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Integrated Urban Water Quality Management  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry weather, while the overflow from the combined sewer system plays a minor role. Oxygen depletion in urban rivers is caused by intermittent discharges from both sewer system and wastewater treatment plant. Neglecting one of them in the evaluation of the environmental impact gives a wrong impression of total system behaviour. Detention basins have limited positive effect for minimizing the acute pollution in rivers, but are useless in terms of accumulative pollution.

Harremoës, Poul

1995-01-01

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Effects of Urbanization on Water Quality: Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

... page The effects of urbanization on water quality: Pesticides Pesticides are chemical and biological substances intended to control pests, such as insects, weeds, bacteria, and algae. Pesticides are heavily used on farmland, but in urban ...

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An integrated approach for urban water quality assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper introduces an integrated approach for the assessment of receiving water quality and the relative contribution of the urban drainage system to perceived receiving water quality problems. The approach combines mass balances with relatively simple receiving water impact models. The research project has learned that the urban drainage system is only one of the determining factors with respect to receiving urban water quality problems. The morphology of the receiving waters and the non-sewer sources of pollution, such as waterbirds, dogs, or inflow of external surface water might be equally important. This conclusion underlines the necessity to changes today's emission based approach and adopt an integral and immission based approach. The integrated approach is illustrated on a case study in Arnhem, where the receiving water quality remained unsatisfactory even after retrofitting a combined sewer system into a separated sewer system. PMID:22179651

Beenen, A S; Langeveld, J G; Liefting, H J; Aalderink, R H; Velthorst, H

2011-01-01

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Patterns of Watershed Urbanization and Impacts on Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban runoff contributes to nonpoint source pollution, but there is little understanding of the way that pattern and extent of urbanization contributes to this problem. Indicators of type and density of urbanization and access to municipal services were examined in six urban watersheds in Durham, North Carolina. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify patterns in the distribution of these variables across the urban landscape. While spatial variation in urban environments is not perfectly captured by any one variable, the results suggest that most of the variation can be explained using several variables related to the extent and distribution of urban development. Multiple linear regression models were fit to relate these urbanization indicators to total phosphorus, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total suspended solids, and fecal coliforms. Development density was correlated to decreased water quality in each of the models. Indicators of urbanization type such as the house age, amount of contiguous impervious surface, and stormwater connectivity explained additional variation. In the nutrient models, access to city services was also an important factor. The results indicate that while urbanization density is important in predicting water quality, indicators of urbanization type and access to city services help explain additional variation in the models.

Carle, Melissa Vernon; Halpin, Patrick N.; Stow, Craig A.

2005-06-01

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Urban and peri-urban agricultural production in Beijing municipality and its impact on water quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews water use and water resource issues in Beijing Municipality, the main trends in the agricultural production systems in and around the city with respect to land use, input use, production and economic role, and the impacts of agricultural activities on water quality. Rapid urbanization and strong intensification of agricultural production have meant that the quantity and quality of available water resources have become matters of concern. The agricultural sector still has a ...

Diepen, C. A.; Wijk, M. S.; Xu Cheng; Roetter, R. P.; Jongbloed, A. W.; Yanxia Hu; Changhe Lu; Keulen, H.; Wolf, J.

2003-01-01

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Urban Ethnohydrology: Cultural Knowledge of Water Quality and Water Management in a Desert City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Popular concern over water quality has important implications for public water management because it can both empower water utilities to improve service but also limit their ability to make changes. In the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, obtaining sufficient high-quality water resources for a growing urban population poses a major challenge. Decision makers and urban hydrologists are aware of these challenges to water sustainability but the range of acceptable policy and management options a...

2010-01-01

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Urban Ethnohydrology : Cultural Knowledge of Water Quality and Water Management in a Desert City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Popular concern over water quality has important implications for public water management because it can both empower water utilities to improve service but also limit their ability to make changes. In the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, obtaining sufficient high-quality water resources for a growing urban population poses a major challenge. Decision makers and urban hydrologists are aware of these challenges to water sustainability but the range of acceptable policy and management options a...

Meredith Gartin; Beatrice Crona; Amber Wutich; Paul Westerhoff

2010-01-01

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Urban storm-water runoff and ground-water quality (No. 90-2304)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Urban storm water runoff is a form of nonpoint source pollution which is intimately tied to the hydrologic cycle, human activities, and urbanization. Traditionally, scientific research, water resource management, and regulations have focused on the effects of urban storm water on surface water quality, and seldom on ground-water quality. The Safe Drinking Water Act and other narrowly focused federal legislation along with state and local laws and ordinances, provide a legislative patchwork that attempts to protect the nation's ground-water quality. A clear and enforceable comprehensive federal policy protecting ground-water quality is needed to provide direction to state and local governments. The purpose of the report is to provide a summary of information and key references on urban storm water in relation to ground-water protection for US EPA staff and others responsible for protecting ground-water quality. The report presents a brief overview of the major literature describing: (1) the quality and chemistry of urban storm water runoff; (2) its effects on ground-water resources; and (3) current management practices, strategies, and regulations that attempt to reduce ground-water contamination from urban storm water. Also included is a selected bibliography and list of contacts at the federal, state, and local levels of government.

Nussbaum, J.C.

1991-01-01

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Urban areas impact on surface water quality during rainfall events  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing population and welfare puts water management under stress, especially in what concerns water quality. Surface water properties are strongly linked with hydrological processes and are affected by stream flow variability. Changes in some chemical substances concentrations can be ascribed to different water sources. Runoff generated in urban areas is considered the main responsible for water quality degradation inside catchments. This poster presents the methodology and first results of a study that is being developed to assess the impact of urbanization on surface water quality, during rainfall events. It focuses on the Ribeira dos Covões catchment (620 ha) located in central Portugal. Due to its proximity to the Coimbra city in central region, the urban areas sprawled during the last decades. In 2008, urban areas represented 32% of the area. Recently a highway was constructed crossing the catchment and a technological industrial park is being build-up in the headwaters. Several water samples were collected at four different locations: the catchment outlet and in three sub-catchments with distinct urbanization patterns - Espírito Santo that represents a highly urbanized area (45%) located over sandstone, Porto do Bordalo with 30% of urbanized area located over limestone, and IParque, mainly forest and just downstream the disturbed technological industrial park construction area. The samples were collected at different times during rainfall events to monitor the variability along the hydrograph. Six monitoring campaigns were performed: two in April 2011, at the end of the winter period, and the others between October and November 2011, after the dry summer. The number of samples collected per monitoring campaign is variable according with rainfall pattern. Parameters such as pH, conductivity, turbidity and total suspended sediments were immediately analyzed. The samples were then preserved, after filtered (0.45µm), and later analyzed for dissolved chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorous, nitrogen (Kjeldahl, nitrate and ammonium), some cations and heavy metals, according with standard methods. In each monitored location there is a continuous-recording water-level that provides flow data. The rainfall data is monitored with a raingauge located at the catchment outlet. The results show that surface runoff affects stream water quality according with rainfall pattern. During rainfall events the rising limb flow is associated with an increase in suspended sediment concentration and turbidity, particularly at Iparque. In this sub-catchment, the deforestation and the topsoil removal associated with the technological industrial park construction, promotes suspended sediments growth ranging from 395% to 1645%, corresponding to peak concentrations of 1049mg/L and 3621mg/L, for similar rainfall amounts but with distinct intensities (0.4mm/5minutes and 1.2mm/5minutes, respectively). As regards to the monitored dissolved chemical properties, despite the variability, related with the hydrograph, the increase is much lower comparing with the suspended sediments. Generally, the values are higher at the catchment outlet, which can indicate that the contact time between rainfall and the surfaces before reach the water line affects water quality. This should be considered during urban planning to improve water quality and reduce environmental impacts with low investment.

Ferreira, C. S. S.; Soares, D.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Costa, M. L.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.

2012-04-01

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Management of Storm Water Quality in Urban Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of the management of storm water quality in enhancing their activities to improve regional water quality. The procedure on developing storm water management strategies consists of reviewing existing water quality data, identifying water quality issues and developing a decision making tool for the officers, managers and decision makers. It was found that land use activities are the main factor affecting the water quality. Therefore, act...

2012-01-01

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Potable water quality characteristics of the urban areas of Peshawar (Pakistan) part 2: well water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quality characteristics of 30 samples collected from dug wells, open wells and hand pumps of some urban and adjoining areas of Peshawar (Pakistan) were chemically evaluated and the results were compared with WHO potable water quality standards. The studies indicate an increasing trend in magnesium content than calcium. These studies reveal that magnesium in 18 out of 30 samples is higher than calcium as compared to the previously reported results, where quality characteristics of tube well waters were undertaken. Tube well waters reported in part-I of the studies were found to be less polluted compared to the well water in the present studies. These is due to the fact that wells are shallow (<40 feet ) compared to tube wells (= 350 feet)and are therefore more vulnerable to pollution than tube wells. The general public opinion about the water quality has also been discussed. (author)

2005-06-01

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Microbial drinking water quality of selected rural, peri-urban and urban communities and schools in the North West Province, South Africa / Wernich Foit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Safe drinking water is a basic human right. This study mainly focused on the physicochemical and microbiological drinking water quality of selected rural, peri-urban and urban communities and schools in the North West Province, South Africa. Parameters

2007-01-01

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Modeling of nonpoint-source water quality in urban and non-urban areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nonpoint source assessment procedures and modeling techniques are reviewed and discussed for both urban and non-urban land areas. Detailed reviews of specific methodologies and models are presented, along with overview discussions focusing on urban methods and models, and on non-urban (primarily agricultural) methods and models. Simple procedures, such as constant concentration, regression, statistical, and loading function approaches are described, along with complex models such as SWMM, HSPF, STORM, CREAMS, SWRRB, and others. Brief case studies of ongoing and recently completed modeling efforts are described. Recommendations for nonpoint runoff quality modeling are presented to elucidate expected directions of future modeling efforts.

Donigian, A.S.; Huber, W.C.

1991-06-01

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Scale effects on spatially varying relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific interpretation of the relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality is important for sustainable urban planning and watershed environmental protection. This study applied the ordinary least squares regression model and the geographically weighted regression model to examine the spatially varying relationships between 12 explanatory variables (including three topographical factors, four land use parameters, and five landscape metrics) and 15 water quality indicators in watersheds of Yundang Lake, Maluan Bay, and Xinglin Bay with varying levels of urbanization in Xiamen City, China. A local and global investigation was carried out at the watershed-level, with 50 and 200 m riparian buffer scales. This study found that topographical features and landscape metrics are the dominant factors of water quality, while land uses are too weak to be considered as a strong influential factor on water quality. Such statistical results may be related with the characteristics of land use compositions in our study area. Water quality variations in the 50 m buffer were dominated by topographical variables. The impact of landscape metrics on water quality gradually strengthen with expanding buffer zones. The strongest relationships are obtained in entire watersheds, rather than in 50 and 200 m buffer zones. Spatially varying relationships and effective buffer zones were verified in this study. Spatially varying relationships between explanatory variables and water quality parameters are more diversified and complex in less urbanized areas than in highly urbanized areas. This study hypothesizes that all these varying relationships may be attributed to the heterogeneity of landscape patterns in different urban regions. Adjustment of landscape patterns in an entire watershed should be the key measure to successfully improving urban lake water quality. PMID:24838413

Sun, Yanwei; Guo, Qinghai; Liu, Jian; Wang, Run

2014-08-01

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Urban water interfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental understanding of aquatic interface processes in urban environments, advance understanding of current and future system behaviour, and promote an integrated urban water management.

Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

2014-06-01

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Effects of Urban Development on Water Quality in the Piedmont of North Carolina: Association of Landscape Variables With Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

An assessment of effects of urban development on water quality in the Piedmont of North Carolina is part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Thirty sites along a gradient of undeveloped to fully urbanized basins were selected using geographic information analysis to control variability in natural factors that influence water quality. Data collected include nutrient, pesticide, ion, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, streamflow, stage, habitat characteristics, and algal, benthic invertebrate, and fish communities. Sampling for water chemistry ranged from two samples (at 20 sites) to six samples (at 10 sites) per year from October 2002 to September 2003. Geomorphic and biological data were collected once in each basin. An index that integrates information on human influences, including land cover, population, and socioeconomic characteristics was used to define the urban gradient and to select sites. Relations among landscape, streamflow, temperature, and water-chemistry variables were analyzed to define urban effects on water quality. Distinct patterns of association occurred between landscape variables and water quality. An increase in urban index is associated with increases in pH (r=0.60), specific conductance (0.72), sulfate (0.68), a multiple-constituent chemical index (0.91), and a pesticide index (0.76). Landscape characteristics correlated with water quality in a similar manner. Increasing basin population density is associated with higher pH (0.55, 1990; 0.56, 2000), specific conductance (0.71, 1990), chloride (0.66, 1990), sulfate (0.72), and pesticides (0.71, 1990; 0.68, 2000). This pattern also is reflected in household density (pH (0.60), chemical index (0.87), and pesticide index (0.68)); in the total percentage of developed land in the basin (specific conductance (0.85), chloride (0.77), sulfate (0.81), total nitrogen (0.50), chemical index (0.84), and pesticide index (0.74)); percentage of the basin in commercial, industrial, and transportation land uses (specific conductance (0.90), chloride (0.83), sulfate (0.81), chemical index (0.84), and pesticide index (0.74)); in high-intensity residential land use (pH (0.56), specific conductance (0.82), chloride (0.71), sulfate (0.78), nitrite plus nitrate (0.58), total nitrogen (0.62), chemical index (0.88), and pesticide index (0.74)); and in low-intensity residential land use (specific conductance (0.74), chloride (0.71), sulfate (0.70), and chemical index (0.80)). This pattern of association also occurred in the percentage of a 200-meter-wide riparian buffer in urban land cover (specific conductance (0.78), chloride (0.74), sulfate (0.78), pesticide index (0.86) and chemical index (0.86)) and in basin road density (pH (0.57), specific conductance (0.74), chloride (0.69), sulfate (0.72), pesticide index (0.73), and chemical index (0.89)). Instantaneous stream discharge decreased with increased urban index (-0.60), population density (-0.54, 1990; -0.53, 2000), household density (-0.52), developed land (-0.50), and road density (-0.53). Greater basin forested land cover was associated with decreased specific conductance (-0.78), chloride (-0.70), sulfate (-0.74), total nitrogen (-0.59), chemical index (-0.80), and pesticide index (-0.67). A delay in response of pH, sulfate, and chemical index is evident up to an urban index value of 30. A threshold at this index value corresponds to an impervious area of less than 5 percent and a population density below 250 people per square mile.

Harned, D. A.; Cuffney, T. F.

2005-12-01

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Urban water quality modelling: a parsimonious holistic approach for a complex real case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past three decades, scientific research has focused on the preservation of water resources, and in particular, on the polluting impact of urban areas on natural water bodies. One approach to this research has involved the development of tools to describe the phenomena that take place on the urban catchment during both wet and dry periods. Research has demonstrated the importance of the integrated analysis of all the transformation phases that characterise the delivery and treatment of urban water pollutants from source to outfall. With this aim, numerous integrated urban drainage models have been developed to analyse the fate of pollution from urban catchments to the final receiving waters, simulating several physical and chemical processes. Such modelling approaches require calibration, and for this reason, researchers have tried to address two opposing needs: the need for reliable representation of complex systems, and the need to employ parsimonious approaches to cope with the usually insufficient, especially for urban sources, water quality data. The present paper discusses the application of a be-spoke model to a complex integrated catchment: the Nocella basin (Italy). This system is characterised by two main urban areas served by two wastewater treatment plants, and has a small river as the receiving water body. The paper describes the monitoring approach that was used for model calibration, presents some interesting considerations about the monitoring needs for integrated modelling applications, and provides initial results useful for identifying the most relevant polluting sources. PMID:20107280

Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

2010-01-01

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Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC, but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistant genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains that may result in increased duration and severity of morbidity.

Alexandria K. Graves

2011-11-01

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Study plan for urban stream indicator sites of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban Indicator Sites are one component of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The objectives of monitoring at the Urban Indicator Sites are to: (1) characterize stream quality from drainage basins with predominantly residential and commercial land use, and (2) determine which selected natural and human factors most strongly affect stream quality. Urban Indicator Sites will be distributed across the United States in settings with statistically different climate and in metropolitan areas that have a population of 250,000 or more. Multiple sites in the same climatic setting will have a range in population density. Ideally, Urban Indicator Sites will monitor drainage basins that have only residential and commercial land use, are 50 square kilometers or larger, are in the same physiographic setting as other Indicator Sites, have sustained flow, and overlap other NAWQA study components. Ideal drainage basins will not have industrial or agricultural land use and will not have point-source-contamination discharges. Stream quality will be characterized by collecting and analyzing samples of streamflow, bed sediment, and tissue of aquatic organisms for selected constituents. Factors affecting stream quality will be determined by statistical analysis of ancillary data associated with Urban Indicator Sites and stream-quality samples.

Lopes, T. J.; Price, C. V.

1997-01-01

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Quality of water sources used as drinking water in a Brazilian peri-urban area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to assess bacteriological quality of drinking water in a peri-urban area located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 89 water samples were collected from community plastic tanks and 177 water samples from wells were collected bimonthly, from September 2007 to November 2008, for evaluating bacteriological parameters including: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and heterotrophic plate count (HPC. Clostridium perfringens was investigated in a subsample (40 samples from community plastic tank and 40 from wells. E. coli was present in 5 (5.6% samples from community plastic tanks (2.0 - 5.1x10(4 MPN/100mL and in 70 (39.5% well samples (2.0 - 8.6x10(4 MPN/100mL. Thus, these samples were not in accordance with the Brazilian Regulation. Enterococcus was detected in 20 (22.5% samples of the community plastic tanks (1 to 79 NC/100mL and in 142 (80.2% well samples (1 to >200 NC/100mL. C. perfringens was detected in 5 (12.5% community plastic tanks samples and in 35 (87.5% wells samples (2.2 to >16 MPN/100mL. HPC were above 500 CFU/mL in 5 (5.6% waters from community plastic tanks. In wells samples, the HPC ranged from <1 to 1.6x10(4 CFU/mL. The residual chlorine did not attend the standard established in the drinking water legislation (0.2 mg/L, except in 20 (22.5% samples. These results confirm the vulnerability of the water supply systems in this peri-urban area what is clearly a public health concern.

Maria Tereza Pepe Razzolini

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Quality of water sources used as drinking water in a Brazilian peri-urban area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to assess bacteriological quality of drinking water in a peri-urban area located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 89 water samples were collected from community plastic tanks and 177 water samples from wells were collected bimonthly, from Se [...] ptember 2007 to November 2008, for evaluating bacteriological parameters including: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and heterotrophic plate count (HPC). Clostridium perfringens was investigated in a subsample (40 samples from community plastic tank and 40 from wells). E. coli was present in 5 (5.6%) samples from community plastic tanks (2.0 - 5.1x10(4) MPN/100mL) and in 70 (39.5%) well samples (2.0 - 8.6x10(4) MPN/100mL). Thus, these samples were not in accordance with the Brazilian Regulation. Enterococcus was detected in 20 (22.5%) samples of the community plastic tanks (1 to 79 NC/100mL) and in 142 (80.2%) well samples (1 to >200 NC/100mL). C. perfringens was detected in 5 (12.5%) community plastic tanks samples and in 35 (87.5%) wells samples (2.2 to >16 MPN/100mL). HPC were above 500 CFU/mL in 5 (5.6%) waters from community plastic tanks. In wells samples, the HPC ranged from

Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso; Peternella, Francisca Alzira dos Santos; Martone-Rocha, Solange; Bastos, Veridiana Karmann; Santos, Thaís Filomena da Silva; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves.

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The effect of an industrial effluent on an urban stream benthic community: water quality vs. habitat quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discharges that affect both water quality and habitat quality can have complex effects on flowing water communties. - We studied the effect of an industrial effluent on the water quality, habitat quality, and benthic macroinvertebrates of an urban stream in southwestern Michigan (USA). The effluent affected water quality by raising in-stream temperatures 13-18 deg. C during colder months and carrying high amounts of iron (>20xhigher than ambient) that covered the streambed. The effluent also affected habitat conditions by increasing total stream discharge by 50-150%, causing a significant change in substrate and flow conditions. We used three methods to collect benthic macroinvertebrates in depositional and erosional habitats and to understand the relative importance of habitat quality and water quality alterations. Macroinvertebrate response variables included taxonomic richness, abundance, and proportional abundance of sensitive taxonomic groups. Results indicated that the effluent had a positive effect on macroinvertebrate communities by increasing the quantity of riffle habitat, but a negative effect on macroinvertebrate communities by reducing water quality. Results illustrated the need for careful consideration of habitat quality and water quality in restoration or remediation programs

2003-05-01

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Conjunctively optimizing flash flood control and water quality in urban water reservoirs by model predictive control and dynamic emulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban water reservoirs are a viable adaptation option to account for increasing drinking water demand of urbanized areas as they allow storage and re-use of water that is normally lost. In addition, the direct availability of freshwater reduces pumping costs and diversifies the portfolios of drinking water supply. Yet, these benefits have an associated twofold cost. Firstly, the presence of large, impervious areas increases the hydraulic efficiency of urban catchments, with short time of concentration, increased runoff rates, losses of infiltration and baseflow, and higher risk of flash floods. Secondly, the high concentration of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges is likely to cause water quality problems. In this study we propose a new control scheme combining Model Predictive Control (MPC), hydro-meteorological forecasts and dynamic model emulation to design real-time operating policies that conjunctively optimize water quantity and quality targets. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its capability of exploiting real-time hydro-meteorological forecasts, which are crucial in such fast-varying systems. In addition, the reduced computational requests of the MPC scheme allows coupling it with dynamic emulators of water quality processes. The approach is demonstrated on Marina Reservoir, a multi-purpose reservoir located in the heart of Singapore and characterized by a large, highly urbanized catchment with a short (i.e. approximately one hour) time of concentration. Results show that the MPC scheme, coupled with a water quality emulator, provides a good compromise between different operating objectives, namely flood risk reduction, drinking water supply and salinity control. Finally, the scheme is used to assess the effect of source control measures (e.g. green roofs) aimed at restoring the natural hydrological regime of Marina Reservoir catchment.

Galelli, Stefano; Goedbloed, Albert; Schmitter, Petra; Castelletti, Andrea

2014-05-01

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Sustainable urban environmental quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available MEANING as the essential element of urban quality. The role of the three main factors for the urban quality achievement: PLANNING, DEVELOPMENT and PEOPLE. Next to that, it is important to assume the identity of the local CONTEXT as the essential base for designing and shaping of form development. The problems of the quality achievements in the situation of the permanent changes. In such an environment - the RENEWAL of the towns become the basic strategic orientation requiring - evaluation of the development policy instruments. On the road of changes there are PROBLEMS of a strategic nature which should be, firstly, defined and, then, solved before entering in the process of structuring and arrangement. One of these problems is NEW versus OLD. Transition to a new policy of urbanism relying, first of all, on the private investors and international funds of the local authorities - call for a NEW STRATEGY in urbanism, in the context of the sustainability of environment. The sustainability of quality and the categories of the influencing factors. The sustainability of quality as a twofold process of urban design. The quality of environment as an aesthetic phenomenon. The urban situation and environmental quality: feasibility of changes and effects; the environmental capacity as an indicator and quality determinant. The urban quality and international experience. The evaluation of our urban situation. INSTEAD OF CONCLUSION: A general review on the visions and urban quality policy and planning. Toward an evaluation of urban environmental quality: negative and positive indicators; sustainable communities environmental ruling and urban quality planning.

Toškovi? Dobrivoje

2004-01-01

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Microbiological water quality in rivers of the Scheldt drainage network (Belgium): impact of urban wastewater release  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Scheldt watershed is characterized by a high population density, intense industrial activities and intensive agriculture and breeding. Due to these anthropogenic pressures, microbiological water quality of the main rivers of the Scheldt drainage network is low as demonstrated by our recent monitoring survey. An evaluation of the sources of microbiological pollutions at the scale of the watershed showed that the release of treated urban wastewaters was the major cause of faecal contaminati...

2011-01-01

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Monitoring Urban River Water Quality Using Macroinvertebrate and Physico-Chemical Parameters: Case study of Penchala River, Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study have been carried on urban river, Sungai Penchala to assess the river water quality by using benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicator and also standard Department of Environment (DOE) water quality measurement for physical-chemical analysis of Water Quality Index (WQI). Sampling for benthic macroinvertebrate and water sample was done on 3 sampling sites, named upstream (S1), middle stream (S2) and downstream (S3). The benthic macroinvertebrate sampling was done in the same d...

2013-01-01

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Water Quality and Environmental Flow Management in Rapidly Urbanizing Shenzhen Estuary Area, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Shenzhen estuary is located in a rapidly urbanizing coastal region of Southeast China, and forms the administrative border between mainland China and Hong Kong. It receives the waters of the Shenzhen River, where it enters the Deep Bay. The estuary has great ecological importance with the internationally recognized mangrove wetlands, which provides a habitat for some rare and endangered waterfowl and migratory birds.Water quality in the esturay has deteriorated not only due to increasing wastewater discharges from domestic and industrial sources, but also as a consequence of decreasing base environmental flow during rapid urbanization in the Shenzhen River catchment since 1980s. Measures to improve water quality of the estuary include not only reducing pollutant inputs by intercepting wastewater, but also increasing environmental flow by reusing reclaimed wastewater or withdrawing nearshore seawater into the river. However, salinity alternation due to flow increase is deemed to have impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. In this paper, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) is used to simulate hydrodynamics, salinity, and water quality condition in the Shenzhen estuary. After calibration and validation, the model is used to evaluate effects of various control measures on water quality improvement and salinity alteration in the estuary. The results indicate that implementing different measures independently does not reach the goals of water quality improvement; furthermore, increasing environmental flow by importing nearshore seawater may greatly increase the salinity in the Shenzhen River, destroy the fresh ecosystem of the river and have non-negligible impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. Based on the effectiveness and impacts of the measures, an integrated measure, which combine pollutant loads reduction and environmental flow increase by reusing reclaimed wastewater, is proposed to achieve water environmental sustainability in the study area.

Qin, H.; Su, Q.

2011-12-01

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Water quality monitoring and assessment of an urban Mediterranean lake facilitated by remote sensing applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Degradation of water quality is a major problem worldwide and often leads to serious environmental impacts and concerns about public health. In this study, the water quality monitoring and assessment of the Koumoundourou Lake, a brackish urban shallow lake located in the northeastern part of Elefsis Bay (Greece), were evaluated. A number of water quality parameters (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, electrical conductivity, turbidity, nutrients, and chlorophyll-a concentration) were analyzed in water samples collected bimonthly over a 1-year period from five stations throughout the lake. Moreover, biological quality elements were analysed seasonally over the 1-year period (benthic fauna). Statistical analysis was performed in order to evaluate the water quality of the lake and distinguish sources of variation measured in the samples. Furthermore, the chemical and trophic status of the lake was evaluated according to the most widely applicable classification schemes. Satellite images of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper were used in order for algorithms to be developed and calculate the concentration of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The trophic status of the lake was characterized as oligotrophic based on phosphorus and as mesotrophic-eutrophic based on Chl-a concentrations. The results of the remote sensing application indicated a relatively high coefficient of determination (R (2)) among point sampling results and the remotely sensed data, which implies that the selected algorithm is reliable and could be used for the monitoring of Chl-a concentration in the particular water body when no field data are available. PMID:24705815

Markogianni, V; Dimitriou, E; Karaouzas, I

2014-08-01

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Urban land-use study plan for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This study plan is for Urban Land-Use Studies initiated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. There are two Urban Land-Use Study objectives: (1) Define the water quality in recharge areas of shallow aquifers underlying areas of new residential and commercial land use in large metropolitan areas, and (2) determine which natural and human factors most strongly affect the occurrence of contaminants in these shallow aquifers. To meet objective 1, each NAWQA Study Unit will install and collect water samples from at least 30 randomly located monitoring wells in a metropolitan area. To meet objective 2, aquifer characteristics and land-use information will be documented. This includes particle-size analysis of each major lithologic unit both in the unsaturated zone and in the aquifer near the water table. The percentage of organic carbon also will be determined for each lithologic unit. Geographic information system coverages will be created that document existing land use around the wells. These data will aid NAWQA personnel in relating natural and human factors to the occurrence of contaminants. Water samples for age dating also will be collected from all monitoring wells, but the samples will be stored until the occurrence of contaminants has been determined. Age-date analysis will be done only on those samples that have no detectable concentrations of anthropogenic contaminants.

Squillace, P. J.; Price, C. V.

1996-01-01

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Effects of Urban Development on Water-Quality in the Piedmont of North Carolina-- The NAWQA Urban Land-Use Gradient Study  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of urban basins located in the Piedmont of North Carolina is underway as part of the U. S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) to determine the relation between level of urban development and water quality. Data were collected from 30 basins on water chemistry (nutrient, pesticide, and ion concentrations), geomorphic and habitat characteristics, hydrologic stage, discharge, water temperature, pH, dissolved-oxygen concentration, specific conductance, benthic algae, invertebrate communities, and fish communities. Collection frequency for water chemistry ranged from 2 samples (at 20 sites) to 6 samples (at 10 sites). Biological data were collected in each basin twice. Investigation of the effects of urbanization on water quality must control for the effects of natural factors, while varying the degree of urbanization between study basins. A regional framework was used to control variability in natural factors that influence water-quality. The urban intensity in each basin was measured by using an index to integrate information on human influences. The Urban Index includes information about land cover, infrastructure, population, and socioeconomic characteristics. Sites were selected to represent the full gradient of undeveloped to fully urbanized basins. A preliminary review of the stream water-chemistry data indicates distinct relations between ionic composition and the Urban Index. Mean specific conductance was positively correlated with the Urban Index (Spearman correlation coefficient (r) = 0.77; 95-percent confidence limits (95CL) 0.61 - 0.93; probability (pr) Dissolved sulfate (r=0.74; 95CL 0.57 - 0.91; pr dissolved nitrogen (r=0.46; 95CL 0.12 - 0.80; pr=0.0103) and nitrite plus nitrate (r=0.46; 95CL 0.09 - 0.83; pr=0.0109) concentrations, with increasing Urban Index may reflect sources such as sewage and lawn fertilizer use in the more urban basins. However, some of the least urban basins also had elevated nitrogen concentrations reflecting possible agricultural influences such as fertilizer use and animal waste. Total nitrogen concentration ranged from 0.31 to 14 mg/L. Unit-area stream discharge during low-flow periods was negatively correlated with the Urban Index (r= -0.56; 95CL -0.74 - -0.37; pr=0.0014). Reduced discharge with greater urban development may be a result of reduced infiltration caused by impervious surfaces. Unit discharge ranged from 0.47 to 2.27 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area.

Harned, D. A.; Cuffney, T. F.; Giddings, E. M.; McMahon, G.

2004-12-01

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Monitoring Urban Water Quality Variability Using Continuous In-Situ Sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Water quality monitoring using continuous in-situ sensors can improve our understanding of biogeochemical variability in urban watersheds. In New Hampshire, the Lamprey River drains an urbanizing watershed and discharges to the nitrogen (N)-impaired Great Bay estuary. Multiple instruments (Satlantic Submersible Ultraviolet Nitrate Analyzer, Turner Designs C6 Multi-Sensor Platform, Hydrolab MS5, and WET Labs Cycle) were deployed continuously for three seasons (April-November, 2011) in the Lamprey River to evaluate water quality relationships under hydrologically variable conditions and across seasons. Parameters monitored at sub-hourly intervals included nitrate-N (NO3-N), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), chlorophyll, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), specific conductivity, and pH; dissolved phosphate (PO4-P) was monitored hourly. Grab samples were also collected to assess instrument performance. Preliminary results from deployment through early August 2011 indicate that baseflow was associated with both elevated NO3-N concentrations and specific conductivity, but daily NO3-N fluxes were greater during storms. Greater discharges corresponded to increased values for CDOM, chlorophyll, and DO concentrations. In addition to diurnal cycles for several parameters (i.e., CDOM, chlorophyll, DO, and pH), NO3-N and PO4-P concentrations peaked during the night and day, respectively, suggesting biotic uptake became important at lower flows. Stormwater generally diluted NO3-N concentrations and specific conductivity, indicating groundwater contamination from the predominance of septic waste management and winter road salt application in suburban communities in the watershed. However, greater NO3-N export during storms revealed the importance of stormwater discharges despite the dilution effect. Studies using high-resolution data to evaluate the effects of stormwater discharge and increasing urbanization are crucial to understanding the significance of varying land use patterns and developing protective watershed management plans.

Carey, R. O.; Wollheim, W. M.; Mulukutla, G. K.

2011-12-01

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Assessment of the integrated urban water quality model complexity through identifiability analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban sources of water pollution have often been cited as the primary cause of poor water quality in receiving water bodies (RWB), and recently many studies have been conducted to investigate both continuous sources, such as wastewater-treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, and intermittent sources, such as combined sewer overflows (CSOs). An urban drainage system must be considered jointly, i.e., by means of an integrated approach. However, although the benefits of an integrated approach have been widely demonstrated, several aspects have prevented its wide application, such as the scarcity of field data for not only the input and output variables but also parameters that govern intermediate stages of the system, which are useful for robust calibration. These factors, along with the high complexity level of the currently adopted approaches, introduce uncertainties in the modelling process that are not always identifiable. In this study, the identifiability analysis was applied to a complex integrated catchment: the Nocella basin (Italy). This system is characterised by two main urban areas served by two WWTPs and has a small river as the RWB. The system was simulated by employing an integrated model developed in previous studies. The main goal of the study was to assess the right number of parameters that can be estimated on the basis of data-source availability. A preliminary sensitivity analysis was undertaken to reduce the model parameters to the most sensitive ones. Subsequently, the identifiability analysis was carried out by progressively considering new data sources and assessing the added value provided by each of them. In the process, several identifiability methods were compared and some new techniques were proposed for reducing subjectivity of the analysis. The study showed the potential of the identifiability analysis for selecting the most relevant parameters in the model, thus allowing for model simplification, and in assessing the impact of data sources for model reliability, thus guiding the analyst in the design of future monitoring campaigns. Further, the analysis showed some critical points in integrated urban drainage modelling, such as the interaction between water quality processes on the catchment and in the sewer, that can prevent the identifiability of some of the related parameters. PMID:20732705

Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

2011-01-01

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Mimicking Daphnia magna bioassay performance by an electronic tongue for urban water quality control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxicity is one of the key parameters of water quality in environmental monitoring. However, being evaluated as a response of living beings (as their mobility, fertility, death rate, etc.) to water quality, toxicity can only be assessed with the help of these living beings. This imposes certain restrictions on toxicity bioassay as an analytical method: biotest organisms must be properly bred, fed and kept under strictly regulated conditions and duration of tests can be quite long (up to several days), thus making the whole procedure the prerogative of the limited number of highly specialized laboratories. This report describes an original application of potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue) when the set of electrochemical sensors was calibrated against Daphnia magna death rate in order to perform toxicity assessment of urban waters without immediate involvement of living creatures. PRM (partial robust M) and PLS (projections on latent structures) regression models based on the data from this multisensor system allowed for prediction of toxicity of unknown water samples in terms of biotests but in the fast and simple instrumental way. Typical errors of water toxicity predictions were below 20% in terms of Daphnia death rate which can be considered as a good result taking into account the complexity of the task. PMID:24759749

Kirsanov, Dmitry; Legin, Evgeny; Zagrebin, Anatoly; Ignatieva, Natalia; Rybakin, Vladimir; Legin, Andrey

2014-05-01

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Stormwater management impacts on urban stream water quality and quantity during and after development in Clarksburg, MD  

Science.gov (United States)

Urbanization and urban land use leads to degradation of local stream habitat and 'urban stream syndrome.' Best Management Practices (BMPs) are often used in an attempt to mitigate the impact of urban land use on stream water quality and quantity. Traditional development has employed stormwater BMPs that were placed in a centralized manner located either in the stream channel or near the riparian zone to treat stormwater runoff from large drainage areas; however, urban streams have largely remained impaired. Recently, distributed placement of BMPs throughout the landscape has been implemented in an attempt to detain, treat, and infiltrate stormwater runoff from smaller drainage areas near its source. Despite increasing implementation of distributed BMPs, little has been reported on the catchment-scale (1-10 km^2) performance of distributed BMPs and how they compare to centralized BMPs. The Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA), located in the Washington, DC exurbs within the larger Chesapeake Bay watershed, is undergoing rapid urbanization and employs distributed BMPs on the landscape that treat small drainage areas with the goal of preserving high-quality stream resources in the area. In addition, the presence of a nearby traditionally developed (centralized BMPs) catchment and an undeveloped forested catchment makes the CSPA an ideal setting to understand how the best available stormwater management technology implemented during and after development affects stream water quality and quantity through a comparative watershed analysis. The Clarksburg Integrated Monitoring Partnership is a consortium of local and federal agencies and universities that conducts research in the CSPA including: monitoring of stream water quality, geomorphology, and biology; analysis of stream hydrological and water quality data; and GIS mapping and analysis of land cover, elevation change and BMP implementation data. Here, the impacts of urbanization on stream water quantity, geomorphology, and biology during development while implementing advanced sediment and erosion control BMPs are discussed. Also, effects of centralized versus distributed stormwater BMPs and land cover on stream water quantity and quality following suburban development are presented. This includes stream response to precipitation events, baseflow and stormflow export of water, and water chemistry data. Results from this work have informed land use planning at the local level and are being incorporated through adaptive management to maintain the high-quality stream resources in the CSPA. More generally, results from this work could inform urban development stakeholders on effective strategies to curtail urban stream syndrome.

Loperfido, J. V.; Noe, G. B.; Jarnagin, S.; Mohamoud, Y. M.; Van Ness, K.; Hogan, D. M.

2012-12-01

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Water quality assessment of river Hindon at Ghaziabad, India: impact of industrial and urban wastewater.  

Science.gov (United States)

River Hindon is a major source of water to the highly populated and predominantly rural population of western Uttar Pradesh, India. The main goal of the present study was to assess the impact of urban and industrial activities on the water quality of river Hindon at the Ghaziabad. For this, river water samples were collected from six different sites all along the route of Hindon main streamline and its branch and were analyzed for pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH) and calcium hardness (Ca-H), chemical oxygen (COD) demand, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (D.O.), sulphate (as SO(4)(2-)), nitrate (as NO(3)(-)) and chloride (Cl-) levels. There were drastic variations for EC (0.83-5.04 ms), turbidity (28.7-109.3 NTU), TDS (222.2-2426.3 mg l(-1)), SO(4) (36.4-162.4 mg l(-1)), NO(3) (106-245 mg l(-1)), TA (347.0-596.3 mg l(-1)), TH (235.1-459.9 mg l(-1)), Ca-H (64.5-402.2 mg l(-1)), BOD (27-51 mg l(-1)) and COD (85.0-337.4 mg l(-1)) levels at different sites. Water pollution indicating parameters were manifold higher than the prescribed limit by the National Pollution Control Agency, i.e. CPCB. This is the first study on itself and the interrelationship of human activities and river water quality makes the study significant and interesting to assess the pollution load discharges in catchments of Hindon at Ghaziabad. Overall, the water quality of Hindon was relatively poor with respect to its use for domestic purposes. PMID:19418235

Suthar, Surindra; Sharma, Jitender; Chabukdhara, Mayuri; Nema, Arvind K

2010-06-01

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Evaluation of water quality of an urban stream in southeastern Brazil using Chironomidae larvae (Insecta: Diptera)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In order to estimate the water quality of São Pedro stream, through distribution and composition of Chironomidae larvae present in the sediment four sampling sites were selected. In each sampling site, three sediment samples were collected within a period of twelve months using the Petersen (0.0189 [...] m²) and the van Veen (0.0518 m²) dredges. Samples were washed through a sieve with a 0.21 mm mesh and the collected organisms were sorted in transparent trays, with a light shine being reflected into the tray. The sites located in the greatest urban mesh showed high densities of the genus Chironomus and lower values for diversity, uniformity and taxa richness, in relation to sites located in a less urbanized area. A significant difference in density of Chironomidae larvae (p = 0.02; H = 5.89) was observed between the sites without domestic sewage effluents (site I) and those with the input of the effluents (sites II, III and IV). The Chironomidae larvae composition and the physical and chemical parameters were effective as indicators of the environmental alterations in São Pedro stream.

Vívian, Oliveira; Renato, Martins; Roberto, Alves.

37

Integration of Drainage, Water Quality and Flood Management in Rural, Urban and Lowland Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Managing drainage in rural and peri-urban environments has become an essential part of integrated water management. Drainage has become a science of control, storage and (re)use while meeting triple bottom-line requirements (environment, social and economic assessments). Controlled drainage in rural settings aims at maintaining a groundwater table regime that will provide adequate rootzone aeration and soil salinity control but will not remove or use more water than necessary. In urban and pe...

