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Integrated Urban Water Quality Management  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry weather, while the overflow from the combined sewer system plays a minor role. Oxygen depletion in urban rivers is caused by intermittent discharges from both sewer system and wastewater treatment plant. Neglecting one of them in the evaluation of the environmental impact gives a wrong impression of total system behaviour. Detention basins have limited positive effect for minimizing the acute pollution in rivers, but are useless in terms of accumulative pollution.

Harremoës, Poul

1995-01-01

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URBAN GROWTH AND WATER QUALITY IN THIMPHU, BHUTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Detailed study was undertaken in 2008 and 2009 on assessment of water quality of River Wang Chhu which flows through Thimphu urban area, the capital city of Bhutan. The water samples were examined at upstream of urban area, within the urban area and its downstream. The water samples were analyzed by studying the physico-chemical, biological and benthic macro-invertebrates. The water quality data obtained during present study are discussed in relation to land use/land cover changes(LULC and various ongoing human activities at upstream, within the each activity areas and it’s downstream. Analyses of satellite imagery of 1990 and 2008 using GIS revealed that over a period of eighteen years the forest, scrub and agricultural areas have decreased whereas urban area and road network have increased considerably. The forest cover, agriculture area and scrub decreased from 43.3% to 42.57%, 6.88% to 5.33% and 42.55% to 29.42%, respectively. The LULC changes effect water quality in many ways. The water temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, total coliform, and biological oxygen demand were lower at upstream and higher in urban area. On the other hand dissolved oxygen was found higher at upstream and lower in urban area. The pollution sensitive benthic macro-invertebrates population were dominant at upstream sampling sites whereas pollution tolerant benthic macro-invertebrates were found abundant in urban area and its immediate downstream. The rapid development of urban infrastructure in Thimphu city may be posing serious threats to water regime in terms of its quality. Though the deterioration of water quality is restricted to a few localized areas, the trend is serious and needs proper attention of policy planners and decision makers. Proper treatment of effluents from urban areas is urgently needed to reduce water pollution in such affected areas to check further deterioration of water quality. This present study which is based on upstream, within urban area and downstream of Thimphu city can be considered as an eye opener.

Nandu Giri

2013-06-01

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Water Quality Studies of Bellandur Lake, Urban Bangalore, Karnataka, India  

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Full Text Available The pace of urbanization is increasing globally, putting more pressure on local water quality. In addition to discharges of urban and industrial wastewater, urban areas add to poor water quality in a number of ways. The study was conducted to assess the water quality values of Bellandur Lake which is a major tank in Varthur of Bangalore SouthTaluk.Samples were collected in clean and sterilized plastic bottles of 2 litercapacity. The samples were collected to examine the water quality in the month of February 2013 of Bellandur Lake, 30 cm below the surface of water and brought to the laboratory for Physico-chemical parameters analysis.Selected parameters were analyzed by following standard methods APHA, (2005.The obtained results were subjected to Statistical Analysisusing Microsoft offices excel 2010.The water quality of Bellandurlakehas exaggerated due by the consequent changes and urbanization, which indicated the physico-chemical concentrations of lakes found in high levels. Despite of some conservation efforts made by the authorities this lake is threatening immeasurably. Continuous monitoring of lakes should be enacted properly as from the origin point at the end to overcome these situations.

N.Nandini

2013-06-01

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ECONOMIC/FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...

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Urban Ethnohydrology : Cultural Knowledge of Water Quality and Water Management in a Desert City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Popular concern over water quality has important implications for public water management because it can both empower water utilities to improve service but also limit their ability to make changes. In the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, obtaining sufficient high-quality water resources for a growing urban population poses a major challenge. Decision makers and urban hydrologists are aware of these challenges to water sustainability but the range of acceptable policy and management options a...

Paul Westerhoff; Amber Wutich; Meredith Gartin; Beatrice Crona

2010-01-01

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Prioritizing Riparian Corridors for Water Quality Protection in Urbanizing Watersheds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cumulative effects of urbanization on riparian corridors can decrease the quality of water entering local streams, and ultimately adversely impact drinking water reservoirs of local municipalities. As such, a GIS and remote sensing based analysis tool called the Water Quality Corridor Management (WQCM model was designed to identify and pri-oritize highly functioning riparian ecosystems for the preservation of stream corridor conditions. Preservation priority among various riparian corridors is established in the model by analyzing five parameters associated with stream corri-dor conditions (vegetation type, erosion potential, surface slope, percent of the stream contained within the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA 100-year floodplain, and amount of the stream corridor contained within a subwatershed; and each parameter is weighted and scaled based on what conditions are most important to protect. Because data associated with each parameter are readily available and easily manipulated via spatial analysis techniques, the WQCM model functions as a flexible methodology for predicting stream corridor conditions and allows watershed managers to identify potential preservation opportunities to ensure long term ecological functioning that protects water quality. These corridors can then also provide urban planners with potential natural spaces for urban dwellers, meeting multiple benefits requirements imposed by many municipalities.

Samuel F. Atkinson

2010-07-01

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Urban areas impact on surface water quality during rainfall events  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing population and welfare puts water management under stress, especially in what concerns water quality. Surface water properties are strongly linked with hydrological processes and are affected by stream flow variability. Changes in some chemical substances concentrations can be ascribed to different water sources. Runoff generated in urban areas is considered the main responsible for water quality degradation inside catchments. This poster presents the methodology and first results of a study that is being developed to assess the impact of urbanization on surface water quality, during rainfall events. It focuses on the Ribeira dos Covões catchment (620 ha) located in central Portugal. Due to its proximity to the Coimbra city in central region, the urban areas sprawled during the last decades. In 2008, urban areas represented 32% of the area. Recently a highway was constructed crossing the catchment and a technological industrial park is being build-up in the headwaters. Several water samples were collected at four different locations: the catchment outlet and in three sub-catchments with distinct urbanization patterns - Espírito Santo that represents a highly urbanized area (45%) located over sandstone, Porto do Bordalo with 30% of urbanized area located over limestone, and IParque, mainly forest and just downstream the disturbed technological industrial park construction area. The samples were collected at different times during rainfall events to monitor the variability along the hydrograph. Six monitoring campaigns were performed: two in April 2011, at the end of the winter period, and the others between October and November 2011, after the dry summer. The number of samples collected per monitoring campaign is variable according with rainfall pattern. Parameters such as pH, conductivity, turbidity and total suspended sediments were immediately analyzed. The samples were then preserved, after filtered (0.45µm), and later analyzed for dissolved chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorous, nitrogen (Kjeldahl, nitrate and ammonium), some cations and heavy metals, according with standard methods. In each monitored location there is a continuous-recording water-level that provides flow data. The rainfall data is monitored with a raingauge located at the catchment outlet. The results show that surface runoff affects stream water quality according with rainfall pattern. During rainfall events the rising limb flow is associated with an increase in suspended sediment concentration and turbidity, particularly at Iparque. In this sub-catchment, the deforestation and the topsoil removal associated with the technological industrial park construction, promotes suspended sediments growth ranging from 395% to 1645%, corresponding to peak concentrations of 1049mg/L and 3621mg/L, for similar rainfall amounts but with distinct intensities (0.4mm/5minutes and 1.2mm/5minutes, respectively). As regards to the monitored dissolved chemical properties, despite the variability, related with the hydrograph, the increase is much lower comparing with the suspended sediments. Generally, the values are higher at the catchment outlet, which can indicate that the contact time between rainfall and the surfaces before reach the water line affects water quality. This should be considered during urban planning to improve water quality and reduce environmental impacts with low investment.

Ferreira, C. S. S.; Soares, D.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Costa, M. L.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.

