemic/reperfusion injury mechanism, and that oral administration of antioxidant may protect these patients from short term renal injury caused by ESWL. PMID:18064446

  8. MR imaging of pelvic floor in stress urinary incontinence=20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Rae; Park, Heung Jae; Kook, Shin Ho; Chung, Eun Chul [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    To demonstrate the anatomy of the female pelvic floor and to determine the anatomic differences between normal controls and women with stress urinary incontinence, using MRI. Five healthy, young, nulliparous women and 12 with stress urinary incontinence underwent MR imaging. We obtained FSE T2-weighted axial images, 3mm thick, of the region extending from the urethroversical junction to the perineal membrane. The following parameters were determined : angle, asymmetry and signal intensity of the levator ani muscles, the distance between the urethra and symphysis, and the presence, shape and angulation of urethropelvic ligament. In contrast to normal controls, frequent findings in women with stress incontinence were as follows : increased angle (43%), asymmetry (43%) and higher signal intensity (67%) of the levator ani muscles; increased distance between the urethra and symphysis; loss (43%), discontinuity (60%) and dorsal angulation (43%) of the urethropelvic ligament. In women with stress urinary incontinence, MRI clearly demonstrates the anatomy of the female pelvic floor, changes in the levator ani muscles, the distance between the urethra and symphysis, and the urethropelvic ligament. The modality can therefore be used to evaluate the anatomical changes occurring in cases of stress urinary incontinence. (author)

  9. Urinary CXCL10: a marker of nephritis in lupus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Marie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a connective tissue disease characterized by the formation of autoantibodies and immune complexes. Lupus nephritis is one of the hallmark features of SLE. CXCL10 is a chemokine secreted by IFNg- stimulated endothelial cells and has been shown to be involved in the pathological processes of autoimmune diseases. The objective was to measure urinary CXCL10 in SLE patients, to compare levels between nephritis and non-nephritis groups and to study its correlation with other variables. Sixty lupus patients were enrolled in our trial. Thirty patients had lupus nephritis and the other 30 were without evidence of lupus nephritis. Thirty healthy subjects were willing to participate as a healthy control group. Renal biopsy was performed for lupus nephritis group. Urinary CXCL10 was measured using the ELISA technique. Serum creatinine, C3, C4 and 24 h urinary proteins were measured. Lupus activity was assessed using systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI scoring system. Renal activity was measured using renal activity scoring system. CXCL10 was significantly higher in lupus nephritis patients than in lupus patients without nephritis. CXCL10 was significantly correlated with renal activity score, 24 hours urinary proteins and the SLEDAI score. It is highly valid predictor of SLE nephritis with high sensitivity and specificity. CXCL 10 a highly sensitive and specific non-invasive diagnostic tool for lupus nephritis patients.

  10. Prevalence of Stress Urinary Incontinence in Elite Female Endurance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po?wiata Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in a group of elite female endurance athletes, as professional sport is one of the risk factors for stress urinary incontinence. SUI rates in the groups of female cross-country skiers and runners were compared to determine whether the training weather conditions like temperature and humidity influenced the prevalence of urinary incontinence. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed among 112 elite female athletes ie., 57 cross-country skiers and 55 runners. We used a short form of the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6 to assess the presence of SUI symptoms and the level of urogenital distress. Only women who had been practicing sport professionally for at least 3 years, on an international and national level, were included in the research. The study group consisted of 76% nulliparous and 24% parous women. 45.54% of all participants reported leakage of urine associated with sneezing or coughing which indicates stress urinary incontinence. 29.46% were not bothered by the urogenital distress symptoms. 42.86% of the participants were slightly bothered by the symptoms, 18.75% were moderately bothered, 8.04% were significantly bothered and 0.89% were heavily bothered. The absence of statistically significant differences between both groups seems to indicate that training weather conditions did not influence the prevalence of SUI in elite female endurance athletes.

  11. Urinary metalloproteinases: noninvasive biomarkers for breast cancer risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pories, Susan E; Zurakowski, David

    2008-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and a disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM 12) can be detected in the urine of breast cancer patients and provide independent prediction of disease status. To evaluate the potential of urinary metalloproteinases as biomarkers to predict breast cancer risk status, urine samples from women with known risk marker lesions, atypical hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), were analyzed. Urine samples were obtained from 148 women: 44 women with atypical hyperplasia, 24 women with LCIS, and 80 healthy controls. MMP analysis was done using gelatin zymography and ADAM 12 analysis was done via immunoblotting with monospecific antibodies and subsequent densitometric measurement. Positive urinary MMP-9 levels indicated a 5-fold risk of atypical hyperplasia and >13-fold risk of LCIS compared with normal controls. Urinary ADAM 12 levels were significantly elevated in women with atypical hyperplasia and LCIS from normal controls, with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showing an area under the curve of 0.914 and 0.950, respectively. To assess clinical applicability, a predictive index was developed using ADAM 12 in conjunction with Gail risk scores for women with atypia. Scores above 2.8 on this ADAM 12-Gail risk prediction index score are predictive of atypical hyperplasia (sensitivity, 0.976; specificity, 0.977). Our data suggest that the noninvasive detection and analysis of urinary ADAM 12 and MMP-9 provide important clinical information for use as biomarkers in the identification of women at increased risk of developing breast cancer.