2007-01-01

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Evaluation of water quality in the Rimac River Basin of Peru: Huaycoloro urban subbasin  

Science.gov (United States)

In Peru, the increasing water scarcity and quality deterioration caused public health problems and deterioration of ecosystems that are exacerbated during periods of drought. The most populated basin is the Rimac River which rises in the Andes, between 4000 and 6000 meters and flow into the Pacific Ocean. This basin has pollution problems and a clear example is the Huaycoloro urban subbasin that originated in 2005, the creation of multi-sectoral technical committee for the recovery of health and environmental quality of the Huaycoloro subbasin (DIGESA, 2006a). The objective of this work is the need to generate and evaluate information on water quality in the Huaycoloro subbasin, quantifying physicochemical and microbiological parameters in four monitoring stations for a period from October 1, 2006 to April 24, 2010. The monitoring was conducted in the dry season because the Huaycoloro subbasin is a dry riverbed and therefore this is the critical period for evaluation. Initially samples were taken every two weeks during the months of October and November 2006. In 2007 were sampled monthly in April, June and September. In the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 surveys were conducted once a year, in the months of October, May and April respectively. Wide variations in the results of the various parameters analyzed in each of the stations mainly be explained by differences in the frequency of discharge of domestic and industrial effluent without prior treatment, effluent turn change in quantity and quality according to the various processes associated with each activity. Domestic effluents from populations that do not have sewer, industrial effluents from tannery correspond to activities, laundry, dairy, brewing and other. During field trips, we could be determined, in some instances, significant changes in water quality in a short period of time (one hour or less), manifested by changes in color fluctuations of water and the solids content in suspension. We obtained total chromium present in concentrations which in some cases exceeds the regulated value (0.043, 0.25, 0.067 and 0.080 mg/l for ES-1, ES-2, ES-3 and ES-4, respectively). This behavior is explained especially by effluent discharges tannery activities carried out in the study area. The relationship BOD5/COD in all cases where it has been determined is less than 0.2 or exceeds narrowly except values 0.51 and 0.74 corresponding to the second sampling 2007 to IS -1 and the sampling of 2008 for ES-3. The relationship between the COD and BOD5 gives an idea of the nature of the organic pollutants contained in the water (Orozco et al, 2003). Thus, these results are located generally below or slightly above 0.2, indicates that the compounds organics in the different sampling stations are predominantly non-biodegradable organic in nature. This study indicates that the Huaycoloro urban subbasin is being highly impacted by domestic and industrial discharges so it is necessary to strengthen environmental management mechanisms to improve its environmental quality with the participation of all actors involved in this water resources.

Baldeón Quispe, W.; Vela Cardich, R.; Huamán Paredes, F.

2013-05-01

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Urban stormwater harvesting and reuse: a probe into the chemical, toxicology and microbiological contaminants in water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stormwater is one of the last major untapped urban water resources that can be exploited as an alternative water source in Australia. The information in the current Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling relating to stormwater harvesting and reuse only emphasises on a limited number of stormwater quality parameters. In order to supply stormwater as a source for higher value end-uses, a more comprehensive assessment on the potential public health risks has to be undertaken. Owing to the stochastic variations in rainfall, catchment hydrology and also the types of non-point pollution sources that can provide contaminants relating to different anthropogenic activities and catchment land uses, the characterisation of public health risks in stormwater is complex, tedious and not always possible through the conventional detection and analytical methods. In this study, a holistic approach was undertaken to assess the potential public health risks in urban stormwater samples from a medium-density residential catchment. A combined chemical-toxicological assessment was used to characterise the potential health risks arising from chemical contaminants, while a combination of standard culture methods and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods was used for detection and quantification of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens in urban stormwater. Results showed that the concentration of chemical contaminants and associated toxicity were relatively low when benchmarked against other alternative water sources such as recycled wastewater. However, the concentrations of heavy metals particularly cadmium and lead have exceeded the Australian guideline values, indicating potential public health risks. Also, high numbers of FIB were detected in urban stormwater samples obtained from wet weather events. In addition, qPCR detection of human-related pathogens suggested there are frequent sewage ingressions into the urban stormwater runoff during wet weather events. Further water quality monitoring study will be conducted at different contrasting urban catchments in order to undertake a more comprehensive public health risk assessment for urban stormwater. PMID:23264062

Chong, Meng Nan; Sidhu, Jatinder; Aryal, Rupak; Tang, Janet; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Escher, Beate; Toze, Simon

2013-08-01

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Real time monitoring of urban surface water quality using a submersible, tryptophan-like fluorescence sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the recent development of field-deployable optical sensor technology, continuous quantification and characterization of surface water dissolved organic matter (DOM) is possible now. Tryptophan-like (T1) fluorescence has the potential to be a particularly useful indicator of human influence on water quality as T1 peaks are associated with the input of labial organic carbon (e.g. sewage or farm waste) and its microbial breakdown. Hence, real-time recording of T1 fluorescence could be particular useful for monitoring waste water infrastructure, treatment efficiency and the identification of contamination events at higher temporal resolution than available hitherto. However, an understanding of sensor measurement repeatability/transferability and interaction with environmental parameters (e.g. turbidity) is required. Here, to address this practical knowledge gap, we present results from a rigorous test of a commercially available submersible tryptophan fluorometer (?ex 285, ?em 350). Sensor performance was first examined in the laboratory by incrementally increasing turbidity under controlled conditions. Further to this the sensor was integrated into a multi-parameter sonde and field tests were undertaken involving: (i) a spatial sampling campaign across a range of surface water sites in the West Midlands, UK; and (ii) collection of high resolution (sub-hourly) samples from an urban stream (Bournbrook, Birmingham, U.K). To determine the ability of the sensor to capture spatiotemporal dynamics of urban waters DOM was characterized for each site or discrete time step using Excitation Emission Matrix spectroscopy and PARAFAC. In both field and laboratory settings fluorescence intensity was attenuated at high turbidity due to suspended particles increasing absorption and light scattering. For the spatial survey, instrument readings were compared to those obtained by a laboratory grade fluorometer (Varian Cary Eclipse) and a strong, linear relationship was apparent (R2 > 0.7). Parallel water sampling and laboratory analysis identified the potential for correction of T1 fluorescence intensity based on turbidity readings. These findings highlight the potential utility of real time monitoring of T1 fluorescence for a range of environmental applications (e.g. monitoring sewage treatment processes and tracing polluting DOM sources). However, if high/variable suspended sediment loads are anticipated concurrent monitoring of turbidity is required for accurate readings.

Khamis, Kieran; Bradley, Chris; Hannah, David; Stevens, Rob

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
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Usage of biotic indices in evaluating the impact of the urban centres on the quality of the water in rivers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The quality of the river waters of the Cri?ul Repede River and the influence of the powerful urban and industrial centre Oradeaupon these have been studied by means of collecting quantitative samples of benthos, for three consecutive years, in a seasonal manner. Thecalculation of the biotic indices that consider the abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates indicating the presence of high qualitative waters(Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera and of those indicating strong loading of the waters and of the under layer of the water ecosystemwith organic matter (Diptera – Chironomidae Family, highlighted an advanced degradation of the water quality, from the upstream towardsthe downstream. Equally, the intensity of the process of degradation of the water quality has been established, which, in the case of this river,is very strong and visible by the increasing prevalence of groups that do not require special ecological conditions, proving to be resistive andeven proliferating in the presence of intense pollution of the water.

Adrian Sinitean

2012-06-01

42

Particles, metals, and water quality in runoff from large urban watershed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water quality, metals concentration, and particle size distributions were characterized in urban runoff. The distribution of metals in the macrocolloidal and dissolved size fractions was determined from samples taken under both storm and background conditions. Concentrations of particle number, organic carbon, suspended solids, iron, and zinc increased during storms. The presence of zinc was highly correlated with organic carbon, each displaying significant concentrations in both size fractions. Iron existed almost exclusively in the macrocolloidal fraction. Differences in iron and zinc behavior suggest that sedimentation is not always an effective technique for metals removal. Data from two storms followed throughout their duration show individual materials eluting at different stages during storms. These measurements also indicated potential relationships between the zinc/organic carbon and iron/macrocolloid pairs. In addition, elevated contaminant concentrations and increased flows during storms created loadings equating to weeks or months of background flow. Data also showed no evidence of the first flush, which has been observed in many smaller watersheds. Results have implications for the design of large-scale storm-water management strategies.

Characklis, G.W.; Wiesner, M.R. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

1997-08-01

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Water quality indexes in the urban stretch of the River Apodi-Mossoró in Mossoró RN Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water is a basic natural resource for the maintenance of life and is indispensable in all human activities. Since it is a limited natural resource, concern on the conservation of its quality is high, coupled with efficacious mechanisms that may diminish negative environmental impacts. Current analysis applies the Water Quality Index (WQI for hydraulic barriers in the urban stretch of Mossoró RN Brazil and verifies the water body conditions according to usage classes, with special reference to predominant factors and previous classification of the water body. Collection of water for analysis of WQI parameters was undertaken in July 2010 in three barriers within the urban stretch and geo-referenced for the indication of critical sites. Possible exploratory activities linked to the contamination of the water body were listed. An evaluation of rates was undertaken and compared with current legislation guidelines. According to CONAMA n. 357/2005, results showed that analyses during the dry period referred to the salinity of the water body when related to preponderant usage indexes, or Class 1. Total phosphorus failed to comply with rates when parameters were analyzed one by one and compared to standards established by CONAMA n. 357/2005. Water was of good quality at the first barrier and fair in the others from the entrance of the city and downstream, due to the great load of home effluents, agro-industrial wastes and surface runoff.

Joel Medeiros Bezerra

2013-12-01

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Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

2009-05-01

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Water quality-based real time control of integrated urban drainage: a preliminary study from Copenhagen, Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Global Real Time Control (RTC) of urban drainage systems is increasingly seen as cost-effective solution for responding to increasing performance demands. This study investigated the potential for including water-quality based RTC into the global control strategy which is under implementation in the Lynetten catchment (Copenhagen, Denmark). Two different strategies were simulated, considering: (i) water quality at the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) inlet and (ii) pollution discharge to the bathing areas. These strategies were included in the Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) RTC strategy, which allows for prioritization of the discharge points in the systems according to their sensitivity. A conceptual hydrological model was used to assess the performance of the integrated control strategy over an entire year. The simulation results showed the benefits of the proposed approaches in reducing Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) loads at the WWTP inlet and in an upstream location discharging to sensitive bathing waters for medium CSO events (i.e. those with greater potential for control). Furthermore, when looking at the overall performance across the entire catchment during the simulation period, no significant changes were observed. These preliminary results require further analysis by including detailed water quality measurements and simulations. Nevertheless, the potential for including water-quality RTC in global RTC schemes was unveiled, providing a further option to urban water managers to improve the performance of their systems.

Vezzaro, Luca; Lund Christensen, Margit

2013-01-01

46

Water quality-based assessment of urban drainage impacts in Europe - where do we stand today?  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally, design and optimisation of urban drainage systems was mainly driven by cost efficiency, surface flood prevention, and later by emission reduction. More recent procedures explicitly include ecological conditions of the receiving water in the definition of acceptable pollutant discharges via sewer system and treatment plant outlets. An ambient Water Quality based impact Assessment (WQA) principle therefore requires an integrative system optimisation. However, a broad range of mostly national WQA protocols exist across Europe varying in structure and complexity, assessment concept, spatial and temporal scope and handling of uncertainty. This variety inherently implies a considerable risk of subjectivity in the impact assessment with highly variable outcomes. The present review identifies differences and similarities of WQA protocols in use and discusses their strengths and weaknesses through: (i) a systematic comparison of WQA protocols by selected attributes, (ii) a review of real-life cases reported in the literature and expert interviews, and (iii) an illustration of our main findings by applying selected WQA in an instructive example. The review discusses differences in structure and concept, which are mainly identified for simplistic WQA protocols. The application of selected protocols to an example case shows a wide variety of numerical results and conclusive decisions. It is found that existing protocols target different questions within the decision making process, which users should be more aware of. Generally, to make assessments more reliable, further fundamental research is required to fully understand the relationship between stressors and stream ecosystem responses which will make assessments more reliable. Technically, tools suggested in WQA protocols show severe deficiencies and an uncertainty assessment should be mandatory. PMID:22699334

Blumensaat, F; Staufer, P; Heusch, S; Reußner, F; Schütze, M; Seiffert, S; Gruber, G; Zawilski, M; Rieckermann, J

2012-01-01

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Water Quality, Habitat, and Biological Conditions at Selected Sites in the Highly Urbanized Santa Ana River Basin, California  

Science.gov (United States)

The Santa Ana River Basin of southern California is highly urbanized and is affected by habitat loss, habitat alteration, and changes in water quality of the river and tributary streams. Nineteen sites, selected to represent the range in water source (mountain runoff, ground-water discharge, urban runoff, treated waste water), were sampled during summer 2000, to assess macroinvertebrate community structure and various measures of water quality. Sites were characterized on the basis of water source because much of the water in Santa Ana Basin is imported and does not typically originate within the watershed boundaries. Artificial substrates were employed for biological samples to minimize the effect of channel environments--natural, channelized but unlined, and concrete-lined-- as a confounding variable. The number of benthic macroinvertebrate genera ranged from five to 20 taxa per site. Pesticides were detected at 16 of 19 sites; the number of detections per site ranged from two to nine. Diazinon was the most commonly detected pesticide and was found at 13 of the 16 sites. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected at 9 of 10 sites; the number of detections ranged from 1 to 10 per site. Chloroform and bromodichloromethane, the most commonly detected VOCs, were found at six sites each. Results from a Microtox toxicity test using extracts from semi-permeable membrane devices installed at 14 sites indicated potential toxicity at 10 of the sites. Results suggest that water source and channel modifications associated with urbanization have altered water quality and associated ecological communities in the streams of the Santa Ana Basin.

Burton, C. A.; Brown, L. R.

2001-12-01

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Microbiological water quality monitoring in a resource-limited urban area: a study in Cameroon, Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In resource-limited developing nations, such as Cameroon, the expense of modern water-quality monitoring techniques is prohibitive to frequent water testing, as is done in the developed world. Inexpensive, shelf-stable 3M™ Petrifilm™ Escherichia coli/Coliform Count Plates potentially can provide significant opportunity for routine water-quality monitoring in the absence of infrastructure for state-of-the-art testing. We used shelf-stable E. coli/c...

2012-01-01

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Restoration of Urban River Water Quality: Introduction of Secondary Treated Domestic Wastewater Into the Nobidome Channel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comprehensive surveys for water quality and benthic invertebrates were carried out in the Nobidome Channel in which filtered secondary wastewater was, introduced to restore, the waterfront. The suspended solids concentration increased downstream as a resu...

M. Okada H. Kawahara S. Fukushima A. Mutoh

1992-01-01

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Microbiological water quality monitoring in a resource-limited urban area: a study in Cameroon, Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In resource-limited developing nations, such as Cameroon, the expense of modern water-quality monitoring techniques is prohibitive to frequent water testing, as is done in the developed world. Inexpensive, shelf-stable 3M™ Petrifilm™ Escherichia coli/Coliform Count Plates potentially can provide significant opportunity for routine water-quality monitoring in the absence of infrastructure for state-of-the-art testing. We used shelf-stable E. coli/coliform culture plates to assess the water quality at twenty sampling sites in Kumbo, Cameroon. Culture results from treated and untreated sources were compared to modern bacterial DNA pyrosequencing methods using established bioinformatics and statistical tools. Petrifilms were reproducible between replicates and sampling dates. Additionally, cultivation on Petrifilms suggests that treatment by the Kumbo Water Authority (KWA greatly improves water quality as compared with untreated river and rainwater. The majority of sequences detected were representative of common water and soil microbes, with a minority of sequences (<40% identified as belonging to genera common in fecal matter and/or causes of human disease. Water sources had variable DNA sequence counts that correlated significantly with the culture count data and may therefore be a proxy for bacterial load. Although the KWA does not meet Western standards for water quality (less than one coliform per 100 mL, KWA piped water is safer than locally available alternative water sources such as river and rainwater. The culture-based technology described is easily transferrable to resource-limited areas and provides local water authorities with valuable microbiological safety information with potential to protect public health in developing nations.

Andrew W. Nelson

2012-10-01

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Assessment of hydrochemical quality of ground water under some urban areas within sana'a secreteriat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Groundwater from nine wells of three different districts, located at Sana'a secretariat was analyzed for hydrochemical quality assessment. Measurements of water quality parameters including pH, EC, CO3(2-), HCO3-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-), Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+, K+, and Na+ were carried out . Classification of [...] the groundwater samples according to Cl, SO4(2-), CO3(2-) and HCO3-, hardness (H), total dissolved solids (TDS), base-exchange, and meteoric genesis was demonstrated. Suitability of ground water samples for irrigation and industrial uses according to sodium adsorption ration (SAR), ratio of dissolved sodium (RDS), residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and saturation index (SI) was also investigated. The results of this study showed that almost all ground water samples were of good quality that makes them suitable for drinking and domestic uses. Results also indicated that even though some of the ground water samples were suitable for irrigation purposes, almost all of them were found not be good for industrial uses. Despite all drawbacks of the sewerage system built around Sana'a secretariat at the beginning of the first decade of the third millennium, the results of this study indicate that there is scope of significant improvement in Sana'a secretariat ground water quality.

Wadie S.T, AL- Ariqi; Abduljalil A.D.S, Ghaleb.

52

Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

What is in that water that you just drank? Is it just hydrogen and oxygen atoms? Is it safe for drinking? All water is of a certain "quality" (and you can't tell by just looking), but what does "water quality" really mean? Water full of dirt and ...

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Water quality and health in a Sahelian semi-arid urban context: an integrated geographical approach in Nouakchott, Mauritania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to sufficient quantities of safe drinking water is a human right. Moreover, access to clean water is of public health relevance, particularly in semi-arid and Sahelian cities due to the risks of water contamination and transmission of water-borne diseases. We conducted a study in Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania, to deepen the understanding of diarrhoeal incidence in space and time. We used an integrated geographical approach, combining socio-environmental, microbiological and epidemiological data from various sources, including spatially explicit surveys, laboratory analysis of water samples and reported diarrhoeal episodes. A geospatial technique was applied to determine the environmental and microbiological risk factors that govern diarrhoeal transmission. Statistical and cartographic analyses revealed concentration of unimproved sources of drinking water in the most densely populated areas of the city, coupled with a daily water allocation below the recommended standard of 20 l per person. Bacteriological analysis indicated that 93% of the non-piped water sources supplied at water points were contaminated with 10-80 coliform bacteria per 100 ml. Diarrhoea was the second most important disease reported at health centres, accounting for 12.8% of health care service consultations on average. Diarrhoeal episodes were concentrated in municipalities with the largest number of contaminated water sources. Environmental factors (e.g. lack of improved water sources) and bacteriological aspects (e.g. water contamination with coliform bacteria) are the main drivers explaining the spatio-temporal distribution of diarrhoea. We conclude that integrating environmental, microbiological and epidemiological variables with statistical regression models facilitates risk profiling of diarrhoeal diseases. Modes of water supply and water contamination were the main drivers of diarrhoea in this semi-arid urban context of Nouakchott, and hence require a strategy to improve water quality at the various levels of the supply chain. PMID:24258883

Traoré, Doulo; Sy, Ibrahima; Utzinger, Jürg; Epprecht, Michael; Kengne, Ives M; Lô, Baidy; Odermatt, Peter; Faye, Ousmane; Cissé, Guéladio; Tanner, Marcel

2013-11-01

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Microbiological quality of drinking water of urban and rural communities, Brazil Qualidade microbiológica de água potável de comunidades urbanas e rurais, Paraná  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples came from urban and rural communities and to examine the relationship between coliforms occurrence and average water temperature, and a comparison of the rainfall levels. METHODS: A sample of 3,073 untreated and treated (chlorinated) water from taps (1,594), reservoir used to store treated water (1,033), spring water (96) and private well (350) collected for routine testing between 1996 and 1999 was anal...

Giovani Nogueira; Nakamura, Celso V.; Cb, Maria Tognim; Abreu Filho, Beni?cio A.; Dias Filho, Benedito P.

2003-01-01

55

Monitoring marine recreational water quality using multiple microbial indicators in an urban tropical environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The microbial water quality at two beaches, Hobie Beach and Crandon Beach, in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA was measured using multiple microbial indicators for the purpose of evaluating correlations between microbes and for identifying possible sources of contamination. The indicator microbes chosen for this study (enterococci, Escherichia coli, fecal coliform, total coliform and C. perfringens) were evaluated through three different sampling efforts. These efforts included daily measureme...

Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-gabriele, Helena M.; Fleming, Lora E.; Elmir, Samir

2004-01-01

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Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive  

...Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive...by domestic sewage and industrial waste water - collectively known as 'urban waste water'....assessment of the importance of nitrate from agricultural sources in this...

57

Water- and sediment-quality effects on Pimephales promelas spawning vary along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient  

Science.gov (United States)

Many streams in the U.S. are "impaired" due to anthropogenic influence. For watershed managers to achieve practical understanding of these impairments, a multitude of factors must be considered, including point and nonpoint-source influence on water quality. A spawning assay was developed in this study to evaluate water- and sediment-quality effects that influenced Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) egg production over a gradient of urban and agricultural land use in 27 small watersheds in Eastern Wisconsin. Six pairs of reproducing fathead minnows were contained in separate mesh cartridges within one larger flow-through chamber. Water- and sediment quality were sampled for an array of parameters. Egg production was monitored for each pair providing an assessment of spawning success throughout the 21-day test periods. Incidences of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in many of these streams negatively impacted spawning success. Nine of 27 streams experienced DO less than 3.1. mg/L and 15 streams experienced DO less than 4.8. mg/L. Low DO was observed in urban and agricultural watersheds, but the upper threshold of minimum DO decreased with increasing urban development. An increase in specific conductance was related to a decrease in spawning success. In previous studies for streams in this region, specific conductance had a linear relation with chloride, suggesting the possibility that chloride could be a factor in egg production. Egg production was lower at sites with substantial urban development, but sites with low egg production were not limited to urban sites. Degradation of water- and sediment-quality parameters with increasing urban development is indicated for multiple parameters while patterns were not detected for others. Results from this study indicate that DO must be a high priority watershed management consideration for this region, specific conductance should be investigated further to determine the mechanism of the relation with egg production, and water- and sediment-quality degrade in relation to urban influence. ?? 2011.

Corsi, S. R.; Klaper, R. D.; Weber, D. N.; Bannerman, R. T.

2011-01-01

58

Evaluation of water quality of an urban stream in southeastern Brazil using Chironomidae larvae (Insecta: Diptera)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to estimate the water quality of São Pedro stream, through distribution and composition of Chironomidae larvae present in the sediment four sampling sites were selected. In each sampling site, three sediment samples were collected within a period of twelve months using the Petersen (0.0189 m²) and the van Veen (0.0518 m²) dredges. Samples were washed through a sieve with a 0.21 mm mesh and the collected organisms were sorted in transparent trays, with a light shine being reflected...

2010-01-01

59

Water quality laboratories in Colombia: a GIS-based study of urban and rural accessibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to quantify sample transportation times associated with mandated microbiological monitoring of drinking-water in Colombia. World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality recommend that samples spend no more than 6h between collection and analysis in a laboratory. Census data were used to estimate the minimum number of operational and surveillance samples required from piped water supplies under national regulations. Drive-times were then computed from each supply system to the nearest accredited laboratory and translated into sample holding times based on likely daily monitoring patterns. Of 62,502 surveillance samples required annually, 5694 (9.1%) were found to be more than 6 h from the nearest of 278 accredited laboratories. 612 samples (1.0%) were more than 24 hours' drive from the nearest accredited laboratory, the maximum sample holding time recommended by the World Health Organization. An estimated 30% of required rural samples would have to be stored for more than 6 h before reaching a laboratory. The analysis demonstrates the difficulty of undertaking microbiological monitoring in rural areas and small towns from a fixed laboratory network. Our GIS-based approach could be adapted to optimise monitoring strategies and support planning of testing and transportation infra-structure development. It could also be used to estimate sample transport and holding times in other countries. PMID:24747256

Wright, Jim; Liu, Jing; Bain, Robert; Perez, Andrea; Crocker, Jonny; Bartram, Jamie; Gundry, Stephen

2014-07-01

60

Effects of Agriculture and Urbanization on Quality of Shallow Ground Water in the Arid to Semiarid Western United States, 1993-2004  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the Western United States, agricultural and rural lands are being developed into commercial and residential areas. With changes in land use and increasing population, greater demands are placed on water resources for agricultural, industrial, and domestic supplies. Many areas in the Western United States rely exclusively on ground water as their source of drinking water. Areas that use surface-water resources often need to supplement this supply with ground water. Generally, shallow ground water is susceptible to fluctuating water quality within relatively short time scales and therefore can be used as an indicator of land-use stresses that may, in time, affect deep aquifer systems. This regional study examines data on shallow ground-water quality collected from 1993 to 2004 from 273 agricultural and 181 urban wells from 7 U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment study units in Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, south-central Colorado, and Utah. This report determines important influences that land-use practices may have on the quality of recently recharged ground water, which may ultimately affect deep water supplies within the region. The results of this investigation show that nitrate, the principal species of nitrogen present in ground water, exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter in water from more than 25 percent of agricultural wells and 10 percent of urban wells. In agricultural areas, the probability of exceeding the USEPA MCL for nitrate is influenced primarily by three factors: fertilizer use, irrigation, and aquifer oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions. At the study-unit level, differences in nutrient concentrations between agricultural and urban land use likely are influenced by ground-water redox conditions within respective aquifer systems. The most commonly detected pesticides belonged to the triazine, urea, amide, and carbamate classes. The triazine herbicides were the predominant pesticides present in both agricultural and urban areas. Simazine and diuron were most frequently detected in shallow ground water within agricultural areas, whereas atrazine, prometon, and tebuthiruon were more commonly detected in urban areas. The carbamate pesticides and the amide, metolachlor, were infrequently detected. Pesticide concentrations in shallow ground water within agricultural or urban land-use settings did not exceed established USEPA MCLs for drinking water. Generally, factors that influenced the detection of pesticides in shallow ground water in the regional area were dissolved oxygen, general soil permeability characteristics, temperature, and depth to screened interval. The most commonly detected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within urban areas were the trihalomethanes (THMs), solvents, and the fuel oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl-ether (MTBE). The most frequently detected THM was chloroform and the primary detected solvents were tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). Soil fumigants were detected almost entirely within an agricultural area in the Central Valley of California. The predominant fumigant detected was dibromochloropropane (DBCP), and its occurrence may be a result of its persistence and past use as a soil fumigant. THM concentrations did not exceed the USEPA MCL of 80 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for total THMs in any sample. Two ground-water samples collected within urban areas in Nevada exceeded the USEPA MCL for TCE (5 ?g/L) and the drinking-water advisory for MTBE (20-40 ?g/L). The PCE concentration in one sample from the urban area in Utah and five samples from urban areas within Nevada exceeded the 5 ?g/L MCL. An important factor affecting the detection frequencies of VOCs was the ground-water redox condition. Chloroform and PCE were detected more frequently in well-oxygenated ground water, whereas MTBE was detected more frequently in less-oxygenated water. Multivar

Paul, Angela P.; Seiler, Ralph L.; Rowe, Timothy G.; Rosen, Michael R.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Water Quality Criteria for Water Bodies in Urban Areas and Accompanying Changes in Surrounding and In-Situ Vegetation: Considerations from the Landscape Aspect of Planning Water Recreational Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water bodies in urban areas are important as recreational areas. Thus, management plans that maintain high water quality are quite important. At the Hatadate Water Park adjacent to Miyagi University, water quality parameters such as visibility, COD, TOC, and TN were monitored at a small pond and the inflowing stream from August to December in 2011, and photographs were taken of these sites. Variations in COD and TOC were highly related to changes in the physical appearance, especially changes in vegetation. These findings suggest: 1 the importance of management of vegetation for water quality control; and 2 the importance of collecting photographic records of sites for research purposes of interpreting data and even as a data point of water quality. Together with the water quality goals for water bodies in urban areas proposed by Sudo et al. [1], these water quality criteria were assessed, and it was notable that COD often exceeded the set goal. These results suggest that the maintenance of vegetation is more important than controlling incoming TN for primary production in the pond. Seasonal variations in COD and TOC were plotted for surface water of Kamafusa and Okura dams, both are important lakes in Miyagi area and the catchments of both lakes are mainly hilly area, using published water quality reports. Similar annual-cycle changing patterns were shown both for the dams, implying that some kinds of ecological factors in the catchments are affecting the water qualities of the dam, even at those larger scale water bodies. Finally, by shifting the focus from only water to upstream features such as small park, or pocket park, with a parking lot for the water body, the importance of landscape including vegetation and tree cover was highlighted.

Shigeki Harada

2013-02-01

62

Potential of simple filters to improve microbial quality of irrigation water used in urban vegetable farming in Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Irrigation water used for growing vegetables in urban areas in many low-income countries is contaminated with untreated wastewater. Many wastewater treatment methods are economically prohibitive and continued use of such irrigation water pose health risks for vegetable consumers and farmers. As part of a larger study on possible interventions for health risk reduction, the potential of simple interventions was explored. Column slow sand filters with three levels of sand depths (0.5 m, 0.75 m and 1 m) and fabric filters made of nylon, cotton and netting were assessed. More than 600 water samples were analyzed for helminth eggs and thermotolerant coliforms. Flow rates were also measured. From slow sand filters, 71-96% of helminths and 2 log units (from 7 to 5 log units) of thermotolerant coliforms were removed. Sand depths had no significant influence in the removal. Lower removal rates were achieved by fabric filters, with an average removal of 12-62% for helminth eggs and 1 log unit for thermotolerant coliforms. Nylon filters had higher removal rates especially for helminth eggs (58%). Average flow rates for sand filters were 3 m per day and fabric filters had steady flows of about 1.5 liters per second, but flow reduced with time in cotton filters. The simple filters tested improved the microbial quality of irrigation water and could easily be used in combination with other interventions to further reduce health risks. The unit cost of the filters tested also appear acceptable to farmers and some incentives like better prices will motivate many farmers to invest in such simple interventions. PMID:18444077

Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Konradsen, Flemming; Vreugdenhil, Reinout C

2008-06-01

63

Northwest Florida estuaries: an overview from urban growth models to water quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Estuarine and coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico possess major ecological and economic resources that support a quality of life that makes this region a popular place to live and work. Florida?s largest economic driver is tourism and recreation, which is typically connected t...

64

Drinking water quality and solar disinfection: effectiveness in peri-urban households in Nepal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examined pH, turbidity and fecal contamination of drinking water from household water storage containers, wells and taps, and the Godawari River, and tested the effectiveness of solar disinfection (SODIS) in reducing levels of fecal contamination from household containers. The research was conducted in 40 households in a village 6 km outside the capital city of Kathmandu, Nepal. Three rounds of data were collected: a baseline in March 2002 followed by training in solar disinfection, and follow-ups in June and July 2002. Untreated drinking water was found to have levels of contamination ranging from 0 to too numerous to count fecal coliform CFU 100ml(-1). Source water was significantly more contaminated than water from the household storage containers. Wells were less contaminated than taps. SODIS reduced the level of contamination under household conditions. Turbidity from taps was above 30 NTU in the rainy season, above the maximum for effective solar disinfection. SODIS was routinely adopted by only 10% of the participating households during the study. PMID:16209028

Rainey, Rochelle C; Harding, Anna K

2005-09-01

65

Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Urban Growth Using Land Use/Land Cover, Water Quality and Health Indicators: A Case Study of Arequipa, Peru  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: This research assesses the direct effects of urban expansion on land cover/use, river flow, water quality and the indirect effects of these variables in the rate of gastrointestinal disease in people in Arequipa, Peru through the combined use of satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems. Approach: It also uses information about demographic changes, hydrologic data and land cover change in the Arequipa region for the last 1...

Carpio, O. V.; Fath, B. D.

2011-01-01

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e-Digest Statistics about: Inland Water Quality and Use  

Dec 7, 2004 ... ARCHIVE: e-Digest Statistics about: Inland Water Quality and Use ... Pollution \\from Agriculture · Water Quality - Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive ... Fish \\Directive: Water Quality Requirements for the Support of Fish Life.

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Water phenomenon: Urban morphology transformation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research paper deals with the mutual dependence of water phenomenon and urban morphology. Water is a basic subject matter of many analyses, and it is considered a principal existential and vital generator of the formation, sustainability and transformation of different types of cities. The water relevant facts are here presented from the aspect of elementary criteria of generative factors of typification of cities and relationship between urban landscapes and water. By integrating ...

?akari? Jasenka

2010-01-01

68

Rain water harvesting in urban New Zealand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rainwater harvesting is a practice already widely used throughout rural New-Zealand, which makes it well developed on the country’s market as well as in people’s minds. Therefore, it is pertinent to study whether this sustainable practice could be implemented in urban areas so as to provide water for purposes such as toilet flushing, washing machines and garden use. This study concentrates on the health issues posed by roof water collecting with qualitative results for water quality, and ...

Golay, Franklin

2011-01-01

69

Urban air quality in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book provides an overview of air quality in urban environments in Europe, focusing on air pollutant emission sources and formation mechanisms, measurement and modeling strategies, and future perspectives. The emission sources described are biomass burning, vehicular traffic, industry and agriculture, but also African dust and long-range transport of pollutants across the European regions. The impact of these emission sources and processes on atmospheric particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen oxides and volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is discussed and critical areas for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in Europe are identified. Finally, this volume presents future perspectives, mainly regarding upcoming air quality monitoring strategies, metrics of interest, such as submicron and nanoparticles, and indoor and outdoor exposure scenarios.

2013-01-01

70

Using on-farm sedimentation ponds to improve microbial quality of irrigation water in urban vegetable farming in Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an assessment of the potential of using on-farm ponds to reduce levels of microbial contamination in wastewater--contaminated irrigation water. The study involved observations on the use of ponds in urban agriculture in Kumasi, Ghana, and more than 300 irrigation water samples were taken for physico-chemical and microbial laboratory analysis. The study shows that while on-farm ponds are commonly used, their potential to remove pathogens through sedimentation has not been fully optimized. Two-thirds of helminth eggs were in the sediments and careful collection of irrigation water without disturbing sediments reduced helminth eggs in irrigation water by about 70%. Helminth eggs reduced from about 5 to less than 1 egg per litre in three days in both dry and wet seasons while thermotolerant coliforms took six days in the dry season to reduce from about 8 to 4 log units per 100 ml, to meet the WHO guidelines. For optimal pathogen removal, better pond designs, farmers' training on collection of water with minimal disturbance and any other means to enhance sedimentation and pathogen die-off can be essential components of a multiple-barrier approach complementing farm-based measures like simple filtration techniques, better irrigation methods and post-harvest contamination. PMID:18359990

Keraita, B; Drechsel, P; Konradsen, F

2008-01-01

71

Water quality of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and Ocmulgee river basins related to flooding from Tropical Storm Alberto; pesticides in urban and agricultural watersheds, and nitrate and pesticides in ground water, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents preliminary water-quality information from three studies that are part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basin and the adjacent Ocmulgee River basin. During the period July 3-7, 1994, heavy rainfall from tropical storm Alberto caused record flooding on the Ocmulgee and Flint Rivers and several of their tributaries. Much of the nitrogen load transported during the flooding was as organic nitrogen generally derived from organic detritus, rather than nitrate derived from other sources, such as fertilizer. More than half the mean annual loads of total phosphorus and organic nitrogen were trans- ported in the Flint and Ocmulgee Rivers during the flood. Fourteen herbicides, five insecticides, and one fungicide were detected in floodwaters of the Ocmulgee, Flint, and Apalachicola Rivers. In a second study, water samples were collected at nearly weekly intervals from March 1993 through April 1994 from one urban and two agricultural watersheds in the ACF River basin, and analyzed for 84 commonly used pesticides. More pesticides were detected and at generally higher concentrations in water from the urban watershed than the agricultural water- sheds, and a greater number of pesticides were persistent throughout much of the year in the urban watershed. Simazine exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking-water standards in one of 57 samples from the urban watershed. In a third study, 38 wells were installed in surficial aquifers adjacent to and downgradient of farm fields within agricultural areas in the southern ACF River basin. Even though regional aquifers are generally used for irrigation and domestic- and public-water supplies, degradation of water quality in the surficial aquifers serves as an early warning of potential contamination of regional aquifers. Nitrate concentrations were less than 3 mg/L as N (indicating minimal effect of human activities) in water from about two-thirds of the wells. Water from the remaining wells had elevated nitrate con- centrations, probably the result of human activity. Nitrate concentrations in two of these wells exceeded EPA drinking-water standards. Water samples from eight wells had pesticide concentrations above method detection limits. With the exception of two samples for shallow ground-water wells and one surface-water sample from the urban watershed, concentrations of nitrate nitrogen and detected pesticides were below EPA standards and guidelines for drinking water. However, concentrations of the insecticides chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and diazinon in the surface-water samples approached or exceeded guidelines for protection of aquatic life.

Hippe, D. J.; Wangsness, D. J.; Frick, E. A.; Garrett, J. W.

1994-01-01

72

Evaluation of Urban Park Service Quality Based on Factor Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban park is an important component of urban public green space which provides leisure, recreation, activity place, etc. Urban park service quality was evaluated by quantitative method in this paper to provide scientific evidence for renewal and development of urban park. 5 urban parks in Xinxiang, Henan province, China were selected as evaluation samples, and 13 indexes were evaluated, including plant landscape, cultural experience, activity place, ecological environment, road design, topographical management, fitness facilities, water landscape, service facility, night landscape, landscape aesthetics, information mark and shelter landscape. Then the data were analyzed by factor analysis. Results: the information contained in the 13 evaluation indexes had considerable repeatability. Therefore, 5 main factors including landscape elements, sports and entertainment, cultural quality, ecology and night scene and traffic facilities were extracted which accounted for 80.881% of total variation. The number of factor variables was far less than the number of index variables, which reduced the complexity of evaluation and indicated that factor analysis had good dimension-reducing effect. Based on the results of factor analysis, not only the contribution rate of each index and each factor in the park service quality evaluation, but also single factor scores and comprehensive scores in different parks could be obtained, which facilitated the analysis and comparison of service quality of different parks. Our work can provide support for urban park renewal, reconstruction and development, thereby promoting the urban park service quality.

Yichuan Zhang

2012-11-01

73

MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems) – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS) is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution ...

2010-01-01

74

Assessing the urban water balance: the Urban Water Flow Model and its application in Cyprus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modelling the urban water balance enables the understanding of the interactions of water within an urban area and allows for better management of water resources. However, few models today provide a comprehensive overview of all water sources and uses. The objective of the current paper was to develop a user-friendly tool that quantifies and visualizes all water flows, losses and inefficiencies in urban environments. The Urban Water Flow Model was implemented in a spreadsheet and includes a w...

Charalambous, Katerina; Bruggeman, Adriana; Lange, Manfred A.

2012-01-01

75

Bathing water quality  

Bathing water quality in England and Wales has improved significantly over the past two decades. Find out what the water quality is like at your favourite beach and how the Environment Agency keeps working to improve it.

76

Soil invertebrates as bioindicators of urban soil quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aimed at relating the abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities of urban soils to chemical and physical soil characteristics and to identify the taxa most sensitive or tolerant to soil stressors. The invertebrate community of five urban soils in Naples, Italy, was sampled. To assess soil quality invertebrate community indices (Shannon, Simpson, Menhinick and Pielou indices), Acarina/Collembola ratios, and the soil biological quality index (QBS) were calculated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils strongly differed. Abundance rather than taxa richness of invertebrates were more affected by soil characteristics. The community was more abundant and diverse in the soils with high organic matter and water content and low metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations. The taxa more resistant to the urban environment included Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. Collembolans appeared particularly sensitive to changing soil properties. Among the investigated indices, QBS seems most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Highlights: ? The abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities was related to properties and metal contents of urban soils. ? Several (biodiversity) indices were calculated and compared to evaluate soil quality. ? Metal contamination affected invertebrate density and diversity. ? The taxa more tolerant to metal contamination were Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. ? The soil biological quality index QBS index was most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Soil metal contamination negatively affected soil invertebrate abundance and diversity.

2012-02-01

77

Public-Private Partnerships in China's Urban Water Sector  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China.

Zhong, Lijin; Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

2008-06-01

78

Planning urban settlements for quality of life  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Notatet er et indlæg på den Europæiske �konomiske Kommissions (ECE) konference om by- og regionforskning, tema II: "Research on the Quality of Life in Urban Settlements, Warszawa, maj 1976. I notatet opstilles en begrebsramme for livskvalitetsbegrebet, og man diskuterer hvorledes livskvalitetsanalyser kan anvendes i den fysiske planlægning.

Boje Groth, N.; Hansen, K.E.

1976-01-01

79

Ecological assessment of water quality in relation to hydrogeology in a shallow urban aquifer: Somesul Mic River aquifer (North-Western, Romania)  

Science.gov (United States)

The River Basin Management Plan is the main instrument for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE), one of its main requirements being the evaluation and quantification of human impacts on aquatic environments including the groundwater or groundwater dependent ecosystems. The Some?-Tisa basin is the largest hydrographical basin in NW Romania (22,380 km2), containing 15 Quaternary detrital groundwater bodies prone to intensive agricultural and urban industrial use. So far, no studies have addressed the groundwater fauna assemblages and their ecological response to human disturbances and aquifer contamination. Here we investigate a Quaternary shallow detrital aquifer (content of Cu (8.6 ?g/l) and only slightly tolerant to Sr, Co, Ni, Ti and Pb (r>0.60; p>0.05). Conversely, the stygobites species Parastenocaris sp. (Harpacticoida), Bathynella sp. (Syncarida), Niphargus sp. (Amphipoda) and Ostracoda were rare and limited to boreholes were no significant trace metals contamination was detected, whereas nitrates reach a maximum level of 47.5 ?g/l. Crustaceans abundance was linked to high content of total dissolved solids and elements such are Li, Na and Sr; whereas Cs and nitrites were detected to be harmful for crustacean development. The ecological attributes and sensitivity of styfogauna to contaminants makes them significant bioindicators for evaluating the ecological status of groundwater ecosystems and susceptible to get loss when aquifers quality is affected on long term.