2012-04-01

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Dynamics in urban water quality: monitoring the Amsterdam city area  

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Urban water quality is influenced by a large number of heterogeneous sources. We aimed to identify solute pathways from different sources in the urban area of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The city is situated in the Dutch delta, and largely below mean sea level. The water system of the centre of the city is connected to the large fresh water lake Ijsselmeer, but suburbs are mainly located within reclaimed lake and polder areas where water is pumped out in order to maintain the water levels, which are generally 1 tot 4 m. below sea level. Sources of water include: urban storm runoff, inlet water from the Ijsselmeer and surrounding areas, groundwater seepage and possibly also leaking sewage systems. The temporal dynamics and spatial patterns related to these flow routes and sources were largely unknown to date. Water quality is measured at those pumping stations systematically each month. We analysed the pumping discharge data and the concentration data to calculate daily water balances and annual load estimates for HCO3,Ca, Cl, Na, SO4, Ptot, Ntot ,NH4, NH3 and NO3. Chloride appears to be a good tracer to identify inlet water and bicarbonate and DIC were effective to estimate the groundwater contribution to the surface water outflow to the regional system. We were able to improve the solute balances by calibrating the measured temporal patterns of chloride and DIC using known concentrations from the individual sources. Subsequently the water balances where used to identify periods where one of the sources was dominant and by doing so we improved our understanding of the dynamics of N, P and S fluxes and the relations with dry and wet meteorological conditions. It appeared that N and P were largely related to groundwater outflow , whereas S was mainly related to dry periods and shallow flow routes influenced by sewage, urban storm runoff and shallow groundwater flow . The results are used to optimize urban water management which benefits from the improved insight in dominant processes and solute pathways.

van der Vlugt, Corné; Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris; Ouboter, Maarten; Stuurman, Roelof; Broers, Hans Peter

2014-05-01

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Urban Ethnohydrology: Cultural Knowledge of Water Quality and Water Management in a Desert City  

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Full Text Available Popular concern over water quality has important implications for public water management because it can both empower water utilities to improve service but also limit their ability to make changes. In the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, obtaining sufficient high-quality water resources for a growing urban population poses a major challenge. Decision makers and urban hydrologists are aware of these challenges to water sustainability but the range of acceptable policy and management options available to them is constrained by public opinion. Therefore, this study examines cultural models of water quality and water management, termed ethnohydrology, among urban residents. The study yields three key findings. First, urban residents appear to have a shared model of ethnohydrology which holds that a there are significant water quality risks associated with low financial investments in city-wide water treatment and the desert location of Phoenix, and b government monitoring and management combined with household-level water treatment can yield water of an acceptable quality. Second, people with high incomes are more likely to engage in expensive water filtration activities and to agree with the cultural ethnohydrology model found. Third, people living in communities that are highly concerned about water quality are less likely to share high agreement around ethnohydrology. The results have implications for water policy making and planning, particularly in disadvantaged and vulnerable communities where water quality is perceived to be low.

Paul Westerhoff

2010-12-01

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Temporal and spatial variations in the relationship between urbanization and water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the development of economy, most of Chinese cities are at the stage of rapid urbanization in recent years, which has caused many environmental problems, especially the serious deterioration of water quality. Therefore, the research of the relationship between urbanization and water quality has important theoretical and practical significance, and it is also the main restriction factor in the urbanization advancement. In this work, we investigated the impact of urbanization on the water quality of the nearby river. We established a comprehensive environmental assessment framework by combining urbanization and water quality, and one model was designed to examine the impact of urbanization on the water quality in Jinan from 2001 to 2010 with factor component analysis. The assessment of urbanization level was accomplished using a comprehensive index system, which was based on four aspects: demographic urbanization, economic urbanization, land urbanization, and social urbanization. In addition, synthetic pollution index method was utilized to assess the water pollution of Xiaoqing River in the study area. Through the analysis of regression curves, we conclude that (1) when the urbanization level is below 25 %, the relationship is low and irregular; (2) if the urbanization level varies between 25 and 40 %, there will be an irreversible degradation of stream water quality; (3) there is a positive correlation between urbanization and pollution levels of urban river after the adjustment period; and (4) land and demographic aspects have the highest independent contribution. This study is a useful reference for policymakers in terms of economic and environmental management. PMID:24974792

Ren, Lijun; Cui, Erqian; Sun, Haoyu

2014-12-01

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Quality of Source Water and Drinking Water in Urban Areas of Myanmar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Myanmar is one of the least developed countries in the world, and very little information is available regarding the nation's water quality. This report gives an overview of the current situation in the country, presenting the results of various water-quality assessments in urban areas of Myanmar. River, dam, lake, and well water sources were examined and found to be of generally good quality. Both As and F? were present in relatively high concentrations and must be removed before deep well...

Sakai, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Yatsuka; Fukushi, Kensuke

2013-01-01

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Index of water quality in urban river school in Santa Maria – RS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Located in the municipality of Santa Maria - RS, the Arroio Esperança lies in a watershed with regular and irregular urban occupations. Through the degradation caused by man, the quality of water has been changed constantly. This study aimed to make the diagnosis of water quality of an urban watershed using the Index of Water Quality (WQI). The collection of water samples were taken during the months of March, April, May, June and July 2009. The parameters analyzed were temperature, pH, diss...

Fernando Ernesto Ucker; Cristian Foletto; Pedro Daniel da Cunha Kemerich

2009-01-01

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Quality of Source Water and Drinking Water in Urban Areas of Myanmar  

Science.gov (United States)

Myanmar is one of the least developed countries in the world, and very little information is available regarding the nation's water quality. This report gives an overview of the current situation in the country, presenting the results of various water-quality assessments in urban areas of Myanmar. River, dam, lake, and well water sources were examined and found to be of generally good quality. Both As and F? were present in relatively high concentrations and must be removed before deep wells are used. Heterotrophic plate counts in drinking water were highest in public pots, followed by nonpiped tap water, piped tap water, and bottled water. Measures need to be taken to improve low-quality water in pots and nonpiped tap waters. PMID:23844413

Sakai, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Yatsuka; Fukushi, Kensuke

2013-01-01

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Water quality perceptions and willingness to pay for clean water in peri-urban Cambodian communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper studies household demand for improved water quality in peri-urban Cambodia, with particular attention paid to the influence of water quality on willingness to pay (WTP). Utilizing data from 915 household surveys, we analyze responses to a contingent valuation scenario using multivariate logit regression techniques that account for subjective perceptions of water quality. We estimate a mean household WTP for improved water quality of US$3 (roughly 1.2% of mean income) per month for households in this sample. We also find that the majority of households believe that their in-house water after storage, handling, and treatment is safe to drink. Furthermore, beliefs about existing levels of water quality have a significant impact on WTP for improved water quality. However, while perceptions of quality (and thus WTP) are highly related to taste preferences, actual water quality is relatively uncorrelated with water quality perceptions. These findings suggest that interventions aiming to increase the adoption of water treatment should account for underlying perceptions of water quality. PMID:23981877

Orgill, Jennifer; Shaheed, Ameer; Brown, Joe; Jeuland, Marc

2013-09-01

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Impact of urbanization on water quality and chemical flux in urban streams: implications for management  

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Contaminant source and biogeochemical processes are altered in urban ecosystems. Given the high impervious cover and altered hydrologic cycle, contaminant mobilization is particularly important during high discharge events. Many urban systems not only receive contaminant loading from stormwater, but also receive sewage contributions from combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Additionally, biogeochemical processes are altered by the changing chemistry and flashier hydrology. Management of contaminant loading often ignores these temporal shifts in speciation as well as the alteration of fate processes within the receiving water body, further compounding the difficult and challenging problem that many municipalities face of assessing ecological impacts. To assess potential changes in loading and chemical speciation we have collected stream water and sediment samples in the Park River sewershed (Hartford, CT) during base flow and events to assess potential for contaminant loading and mobilization. Six events have been collected to date. Trace metal, TSS and DOC concentrations increased with discharge. However, trace metal concentrations and flux values reflected the degree of urbanization and industry present in the watersheds. All samples contained low DOC with the majority of the flux occurring in the particulate phase. Dissolved transport with DOC, particularly for Hg, decreased with urbanization; however, the dominant phase, dissolved versus particulate, varied by storm. The degree of urbanization also increased TN flux as well as the distribution among N chemical species, with urbanized systems increasing in the NOx fraction. The altered watershed processes was also evident in an analysis of dissolved organic matter binding, with stormwater contributions contributing to higher microbial organic matter fractions as determined by EEMs. This shift in DOM quality has been linked to end member source contributions including forest, stormwater and sewage. Particulate fraction collection and analysis during the events have demonstrated the influence of impervious cover on increasing trace metal and mercury flux. However, the association of these metals with these solids compared with forested binding remains uncertain.