  12. Urinary system examinations with ultravist in children. Preliminary communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urography with nonionic contrast medium - ultravist (Schering) was performed in 36 children, including the outpatients. Urinary system was well visualized in all cases except a bladder in 6 postoperative ones. Adverse reactions were observed only in 1 child. The authors recommended a routine using the nonionic contrast media in pediatric radiology. (author)

  13. Urinary catecholamine concentrations in three beef breeds at slaughter

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H.A., O' Neill; E.C., Webb; L., Frylinck; P., Strydom.

    Full Text Available Animal welfare has become an important determinant of meat quality with poor animal temperament leading to huge economic losses to the meat industry due to carcass bruising and condemnation. Handling and transport of live animals is a stressful experience for animals. The temperaments of cattle affe [...] ct their behaviour and differ between breeds, i.e. studies have shown that Bos indicus types are more temperamental than Sanga and Bos taurus types. Catecholamines (CAT's) are considered as indicators of stress, because higher concentrations of CAT's in brain tissue were noted in animals that are better adapted to stressful situations. In the present study, urinary CAT's of three beef breeds were determined immediately post mortem. Brahman cattle represented Bos indicus types, Simmentaler cattle represented Bos taurus types and Nguni cattle represented the Sanga type. Nguni steers showed higher urinary norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) concentrations than Brahman and Simmentaler steers. Simmentaler steers showed a higher concentration of urinary dopamine (DA) than Br and Ng. The results suggest that Nguni cattle are less stress sensitive compared to the other beef breeds studied. These observations may be due to the process of domestication and selection for specific genes that influence tameability and consequently resulting in a shift in circulating concentrations of urinary CAT's.

  14. Vesicoureteral Reflux in Childhood: Preventing urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, William Lane M.; Leung, Alexander K. C.; Hyndman, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the most common anatomical predisposition to pyelonephritis. A retrograde voiding cystourethrogram is the preferred study to assess the severity of VUR. Most children with VUR will respond to medical management. The prevention of urinary tract infections is fundamental to the management of children with VUR.

  15. Functional disorders of the lower urinary tract in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional disorders of the lower urinary tract as well as vesicoureteral reflux involved in the disease complex of urinary tract infection/permanent renal parenchymal damage can be considered predisposing or risk factors. Two main forms can be distinguished, i.e., unstable bladder and dysfunctional voiding, while transitional forms between the two exist. Functional disorders of the lower urinary tract obstruct spontaneous resolution of vesicoureteral reflux. They are found in about 50% of cases in all children with urinary tract infection and are associated with an increased risk of developing renal parenchymal scars. They are observed during the newborn period up to school age. In the first few months of life, particularly boys with bilateral high-grade reflux and congenital renal parenchymal damage are affected. At later ages girls are also affected, but in this age group bladder instability predominates. Incontinence as the leading clinical symptom appears in approximately 70% of all cases and is closely correlated with chronic constipation. Imaging procedures in addition to urodynamic methods are of decisive importance for diagnosis and treatment, but noninvasive approaches such as sonography should be given preference. (orig.)

  16. Urinary Symptoms and Urodynamics Findings in Patients with Friedreich's Ataxia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andre F. A., Musegante; Priscila Natasja S., Almeida; Raphael Temporao M., Monteiro; Ubirajara, Barroso Jr.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To assess the prevalence of LUTS, urinary tract and urodynamics changes in patients with Friedreich's Ataxia (FA), the most common form of hereditary ataxia. Materials and Methods This study evaluated 258 patients with genetically confirmed diagnoses of FA. Of the patients, 158 responded [...] to a questionnaire which assessed their urinary symptoms. Patients with clinical changes underwent renal function examinations, ultrasound, and urodynamic studies (UDS). Results The sample analyzed showed that 82% of the patients complained of LUTS, although only 22% related the symptoms with quality of life impairment. Twenty eight (18%) of them agreed to undergo urodynamic evaluation. Urgency was the most common symptom. The exam was normal in 4 (14%) and detrusor underactivity was the most common finding. 14% (4 patients) presented with dilatation of the upper urinary tract at ultrasound scans. None of them had creatinine alterations. Conclusions LUTS was found in a large percentage of patients with FA, but only a few related it to their quality of life impairment. Although creatinine levels was normal in this sample, some patients may show upper urinary tract abnormalities, with deserves close observation and proper care.

  17. Urinary bladder rupture in an elderly patient: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, E L; Prat, O

    1995-11-01

    Urinary bladder rupture should be suspected in elderly patients with an acute abdomen. Because symptoms are often atypical among elderly patients, this condition is often undetected. Early diagnosis and treatment could help reduce the mortality rate associated with this condition. PMID:8563511

  18. Antibiotic Resistance in Urinary Tract Infections in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ronald P.; Haith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine resistance to antibiotics of "Escherichia coli" in uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTIs) in female college students. Participants: Symptomatic patients presenting to a student health service from September 2008 to December 2009. Methods: Clean catch midstream urine samples were tested for urinalysis (UA) and…

  19. Transient pseudohypoaldosteronism and urinary tract infection: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajeddini A

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A 43-day old infant with myelomeningocele was evaluated for feeding problems and ill appearance. The presence of metabolic acidosis, hyponatermia and hypercalemia suggested renal tubular acidosis type IV. Later examination showed urinary tract infection together with bilateral vesicoureteral reflux. After treatment of the infection, metabolic acidosis and electrolyte imbalances were resolved and the diagnosis of pseudohypoaldosteronism was confirmed.

  20. Is Every Stone Urinary Stone? A Rare Case of Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gunes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary vaginal stones in children are extremely rare medical condition but important because they are often mistaken for urinary stones. Here, we present the case of an 11-year-old girl with multiple vaginal stones.