Iepure, Sanda; Marin, Constantin; Fekete, Alexandru; Rajka, Geza; Brad, Traian; Samsudean, Cristian

2014-05-01

80

EPANET WATER QUALITY MODEL  

Science.gov (United States)

EPA NET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. PANET performs extended period simulation of hydraulic ...

 
 
 
 
81

Microbiological quality of drinking water of urban and rural communities, Brazil / Qualidade microbiológica de água potável de comunidades urbanas e rurais, Paraná  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade microbiológica de amostras de água tratada e não-tratada proveniente de comunidades urbanas e rurais e examinar a relação entre ocorrência de coliformes e a média de temperatura da água, e uma comparação dos níveis de precipitação de chuva. MÉTODOS: No período de 1996 a [...] 1999, foram analisadas 3.073 amostras de água tratada (clorada) e não-tratada pelo método dos tubos múltiplos para determinar o número mais provável de coliformes totais e fecais. Destas, 1.594 provenientes de água de torneiras, 1.033 de reservatório para estocar água tratada, 96 de água de minas e 350 de poços particulares. Tais amostras foram obtidas na região de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. RESULTADOS: O maior número de amostras contaminadas por TC (coliformes totais) (83%) e FC (coliformes fecais) (48%) foi observado em água não tratada. O índice de TC e FC foi maior nas amostras de reservatórios do que nas torneiras ao longo de sistema de distribuição. Entre as amostras de água tratada, foram encontradas bactérias do grupo coliforme em 171 dos 1.033 reservatórios amostrados. CONCLUSÕES: A observação de que mais de 17% da água potável tratada contêm coliformes sugere tratamento insuficiente ou recrescimento. Em água tratada, amostras positivas para TC e FC parecem ser similares e sazonalmente influenciadas. Dois diferentes períodos podem ser considerados para a ocorrência de amostras positivas para TC e FC: (i) período quente e úmido (Setembro-Março) com alta percentagem de amostras contaminadas; e (ii) período frio e úmido (Abril-Agosto) onde a positividade é baixa. Amostras positivas para TC e FC diminuem com o decréscimo da temperatura da água. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples came from urban and rural communities and to examine the relationship between coliforms occurrence and average water temperature, and a comparison of the rainfall levels. METHODS: A sample of 3,073 untreated an [...] d treated (chlorinated) water from taps (1,594), reservoir used to store treated water (1,033), spring water (96) and private well (350) collected for routine testing between 1996 and 1999 was analyzed by the multiple dilution tube methods used to detect the most probable number of total and fecal coliforms. These samples were obtained in the region of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. RESULTS: The highest numbers water samples contaminated by TC (83%) and FC (48%) were found in the untreated water. TC and FC in samples taken from reservoirs used to store treated water was higher than that from taps midway along distribution lines. Among the treated water samples examined, coliform bacteria were found in 171 of the 1,033 sampling reservoirs. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient treatment or regrowth is suggested by the observation that more than 17% of these treated potable water contained coliform. TC and FC positive samples appear to be similar and seasonally influenced in treated water. Two different periods must be considered for the occurrence of both TC and FC positive samples: (i) a warm-weather period (September-March) with high percentage of contaminated samples; and (ii) cold-weather period (April-August) were they are lower. Both TC and TF positive samples declined with the decreased of water temperature.

Giovani, Nogueira; Celso V, Nakamura; Maria CB, Tognim; Benício A, Abreu Filho; Benedito P, Dias Filho.

82

Microbiological quality of drinking water of urban and rural communities, Brazil / Qualidade microbiológica de água potável de comunidades urbanas e rurais, Paraná  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade microbiológica de amostras de água tratada e não-tratada proveniente de comunidades urbanas e rurais e examinar a relação entre ocorrência de coliformes e a média de temperatura da água, e uma comparação dos níveis de precipitação de chuva. MÉTODOS: No período de 1996 a [...] 1999, foram analisadas 3.073 amostras de água tratada (clorada) e não-tratada pelo método dos tubos múltiplos para determinar o número mais provável de coliformes totais e fecais. Destas, 1.594 provenientes de água de torneiras, 1.033 de reservatório para estocar água tratada, 96 de água de minas e 350 de poços particulares. Tais amostras foram obtidas na região de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. RESULTADOS: O maior número de amostras contaminadas por TC (coliformes totais) (83%) e FC (coliformes fecais) (48%) foi observado em água não tratada. O índice de TC e FC foi maior nas amostras de reservatórios do que nas torneiras ao longo de sistema de distribuição. Entre as amostras de água tratada, foram encontradas bactérias do grupo coliforme em 171 dos 1.033 reservatórios amostrados. CONCLUSÕES: A observação de que mais de 17% da água potável tratada contêm coliformes sugere tratamento insuficiente ou recrescimento. Em água tratada, amostras positivas para TC e FC parecem ser similares e sazonalmente influenciadas. Dois diferentes períodos podem ser considerados para a ocorrência de amostras positivas para TC e FC: (i) período quente e úmido (Setembro-Março) com alta percentagem de amostras contaminadas; e (ii) período frio e úmido (Abril-Agosto) onde a positividade é baixa. Amostras positivas para TC e FC diminuem com o decréscimo da temperatura da água. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples came from urban and rural communities and to examine the relationship between coliforms occurrence and average water temperature, and a comparison of the rainfall levels. METHODS: A sample of 3,073 untreated an [...] d treated (chlorinated) water from taps (1,594), reservoir used to store treated water (1,033), spring water (96) and private well (350) collected for routine testing between 1996 and 1999 was analyzed by the multiple dilution tube methods used to detect the most probable number of total and fecal coliforms. These samples were obtained in the region of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. RESULTS: The highest numbers water samples contaminated by TC (83%) and FC (48%) were found in the untreated water. TC and FC in samples taken from reservoirs used to store treated water was higher than that from taps midway along distribution lines. Among the treated water samples examined, coliform bacteria were found in 171 of the 1,033 sampling reservoirs. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient treatment or regrowth is suggested by the observation that more than 17% of these treated potable water contained coliform. TC and FC positive samples appear to be similar and seasonally influenced in treated water. Two different periods must be considered for the occurrence of both TC and FC positive samples: (i) a warm-weather period (September-March) with high percentage of contaminated samples; and (ii) cold-weather period (April-August) were they are lower. Both TC and TF positive samples declined with the decreased of water temperature.

Giovani, Nogueira; Celso V, Nakamura; Maria CB, Tognim; Benício A, Abreu Filho; Benedito P, Dias Filho.

83

Water Quality Improvement Grant  

...BasinWater Quality Improvement GrantPublic participation in river basin planningClimate ChangeAssessing the Impact...PlanEconomic Value of WaterEarlier River Basin PlanningGlossary of TermsUseful Links...

84

Urban Air Quality Assessment Model UAQAM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Urban Air Quality Assessment Model (UAQAM) calculates the city concentration caused by city emissions themselves, the so-called city background concentration. Three versions of the model for describing the dispersion were studied: Box, Gifford Hanna (GH) and a combined form of these two (the Box-GH model). Regional background emissions contributing to the city background concentration were accounted for using measurements and TREND model calculations. The UAQAM model ver...

Waj, Pul; Edg, Zantvoort; Faam, Leeuw; Rjcf, Sluyter

2007-01-01

85

Ground water quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book covers the sources, types, and quantities of contaminants in ground water, methods for ground water quality research, subsurface characterization in relation to ground water pollution, and transport and fate of subsurface contaminants. It focuses on the scientific and technological challenges and accomplishments in ground water quality research and assesses the state-of-the-art developments in this area on an international scale.

Ward, C.H.; McCarty, P.L.; Giger, W.

1985-01-01

86

Understanding the patterns and mechanisms of urban water ecosystem degradation: phytoplankton community structure and water quality in the Qinhuai River, Nanjing City, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of environmental parameters and the phytoplankton community were investigated in October 2010 and January 2011 in the Qinhuai River, Nanjing, China. Results showed that the water quality in the study area was generally poor, and the main parameters exceeding standards (level V) were nitrogen and phosphorus. The observed average concentrations of the total nitrogen (TN) were 4.90 mg L(-1) in autumn and 9.29 mg L(-1) in winter, and those of the total phosphorus (TP) were 0.24 mg L(-1) in autumn and 0.88 mg L(-1) in winter, respectively. Thirty-seven species, 30 genera, and four phyla of phytoplankton were detected in the river. Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta were the dominant phyla in autumn, with average abundance and biomass of 221.5 × 10(4) cells L(-1) and 4.41 mg L(-1), respectively. The dominant population in winter was Bacillariophyta, and the average abundance and biomass were 153.4 × 10(4) cells L(-1) and 6.58 mg L(-1), respectively. The results of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) between environmental parameters and phytoplankton communities showed that Chlorophyta could tolerate the higher concentrations of the permanganate index, nitrogen, and phosphorus in eutrophic water; Bacillariophyta could adapt well to changing water environments; and the TN/TP ratio had obvious impacts on the distributions of Cyanophyta, Euglenophyta, and some species of Chlorophyta. CCA analyses for autumn and winter data revealed that the main environmental parameters influencing phytoplankton distribution were water temperature, conductivity, and total nitrogen, and the secondary factors were dissolved oxygen, NH4(+)-N, NO3-N, TN, CODMn, TN/TP ratio, and oxidation-reduction potential. PMID:23329129

Zhao, Zhenhua; Mi, Tengfei; Xia, Liling; Yan, Wenming; Jiang, Ying; Gao, Yanzheng

2013-07-01

87

Assessment of water quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water is the most essential component of all living things and it supports the life process. Without water, it would not have been possible to sustain life on this planet. The total quantity of water on earth is estimated to be 1.4 trillion cubic meter. Of this, less than 1 % water, present in rivers and ground resources is available to meet our requirement. These resources are being contaminated with toxic substances due to ever increasing environmental pollution. To reduce this contamination, many countries have established standards for the discharge of municipal and industrial waste into water streams. We use water for various purposes and for each purpose we require water of appropriate quality. The quality of water is assessed by evaluating the physical chemical, biological and radiological characteristics of water. Water for drinking and food preparation must be free from turbidity, colour, odour and objectionable tastes, as well as from disease causing organisms and inorganic and organic substances, which may produce adverse physiological effects, Such water is referred to as potable water and is produced by treatment of raw water, involving various unit operations. The effectiveness of the treatment processes is checked by assessing the various parameters of water quality, which involves sampling and analysis of water and comparison with the National Quality Standards or WHO standards. Water which conforms to these standards is considered safe and palatable for human consumption. Periodic assessment of water is necessary, to ensure the quality of water supplied to the public. This requires proper sampling at specified locations and analysis of water, employing reliable analytical techniques. (author)

2002-01-01

88

Evaluation of Urban Park Service Quality Based on Factor Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban park is an important component of urban public green space which provides leisure, recreation, activity place, etc. Urban park service quality was evaluated by quantitative method in this paper to provide scientific evidence for renewal and development of urban park. 5 urban parks in Xinxiang, Henan province, China were selected as evaluation samples, and 13 indexes were evaluated, including plant landscape, cultural experience, activity place, ecological environment, road design, topog...

Yichuan Zhang; Lei Feng

2012-01-01

89

Water quality: 13. Phosphorus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phosphorus (P) is an important nutrient for plant and animal growth. However, additions of P to the land as livestock manure and inorganic fertilizer may lead to an increased risk of soil P saturation and resulting movement of P to water bodies. Excessive amounts of P in surface water contributes to eutrophication of rivers and lakes and to Cyanobacteria blooms. These result in decreased water quality and limitations on water use. The Risk of Water Contamination by Phosphorus (IROWC-P) Ind...

Bochove, E.; The?riault, G.; Denault, F.; Dechmi, Farida; Rousseau, A. N.; Allaire, S. E.

2011-01-01

90

An integrated approach for urban water modelling, linking a watershed hydrological model and a cyanobacteria dynamics model in urban lakes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the future, the frequency and the intensity of cyanobacteria blooms in urban lakes are expected to increase in response to climate change and expanding urbanization. In order to study the impacts of watershed changes on cyanobacteria dynamics in urban lakes, a modelling approach, in which an ecological lake model is connected to a hydrological watershed model, is proposed. To validate this approach, the water quality (temperature, transparency, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a) was monit...

Silva, Talita; Vinc?on-leite, Brigitte; Tassin, Bruno; Petrucci, Guido; Seidl, Martin; Lemaire, Bruno; Nascimento, Nilo

2011-01-01

91

Natural and Urban "Stormwater" Water Cycle Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Students apply their understanding of the natural water cycle and the urban "stormwater" water cycle, as well as the processes involved in both cycles to hypothesize how the flow of water is affected by altering precipitation. Student groups consider different precipitation scenarios based on both intensity and duration. Once hypotheses and specific experimental steps are developed, students use both a natural water cycle model and an urban water cycle model to test their hypotheses. To conclude, students explain their results, tapping their knowledge of both cycles and the importance of using models to predict water flow in civil and environmental engineering designs. The natural water cycle model is made in advance by the teacher, using simple supplies; a minor adjustment to the model easily turns it into the urban water cycle model.

Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET),

92

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana’s Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantifi...

Mcgarvey, Stephen T.; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C.; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-asare, Kofi; White, Michael J.

2008-01-01

93

Urban air quality in the Asian region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries

2008-10-01

94

EPANET water quality model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EPANET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. EPANET performs extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality behavior within water distribution systems. In addition to substance concentration, water age and source tracing can also be simulated. EPANET includes a full featured hydraulic simulation model that can handle various types of pumps, valves, and their control rules. The water quality module is equipped to handle constituent reactions within the bulk pipe flow and at the pipe wall. It also features an efficient computational scheme that automatically determines optimal time steps and pipe segmentation for accurate tracking of material transport over time. EPANET is currently being used in the US to study such issues as loss of chlorine residual, source blending and trihalomethane (THM) formation, how altered tank operation affects water age, and total dissolved solids (TDS) control for an irrigation network.

Rossman, L.A.

1993-01-01

95

Purified water quality study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

2000-04-03

96

Assessing urban habitat quality using spectral characteristics of Tilia leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring environmental quality in urban areas is an important issue offering possibilities to control and improve urban habitat quality as well as to avoid adverse effects on human health. A tree leaf reflectance-based bio-monitoring method was used to assess the urban habitat quality of two contrasting habitat classes in the city of Gent (Belgium). As test trees, two Tilia species were selected. Custom made Matlab code is applied to process the measurements of leaf reflectance. This enables the discrimination between polluted and less polluted habitats. The results elicit, that leaf reflectance in the PAR range, as well as the NDAI (Normalised Difference Asymmetry index) are species dependent while Dorsiventral Leaf Reflectance Correlation (DLRC) seems to be independent of species. Therefore the assessment of urban habitat quality is perfectly feasible using leaf reflectance, when taking account of the species specificity of tree leaf physiological and structural responses to habitat quality. -- Highlights: ? Leaf structure and physiological changes in urban habitat classes. ? Leaf reflectance of Linden tree species is affected by urban habitat quality. ? Species dependent leaf reflectance changes due to urban habitat pollution. ? Dorsiventral leaf reflectance properties for assessing habitat quality. ? High capability of the leaf reflectance technique for assessing habitat quality. -- Leaf reflectance and dorsiventral properties of Linden tree species can be used to assess urban habitat quality

2013-07-01

97

A changing framework for urban water systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban water infrastructure and the institutions responsible for its management have gradually evolved over the past two centuries. Today, they are under increasing stress as water scarcity and a growing recognition of the importance of factors other than the cost of service provision are forcing a reexamination of long-held ideas. Research and development that supports new technological approaches and more effective management strategies are needed to ensure that the emerging framework for urban water systems will meet future societal needs. PMID:23650975

Hering, Janet G; Waite, T David; Luthy, Richard G; Drewes, Jörg E; Sedlak, David L

2013-10-01

98

Natural and Urban "Stormwater" Water Cycles  

Science.gov (United States)

Through an overview of the components of the hydrologic cycle and the important roles they play in the design of engineered systems, students' awareness of the world's limited fresh water resources is heightened. The hydrologic cycle affects everyone and is the single most critical component to life on Earth. Students examine in detail the water cycle components and phase transitions, and then learn how water moves through the human-made urban environment. This urban "stormwater" water cycle is influenced by the pervasive existence of impervious surfaces that limit the amount of infiltration, resulting in high levels of stormwater runoff, limited groundwater replenishment and reduced groundwater flow. Students show their understanding of the process by writing a description of the path of a water droplet through the urban water cycle, from the droplet's point of view. The lesson lays the groundwork for rest of the unit, so students can begin to think about what they might do to modify the urban "stormwater" water cycle so that it functions more like the natural water cycle. A PowerPoint® presentation and handout are provided.

Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET),

99

Integrated water resources management: restoration of water quality in water resources from developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water is most essential but scarce resource in developing countries. Presently the quality & the availability of the fresh water resources is the most pressing of the many environmental challenges on the national horizon. The stress on water resources is from multiple sources and the impacts can take diverse forms. Geometric increase in population coupled with rapid urbanization, industrialization and agricultural development has resulted in high impact on quality and quantity of water in dev...

Martinez, Vila; Alvaro, Marti?n

2013-01-01

100

Water quality for the year 2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under an umbrella labeled Water Quality 2000, 86 organizations - ranging from the Natural Resources Defense Council to the Chemical Manufacturers Association - have reached a consensus on the major water quality problems currently facing the US. Their broad-based conclusions have been released in a report entitled Challenges for the Future, which represents one step in an ongoing discussion among representatives of these diverse groups on improving water quality. Although the report presents a long-term view, William Matuszeski from EPA described the document as a superb background for the upcoming debate over reauthorization of the Clean Water Act. In general terms, the report cites the major sources of current water problems as agricultural and urban runoff, especially following storms; airborne pollutants; continued dumping of toxic wastes; accidental spills; overharvesting of fish and shellfish; habitat competition from exotic species; and land and water use practices. This article summarizes some of the findings.

Newman, A.

1991-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Urban growth and air quality in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban developments, land use patterns and activities not only influence the volume of emissions into the ambient air environment but also affect the ability of the urban ecosystem to purify the air. Therefore, urbanisation affects the quality of air in urban areas. However, urban air quality is also affected by global, regional or trans-boundary pollutants. The objectives of this paper are to understand the trend of air quality level and urban growth in Kuala Lumpur city (KL, and examine the relationship between these variables. Results of analysis show a significant and strong relationship between the number of unhealthy/hazardous days and urban land uses. The finding is contrary to the argument that the high concentration of air pollutants (unhealthy level in the Malaysian city is contributed by the forest fire in a neighbouring country (haze.

O. H. L. Ling

2010-07-01

102

Microbiologic quality water from  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present work has as objective to evaluate the quality of the water of the Ribeirão dos Porcos river, at Espírito Santo do Pinhal-SP, Brazil, through microbiologycal anlyses for fecal and total coliform, fecal enterococci, pH, oxygen dissolved. Twenty four samples of water of 6 different points were collected, being made 4 collections of each point, in copies. The microbiologycal analyses, was accomplished by the method of the Most Probable Number (NMP) using by multiple tubes technique....

2004-01-01

103

Urban rain water drainage networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban public services rely on a considerable amount of infrastructure which, over the years, becomes part of a city's historical heritage. Today, rather than new facilities, new techniques are needed to operate these networks and maintain them in good working order. These needs can be met thanks to new data processing technologies. However, the setting up of management strategies, the detection and identification of problems, the setting of priorities for repairs and replacements, have broug...

Marcel Miramond

1996-04-01

104

SMART MANAGEMENT OF THE WATER URBAN CYCLE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aguas Municipalizadas de Alicante, AMAEM, is the company in charge of managing the urban water cycle in Alicante and several neighbour towns: San Vicente, Sant Joan, Petrer, Monforte and El Campello. More specifically, AMAEM provides the water distribution service in all of them, and is responsible for the sewage service in Alicante, Sant Joan and Monforte. The population served amounts to 750,000 inhabitants, supplied by a 2,000 km water distribution network and 700 km of sewage drains. A...

2014-01-01

105

QUALITY OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SERVICES IN URBAN AREA OF ORADEA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intensification of public transport in urban areas due to increased mobility at regional and national levels, discrepancies among urban areas with same population and lack of statistical data related to performance and quality of public transport services are the main determinants of this paper. A separation line must be drawn between quality of services and performance indicators of public transport system. Service quality is a multi subjective outcome of an array of intangible variables. Se...

Silaghi Simona

2010-01-01

106

Comparison between the efficiency of two bioindicators for determining surface water quality in an urban environment - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.7725 Comparison between the efficiency of two bioindicators for determining surface water quality in an urban environment - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.7725  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluated the efficiency of two bioindicators, fecal coliforms and ecotoxicity tests, set out in CONAMA Resolution 274/00 and CONAMA Resolution 357/05, in assessment of water quality. For this study, Lake Paranoá, Federal District of Brazil, was chosen, since it is a water body directly contaminated by effluents from a sewage treatment plant. Four sampling points were chosen in accordance with the map of recreational water quality published weekly by CAESB/DF, after analysis of fe...

Eduardo Cyrino Oliveira-Filho; Marianni Gonçalves Ramos; Ingrid Souza Freire; Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz

2011-01-01

107

SEWER COLLECTION EFFECTIVENESS ON WATER QUALITY: A CONTRIBUTION TO THE URBAN PLANNING APPLIED TO JABOTICABAL CITY – SP = EFICIÊNCIA DE INTERCEPTORES DE ESGOTO SOBRE A QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA: UMA CONTRIBUIÇÃO AO PLANEJAMENTO URBANO APLICADO À CIDADE DE JABOTICABAL-SP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sewer is one of the most relevant environmental factors whichcontributes to loss of life quality in the urban areas. Usually, the sewer final destiny is in the watercourse-bound, since it´s production is inevitable. It demands studies and techniques to be developed and duly applied so that its harmful influence on water quality is avoid, making it as close as possible of its natural conditions. The construction of sewer collection throughout watercourses and its further forwarding to the sewer treatment stations have been considered the most recommended technique. In this study we tried to analise the effectiveness of the application of this technique to reestablish the water quality in two watercourses which drain the river basin where Jaboticabal city is placed. The study was based in Cerradinho and Jaboticabal streams and in water quality characterization. The samples of the water were collected monthly during a year, throughout the watercourses, both in the urban and in the rural areas - near the headwater, in the urban area upstream and after the confluence of both, at the urban area downstream. The main aspects, which were analyzed, were the following: temperature, pH, DO, COD, nitrite, nitrate, total-N, total-P, BOD, total coliforms and fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli. Analyses of cluster and main components were used to evaluate theeffect of hidrical parameters in the collect stations. The results of the research showed that there was increase of hidrical pollution from the riverhead to the outfall of Cerradinho and Jaboticabal streams and that the isolated practices of sanitation (collection of the urban sewer improved the water quality but it was not enough to return these streams to the non polluted condition. = Em áreas urbanas, um dos fatores ambientais de maior relevância em contribuir para a perda de qualidade de vida é o esgoto. Sendo inevitável a sua produção, comumente seu destino final são os cursos d’água. Isso determina que estudos e técnicas sejam desenvolvidos e devidamente aplicados, de modo a evitar sua influência nociva sobre a qualidade da água, tornando-a o mais próximo possível das condições naturais. Aconstrução de interceptores de esgoto, ao longo de cursos d’água e seu posterior encaminhamento à estações de despoluição, constitui uma das técnicas mais recomendadas. Neste trabalho, procurou-se estudar a eficiência da aplicação desta técnica em restabelecer a qualidade da água em dois cursos que drenam a bacia hidrográfica na qual se insere a cidade de Jaboticabal-SP, Brasil. O estudo baseou-se na caracterização da bacia hidrográfica do Córrego Jaboticabal e do seu afluente, Córrego Cerradinho, e da qualidade da água, a partir de amostras coletadas mensalmente durante um ano, ao longo de seus cursos, tanto na área urbana, quanto na área rural – próximo às nascentes, à montante da área urbana e após a confluência dos dois córregos, à jusante da área urbana. Os principais aspectos analisados foram: temperatura, pH, OD, DQO, nitrito, nitrato, NTotal, PTotal, DBO, coliformes totais e coliformes fecais (Escherichia coli. Para avaliar o efeito desses parâmetros nas estações de amostragem, foram utilizadas as análises de agrupamento e de componentes principais. Os resultados da pesquisa permitiram concluir que em ambos os córregos houve aumento da poluição hídrica da nascente à foz e que a prática isolada de saneamento (coleta de esgoto urbano com aplicação de interceptores melhorou a qualidade da água mas não foi suficiente para despoluir estes córregos.

José Marques Júnior

2002-01-01

108

Agricultural drainage water quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Full text:' Agricultural drainage systems have been identified as potential contributors of non-point source pollution. Two of the major concerns have been with nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 - -N) concentrations and bacteria levels exceeding the Maximum Acceptable Concentration in drainage water. Heightened public awareness of environmental issues has led to greater pressure to maintain the environmental quality of water systems. In an ongoing field study, three experiment sites, each with own soil properties and characteristics, are divided into drainage plots and being monitored for NO3 - -N and fecal coliforms contamination. The first site is being used to determine the impact of the rate of manure application on subsurface drainage water quality. The second site is being used to determine the difference between hog manure and inorganic fertilizer in relation to fecal coliforms and NO3-N leaching losses under a carrot rotation system. The third site examines the effect of timing of manure application on water quality, and is the only site equipped with a surface drainage system, as well as a subsurface drainage system. Each of the drains from these fields lead to heated outflow buildings to allow for year-round measurements of flow rates and water samples. Tipping buckets wired to data-loggers record the outflow from each outlet pipe on an hourly basis. Water samples, collected from the flowing drains, are analyzed for NO3 - -N concentrations using the colorimetric method, and fecal coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Based on this information, we will be able better positioned to assess agricultural impacts on water resources which will help towards the development on industry accepted farming practices. (author)

2002-06-01

109

Agricultural drainage water quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

'Full text:' Agricultural drainage systems have been identified as potential contributors of non-point source pollution. Two of the major concerns have been with nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 - -N) concentrations and bacteria levels exceeding the Maximum Acceptable Concentration in drainage water. Heightened public awareness of environmental issues has led to greater pressure to maintain the environmental quality of water systems. In an ongoing field study, three experiment sites, each with own soil properties and characteristics, are divided into drainage plots and being monitored for NO3 - -N and fecal coliforms contamination. The first site is being used to determine the impact of the rate of manure application on subsurface drainage water quality. The second site is being used to determine the difference between hog manure and inorganic fertilizer in relation to fecal coliforms and NO3-N leaching losses under a carrot rotation system. The third site examines the effect of timing of manure application on water quality, and is the only site equipped with a surface drainage system, as well as a subsurface drainage system. Each of the drains from these fields lead to heated outflow buildings to allow for year-round measurements of flow rates and water samples. Tipping buckets wired to data-loggers record the outflow from each outlet pipe on an hourly basis. Water samples, collected from the flowing drains, are analyzed for NO3 - -N concentrations using the colorimetric method, and fecal coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Based on this information, we will be able better positioned to assess agricultural impacts on water resources which will help towards the development on industry accepted farming practices. (author)

Madani, A.; Gordon, R. [Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, Nova Scotia (Canada)

2002-06-15

110

Assessing urban habitat quality using spectral characteristics of Tilia leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring environmental quality in urban areas is an important issue offering possibilities to control and improve urban habitat quality as well as to avoid adverse effects on human health. A tree leaf reflectance-based bio-monitoring method was used to assess the urban habitat quality of two contrasting habitat classes in the city of Gent (Belgium). As test trees, two Tilia species were selected. Custom made Matlab code is applied to process the measurements of leaf reflectance. This enables the discrimination between polluted and less polluted habitats. The results elicit, that leaf reflectance in the PAR range, as well as the NDAI (Normalised Difference Asymmetry index) are species dependent while Dorsiventral Leaf Reflectance Correlation (DLRC) seems to be independent of species. Therefore the assessment of urban habitat quality is perfectly feasible using leaf reflectance, when taking account of the species specificity of tree leaf physiological and structural responses to habitat quality. PMID:23517817

Khavanin Zadeh, A R; Veroustraete, F; Buytaert, J A N; Dirckx, J; Samson, R

2013-07-01

111

Yazd Urban Water Governance : Towards water privatization in Yazd, Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reliable clean water supply and treated sewage are fundamental for human health and wellbeing. Water scarcity becomes a discussing concern due to the unfair distribution of resources and different amount of precipitation in some parts of the earth. Although water-related issues are highly influenced by climate changes, there are always various mismanagements of human kind in local scale which totally affects the natural water cycle. Therefore, an urban water system and how this system copes w...

Soltani Ehha, Mahdokht

2011-01-01

112

Application of predictive control strategies to the management of complex networks in the urban water cycle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The management of the urban water cycle (UWC) is a subject of increasing interest because of its social, economic, and environmental impact. The most important issues include the sustainable use of limited resources and the reliability of service to consumers with adequate quality and pressure levels, as well as the urban drainage management to prevent flooding and polluting discharges to the environment.

2013-01-01

113

Monitoring Urban Quality of Life: The Porto Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the monitoring system of the urban quality of life developed by the Porto City Council, a new tool being used to support urban planning and management. The two components of this system--a quantitative approach based on statistical indicators and a qualitative analysis based on the citizens' perceptions of the conditions of…

Santos, Luis Delfim; Martins, Isabel

2007-01-01

114

A FEDERATED PARTNERSHIP FOR URBAN METEOROLOGICAL AND AIR QUALITY MODELING  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, applications of urban meteorological and air quality models have been performed at resolutions on the order of km grid sizes. This necessitated development and incorporation of high resolution landcover data and additional boundary layer parameters that serve to descri...

115

Summarized water quality criteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The available world literature from 27 sources on existing water quality criteria are summarized for the 15 main uses of water. The minimum, median and maximum specified values for 96 different determinands are included. Under each water use the criteria are grouped according to the functional significance of the determinands e.g. aesthetic/physical effects, high toxic potential, low toxic potential etc. A synopsis is included summarizing salient facts for each determinand such as the conditions under which it is toxic and its relationship to other determinands. The significance of the criteria is briefly discussed and the importance of considering functional interactions between determinands emphasized in evaluating the potential for toxic or beneficial effects. From the source literature it appears that the toxic potential, in addition to being determined by concentration, is also affected by the origin of the substance concerned, i.e. whether from natural sources or from anthropogenic pollution

1980-01-01

116

drinking water quality in northern ireland 2009  

...Councils Part 3 Protecting Drinking Water Quality • Drinking Water Quality Improvement Programmes • Drinking Water Safety Plans (DWSPs) Part 4...Monitoring of Private Supplies • Drinking Water Quality Part 5 Drinking Water Quality Standards • Drinking Water Quality Standards Annexes • Annex 1...on, the quality of drinking water provided by Northern Ireland Water Ltd (NI Water). Our report also provides details...

117

The indicator quality of dippers (Cinclus c. aquaticus) for detecting residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) - a contribution to the monitoring of the water quality of river systems in urban-industrial regions and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1977, the dipper population of the river system of the Wupper in the Remscheid/Wuppertal urban region has been investigated with regard to breeding biology and population dynamics. Inexplicable irregularities in breeding behavior and success first appeared in a sub-population. They caused suspicion of a pollutant load in one of the tributaries. The further investigations provided impressive proof of the indicator quality of the dipper for identification of pollution phenomena. It can indicate environmental hazards without great technical expenditure, and it can complete the biochemical and saprobia-systematic results in the phase of intensive post-research. (orig.)

1991-09-24

118

Assessing the urban water balance: the Urban Water Flow Model and its application in Cyprus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modelling the urban water balance enables the understanding of the interactions of water within an urban area and allows for better management of water resources. However, few models today provide a comprehensive overview of all water sources and uses. The objective of the current paper was to develop a user-friendly tool that quantifies and visualizes all water flows, losses and inefficiencies in urban environments. The Urban Water Flow Model was implemented in a spreadsheet and includes a water-savings application that computes the contributions of user-selected saving options to the overall water balance. The model was applied to the coastal town of Limassol, Cyprus, for the hydrologic years 2003/04-2008/09. Data were collected from the different authorities and hydrologic equations and estimations were added to complete the balance. Average precipitation was 363 mm/yr, amounting to 25.4 × 10(6)m(3)/yr, more than double the annual potable water supply to the town. Surface runoff constituted 29.6% of all outflows, while evapotranspiration from impervious areas was 21.6%. Possible potable water savings for 2008/09 were estimated at 5.3 × 10(3) m(3), which is 50% of the total potable water provided to the area. This saving would also result in a 6% reduction of surface runoff. PMID:22744696

Charalambous, Katerina; Bruggeman, Adriana; Lange, Manfred A

2012-01-01

119

Calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural del municipio de Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia Bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas of the municipality of Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Guatavita es un municipio ubicado en el Departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia. Posee recursos hídricos como ríos, quebradas, lagunas y nacimientos, que representan un alto porcentaje del agua con que se abastece. El municipio tiene 16 acueductos en funcionamiento, pero solo el que abastece a la población de la zona urbana cuenta con un sistema de tratamiento de agua. En la zona rural existen 14 acueductos con un sistema básico de pretratamiento. Se analizó la calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural (veredas Corales, Potrero Largo y Carbonera Alta, por medio de los indicadores de contaminación: coliformes totales y Escherichia coli, mediante la técnica de filtración por membrana. El agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana cumplió con los parámetros establecidos en la Resolución 2115 de 2007 del Ministerio de Protección Social, contrario a la zona rural, donde se encontraron recuentos de los indicadores de contaminación fecal, superiores a lo establecido. Por lo tanto, este recurso debe ser considerado como "agua natural", no apta para consumo humano, según el Decreto 1594 de 1984, por lo que debe ser destinada para potabilización bajo un tratamiento convencional.Guatavita is a municipality in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Guatavita has water resources such as rivers, streams, lakes and springs, which provide a large proportion of the water consumed by the population. Sixteen water supply systems are in operation, but only the one supplying the urban area is equipped with water treatment facilities. In the rural area there are 14 aqueducts with a basic pretreatment system. An analysis was made of the bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas (districts of Corales, Potrero Largo and Carbonera Alta based on two contamination indicators: total coliforms and Escherichia coli, using membrane filtration technique. The water for human consumption in the urban area complied with the parameters contained in Resolution 2115/2007 of the Ministry of Social Protection. In the rural area, however, fecal contamination indicators were above the established limits. Therefore, this resource should be viewed as "natural water" not suitable for human consumption, according to Decree 1594/1984, and destined for potabilization by conventional treatment.

Sara Lilia Ávila de Navia

2012-08-01

120

Hemodialysis and water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed. PMID:23859187

Coulliette, Angela D; Arduino, Matthew J

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Quality of surface waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this chapter is evaluation of long-time development of quality of water in Hron River and Vah River on the basis of existing data as well as prediction of development of selected chemical indicators in Hron River and Vah River on one year forward and designation reference conditions for selected chemical indices in Hron River. The second sub-chapter is aimed on deduction of reference conditions on the example of saprobic index of benthic invertebrates. An example of problems connected with modelling of extension of pollution in flow of Hron River at extremely low overflows in the last sub-chapter is presented.

2005-01-01

122

A landscape based, systems dynamic model for assessing impacts of urban development on water quality for sustainable seagrass growth in Tampa Bay, Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an integrated assessment model to predict potential unintended consequences of urban development on the sustainability of seagrasses and preservation of ecosystem services, such as catchable fish, in Tampa Bay. Ecosystem services are those ecological functions and pro...

123

The impact of meteorological parameters on urban air quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown that global climate change will have a significant impact on both regional and urban air quality. As air temperatures continue to rise and mid-latitude cyclone frequencies decrease, the overall air quality is expected to degrade. Climate models are currently predicting an increased frequency of record setting heat and drought for Oklahoma during the summer months. A statistical analysis was thus performed on ozone and meteorological data to evaluate the potential effect of increasing surface temperatures and stagnation patterns on urban air quality in the Oklahoma City Metropolitan area.

Ramsey, Nicole R.; Klein, Petra M.; Moore, Berrien

2014-04-01

124

Research of Reconstruction of Village in the Urban Fringe Based on Urbanization Quality Improving  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the process of urban-rural integration, it is an acute and urgent challenge for the destiny of farmers and the development of village in the urban fringe in the developed area. Based on the “urbanization quality improving” this new perspective and through the analysis of experience and practice of Village renovation of Xi’nan Village of Zengcheng county, this article summarizes the meaning of urbanization quality in developed areas and finds the villages in the urban fringe’s reconstruction strategy. The study shows that as to the distinction of the urbanization of the old and the new areas, the special feature of the re-construction of the villages on the edge of the cities, the government needs to make far-sighted lay-out design and carry out strictly with a high standard in mind. The government must set up social security system, push forward the welfare of the residents, construct a new model of urban-rural relations, attaches great importance to sustainable development, promote the quality of the villagers, maintain regional cultural characters, and form a strong management team. All in all, in the designing and building the regions, great importance must be attached to verified ways and new creative cooperative development mechanism with a powerful leadership and sustainable village construction.

Junjie Zhang

2014-04-01

125

Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado / Avaliação de parâmetros de qualidade de água para monitoramento de áreas naturais, urbanas e agrícolas no Cerrado brasileiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O Distrito Federal (DF) tem apresentado grande crescimento populacional nos últimos anos, o que vem ocasionando aumento da necessidade por água de qualidade, tanto pelas cidades quanto pela área rural. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água superfici [...] al de dois corpos hídricos no DF em seis pontos de amostragem, três localizados no Ribeirão Sobradinho (corpo receptor de Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto) e três no Alto Rio Jardim (região com forte atividade agrícola). MÉTODOS: Análises de temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido (OD), condutividade, turbidez, dureza total, principais íons, coliformes totais e fecais (E. coli) da água, foram realizadas mensalmente durante doze meses envolvendo períodos seco e chuvoso. Além disso, também foi realizada avaliação ecotoxicológica utilizando o microcrustáceo Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTADOS: Os dados físico-químicos mostraram que OD, condutividade, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-) e Na+ foram importantes para indicar a contaminação por efluentes urbanos. Quanto aos parâmetros biológicos, E. coli e avaliação ecotoxicológica, observou-se que o primeiro foi mais efetivo para avaliar qualidade da água na área urbana, enquanto que na área rural, o ensaio com C. dubia mostrou-se mais sensível, mas não ideal, tendo em vista a alta sensibilidade do organismo à baixa dureza da água. CONCLUSÕES: A presença de coliformes fecais (E. coli) foi o indicador mais efetivo para comparar a qualidade da água entre as duas bacias, principalmente na urbanizada, enquanto que os ensaios de ecotoxicidade com C. dubia foram prejudicados pela composição química natural da água. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Brazil's Federal District (FD) has seen steep population growth in recent years, and this has increased demand for high-quality water. AIM: The present work aims to evaluate the quality of surface water from two water bodies in the FD at six sampling points, three of which are in the S [...] obradinho River (the receiving body of a sewage treatment plant effluent) and three in the Jardim River (located in an agricultural region). METHODS: Analyses were carried out every thirty days, for twelve months, covering rainy and dry seasons. Parameters were analyzed such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, main ions, total and fecal coliforms (E. coli) in water. Ecotoxicological evaluation was also performed, using the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTS: Data of physical and chemical determinations showed DO, conductivity, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-) and Na+ to be important in indicating contamination by urban effluents. On the subject of biological parameters - E. coli and ecotoxicological evaluation - the former was seen to be more effective in the urban area. However, in the countryside, the assay with C. dubia proved to be the most sensitive, although less than ideal, because the organism is very sensitive to low water hardness. CONCLUSIONS: The fecal coliform indicator (E. coli) was the most effective one for comparing water quality in the two basins, mainly for the urbanized one, while ecotoxicity assays with C. dubia were harmed by the natural chemical composition of the water.

Daphne Heloisa de Freitas, Muniz; Aline Silva, Moraes; Ingrid de Souza, Freire; Carlos José Domingos da, Cruz; Jorge Enoch Furquim Werneck, Lima; Eduardo Cyrino, Oliveira-Filho.