Bushey, J. T.; Aragon-jose, A. T.; Perkins, C.; Lancaster, N.; Ulatowski, G.

2012-12-01

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Effects of urban stormwater-management strategies on stream-water quantity and quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Urbanization results in elevated stormwater runoff, greater and more intense streamflow, and increased delivery of pollutants to local streams and downstream aquatic systems such as the Chesapeake Bay. Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) are used to mitigate these effects of urban land use by retaining large volumes of stormwater runoff (water quantity) and removing pollutants in the runoff (water quality). Current USGS research aims to understand how the spatial pattern and connectivity of stormwater BMPs affect water quantity and water quality in urban areas.

Loperfido, J. V.; Hogan, Dianna M.

2012-01-01

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Impact of anthropogenic activities on urban stream water quality: a case study in Guangzhou, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic activities are increasingly impacting the quality of urban surface water, particularly in regions undergoing intensive urbanization, such as Guangzhou of South China with a large urban stream network. To examine such impacts, we conducted field sampling on December 24, 2010, May 24, 2011, and August 28, 2011, representative of the low-, normal-, and high-flow periods, respectively. The first sampling was timed immediately after the closing of the 16th Asian Games (November 12-27, 2010) and the 10th Asian Para Games (December 12-19, 2010) held in Guangzhou. Assessments based on a pollution index method showed that the urban streams under investigation were extremely polluted, with direct discharge of untreated domestic sewage identified as the main pollution contributor. In addition, stream water quality around urban villages with high population densities was worse than that within business districts away from the urban villages. Pollution control measures implemented in preparation for the Asian Games were effective for urban streams within the business districts, but less effective for those adjacent to the urban villages. However, short-term efforts may not be able to achieve sustainable urban water quality improvements. In the case of Guangzhou, minimizing or even eliminating direct point-source inputs to the urban streams is perhaps the best option. PMID:25009093

Liu, Jin-Song; Guo, Ling-Chuan; Luo, Xian-Lin; Chen, Fan-Rong; Zeng, Eddy Y

2014-12-01

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Index of water quality in urban river school in Santa Maria – RS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Located in the municipality of Santa Maria - RS, the Arroio Esperança lies in a watershed with regular and irregular urban occupations. Through the degradation caused by man, the quality of water has been changed constantly. This study aimed to make the diagnosis of water quality of an urban watershed using the Index of Water Quality (WQI. The collection of water samples were taken during the months of March, April, May, June and July 2009. The parameters analyzed were temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (OD, DBO, turbidity, fecal coliform, nitrate, phosphorus and total residues fixed. The water quality was classified by the WQI as very bad, with the primary responsibility for its degradation in the presence of organic matter due to untreated sewage.Keywords: Arroio Esperança, Quality of water; Watershed; Degradation.

Fernando Ernesto Ucker

2009-12-01

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Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai has experienced an extensive urban expansion since the early 1980s, with an attendant cost in environmental degradation. We use an integrated pollution index to study the temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas between 1982 and 2005. Data on monitored cross-sections were collected from the Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of surface water quality was determined by the level of urbanization. Surface water qualities in urban and suburban areas were improved by strengthening the environmental policies and management, but were worsening in rural areas. The relationship between economic growth and surface water quality in Shanghai showed an inversed-U-shaped curve, which reflected a similar pattern in most developed countries. This research suggests that decision makers and city officials should be more aware of the recent pollution increases in Shanghai. - An integrated pollution index documents the deterioration of water quality in greater Shanghai, recently most serious in rural sections.

Wang Junying [Shanghai Key Laboratory for Ecology of Urbanization Process and Eco-restoration, Department of Environmental Science, East China Normal University, No. 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China)], E-mail: wangwang0501@hotmail.com; Da Liangjun [Shanghai Key Laboratory for Ecology of Urbanization Process and Eco-restoration, Department of Environmental Science, East China Normal University, No. 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China)], E-mail: ljda@des.ecnu.edu.cn; Song Kun [Shanghai Key Laboratory for Ecology of Urbanization Process and Eco-restoration, Department of Environmental Science, East China Normal University, No. 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China)], E-mail: seceek@yahoo.com.cn; Li Bailian [Shanghai Key Laboratory for Ecology of Urbanization Process and Eco-restoration, Department of Environmental Science, East China Normal University, No. 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Department of Botany and Plant Science, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0124 (United States)], E-mail: bai-lian.li@ucr.edu

2008-03-15

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Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai has experienced an extensive urban expansion since the early 1980s, with an attendant cost in environmental degradation. We use an integrated pollution index to study the temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas between 1982 and 2005. Data on monitored cross-sections were collected from the Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of surface water quality was determined by the level of urbanization. Surface water qualities in urban and suburban areas were improved by strengthening the environmental policies and management, but were worsening in rural areas. The relationship between economic growth and surface water quality in Shanghai showed an inversed-U-shaped curve, which reflected a similar pattern in most developed countries. This research suggests that decision makers and city officials should be more aware of the recent pollution increases in Shanghai. - An integrated pollution index documents the deterioration of water quality in greater Shanghai, recently most serious in rural sections

 
 
 
 
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SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA  

Science.gov (United States)

SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA A.K. Mohanty, K. Mahesh Kumar, B. A. Prakash and V.V.S. Gurunadha Rao Ecology and Environment Group National Geophysical Research Institute, (CSIR) Hyderabad - 500 606, India E-mail:atulyakumarmohanty@yahoo.com Abstract: Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority has taken up restoration of urban lakes around Hyderabad city under Green Hyderabad Environment Program. Restoration of Mir Alam Tank, Durgamcheruvu, Patel cheruvu, Pedda Cheruvu and Nallacheruvu lakes have been taken up under the second phase. There are of six lakes viz., RKPuramcheruvu, Nadimicheruvu (Safilguda), Bandacheruvu Patelcheruvu, Peddacheruvu, Nallacheruvu, in North East Musi Basin covering 38 sq km. Bimonthly monitoring of lake water quality for BOD, COD, Total Nitrogen, Total phosphorous has been carried out for two hydrological cycles during October 2002- October 2004 in all the five lakes at inlet channels and outlets. The sediments in the lake have been also assessed for nutrient status. The nutrient parameters have been used to assess eutrophic condition through computation of Trophic Status Index, which has indicated that all the above lakes under study are under hyper-eutrophic condition. The hydrogeological, geophysical, water quality and groundwater data base collected in two watersheds covering 4 lakes has been used to construct groundwater flow and mass transport models. The interaction of lake-water with groundwater has been computed for assessing the lake water budget combining with inflow and outflow measurements on streams entering and leaving the lakes. Individual lake water budget has been used for design of appropriate capacity of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) on the inlet channels of the lakes for maintaining Full Tank Level (FTL) in each lake. STPs are designed for tertiary treatment i.e. removal of nutrient load viz., Phosphates and Nitrates. Phosphates are removed through addition of Alum to the influent stream to the STPs whereas Nitrates reduction is achieved by sending the treated wastewater from the STP through a wetland before entering the lake. STP Capacity ranging from 2-10 MLD have been recommended depending on lake water budget of individual lake and considering surrounding urbanization. Sediment nutrient data has helped for deciding the need for dredging of lake bed for removal of phosphates. Key Words: Lake water budget, Eutrophication, Trophic Status Index, Urban Lakes Restoration

Mohanty, A. K.

2009-12-01

22

Predicting the Effect of Changing Precipitation Extremes and Land Cover Change on Urban Water Quality  

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Recent research shows that precipitation extremes in many of the largest U.S. urban areas have increased over the last 60 years. These changes have important implications for stormwater runoff and water quality, which in urban areas are dominated by the most extreme precipitation events. We assess the potential implications of changes in extreme precipitation and changing land cover in urban and urbanizing watersheds at the regional scale using a combination of hydrology and water quality models. Specifically, we describe the integration of a spatially distributed hydrological model - the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM), the urban water quality model in EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), the semi-Lagrangian stream temperature model RBM10, and dynamical and statistical downscaling methods applied to global climate predictions. Key output water quality parameters include total suspended solids (TSS), toal nitrogen, total phosphorous, fecal coliform bacteria and stream temperature. We have evaluated the performance of the modeling system in the highly urbanized Mercer Creek watershed in the rapidly growing Bellevue urban area in WA, USA. The results suggest that the model is able to (1) produce reasonable streamflow predictions at fine temporal and spatial scales; (2) provide spatially distributed water temperature predictions that mostly agree with observations throughout a complex stream network, and characterize impacts of climate, landscape, near-stream vegetation change on stream temperature at local and regional scales; and (3) capture plausibly the response of water quality constituents to varying magnitude of precipitation events in urban environments. Next we will extend the scope of the study from the Mercer Creek watershed to include the entire Puget Sound Basin, WA, USA.

SUN, N.; Yearsley, J. R.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2013-12-01

23

Shallow ground-water quality beneath a major urban center: Denver, Colorado, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of the chemical quality of ground water in the unconsolidated alluvial aquifer beneath a major urban center (Denver, Colorado, USA) was performed in 1993 with the objective of characterizing the quality of shallow ground-water in the urban area and relating water quality to land use. Thirty randomly selected alluvial wells were each sampled once for a broad range of dissolved constituents. The urban land use at each well site was sub-classified into one of three land-use settings: residential, commercial, and industrial. Shallow ground-water quality was highly variable in the urban area and the variability could be related to these land-use setting classifications. Sulfate (SO 4) was the predominant anion in most samples from the residential and commercial land-use settings, whereas bicarbonate (HCO 3) was the predominant anion in samples from the industrial land-use setting, indicating a possible shift in redox conditions associated with land use. Only three of 30 samples had nitrate concentrations that exceeded the US national drinking-water standard of 10 mg l -1 as nitrogen, indicating that nitrate contamination of shallow ground water may not be a serious problem in this urban area. However, the highest median nitrate concentration (4.2 mg l -1) was in samples from the residential setting, where fertilizer application is assumed to be most intense. Twenty-seven of 30 samples had detectable pesticides and nine of 82 analyzed pesticide compounds were detected at low concentrations, indicating that pesticides are widely distributed in shallow ground water in this urban area. Although the highest median total pesticide concentration (0.17 ?g l -) was in the commercial setting, the herbicides prometon and atrazine were found in each land-use setting. Similarly, 25 of 29 samples analyzed had detectable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indicating these compounds are also widely distributed in this urban area. The total VOC concentrations in sampled wells ranged from nondetectable to 23 442 ?g l -. Widespread detections and occasionally high concentrations point to VOCs as the major anthropogenic ground-water impact in this urban environment. Generally, the highest VOC concentrations occurred in samples from the industrial setting. The most frequently detected VOC was the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, in 23 of 29 wells). Results from this study indicate that the quality of shallow ground water in major urban areas can be related to land-use settings. Moreover, some VOCs and pesitides may be widely distributed at low concentrations in shallow ground water throughout major urban areas. As a result, the differentiation between point and non-point sources for these compounds in urban areas may be difficult.

Bruce, Breton W.; McMahon, Peter B.

1996-11-01

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Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC, but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistant genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains that may result in increased duration and severity of morbidity.

Alexandria K. Graves

2011-11-01

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Microbiological evaluation of water quality from urban watersheds for domestic water supply improvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC), but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistant genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains that may result in increased duration and severity of morbidity. PMID:22408583

Ibekwe, A Mark; Murinda, Shelton E; Graves, Alexandria K

2011-12-01

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Denver's Urban Ground-Water Quality: Nutrients, Pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compounds  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) under the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program characterized the ground-water quality in a part of the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. The study provides an assessment of water-quality conditions in an alluvial aquifer that drains into the South Platte River. Thirty wells randomly distributed in residential, commercial, and industrial land-use settings were sampled once in 1993 for a broad range of compounds. Nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds (VOC's), all of which are generally associated with human activities, frequently were detected in the urban wells sampled. Nutrients and VOC's occasionally exceeded drinking-water standards.

Bruce, Breton W.

1995-01-01

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Empirical Modeling of Stream Water Quality for Complex Coastal-Urban Watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

This study develops an understanding of the relative influence of land uses, surface hydrology, groundwater, seawater, and upstream contributions on the in-stream water quality of six highly urbanized, complex urban watersheds of South Florida by analyzing seasonal (Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall) time-series of field data. We first explored the correlations among quality parameters (i.e., total nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and specific conductance) and their changes with distance and time. Principle component analysis was then conducted to investigate the mutual correlations and potential group formations among the predictor and response variables. The findings were leveraged to develop regression-based non-linear empirical models for explaining stream water quality in relation to internal (land uses and hydrology) and external (upstream contribution, seawater) sources and drivers. In-stream dissolved oxygen and total phosphorus in the watersheds were dictated by internal stressors, while external stressors were dominant for total nitrogen and specific conductance. The research findings provide important insights into the dominant stressors of seasonal stream water quality of complex coastal-urban watersheds under a changing environment. The research tools will be useful for developing proactive monitoring and seasonally exclusive management strategies for urban stream water quality improvement in South Florida and around the world.

Al-Amin, S.; Abdul-Aziz, O.

2013-12-01

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Applications of geographic information system and expert system for urban runoff and water quality management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is very important to select appropriate methods of collecting, predicting, and analyzing information for the development of urban water resources and the prevention of disasters. Thus, in this study an accurate data generation method is developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). The methods of development and application of an expert system are suggested to solve more efficiently the problems of water resources and quality induced by the rapid urbanization. The time-varying data in a large region, the An-Yang Cheon watershed, were reasonably obtained by the application of the GIS using ARC/INFO and RS data. The ESPE (Expert System for Parameter Estimation), an expert system is developed using the CLIPS 6.0. The simulated results showed agreement with the measured data globally. These methods are expected to efficiently simulate the runoff and water quality in the rapidly varying urban area. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

Lee, Beum-Hee [Pai Chai University, Taejeon(Korea)

2001-06-30

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Urban impacts on the water quality of selected water bodies in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban systems belong to the major input sources for pollutants into aquatic systems. In China, the rising urbanisation and industrialisation causes a growing pressure on rivers, lakes and estuaries. With the recent impoundment of the Yangtze River by the Three Gorges Dam, the newly formed Three Gorges Reservoir is additionally experiencing drastic changes in the flow regime [1]. In the frame of the Sino-German "Yangtze-Project" [2] samples were taken from the water bodies in proximity to the Cities of Chongqing, Kaixian and Wushan during a field campaign in April 2011. Water samples were analysed for inorganic contents in suspended solids and the dissolved phase to assess the impact of these cities on the water quality of the reservoir. Results show that input from urban sources, together with the effects from the impoundment of the Yangtze River, deteriorates the quality of water and sediments in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Water in the Wushan Lake is trapped in by the Yangtze River flowing by, which leads to longer retention times of effluent water from the city. The chemical composition of the lake water is also measurable upstream in the Daninghe itself and might be due to the backwater effect. In the Xiaojiang River near Kaixian the low flow velocity from the backwater effect of the Yangtze, together with influences from the city have led to problems with algal blooms. High metal concentrations at Chongqing indicate a strong impact of this megacity on the water quality of the Three Gorges Reservoir and the sediments of the Yangtze River. Acknowledgements: Financial support by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany (BMBF), the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (MOST) and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). References: [1] Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China, 2010: Bulletin on the Ecological and Environmental Monitoring Results of the Three Gorges Project 2010 [2] Bergmann A, et al. (2011) The Yangtze-Hydro Project: a Chinese-German environmental program. ESPR. Doi: 10.1007/s11356-011-0645-7