126

Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado Avaliação de parâmetros de qualidade de água para monitoramento de áreas naturais, urbanas e agrícolas no Cerrado brasileiro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil's Federal District (FD has seen steep population growth in recent years, and this has increased demand for high-quality water. AIM: The present work aims to evaluate the quality of surface water from two water bodies in the FD at six sampling points, three of which are in the Sobradinho River (the receiving body of a sewage treatment plant effluent and three in the Jardim River (located in an agricultural region. METHODS: Analyses were carried out every thirty days, for twelve months, covering rainy and dry seasons. Parameters were analyzed such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, main ions, total and fecal coliforms (E. coli in water. Ecotoxicological evaluation was also performed, using the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTS: Data of physical and chemical determinations showed DO, conductivity, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2- and Na+ to be important in indicating contamination by urban effluents. On the subject of biological parameters - E. coli and ecotoxicological evaluation - the former was seen to be more effective in the urban area. However, in the countryside, the assay with C. dubia proved to be the most sensitive, although less than ideal, because the organism is very sensitive to low water hardness. CONCLUSIONS: The fecal coliform indicator (E. coli was the most effective one for comparing water quality in the two basins, mainly for the urbanized one, while ecotoxicity assays with C. dubia were harmed by the natural chemical composition of the water.INTRODUÇÃO: O Distrito Federal (DF tem apresentado grande crescimento populacional nos últimos anos, o que vem ocasionando aumento da necessidade por água de qualidade, tanto pelas cidades quanto pela área rural. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água superficial de dois corpos hídricos no DF em seis pontos de amostragem, três localizados no Ribeirão Sobradinho (corpo receptor de Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto e três no Alto Rio Jardim (região com forte atividade agrícola. MÉTODOS: Análises de temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido (OD, condutividade, turbidez, dureza total, principais íons, coliformes totais e fecais (E. coli da água, foram realizadas mensalmente durante doze meses envolvendo períodos seco e chuvoso. Além disso, também foi realizada avaliação ecotoxicológica utilizando o microcrustáceo Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTADOS: Os dados físico-químicos mostraram que OD, condutividade, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2- e Na+ foram importantes para indicar a contaminação por efluentes urbanos. Quanto aos parâmetros biológicos, E. coli e avaliação ecotoxicológica, observou-se que o primeiro foi mais efetivo para avaliar qualidade da água na área urbana, enquanto que na área rural, o ensaio com C. dubia mostrou-se mais sensível, mas não ideal, tendo em vista a alta sensibilidade do organismo à baixa dureza da água. CONCLUSÕES: A presença de coliformes fecais (E. coli foi o indicador mais efetivo para comparar a qualidade da água entre as duas bacias, principalmente na urbanizada, enquanto que os ensaios de ecotoxicidade com C. dubia foram prejudicados pela composição química natural da água.

Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz

2011-09-01

127

Monitoring water quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quality of water comprises many physical, chemical and biological aspects. On a global scale biological pollution, i.e. microbial water pollution, poses the greatest problem. In most industrialized countries where hygienic conditions are better, it is chemical pollution that now causes most concern. There are about 100,000 chemicals listed on the European Inventory of Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS). Two approaches are used to manage these chemicals. For most chemicals an emission-oriented approach is applied to prevent unnecessary pollution. This approach is successful in preventing point-source pollution but cannot always be applied in cases of diffuse pollution. The effect-oriented approach is often hindered by the lack of information on sources, use, fate and effects for the majority of the chemicals. This implies that the risk of not managing important chemicals is high. It is also the main reason why environmental quality standards are available for only few chemicals. Monitoring is an important risk management tool to detect, control or to predict the human health or ecological effects of single chemicals or mixtures of chemicals. Interpretation of monitoring data is easier if measurements are done at or near the sources of pollution. A number of basically different approaches are used, i.e. (1) chemical-specific methods, (2) group-parameters, (3) toxicity tests and (4) bioassessments (hydrobiological inventories). All approaches have inherent drawbacks that limit their applicability in the risk management process. Advantages, drawbacks and cost-benefit aspects of these monitoring strategies will be discussed. This two-year project was carried out by the Ministry of Transport and Public Works, the Ministry of the Environment and various research organizations in the Netherlands on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities.

Leeuwen, C.J. Van [Directorate-General for Environmental Protection, The Hague (Netherlands)]|[Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands)

1995-12-31

128

Improvement of an urban turbulence parametrization for meteorological operational forecast and air quality modeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the last century, urban pollution has increased with the growth of cities. Urban air quality has become a high priority as it is directly linked to concerns such as human exposure and health. The present work is dedicated to urban air quality modeling with focus on urban meteorology. The main goal is to improve meteorological and air quality simulations in urban areas. Based on measurements and numerical air quality simulations, Chapter 3 describes the meteorological situation and test...

Muller, Clive

2007-01-01

129

Meterorological and air quality models for urban areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book, based on the selected presentations given at the COST728 workshop, is concerned with the following main topics/chapters: 1. Urban morphology and databases, 2. Parameterisations of urban canopy, 3. Strategy for urbanization of different types of models, 4. Evaluation and city case studies / field studies. The chapters were concerned with dynamic (on wind and turbulent) and thermal effects (on temperature and energy in general). The final chapter of this volume summarizes the discussion and conclusions from the four main topics and provides recommendations and future requirements. The book is oriented towards numerical weather prediction and air quality modelling communities. (orig.)

Baklanov, Alexander; Alexander, Mahura [Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Grimmond, C.S.B. [King' s College London (United Kingdom). Dept. Geography Strand; Athanassiadou, Maria (eds.) [Met Office, Exeter (United Kingdom)

2009-07-01

130

Calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural del municipio de Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia / Bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas of the municipality of Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Guatavita es un municipio ubicado en el Departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia. Posee recursos hídricos como ríos, quebradas, lagunas y nacimientos, que representan un alto porcentaje del agua con que se abastece. El municipio tiene 16 acueductos en funcionamiento, pero solo el que abastece a la pob [...] lación de la zona urbana cuenta con un sistema de tratamiento de agua. En la zona rural existen 14 acueductos con un sistema básico de pretratamiento. Se analizó la calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural (veredas Corales, Potrero Largo y Carbonera Alta), por medio de los indicadores de contaminación: coliformes totales y Escherichia coli, mediante la técnica de filtración por membrana. El agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana cumplió con los parámetros establecidos en la Resolución 2115 de 2007 del Ministerio de Protección Social, contrario a la zona rural, donde se encontraron recuentos de los indicadores de contaminación fecal, superiores a lo establecido. Por lo tanto, este recurso debe ser considerado como "agua natural", no apta para consumo humano, según el Decreto 1594 de 1984, por lo que debe ser destinada para potabilización bajo un tratamiento convencional. Abstract in english Guatavita is a municipality in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Guatavita has water resources such as rivers, streams, lakes and springs, which provide a large proportion of the water consumed by the population. Sixteen water supply systems are in operation, but only the one supplying the u [...] rban area is equipped with water treatment facilities. In the rural area there are 14 aqueducts with a basic pretreatment system. An analysis was made of the bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas (districts of Corales, Potrero Largo and Carbonera Alta) based on two contamination indicators: total coliforms and Escherichia coli, using membrane filtration technique. The water for human consumption in the urban area complied with the parameters contained in Resolution 2115/2007 of the Ministry of Social Protection. In the rural area, however, fecal contamination indicators were above the established limits. Therefore, this resource should be viewed as "natural water" not suitable for human consumption, according to Decree 1594/1984, and destined for potabilization by conventional treatment.

Sara Lilia, Ávila de Navia; Sandra Mónica, Estupiñán Torres.

131

URBAN RUNOFF QUALITY MANAGEMENT (BOOK REVIEW)  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual of practice is geared toward a technical audience but the first four chapters can be understood by anyone interested in stormwater issues and the use of best management practices (BMPs) to mitigate urban stormwater effects. These chapters outline the stormwater probl...

132

Underground Water Assessment using Water Quality Index  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was designed to assess the quality of selected hand dug wells in Maikunkele area of Niger State, Nigeria using Water Quality Index (WQI). ten hand dug wells were randomly selected in Maikunkele area of Bosso Local Government and were tested for nine (9) parameters of National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) using standard analytical procedures. WQI results indicated that the quality of the selected well water samples were medium except for sample 2 that was extremely bad. The findings ...

2012-01-01

133

Impacts of anthropogenic pressures on the water quality of the Gironde Estuary (SW France) from the Urban Agglomeration of Bordeaux: spatial characterization and inputs of trace metal elements (Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn)  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent European legislation (2000/60/CE) has listed eight trace metal elements as priority toxic substances for water quality. Urban metal inputs into hydrosystems are of increasing interest to both scientists and managers facing restrictive environmental protection policies, population increase and changing metal applications. The Gironde Estuary (SW France; 625 km2) is known for its metal/metalloid pollution originating from industrial (e.g. Cd, Zn, Cu, As, Ag, Hg) or agricultural sources (e.g. Cu) in the main fluvial tributaries (Garonne and Dordogne Rivers). However, little peer-reviewed scientific work has addressed the impact of urban sources on the Gironde Estuary, especially the Urban Agglomeration of Bordeaux (~1 million inhabitants) located on the downstream branch of the Garonne River. In this study, a snapshot sampling campaign was performed in 2011 for characterizing the spatial distribution of dissolved and particulate metal/metalloid (As, Ag, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu) concentrations in three suburban watersheds: the Jalle of Blanquefort (330 km2), Eau Bourde (140 km2), and Peugue (112 km2). Furthermore, particulate metal Enrichment Factors (EF) were calculated using local geochemical background measured at the bottom of a sediment core (492 cm). Results indicated that metal concentrations displayed a high spatial variability depending on the suburban watershed and the studied element. Local concentrations anomalies were observed for: (i) As in the Eau Bourde River in dissolved (4.2 ?g/l) and particulate phases (246 mg/kg; EF= 20) and attributed to a nearby industrial incinerator; (ii) Zn in the Peugue River with maximum dissolved and particulate concentrations of 87 ?g/l and 1580 mg/kg (EF=17), respectively, probably due to urban habitation runoff; (iii) Ag in the Jalle of Blanquefort River with high dissolved (74 ng/l) and particulate concentrations (33.7 mg/kg; EF=117) due to industrial activities in the downstream part. Based on hydro-geochemical monitoring of both suburban rivers and local wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), we present a first estimate of metal/metalloid fluxes and compare them to the respective loads in the Garonne River. Our results suggest that suburban metal inputs may significantly increase metal concentrations and fluxes in the fluvial Gironde Estuary, especially for Ag due to inputs exported by WWTPS and the Jalle of Blanquefort River.

Kessaci, Kahina; Coynel, Alexandra; Blanc, Gérard; Deycard, Victoria N.; Derriennic, Hervé; Schäfer, Jörg

2014-05-01

134

Water quality and the NIEA  

EHS policy is to maintain or improve the quality of surface waters and waters in underground strata (groundwater) in Northern Ireland as required by EC Directives, national policy and international agreements.

135

EAR methodology: an approach to Sustainable Urban Water Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last few decades, urban drainage systems have become much more than a simple removal of storm-water and sewage out of the city. Urban water management must adapt to the city and its evolutions; the driving forces are numerous with a diverse range of origins: social evolution (increasing expectations regarding levels of service), societal evolution (increasing complexity of regulations and institutions, which make urban water management more complex), environmental evolution (climate ch...

2010-01-01

136

Efeitos dos escoamentos urbanos e rurais na qualidade das águas do córrego verruga em vitória da conquista - Bahia, Brasil / Effects of the urban and rural drainages in the quality of waters of verruga stream in vitória da conquista - Bahia, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in english This study examined the spatial and temporal variations of 13 physico-chemical parameters in water and sediment samples collected along the rural and urban section of Verruga Stream. The metal concentrations were determined by FAAS. The conductivity and the concentration of Na+, Cl-, and Ca2+ showed [...] the largest variations in the urban area demonstrating that these parameters are appropriate indicators of urban contamination. The application of cluster and principal component analysis showed that the Cd2+ and Mn2+ are associated with the use of fertilizers in the rural area.

Santos, Maria Lúcia Pires dos; Santos, José Soares dos; Santos, Jarbas Rodrigues dos; Oliveira, Leandra Brito de.

137

Retrospective and Prospective Evaluations of Environmental Quality under Urban Renewal as Determinants of Residents' Subjective Quality of Life  

Science.gov (United States)

Claims about the impacts of environmental quality associated with urban renewal on the resident's subjective quality of life are more speculative than empirically grounded. To clarify the impacts of environmental quality under urban renewal, this study surveyed 876 residents living in housing surrounding seven urban renewal sites in Hong Kong. It…

Cheung, Chau-kiu; Leung, Kwan-kwok

2008-01-01

138

Corporatization of the water sector: implications for transitioning to sustainable urban water management  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the context of climate change, the Danish urban water sector is experiencing two major pressures. On one hand, a number of agents are pushing towards more sustainable urban water management (SUWM) approaches with the aim of improving surface water quality and mitigating flood risk. On the other hand, as part of an international trend, the municipal water management departments were transformed in locally created not-for-profit corporatized companies. Among the drivers are: increase efficiency and cost recovering by reducing political control on utility budgets. Scholars have described the influencing factors for transitioning to SUWM and highlighted the potential governance attributes for enhancing and/or constraining such change. This paper explores the corporatization of the water sector and its implications for transitioning to sustainable urban water management. Corporatization is described and compared to other water governance models. The principles and the challenges of SUWM are introduced on the base of the existing literature. The aim is to develop a conceptual framework to analyse and discuss the implications of this governance shift for transitioning to SUWM. Corporatization is a hybrid between hierarchical and market based governance models, whose attributes demonstrated to represent potential barriers for transitioning to SUWM if not counterbalanced by parallel network-based governance approaches where the involvement of a large range of stakeholders allow cumulative insights from local-scale experiments. If such mechanisms are not created and sustained with proper intuitional reforms to build capacity for change, the transition towards SUWM might be at risk of failure.

Farné Fratini, Chiara; Brown, Rebekah Ruth

2012-01-01

139

WATER QUALITY AND ECTOPARASITE DISEASES OF CY- PRINIDAE FISH  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On large carp fish farms water from larger surface streams is used, which have been affected by industrial and urban pollution, making the zoohygienic conditions bad for the culturing region. The quality of the culturing region directly affects the growth, condition and health of the fish. The aim of this work was to investigate the components of phytoplankton and the physico-chemical indicators of water quality on the occurrence of ectoparasites on the cyprinidae fish farms. Investigation we...

Marija Tomec; Mato Hacmanjek; Zlatica Teskeredži?; Emin Teskeredži?; Rozelinda ?ož-Rakovac

1995-01-01

140

Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling  

Science.gov (United States)

Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across regions, and across sectors demand for an integrated approach to assess main causes of water quality degradation.

Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
141

The air quality in Danish urban areas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. T...

1994-01-01

142

Air pollution and urban air quality management in Indonesia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The trade-led industry and economic development after the Asian financial crisis a decade ago has been accelerated in Indonesia to improve the quality of life of its population. This rapid development of Indonesia was in fact heavily fueled by fossil fuels, especially oil, followed by natural gas and coal. The exploitation of fossil fuel in fueling the development resulted in significant environmental quality degradation. Air pollution is perhaps Indonesia's most severe environmental problem. Industry and transportation were the typical main sources of urban air pollutants. Moreover, Indonesia also failed to reach its original 2005 target for a complete phase-out of leaded gasoline. As a result, the level of Pb together with other pollutants such as CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and total suspended particulates has exceeded or at least approached the designated ambient air quality standards. The urban air pollution will not be lesser in extent, but surely will be more severe in the future. Unfortunately, the capability of the Indonesian authorities to manage the urban air quality is still very limited and the portion of the budget allocated to the improvement of urban air quality is still remarkably low, typically 1% of total. This is why the efforts to enhance the capability to manage the urban air quality could not be handled by the environmental authorities in Indonesia's cities themselves, but outside stimulation in the form of man power, consultant and equipment assistance along with financial support has been very important. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Santosa, Sri J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Okuda, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Shigeru [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama (Japan)

2008-06-15

143

Paradigm shift: Holistic approach for water management in urban environments  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional water infrastructure in urban environments is based on the centralized approach. This approach consists of building pipe network that provides potable water to consumers and drainage network that transport wastewater and stormwater runoff away from population centers. However, as illustrated in this article, centralized water infrastructures are not sustainable over a long period of time for a variety of reasons. This article presents the concept of a holistic approach for sustainable water management that incorporates decentralized water infrastructures into water management system design in urban environments. Decentralized water infrastructures are small to medium-scale systems that use and/or reuse local sources of water such as captured rainwater, stormwater runoff and wastewater. The holistic approach considers these waters as a valuable resource not to be wasted but utilized. This article briefly introduces various types of decentralized water infrastructures appropriate for urban settings. This article focuses on the effectiveness of rooftop rainwater harvesting systems as a decentralized water infrastructure and as a critical component of developing a holistic and sustainable water infrastructure in urban environments. Despite widespread use of rainwater harvesting systems, limited information has been published on its effectiveness for sustainable management of water resources and urban water infrastructures. This article, discusses multi-dimensional benefits of rainwater harvesting systems for sustainable management of water resources and its role as a critical component of decentralized water infrastructures in urban environments.

Younos, Tamim

2011-12-01

144

The implementation challenge of urban air quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, the policy followed has booked some significant successes in the structural reduction of the emissions by a number of air polluting substances (e.g. sulphur dioxide and lead). However, the Third Environmental Outlook 1993-2015 has determined that the policy goals for a number of other air polluting substances will not be achieved, particularly in urban areas. This concerns fine dust (PM-10) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen dioxide, benzene and black smoke. The policy goals for the above priority substances have been set so as to protect the population against the negative effects on health from too high concentrations of these substances. Forty-six per cent of the Dutch population live in cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants, and, hence, many people are exposed to (too) high concentrations. For this reason, the Netherlands` Second National Environmental Policy Plan lays down that government, provinces and municipalities will together develop a plan of action to reduce urban air pollution to acceptable levels. The formulated strategy is presented in the document here. To that end, the problem analysis and current policy related to the issue are considered in more detail below. On the basis of this, the additional policy strategy is formulated. (author)

Lint, R.J.T. van; Buitenkamp, S.; Zebregs, M. [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Air Quality and Acidification Abatement Div.

1995-12-31

145

A PHOTOCHEMICAL BOX MODEL FOR URBAN AIR QUALITY SIMULATION  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple 'box-approach' to air quality simulation modeling has been developed in conjunction with a newly formulated photochemical kinetic mechanism to produce an easily applied Photochemical Box Model (PBM). This approach represents an urban area as a single cell 20 km in both l...

146

Species pool versus site limitations of macrophytes in urban waters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biodiversity in urban areas is affected by a multitude of stressors. In addition to physico-chemical stress factors, the native regional species pool can be greatly reduced in highly urbanized landscapes due to area loss and fragmentation. In this study, we investigated how macrophyte composition and diversity in urban water systems are limited by the regional species pool and local environmental conditions. Canonical correspondence analysis of the macrophyte species composition revealed that urban and semi-natural water systems differed and differences could be related to local abiotic variables such as pH and iron concentrations. Macrophytes in the semi-natural area were typical for slightly acid and oligotrophic conditions. In urban water systems, exotic species characteristic of eutrophic conditions were present. In the semi-natural areas, the number of macrophyte species exceeded the number of species expected from species-area relationships of artificial water bodies in rural areas. In urban areas, the number of macrophyte species was similar to artificial water systems in rural areas. Macrophyte species present in the study areas also were generally found within 20-30 km distance to the study area. Macrophyte species composition in urban water systems and semi-natural water systems appeared to be influenced by the regional species pool within approximately 30 km of the locations. Nevertheless, site limitation ultimately determined the local macrophyte species composition and diversity in urban water systems and in semi-natural water systems

Vermonden, K.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.

2010-01-01

147

Invertebrados bentónicos como indicadores de calidad del agua en ríos urbanos (Paraná-Entre Ríos, Argentina) / Benthic invertebrates as indicators of water quality in urban rivers (Paraná-Entre Ríos, Argentina)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudió la incidencia de los efluentes industriales y cloacales sobre la estructura del bentos en el río Las Tunas y su afluente Saucesito (Paraná, Provincia de Entre Ríos, Argentina). Se determinaron las especies y asociaciones de especies en gradientes de buena a mala calidad del agua de estos [...] ríos urbanos. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos, entre julio de 2000 y febrero de 2002, en cuatro estaciones a lo largo del curso. Los resultados obtenidos revelaron que, tanto la densidad como la diversidad específica fueron influenciadas por la contaminación orgánica, con una disminución brusca en la estación afectada por el vertido de los efluentes del parque industrial. Se registraron 85 taxa, siendo los oligoquetos y quironómidos los dominantes. Del análisis de componentes principales, se infirió que la demanda biológica de oxígeno fue el factor que más incidió en la distribución y composición de organismos bentónicos. El río Las Tunas presentó altos valores de DBO5, la menor densidad, riqueza y diversidad específica, sin recuperación de la calidad del agua en todo el tramo. Aguas arriba, el río Saucesito presentó una mejor calidad, principalmente en la estación de referencia ubicada antes del parque industrial. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to assess the effects of industrial and sewage discharges on the benthic structure of urban rivers. Also, the species assemblages associated to different water quality conditions were studied. Four sampling sites were analyzed, from July 2000 to February 2002, during high wa [...] ter level in two urban rivers. In order to determine the quality of the water and the species assemblages, ANOVA, principal components analysis, species diversity and distance index among sites were applied. Eighty-five species or morphospecies were identified, dominated by Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. Average density of benthic invertebrates varied between 233 ind/m² and 29265 ind/m², with higher densities registered in the reference sampling site than in the ones affected by industrial discharges. The species richness ranged from four to 43 taxa, and the Shannon-Wiener index, from 1.37 to 3.95, with the highest value registered in Saucesito river. Filtering and gathering collectors were the dominant feeding groups in all the sites because of the high fine particulate organic matter content. The biological oxygen demand was the main factor in determinating the benthic invertebrates distribution and composition. Las Tunas River is hardly polluted, with low benthic density, species richness and diversity, and high DBO5 values. Saucesito River shows a better water quality, mainly upstream of the industrial discharges. The gradient from clean to polluted water quality, was characterized by the species assemblages Ostracods Podocopida, Tanytarsus sp., D. (D.) obtusa, Djalmabatista sp. 2, Rheotanytarsus sp. 1, S. fossularis and Cricotopus sp. 1 ? N. variabilis, C. xanthus and L. hoffmeisteri.

Pave, Paola J; Marchese, Mercedes.

148

Primer on Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

... aquatic life if they exceed standards or guidelines. Dissolved gases such as oxygen and radon are common in natural waters. Adequate oxygen levels in water are a necessity for fish and other aquatic life. Radon gas can be ...

149

Undernutrition and Household Environmental Quality among Urban and Rural Children in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explored the association between child undernutrition and household environmental quality in urban and rural households. Anthropometric assessments were conducted on 370 preschool children in three urban communities (high, medium and low-density and one rural community. A structured questionnaire for mothers and an observation checklist were used to collect sociodemographic and environmental data. An Environmental Quality Index (EQI combining four composite indicators of household environment (water, sanitation, housing, waste disposal/drainage was developed. Results Overall prevalence was 16.8% for wasting, 29.7% for stunting and 28.4% for underweight. There was a significant association between the EQI and stunting (r = -0.437, p =0.000 and also, underweight (r = -0.491, p = 0.000 but not with wasting (r = -0.152, p =0.201. Dissagregation of data into rural and urban revealed that the significant associations disappeared in the rural but persisted among the urban children. The findings reiterate the significance of environmental inadequacies to childhood undernutrition. However, environmental quality appears to be a more important determinant of undernutrition among urban than rural children.

Folake, O. Samuel

2008-01-01

150

Urban Air Quality Modelling with AURORA: Prague and Bratislava  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Commission, in its strategy to protect the health of the European citizens, states that in order to assess the impact of air pollution on public health, information on long-term exposure to air pollution should be available. Currently, indicators of air quality are often being generated using measured pollutant concentrations. While air quality monitoring stations data provide accurate time series information at specific locations, air quality models have the advantage of being able to assess the spatial variability of air quality (for different resolutions) and predict air quality in the future based on different scenarios. When running such air quality models at a high spatial and temporal resolution, one can simulate the actual situation as closely as possible, allowing for a detailed assessment of the risk of exposure to citizens from different pollutants. AURORA (Air quality modelling in Urban Regions using an Optimal Resolution Approach), a prognostic 3-dimensional Eulerian chemistry-transport model, is designed to simulate urban- to regional-scale atmospheric pollutant concentration and exposure fields. The AURORA model also allows to calculate the impact of changes in land use (e.g. planting of trees) or of emission reduction scenario's on air quality. AURORA is currently being applied within the ESA atmospheric GMES service, PASODOBLE (http://www.myair-eu.org), that delivers information on air quality, greenhouse gases, stratospheric ozone, … At present there are two operational AURORA services within PASODOBLE. Within the "Air quality forecast service" VITO delivers daily air quality forecasts for Belgium at a resolution of 5 km and for the major Belgian cities: Brussels, Ghent, Antwerp, Liege and Charleroi. Furthermore forecast services are provided for Prague, Czech Republic and Bratislava, Slovakia, both at a resolution of 1 km. The "Urban/regional air quality assessment service" provides urban- and regional-scale maps (hourly resolution) for air pollution and human exposure statistics for an entire year. So far we concentrated on Brussels, Belgium and the Rotterdam harbour area, The Netherlands. In this contribution we focus on the operational forecast services. Reference Lefebvre W. et al. (2011) Validation of the MIMOSA-AURORA-IFDM model chain for policy support: Modeling concentrations of elemental carbon in Flanders, Atmospheric Environment 45, 6705-6713

Veldeman, N.; Viaene, P.; De Ridder, K.; Peelaerts, W.; Lauwaet, D.; Muhammad, N.; Blyth, L.

2012-04-01

151

Heavy water quality control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The Laboratory of Isotopic Analyzes and Isotopic Processes from ICSI Rm. Valcea is the only Romanian laboratory capable and authorised to produce and to certify heavy water and heavy water standards. ICSI Rm. Valcea is the owner of the Romanian heavy water standard. The Laboratory of Isotopic Analyzes and Isotopic Processes is authorized to produce and to certify heavy water standards by National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, CNCAN, and by the Romanian Office of Legal Metrology. As a guarantee of high performances, the Laboratory of Isotopic Analyzes and Isotopic Processes conducts its activity under the aegis of RENAR. For heavy water analysis, our specialists use equipment and technique of international level: - Vibrational densitometry for concentration between 1 % mass D2O and 99,00 % mass D2O; - IR spectrometry for concentration between 99,000 % mass D2O and 99,977 % mass D2O. (authors)

2005-10-12

152

ESTIMATION OF WATER QUALITY CRITERIA VIOLATION FREQUENCIES USING PEARSON PERCENTILES  

Science.gov (United States)

A numerical technique is developed for estimating water quality violation frequencies due to pollutant discharges from urban areas during combined sewer overflow events. The first four moments of in-stream pollutant concentration are found by integrating a pollutant loading - wat...

153

How to face groundwater salinization and contamination under global environmental change in its societal context. Challenge of water quality in the urban environment of Recife (Brazil)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to an increasing demographic pressure, the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR, the fifth largest metropolitan area in Brazil), went through remarkable water and land use changes over the last decades. These evolutions gave rise to numerous environmental consequences, such as a dramatic decline of the piezometric levels, groundwater salinization and contamination. This degradation of natural resources is linked to the increase of water demand, punctually amplified by drought periods which ...

Montenegro, Suzana Maria Gico Lima; Hirata, Ricardo; Petelet Giraud, Emmanuelle; Cary, Lise

2012-01-01

154

Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas: Shallow ground-water quality and land use in the Albuquerque Area, Central New Mexico, 1993. National water quality assessment program. Water-resources investigations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the quality of shallow ground water and the relations between land use and the quality of that shallow ground water in an urban area in and adjacent to Albuquerque, New Mexico. Water samples were collected from 24 shallow wells for analysis of selected common constituents, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds (VOC`s), and pesticides. The results of the chemical analyses are presented in appendices.

Anderholm, S.K.

1997-12-31

155

Our water quality policy  

...Marine Licensing NI...that our water bodies are protected from pollution and managed as...policy development in five key areas: marine spatial planning, marine licensing, marine nature conservation, fisheries management, and...

156

The impact of major earthquakes and subsequent sewage discharges on the microbial quality of water and sediments in an urban river.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of large earthquakes struck the city of Christchurch, New Zealand in 2010-2011. Major damage sustained by the sewerage infrastructure required direct discharge of up to 38,000m(3)/day of raw sewage into the Avon River of Christchurch for approximately six months. This allowed evaluation of the relationship between concentrations of indicator microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and F-RNA phage) and pathogens (Campylobacter, Giardia and Cryptosporidium) in recreational water and sediment both during and post-cessation of sewage discharges. Giardia was the pathogen found most frequently in river water and sediment, although Campylobacter was found at higher levels in water samples. E. coli levels in water above 550CFU/100mL were associated with increased likelihood of detection of Campylobacter, Giardia and Cryptosporidium, supporting the use of E. coli as a reliable indicator for public health risk. The strength of the correlation of microbial indicators with pathogen detection in water decreased in the following order: E. coli>F-RNA phage>C. perfringens. All the microorganisms assayed in this study could be recovered from sediments. C. perfringens was observed to accumulate in sediments, which may have confounded its usefulness as an indicator of fresh sewage discharge. F-RNA phage, however, did not appear to accumulate in sediment and in conjunction with E. coli, may have potential as an indicator of recent human sewage discharge in freshwater. There is evidence to support the low-level persistence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, but not Campylobacter, in river sediments after cessation of sewage discharges. In the event of disturbances of the sediment, it is highly probable that there could be re-mobilisation of microorganisms beyond the sediment-water exchange processes occurring under base flow conditions. Re-suspension events do, therefore, increase the potential risk to human health for those who participate in recreational and work-related activities in the river environment. PMID:24747258

Devane, Megan L; Moriarty, Elaine M; Wood, David; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Gilpin, Brent J

2014-07-01

157

Ambient Water Quality Criteria: Nitrosamines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Section 304(a) of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1314(a)), requires EPA to publish and periodically update water quality criteria. These criteria are to reflect the latest scientific knowledge on the identifiable effects of pollutants on public health and...

1978-01-01

158

A real-time control framework for urban water reservoirs operation  

Science.gov (United States)

Drinking water demand in urban areas is growing parallel to the worldwide urban population, and it is acquiring an increasing part of the total water consumption. Since the delivery of sufficient water volumes in urban areas represents a difficult logistic and economical problem, different metropolitan areas are evaluating the opportunity of constructing relatively small reservoirs within urban areas. Singapore, for example, is developing the so-called 'Four National Taps Strategies', which detects the maximization of water yields from local, urban catchments as one of the most important water sources. However, the peculiar location of these reservoirs can provide a certain advantage from the logistical point of view, but it can pose serious difficulties in their daily management. Urban catchments are indeed characterized by large impervious areas: this results in a change of the hydrological cycle, with decreased infiltration and groundwater recharge, and increased patterns of surface and river discharges, with higher peak flows, volumes and concentration time. Moreover, the high concentrations of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges can cause further water quality problems. In this critical hydrological context, the effective operation of urban water reservoirs must rely on real-time control techniques, which can exploit hydro-meteorological information available in real-time from hydrological and nowcasting models. This work proposes a novel framework for the real-time control of combined water quality and quantity objectives in urban reservoirs. The core of this framework is a non-linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme, which employs the current state of the system, the future discharges furnished by a predictive model and a further model describing the internal dynamics of the controlled sub-system to determine an optimal control sequence over a finite prediction horizon. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its reduced computational requests and the capability of exploiting real-time hydro-meteorological information, which are crucial for an effective operation of these fast-varying hydrological systems. The framework is here demonstrated on the operation of Marina Reservoir (Singapore), whose recent construction in late 2008 increased the effective catchment area to about 50% of the total available. Its operation, which accounts for drinking water supply, flash floods control and water quality standards, is here designed by combining the MPC scheme with the process-based hydrological model SOBEK. Extensive simulation experiments show the validity of the proposed framework.

Galelli, S.; Goedbloed, A.; Schwanenberg, D.

2012-04-01

159

Water quality simulation in two urban experimental catchments in Italy; Simulazione della qualita` delle acque in due bacini sperimentali urbani in Italia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of the calibration of SWMM on data coming from two Italian experimental catchments are presented, performed on runoff and quality data. The analysis has pointed on the great importance of runoff processes among all other phenomena taken into account. [Italiano] Viene presentata la calibrazione del modello SWMM dal punto quali-quantitativo su due bacini sperimentali italiani. Si e` compiuta la calibrazione e validazione del modello sugli eventi disponibili, valutandone il comportamento nel riprodurre gli eventi registrati. Lo studio mette in evidenza la particolare importanza del fenomeno del washoff operato dalla pioggia rispetto alle altre fasi della modellazione qualitativa.

Artina, S.; Maglionico, M. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). DISTART; Calabro`, P. [Reggio Calabria Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Meccanica dei Fluidi ed Ingegneria Off-shore; La Loggia, A. [Palermo Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria Idraulica ed Applicazioni Ambientali

1998-11-01

160

Impacts of urbanization on groundwater quality and recharge in a semi-arid alluvial basin  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryThe management of groundwater resources is paramount in semi-arid regions experiencing urban development. In the southwestern United States, enhancing recharge of urban storm runoff has been identified as a strategy for augmenting groundwater resources. An understanding of how urbanization may impact the timing of groundwater recharge and its quality is a prerequisite for mitigating water scarcity and identifying vulnerability to contamination. We sampled groundwater wells along the Rillito Creek in southern Arizona that had been previously analyzed for tritium in the late 1980s to early 1990s and analyzed samples for tritium ( 3H) and helium-3 ( 3H/ 3He) to evaluate changes in 3H and age date groundwaters. Groundwater samples were also analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and basic water quality metrics. Substantial changes in 3H values from waters sampled in the early 1990s compared to 2009 were identified after accounting for radioactive decay and indicate areas of rapid recharge. 3H- 3He groundwater ages ranged from 22 years before 2009 to modern recharge. CFC-11, -12 and -113 concentrations were anomalously high across the basin, and non-point source pollution in runoff and/or leaky infrastructure was identified as the most plausible source of this contamination. CFCs were strongly and positively correlated to nitrate ( r2 = 0.77) and a mobile trace metal, nickel ( r2 = 0.71), suggesting that solutes were derived from a similar source. Findings from this study suggest new waters from urban non-point sources are contributing to groundwater recharge and adversely affecting water quality. Reducing delivery of contaminants to areas of focused recharge will be critical to protect future groundwater resources.

Carlson, Mark A.; Lohse, Kathleen A.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; McLain, Jean E. T.

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

Underground Water Assessment using Water Quality Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the quality of selected hand dug wells in Maikunkele area of Niger State, Nigeria using Water Quality Index (WQI. ten hand dug wells were randomly selected in Maikunkele area of Bosso Local Government and were tested for nine (9 parameters of National Sanitation Foundation (NSF using standard analytical procedures. WQI results indicated that the quality of the selected well water samples were medium except for sample 2 that was extremely bad. The findings also revealed that all the samples except samples 2 and 3 had high coliform levels as high as 91 coliform/100cm3. This was an indication of faecal contamination substantiating the proximity of some of the wells to septic systems. The nitrate levels in all the samples exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL of WHO, EPA, APHA and the Nigerian Drinking Water Standards. Based on the results obtained, the quality of the well water samples was therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques were highly recommended.

Jonathan YISA

2012-12-01

162

The EPANET water quality model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EPANET is a software package developed by US EPA`s Drinking Water Research Division for modeling hydraulic and water quality behavior within water distribution systems. Starting with a geometric description of the pipe network, a set of initial conditions, estimates of water usage, and a set of rules for how the system is operated, EPANET predicts all flows, pressures, and water quality levels throughout the network during an extended period of operation. In addition to substance concentration, water age and source tracing can also be simulated. EPANET offers a number of advanced features including: modular, highly portable C language code with no pre-set limits on network size; a simple data input format based on a problem oriented language; a full-featured hydraulic simulator; improved water quality algorithms; analysis of water quality reactions both within the bulk flow and at the pipe wall; an optional graphical user interface running under Microsoft{reg_sign} Windows{trademark}. The Windows user interface allows one to edit EPANET input files, run a simulation, and view the results all within a single program. Simulation output can be visualized through: color-coded maps of the distribution system with full zooming, panning and labeling capabilities and a slider control to move forward or backward through time; spreadsheet-like tables that can be searched for entries meeting a specified criterion; and time series graphs of both predicted and observed values for any variable at any location in the network. EPANET is currently being used to analyze a number of water quality issues in different distribution systems across the country. These include: chlorine decay dynamics, raw water source blending, altered tank operation, and integration with real-time monitoring and control systems.

Rossman, L.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-10-01

163

Urban Design Competition versus Design Interactivity and Quality Judgment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study is targeted to analyze the essence of interactive design process, design methodology and the communicability of quality judgment of urban design competitions. The aim is to provide a political argument which supports organizational and procedural reforms of the entire cycle of competition, from judgment to selection and implementation of a prize-winning architectural design. The study is searching to provide some principle definitions of the concepts of design methodology and design...

Kazemian, Reza

2011-01-01

164

Impact of residential wood combustion on urban air quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wood combustion is mainly used in cold regions as a primary or supplemental space heating source in residential areas. In several industrialized countries, there is a renewed interest in residential wood combustion (RWC) as an alternative to fossil fuel and nuclear power consumption. The main objective of this thesis was to investigate the impact of RWC on the air quality in urban areas. To this end, a field campaign was conducted in Northern Sweden during wintertime to characterize atmospher...

Krecl, Patricia

2008-01-01

165

Microbiological air quality in an urban solid waste selection plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Exposure to bioaerosols may pose health risks to workers operating in the processing of Urban Solid Waste (USW). The aim of this study is to evaluate microbiological air quality within an USW selection facility.

Methods: Nine sampling points in an USW selection plant situated in central-southern Italy were selected. One outdoor sampling point provided the background data. Sampling was performed on...

Angela Del Cimmuto; Francesca D’Acunzo; Lucia Marinelli; Maria De Giusti; Antonio Boccia

2010-01-01

166

Study on the Model Building for the Influence of the Water Environment on Urban Tourism Ecological Capacity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article first define the concept of the urban water environment and city tourism environment capacity and points out that the urban tourism environment capacity including urban tourism ecological capacity, urban tourism spatial capacity, urban tourism economy capacity and city tourism mental capacity, on the basis of which, the tourist ecological capacity of the influence factors were analyzed. And from the water environment of tourist’s capital input and the relationship among the water environment of the city tourism ecological capacity of six son model and influence comprehensive model, in order to improve the water quality and water environment, promote the city tourism economy and here comes the theory basis.

Wan Zu-yong

2013-01-01

167

An assessment of the drainage quality and quantity associated with recycled wastewater irrigation in an urban park  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quantification of drainage to remove excess water from the soil profile and provide a suitable environment for vegetation has been developed over the years. Drainage estimation is fairly challenging particularly in the heterogeneous urban environs. This research studied the temporal variation of drainage rate and nutrient leaching in Veale Gardens of Adelaide Parklands, Australia. A zero tension pan lysimeter was installed in an urban mixed vegetation park to study the quantity and quality of...

2013-01-01

168

Low-Cost Sensor Units for Measuring Urban Air Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of selected key air quality gases (CO, NO & NO2) have been made with a range of miniature low-cost sensors based on electrochemical gas sensing technology incorporating GPS and GPRS for position and communication respectively. Two types of simple to operate sensors units have been designed to be deployed in relatively large numbers. Mobile handheld sensor units designed for operation by members of the public have been deployed on numerous occasions including in Cambridge, London and Valencia. Static sensor units have also been designed for long-term autonomous deployment on existing street furniture. A study was recently completed in which 45 sensor units were deployed in the Cambridge area for a period of 3 months. Results from these studies indicate that air quality varies widely both spatially and temporally. The widely varying concentrations found suggest that the urban environment cannot be fully understood using limited static site (AURN) networks and that a higher resolution, more dispersed network is required to better define air quality in the urban environment. The results also suggest that higher spatial and temporal resolution measurements could improve knowledge of the levels of individual exposure in the urban environment.

Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M.; Stewart, G.; Hodgson, T.; McLoed, M.; Baldovi, J.; Landshoff, P.; Hayes, M.; Calleja, M.; Jones, R.

2010-12-01

169

Impacts of urban solid waste disposal on the quality of surface water in three cities of Minas Gerais - Brazil Impactos da disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos na qualidade da água superficial em três municípios de Minas Gerais - Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The environmental impact of three different urban solid waste facilities (USWF on the quality of the surface water. The studied areas were the Campo Belo sanitary landfill (Varões River, the controlled landfill of Santo Antônio do Amparo (Fabiano River, and the closed dump of Elói Mendes (Mutuca River, which are cities located in southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil were evaluated. At each sampling point water samples were collected at five occasions in the raining season (October - March and in the dry season (April - June at three sampling points: (P1 upstream the solid waste facility, (P2 downstream nearby the point of influx from the sewage treatment plant in the sanitary landfill, or at the drainage point from the surface flow of the dump and controlled landfill, and (P3 downstream the solid waste facility. Physicochemical and bacteriological analyses were performed, and the results were analyzed based on descriptive statistics. The data were also compared with reference values from the National Environmental Council (CONAMA Resolution 357/2005 and were used to calculate the water quality index (WQI. It was not possible to detect a significant effect of the solid waste facility on the water quality indicators. The water conditions were unsatisfactory due to violations of the concentrations of phosphorus, ammonia, fecal coliform, and the biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand ratio (BOD/COD, probably related to other uses along the drainage area upstream the solid waste facility. These conditions were more critical in the Mutuca river, where the WQI was classified as bad during the entire period at all sampling points.Os impactos ambientais de três diferentes tipologias de áreas de disposição de Resíduos Sólidos Urbanos - ADRSU, sobre a qualidade das águas superficiais situadas nas proximidades do aterro sanitário de Campo Belo (Córrego dos Varões, do aterro controlado de Santo Antônio do Amparo (Córrego do Fabiano e do lixão encerrado de Elói Mendes (Ribeirão Mutuca, municípios situados no Sul de Minas Gerais - Brasil foram avaliados. Para cada curso d'água foram coletadas 5 amostras de água no período chuvoso e 5 amostras no período seco, em três diferentes pontos para cada um dos três cursos d'água sendo: (P1 a montante das ADRSU, (P2 logo após o local de descarga da Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto - ETE (no aterro sanitário, e nas outras tipologias, após ponto de lançamento do escoamento superficial proveniente das ADSRU, e (P3 à jusante das ADSRU. Realizaram-se análises físico-químicas e bacteriológicas, cujos resultados foram analisados com base na estatística descritiva e comparados com valores de referência da Resolução CONAMA 357/2005, bem como utilizados para cálculo do índice de qualidade de água (IQA. Não foi possível detectar efeito significativo das ADRSU, nos parâmetros indicadores da qualidade da água, a qual se apresentou em condições não satisfatórias em função das violações dos parâmetros fósforo, amônia, coliformes termotolerantes e da relação DQO/DBO mesmo à montante da ADSRU. No Ribeirão Mutuca, essa situação foi ainda mais crítica pois o IQA foi classificado como ruim em todos os pontos durante o período monitorado.

Rosângela Francisca de Paula Vitor Marques

2012-12-01

170

Establishment of urban air quality prediction system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By using the data of Taipei metropolitan and Taichung city, it was found that the concentrations of the PM{sub 10} and SO{sub 2} were strongly associated with wind speed, rain, surface layer stability and their initial concentrations. Among these factors, stability in the atmospheric surface layer was not fully addressed in traditional box model. A new box model formula was derived to include the stability parameter. After analysis of exchange/removal mechanisms operating in the PBL by using this new model, we find that the near ground pollutant concentration after reaching steady state is dose to q{sub 0}l/2ul{sub e} under stable, low wind speed and rainless day, where q{sub 0} is emission rate, 1 length of a city, u wind speed and l{sub e} stability scale length. Under calm wind speed in addition to the aforementioned conditions, the air quality became most deteriorated and close to q{sub 0}/V{sub d}, where V{sub d} is dry deposition rate. This formula works well in simulating PM{sub 10} and SO{sub 2} concentration of Pancho and Taichung city. In addition, this formula also can handle most of the deteriorated days.

Ben-Jei Tsuang; Jime-Ming Huang [National Chung-Hsing Univ., Taichung (China)

1996-12-31

171

Urban Growth Modeling to Predict the Changes in the Urban Microclimate and Urban Water Cycle :  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The consequences of urban growth on the exposure, sensitivity but also as a driver of flooding are often underexposed. Yet, the rate of current urbanization is unprecedented and might increase future flood risk dramatically. To gain insight in this issue, a study on urban development has been performed using 3 case study areas: the megacities of Beijing, and Mumbai and 1 regular city: Can Tho, Vietnam. Using a physically urban growth model,

2011-01-01

172

Urban growth modeling to predict the changes in the urban microclimate and urban water cycle:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The consequences of urban growth on the exposure, sensitivity but also as a driver of flooding are often underexposed. Yet, the rate of current urbanization is unprecedented and might increase future flood risk dramatically. To gain insight in this issue, a study on urban development has been performed using 3 case study areas: the megacities of Beijing, and Mumbai and 1 regular city: Can Tho, Vietnam. Using a physically urban growth model, future growth patterns are obtained that show land c...

2011-01-01

173

Expanding the exergy concept to the urban water cycle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The world is urbanizing fast and this increases the pressure on available resources. In a world of cities, it is therefore crucial to take a new look at the way urban systems function: where do the resources come from and where do the wastes end up? It is essential to find ways to minimize urban impacts on resource depletion and environmental impacts and also to improve cycles within the systems. Energy and water cycles are vital to support urban life. Over the last decades, important advance...

2009-01-01

174

The role of planted forests in urban water budgets (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

In arid regions which are not naturally forested, urban trees are sustained through the redistribution of water resources as irrigation. Assessments of outdoor water use in Southwestern US cities have shown that not only is 30-75% of residential water use expended on outdoor landscapes, but that irrigation is frequently in excess of estimated plant demand. Thus, there is a need to understand the factors which influence the magnitude and variability of water use of urban trees. A complicating factor in assessing urban tree water use is the widely recognized heterogeneity of urban environments. Human choices and decision-making result in a landscape with significant variability in water and nutrient inputs, microclimate, biotic inputs and vegetation composition. In order to quantify urban tree water use and explain variation in water use resulting from variability in resource availability and species composition, we have conducted a combination of sapflux, growth and isotopic studies on more than 35 common (primarily non-native) tree species in the Los Angeles basin. The objective of these studies was to determine how much variability in water use and water use efficiency exists within and between commonly planted urban tree species, and what factors explain or can be used to predict this variability. Through these studies we have found considerable differences (up to two fold) in tree transpiration within a given species, attributable to differences in water and nutrient availability and tree planting density. Additionally, we have found substantial variation in the water use of different species: at typical urban planting densities, peak transpiration rates can be more than ten times greater for high transpiring trees than low transpiring trees. Finally, we found whole tree water use efficiency to vary across species by a factor of up to a hundred, explained to a large degree by the climate conditions (especially vapor pressure deficit) in the native ranges of these non-native trees. On the scale of the entire city of Los Angeles, we estimate that the urban forest could use as much as 50% of the total municipal water use. Overall, we have found that urban trees can use substantial quantities of water, and that species choice matters greatly in determining urban landscape water use.

McCarthy, H. R.; Pataki, D. E.; Litvak, E.

2009-12-01

175

Water quality issues in southern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or ?g/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in trace concentrations. Most of the ailments, including mood disturbances and psychological disorders, are reportedly on the increase in most urban and industrialized areas of Nigeria. Perhaps a study should be conducted among the population in order to relate the pattern of water pollution related diseases to health factors in Nigeria

2000-07-17

176

Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs  

Science.gov (United States)

Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

2014-01-01

177

Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

Sailor, D.J.

1993-08-01

178

Place-Making through Water Sensitive Urban Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aims to develop a practice and evaluation model for public open spaces in residential areas that considers water sensitive urban design techniques contributing to place-making.

Reena Tiwari

2009-09-01

179

Check the water quality at your local bathing water  

To better inform you about where to go swimming, we test the water quality at over 400 bathing waters in England during the bathing water season (15 May to 30 September). Related Searches: beach water quality

180

Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado Avaliação de parâmetros de qualidade de água para monitoramento de áreas naturais, urbanas e agrícolas no Cerrado brasileiro  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

INTRODUCTION: Brazil's Federal District (FD) has seen steep population growth in recent years, and this has increased demand for high-quality water. AIM: The present work aims to evaluate the quality of surface water from two water bodies in the FD at six sampling points, three of which are in the Sobradinho River (the receiving body of a sewage treatment plant effluent) and three in the Jardim River (located in an agricultural region). METHODS: Analyses were carried out every thirty days, fo...

Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz; Aline Silva Moraes; Ingrid de Souza Freire; Carlos José Domingos da Cruz; Jorge Enoch Furquim Werneck Lima; Eduardo Cyrino Oliveira-Filho

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Cellular-enabled water quality measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

While the past decade has seen significant improvements in our ability to measure nutrients and other water quality parameters, the use of these sensors has yet to gain traction due to their costprohibitive nature and deployment expertise required on the part of researchers. Furthermore, an extra burden is incurred when real-time data access becomes an experimental requirement. We present an open-source hardware design to facilitate the real-time, low-cost, and robust measurements of water quality across large urbanized areas. Our hardware platform interfaces an embedded, vastly configurable, high-precision, ultra-low power measurement system, with a low-power cellular module. Each sensor station is configured with an IP address, permitting reliable streaming of sensor data to off-site locations as measurements are made. We discuss the role of high-quality hardware components during extreme event scenarios, and present preliminary performance metrics that validate the ability of the platform to provide streaming access to sensor measurements.

Zhao, Y.; Kerkez, B.

2013-12-01

182

A critical review of integrated urban water modelling â?? Urban drainage and beyond  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modelling interactions in urban drainage, water supply and broader integrated urban water systems has been conceptually and logistically challenging as evidenced in a diverse body of literature, found to be confusing and intimidating to new researchers. This review consolidates thirty years of research (initially driven by interest in urban drainage modelling) and critically reflects upon integrated modelling in the scope of urban water systems. We propose a typology to classify integrated urban water system models at one of four â??degrees of integrationâ?? (followed by its exemplification). Key considerations (e.g. data issues, model structure, computational and integration-related aspects), common methodology for model development (through a systems approach), calibration/optimisation and uncertainty are discussed, placing importance on pragmatism and parsimony. Integrated urban water models should focus more on addressing interplay between social/economical and biophysical/technical issues, while its encompassing software should become more user-friendly. Possible future directions include exploring uncertainties and broader participatory modelling.

Bach, Peter M.; Rauch, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

183

Influences of Watershed Urbanization and Instream Habitat on Macroinvertebrates in Cold Water Streams  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed data from riffle and snag habitats for 39 small cold water streams with different levels of watershed urbanization in Wisconsin and Minnesota to evaluate the influences of urban land use and instream habitat on macroinvertebrate communities. Multivariate analysis indicated that stream temperature and amount of urban land use in the watersheds were the most influential factors determining macroinvertebrate assemblages. The amount of watershed urbanization was nonlinearly and negatively correlated with percentages of Ephemeroptera-PlecopteraTrichoptera (EPT) abundance, EPT taxa, filterers, and scrapers and positively correlated with Hilsenhoff biotic index. High quality macroinvertebrate index values were possible if effective imperviousness was less than 7 percent of the watershed area. Beyond this level of imperviousness, index values tended to be consistently poor. Land uses in the riparian area were equal or more influential relative to land use elsewhere in the watershed, although riparian area consisted of only a small portion of the entire watershed area. Our study implies that it is extremely important to restrict watershed impervious land use and protect stream riparian areas for reducing human degradation on stream quality in low level urbanizing watersheds. Stream temperature may be one of the major factors through which human activities degrade cold-water streams, and management efforts that can maintain a natural thermal regime will help preserve stream quality.

Wang, Lizhu; Kanehl, Paul

2003-10-01

184

Neighborhood Quality and Housing Value: Evidence from Urban Micro Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using urban residential micro data from CHNS, this paper employs Hedonic Pricing Model to investigate the impact of Neighborhood Quality on housing value and its mechanism. We find that, Human Capitals measured by average schooling years and occupational diversity have significant positive effect while cultural capitals such as Ethnic Diversity have significant negative effect on housing value. Compared with the empirical results from developed counties, Social Capitals measured by length of tenure and own room rate have insignificant effect on housing value. In addition, having Kindergarten and Hospitals near the communities are positively correlated with the housing value while Internet cafe or transportation services are negative. We believe that these facts are closely related to the stage of economy transition and rapid urbanization in current China. The conclusions have important implications for the effective construction of harmonious commodities.

Yi Wang

2012-02-01

185

Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modelling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and stormwater drainage systems. However, some micropollutants have the tendency to occur in more than one environmental medium. In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is â??wrapped aroundâ? a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment. The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios: a reference scenario and a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS). A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in a reduced surface water concentration for the latter scenario. However, the model also showed that this was at the expense of increased fluxes to air and groundwater.

De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.

2009-01-01

186

Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems to Study Urban Quality of Life and Urban Forest Amenities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines urban quality of life by assessing the relationship between observed socioeconomic conditions and urban forest amenities in Terre Haute, Indiana, USA. Using remote-sensing methods and techniques, and ordinary least squares regression, the paper determines the relationship between urban leaf area and a population density parameter with median income and median housing value. Results demonstrate positive correlations between urban leaf area, population density, and their interaction with median income and median housing value. Furthermore, leaf area, density, and their interaction statistically account for observed variance in median income and median housing value, indicating that these variables may be used to study observed quality-of-life metrics. The methods used in this study may be useful to city managers, planners, and foresters who are concerned with urban quality-of-life issues, and who are interested in developing and implementing alternative policy assessment regimes.

Jay Gatrell

2004-12-01

187

drinking water quality in northern ireland 2007  

Drinking Water Quality in Northern Ireland, 2007 A Report by the Drinking Water Inspectorate for Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Environment Agency Drinking Water Quality in Northern Ireland, 2007 A Report by the ...

188

drinking water quality in northern ireland 2008  

Drinking Water Quality in Northern Ireland, 2008 A Report by the Drinking Water Inspectorate for Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Environment Agency Drinking Water Quality in Northern Ireland, 2008 A Report by the ...

189

ANALYTICAL EQUATIONS OF STORAGE RESERVOIR WATER QUALITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Distribution system water quality protection is an integral aspect of public water supply management. Effective regulatory compliance requires a thorough understanding of the transport and mixing processes in storage reservoirs and their impacts on effluent water quality. This ...

190

Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines for Mississippi  

Science.gov (United States)

Article containing information about the water quality guidelines for irrigation water and the salinity and constituent materials allowed in irrigation water for crops to grow. Included are directions for sending in water samples and interpretations of water testing results.

2008-06-12

191

Analyzing Accessibility Dimension of Urban Quality of Life: Where Urban Designers Face Duality between Subjective and Objective Reading of Place  

Science.gov (United States)

The subject of urban quality of life and the promotion of its concept in particular, has always been the central focus of urban designers. This term is a multi-conceptual and dimensions. However most of the scholars have agreed that the concept consisted from two main dimensions; objective and subjective which these two approaches are used for its…

Lotfi, Sedigheh; Koohsari, M. J.

2009-01-01

192

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana's Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems. PMID:19108554

McGarvey, Stephen T; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J

2008-09-01

193

Reactor water quality control method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An autoclave for electrochemical measurement is connected to a recycling line of a reactor pressure vessel. A reference electrode for potential measurement, a specimen electrode for corrosion potential measurement, an electrode for pH measurement, a platinum electrode for redox potential measurement and a temperature sensor are inserted in the autoclave. pH values, redox potentials and corrosion potentials of reactor water and reactor structural components are measured by using these electrodes and the sensor to recognize properties of metal oxide layers formed on the surface of the reactor structural components. Then, a gas or a liquid chemical is injected to a feedwater line so as to make the metal oxide to have the most stable potential and pH region in order to control the water quality. This can suppress leaching of metals and reducing radiation dose deposited on pipelines while improving the water quality, taking notice on stress corrosion crackings of the structural materials. (I.N.)

1993-09-09

194

The Soundscape Quality in Some Urban Parks in Milan, Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban parks play an important role in preserving and promoting the health of citizens who are often exposed to noise pollution and the stress of daily life. The present study describes the main results obtained from a survey performed in five urban parks in Milan. Measurements of the acoustic environment were carried out in 29 sites together with interviews with 231 users on certain aspects of the parks not limited to merely sound. Acoustic data show that the surveyed parks mostly do not comply with the noise limit issued by the Italian legislation on protected areas. The unweighted 1/3-octave spectrum centre of gravity G and LA50 perform satisfactorily in discriminating among the acoustic environments. Such clear distinction was not observed in the subjective ratings on the perceived quality of the soundscape, likely due to the influence by non-acoustic factors that act as mediators in the assessment. This hypothesis is supported by the collected data on the perceived quality of quietness, which was rated worse than that of the soundscape. Comparing acoustic data with ratings, the perceived quality of the total environment was found to be less dependent on LAeq than soundscape and quietness.

Giovanni Zambon

2013-06-01

195

Household characteristics affecting drinking water quality and human health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistan's water crisis, especially serious water shortages have had a great impact on the health of the general population. Today majority of Pakistanis have no access to improved water sources which force people to consume polluted drinking water that results in the shape of waterborne diseases. In addition to this, household characteristics, includes mother's education and family income, also have an impact on drinking water quality and ultimately on human health. This study was conducted in three districts of Province Punjab both in urban and rural areas. The sample size of this study was 600 females of age group 20-60 years. From the data, it was concluded that mother's education and family income were affecting drinking water quality and human health. As the mother's years of education increased, the health issues decreased. Similarly, as the level of income increased, people suffered from water related diseases decreased. (author)

2009-01-01

196

Quality of Care for Myocardial Infarction in Rural and Urban Hospitals  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: In the mid-1990s, significant gaps existed in the quality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care between rural and urban hospitals. Since then, overall AMI care quality has improved. This study uses more recent data to determine whether rural-urban AMI quality gaps have persisted. Methods: Using inpatient records data for 34,776…

Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Chan, Leighton; Andrilla, C. Holly A.; Huff, Edwin D.; Hart, L. Gary

2010-01-01

197

Heavy Metals Analysis and Sediment Quality Values in Urban Lakes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this research was to evaluate the degree of heavy metal contamination in lakes and the extent to which the sediment quality of the lakes of Bangalore city has deteriorated. Approach: In this study, heavy metals such as Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb, Ni and Zn in lake bed sediments were analyzed using comparative sediment quality guidelines from various derived criteria. The selection of sampling points was based upon inflow and outflow regions of the lakes; geographical proximity of industrial units in relation to their effluent discharges; proximity of residential sites located on the banks of the wetland systems; drainage patterns and accessibility towards the lakes. Digestion and analysis of the samples were done by microwave-assisted digestion and atomic absorption spectrophotometry respectively. Results: The extent of sediment quality deterioration was more pronounced in Cu (203.50 ppm and Ni (97.64 ppm followed by Pb (206.0 ppm and Cd (8.38 ppm. Cr (96.70 ppm failed a single sediment quality guideline while Zn (220.0 ppm, Mn (176.0 ppm and Co (47.7 ppm remained within the safety levels of sediment quality guidelines prescribed for the study. The Sediment Geo-accumulation Index showed that Co, Cu and Pb showed moderate levels of pollution while the Pollution Load Index (PLI between heavy metals in the lakes produced the following outputs: Ni > Pb > Cd > Cu > Cr > Co > Zn > Mn. Conclusion: This study proves that the level of sustained metal contamination of the fragile urban wetlands has not receded even after the recent urban wetlands rejuvenation works were completed. This prolonged presence in excessive levels of the studied heavy metals in the bed sediments casts doubt on the choice and effectiveness of the any mitigation measures in the long run.

Aboud S. Jumbe

2009-01-01

198

Characterisations and Interventions of the Water-Energy Nexus in Urban Water Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores the water-energy nexus of urban water services and the water-related energy demands that stem from them. The initial objective provides insight into the development of nexus analyses through a review of international literature. Based on data from recent urban water system metabolism studies, and process factors identified in literature, an in-depth analysis was also performed to explain the variations in energy consumption and emission intensities per unit of water demand...

Chan, Arthur

2013-01-01

199

Impact analysis of urban drainage waters on flood control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses the impact of storm water from urban areas on the flood safety issue. In the first capture I will revise the laws that apply to the environmental issue. There is a review of EU directives as well as of the Slovenian law. In the following chapter, I will sum up the theoretical basis of hydrological an hydraulic models, urbane drainage, flood control issues and revise the necessary data to make models using HEC-MHS and HEC-RAS programs. A definition of urbanization impact on...

2010-01-01

200

Towards Adaptive Urban Water Management: Up-Scaling Local Projects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Increasingly, the need for adaptive urban water management approaches is advertised, but the transition towards such approaches in the urban water sector seems to be slow. The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth study of how an innovative approach has been adopted in practice by looking into how contextual knowledge from a local project has been up-scaled to more generic knowledge. Specifically, the paper outlines how two planners from a Danish municipality succeeded in developing a more innovative sewage plan on the basis of a local project with implementation of local handling of rainwater. This insight into the processes of learning aggregation of water practices points towards the important role that the dedicated work performed by local facilitators and intermediaries play in relation to a transition towards more adaptive urban water management.

Zhou, Qianqian; Quitzau, Maj-Britt

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Towards Adaptive Urban Water Management : Up-Scaling Local Projects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Increasingly, the need for adaptive urban water management approaches is advertised, but the transition towards such approaches in the urban water sector seems to be slow. The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth study of how an innovative approach has been adopted in practice by looking into how contextual knowledge from a local project has been up-scaled to more generic knowledge. Specifically, the paper outlines how two planners from a Danish municipality succeeded in developing a more innovative sewage plan on the basis of a local project with implementation of local handling of rainwater. This insight into the processes of learning aggregation of water practices points towards the important role that the dedicated work performed by local facilitators and intermediaries play in relation to a transition towards more adaptive urban water management.

Zhou, Qianqian; Qutzau, Maj-Britt

2013-01-01

202

Obtaining Traffic Information by Urban Air Quality Inspection  

CERN Document Server

The level of air quality in urban centres is affected by emission of several pollutants, mainly coming from the vehicles flowing in their road networks. This is a well known phenomenon that influences the quality of life of people. Despite the deep concern of researchers and technicians, we are far from a total understanding of this phenomenon. On the contrary, the availability of reliable forecasting models would constitute an important tool for administrators in order of assessing suitable actions concerning the transportation policies, public as well private. Referring to the situation of the running fleet and the measured pollutant concentrations concerning the Italian town of Palermo, a data-deduced traffic model is here derived, its truthfulness being justified by a fuzzyfication of the phenomenon. A first validation of the model is supplied by utilising the emissions characteristics and the pollutant concentrations referring to a two years period of time. This work could represent a first attempt in de...

Ferrante, P; Nicolosi, S; Scaccianoce, G; Traverso, M; Rizzo, G

2011-01-01

203

Evaluating Quality of Life in Urban Areas (Case Study: Noorabad City, Iran)  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality of urban life (QOUL) has become an important field within urban studies. The increased level of attention to this topic is due to the increasing importance of QoL studies in monitoring public policies and in the role they can play as effective tools in urban management and planning. The main objective of this study is to measure the QOUL…

Rezvani, Mohammad Reza; Mansourian, Hossain; Sattari, Mohammad Hossain

2013-01-01

204

Multivariate analysis of drinking water quality parameters in Bhopal, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollution of water bodies is one of the areas of major concern to environmentalists. Water quality is an index of health and well being of a society. Industrialization, urbanization and modern agriculture practices have direct impact on the water resources. These factors influence the water resources quantitatively and qualitatively. The study area selected were the Upper lake and Kolar reservoir of Bhopal, the state capital of Madhya Pradesh, India. The Upper lake and Kolar reservoir both are the important sources of potable water supply for the Bhopal city. The physico-chemical parameters like temperature, pH, turbidity, total hardness, alkalinity, BOD, COD, Chloride, nitrate and phosphate were studied to ascertain the drinking water quality. PMID:17632768

Parashar, Charu; Verma, Neelam; Dixit, Savita; Shrivastava, Rajneesh

2008-05-01

205

Water Resource Planning in the Urban-Metropolitan Contex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water resource planning theory and practice in the United States are examined in terms of their suitability to deal with current and future urban-metropolitan water resource problems and needs. A criticism of current theory and practice suggests an analys...

M. M. Hufschmidt K. Elfer

1971-01-01

206

Impact of Urban Land Transformation on Water Bodies in Srinagar City, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human actions rather than natural forces are the source of most contemporary changes in the state and flows of the biosphere. Understanding these actions and the social forces that drive them is crucial to understanding, modelling and predicting local, regional as well as global environmental change and also for managing and responding to such change. The present study investigates the patterns of urban land transformation in Srinagar City, which lies in fragile hill eco-system of Kashmir valley. The results points towards unplanned and haphazard urban expansion and transformation. These transformations have severely destroyed the water bodies both in terms of area as well as its quality.

Arshad Amin

2011-03-01

207

Urban Quality vs single travel: the Personal Rapid Transit Urban Quality vs single travel: the Personal Rapid Transit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with the con­sequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, together with short-sighted policies of transport and urban development spread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion and unlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel to people living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to those living in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonable urban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic, conside­red, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of the deterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italian cities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities, although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovative solutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by public administrations. One of the main environmental detractors is car traffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike the previous period. Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reaching the modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managing the demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation., such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developing and increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport, car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollution reduction and vehicular traffic reduction. For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal Rapid Transit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to join two apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuring individual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acoustic and air pol­lution as well as the congestion caused by private vehicular traffic. In Italy this system is still not well known despite the versatility of its fields of application. In the United States and all over the world the most successful applications concern circumscribed mono-functional urban ambits, such as large areas for offices, airports and so on, but the characteristics of this system - such as flexibility, capability of integration with other wide-range systems of public transport, little dimensions of the exchange junctions, quite low cost - can allow to realize it also in different typologies of area.If many people are doubtful about the effectiveness of this system, on the contrary, other people think that its steady implementation and experimentation is necessary to improve urban liveability.These last ones believe, in fact, that the combination of small vehicles similar to private car, the advantage of trips without intermediate stops and changes of car, cost reduction, possibility of a wider accessibility not reachable by traditional means of public transport are the key basic elements to replace car travels with low polluting means of public transport.The great increase in the demand for private mobility with the con­sequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, together with short-sighted policies of transport and urban development spread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion and unlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel to people living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to those living in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonable urban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic, conside­red, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of the deterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italian cities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities, although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovative solutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by public administrations. One of the main environmental detractors is car traffic, which has recently

Carmela Gargiulo

2011-08-01

208

Water quality control system and water quality control method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the water quality control system of the present invention, portions in contact with water comprise a metal material having a controlled content of iron or chromium, and the chromium content on the surface is increased than that of mother material in a state where compression stresses remain on the surface by mechanical polishing to form an uniform corrosion resistant coating film. In addition, equipments and/or pipelines to which a material controlling corrosion potential stably is applied on the surface are used. There are disposed a cleaning device made of a material less forming impurities, and detecting intrusion of impurities and removing them selectively depending on chemical species and/or a cleaning device for recovering drain from various kinds of equipment to feedwater, connecting a feedwater pipeline and a condensate pipeline and removing impurities and corrosion products. Then, water can be kept to neutral purified water, and the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen in water are controlled within an optimum range to suppress occurrence of corrosion products. (N.H.)

1997-06-06

209

Water quality in the Golijska Moravica basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The basin of the Golijska Moravica River is rich in water, and therefore its water is used for water supply of towns and industry not only in the basin but in the whole region as well. This paper presents the status of water quality in the main rivers of the basin, and recommends measures for water quality protection.

Urošev Marko

2006-01-01

210

Water quality monitor. [spacecraft potable water  

Science.gov (United States)

The preprototype water quality monitor (WQM) subsystem was designed based on a breadboard monitor for pH, specific conductance, and total organic carbon (TOC). The breadboard equipment demonstrated the feasibility of continuous on-line analysis of potable water for a spacecraft. The WQM subsystem incorporated these breadboard features and, in addition, measures ammonia and includes a failure detection system. The sample, reagent, and standard solutions are delivered to the WQM sensing manifold where chemical operations and measurements are performed using flow through sensors for conductance, pH, TOC, and NH3. Fault monitoring flow detection is also accomplished in this manifold assembly. The WQM is designed to operate automatically using a hardwired electronic controller. In addition, automatic shutdown is incorporated which is keyed to four flow sensors strategically located within the fluid system.

West, S.; Crisos, J.; Baxter, W.

1979-01-01

211

Characterizing Water Quality in Students' Own Community  

Science.gov (United States)

The surface water quality studies are developed to help first year college students who are preparing to become high school teachers. These water quality impact studies allow students to correlate geologic conditions and chemistry.

Lunsford, S. K.; Speelman, Nicole; Yeary, Amber; Slattery, William

2007-01-01

212

Urbanization and Quality of Urban Environment Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in East Delhi-India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An explosive increase of urban population, practically in all major cities and towns, has the consequent strain on the existing system manifested in an environmental chaos. The phenomena of accelerated urbanisation is the main culprit, wherein besides bringing higher standard of living, it has also brought problems, as growth of dense and unplanned residential areas, environmental pollution, non-availability of services and amenities, solid waste etc. Remote sensing satellite data is suitable for urban land use mapping to get detail and up- to-date information for environmental management. Where as GIS helps in developing database system for urban information, which supports decision making process. Development of digital database on all aspects of land use and urban planning is the next crucial task for the future in which remote sensing based informa-tion is going to play a major role. In Delhi, rise in population and growth in economic activity has led to en-vironmental degradation. With this view an attempt has been made to study the quality of urban environment in the East district of Delhi, which is experiencing very high urban growth with 98.75% urban population in 2001. For this study Landsat ASTER (MSS data of year 2001 (15 m Ground resolution, Guide map of the year 1982 and demographic and environmental data has been used. Eight parameters were selected, which affect the urban environmental quality, namely built-up area, open spaces, household density, occupancy ra-tio, population density, accessibility to roads, noise and smell affected area. The study shows that the quality of environment has been degraded when we compare 1982 and 2003 data. Most of the East district was in a better state of environment in 1982, but in 2003 things have been changed and now 50% area is in very good, fair and desirable condition. The public participation and involvement should be encouraged planning and decisions making for the improvement in better urban environmental quality.

Atiqur Rahman

2011-01-01

213

An impact assessment methodology for urban surface runoff quality following best practice treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper develops an easy to apply desk-based semi-quantitative approach for the assessment of residual receiving water quality risks associated with urban surface runoff following its conveyance through best practice sustainable drainage systems (SUDS). The innovative procedure utilises an integrated geographical information system (GIS)-based pollution index approach based on surface area impermeability, runoff concentrations/loadings and individual SUDS treatment performance potential to evaluate the level of risk mitigation achievable by SUDS drainage infrastructure. The residual impact is assessed through comparison of the determined pollution index with regulatory receiving water quality standards and objectives. The methodology provides an original theoretically based procedure which complements the current acute risk assessment approaches being widely applied within pluvial flood risk management. PMID:22227301

Ellis, J Bryan; Revitt, D Michael; Lundy, Lian

2012-02-01

214

Valuing flexibilities in the design of urban water management systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change and rapid urbanization requires decision-makers to develop a long-term forward assessment on sustainable urban water management projects. This is further complicated by the difficulties of assessing sustainable designs and various design scenarios from an economic standpoint. A conventional valuation approach for urban water management projects, like Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) analysis, fails to incorporate uncertainties, such as amount of rainfall, unit cost of water, and other uncertainties associated with future changes in technological domains. Such approach also fails to include the value of flexibility, which enables managers to adapt and reconfigure systems over time as uncertainty unfolds. This work describes an integrated framework to value investments in urban water management systems under uncertainty. It also extends the conventional DCF analysis through explicit considerations of flexibility in systems design and management. The approach incorporates flexibility as intelligent decision-making mechanisms that enable systems to avoid future downside risks and increase opportunities for upside gains over a range of possible futures. A water catchment area in Singapore was chosen to assess the value of a flexible extension of standard drainage canals and a flexible deployment of a novel water catchment technology based on green roofs and porous pavements. Results show that integrating uncertainty and flexibility explicitly into the decision-making process can reduce initial capital expenditure, improve value for investment, and enable decision-makers to learn more about system requirements during the lifetime of the project. PMID:24268059

Deng, Yinghan; Cardin, Michel-Alexandre; Babovic, Vladan; Santhanakrishnan, Deepak; Schmitter, Petra; Meshgi, Ali

2013-12-15

215

Evaluation of surface water quality and pollution in Lepenica river basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lepenica river basin is axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija region. However, because of disorderly water regime of Lepenica river and its tributaries, it appears several hydrologic problems on this territory, as example insufficiency of drinking and irrigating water by one cite, and floods and torrents (especially in Kragujevac valley) by other cite. Particular problem is water quality and pollution in river basin. In this paper will be analyzed water quality of Lepenica river...

2007-01-01

216

Final Opportunity to Rehabilitate an Urban River as a Water Source for Mexico City  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and quality of water in the Magdalena-Eslava river system and to propose alternatives for sustainable water use. The system is the last urban river in the vicinity of Mexico City that supplies surface water to the urban area. Historical flow data were analyzed (1973–2010), along with the physicochemical and bacteriological attributes, documenting the evolution of these variables over the course of five years (2008–2012) in both dry and rainy seasons. The analyses show that the flow regime has been significantly altered. The physicochemical variables show significant differences between the natural area, where the river originates, and the urban area, where the river receives untreated wastewater. Nutrient and conductivity concentrations in the river were equivalent to domestic wastewater. Fecal pollution indicators and various pathogens were present in elevated densities, demonstrating a threat to the population living near the river. Estimates of the value of the water lost as a result of mixing clean and contaminated water are presented. This urban river should be rehabilitated as a sustainability practice, and if possible, these efforts should be replicated in other areas. Because of the public health issues and in view of the population exposure where the river flows through the city, the river should be improved aesthetically and should be treated to allow its ecosystem services to recover. This river represents an iconic case for Mexico City because it connects the natural and urban areas in a socio-ecological system that can potentially provide clean water for human consumption. Contaminated water could be treated and reused for irrigation in one of the green areas of the city. Wastewater treatment plants and the operation of the existing purification plants are urgent priorities that could lead to better, more sustainable water use practices in Mexico City.

Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; Perez-Ortiz, Gustavo; Orta-Ledesma, Maria Teresa; Armas-Vargas, Felipe; Tapia, Marco A.; Solano-Ortiz, Rosa; Silva, Miguel A.; Yanez-Noguez, Isaura; Lopez-Vidal, Yolanda; Diaz-Avalos, Carlos

2014-01-01

217

Water Quality Testing in your Local Water Cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

Students analyze local water chemistry by identifying and collecting local water samples, deciding upon questions they want to answer about their local water sources, and then performing simple water quality tests on their samples.

Anderson, Jennifer L.

218

Exploring urban mines : pipe length and material stocks in urban water and wastewater networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is an Author's Original Manuscript of an article whose final and definitive form, the Version of Record, has been published in the Urban Water Journal, Published online: 17 Jun 2013, © Taylor & Francis, available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/doi:1573062X.2013.795234

2013-01-01

219

Anthropogenic land uses elevate metal levels in stream water in an urbanizing watershed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Land use/cover change is a dominant factor affecting surface water quality in rapidly developing areas of Asia. In this study we examined relationships between land use and instream metal loadings in a rapidly developing mixed land use watershed in southeastern China. Five developing subwatersheds and one forested reference site (head water) were instrumented with timing- and rainfall-triggered autosampler and instream loadings of anthropogenic metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Mn) were monitored from March 2012 to December 2013. Farm land and urban land were positively, and forest and green land were negatively associated with metal loadings (except Cr) in stream water. All developing sites had higher loadings than the reference head water site. Assessed by Chinese surface water quality standard (GB3830-2002), instream loadings of Cu and Zn occasionally exceeded the Class I thresholds at monitoring points within farmland dominated subwatersheds while Mn loadings were greater than the limit for drinking water sources at all monitoring points. Farm land use highly and positively contributed to statistical models of instream loadings of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Mn while urban land use was the dominant contributor to models of Pb and Cd loadings. Rainfall played a crucial role in metal loadings in stream water as a direct source (there were significant levels of Cu and Zn in rain water) and as a driver of watershed processes (loadings were higher in wet years and seasons). Urbanization effects on metal loadings in this watershed are likely to change rapidly with development in future years. Further monitoring to characterize these changes is clearly warranted and should help to develop plans to avoid conflicts between economic development and water quality degradation in this watershed and in watersheds throughout rapidly developing areas of Asia. PMID:24815555

Yu, Shen; Wu, Qian; Li, Qingliang; Gao, Jinbo; Lin, Qiaoying; Ma, Jun; Xu, Qiufang; Wu, Shengchun

2014-08-01

220

Air quality control monitoring at an urban and industrialized area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air particulate matter analysis has been performed since 1999, within a contract for air quality monitoring of an urban waste incinerator. Air collection was made with Gent samplers, which collect size-fractionated aerosol samples in three sampling sites. Samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Some INAA results are discussed. PM10 mass concentrations are compared with the limit values for human health protection regulated by the European Council Directive 1999/30/CE. Weekend day and weekday samples are compared concerning As, Co, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn mean concentrations collected at Bobadela for 1999. Enrichment factors are also presented. Enrichments were found for As, Sb, Se and Zn for both fractions in the three sampling sites. In order to quantify the evolution for the 1999-2001 period, basic statistics was performed for the enriched elements. (author)

2004-02-01

 
 
 
 
221

Statistical and diagnostic evaluation of the ADMS-Urban model compared with an urban air quality monitoring network  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examines the behaviour of the ADMS-Urban air quality forecasting model in predicting dispersion of traffic-related pollutants in urban areas. The study has been carried out in Ravenna (NE Italy), a medium-sized town where pollution produced by vehicle traffic accounts for most of the emissions. ADMS-Urban performances have been assessed through statistical analysis, by comparing carbon monoxide concentrations (vehicle traffic tracing pollutant) estimated by the model with concentrations measured by stations of the air quality monitoring network. Although the correspondence of values estimated by ADMS-Urban with measured values turns out to be satisfactory, the study shows that the model tends to produce an underestimated value compared with the actual situation, and identifies a corrective method that makes it possible to improve the relevant performances. Furthermore, the diagnostic analysis highlights that the model performances depend upon some meteorological parameters.

Righi, Serena; Lucialli, Patrizia; Pollini, Elisa

222

Impact of residential wood combustion on urban air quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood combustion is mainly used in cold regions as a primary or supplemental space heating source in residential areas. In several industrialized countries, there is a renewed interest in residential wood combustion (RWC) as an alternative to fossil fuel and nuclear power consumption. The main objective of this thesis was to investigate the impact of RWC on the air quality in urban areas. To this end, a field campaign was conducted in Northern Sweden during wintertime to characterize atmospheric aerosol particles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and to determine their source apportionment. A large day-to-day and hour-to-hour variability in aerosol concentrations was observed during the intensive field campaign. On average, total carbon contributed a substantial fraction of PM10 mass concentrations (46%) and aerosol particles were mostly in the fine fraction (PM1 accounted for 76% of PM10). Evening aerosol concentrations were significantly higher on weekends than on weekdays which could be associated to the use of wood burning for recreational purposes or higher space heat demand when inhabitants spend longer time at home. It has been shown that continuous aerosol particle number size distribution measurements successfully provided source apportionment of atmospheric aerosol with high temporal resolution. The first compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) of atmospheric PAH demonstrated its potential to provide quantitative information on the RWC contribution to individual PAH. RWC accounted for a large fraction of particle number concentrations in the size range 25-606 nm (44-57%), PM10 (36-82%), PM1 (31-83%), light-absorbing carbon (40-76%) and individual PAH (71-87%) mass concentrations. These studies have demonstrated that the impact of RWC on air quality in an urban location can be very important and largely exceed the contribution of vehicle emissions during winter, particularly under very stable atmospheric conditions

Krecl, Patricia

2008-05-15

223

Evaluation of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF model using measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The performance of different urban surface parameterizations in the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting in simulating urban boundary layer (UBL was investigated using extensive measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign. The extensive field measurements collected on surface (meteorological, wind profiler, energy balance flux sites, a research aircraft, and a research vessel characterized 3-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structures over the Houston-Galveston Bay area, providing a unique opportunity for the evaluation of the physical parameterizations. The model simulations were performed over the Houston metropolitan area for a summertime period (12–17 August using a bulk urban parameterization in the Noah land surface model (original LSM, a modified LSM, and a single-layer urban canopy model (UCM. The UCM simulation compared quite well with the observations over the Houston urban areas, reducing the systematic model biases in the original LSM simulation by 1–2 °C in near-surface air temperature and by 200–400 m in UBL height, on average. A more realistic turbulent (sensible and latent heat energy partitioning contributed to the improvements in the UCM simulation. The original LSM significantly overestimated the sensible heat flux (~200 W m?2 over the urban areas, resulting in warmer and higher UBL. The modified LSM slightly reduced warm and high biases in near-surface air temperature (0.5–1 °C and UBL height (~100 m as a result of the effects of urban vegetation. The relatively strong thermal contrast between the Houston area and the water bodies (Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico in the LSM simulations enhanced the sea/bay breezes, but the model performance in predicting local wind fields was similar among the simulations in terms of statistical evaluations. These results suggest that a proper surface representation (e.g. urban vegetation, surface morphology and explicit parameterizations of urban physical processes are required for accurate urban atmospheric numerical modeling.

S.-H. Lee

2011-03-01

224

Urban wet-weather flows: sources of fecal contamination impacting on recreational waters and threatening drinking-water sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discharges of urban stormwater and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) contribute to fecal contamination of urban waters and need to be considered in planning the protection of recreational waters and sources of drinking water. Stormwater characterization indicates that Escherichia coli counts in stormwater typically range from 103 to 104 units per 100 ml. Higher counts (10(5) units/100 ml) suggest the presence of cross-connections with sanitary sewers, and such connections should be identified and corrected. Fecal contamination of stormwater may be attenuated prior to discharge into surface waters by stormwater management measures, which typically remove suspended solids and attached bacteria. Exceptionally, stormwater discharges in the vicinity of swimming beaches are disinfected. The levels of indicator bacteria in CSOs can be as high as 10(6) E. coli per 100 ml. Consequently, the abatement of fecal contamination of CSOs is now considered in the design of CSO control and treatment, as for example stipulated in the Ontario Procedure F-5-5. CSO abatement options comprise combin ations of storage and treatment, in which the CSO treatment generally includes disinfection by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Finally, indicator bacteria data from Sarnia (Ontario) were used to demonstrate some fecal contamination impacts of wet-weather flows. In wet weather, the microbiological quality of riverine water worsened as a result of CSO and stormwater discharges, and the recreational water guidelines for indicator organisms were exceeded most of the time. Local improvements in water quality were feasible by source controls and diversion of polluted water. PMID:15371215

Marsalek, Jiri; Rochfort, Quintin

225

Recent Advances in Point-of-Access Water Quality Monitoring  

Science.gov (United States)

Clean water is one of our most valuable natural resources. In addition to providing safe drinking water it assures functional ecosystems that support fisheries and recreation. Human population growth and its associated increased demands on water pose risks to maintaining acceptable water quality. It is vital to assess source waters and the aquatic systems that receive inputs from industrial waste and sewage treatment plants, storm water systems, and runoff from urban and agricultural lands. Rapid and confident assessments of aquatic resources form the basis for sound environmental management. Current methods engaged in tracing the presence of various bacteria in water employ bulky laboratory equipment and are time consuming. Thus, real-time water quality monitoring is essential for National and International Health and Safety. Environmental water monitoring includes measurements of physical characteristics (e.g. pH, temperature, conductivity), chemical parameters (e.g. oxygen, alkalinity, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds), and abundance of certain biological taxa. Monitoring could also include assays of biological activity such as alkaline phosphatase, tests for toxins such as microcystins and direct measurements of pollutants such as heavy metals or hydrocarbons. Real time detection can significantly reduce the level of damage and also the cost to remedy the problem. This paper presents overview of state-of-the-art methods and devices used for point-of-access water quality monitoring and suggest further developments in this area.

Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Velusamy, V.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

226

Towards sustainable urban water management: a critical reassessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the literature, concerns have been raised that centralised urban water systems are maladapted to challenges associated with climate change, population growth and other socio-economic and environmental strains. This paper provides a critical assessment of the discourse that surrounds emerging approaches to urban water management and infrastructure provision. As such, 'sustainable urban water management' (SUWM) concepts are scrutinized to highlight the limitations and strengths in the current lines of argument and point towards unaddressed complexities in the transformational agendas advocated by SUWM proponents. Taking an explicit infrastructure view, it is shown that the specific context of the urban water sector means that changes to infrastructure systems occur as an incremental hybridisation process. This process is driven by a range of factors including lock-in effects of legacy solutions, normative values and vested interests of agents, cost and performance certainty and perceptions of risk. Different views of these factors help explain why transformational agendas have not achieved the change SUWM proponents call for and point to the need for a critical reassessment of the system effects and economics of alternative service provision models. PMID:24210506

Marlow, David R; Moglia, Magnus; Cook, Stephen; Beale, David J

2013-12-15

227

Corporatization of the water sector: Implications for transitioning to sustainable urban water management  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the context of climate change, the Danish water sector is experiencing two major pressures. On one hand, a number of agents are pushing towards more sustainable urban water management (SUWM) approaches with the aim of improving surface water quality and mitigating flood risk. On the other hand, as part of an international trend, the municipal water management departments were transformed to locally created not-for-profit corporatized companies. Main drivers for corporatization are increased efficiency and cost recovery by reduced municipal control on utility budgets. Scholars have described the influencing factors for transitioning to SUWM and highlighted the potential governance attributes for enhancing and/or constraining such change. This paper explores the corporatization of the water sector and its implications for transitioning to SUWM. On the base of a preliminary literature review we identify the rationales for and drawbacks of corporatization and compare them with the critical factors to build institutional capacity for SUWM. Preliminary results suggest that corporatization is expected to create a range of challenges that might hinder the transition towards more SUWM approaches. A more direct collaboration of the national regulator of competitive performances with government institutions and other non-governmental actors might be an effective answer to such challenges.

Fratini, Chiara; Elle, Morten

2012-01-01

228

Methods to Determine Preferential Flow in Water Repellent Urban Soils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In literature, a wide range of approaches is described to characterize soil water repellency phenomena. The aim of this study is to detect preferential flow paths for two water repellent soils in an urban environment using various methods. The first experimental site is in “Berlin Buch”, a former wastewater disposal field, today’s covered dominantly by couch grass. The second site is in the “Tiergarten” park in the centre of Berlin. This site is covered by a short grass vegetation, ...

Diallo, Al Hassane

2011-01-01

229

Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban-rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban-rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban-rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban-rural dichotomy. PMID:24858228

Christenson, Elizabeth; Bain, Robert; Wright, Jim; Aondoakaa, Stephen; Hossain, Rifat; Bartram, Jamie

2014-08-15

230

Air Quality and Land Use in Urban Region of Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam and Klang, Malaysia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In line with the global trend of urbanisation, large population are staying in urban areas as compared to rural. However, urban area /region is always related to higher air pollution level as compared to less developed area/region. The major contributors of air pollution are mobile sources (transportation and stationary sources (e.g. industry and power plant. Thus, the issue of air pollution is potentially caused by human choices and activities, and potentially affecting the human health. Therefore, the relationship between the urban activities (land use coverage/distribution and air quality level should be well understood. It helps the urban managers, planners and all parties in constructing healthier urban policies. A study of air quality and the relationship with urban land uses was carried out in Malaysia?s urban growth region of Klang-Shah Alam-Petaling Jaya. Air quality data was analysed in Air Pollution Index (API with the classification of good, moderate, unhealthy, very unhealthy and hazardous levels. The urban land uses were mainly divided into two categories, i.e. pollution-prone land uses (transportation, industrial, and infrastructure, and green land uses. This study found that urban area with higher coverage of transportation, industrial and infrastructure land uses are potentially unhealthier in term of the air quality than the area with less coverage of these land uses. Strategic proposal was discussed in line with the findings.

Oliver Ling Hoon Leh

2014-01-01

231

Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

Kardel, F.; Wuyts, K. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Babanezhad, M. [Department of statistics, Faculty of Science, Golestan University, Gorgan, Golestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vitharana, U.W.A. [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Wuytack, T.; Potters, G. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Samson, R., E-mail: Roeland.Samson@ua.ac.b [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

2010-03-15

232

Modeling Water Quality in Rivers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports a PC software, used in a Windows-based environment, which was developed based on the first order reaction of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD and a modified Streeter and Phelps equation, in order to simulate and determine the variations of Dissolved Oxygen (DO and of the BOD along with the studied river reaches. The software considers many impacts of environmental factors, such as the different type of discharges (concentrated or punctual source, tributary contribution, distributed source, nitrogenous BOD, BOD sedimentation, photosynthetic production and benthic demand of oxygen, and so on. The software has been used to model the DO profile along one river, with the aim to improve the water quality through suitable engineering measure.

Liren Yu

2005-01-01

233

Linear and nonlinear modeling approaches for urban air quality prediction.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, linear and nonlinear modeling was performed to predict the urban air quality of the Lucknow city (India). Partial least squares regression (PLSR), multivariate polynomial regression (MPR), and artificial neural network (ANN) approach-based models were constructed to predict the respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM), SO(2), and NO(2) in the air using the meteorological (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed) and air quality monitoring data (SPM, NO(2), SO(2)) of five years (2005-2009). Three different ANN models, viz. multilayer perceptron network (MLPN), radial-basis function network (RBFN), and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) were developed. All the five different models were compared for their generalization and prediction abilities using statistical criteria parameters, viz. correlation coefficient (R), standard error of prediction (SEP), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean squared error (RMSE), bias, accuracy factor (A(f)), and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (E(f)). Nonlinear models (MPR, ANNs) performed relatively better than the linear PLSR models, whereas, performance of the ANN models was better than the low-order nonlinear MPR models. Although, performance of all the three ANN models were comparable, the GRNN over performed the other two variants. The optimal GRNN models for RSPM, NO(2), and SO(2) yielded high correlation (between measured and model predicted values) of 0.933, 0.893, and 0.885; 0.833, 0.602, and 0.596; and 0.932, 0.768 and 0.729, respectively for the training, validation and test sets. The sensitivity analysis performed to evaluate the importance of the input variables in optimal GRNN revealed that SO(2) was the most influencing parameter in RSPM model, whereas, SPM was the most important input variable in other two models. The ANN models may be useful tools in the air quality predictions. PMID:22542239

Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Kumar, Atulesh; Shukla, Sheo Prasad

2012-06-01

234

Reclamation of used urban waters for irrigation purposes--a review of treatment technologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The worldwide fresh water scarcity is increasing the demand for non-conventional water resources. Despite the technology being available for application of treated wastewater in irrigation, the use of effluent in agriculture is not being properly managed in the majority of cases. Industrial countries, where financial resources are available but restricted, face difficulties in some cases related to the lack of a complete definition of irrigation water quality standards, as well as to the lack of monitoring components that determine if the effluent is suitable for such use. The present paper presents a critical review on urban reclamation technologies for irrigation. The technologies are presented by the four most important parameters for irrigation water quality: salinity, pathogens, nutrients and heavy metals. An overview is given of the current, on-going evaluation of different reclamation technologies for irrigation. PMID:23562951

Norton-Brandão, Diana; Scherrenberg, Sigrid M; van Lier, Jules B

2013-06-15

235

Monitoring Strategies for Ground Water Quality Management.  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of federal and state laws and regulations dealing with ground water quality monitoring revealed that the primary objective of monitoring is the detection of adverse changes in quality due to regulated facilities. State agencies are beginning to s...

J. C. Loftis R. H. Montgomery J. Harris D. Nettles P. S. Porter

1986-01-01

236

Identifying Slag Water Contributions to an Urban Stream  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the growing focus on urban hydrology, a clear understanding of the relative importance of the variety of source waters has not necessarily emerged. This study characterized stream water metal concentrations in three years of biweekly samples along a longitudinal transect of Nine Mile Run (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). Nine Mile Run drains a basin underlain with sedimentary rocks, including carbonate deposits and the water chemistry reflects this lithology. Overprinted on this chemistry are elements typically associated with urban systems as well as dissolved materials associated with a large slag dump covering the lower portion of the watershed. Slag is mostly composed of limestone and should impart an even stronger carbonate signal to stream water, however, in Nine Mile Run, neither Ca nor Mg concentrations are elevated in the station below the slag. Increases in K, Rb, Mo, and Cs concentrations are evident at these sampling points, and likely indicate water sourced from the slag dump. In samples collected above the slag dump, greater concentrations of Mn, Co, Ni, and Cd suggest an influence of urban inputs on stream chemistry. We compared stream water chemistry with literature values for slag and carbonate elemental concentrations and found that of the most likely slag enrichments (K, Cu, Ti, Mn, and Si) only K and Si are evident in the stream water in the lower reach. Additionally, stream water chemistry during storms at stations above the slag transition from typical upper watershed low flow values toward values indicative of the slag dump chemistry, suggesting smaller pockets of slag in upper sections of the watershed become connected during stormflow and influence stream water chemistry. Tracking slag influence on stream water chemistry with these tools can be applied to all regions where iron and steel production has historically occurred.

ONeill, B.; Bain, D. J.; Divers, M. T.; Elliott, E.

2013-12-01

237

Temporal and spatial patterns of micropollutants in urban receiving waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on a monitoring program over the course of a year, we characterize the temporal and spatial distribution of selected micropollutants in an urban watershed within the city of Leipzig, Germany. Micropollutants revealed a ubiquitous presence in untreated and treated wastewater, surface water and groundwater. The loads of 4-nonylphenol in the effluents of the municipal wastewater treatment plant followed a seasonal trend, whereas the loads of all other micropollutants were highly variable and not correlated to seasons. In the surface water, load seasonality of caffeine, galaxolide and tonalide resulted from a rapid removal with increased water temperature. The loads of 4-nonylphenol and of caffeine in the colder months increased when rainfall occurred. In the groundwater, complex spatial and temporal patterns were apparent and were related to varying input, retardation and removal processes. As a consequence, an assessment of micropollutants in urban waters should consider different micropollutants' temporal and spatial variability. - Micropollutants in urban receiving waters are characterized by variable temporal and spatial concentration and load patterns that have to be considered in risk assessments.

2009-11-01

238

The Impact of Urbanization on the Precipitation Component of the Water Cycle: A New Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in cities (UNFP, 1999). As cities continue to grow, urban sprawl (e.g., the expansion of urban surfaces outward into rural surroundings) creates unique problems related to land use, transportation, agriculture, housing, pollution, and development. Urban expansion also has measurable impacts on environmental processes. Urban areas modify boundary layer processes through the creation of an urban heat island (UHI). The literature indicates that the signature of the urban heat island effect may be resolvable in rainfall patterns over and downwind of metropolitan areas. However, a recent U.S. Weather Research Program panel concluded that more observational and modeling research is needed in this area (Dabberdt et al. 2000). NASA and other agencies initiated programs such as the Atlanta Land-use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality Project (ATLANTA) (Quattrochi et al. 1998) which aimed to identify and understand how urban heat islands impact the environment. However, a comprehensive assessment of the role of urban-induced rainfall in the global water and energy cycle (GWEC) and cycling of freshwater was not a primary focus of these efforts. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) seeks to develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural or human-induced changes to enable improved prediction capability for climate, weather, and natural hazards (NASA, 2000). Within this mission, the ESE has three basic thrusts: science research to increase Earth system knowledge; an applications program to transfer science knowledge to practical use in society; and a technology program to enable new, better, and cheaper capabilities for observing the earth. Within this framework, a research program is underway to further address the co-relationship between land cover use and change (e.g. urban development) and its impact on key components of the GWEC (e.g., precipitation). This presentation discusses the feasibility of using the TRMM or GPM satellite to identify precipitation anomalies likely caused by urbanization (Shepherd et al. 2002). Recent results from analyses of TRMM data around several major U.S. cities (e.g. Dallas, Atlanta, Houston) will be discussed. The presentation also summarizes a NASA-funded research effort to investigate the phenomenon of urban-induced precipitation anomalies using TRMM (future GPM) satellite-based remote sensing, an intensive ground observation/validation effort near Atlanta, and coupled atmosphere-land numerical modeling techniques.

Shephard, J. Marshal

2002-01-01

239

Does short termism affect the quality of urban design in the UK?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper follows the report on the “Quality of Urban Design: Study of the Influence of Private Property Decision Maker in Urban Design” (RICS 1996). It focuses on one of the findings in the report, namely that decisions made in development, investment and occupation seemed overly influenced by short term considerations. In this paper, the authors review the Report and examine the concept of short termism as it affects urban design decisions. The paper concludes that although it is diff...

Gibson, V.; Rowley, Alan; Ward, Charles

1997-01-01

240

Utah Water Quality- Utah Ground Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ground water is important to the economic and physical well-being of the people of Utah. About 95% of Utah's fresh water is ground water. It provides more than 70% of the state's drinking water and is a major source of water for agriculture and irrigation.

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Numerical Modeling of Coupled Groundwater and Surface Water Interactions in an Urban Setting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Dominguez Channel Watershed (DCW), located in the southern portion of Los Angeles County (Figure A.1), drains about 345 square miles into the Los Angeles Harbor. The cities and jurisdictions in DCW are shown in Figure A.2. The largest of these include the cities of Los Angeles, Carson, and Torrance. This watershed is unique in that 93% of its land area is highly developed (i.e. urbanized). The watershed boundaries are defined by a complex network of storm drains and flood control channels, rather than being defined by natural topography. Table (1) shows a summary of different land uses in the Dominguez Channel Watershed (MEC, 2004). The Dominguez Watershed has the highest impervious area of all watersheds in the Los Angeles region. The more impervious the surface, the more runoff is generated during a storm. Storm water runoff can carry previously accumulated contaminants and transport them into receiving water systems. Point sources such as industrial wastewater and municipal sewage as well as urban runoff from commercial, residential, and industrial areas are all recognized as contributors to water quality degradation at DWC. Section 303(d) of the 1972 Federal Clean Water Act (CWA) requires states to identify and report all waters not meeting water quality standards and to develop action plans to pursue the water quality objectives. These plans specify the maximum amount of a given pollutant that the water body of concern can receive and still meet water quality standards. Such plans are called Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). TMDLs also specify allocations of pollutant loadings to point and non-point sources taking into account natural background pollutant levels. This demonstrates the importance of utilizing scientific tools, such as flow and transport models, to identify contaminant sources, understand integrated flow paths, and assess the effectiveness of water quality management strategies. Since overland flow is a very important component of the water balance and hydrology of DCW, a parallel, distributed watershed model that treats flow in groundwater and surface water in a dynamically coupled manner will be used to build a flow model of the watershed. This coupled model forms the basis for modeling and understanding the transport of contaminants through the Dominguez Channel Watershed, which can be used in designing and implementing TMDLs to manage the water quality in this basin. In this report, the coupled surface water-groundwater flow model of DCW will be presented. This flow model was calibrated against a storm that occurred in February 21st, 2004. The model and approach are explained further in the following sections.

Rihani, J F; Maxwell, R M

2007-09-26

242

Geotechnical Parameters Impact on Artificial Ground Water Recharging Technique for Urban Centers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water scarcity is a serious problem throughout the world for both urban & rural community. Urban centers in India are facing an ironical situation of water scarcity today. This paper includes an Analytical solution, Numerical modeling, Empirical approaches, In-situ test results to predict recharge (rate mound of the ground-water and capacity of recharge well which is essential for the proper management of suitable artificial ground-water recharge systems to maintain water balance and stop salt water intrusion. Authors have derived analytical equation for predicting growth as well as decline of the ground-water mound depending on the intensity of recharge rate qr with different value of permeability k, depth of pervious strata H and diameter of well d, also studying the effects of variation in the geotechnical parameters on water-table fluctuations. In this paper to study the impact of numerical modeling using quadratic equation for unconfined aquifer base on rainfall intensity P and a change in saturated thickness H with variation in piezometric level. Empirical approaches are for evaluation of correct value of k of an undercharged unconfined aquifer with drawdown s0, influence zone L, recharge rate qr. In-situ test results give actual correlation between value of recharging rate of well and permeability on field. Authors have verified recharging rate of installed well from all approaches. A result obtained from the various field case studies gives the validation of the derived equation. Scientific quality measures of aquifer water are also recorded.

Pratima Patel

2011-05-01

243

Applications of artificial neural networks for microbial water quality modeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There has been a significant shift in the recent past towards protecting chemical and microbial quality of source waters rather than developing advanced methods to treat heavily polluted water. The key to successful best management practices in protecting the source waters is to identify sources of non-point pollution and their collective impact on the quality of water at the intake. This article presents a few successful applications where artificial neural networks (ANN) have proven to be the useful mathematical tools in correlating the nonlinear relationships between routinely measured parameters (such as rainfall, turbidity, fecal coliforms etc.) and quality of source waters and/or nature of fecal sources. These applications include, prediction of peak concentrations of Giardia and Cryptosporidium, sorting of fecal sources (e.g. agricultural animals vs. urban animals), predicting relative ages of the runoff sources, identifying the potential for sewage contamination. The ability of ANNs to work with complex, inter-related multiparameter databases, and provide superior predictive power in non-linear relationships has been the key for their successful application to microbial water quality studies. (author)

2002-06-01

244

Applications of artificial neural networks for microbial water quality modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There has been a significant shift in the recent past towards protecting chemical and microbial quality of source waters rather than developing advanced methods to treat heavily polluted water. The key to successful best management practices in protecting the source waters is to identify sources of non-point pollution and their collective impact on the quality of water at the intake. This article presents a few successful applications where artificial neural networks (ANN) have proven to be the useful mathematical tools in correlating the nonlinear relationships between routinely measured parameters (such as rainfall, turbidity, fecal coliforms etc.) and quality of source waters and/or nature of fecal sources. These applications include, prediction of peak concentrations of Giardia and Cryptosporidium, sorting of fecal sources (e.g. agricultural animals vs. urban animals), predicting relative ages of the runoff sources, identifying the potential for sewage contamination. The ability of ANNs to work with complex, inter-related multiparameter databases, and provide superior predictive power in non-linear relationships has been the key for their successful application to microbial water quality studies. (author)

Brion, G.M.; Lingireddy, S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

2002-06-15

245

WATER RESOURCES AND URBAN PLANNING: THE CASE OF A COASTAL AREA IN BRAZIL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban planning requires the integration of several disciplines, among them ones related to water resources. The impacts of urban development on those resources, and viceversa, are well known, but some aspects have not been well characterized in literature. This research analyzes a case that shows interesting relationships between urban planning, its legislation, the evolution of urban occupation and several aspects of water resources: groundwater, surface water, drainage and saltwater intrusi...

2009-01-01

246

The effects of urbanization on groundwater quantity and quality in the Zahedan aquifer, southeast Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the impacts of urban growth on groundwater quality and quantity in the Zahedan aquifer, which is the sole source of water supply for the city of Zahedan, Iran. The investigation is based on the collection of available historical data, supplemented by field and laboratory investigations. Groundwater levels in 40 wells were measured in December 2000. In addition, 102 water samples were taken in two periods during November and December 2000. Of these, 43 samples were analyzed for major ions, 32 samples were analyzed for nitrogen and phosphorus and the remainder for bacteriological contamination. The water level data show that there has been a general decline since 1977 due to over-abstraction. The magnitude of this decline has reached about 20 m in some places. However, in one area over the same period, a rise of about 3 m has been observed. This occurs as a result of the local hydrogeological conditions of shallow bedrock and relatively low permeability materials down stream of this area that limits the flow of groundwater towards the northeastern part of the aquifer. The general fall in groundwater levels has been accompanied by a change in the direction of the groundwater flow and an overall reduction of the areal extent of the saturated region of the aquifer. The city now has a serious problem such that even if the abstracted groundwater is rationed, water is not available for long periods because the demand far exceeds the supply. The heavy impact of urbanization on the groundwater quality is shown through the observed high nitrate (up to 295 mg/l as nitrate) and high phosphorus values (about 0.1 mg/l as P). Significant changes in the chloride concentration are also observed in two areas: increasing from 100 mg/l to 1,600 mg/l and from 2,000 mg/l to 4,000 mg/l, respectively. Furthermore, the bacteriological investigations show that 33 percent of the 27 collected groundwater samples are positive for total coliform and 11 percent of the samples contained fecal coliforms indicating that local sources are strongly influencing the observed chemical data. Greater depths to groundwater reduce the observation of coliform contamination. In general, the unplanned urban development in Zahedan has significantly degraded the region's water resources and significant actions such as upgrading the sewage waste disposal system, locating other sources of water supply, and strict groundwater management will all be needed to resolve the problems that have arisen.

Khazaei, E.; Mackay, R.; Warner, J. W.

2004-01-01

247

drinking water quality report 2012  

...carries out its responsibilities to supply safe, clean drinking water. This...not caused by the water supply. NI Water has the responsibility...clean drinking water supplies. Risk management and the development of drinking...

248

Rural-Urban Disparities in Health-Related Quality of Life within Disease Categories of Veterans  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: Compared to their urban counterparts, rural veterans have been found to have lower health-related quality of life. Purpose: To determine whether these disparities persist when examining disease categories of rural and urban veterans. Methods: We obtained survey data on 748,216 veterans who were current or anticipated Veterans Health…

Weeks, William B.; Wallace, Amy E.; Wang, Stanley; Lee, Austin; Kazis, Lewis E.

2006-01-01

249

Quality of Water Leaving Consumers' Taps  

...and ResponsibilitiesPolicyWater ResourcesMinister Visits WMUDevelopment ManagementStormwater ManagementQuality of Water Leaving Consumers' TapsLast updated: 29 May 2007European Directive StandardsNational...

250

Evaluation of green roof as green technology for urban stormwater quantity and quality controls  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Promoting green design, construction, reconstruction and operation of buildings has never been more critical than now due to the ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions and rapid urbanizations that are fuelling climate change more quickly. Driven by environmental needs, Green Building Index (GBI) was founded in Malaysia to drive initiative to lead the property industry towards becoming more environment-friendly. Green roof system is one of the assessment criteria of this rating system which is under category of sustainable site planning and management. An extensive green roof was constructed in Humid Tropics Center (HTC) Kuala Lumpur as one of the components for Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) in order to obtain scientific data of the system. This paper evaluates the performance of extensive green roof at Humid Tropics Center with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater quantity and quality controls. Findings indicate that there was a reduction of around 1.5°C for indoor temperature of the building after installation of green roof. Simulations showed that the peak discharge was reduced up to 24% relative to impervious brown roof. The results show an increment of pH and high concentration of phosphate for the runoff generated from the green roof and the runoff water quality ranged between class I and II under INWQS.

2013-06-17

251

Heavy Water Quality Management in HANARO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heavy water quality management in the reflector tank is a very important element to maintain the good thermal neutron flux and to ensure the performance of reflector cooling system. This report is written to provide a guidance for the future by describing the history of the heavy water quality management during HANARO operation. The heavy water quality in the reflector tank has been managed by measuring the electrical conductivity at the inlet and outlet of the ion exchanger and by measuring pH of the heavy water. In this report, the heavy water quality management activities performed in HANARO from 1996 to 2007 ere described including a basic theory of the heavy water quality management, exchanging history of used resin in the reflector cooling system, measurement data of the pH and the electrical conductivity, and operation history of the reflector cooling system

252

Rural:urban inequalities in post 2015 targets and indicators for drinking-water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disparities in access to drinking water between rural and urban areas are pronounced. Although use of improved sources has increased more rapidly in rural areas, rising from 62% in 1990 to 81% in 2011, the proportion of the rural population using an improved water source remains substantially lower than in urban areas. Inequalities in coverage are compounded by disparities in other aspects of water service. Not all improved sources are safe and evidence from a systematic review demonstrates that water is more likely to contain detectable fecal indicator bacteria in rural areas. Piped water on premises is a service enjoyed primarily by those living in urban areas so differentiating amongst improved sources would exacerbate rural:urban disparities yet further. We argue that an urban bias may have resulted due to apparent stagnation in urban coverage and the inequity observed between urban and peri-urban areas. The apparent stagnation at around 95% coverage in urban areas stems in part from relative population growth - over the last two decades more people gained access to improved water in urban areas. There are calls for setting higher standards in urban areas which would exacerbate the already extreme rural disadvantage. Instead of setting different targets, health, economic, and human rights perspectives, We suggest that the focus should be kept on achieving universal access to safe water (primarily in rural areas) while monitoring progress towards higher service levels, including greater water safety (both in rural and urban areas and among different economic strata). PMID:24875263

Bain, R E S; Wright, J A; Christenson, E; Bartram, J K

2014-08-15

253

Assessment of Congestion Pricing for Reducing Urban Congestion and Improving Air Quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The principal goal of this study is to provide the Texas Department of Transportation engineers and officials with information and approaches that would assist in: (1) determining the potential of road pricing for urban congestion control, air quality enh...

J. Acha-Daza R. Moore H. S. Mahmassani

1995-01-01

254

A photochemical box model for urban air quality study  

Science.gov (United States)

The photochemical box model (PBM) developed in the present study is based on the principle of mass conservation. It has a horizontal domain of the size of a typical city and a vertical dimension defined by the mixed-layer height. The concentration of any pollutant is determined by horizontal advection, vertical entrainment, source emissions and chemical reactions. A one-dimensional high resolution boundary layer model by Blackadar ( Preprints, Third Symp. on Atmospheric Turbulence, Diffusion, and Air Quality, Raleigh, Am. Met. Soc., pp. 443-447, 1976; Advances in Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1 (edited by Pfafflin J. and Ziegler E.), pp. 50-85. Gordon and Breach, New York, 1979) has been incorporated in the PBM and further developed to consider the effect of urban heat islands in the simulation of mixed layer height. The predicted mixed-layer heights compare very well with observations. The gas phase chemical kinetic mechanism used in the Regional Acid Deposition Model II (RADM2) and that of an earlier version of PBM have been used to calculate the contributions of chemical reactions to the changes of pollutant concentrations. Detailed analysis and comparisons of the two chemical mechanisms have been made. The simulated pollutant concentrations using both chemical mechanisms are in very good agreement with available observations for CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3. A radiative transfer model developed by Madronich ( J. geophys. Res.92, 9740-9752, 1987) has been incorporated in the PBM for the calculation of actinic flux and photolytic rate constants. Height-averaged and radiation-corrected photolytic rate constants are used for the photochemical reactions. Budget analyses conducted for CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3 have enhanced our understanding of the relative contributions of horizontal advection, vertical entrainment, source emissions and chemical reactions to the overall rate of change of their concentrations. Model predictions are not sensitive to the large number of peroxy radical-peroxy radical reactions in the RADM2 chemical mechanism under urban conditions.

Jin, Shengxin; Demerjian, Kenneth

255

Risk and Uncertainty Analysis for Sustainable Urban Water Systems:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long-term future planning is not a new approach in urban water management (UWM). However, the conventional ‘stationary approach’ of infrastructure planning and decision-making, where the future is assumed as the continuation of historical observation, will not work in the rapidly changing environment. This is because the current and future change pressures, such as climate change, urbanisation, population growth, deterioration of infrastructure systems, and changes in socioeconomic condit...

Khatri, K. B.

2013-01-01

256

Uncertainty Assessment in Urban Storm Water Drainage Modelling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

 The object of this paper is to make an overall description of the author's PhD study, concerning uncertainties in numerical urban storm water drainage models. Initially an uncertainty localization and assessment of model inputs and parameters as well as uncertainties caused by different model complexities are investigated. It is the main purpose to make an overall uncertainty estimation of the model output. This is accomplished by implementation of stochastic methods when operating the nume...

2007-01-01

257

Water and Heavy Metal Fluxes in Paved Urban Soils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Worldwide, the streets and sidewalks in urban areas are often perviously paved. This kind of sealing allows at least a little infiltration of rainwater and thereby decreases the run-off. Pavements consist of the pavers, a construction material and the so called seam material. It was hypothesized, that these three components influence the transport of water and solved substances. The seam material is the first layer of soil material which is situated in the gaps between single pavestones. It w...

Nehls, Thomas

2007-01-01

258

Adaptive Management of the Water Cycle on the Urban Fringe: Three Australian Case Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our group at Macquarie University has run three adaptive management projects in New South Wales, Australia. Their objectives were: (1 to evaluate water cycle management strategies to minimize impacts of urban development on water quality in the Hawkesbury-Nepean basin; (2 to evaluate development planning policies to minimize water quality impacts on a series of coastal lakes; and (3 to carry out a preliminary assessment of the potential impacts of greater recreational use of Sydney water catchments. These projects are examined to evaluate the contribution of the adaptive management approach to water cycle management on the urban fringe in New South Wales. The role of the adaptive management approach in education, as a negotiation process, and in policy formulation and evaluation, is presented. The importance of community participation, the role of an "institutional champion," and the need to manage the lead-up phase and the postworkshop phase with as much attention to detail as the workshop phase is underlined. Proposed prerequisites for a successful adaptive management project are developed along these lines.

James Scandol

1999-06-01

259

Receptivity to transformative change in the Dutch urban water management sector.  

Science.gov (United States)

Worldwide, the need for transformative change in urban water management is acknowledged by scientists and policy makers. The effects of climate change and developments such as urbanization, the European Water Framework Directive, and societal concerns about the sustainability of urban water system force the sector to adapt. In The Netherlands, a shift towards integration of spatial planning and water management can be observed. Despite major changes in water management policy and approach, changes in the physical urban water management infrastructure remain limited to incremental solutions and demonstration projects. Policy studies show that institutional factors and professional perceptions are important factors for application of innovations in urban water management. An online survey among Dutch urban water management professionals demonstrates that according to most respondents, optimization of the current system is sufficient to achieve both European and national objectives for sustainable urban water management. The respondents are most concerned with the effects of climate change on urban water systems. In contrast to current policy of the national government, priority factors that should be addressed to achieve a more sustainable urban water system are improving knowledge of local urban water systems, capacity building, developing trust between stakeholders, and improving involvement of elected officials and citizens. PMID:19633372

de Graaf, R E; Dahm, R J; Icke, J; Goetgeluk, R W; Jansen, S J T; van de Ven, F H M

2009-01-01

260

Science Teacher Quality and Effectiveness: Gweru Urban Junior Secondary School Students’ Points of View  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions among junior secondary science students from Gweru Urban secondary schools in Zimbabwe towards science teachers' teaching quality and effectiveness. This qualitative study approached and interviewed Form 2 students from 10 different schools in Gweru urban. The results show that three key dimensions of science teacher quality and effectiveness emerged: teacher's scientific knowledge, teacher’s pedagogical skills and teacher's social co...

Mandina Shadreck; Mambanda Isaac

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Patterns of Quality - The distribution of urban services among the residents of the city of Villahermosa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis digs deep into patterns of urban service distribution among the residents of different neighbourhoods in the city of Villahermosa in Southeastern Mexico. Urban research has for a long time debated whether services offered in poor neighbourhoods are of worse quality than those in other areas. Using political ecology as its theoretical framework, this thesis identifies processes that influence the quality of public and private services as well as the residents’ access to them in d...

Iso-markku, Elina

2012-01-01

262

Undernutrition and Household Environmental Quality among Urban and Rural Children in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explored the association between child undernutrition and household environmental quality in urban and rural households. Anthropometric assessments were conducted on 370 preschool children in three urban communities (high, medium and low-density) and one rural community. A structured questionnaire for mothers and an observation checklist were used to collect sociodemographic and environmental data. An Environmental Quality Index (EQI) combining four composite indicators of h...

2008-01-01

263

Expanding Water Service Delivery through Partnership between Water Utility and Small Scale Water Providers in Lusaka, Zambia : A Case of Lusaka's Peri-Urban Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zambia is a highly urbanized country with 60% of its urban population residing in low cost areas also called peri-urban, slum or informal settlements. The increase in urban population attributed to rapid migration and urbanization due to political and economic changes has taken a toll on service provision as the infrastructure development and service provision has failed to meet the demand. For the 33 peri-urban areas in Lusaka, the water supply and sanitation has been poor, inadequate and un...

Mwandu Siyeni, Yvonne

2008-01-01

264

Expanding Water Service Delivery through Partnership between Water Utility and Small Scale Water Providers in Lusaka, Zambia : A Case of Lusaka’s Peri-Urban Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zambia is a highly urbanized country with 60% of its urban population residing in low cost areas also called peri-urban, slum or informal settlements. The increase in urban population attributed to rapid migration and urbanization due to political and economic changes has taken a toll on service provision as the infrastructure development and service provision has failed to meet the demand. For the 33 peri-urban areas in Lusaka, the water supply and sanitation has been poor, inadequate and un...

Mwandu Siyeni, Yvonne

2008-01-01

265

Urban evaporation rates for water-permeable pavements.  

Science.gov (United States)

In urban areas the natural water balance is disturbed. Infiltration and evaporation are reduced, resulting in a high surface runoff and a typical city climate, which can lead to floods and damages. Water-permeable pavements have a high infiltration rate that reduces surface runoff by increasing the groundwater recharge. The high water retention capacity of the street body of up to 51 l/m(2) and its connection via pores to the surface lead to higher evaporation rates than impermeable surfaces. A comparison of these two kinds of pavements shows a 16% increase in evaporation levels of water-permeable pavements. Furthermore, the evaporation from impermeable pavements is linked directly to rain events due to fast-drying surfaces. Water-permeable pavements show a more evenly distributed evaporation after a rain event. Cooling effects by evaporative heat loss can improve the city climate even several days after rain events. On a large scale use, uncomfortable weather like sultriness or dry heat can be prevented and the urban water balance can be attenuated towards the natural. PMID:20818060

Starke, P; Göbel, P; Coldewey, W G

2010-01-01

266

WATER RECLAMATION AND AUTOMATED WATER QUALITY MONITORING  

Science.gov (United States)

The Santa Clara Valley Water District owns and operates a water reclamation facility located in the Palo Alto Baylands area in Northern California. The purpose of the facility is to provide reclaimed water suitable for injection into the groundwater, thereby providing a salt wate...

267

Examples of scale interactions in local, urban, and regional air quality modelling  

Science.gov (United States)

Air quality modeling can help to improve understanding of scale interactions related to meteorology, transport, emissions, formation, removal, and other processes taking place at local, urban, and regional scales. For the local scale, we used the coupling of a street canyon model with a Gaussian dispersion model to study the interactions of emissions and concentrations in urban streets and surrounding urban neighborhoods. The model combination was applied to a city quarter in Ghent, Belgium, and showed that up to 40% of the PM 2.5 concentrations inside street canyons were caused by emissions from the surrounding streets. For the urban scale, the AURORA model has been used successfully in assessments of urban air quality for entire cities or urbanized areas. It has been applied to the Ruhr area in Germany to evaluate the impact of compact or polycentric cities versus the impact of urban sprawl developments. Results for ozone and PM 10 showed that compact city structures may have more adverse effects in terms of air pollution exposure. For the regional scale, the EUROS model was used to study the urban and regional-scale interactions that are important in simulating concentrations of ozone, PM 2.5, and PM 10. It has been applied to study seasonal changes in aerosol concentrations in Flanders. High secondary aerosol concentrations were found during summer. This contribution was related to large contributions from outside the region, showing the importance of the continental scale when studying regional air quality problems.

Mensink, C.; De Ridder, K.; Deutsch, F.; Lefebre, F.; Van de Vel, K.

2008-09-01

268

Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Urban water management requires further clarification about pollutants in storm water. Little is known about the release of organic additives used in construction materials and the impact of these compounds to storm water runoff. We investigated sources and pathways of additives used in construction materials, i.e., biocides in facadesâ?? render as well as root protection products in bitumen membranes for rooftops. Under wet-weather conditions, the concentrations of diuron, terbutryn, carbendazim, irgarol®1051 (all from facades) and mecoprop in storm water and receiving water exceeded the predicted no-effect concentrations values and the Swiss water quality standard of 0.1 μg/L. Under laboratory conditions maximum concentrations of additives were in the range of a few milligrams and a few hundred micrograms per litre in runoff of facades and bitumen membranes. Runoff from aged materials shows approximately one to two orders of magnitude lower concentrations. Concentrations decreased also during individual runoff events. In storm water and receiving water the occurrence of additives did not follow the typical first flush model. This can be explained by the release lasting over the time of rainfall and the complexity of the drainage network. Beside the amounts used, the impact of construction materials containing hazardous additives on water quality is related clearly to the age of the buildings and the separated sewer network. The development of improved products regarding release of hazardous additives is the most efficient way of reducing the pollutant load from construction materials in storm water runoff.

Burkhardt, Mike; Zuleeg, S.

2011-01-01

269

Coal mining and water quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal mining activities frequently impinge on water resources. This report considers the impact of coal extraction on water resources and potential causes of water pollution. The disruption of surface water and groundwater systems by surface and underground mining is discussed. Many mine waters are relatively clean and unpolluted. However, some discharges are acidic and contain high concentrations of dissolved metals and trace elements. Acid mine drainage may cause serious and highly visible pollution. Methods adopted to prevent contamination of mine waters are reviewed, together with active and passive options to treat waters discharged from mining activities. The report examines methods to assess and manage water resources so as to avoid pollution.

Clarke, L.B.

1995-07-01

270

Microbiological air quality in an urban solid waste selection plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background: Exposure to bioaerosols may pose health risks to workers operating in the processing of Urban Solid Waste (USW. The aim of this study is to evaluate microbiological air quality within an USW selection facility.

Methods: Nine sampling points in an USW selection plant situated in central-southern Italy were selected. One outdoor sampling point provided the background data. Sampling was performed on a yearly basis (2005 – 2009 upon request by the management of the selection plant. Total Mesophilic Counts (TMC, as well as fungal and Gram-negative concentrations were determined.

Results: The highest viable fungal particles concentrations (medians were found in waste delivery areas (about 20000 CFU/m3, while the lowest were found in the control rooms (485 – 967 CFU/m3. TMC (median was highest (6116 CFU/m3 at the delivery pit, followed by the machine shop (3147 CFU/m3, where no waste processing takes place. Medians of Gram-negative bacteria are below the suggested Occupational Exposure Limit of 1000 CFU/m3, although this limit was exceeded at several single time-points in the waste delivery areas, and also in a personnel resting room. The lowest Gram-negative contamination was found in the control rooms (medians <1 CFU/m3.

Conclusions: Some areas within a USW selection plant act as internal sources of contamination towards those areas where partially processed waste, or no waste at all, is present. Well-designed air flows, or carefullythought positioning of areas that are not directly involved in waste processing are necessary and effective in obtaining

Angela Del Cimmuto

2010-03-01

271

Coralville Reservoir Water Quality Project  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

The Coralville flood control dam is located in Johnson County, Iowa, about three miles north of Iowa City. The lake, at the conservation pool, 680 feet mean sea level (msl), is 21.7 miles long with a surface area of 2,650 acres, and at spillway level (712 feet msl) is 45.1 miles long with a surface area of 25,040 acres. Prior to February 1992 the level of the pool was normally reduced to 675 feet msl in late winter to facilitate the use of the impoundment for flood control. At this level, the reservoir has an area of 1,320 acres. More recent surveys indicated that at spillway level (712 feet msl) reservoir capacity was 420,960-acre feet, 17,720-acre feet at conservation pool level (680 feet msl), and 7,850-acre feet at 675 feet msl. In February 1992 the reservoir operational procedure was modified. Under the current operational plan, the reservoir conservation pool will be held at 683 feet msl from December 15 to February 15 and then reduced to 679 feet msl by March 20. Pool level will be held at 679 feet msl from March 20 to June 20 and then be allowed to increase to the summer conservation pool of 683 feet msl where it will remain through September 15. The fall pool will be variable with a maximum elevation of 686 feet msl. During periods of high river flow the lake level often rises above these elevations due to downstream flow constraints. The Coralville Reservoir Water Quality Project was initiated in 1964, and continued without interruption through October 1981. No sampling occurred from November 1981 through March 1982, but the project resumed on an abbreviated schedule in April 1982 and continued through January 1983 when it was again interrupted. Sampling was reinstituted in June of 1983 and continued through September 1985.