Reid, Lucas; Holbach, Andreas; Wei, Hu; Wang, Lijing; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Binghui; Norra, Stefan

2013-04-01

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Quality of water sources used as drinking water in a Brazilian peri-urban area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this paper was to assess bacteriological quality of drinking water in a peri-urban area located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 89 water samples were collected from community plastic tanks and 177 water samples from wells were collected bimonthly, from September 2007 to November 2008, for evaluating bacteriological parameters including: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and heterotrophic plate count (HPC). Clostridium perfringens was investigated in a subsample (40 samples from community plastic tank and 40 from wells). E. coli was present in 5 (5.6%) samples from community plastic tanks (2.0 - 5.1x10(4) MPN/100mL) and in 70 (39.5%) well samples (2.0 - 8.6x10(4) MPN/100mL). Thus, these samples were not in accordance with the Brazilian Regulation. Enterococcus was detected in 20 (22.5%) samples of the community plastic tanks (1 to 79 NC/100mL) and in 142 (80.2%) well samples (1 to >200 NC/100mL). C. perfringens was detected in 5 (12.5%) community plastic tanks samples and in 35 (87.5%) wells samples (2.2 to >16 MPN/100mL). HPC were above 500 CFU/mL in 5 (5.6%) waters from community plastic tanks. In wells samples, the HPC ranged from <1 to 1.6x10(4) CFU/mL. The residual chlorine did not attend the standard established in the drinking water legislation (0.2 mg/L), except in 20 (22.5%) samples. These results confirm the vulnerability of the water supply systems in this peri-urban area what is clearly a public health concern. PMID:24031668

Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso; Peternella, Francisca Alzira Dos Santos; Martone-Rocha, Solange; Bastos, Veridiana Karmann; Santos, Thaís Filomena da Silva; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves

2011-04-01

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Study plan for urban stream indicator sites of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban Indicator Sites are one component of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The objectives of monitoring at the Urban Indicator Sites are to: (1) characterize stream quality from drainage basins with predominantly residential and commercial land use, and (2) determine which selected natural and human factors most strongly affect stream quality. Urban Indicator Sites will be distributed across the United States in settings with statistically different climate and in metropolitan areas that have a population of 250,000 or more. Multiple sites in the same climatic setting will have a range in population density. Ideally, Urban Indicator Sites will monitor drainage basins that have only residential and commercial land use, are 50 square kilometers or larger, are in the same physiographic setting as other Indicator Sites, have sustained flow, and overlap other NAWQA study components. Ideal drainage basins will not have industrial or agricultural land use and will not have point-source-contamination discharges. Stream quality will be characterized by collecting and analyzing samples of streamflow, bed sediment, and tissue of aquatic organisms for selected constituents. Factors affecting stream quality will be determined by statistical analysis of ancillary data associated with Urban Indicator Sites and stream-quality samples.

Lopes, T.J.; Price, C.V.

1997-01-01

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Heavy metal assessment and water quality values in urban stream and rain water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water quality monitoring in developing countries is inadequate, especially in stream water affected by urban effluents and runoff. The purpose of this study was to investigate heavy metal contaminants in the Nakivubo Stream water in Kampala, Uganda. Water samples Nakivubo Channelized Stream, tributaries and industrial effluents that drain into the stream were collected and analysed for the total elemental concentration using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that: 1) the wastewater was highly enriched with lead and manganese above the maximum permissible limit; 2) the levels of dissolved oxygen were below the maximum permissible limit, while the biological oxygen demand was above the maximum permissible limit. All industrial effluents/wastewater were classified as strong (> 220 mg/L). Factor analysis results reveal two sources of pollutants; 1) mixed origin or chemical phenomena of industrial and vehicular emissions and 2) multiple origin of lead (vehicular, commercial establishment and industrial). In conclusion, Nakivubo Channelized Stream water is not enriched with heavy metals. These heavy metals (lead, cadmium and zinc) were rapidly removed by co-precipitation with manganese and iron hydroxides and total dissolved solids into stream sediments. This phenomena is controlled by p H in water.

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Relation between urbanization and water quality of streams in the Austin area, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Selected water quality properties and constituents of stormflow and base flow at 18 sites on 11 streams in the Austin area, Texas, were compared to determine the relation between degree of urbanization and water quality. Sample sites were grouped into four development classifications based on percentage of impervious cover of the drainage basin. For each site and development classification, concentrations and densities of water quality properties and constituents in samples collected during base flow were compared. Except for dissolved solids, concentrations during the rising stage of stormflow generally were larger than during the falling stage. The concentrations in stormflow were larger than in base flow. For the five sites that had sufficient samples from each flow category for statistical comparisons, median concentrations in stormflow were significantly larger than in base flow. Concentrations in the rising stage were more variable and significantly larger than in the falling stage. Except for dissolved solids, median concentrations in samples collected during stormflow increased with increasing urbanization. Medians for base flow also were larger for more urban classifications. The ratio of the number of samples with detectable concentrations to total sample analyzed of 18 minor inorganic constituents and the concentrations of many of these constituents increased with increasing urbanization. Twenty-two of 42 synthetic organic compounds investigated were detected in one or more samples and were detected more frequently and in larger concentrations at sites with more urban classifications.

Veenhuis, J.E.; Slade, R.M. (Geological Survey, Austin, TX (United States))

1990-01-01

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Effects of urbanization on stream water quality in the city of Atlanta, Georgia, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

A long-term stream water quality monitoring network was established in the city of Atlanta, Georgia during 2003 to assess baseline water quality conditions and the effects of urbanization on stream water quality. Routine hydrologically based manual stream sampling, including several concurrent manual point and equal width increment sampling, was conducted ???12 times annually at 21 stations, with drainage areas ranging from 3.7 to 232 km2. Eleven of the stations are real-time (RT) stations having continuous measures of stream stage/ discharge, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature and turbidity, and automatic samplers for stormwater collection. Samples were analyzed for field parameters, and a broad suite of water quality and sediment-related constituents. Field parameters and concentrations of major ions, metals, nutrient species and coliform bacteria among stations were evaluated and with respect to watershed characteristics and plausible sources from 2003 through September 2007. Most constituent concentrations are much higher than nearby reference streams. Concentrations are statistically different among stations for several constituents, despite high variability both within and among stations. Routine manual sampling, automatic sampling during stormflows and RT water quality monitoring provided sufficient information about urban stream water quality variability to evaluate causes of water quality differences among streams. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations of most samples exceeded Georgia's water quality standard for any water-usage class. High chloride concentrations occur at three stations and are hypothesized to be associated with discharges of chlorinated combined sewer overflows, drainage of swimming pool(s) and dissolution and transport during rainstorms of CaCl2, a deicing salt applied to roads during winter storms. One stream was affected by dissolution and transport of ammonium alum [NH4Al(SO4)2] from an alum-manufacturing plant; streamwater has low pH (<5), low alkalinity and high metals concentrations. Several trace metals exceed acute and chronic water quality standards and high concentrations are attributed to washoff from impervious surfaces.

Peters, N. E.

2009-01-01

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Urban Influences on Water Quality in the Portneuf River, Pocatello, Idaho  

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Urban influences on water quality in the Portneuf River, Pocatello, Idaho. Richard Inouye, Center for Ecological Research and Education, Idaho State University Andy Ray, Center for Ecological Research and Education, Idaho State University James Brock, Rapid Creek Research, Boise, Idaho Greg Mladenka, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, Pocatello Regional Office, Pocatello, Idaho Chris Wilhelm, Center for Ecological Research and Education, Idaho State University Continuous monitoring of...

Inouye, Richard

2004-01-01

36

Quality of water sources used as drinking water in a Brazilian peri-urban area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to assess bacteriological quality of drinking water in a peri-urban area located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 89 water samples were collected from community plastic tanks and 177 water samples from wells were collected bimonthly, from Se [...] ptember 2007 to November 2008, for evaluating bacteriological parameters including: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and heterotrophic plate count (HPC). Clostridium perfringens was investigated in a subsample (40 samples from community plastic tank and 40 from wells). E. coli was present in 5 (5.6%) samples from community plastic tanks (2.0 - 5.1x10(4) MPN/100mL) and in 70 (39.5%) well samples (2.0 - 8.6x10(4) MPN/100mL). Thus, these samples were not in accordance with the Brazilian Regulation. Enterococcus was detected in 20 (22.5%) samples of the community plastic tanks (1 to 79 NC/100mL) and in 142 (80.2%) well samples (1 to >200 NC/100mL). C. perfringens was detected in 5 (12.5%) community plastic tanks samples and in 35 (87.5%) wells samples (2.2 to >16 MPN/100mL). HPC were above 500 CFU/mL in 5 (5.6%) waters from community plastic tanks. In wells samples, the HPC ranged from

Maria Tereza Pepe, Razzolini; Wanda Maria Risso, Günther; Francisca Alzira dos Santos, Peternella; Solange, Martone-Rocha; Veridiana Karmann, Bastos; Thaís Filomena da Silva, Santos; Maria Regina Alves, Cardoso.

2011-06-01

37

Effect of urban aquifer exploitation on subsurface temperature and water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater pumping induces changes in the hydrodynamics of aquifer systems. Rapid urbanization and pumping-induced changes in local groundwater flow can change the natural heat and chemical balances of an aquifer. In the Nagaoka Plain, Japan, groundwater is being extracted at 145 × 10(6) m3 /year from a highly permeable aquifer consisting of coarse-grained sediments of Late Pleistocene to Holocene age. We used land-cover and groundwater analyses to investigate the processes that change subsurface temperature and water quality induced by urbanization and intensive groundwater extraction. Comparison of temperature and water quality measurements in 2009 with measurements made between 1977 and 2000 revealed an increase in subsurface temperature (at 18 m depth) of 0.050 °C/year in the main urban area of the Nagaoka Plain, which is equivalent to the rate of increase of mean air temperature during that period. The effects of surface warming are apparent as a warm zone under the urban area. An area with low saturation index of calcite (-3.0 to -2.0) was centered around urban areas in 2009, whereas in 2000 the index there was higher (-1.5 to -0.5). The decrease in this index in the center of Nagaoka City over the last decade is consistent with continuous dissolution of carbonates induced there by changes in recharge water sources due to groundwater pumping. These findings suggest that urbanization, intensive groundwater extraction, and recharge with chemically modified surface water are responsible for changes in thermal and chemical properties under the urban area of the Nagaoka Plain. PMID:24393085

Abe, Hiroaki; Tang, Changyuan; Kondoh, Akihiko

2014-09-01

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Conjunctively optimizing flash flood control and water quality in urban water reservoirs by model predictive control and dynamic emulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban water reservoirs are a viable adaptation option to account for increasing drinking water demand of urbanized areas as they allow storage and re-use of water that is normally lost. In addition, the direct availability of freshwater reduces pumping costs and diversifies the portfolios of drinking water supply. Yet, these benefits have an associated twofold cost. Firstly, the presence of large, impervious areas increases the hydraulic efficiency of urban catchments, with short time of concentration, increased runoff rates, losses of infiltration and baseflow, and higher risk of flash floods. Secondly, the high concentration of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges is likely to cause water quality problems. In this study we propose a new control scheme combining Model Predictive Control (MPC), hydro-meteorological forecasts and dynamic model emulation to design real-time operating policies that conjunctively optimize water quantity and quality targets. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its capability of exploiting real-time hydro-meteorological forecasts, which are crucial in such fast-varying systems. In addition, the reduced computational requests of the MPC scheme allows coupling it with dynamic emulators of water quality processes. The approach is demonstrated on Marina Reservoir, a multi-purpose reservoir located in the heart of Singapore and characterized by a large, highly urbanized catchment with a short (i.e. approximately one hour) time of concentration. Results show that the MPC scheme, coupled with a water quality emulator, provides a good compromise between different operating objectives, namely flood risk reduction, drinking water supply and salinity control. Finally, the scheme is used to assess the effect of source control measures (e.g. green roofs) aimed at restoring the natural hydrological regime of Marina Reservoir catchment.

Galelli, Stefano; Goedbloed, Albert; Schmitter, Petra; Castelletti, Andrea

2014-05-01

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EC Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive  

Dec 7, 2004 ... Freshwater quality · Chemical river quality · Biological river quality ... The EC \\Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC covers the collection and \\treatment of urban waste water and the disposal of sewage sludge.

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Emerging contaminants of public health significance as water quality indicator compounds in the urban water cycle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contamination of the urban water cycle (UWC) with a wide array of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) increases with urbanization and population density. To produce drinking water from the UWC requires close examination of their sources, occurrence, pathways, and health effects and the efficacy of wastewater treatment and natural attenuation processes that may occur in surface water bodies and groundwater. This paper researches in details the structure of the UWC and investigates the routes by which the water cycle is increasingly contaminated with compounds generated from various anthropogenic activities. Along with a thorough survey of chemicals representing compound classes such as hormones, antibiotics, surfactants, endocrine disruptors, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, pesticides and metabolites, disinfection-by-products, algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds, this paper provides a comprehensive and holistic review of the occurrence, fate, transport and potential health impact of the emerging organic contaminants of the UWC. This study also illustrates the widespread distribution of the emerging organic contaminants in the different aortas of the ecosystem and focuses on future research needs. PMID:24972248

Pal, Amrita; He, Yiliang; Jekel, Martin; Reinhard, Martin; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
41

Assessment of Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Methods: A Case Study of an Urban Landscape Water, Beijing  

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Full Text Available Multivariate statistical methods, such as cluster analysis (CA, discriminant analysis (DA, and factor analysis (FA were applied to the data on water quality of Lake Taoranting (Beijing, generated during two years (2011-2012, with monitoring at five different sites. The CA grouped the eight months (March to November into three periods?and classified five sites into two clusters based on water quality characteristics. The DA showed the best results for data reduction and temporal analysis. It calculated six parameters (TEMP?pH?SD?CODMn?TSS and Chl-a were the major sources of temporal variations in water quality. The FA applied to datasets of two special clusters of the lake calculated three factors for each region, capturing 72.89% and 78.88% of the total variance, respectively. Factors obtained from FA indicate that some parameters such as Chl-a, TSS, TP and NH4 +-N are mainly key factors responsible for water quality. Thus, this study results suggested that multivariate statistical methods is a effective tool for analysis of urban landscape water quality.

Qu Jiang-Qi

2013-05-01

42

Assessment of the integrated urban water quality model complexity through identifiability analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban sources of water pollution have often been cited as the primary cause of poor water quality in receiving water bodies (RWB), and recently many studies have been conducted to investigate both continuous sources, such as wastewater-treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, and intermittent sources, such as combined sewer overflows (CSOs). An urban drainage system must be considered jointly, i.e., by means of an integrated approach. However, although the benefits of an integrated approach have been widely demonstrated, several aspects have prevented its wide application, such as the scarcity of field data for not only the input and output variables but also parameters that govern intermediate stages of the system, which are useful for robust calibration. These factors, along with the high complexity level of the currently adopted approaches, introduce uncertainties in the modelling process that are not always identifiable. In this study, the identifiability analysis was applied to a complex integrated catchment: the Nocella basin (Italy). This system is characterised by two main urban areas served by two WWTPs and has a small river as the RWB. The system was simulated by employing an integrated model developed in previous studies. The main goal of the study was to assess the right number of parameters that can be estimated on the basis of data-source availability. A preliminary sensitivity analysis was undertaken to reduce the model parameters to the most sensitive ones. Subsequently, the identifiability analysis was carried out by progressively considering new data sources and assessing the added value provided by each of them. In the process, several identifiability methods were compared and some new techniques were proposed for reducing subjectivity of the analysis. The study showed the potential of the identifiability analysis for selecting the most relevant parameters in the model, thus allowing for model simplification, and in assessing the impact of data sources for model reliability, thus guiding the analyst in the design of future monitoring campaigns. Further, the analysis showed some critical points in integrated urban drainage modelling, such as the interaction between water quality processes on the catchment and in the sewer, that can prevent the identifiability of some of the related parameters. PMID:20732705

Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

2011-01-01

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Microbiological quality of drinking water of urban and rural communities, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples came from urban and rural communities and to examine the relationship between coliforms occurrence and average water temperature, and a comparison of the rainfall levels. METHODS: A sample of 3,073 untreated and treated (chlorinated water from taps (1,594, reservoir used to store treated water (1,033, spring water (96 and private well (350 collected for routine testing between 1996 and 1999 was analyzed by the multiple dilution tube methods used to detect the most probable number of total and fecal coliforms. These samples were obtained in the region of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. RESULTS: The highest numbers water samples contaminated by TC (83% and FC (48% were found in the untreated water. TC and FC in samples taken from reservoirs used to store treated water was higher than that from taps midway along distribution lines. Among the treated water samples examined, coliform bacteria were found in 171 of the 1,033 sampling reservoirs. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient treatment or regrowth is suggested by the observation that more than 17% of these treated potable water contained coliform. TC and FC positive samples appear to be similar and seasonally influenced in treated water. Two different periods must be considered for the occurrence of both TC and FC positive samples: (i a warm-weather period (September-March with high percentage of contaminated samples; and (ii cold-weather period (April-August were they are lower. Both TC and TF positive samples declined with the decreased of water temperature.

Nogueira Giovani

2003-01-01

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Assessing the Impact of Land Cover and Storm Activity on the Basic Water Quality of Urban Streams in Louisville, Kentucky  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban streams are often characterized by diminished water quality resulting from an increase in polluted urban runoff. Storm activity further reduces urban stream water quality by temporarily increasing stormwater discharge from sanitary sewer overflows. This study investigates the impact of land cover on a series of basic water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, pH and temperature) across five urban watersheds located within the city of Louisville, Kentucky during a storm event in March of 2013. The relationship between land cover and water quality parameters are examined statistically before, during and after the storm event at sites located at each watershed outlet using the spearmans rho and Kruskal Wallis tests. Storm activity caused a temporary increase and associated decrease in variance in water temperature across all watersheds before recovering to similar pre-storm values. Dissolved oxygen and pH values subsequently decreased, and failed to return to similar pre-storm values, while specific conductance was the only variable to increase in variance during the storm. Further results indicated that there were significant negative relationships between the percentage of urban cover in each watershed with dissolved oxygen and pH before, during and after storm activity. The number of sanitary sewer overflows upstream of each gauge produced a similar result. Kruskal Wallis analysis further highlighted that there were highly significant differences in the median values of all water quality variables between the watersheds and time periods before, during and after storm activity. Results from this research may be used to guide further research into the spatial and temporal impact of storms on urban watershed quality across the city.

Day, C. A.

2013-12-01

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Sidestream Elevated Pool Aeration, a Technology for Improving Water Quality in Urban Rivers  

Science.gov (United States)

Dissolved Oxygen (DO) levels are frequently depleted in rivers located in urban areas, as in the case of the Matanza-Riachuelo River in Buenos Aires, Argentina. This stream receives both domestic and industrial loads which have received minor or no treatment before being discharged into the water body. Major sources of pollution include, but are not limited, to leather and meat packing industries. Additionally, deep slow moving water in the river is associated with limited reaeration and facilitates deposition of organic-rich sediment, therefore exacerbating the DO consumption through sediment oxygen demand. In this study we assessed the efficiency of Sidestream Elevated Pool Aeration (SEPA) stations as a technology for alleviating conditions characterized by severely low DO levels. A SEPA station takes water from the stream at low DO concentrations, through a screw pump; then, water is transported to an elevated pool from where it flows over a series of weirs for water reaeration; finally, the aerated water is discharged back into the river sufficiently downstream from the intake point. This system mimics a phenomenon that occurs in mountain streams, where water is purified by bubbling over rocks. The impact of the use of SEPA stations on the DO concentrations in the Matanza-Riachuelo River was evaluated at both local and reach scales: this was done by deploying and monitoring an in situ pilot SEPA station, and by performing numerical modeling for the evaluation of the hydrodynamics in the SEPA station and the water quality in the reach where SEPA stations are planned to be implemented. An efficiency of aeration of 99% was estimated from DO measurements in the pilot SEPA, showing the potential of this technology for DO recovery in urban streams. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling, besides assisting in the design of the pilot SEPA, has allowed for designing a prototype SEPA to be built soon. Finally, one-dimensional water quality modeling has provided the optimum number of SEPA stations required to meet a minimum DO concentration standard of 2 mg/l along the whole reach of interest, for future implementation of other SEPA stations, which would have an additional value in terms of landscape aesthetics as they can be used as recreational waterfall parks.

Motta, D.; Garcia, T.; Abad, J. D.; Bombardelli, F. A.; Waratuke, A.; Garcia, M. H.

2010-12-01

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Spatio-temporal variability of surface water quality of fresh water resources in Ranchi Urban Agglomeration, India using geospatial techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Study was conducted in Ranchi Urban Agglomeration (RUA) to assess the surface water quality of major rivers and reservoirs during pre- and post-monsoon periods. Study indicated increase in chemical contaminants and decrease in biological contaminants during monsoon periods and a positive correlation with built-up land within the catchment of surface water sources. The remote sensing-based approach indicated Swarnrekha river and tributaries as more encroached by built-up land (0.73 km2 within 50 m buffer) than Jumar river and its tributaries (0.21 km2). For the proper management of the surface water sources in RUA, government attention and interventions are required to minimize the contamination and safeguard the health of local residents.

Pandey, Arvind Chandra; Kumar, Amit

2014-03-01

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Evaluation of water quality in the Rimac River Basin of Peru: Huaycoloro urban subbasin  

Science.gov (United States)

In Peru, the increasing water scarcity and quality deterioration caused public health problems and deterioration of ecosystems that are exacerbated during periods of drought. The most populated basin is the Rimac River which rises in the Andes, between 4000 and 6000 meters and flow into the Pacific Ocean. This basin has pollution problems and a clear example is the Huaycoloro urban subbasin that originated in 2005, the creation of multi-sectoral technical committee for the recovery of health and environmental quality of the Huaycoloro subbasin (DIGESA, 2006a). The objective of this work is the need to generate and evaluate information on water quality in the Huaycoloro subbasin, quantifying physicochemical and microbiological parameters in four monitoring stations for a period from October 1, 2006 to April 24, 2010. The monitoring was conducted in the dry season because the Huaycoloro subbasin is a dry riverbed and therefore this is the critical period for evaluation. Initially samples were taken every two weeks during the months of October and November 2006. In 2007 were sampled monthly in April, June and September. In the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 surveys were conducted once a year, in the months of October, May and April respectively. Wide variations in the results of the various parameters analyzed in each of the stations mainly be explained by differences in the frequency of discharge of domestic and industrial effluent without prior treatment, effluent turn change in quantity and quality according to the various processes associated with each activity. Domestic effluents from populations that do not have sewer, industrial effluents from tannery correspond to activities, laundry, dairy, brewing and other. During field trips, we could be determined, in some instances, significant changes in water quality in a short period of time (one hour or less), manifested by changes in color fluctuations of water and the solids content in suspension. We obtained total chromium present in concentrations which in some cases exceeds the regulated value (0.043, 0.25, 0.067 and 0.080 mg/l for ES-1, ES-2, ES-3 and ES-4, respectively). This behavior is explained especially by effluent discharges tannery activities carried out in the study area. The relationship BOD5/COD in all cases where it has been determined is less than 0.2 or exceeds narrowly except values 0.51 and 0.74 corresponding to the second sampling 2007 to IS -1 and the sampling of 2008 for ES-3. The relationship between the COD and BOD5 gives an idea of the nature of the organic pollutants contained in the water (Orozco et al, 2003). Thus, these results are located generally below or slightly above 0.2, indicates that the compounds organics in the different sampling stations are predominantly non-biodegradable organic in nature. This study indicates that the Huaycoloro urban subbasin is being highly impacted by domestic and industrial discharges so it is necessary to strengthen environmental management mechanisms to improve its environmental quality with the participation of all actors involved in this water resources.