2006-01-01

272

Comparison between the efficiency of two bioindicators for determining surface water quality in an urban environment = Comparação entre a eficiência de dois bioindicadores para a determinação da qualidade de águas superficiais em um ambiente urbano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficiency of two bioindicators, fecal coliforms and ecotoxicity tests, set out in CONAMA Resolution 274/00 and CONAMA Resolution 357/05, in assessment of water quality. For this study, Lake Paranoá, Federal District of Brazil, was chosen, since it is a water body directly contaminated by effluents from a sewage treatment plant. Four sampling points were chosen in accordance with the map of recreational water quality published weekly by CAESB/DF, after analysis of fecal coliforms. Samples from these points were collected for 6 months and tested on Danio rerio fish (acute toxicity and on the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (acute and chronic toxicity, besides measuring chemical and physico-chemical parameters. The data obtained show great consistency between the observed biological parameters, suggesting that in this urbanaquatic environment, under great anthropogenic pressure, the fecal coliform bioindicator seems to be more restrictive and enough to evaluate the safety of surface water. Este trabalho comparou a eficiência dos bioindicadores coliformes fecais ou termotolerantes e ensaios de ecotoxicidade, propostos pelas Resoluções Conama 274/00 e Conama 357/05, na avaliação da qualidade de água. Para a realização desse estudo foi escolhido o Lago Paranoá,Brasília, Distrito Federal, por ser um corpo hídrico impactado diretamente pelo lançamento de efluentes de uma estação de tratamento de esgotos. Foram definidos quatro pontos de acordo com o mapa de balneabilidade, publicado semanalmente pela Caesb/DF, em função do teor de coliformes termotolerantes. Amostras desses pontos colhidas durante seis meses foram testadas com o peixe Danio rerio (toxicidade aguda e o com o microcrustáceo Ceriodaphnia dubia (toxicidade aguda e crônica, além da determinação de parâmetros químicos e físico-químicos. Os resultados obtidos mostraram grande equivalência entre osparâmetros biológicos observados, sugerindo que nesse ambiente sob grande influência antrópica, o bioindicador coliformes termotolerantes foi mais restritivo e suficiente para avaliar a segurança das águas superficiais.

Eduardo Cyrino Oliveira-Filho

2011-07-01

273

Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D. [Little Big Horn Coll., Crow Agency, MT (United States)

1995-10-01

274

Coal mining and water quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal mining activities frequently impinge on water resources. This report considers the impact of coal extraction on water resources and potential causes of water pollution. The disruption of surface water and groundwater systems by surface and underground mining is discussed. Many mine waters are relatively clean and unpolluted. However, some discharges are acidic and contain high concentrations of dissolved metals and trace elements. Acid mine drainage may cause serious and highly visible pollution. Methods adopted to prevent contamination of mine waters are reviewed, together with active and passive options to treat waters discharged from mining activities. Prudent management of water resources requires careful monitoring throughout mining operations and during land reclamation activities. Unfortunately, in the past many sites were abandoned with inadequate reclamation and closure measures, leaving a legacy of contaminated drainage and water pollution. The report examines methods to assess and manage water resources so as to avoid pollution. 163

Clarke, L.B. [IEA Coal Research, London (United Kingdom)

1995-06-01

275

Comparison of 2006-2007 Water Years and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado  

Science.gov (United States)

Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations - stations that are considered long term and stations that are considered rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short-term concerns. Some stations in the rotational group were changed beginning in water year 2007. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality monitoring in the upper Gunnison River basin. This summary includes data collected during water years 2006 and 2007. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water years 2006 and 2007 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines. Data were collected following USGS protocols (U.S. Geological Survey, variously dated).

Solberg, P. A.; Moore, Bryan; Smits, Dennis

2009-01-01

276

Comparison of Water Years 2004-05 and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado  

Science.gov (United States)

Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River Basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River Basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations - stations that are considered long term and stations that are considered rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short-term concerns. Some stations in the rotational group were changed beginning in water year 2007. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality monitoring in the upper Gunnison River Basin. This summary includes data collected during water years 2004 and 2005. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water years 2004 and 2005 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines. Data were collected following USGS protocols.

Spahr, Norman E.; Hartle, David M.; Diaz, Paul

2008-01-01

277

Nitrogen changes between rural and peri-urban stream subsurface waters (Yzeron stream, France)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urbanization subjects stream and groundwater to increased loads of organic nitrogen, nitrate, and ammonium. Therefore, studying nitrogen species at the urban stream- aquifer interface is important for water resource management. We report here results on water O-18/O-16 ratios and on nitrogen species in stream subsurface waters upstream and downstream of several combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in a rural area and peri-urban area, respectively. Water O-18/O-16 ratios were measured to trace the ...

Aucour, A. M.; Bariac, T.; Breil, P.; Namour, P.; Schmitt, L.; Sebilo, M.; Zuddas, P.

2013-01-01

278

Assessing the microbiological performance and potential cost of boiling drinking water in urban Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boiling is the most common method of disinfecting water in the home and the benchmark against which other point-of-use water treatment is measured. In a six-week study in peri-urban Zambia, we assessed the microbiological effectiveness and potential cost of boiling among 49 households without a water connection who reported "always" or "almost always" boiling their water before drinking it. Source and household drinking water samples were compared weekly for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), an indicator of fecal contamination. Demographics, costs, and other information were collected through surveys and structured observations. Drinking water samples taken at the household (geometric mean 7.2 TTC/100 mL, 95% CI, 5.4-9.7) were actually worse in microbiological quality than source water (geometric mean 4.0 TTC/100 mL, 95% CI, 3.1-5.1) (p < 0.001), although both are relatively low levels of contamination. Only 60% of drinking water samples were reported to have actually been boiled at the time of collection from the home, suggesting over-reporting and inconsistent compliance. However, these samples were of no higher microbiological quality. Evidence suggests that water quality deteriorated after boiling due to lack of residual protection and unsafe storage and handling. The potential cost of fuel or electricity for boiling was estimated at 5% and 7% of income, respectively. In this setting where microbiological water quality was relatively good at the source, safe-storage practices that minimize recontamination may be more effective in managing the risk of disease from drinking water at a fraction of the cost of boiling. PMID:21650207

Psutka, Rebecca; Peletz, Rachel; Michelo, Sandford; Kelly, Paul; Clasen, Thomas

2011-07-15

279

Water quality trading: Theoretical and practical approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Permit trading as an instrument to control air pollution has already been implemented in several countries, so in Europe since 2005. Could this instrument, however, also be adequately used for water pollution control of river basins in form of a water quality trading? Specific characteristics of rivers, pollutants and pollution sources strongly influence the design of such an instrument. This paper reviews theoretical and practical approaches on water quality trading. It is surprising that th...

Keudel, Marianne

2006-01-01

280

Socioeconomic factors and water quality in California  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the relationships between water quality and socioeconomic factors in California at the county level for the years 1993 to 2006 using 24 water quality indicators coming from seven different types of water bodies. We estimate these relationships using three classes of models: the traditional per capita income-pollution level - Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) - specifications, a more inclusive model containing main socioeconomic variables such as agricultural intensity, land use...

Farzin, Y. Hossein; Grogan, Kelly A.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

National Water Quality Laboratory, 1994 services catalog  

Science.gov (United States)

This Services Catalog contains information about field supplies and analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., and field supplies available from the Quality Water Service Unit in Ocala, Fla., to members of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, this catalog lists sample volume, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation requirements for samples. (USGS)

Timme, P. J.

1994-01-01

282

Quantifying Outdoor Water Consumption of Urban Land Use/Land Cover: Sensitivity to Drought  

Science.gov (United States)

Outdoor water use is a key component in arid city water systems for achieving sustainable water use and ensuring water security. Using evapotranspiration (ET) calculations as a proxy for outdoor water consumption, the objectives of this research are to quantify outdoor water consumption of different land use and land cover types, and compare the spatio-temporal variation in water consumption between drought and wet years. An energy balance model was applied to Landsat 5 TM time series images to estimate daily and seasonal ET for the Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research region (CAP-LTER). Modeled ET estimations were correlated with water use data in 49 parks within CAP-LTER and showed good agreement ( r 2 = 0.77), indicating model effectiveness to capture the variations across park water consumption. Seasonally, active agriculture shows high ET (>500 mm) for both wet and dry conditions, while the desert and urban land cover types experienced lower ET during drought (water availability of this region in the future due to large population increases and the threat of a warming and drying climate, maintaining large water-consuming, irrigated landscapes challenges sustainable practices of water conservation and the need to provide amenities of this desert area for enhancing quality of life.

Kaplan, Shai; Myint, Soe W.; Fan, Chao; Brazel, Anthony J.

2014-04-01

283

Assessment of water quality of Buna River using microbiological analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Buna River is situated near Shkodra town, between the hill of Rozafa castle and Taraboshi Mountain. It is the only emissary of the Shkodra Lake. Buna River is exposed to different sources of pollution related to urban pollution, sewerage discharge, agricultural activity, and climate change which are associated with an increase in water levels, erosion and floods. This research assesses the quality of water in Buna River, based on the microbiological and physical-chemical analysis. Samples were taken at three different points during years 2013-2014. The analysis will stress out data about heterotrophic and fecal coliform general characteristics, figures, and the role as indicators of water pollution and also information about PH, conductibility and the temperature of water. Microbiological contamination tests show relatively large water contamination, especially in the first sample point where Buna River begins. The high level presence of these microorganisms indicates that the water quality of the river is bad according to standards, presenting a risk to health for all the organisms that inhabit the sweet waters of Buna River.

ANILË MEDHA

2014-06-01

284

Discussion on Sustainable Water Technologies for Peri-Urban Areas of Mexico City: Balancing Urbanization and Environmental Conservation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Often centralized water supply, sanitation and solid waste services struggle to keep up with the rapid expansion of urban areas. The peri-urban areas are at the forefront of this expansion and it is here where decentralized technologies are increasingly being implemented. The introduction of decentralized technologies allows for the development of new opportunities that enable the recovery and reuse of resources in the form of water, nutrients and energy. This resource-oriented management of ...

2012-01-01

285

Plant water quality diagnosing control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A neural network model comprising a stratified structure having at least one intermediate layer between an input layer and an output layer of water quality information from a sensor is used, and among water quality information in the past, a typical pattern of variable values at different time points is inputted. Then, a control variable value corresponding to the typical pattern is learned as a reference signal to the neural network model. A variable value for the aimed water quality control is determined by inputting the water quality pattern not yet learned to the learned neutral network model to make the neural network model learn, to operate a control system. With such a constitution, an optimal output signal corresponding to the input pattern is outputted depending on the learned level. Accordingly, if sufficiently learned neutral network is used, an optimal output control signal capable of controlling the water quality relative to the water quality pattern input signal of such a level that a man can not correspond can be obtained, even to a water quality pattern input signal at such a level as considered to be impossible for a man to correspond. (N.H.)

1990-07-27

286

Water quality in sustainable water management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water pollution is a serious problem as almost 70% of India’s surface water resources and a growing number of its groundwater reserves have been contaminated by biological, organic and inorganic pollutants. Pollution of surface and groundwater resources occurs through point and diffuse sources. Examples of point source pollution are effluents from industries and fromsewage-treatment plants. Typical examples of diffuse pollution sources are agricultural runoffs due to inorganic fertilizers a...

2004-01-01

287

Assessment of human impact on water quality along Manyame River  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human activities such as urbanization, agriculture, sewage treatment and industrialization are affecting water resources both quantitatively and qualitatively. The impact of these activities were studied by measuring and determining the concentration and values of eight selected water quality parameters namely nitrates, phosphates, copper, iron, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, dissolved oxygen (DO, pH and turbidity along Manyame River, in the Manyame Catchment. Thirty five sites were sampled from the source of the river which is at Seke Dam, along Manyame River and on the tributaries (Ruwa, Nyatsime, Mukuvisi and Marimba just before they join the river. The 35 sites were categorized into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E with group A and E being the upstream and downstream of Manyame. The analysis of results was undertaken using a simple one-way ANOVA with group as the only source of variation. Turbidity values, nitrate and phosphate concentrations were found to be higher than the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA maximum permissible standards for surface waters. DO saturation in the downstream groups was less than 75% (ZINWA standard. Agricultural and urban runoff and sewage effluent were responsible of the high nutrient levels and turbidity, which in turn, reduced the dissolved oxygen (DO.

Tirivashe P. Masere

2012-12-01

288

Evaluation of the quality of urban soils in Sopron  

Science.gov (United States)

The location and evolution of the cities were fundamentally influenced by the environmental factors and the characteristics of the landscape. In order to investigate the soil we have collected samples from various sampling sites in a west hungarian city, called Sopron. The soil samples were taken from 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth within a standard network in the city and its industrial territories. The values we gained through our examinations were placed on a digital map with GIS (Geospatial Information system) methods. After entering the pH values, the acidity of the parental material can be observed in both layers on the southwest forest territories of the city, moreover the - so far insignificant - alkalizing of the city territories compared to the surroundings due to the land-shaping activities of mankind. We cannot find any carbonated lime in one fourth of the samples, these samples came mostly from the mountainous surrounding of the city. In the samples from the internal areas of the city, however, carbonated lime could be found particularly due to the disposal of construction scrap. The upper layer of the examined soil is rich on humus, in spite of the increasing landscape usage and alteration of the structure. The highest humus and nitrogen values could be found in the soil of the forests near to the television tower, in the lower layers the amount of organic material was less. The lowest AL-solvent potassium values could be found in these areas, as well. We have found significant values of AL-solvent phosphorus, KCI-solvent potassium and magnesium in vehicular zones or near agricultural land. Higher iron content could be found in the samples of acid forest territories, the manganese values follow these tendencies. The highest zinc values can be shown in both layers near the bus station and the roads with the highest traffic. The copper tests gave us steadily high values at several sampling points throughout the Virágvölgy-site and the separate house zone of the city. In the course of our examination we were trying to find a connection between land usage and land status which would allow the evaluation of the future status and the processing of the necessary improvement methods. Based on our experiments the unique character of the city is fading away, the qualification of the peripheral areas is changing, the land use is condensing which lead to a declining quality of urban soil. In this year we will start to analyse the heavy metal content and chemical compositions of the collected soil samples with infrared spectrometry to get a whole picture about the industrial and the anthropogenic effects.

Horváth, Adrienn; Kámán, Orsolya; Németh, Eszter; Sz?cs, Péter; Bidló, András

2013-04-01

289

SURFACE WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN PRAHOVA AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To achieve an appropriate management strategy was monitored surface water quality in the county of Prahova. In this regard were determinate major physical and chemical indicators: pH, BOD5, COD, nitrates, nitrites, and suspended solids. Depending on the value of the data obtained was identified water quality classes corresponding to each surface water body studied. The correlation values obtained with the best solutions for water service and maintenance of water courses is a management plan for surface water in the county of Prahova. The novelty of the paper consists of study of water resources in the county and not in the Basin as is done at present by the Romanian Waters National Administration

CASEN PANAITESCU

2014-05-01

290

Quality of Life Perceptions and Directions for Urban Regeneration in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban regeneration can be an effective tool to promote sustainability and enhance macro-level quality of life if the principles of encouraging participation, building community character, advancing equity, improving environment and enlivening the economy are observed. Through the assessment of various quality of life indicators related to these…

Ng, Mee Kam

2005-01-01

291

A framework for considering externalities in urban water asset management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban communities rely on a complex network of infrastructure assets to connect them to water resources. There is considerable capital investment required to maintain, upgrade and extend this infrastructure. As the remit of a water utility is broader than just financial considerations, infrastructure investment decisions must be made in light of environmental and societal issues. One way of facilitating this is to integrate consideration of externalities into decision making processes. This paper considers the concept of externalities from an asset management perspective. A case study is provided to show the practical implications to a water utility and asset managers. A framework for the inclusion of externalities in asset management decision making is also presented. The potential for application of the framework is highlighted through a brief consideration of its key elements. PMID:22156123

Marlow, David; Pearson, Leonie; Macdonald, Darla Hatton; Whitten, Stuart; Burn, Stewart

2011-01-01

292

The child health implications of privatizing africa's urban water supply.  

Science.gov (United States)

Can private sector participation (PSP) in the piped water sector improve child health? I use child-level data from 39 African countries during 1986-2010 to show that PSP decreases diarrhea among urban-dwelling, under-five children by 2.6 percentage points, or 16% of its mean prevalence. Children from the poorest households benefit most. PSP is also associated with a 7.8 percentage point increase in school attendance of 7-17 year olds. Importantly, PSP increases usage of piped water by 9.7 percentage points, suggesting a possible causal channel explaining health improvements. To attribute causality, I exploit time-variation in the private water market share controlled by African countries' former colonizers. A placebo analysis reveals that PSP does not affect respiratory illness, nor does it affect a control group of rural children. PMID:24583179

Kosec, Katrina

2014-05-01

293

Disconnecting the autopilot in urban water projects : creating an innovation platform for sustainability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

How can we motivate urban planners, water utilities and house owners to collaborate about sustainable urban water projects and to aim for solutions that go beyond the narrow perspective of individual stakeholder interests? A concept for framing a multidisciplinary learning process is developed in the research project: Black blue green: Integrated infrastructure planning as key to sustainable urban water systems, with the acronym 2BG. The concept addresses the need for local authorities to dev...

Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Øhlenschlæger, Ny; Jensen, Ellen Højgaard; Andersen, Helle Katrine; Dengsøe, Niels

2011-01-01

294

Qualidade microbiológica da água em rios de áreas urbanas e periurbanas no baixo Amazonas: o caso do Amapá Microbiologic water quality in urban and periurban rivers on low Amazon river - study of case: Amapá State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo versa sobre a variação espacial-temporal de parâmetros da qualidade da água e foi realizado em quatro rios estuarinos próximos às cidades de Macapá e Santana (AP - Brasil, e trata especialmente de poluição microbiológica (coliformes fecais - CF, delineada em pesquisa de campo ocorrida entre o período de setembro de 1999 a setembro de 2002. A análise espacial-temporal dos parâmetros bacteriológicos mostrou um significativo grau de comprometimento e degradação ambiental em algumas seções de coleta. A obtenção de faixas de concentração mostrou-se importante para avaliar as freqüências e distribuições estatísticas de parâmetros da qualidade da água, principalmente para indicar riscos à saúde pública e aos ecossistemas aquáticos. Finalmente, devido a quase completa ausência de informações hidrodinâmica e climática sistematizada, a abordagem fundamentou-se na utilização de análise estatística. Contudo, verificou-se uma tendência de aderência dos dados a uma distribuição normal e um grau de deterioração da qualidade da água já presente nas seções estudadas.This study presents the spatial and temporal variability of water quality parameters in rivers of Macapá and Santana region, State of Amapá, Brazil, especially faecal coliforms (FC, being used as indicators. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted in four estuarine rivers. The experiment included five sampling locations and the research was conducted from September 1999 to September 2002. Samples were collected once a monthly. The results of analysis provided us useful information for sanitary and public health planning. In addiction, a socio-economic study of several critical areas in the watershed was carried out. The results showed high faecal coliform concentrations. The complexity of space-temporal variability of the water quality was affected by various factors, such as climatic conditions, tidal variation and human activities. This information can be used in forecasting environmental and public health risks.

Alan Cavalacanti da Cunha

2004-12-01

295

Avaliação da qualidade higiênico-sanitária da água de poços rasos localizados em uma área urbana: utilização de colifagos em comparação com indicadores bacterianos de poluição fecal The evaluation of the hygienic and sanitary quality of water from private shallow wells situated in an urban area of south-eastern Brazil: a comparison between the use of coliphages and bacterian indicators of fecal pollution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram submetidas às contagens de colifagos, coliformes totais, coliformes fecais e de estreptococos fecais, 104 amostras de água colhidas de 8 poços rasos localizados na área urbana do Município de Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil, com a finalidade de avaliar as condições higiênico-sanitárias e de verificar as correlações existentes entre o número de colifagos e o de bactérias indicadoras de poluição fecal. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram a ocorrência de 96 (92,3% amostras fora dos padrões bacteriológicos de potabilidade estabelecidos pelo Ministério da Saúde, monstrando ser precárias as condições higiênico-sanitárias das águas analisadas. Os achados evidenciaram a inexistência de correlação entre o número de colifagos e os números de bactérias indicadoras de poluição fecal.One hundred and four water samples from eight private shallow wells situated in the urban area of Jaboticabal city, State of S. Paulo, Brazil, were submitted to coliphage, total coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus counts, for the purpose of discovering their hygienic and sanitary quality and of verifying the correlations between the coliphage numbers and the fecal pollution indicator bacteria. Ninety-six (92.3% of the samples were not up to the microbiological potability standards. This result demonstrates the unsatisfactory hygienic and sanitary quality of the water samples. The results show also the absence of correlations among coliphages, and the fecal pollution indicatior bacteria.

Luiz Augusto do Amaral

1994-10-01

296

ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE ON WATER QUALITY GOALS  

Science.gov (United States)

The central assumption of nonpoint source pollution control efforts in agricultural watersheds is that traditional erosion control programs are sufficient to insure high quality water resources. The author outlines the inadequacies of that assumption, especially as they relate to...

297

Pragmatic approach to better water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spirotech, the specialist supplier of deaerators and dirt separators for heating and cooling systems, examines how effective deaeration and dirt separation can control and significantly improve system water quality. PMID:18655663

2008-06-01

298

Ground Water Quality of Selected Wells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to characterize ground water quality in Zaweta district / Dohuk governorate, eight wells are selected to represent their water quality. Monthly samples are collected from the wells for the period from October 2005 to April 2006. The samples are tested for conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity and nitrate according to the standard methods. The results of statistical analysis showed significant difference among the wells water quality in the measured parameters. Ground water quality of Zaweta district has high dissolved ions due to the nature of studied area rocks. Total dissolved solids of more than 1000 mg/l made the wells Gre-Qassroka, Kora and Swaratoka need to be treated to make taste palatable. Additionally high electrical conductivity and TDS made Zaweta ground water have a slight to moderate restriction to crop growth. The high alkalinity of Zaweta ground water indicated stabilized pH. The water quality of all the wells is found excessively hard. The nitrate concentration of Zaweta ground water ranged between 0.19-42.4 mg/l below the guidelines for WHO and the maximum nitrate concentration is recorded in Kora well .

Mosher R. Ahmed

2013-05-01

299

Comparison of different uncertainty techniques in urban stormwater quantity and quality modelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban drainage models are important tools used by both practitioners and scientists in the field of stormwater management. These models are often conceptual and usually require calibration using local datasets. The quantification of the uncertainty associated with the models is a must, although it is rarely practiced. The International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, has been working on the development of a framework for defining and assessing uncertainties in the field of urban drainage modelling. A part of that work is the assessment and comparison of different techniques generally used in the uncertainty assessment of the parameters of water models. This paper compares a number of these techniques: the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), the Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis algorithm (SCEM-UA), an approach based on a multi-objective auto-calibration (a multialgorithm, genetically adaptive multi-objective method, AMALGAM) and a Bayesian approach based on a simplified Markov Chain Monte Carlo method (implemented in the software MICA). To allow a meaningful comparison among the different uncertainty techniques, common criteria have been set for the likelihood formulation, defining the number of simulations, and the measure of uncertainty bounds. Moreover, all the uncertainty techniques were implemented for the same case study, in which the same stormwater quantity and quality model was used alongside the same dataset. The comparison results for a well-posed rainfall/runoff model showed that the four methods provide similar probability distributions of model parameters, and model prediction intervals. For ill-posed water quality model the differences between the results were much wider; and the paper provides the specific advantages and disadvantages of each method. In relation to computational efficiency (i.e. number of iterations required to generate the probability distribution of parameters), it was found that SCEM-UA and AMALGAM produce results quicker than GLUE in terms of required number of simulations. However, GLUE requires the lowest modelling skills and is easy to implement. All non-Bayesian methods have problems with the way they accept behavioural parameter sets, e.g. GLUE, SCEM-UA and AMALGAM have subjective acceptance thresholds, while MICA has usually problem with its hypothesis on normality of residuals. It is concluded that modellers should select the method which is most suitable for the system they are modelling (e.g. complexity of the model's structure including the number of parameters), their skill/knowledge level, the available information, and the purpose of their study. PMID:22402270

Dotto, Cintia B S; Mannina, Giorgio; Kleidorfer, Manfred; Vezzaro, Luca; Henrichs, Malte; McCarthy, David T; Freni, Gabriele; Rauch, Wolfgang; Deletic, Ana

2012-05-15

300

Water quality in North American river systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is about water quality and other characteristics of selected ecosystems in North America. It is also about changes that have occurred in these ecosystems as a result of recent human activities-changes that result primarily from development and exploitation to sustain the needs of an ever-increasing population and the technical innovations that sustain it. Fish populations, hydrology, and water quality control efforts are discussed

1987-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

National Water Quality Laboratory, 1995 services catalog  

Science.gov (United States)

This Services Catalog contains information about field supplies and analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., and field supplies available from the Quality Water Service Unit in Ocala, Fla., to members of the U.S. Geological Survey. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, this catalog lists sample volume, required containers, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation requirements for samples.

Timme, P. J.

1995-01-01

302

Sanitation in unsewered urban poor areas: technology selection, quantitative microbial risk assessment and grey water treatment:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sanitation crisis in unsewered urban slums of cities in developing countries is one of the challenges that need to be addressed. It is caused by the high rate of urbanisation in developing countries and the increasing urban population with limited urban infrastructure. The major issues of concern are the collection, treatment and safe disposal of excreta, grey water and solid waste. The goal of this study was to contribute to the sanitation improvement in urban slums with focus on sanitat...

Katukiza, A. Y.

2013-01-01

303

Emission standards versus immission standards for assessing the impact of urban drainage on ephemeral receiving water bodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past, emission standard indicators have been adopted by environmental regulation authorities in order to preserve the quality of a receiving water body. Such indicators are based on the frequency or magnitude of a polluted discharge that may be continuous or intermittent. In order to properly maintain the quality of receiving waters, the Water Framework Directive, following the basic ideas of British Urban Pollution Manual, has been established. The Directive has overtaken the emission-standard concept, substituting it with the stream-standard concept that fixes discharge limits for each polluting substance depending on the self-depurative characteristics of receiving waters. Stream-standard assessment requires the deployment of measurement campaigns that can be very expensive; furthermore, the measurement campaigns are usually not able to provide a link between the receiving water quality and the polluting sources. Therefore, it would be very useful to find a correlation between the quality status of the natural waters and the emission-based indicators. Thus, this study is aimed to finding a possible connection between the receiving water quality indicators drawn by environmental regulation authorities and emission-based indicators while considering both continuous (i.e. from the wastewater treatment plants) and intermittent pollution discharges (mainly from combined sewer overflows). Such research has been carried out by means of long-term analysis adopting a holistic modelling approach. The different parts of the integrated urban drainage system were modelled by a parsimonious integrated model. The analysis was applied to an ephemeral river bounding Bologna (Italy). The study concluded that the correlation between receiving water quality and polluting emissions cannot be generally stated. Nevertheless, specific analyses on polluting emissions were pointed out in the study highlighting cause-effect link between polluting sources and receiving water quality. PMID:20351441

Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

2010-01-01

304

Measurement of ambient air quality in urban settings using open-path FTIR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent improvements in signal processing techniques for Open-Path FTIR (OP-FTIR) have resulted in a dramatic reduction of detection limits for infrared active chemicals including ambient species. These lower detection limits open the Open-Path FTIR technology to new applications involving monitoring and analyzing ambient air in urban settings. To test application of OP-FTIR technology to urban applications, a RAM2000 system was used over a seven-day period to measure ambient air-quality in an urban-industrial environment. These measurements were made under worst-case, hot and humid conditions.

Kagann, R.H.; Woturski, W.L.; Walter, W.T.; Robert, D.; Robert, M.

1999-07-01

305

The Economics of Groundwater Replenishment for Reliable Urban Water Supply  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores the potential economic benefits of water banking in aquifers to meet drought and emergency supplies for cities where the population is growing and changing climate has reduced the availability of water. A simplified case study based on the city of Perth, Australia was used to estimate the savings that could be achieved by water banking. Scenarios for investment in seawater desalination plants and groundwater replenishment were considered over a 20 year period of growing demand, using a Monte Carlo analysis that embedded the Markov model. An optimisation algorithm identified the minimum cost solutions that met specified criteria for supply reliability. The impact of depreciation of recharge credits was explored. The results revealed savings of more than A$1B (~US$1B or 37% to 33% of supply augmentation costs by including water banking in aquifers for 95% and 99.5% reliability of supply respectively. When the hypothetically assumed recharge credit depreciation rate was increased from 1% p.a. to 10% p.a. savings were still 33% to 31% for the same reliabilities. These preliminary results show that water banking in aquifers has potential to offer a highly attractive solution for efficiently increasing the security of urban water supplies where aquifers are suitable.

Lei Gao

2014-06-01

306

Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Nitrosamines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Section 304(a) of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1314(a)), requires EPA to publish and periodically update water quality criteria. These criteria are to reflect the latest scientific knowledge on the identifiable effects of pollutants on public health and...

1980-01-01

307

Drinking water quality standards and controls  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intended as a handy reference guides for sanitary engineers, public health administrators, or water treatment professionals, Drinking Water Quality Standards is designed as a one-stop' evaluation of water quality controls issues - both from the source to the treatment plant and from the distribution system to the consumer. Because of the concern generated by recent discoveries of contaminants in potable and raw water supplies, study and investigation of water contaminants has generated mountains of study results, with little integrated analysis of the impacts of these findings on water quality control. This text seeks to overcome that shortcoming. Chapter 1 opens with a definition of potable water and the roles and responsibilities of various engineering and health professionals in maintaining and protecting potable water supplies. The next six chapters then examine, individually, characteristics of potable water: physical parameters, chemical parameters, microbiological parameters, radionuclide parameters, and carcinogenic constituents. The final three chapters present information related to water analyses, treatment, and health regulations. All information is presented in handbook style, with profuse definitions, concise discussions, and a focus on essential information. Such an approach precludes by definition an encyclopedic approach, but public health professionals will find the style easy to navigate through for daily desktop use and the information presented truly handy.

Zuane, J. De.

1990-01-01

308

Spatial and temporal trends in groundwater quantity and quality in urban area  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays one of the most important environmental problems in urban areas is groundwater contamination, since it takes effect on all parts of the urban environment. Therefore in this research the groundwater-system of Szeged (SE Hungary) was monitored and the temporal and spatial changes of heavy metals and other inorganic contaminants were examined. Water quantity and quality investigations twenty-eight sampling wells from the groundwater monitoring network of Szeged were carried out. In the course of well selection, we were about to cover complete area of the city. The water samples were collected every month from October of 2010 to September of 2011 and every second month from November 2011. Temperature, pH, total salt content, electrical conductivity, water levels and the concentrations of 12 components (copper, cadmium, cobalt, chrome, lead, nickel, zinc, arsenic, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, orthophosphate) were measured. The water levels were strongly influenced by the extreme precipitation of the investigated period, so the maximum and minimum of groundwater levels have differed from the average. Changes of water levels followed the changes of precipitation in autumn and winter, but in spring and summer other factors, like evaporation and effects of the vegetation influenced the water regime. The relationship of different pollutants and their distribution were determined in the city. As the results show, the amount of toxic materials in the groundwater in Szeged has exceeded the limit values (according to the joint decree) in many cases. The groundwater is contaminated with lead, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, nitrate, ammonium and orthophosphate mainly in the downtown, close to the river Tisza, which can cause ecological and human-health risk as well. In outskirts lowest concentrations were detected. Significant statistical relationship, used Spearman's rank correlation, was determined among the siderophile (namely chrome and nickel), chalcophile elements (lead, zinc, cadmium, copper) and forms of nitrogen (nitrate and ammonium) with electrical conductivity. Five groups were separated by the factor analysis, which were consisted of parameters with strong correlation relationships, so the results of factor analysis confirmed the statements of correlation calculations.

Fejes, I.; Farsang, A.

2012-04-01

309

Water Quality Evaluation: Toxic Cyanobacteria in Surface Water  

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Task of this article is to discuss the risk of blue green algal bloom to public health and to compare water quality assessment standards of surface waters among the EU Member States: France, Germany and Lithuania, drawing attention to the EU Water Framework Directive and its aims. Influence of toxic cyanobacteria on human health and the need of more detailed measures of concentration of cyanobacteria in surface waters are pointed out.

This article was prepared with a contri...

Dovile Lileikyte; Olga Belous

2011-01-01

310

CONTRIBUTIONS OF WATER FILTRATION TO IMPROVING WATER QUALITY  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of water quality improvements can be accomplished by properly operated filtration plants. These include reduction of turbidity, micro-organisms, asbestos fibers, color, trihalomethane precursors, and organics adsorbed to particulate matter. The focus of the paper is on ...

311

Dissolved organic matter quality and bioavailability changes across an urbanization gradient in headwater streams.  

Science.gov (United States)

Landscape urbanization broadly alters watersheds and stream ecosystems, yet the impact of nonpoint source urban inputs on the quantity, quality, and ultimate fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is poorly understood. We assessed DOM quality and microbial bioavailability in eight first-order Coastal Plain headwater streams along a gradient of urbanization (i.e., percent watershed impervious cover); none of the streams had point source discharges. DOM quality was measured using fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Bioavailability was assessed using biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) incubations. Results showed that watershed impervious cover was significantly related to stream DOM composition: increasing impervious cover was associated with decreased amounts of natural humic-like DOM and enriched amounts of anthropogenic fulvic acid-like and protein-like DOM. Microbial bioavailability of DOM was greater in urbanized streams during spring and summer, and was related to decreasing proportions of humic-like DOM and increasing proportions of protein-like DOM. Increased bioavailability was associated with elevated extracellular enzyme activity of the initial microbial community supplied to samples during BDOC incubations. These findings indicate that changes in stream DOM quality due to watershed urbanization may impact stream ecosystem metabolism and ultimately the fate of organic carbon transported through fluvial systems. PMID:24919113

Hosen, Jacob D; McDonough, Owen T; Febria, Catherine M; Palmer, Margaret A

2014-07-15

312

Sensitivity of a complex urban air quality model to input data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, urban-scale photochemical simulation models have been developed that are of practical value for predicting air quality and analyzing the impacts of alternative emission control strategies. Although the performance of some urban-scale models appears to be acceptable, the demanding data requirements of such models have prompted concern about the costs of data acquistion, which might be high enough to preclude use of photochemical models for many urban areas. To explore this issue, sensitivity studies with the Systems Applications, Inc. (SAI) Airshed Model, a grid-based time-dependent photochemical dispersion model, have been carried out for the Los Angeles basin. Reductions in the amount and quality of meteorological, air quality and emission data, as well as modifications of the model gridded structure, have been analyzed. This paper presents and interprets the results of 22 sensitivity studies. A sensitivity-uncertainty index is defined to rank input data needs for an urban photochemical model. The index takes into account the sensitivity of model predictions to the amount of input data, the costs of data acquistion, and the uncertainties in the air quality model input variables. The results of these sensitivity studies are considered in light of the limitations of specific attributes of the Los Angeles basin and of the modeling conditions (e.g., choice of wind model, length of simulation time). The extent to which the results may be applied to other urban areas also is discussed

1981-01-01

313

Geotechnical Parameters Impact on Artificial Ground Water Recharging Technique for Urban Centers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water scarcity is a serious problem throughout the world for both urban & rural community. Urban centers in India are facing an ironical situation of water scarcity today. This paper includes an Analytical solution, Numerical modeling, Empirical approaches, In-situ test results to predict recharge (rate) mound of the ground-water and capacity of recharge well which is essential for the proper management of suitable artificial ground-water recharge systems to maintain water balance and stop sa...

Pratima Patel; Mahesh Desai; Jatin Desai

2011-01-01

314

Features of waste water quality in Zongguan water plant  

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Full Text Available This paper takes waste water from Zongguan waterworks as a research object. The waste water was monitored consecutively and found that: the SS of waste water was more than 90 times of which in original water, COD was more than 30 times, and Fe was 58 times. The SS and turbidness showed no linear relation except when they were lower. The SS and Fe accord with linearity relation was better. The difference between waste water that from overhead crane at the beginning and in the end was wide. Although the flux of backwash wastes was small but the impact of it over the quality of water was very high.

Hadi Naba Shakir

2008-10-01

315

CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF WATER QUALITY WITH WATER-QUALITY PROFILING SYSTEM AT NOMURA RESERVOIR  

Science.gov (United States)

The continuous monitoring of water quality at Nomura dam is carried out with a water-quality profiling system(YSI Inc.). It is equiped near the aerator and the effect of aeration on water quality is investigated. The sampling time and depth intervals are 2 hour and 1 m, respectively. The measuring items are water temperature, pH, turbidity, DO, Chl and the number of Blue-Green Alga per unit volume. Microcystis aeruginosa migrates up and down diurnally. Namely, it can be found near the water surface early in the morning and at midday exists at about 5m depth.

Ifuku, Makoto; Masumoto, Teruya; Saeki, Hikaru; Nakata, Masato

316

Integrating Surface Water Management in Urban and Regional Planning, Case Study of Wuhan in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main goal of the study is to examine and develop a spatial planning methodology that would enhance the sustainability of urban development by integrating the surface water system in the urban and regional planning process. Theoretically, this study proposes that proactive-integrated policy and approaches need to be promoted in order to gain enough capacity to organize and preserve the space for water systems along with spatial requirement of urban development. It is important to have a pa...

Du, N.

2010-01-01

317

Qualitative And Quantitative Assessment Of Drained Water From Urban Ground-Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the groundwater table in the State of Qatar peninsula is reducing, there is a persistent increasing level of groundwater in some areas in Doha city. This increasing tendency could be attributed to the topography of the area, geological structure, rapid urbanization, increase in water consumption, uncontrolled irrigation of farms and green areas as well as the absence of storm-water drainage system. To lower the groundwater table, a drainage system has been laid through Rayan and Wadi...

1992-01-01

318

Bacteriological quality of water and water borne diseases in Bangalore  

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Full Text Available BackgroundIn developing countries diarrhoeal diseases take a big toll which can be prevented by adequate supply of safe drinking water. Thus a longitudinal study was taken up to determine the morbidity due to water borne diseases and bacteriological quality of waterMethod 150 homes in two areas, one supplied by bore well and other by tap water was selected by modified cluster sampling. Weekly morbidity details collected. Monthly water samples were assessed for bacteriological quality from main supply, household storage and morbidity reported.ResultsThe difference in proportion of potable and non potable water storage was statistically significant. Potable water is water which is fit for consumption by humans and other animals. The overall incidence rate of target diseases was 3.58%, majority were diarrhoeal diseases with increased incidence in children less than five years. The incidence in areas with bore well supply was 3.8% and in area with tap water was 3.43%. ConclusionThere are various ways in which drinking water can be contaminated along the route of distribution to the consumers. The most effective method to prevent infections is surveillance and treatment of drinking water quality at point of consumption.

Jyothi Jadhav

2010-12-01

319

Saline waters and soil quality  

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The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of th...

Carmelo Dazzi

2011-01-01

320

Saline waters and soil quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of th...

Carmelo Dazzi

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Development of reclaimed potable water quality criteria  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to minimize launch requirements necessary to meet the demands of long-term spaceflight, NASA will reuse water reclaimed from various on-board sources including urine, feces, wash water and humidity condensate. Development of reclamation systems requires the promulgation of water quality standards for potable reuse of the reclaimed water. Existing standards for domestic U.S. potable water consumption were developed, but do not consider the peculiar problems associated with the potable reuse of recycled water. An effort was made to: (1) define a protocol by which comprehensive reclaimed water potability/palatability criteria can be established and updated; and (2) continue the effort to characterize the organic content of reclaimed water in the Regenerative Life Support Evaluation.

Flory, D. A.; Weir, F. W.

1979-01-01

322

Groundwater Quality Index for Water Supply Production  

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Full Text Available Groundwater quality index for water supply production, GWQI, was employed as a simple mathematical tool to integrate the complex groundwater quality data into a numerical score. It would guide to select an appropriate water supply treatment process. It was thus necessary to develop such GWQI, which was the main objective of this study. We started searching for significant indicators by requesting 35 Thai experts to consider the importance of 32 water quality parameters through questionnaire based on the Delphi technique. These parameters were aggregated into 10 key parameters, reflecting the appropriate groundwater quality through the process of weighing factors. The most appropriate parameters were estimated from ten such parameters. By reduction of the ten parameters one by one, it was found that the GWQI(6i was in high agreement with GWQI(10i (Kappa coefficient = 0.765: 95%CI 0.700 to 0.828. The GWQI (6i scores were confirmed by Ramesh´s tool with a high correlation (r = 0.768, 95% CI = 0.529 to 0.894, p-value = 0.001. Therefore, the GWQI(6i could be used as the appropriate tool for groundwater quality assessment. Implementation of GWQI(6i would save budget and time for analysis, and could provide a rapid water quality determination for the urgent situation.

Warangkana Sungsitthisawad

2013-07-01

323

BOOK REVIEW (ABSTRACT FORMAT) "WATER FOR URBAN AREAS: CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES"  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is a compilation of papers from the Sixth Global Environmental Forum, convened by the United Nations University in Tokyo, Japan in June 1997 on "Water for Urban Areas in the 21st Century." This book has a broad perspective of urban water including drinking, wastewater ...

324

Indigenous knowledge on the nutritional quality of urban and peri-urban livestock feed resources in Kampala, Uganda.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study identified the indigenous criteria used by livestock farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala to assess the nutritional quality of available feed resources. Focus group discussions and questionnaire interviews (with a total of 120 livestock farming households) were conducted. The findings showed that banana peels, leftover food and own-mixed feeds were the most commonly used feed resources for cattle, pigs and chickens, respectively. Farmers use several indigenous criteria to judge the nutritional quality of the available feed resources. These included perceived effects on disease resistance, feed intake, growth/body condition, hair coat appearance, faecal output, faecal texture and level of production, among others. According to farmers, animals offered with a feed resource of good nutritional quality are more resistant to diseases, ingest much of the feed, gain weight with well-filled bodies, have smooth hair coats, produce large quantities of faeces that are not too firm or watery and exhibit good performance (lactating cows produce more milk, sows produce piglets of good body size, hens lay more eggs of normal size, etc.). Although this indigenous knowledge exists, farmers put more importance on availability and cost as opposed to nutritional quality when choosing feed resources. This explains why banana peels were among the feed resources perceived to be of low nutritional quality but, at the same time, were found to be the most commonly used. Hence, there is a need to sensitise farmers on the importance of nutritional quality in ensuring better and efficient utilisation of the available feed resources. PMID:23568618

Lumu, Richard; Katongole, Constantine Bakyusa; Nambi-Kasozi, Justine; Bareeba, Felix; Presto, Magdalena; Ivarsson, Emma; Lindberg, Jan Erik

2013-10-01

325

Household air quality risk factors associated with childhood pneumonia in urban dhaka, bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract. To inform interventions to reduce the high burden of pneumonia in urban settings such as Kamalapur, Bangladesh, we evaluated household air quality risk factors for radiographically confirmed pneumonia in children. In 2009-2010, we recruited children < 5 years of age with pneumonia and controls from a population-based surveillance for respiratory and febrile illnesses. Piped natural gas was used by 85% of 331 case and 91% of 663 control households. Crowding, a tin roof in the living space, low socioeconomic status, and male sex of the child were risk factors for pneumonia. The living space in case households was 28% less likely than in control households to be cross-ventilated. Particulate matter concentrations were not significantly associated with pneumonia. With increasing urbanization and supply of improved cooking fuels to urban areas, the high burden of respiratory illnesses in urban populations such as Kamalapur may be reduced by decreasing crowding and improving ventilation in living spaces. PMID:24664785

Ram, Pavani K; Dutt, Dhiman; Silk, Benjamin J; Doshi, Saumil; Rudra, Carole B; Abedin, Jaynal; Goswami, Doli; Fry, Alicia M; Brooks, W Abdullah; Luby, Stephen P; Cohen, Adam L

2014-05-01

326

Assessing the link between coastal urbanization and the quality of nekton habitat in mangrove tidal tributaries  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess the potential influence of coastal development on habitat quality for estuarine nekton, we characterized body condition and reproduction for common nekton from tidal tributaries classified as undeveloped, industrial, urban or man-made (i.e., mosquito-control ditches). We then evaluated these metrics of nekton performance, along with several abundance-based metrics and community structure from a companion paper (Krebs et al. 2013) to determine which metrics best reflected variation in land-use and in-stream habitat among tributaries. Body condition was not significantly different among undeveloped, industrial, and man-made tidal tributaries for six of nine taxa; however, three of those taxa were in significantly better condition in urban compared to undeveloped tributaries. Palaemonetes shrimp were the only taxon in significantly poorer condition in urban tributaries. For Poecilia latipinna, there was no difference in body condition (length–weight) between undeveloped and urban tributaries, but energetic condition was significantly better in urban tributaries. Reproductive output was reduced for both P. latipinna (i.e., fecundity) and grass shrimp (i.e., very low densities, few ovigerous females) in urban tributaries; however a tradeoff between fecundity and offspring size confounded meaningful interpretation of reproduction among land-use classes for P. latipinna. Reproductive allotment by P. latipinna did not differ significantly among land-use classes. Canonical correspondence analysis differentiated urban and non-urban tributaries based on greater impervious surface, less natural mangrove shoreline, higher frequency of hypoxia and lower, more variable salinities in urban tributaries. These characteristics explained 36 % of the variation in nekton performance, including high densities of poeciliid fishes, greater energetic condition of sailfin mollies, and low densities of several common nekton and economically important taxa from urban tributaries. While variation among tributaries in our study can be largely explained by impervious surface beyond the shorelines of the tributary, variation in nekton metrics among non-urban tributaries was better explained by habitat factors within the tributary and along the shorelines. Our results support the paradigm that urban development in coastal areas has the potential to alter habitat quality in small tidal tributaries as reflected by variation in nekton performance among tributaries from representative land-use classes.

Krebs, Justin M.; Bell, Susan S.; McIvor, Carole C.

2014-01-01

327

An assessment of Urban Quality of Life by Using Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach (Case study: Comparative Study of Quality of Life in the North of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem Statement: Researches of quality of life are concentrated mainly on the urban nature in the recent years and the urban quality of life gained many attentions in empirical studies. The concept of urban quality of life is a multi-dimensional and complex issue. So, needless to say that this concept can be used in planning when there is an appropriate and reliable framework for measuring. Approach: The present study tried to create a framework on the base of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP for objective measuring of urban quality of life and then it would be applied for a comparative study of two northern cities of Iran. Results: The results showed that using analytic hierarchy process model creates opportunity to involving the different groups? views of urban users with respect to their duties and functions in the stage of criteria weighting. Conclusion: This process not only provided an appropriate bed for objective measuring of urban quality of life but it facilitated the participation of urban authorities in the process of measuring and analyzing the urban quality. Also one of the advantages of the model was its high level of clarity and simplicity which could be perceived by all urban decision makers.

Sedigheh Lotfi

2009-01-01

328

Informal water suppliers meeting water needs in the peri-urban territories of Mumbai, an Indian perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper addresses the issue of informal water providers in the peri-urban areas of Mumbai. The term “informal water providers” refers to all the types of water suppliers who are not operating in the legal framework of water management in a given area.The paper examine whether we are heading towards new forms of urban governance, where informal actors no longer compete with each other, but cooperate with public utilities and emerge as an extension of the public utility.

Angueletou-marteau, Anastasia

2008-01-01

329

Faecal bacteria in Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) for biomonitoring coastal waters and seafood quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban development in coastal areas is intense and leads to the increase of sewage outfall and other negative impacts as consequences. Thus, stringent regulations establishing limits to the microbiological contamination of water and seafood are needed. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of Enterococci and Thermotolerant Coliform densities in the flesh of mussels Perna perna as an alternative tool for monitoring the microbiological quality of coastal waters. The study als...

Diego Igawa Martinez; Ana Júlia Fernandes Cardoso de Oliveira

2010-01-01

330

Prediction on Water Quality of Point-Source Pollution for Lunchoo River, Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growth in urbanization, industrialization and irrigated agriculture are imposing growing demands and pressure on water resources. As a case in point, Lunchoo River, Malaysia was considered on of the contributing factor to water quality deterioration with regional consequences on the aquatic ecosystem. Moreover, it also deemed to affect the health of the downstream sub-basin user group. Influenced by tidal, restricted exchange between estuaries and the open sea allows rapid change in salin...

2011-01-01

331

Extrinsic Tooth Enamel Color Changes and Their Relationship with the Quality of Water Consumed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quality of the consumed drinking water may affect oral health. For example, the presence of iron in drinking water can cause aesthetic problems related to changes in dental enamel color. This study assessed the prevalence of extrinsic enamel color changes and their relationship with the quality of the water in the town of Caapiranga/AM-Brazil. Three hundred and forty six residents of the urban area were examined, and they also answered a questionnaire on eating habits and self-perceived o...

Sousa, Kathleen Rebelo; Batista, Mari?lia Jesus; Gonc?alves, Juliana Rocha; Sousa, Maria Da Luz Rosa?rio

2012-01-01

332

Developing effective urban air quality management systems in the United Kingdom. Case studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the past few years an increasing number of local authorities have expressed concern about the ambient levels of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, benzene and fine particulates that residents may be experiencing in traffic-congested parts of towns and cities. Although recent legislation is intended to reduce vehicle emissions (e.g. stricter exhaust emission standards requiring new cars to be equipped with catalytic converters), the growth in the number of motor vehicles, their frequency of use and the congestion they are causing in urban centres have resulted in little or no improvement in air quality. Although total vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are expected to fall significantly during the next ten years, air quality will still remain a problem in some urban areas. Clearly, not all local air quality problems can be eliminated by the use of national legislation. For several years, local authorities and environmental organisations (e.g. National Society for Clean Air and Environmental Protection) have argued for local authorities to be given a statutory duty, together with appropriate funding from central government, to produce local air quality management plans which assess the seriousness of any air quality problems and which, if necessary, set out how poor air quality can be improved. This presentation examines the progress towards urban air quality management in the UK. (author)

Elsom, D.M.; Crabbe, H. [Oxford Brookes Univ. (United Kingdom). Geography Unit

1995-12-31

333

Service Quality Evaluation of Urban Parks Based on AHP Method and SD Software  

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Full Text Available Public satisfaction is the main base to measure the service quality of urban parks. In this study, six factors influencing the service quality of urban parks, namely, place environment, landscape environment, culture environment, eco-environment, traffic environment and facilities environment, were screened and been subdivided into 18 impact indexes. Three-hierarchy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP model consisting of target layer, factor layer and index layer was established and the service quality was selected to be the target layer. Three urban parks of Zhengzhou, Henan Province, namely, People’s Park, CBD Park and Zijinshan Park, were the objects to be evaluated and 150 visitors of each park were surveyed about their satisfaction degree with quality service. Super Decisions (SD software which can perform the AHP calculation, was used to obtain the weight of elements of each layer relative to the elements of the previous layer as well as the sequencing of total weight. Survey data of public satisfaction were combined with element weight to obtain the factor score and comprehensive score of service quality of the three parks. The result indicates that the service quality of CBD Park is the highest and can provide service of high quality to the public. Thus, CBD Park can be used as the model for the renovation and new parks’ construction.

Jiangping Wang

2014-01-01

334

Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water). These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. Results A total of 95 water samples from bottled,...

2009-01-01

335

Quality of Potable Water in Kuwait  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Kuwait is an arid country with limited natural water resources. As such, Kuwait produces its drinking water using the Multi-Stage-Flash method (MSF in distillation plants to produce distilled water from sea water. The distilled water is blended with the brackish groundwater in different blending ratios, to produce drinking water, as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO. Approach: The main purposes of this study were to determine the best blending ratios in the blending plants of Kuwait to get the best quality of drinking water according to the WHO guidelines and to reveal and control the corrosivity of the produced drinking water. In order to find out the best blending ratio, samples of drinking water from the different blending plants and groundwater samples from water well fields have been collected during 2007-2008 and analyzed for the determination of basic cations and anions. Moreover, water samples collected from the main pump stations were analyzed for Langelier Index, to reveal the corossivity level of the drinking water. Results: It was found that the best blending ratio between distilled water and brackish groundwater to obtain drinking water is in the range of 7-8% at Shuwaikh blending plant, 8-9% at Shuaiba blending plant and 8% at Doha blending plant respectively. While the best blending ratio at Az-Zour blending lines is between 3-4% and between 4-5% at Sabiya blending lines. Conclusion: It was found that the produced distilled water is corrosive and causing red water problem. In addition, it was found that the mean value of the Langelier Index at Shuaiba pump station is (-0.6 and the mean value of the total alkalinity is 21.4 mg L-1 as CaCO3, which reveals that the drinking water from Shuaiba plant is more corrosive than the drinking water from the other plants.

Fawzia M. Al-Ruwaih

2010-01-01

336

Port, city, territory: economic development and urban quality in the case study of Salerno  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cities are the collective expression of a society and in seaside cities this phenomenon acquires peculiar values, since maritime communities share a unitary identity in the remarkable link with maritime essence, ships and navigation. Maritime urban landscape may be really perceived only from the sea and during navigation, through a dynamic perception able to give its complexity back. Architecture in seaside cities is rooted in the sea itself, which shapes the urban landscape, fosters the cultural evolution, affects social dynamics and makes economy be on the move. The ever rising sea trades, brought about markets’ globalization, fostered port’s development, which, if well run, is still today able to provide new opportunities for sea towns. The approach to an urban planning focused on a “from the sea” perspective suggests to deal with both the port and urban dimensions. Through this kind of approach, the Port may acquire a new leading role in the renewal of urban coastal areas, becoming, thus, the driving force of its (selfdevelopment and, at the same time, of the local urban sustainable development. Rather than being univocal, the relationship between city and port constitutes a quite complex continuous process, which calls for physical and cultural changes, often difficult to deal with and fulfill; a process in which different subjects and resources, often at odds, are involved. In this study approach we will focus on Salerno, where, through the cultural continuity of maritime tradition, the rise of port activities has been matched with an urban vision designed to reshape the urban waterfront (Fig.1. Salerno has identified policies and methods designed to undertake a renewal — along with Administration, Port Authority and Private Citizens — by sharing actions and projects to make waterfront more suitable and “tantalizing”, to improve the quality of urban life and, simultaneously, to take advantage of the potential of these precious areas, guaranteeing a strategic perspective in which local peculiarities and historical memory are highlighted.

Andrea Annunziata

2014-01-01

337

Optimization of Microcystin Extraction for Their Subsequent Analysis by HPLC-MS/MS Method in Urban Lake Water  

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Full Text Available This paper represents to propose an effective extraction procedure for traditional toxin determination techniques in urban lake. Efficiency of each extraction solvent as well as other key parameters affecting extraction efficiency including ultrasonication time and extraction pH were evaluated and optimized. The present study results indicated that 40% acidified methanol (pH~3 with sonication 15~20min has been shown to be a rapid and efficient method for the routine analysis of a wide range of microcystins in water samples. Our study also suggested that analytical method based on HPLC–MS/MS with SPE techniques provides a simplified enrichment procedure and rich information for both quantization and identification effective tool for analysis of urban landscape water quality. The development of this method may facilitate the understanding of the best extraction method for the routine analysis of microcystins in water bodies. Moreover, it may be valuable for purification scale.

Qu Jiang-qi

2013-10-01

338

Groundwater for urban water supplies in northern China - An overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater plays an important role for urban and industrial water supply in northern China. More than 1000 groundwater wellfields have been explored and installed. Groundwater provides about half the total quantity of the urban water supply. Complete regulations and methods for the exploration of groundwater have been established in the P.R. China. Substantial over-exploitation of groundwater has created environmental problems in some cities. Some safeguarding measures for groundwater-resource protection have been undertaken. Résumé Les eaux souterraines jouent un rôle important dans l'approvisionnement en eau des agglomérations et des industries du nord de la Chine. Les explorations ont conduit à mettre en place plus de 1000 champs de puits captant des eaux souterraines. Les eaux souterraines satisfont environ la moitié des besoins en eau des villes. Une réglementation complète et des méthodes d'exploration des eaux souterraines ont étéétablies en République Populaire de Chine. Une surexploitation très nette est à l'origine de problèmes environnementaux dans certaines villes. Des mesures ont été prises pour protéger la ressource en eau souterraine. Resumen El agua subterránea desempeña un papel importante en el suministro de agua para uso doméstico e industrial en la China septentrional. Se han explorado y puesto en marcha más de 1000 campos de explotación de aguas subterráneas, que proporcionan cerca de la mitad del total del suministro urbano. En la República Popular de China se han definido totalmente la legislación y la metodología para realizar estas explotaciones. La gran sobreexplotación en algunas ciudades ha creado algunos problemas medioambientales. Como consecuencia, se han llevado a cabo algunas medidas de protección de los recursos de aguas subterráneas.

Zaisheng, Han

339

Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

2013-11-01

340

ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER QUALITY STATUS BY USING WATER QUALITY INDEX (WQI METHOD IN TURENI VILLAGE, CLUJ COUNTY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rural population from Romania is dealing even today with the absence of access to a sure drinking water source. Therefore in 2002 only 65% of the Romanian population had access to drinking water, distributed in 90% from the urban environment and 33% from the rural one (www.recensamant2002.ro. This work presents a case study referring to a 3 month (April-May-June 2011 monitoring of weekly samples of the quality of well water (10 samples from Tureni village, Cluj County. A portable multiparameter model WTW 720 Germany was used to measure the pH, total dissolved solids (TDS, electrical conductivity (EC, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential and salinity of the collected water samples (these tests were done on site. In laboratory, using the photometric method (RQ Flex instrument, Merck we determined : Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, Cl- and NO3- (C. Nertan et C. Rosu, 2008. The analyzed well water samples have values over the legally admitted limits by the Romanian legislation for the drinking waters (L 458/2002 in the calcium cation, the nitrate and sulfate anion, but also in the global parameters: salinity and TDS.

CRISTINA RO?U

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

A Longitudinal Analysis of Rural and Urban Veterans' Health-Related Quality of Life  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: Cross-sectional studies have identified rural-urban disparities in veterans' health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) scores. Purpose: To determine whether longitudinal analyses confirmed that these disparities in veterans' HRQOL scores persisted. Methods: We obtained data from the SF-12 portion of the veterans health administration's…

Wallace, Amy E.; Lee, Richard; MacKenzie, Todd A.; West, Alan N.; Wright, Steven; Booth, Brenda M.; Hawthorne, Kara; Weeks, William B.

2010-01-01

342

Adiposity and Quality of Life: A Case Study from an Urban Center in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To determine relationship between adiposity indices and quality of life (QOL) of residents of a housing estate in Lagos, Nigeria. Design: Cross-sectional survey employing multistep random sampling method. Setting: Urban residential estate. Participants: This study involved 900 randomly selected residents of Abesan Housing Estate, Lagos,…

Akinpelu, Aderonke O.; Akinola, Odunayo T.; Gbiri, Caleb A.

2009-01-01

343

The effects of sewer infrastructure on water quality: implications for land use studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological status of the European water bodies and the necessary measures to obtain this have to be implemented. The water quality of a river is the result of complex anthropogenic systems (buildings, waste water treatment infrastructure, regulations, etc.) and biogeochemical and eco-hydrological interactions. It is therefore essential to obtain more insight in the factors that determine the water quality in a river. Research into the relation between land use and water quality is necessary. Human activities have a huge impact on the flow regimes and associated water quality of river systems. Effects of land use bound activities on water quality are often investigated, but these studies generally ignore the hydrological complexity of a human influenced catchment. Infrastructure like sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) can displace huge quantities of polluted water. The transfers change flow paths, displace water between catchments and change the residence time of the system. If we want to correctly understand the effect of land use distribution on water quality we have to take these sewer systems into account. In this study we analyse the relation between land use and water quality in the Nete catchment (Belgium) and investigate the impact of the sewage infrastructure on this relation. The Nete catchment (1.673 km²) is a mosaic of semi natural, agricultural and urbanized areas and the land use is very fragmented. For the moment 74% of the households within the catchment are connected to a WWTP. The discharges from these WWTP's compose 15% of the total discharge of the Nete. Based on a runoff model the surface of upstream land use was calculated for 378 points. These data were then corrected for the impact of WWTP's. Using sewage infrastructure plans, urban areas connected to a WWTP were added to the upstream land use of the WWTP's water receiving stream. In order to understand the effect of the sewage infrastructure we analysed water quality parameters and upstream land use with, and without, taking the sewage infrastructure into account. Water quality data were obtained from the Flemish Environmental Agency. The incorporation of the sewage system in the upstream land use calculation resulted in important changes in the upstream land use area. While some sample points experienced a reduction in total upstream area up to 18% compared to the run-off model, others saw an increase in their upstream area up to 43%. Upstream urban area decreased by 100% or increased up to 430%. Our results clearly demonstrate the importance of the impact of the sewer systems on the river water quality. Almost no significant results were found between urban area and water quality if sewage system transfers were disregarded. When however a distinction was made between WWTP-connected and not-connected households, we found comprehensible, positive and significant results for several water quality parameters. Our study demonstrates that if upstream land use areas are calculated without taking the sewer system in to account the impact of certain land use classes and the impact of anthropogenic activities on the river system in general can be underestimated. We believe that these results not only demonstrate the importance of sewer infrastructure that relate land use to water quality, but that it also has important implications for water quantity and quality modelling. In complex, human influenced catchments, simple run-off models simply cannot realistically represent the catchment system.

Vrebos, Dirk; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

2010-05-01

344

Par Pond refill water quality sampling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column

1996-01-01

345

Climate change influence on drinking water quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl, O, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).

Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Voica, Cezara; Moldovan, Zaharie

2013-11-01

346

Water quality in the shingle creek basin, Florida, before and after wastewater diversion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shingle Creek is a major inflow to Lake Tohopekaliga, Florida. Water quality and the trophic status of Lake Tohopekaliga are affected strongly by the water quality of Shingle Creek. This report documents 10 yr of water quality data in Shingle Creek at the lake outfall; for a pre- (October 1981-December 1986) and a post-wastewater discharge (January 1987-September 1991) removal period. Nutrient budgets for the subbasins were calculated from an intense research program (January 1983-December 1985) to document instream impacts attributable to wastewater, determine the role of the cypress swamp in the middle subbasin, and document relationships between water quality and land uses. Rapid urbanization converted forested uplands and agricultural lands to housing and commercial land use during the study. Stormwater runoff in Florida has been identified as a major pollution source. Treatment of stormwater pollution, through Best Management Practices (BMPs), has been regulated by the State of Florida in this area since 1982. By 1988, 84% of the urban landuse in the upper basin was subject to stormwater treatment prior to being discharged to the creek. Potential increases in urban derived nutrient inputs were offset by stormwater management, and alum treatment and diversion of municipal wastewater. Nitrogen loading and P loads and variance decreased significantly during the 10-yr period, despite rapid urbanization in the northern and central subbasins. Nutrient export from the subbasins was influenced by the dominant land use. The middle subbasin contains a swamp that contributed the greatest P and Cl{sup -} loads because of the increase in discharge to the swamp from sources other than the canal. The northern urban subbasin received the wastewater discharges and served as a net sink for N and P exported from the subbasin. 24 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

O`Dell, K.M. [South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, FL (United States)

1994-05-01

347

Heavy Metals Analysis and Sediment Quality Values in Urban Lakes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The objective of this research was to evaluate the degree of heavy metal contamination in lakes and the extent to which the sediment quality of the lakes of Bangalore city has deteriorated. Approach: In this study, heavy metals such as Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb, Ni and Zn in lake bed sediments were analyzed using comparative sediment quality guidelines from various derived criteria. The selection of sampling points was based upon inflow and outflow regions of the...

Jumbe, Aboud S.; Nandini, N.

2009-01-01

348

EPANET - AN ADVANCED WATER QUALITY MODELING PACKAGE FOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

EPANET is a third generation software package for modeling water quality within drinking water distribution systems. he program performs extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality conditions within pressurized pipe networks. n addition to substance concentration wa...

349

Modelling the influence of peri-urban trees in the air quality of Madrid region (Spain)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tropospheric ozone (O3) is considered one of the most important air pollutants affecting human health. The role of peri-urban vegetation in modifying O3 concentrations has been analyzed in the Madrid region (Spain) using the V200603par-rc1 version of the CHIMERE air quality model. The 3.7 version of the MM5 meteorological model was used to provide meteorological input data to the CHIMERE. The emissions were derived from the EMEP database for 2003. Land use data and the stomatal conductance model included in CHIMERE were modified according to the latest information available for the study area. Two cases were considered for the period April-September 2003: (1) actual land use and (2) a fictitious scenario where El Pardo peri-urban forest was converted to bare-soil. The results show that El Pardo forest constitutes a sink of O3 since removing this green area increased O3 levels over the modified area and over down-wind surrounding areas. - Highlights: ? Role of peri-urban vegetation in modifying O3 pollution in Madrid (Spain). ? The CHIMERE air quality model was adapted to Mediterranean conditions. ? Preserving the peri-urban forest lowers O3 concentrations over the surrounding areas. ? Evergreen broadleaf and deciduous forests removed more atmospheric O3 than conifers. - Peri-urban forests contribute to ameliorate ozone air pollution.

2010-06-20

350

Modelling the influence of peri-urban trees in the air quality of Madrid region (Spain)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}) is considered one of the most important air pollutants affecting human health. The role of peri-urban vegetation in modifying O{sub 3} concentrations has been analyzed in the Madrid region (Spain) using the V200603par-rc1 version of the CHIMERE air quality model. The 3.7 version of the MM5 meteorological model was used to provide meteorological input data to the CHIMERE. The emissions were derived from the EMEP database for 2003. Land use data and the stomatal conductance model included in CHIMERE were modified according to the latest information available for the study area. Two cases were considered for the period April-September 2003: (1) actual land use and (2) a fictitious scenario where El Pardo peri-urban forest was converted to bare-soil. The results show that El Pardo forest constitutes a sink of O{sub 3} since removing this green area increased O{sub 3} levels over the modified area and over down-wind surrounding areas. - Highlights: > Role of peri-urban vegetation in modifying O{sub 3} pollution in Madrid (Spain). > The CHIMERE air quality model was adapted to Mediterranean conditions. > Preserving the peri-urban forest lowers O{sub 3} concentrations over the surrounding areas. > Evergreen broadleaf and deciduous forests removed more atmospheric O{sub 3} than conifers. - Peri-urban forests contribute to ameliorate ozone air pollution.

Alonso, Rocio, E-mail: rocio.alonso@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vivanco, Marta G., E-mail: m.garcia@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Fernandez, Ignacio, E-mail: ignacio.gonzalez@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bermejo, Victoria, E-mail: victoria.bermejo@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Palomino, Inmaculada, E-mail: inma.palomino@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garrido, Juan Luis, E-mail: juanluis.garrido@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Elvira, Susana, E-mail: susana.elvira@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Salvador, Pedro, E-mail: pedro.salvador@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Artinano, Begona, E-mail: b.artinano@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2011-08-15

351

Water Soluble Organic Nitrogen in atmospheric aerosol samples from urban, sub-urban and pristine areas of Venezuela  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrations of water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) were determined in atmospheric total suspended particles (TSP) collected between September of 2005 and May of 2006, in an urban continental (Caracas, 10° 29' 09'' N, 66° 53' 48'' W), an urban coastal (Catia la mar, 10° 35' 47'' N, 67° 01' 45'' W), a sub-urban coastal (Osma, 10° 32' N, 67° 28' W), a suburban continental (Altos de Pipe, 10° 23' 41'' N, 63° 59' 10'' W), a pristine coastal (Isla de Aves, 15° 40' N, 63° 36' W) and a pristine continental (La Gran Sabana National Park, 5° 41' 30'' N, 61° 34' 20'' W) areas of Venezuela. TSP samples were collected using a Hi-Vol airborne particle sampler. TSP were impacted on a fiberglass filter pretreated under 400° C for 4 hours to minimize organic nitrogen contamination. Ultra sound water extractions of the sample filters were performed and their NH4+, NO2- and NO3- concentrations were determined by ion exchange liquid chromatography. The water extracts were UV digested and the nitrogen inorganic ions were analyzed after the UV exposure. WSON concentrations were calculated by the difference between the inorganic nitrogen concentrations before and after UV digestion. Ninety five percent of the aerosol samples collected in the suburban and pristine areas showed a WSON concentration range from 0.03 to 0.6 ?g/m3 whereas in urban areas the range was 0.21 to 1.09 ?g/m3. These concentration values are on the same order of magnitude than the previously found in other tropical and subtropical areas. The contribution of aerosol WSON to the total soluble nitrogen in the coastal urban, sub-urban and pristine areas ranged from 23 to 67%, while in Caracas was smaller (38±8%, n=5). Therefore, aerosol WSON provides an important source of nitrogen to these pristine and suburban ecosystems, which could potentially have implications on the nutrient cycling. There was a statistically significant linear correlation between the aerosol WSON and the water soluble inorganic nitrogen (WSIN) for the urban coastal, sub-urban and pristine zones (R2= 0.81, n=22). This correlation could be explained by a possible source of secondary water soluble organic aerosols derived by the reaction between biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as isoprene, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) present in the atmosphere of these regions. Such correlation was not found in Caracas, possibly due to the fact that in this city the major source of VOCs is fossil fuel combustion which produces mostly non soluble aliphatic VOCs. These compounds could most likely produce low water soluble secondary organic nitrogen aerosols.

Canelon, R.; Giuliante, A.; Aguiar, G.; Ghneim, T.; Perez, T.

2007-12-01

352

Quality assurance plan, Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Quality Assurance Program used by Westinghouse Nuclear Energy Systems Water Reactor Divisions is described. The purpose of the program is to assure that the design, materials, and workmanship on Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) equipment meet applicable safety requirements, fulfill the requirements of the contracts with the applicants, and satisfy the applicable codes, standards, and regulatory requirements

1976-01-01

353

Book Recommendation: Advances in Water Quality Control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Book Recommendation: Advances in Water Quality Control Gail Krantzberg, Aysegul Tanik et al. Scientific Research Publishing, 2010 316 pages ISBN: 978-1-935068-08-2 Paperback (US$89.00) E-book (US$89.00) Order online: www.scirp.org/book Order by email: bookorder@scirp.org

Gail Krantzberg; Aysegul Tanik

2010-01-01

354

Book Recommendation: Advances in Water Quality Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Book Recommendation: Advances in Water Quality Control Gail Krantzberg, Aysegul Tanik et al. Scientific Research Publishing, 2010 316 pages ISBN: 978-1-935068-08-2 Paperback (US$89.00 E-book (US$89.00 Order online: www.scirp.org/book Order by email: bookorder@scirp.org

Gail Krantzberg

2010-12-01

355

Evaluating Water Quality in a Suburban Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

A water quality analysis and modeling study is currently being conducted on the Martinez Creek, a small catchment within Cibolo watershed, a sub-basin of the San Antonio River, Texas. Several other major creeks, such as Salatrillo, Escondido, and Woman Hollering merge with Martinez Creek. Land use and land cover analysis shows that the major portion of the watershed is dominated by residential development with average impervious cover percentage of approximately 40% along with a some of agricultural areas and brushlands. This catchment is characterized by the presence of three small wastewater treatment plants. Previous site visits and sampling of water quality indicate the presence of algae and fecal coliform bacteria at levels well above state standards at several locations in the catchment throughout the year. Due to the presence of livestock, residential development and wastewater treatment plants, a comprehensive understanding of water quality is important to evaluate the sources and find means to control pollution. As part of the study, a spatial and temporal water quality analyses of conventional parameters as well as emerging contaminants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals and microbial pathogens is being conducted to identify critical locations and sources. Additionally, the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) will be used to identify best management practices that can be incorporated given the projected growth and development and feasibility.

Thomas, S. M.; Garza, N.

2008-12-01

356

Water Quality Evaluation: Toxic Cyanobacteria in Surface Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Task of this article is to discuss the risk of blue green algal bloom to public health and to compare water quality assessment standards of surface waters among the EU Member States: France, Germany and Lithuania, drawing attention to the EU Water Framework Directive and its aims. Influence of toxic cyanobacteria on human health and the need of more detailed measures of concentration of cyanobacteria in surface waters are pointed out. This article was prepared with a contribution from EU FP7 project "GENESIS".

Dovile Lileikyte

2011-03-01

357

In-house contamination of potable water in urban slum of Kolkata, India: a possible transmission route of diarrhea.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated and determined the potentiality of different water sources, both for drinking and domestic purposes, in diarrheal disease transmission in diarrhea endemic foci of urban slums in Kolkata, India in a one and half year prospective study. Out of 517 water samples, collected from different sources, stored water (washing) showed higher prevalence of fecal coliforms (58%) (p < 0.0001) in comparison with stored (drinking) samples (28%) and tap/tubewell water (8%) respectively. Among different sources, stored water (washing) samples had the highest non-permissible range of physico-chemical parameters. Fecal coliform levels in household water containers (washing) were comparatively high and almost 2/3 of these samples failed to reach the satisfactory level of residual chlorine. Interestingly, 7% stored water (washing) samples were found to be harboring Vibrio cholerae Improper usage of stored water and unsafe/poor sanitation practices such as hand washing etc. are highlighted as contributory factors for sustained diarrheal episodes. Vulnerability of stored water for domestic usage, a hitherto unexplored source, at domiciliary level in an urban slum where enteric infections are endemic, is reported for the first time. This attempt highlights the impact of quality of stored water at domiciliary level for fecal-oral contamination vis-à-vis disease transmission. PMID:22699333

Palit, Anup; Batabyal, Prasenjit; Kanungo, Suman; Sur, Dipika

2012-01-01

358

Treatment: improvement or deterioration of water quality?  

Science.gov (United States)

The formation of trihalomethanes through chlorination has shown very clearly that water treatment processes may adversely affect water quality. There are many more examples of such effects, including the following which are discussed in detail: 1. Formation of organohalogen compounds in addition to trihalomethanes by chlorination and other oxidation processes. 2. Formation of more polar, more biodegradable organics by ozonation for example, and the consequent increase in bacterial growth in the distribution system. 3. Formation and removal of organic and inorganic corrosion inhibitors by treatment, and the consequent higher heavy metal concentrations in tap water. PMID:7233162

Kühn, W; Sontheimer, H

1981-04-01

359

Water and water quality management in the cholistan desert  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water scarcity is the main problem in Cholistan desert. Rainfall is scanty and sporadic and groundwater is saline in most of the area. Rainwater is collected in man made small storages, locally called tobas during rainy season for human and livestock consumption. These tobas usually retain rainwater for three to four months at the maximum, due to small storage capacity and unfavorable location. After the tobas become dry, people use saline groundwater for human and livestock consumption where marginal quality groundwater is available. In complete absence of water they migrate towards canal irrigated areas till the next rains. During migration humans and livestock suffer from hunger, thirst and diseases. In order to overcome this problem Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) has introduced improved designs of tobas. The PCRWR is collecting more than 13.0 million cubic meter rainwater annually from only ninety hectare catchment area. As a result, water is available for drinking of human and livestock population as well as to wild life through out the year for the village of Dingarh in Cholistan desert. However, water collected in these tobas is usually muddy and full of impurities. To provide good quality drinking water to the residents of Cholistan, PCRWR has launched a Project under which required quantity of drinkable water will be provided at more than seventy locations by rainwater harvesting, pumping of good and marginal quality groundwater and desalination of moderately saline water through Reverse Osmosis Plants. After the completion of project, more then 380 million gallons of fresh rainwater and more than 1300 million gallons of good and marginal quality groundwater will be available annually. Intervention to collect the silt before reaching to the tobas are also introduced, low cost filter plants are designed and constructed on the tobas for purification of water. (author)

2005-01-01

360

INFLUENCE OF LAND USE ON WATER QUALITY OF WATERSHED GLÓRIA MACAE - RJ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Land use has significant influence on water quality in a watershed. With this the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of land use on water quality in the watershed Glória Macaé. To see this influence, we performed an analysis of Pearson correlation between the parameters of water quality and land use. Data were collected between the months January to December 2007 and analyzed the following parameters: Alkalinity, Chloride, Hardness, Iron, Organic Matter, Total Nitrogen, pH, Potassium, Sodium, Total Solids, Sulfate, Turbidity. It is concluded that the areas occupied by secondary forest and capoeira favored the improvement of some parameters of water quality. Grazing areas not adversely affected the water quality in the watershed. The land uses agriculture, urban and bare soil negatively influenced significantly the turbidity and total solids in water, but due to their low percentage in the watershed did not affect water quality. The study on watershed level could represent the state of land use and its impact on water quality.

Milton Marques Fernandes

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Sediments, porewaters and diagenesis in an urban water body, Salford, UK: impacts of remediation  

Science.gov (United States)

Contaminated sediments deposited within urban water bodies commonly exert a significant negative effect on overlying water quality. However, our understanding of the processes operating within such anthropogenic sediments is currently poor. This paper describes the nature of the sediment and early diagenetic reactions in a highly polluted major urban water body (the Salford Quays of the Manchester Ship Canal) that has undergone remediation focused on the water column.The style of sedimentation within Salford Quays has been significantly changed as a result of remediation of the water column. Pre-remediation sediments are composed of a range of natural detrital grains, predominantly quartz and clay, and anthropogenic detrital material dominated by industrial furnace-derived metal-rich slag grains. Post-remediation sediments are composed of predominantly autochthonous material, including siliceous algal remains and clays. At the top of the pre-remediation sediments and immediately beneath the post-remediation sediments is a layer significantly enriched in furnace-derived slag grains, input into the basin as a result of site clearance prior to water-column remediation. These grains contain a high level of metals, resulting in a significantly enhanced metal concentration in the sediments at this depth.Porewater analysis reveals the importance of both bacterial organic matter oxidation reactions and the dissolution of industrial grains upon the mobility of nutrient and chemical species within Salford Quays. Minor release of iron and manganese at shallow depths is likely to be taking place as a result of bacterial Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction. Petrographic analysis reveals that the abundant authigenic mineral within the sediment is manganese-rich vivianite, and thus Fe(II) and Mn(II) released by bacterial reactions may be being taken up through the precipitation of this mineral. Significant porewater peaks in iron, manganese and silicon deeper in the sediment column are most probably the result of dissolution of furnace-derived grains in the sediments. These species have subsequently diffused into porewater above and below the metal-enriched layer.This study illustrates that the remediation of water quality in anthropogenic water bodies can significantly impact upon the physical and chemical nature of sedimentation. Additionally, it also highlights how diagenetic processes in sediments derived from anthropogenic grains can be markedly different from those in sediments derived from natural detrital material.

Taylor, Kevin G.; Boyd, Nathan A.; Boult, Stephen

2003-07-01

362

GIS applications for mapping and spatial modeling of urban-use water quality: a case study in District of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil Aplicações de SIG para mapeamento e modelagem espacial da qualidade de água para uso urbano: estudo de caso num distrito de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cross-sectional study utilizing spatial analysis techniques was conducted to study water quality problems and risk of waterborne enteric diseases in a lower-middle-class urban district of Cuiabá, the capital of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Field surveys indicate high rates of supply water contamination in domiciles and, conspicuously, in public and private schools. Logistic regression models developed for the variables turbidity, Escherichia coli, total coliforms, and intestinal parasite infection did not identify singular explanatory factors for the supply water conditions and elevated incidences of enteric diseases among children. The contamination problems were found to be the result of precarious conditions involving both public infrastructure and in-building sanitary installations and their maintenance. GIS methods were successfully applied to create spatial datasets for logistic regression model building and to construct risk maps using regression coefficients.Foi realizado um estudo transversal incluindo técnicas da análise espacial para avaliar problemas de qualidade de água de consumo e riscos de doenças entéricas em um bairro da classe média baixa na cidade de Cuiabá, capital de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Os trabalhos de campo indicam altos índices de contaminação nos domicílios e, particularmente, nas escolas públicas e particulares. Modelos de regressão logística, desenvolvidos para as variáveis turbidez, Escherichia coli, coliformes totais e parasitas intestinais não puderam ser relacionados a fatores singulares que explicassem riscos de comprometimento da água de consumo e de infecção com parasitas em crianças. Os problemas detectados, entretanto, podem ser ligados às condições precárias da infra-estrutura pública de abastecimento e das instalações sanitárias e sua manutenção nos domicílios. Técnicas de geoprocessamento foram aplicadas com sucesso para a elaboração de planos de informação espaciais, utilizados na geração dos modelos de regressão logística e no mapeamento de risco com base nos coeficientes da regressão logística.

Peter Zeilhofer

2007-04-01

363

Water Quality Assessment, Trophic Classification and Water Resources Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quantification of water quality (WQ) is an integral part of scientifically based water resources management. The main objective of this study was comparative analysis of two approaches applied for quantitative assessment of WQ: the trophic level index (TLI) and the Delphi method (DM). We analyzed the following features of these conceptually different approaches: A. similarity of estimates of lake WQ; B. sensitivity to indicating disturbances in the aquatic ecosystem structure and functioning;...

Arkadi Parparov

2010-01-01

364

Hydroinformatic environment for coastal waters hydrodynamics and water quality modelling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A hydroinformatic environment was created with the general objective of solving environmental problems in coastal waters. This environment consists of three components: a component for data organization and treatment; a component for modelling and simulating water quality and hydrodynamics; and a component for analysing, visualizing and editing the results. This paper describes the hydroinformatic components and the major developments introduced: different methodologies for analysing the perf...

Pinho, J. L. S.; Vieira, J. M. Pereira; Carmo, J. S. Antunes Do

2004-01-01

365

Improvement in urban storm water management: analysing the innovation process through the three observatories of urban hydrology in France  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

My thesis in sociology takes place in a big research program studying contaminated storm water in urban areas in order to develop new processes to cope with pollution. Most of the researchers of the program are biologists, chemists, hydrologists. The study also conveys sociology insisting on the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. Why would a sociologist be needed to help understand a topic such as water pollution, which seems to be a really technical issue? In fact, I am looking to "...

Soyer, Mathilde

2011-01-01

366

The WIPP Water Quality Sampling Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy facility, will be used for the underground disposal of wastes. The Water Quality Sampling Program (WQSP) is designed to obtain representative and reproducible water samples to depict accurate water composition data for characterization and monitoring programs in the vicinity of the WIPP. The WQSP is designed to input data into four major programs for the WIPP project: Geochemical Site Characterization, Radiological Baseline, Environmental Baseline, and Performance Assessment. The water-bearing units of interest are the Culebra and Magneta Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation, units in the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and the Bell Canyon Formation. At least two chemically distinct types of water occur in the Culebra, one being a sodium/potassium chloride water and the other being a calcium/magnesium sulfate water. Water from the Culebra wells to the south of the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the calcium/magnesium sulfate type. Water in t