Baldeón Quispe, W.; Vela Cardich, R.; Huamán Paredes, F.

2013-05-01

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Quantifying Land Use and Land Cover Effects on Urban Runoff Water Quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of non-point source pollution on urban storm runoff is of major concern in the Southwest where water resources are scarce, episodic rainfall is intense and runoff recharge is a water management strategy. The objectives of this study are to 1) determine the extent to which specific types of urban land use impact the quality of monsoonal rainfall-runoff, and 2) identify pollutant source and modification during transport within urban washes of different types. We installed autosamplers at the outlet of four watersheds in the Tucson, AZ basin, with land uses representative of growing urban centers in the southwest U.S.: 1) commercial; 2) medium and high density residential; 3) low density residential; and 4) mixed use. At each outlet, storm runoff samples were collected at 20 minute intervals during several monsoonal storms. To characterize how pollutants were modified during transport, we installed autosamplers at upstream and downstream locations of a wash. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, organic pollutants, metals, anions, cations and fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli). Preliminary data show that nitrate concentrations were highest in the commercial and low density watersheds (median = 2.53 mg/L and 2.81 mg/L NO3-N, respectively) and lowest in the medium density watershed (median = 1.68 mg/L). Ammonium concentrations were also highest in the commercial and low density watersheds (median = 1.84 mg/L and 1.75 mg/L NH4-N, respectively) and lowest in the medium density watershed (1.28 mg/L). E. coli counts were highest in the commercial (median = 4500 CFU/ml) and lowest in the medium density watershed (median = 61.26 CFU/ml). Over the season, E. coli concentrations decreased in all except the mixed density watershed where they increased as the monsoon progressed. We observed distinct pollutant concentration response patterns to storm events among watersheds. Pollutant concentrations in runoff from commercial and low density watersheds peaked within the first 40 minutes of a storm event and subsequently tapered, whereas concentrations in the middle density watershed increased throughout a storm event. Our study demonstrates that land use type directly and distinctly impacts storm runoff chemical composition, which has significant implications for basin wide pollutant fate and transport. Our data also suggests that the type of runoff drainage system may play an important role in contaminant degradation and subsequent transport.

Gallo, E. L.; Snyder, M. A.; Dejwakh, N. R.; Lohse, K.; Brooks, P. D.; McLain, J. E.; McIntosh, J.; Meixner, T.

2007-12-01

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EVALUATING AN URBAN STREAM RESTORATION PROGRAM FOR IMPROVING WATER QUALITY, IN-STREAM HABITAT, AND BANK STABILITY  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve water quality in urban and suburban areas, watershed managers often incorporate best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the quantity of runoff, as well as minimize pollutants and other stressors contained in stormwater runoff. It is well known that land use practice...

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Microbiological quality of water from hand-dug wells used for domestic purposes in urban communities in Kumasi, Ghana.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Assessment was done on the microbiological quality of water in hand-dug wells in urban communities in Kumasi, Ghana. A total of 256 water samples were taken from eight wells and examined for faecal coliforms, enterococci and helminths. High contamination levels were recorded in the wells, more so in the wet season, with faecal coliforms levels between 6.44 and 10.19 log units and faecal enterococci between 4.23 and 4.85 CFU per 100 ml. Influence on protection and lining of wells on water quality was not pronounced but mechanization reduced contamination significantly by about 3 log units. This study shows a stronger influence of poor sanitation and improper placement of wells on water quality compared to improvements made from lining and protection of wells. In the race to increase access to drinking water in poor urban settlements, quality of groundwater could be a major barrier, if provision of drinking water is not matched with improvements in sanitation and urban planning

Akple, M.; Keraita, Bernard

2011-01-01

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Usage of biotic indices in evaluating the impact of the urban centres on the quality of the water in rivers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The quality of the river waters of the Cri?ul Repede River and the influence of the powerful urban and industrial centre Oradeaupon these have been studied by means of collecting quantitative samples of benthos, for three consecutive years, in a seasonal manner. Thecalculation of the biotic indices that consider the abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates indicating the presence of high qualitative waters(Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera and of those indicating strong loading of the waters and of the under layer of the water ecosystemwith organic matter (Diptera – Chironomidae Family, highlighted an advanced degradation of the water quality, from the upstream towardsthe downstream. Equally, the intensity of the process of degradation of the water quality has been established, which, in the case of this river,is very strong and visible by the increasing prevalence of groups that do not require special ecological conditions, proving to be resistive andeven proliferating in the presence of intense pollution of the water.

Adrian Sinitean

2012-06-01

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Monitoring Urban River Water Quality Using Macroinvertebrate and Physico-Chemical Parameters: Case study of Penchala River, Malaysia  

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Full Text Available A study have been carried on urban river, Sungai Penchala to assess the river water quality by using benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicator and also standard Department of Environment (DOE water quality measurement for physical-chemical analysis of Water Quality Index (WQI. Sampling for benthic macroinvertebrate and water sample was done on 3 sampling sites, named upstream (S1, middle stream (S2 and downstream (S3. The benthic macroinvertebrate sampling was done in the same day at the same place the water samples were collected in 5 replicates, while the water samples were collected in 3 replicates for each river section. The benthic macroinvertebrates was sampled using Surber’s net and water measurement for dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and conductivity was measured in-situ using HYDROLAB Quanta®, multi-parameter water quality instrument. Collected water sample was transferred to laboratory for measurement of total suspended solid, BOD5, chemical oxygen demand and ammoniacal nitrogen. The result from the assessment show that Sungai Penchala is classified as having good water quality on the upstream section but the water quality distorted in the middle and downstream section based on WQI and BMWP score. Non-parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis test show that most water parameter are significantly differ among river section (p>0.05, ? = 0.05.

Ahmad Abas Kutty

2013-01-01

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The influence of land use on water quality and diatom community structures in urban and agriculturally stressed rivers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Epilithic diatom communities offer a holistic and integrated approach for assessing water quality as they remain in one place for a number of months and reflect an ecological memory of water quality over a period of time. The objective of this study is to use diatom assemblages to distinguish betwee [...] n particular land types and associated water quality impacts that are linked to these land-use patterns. Water quality and diatom community data were collected from sites in the Crocodile and Magalies Rivers (Gauteng and North West Province, South Africa) associated with agricultural, urban and natural (reference) adjacent land use respectively. The data collected were subjected to multivariate statistical techniques to analyse spatial and temporal patterns in water quality (principal component analysis) and diatom community structures (non-metric multidimensional scaling) to elucidate hypothesised differences in community structure per land-use type. Five diatom response indices (Generic Diatom Index, Specific Pollution Sensitivity Index, Biological Diatom Index, Eutrophication/Pollution Index and Percentage Pollution Tolerant Valves) incorporated in the OMNIDIA software were implemented to assess the integrity of diatom communities per land-use type. Principle component ordination of water quality describes 56.6% of the variation in data observed, and indicates the separation of reference sites from test sites for low and high flow conditions combined. It was, however, not possible to distinguish between the agricultural and urban land-use sites using PCA based on water quality data. One-way ANOSIM showed a significant difference (p 0.05) between groups made up of sites exhibiting the same land-use patterns. Diatom indices showed that agricultural sites were in a slightly more modified ecological state than urban sites overall. Based on the species similarity (SIMPER analyses), reference sites showed strong associations with Achnanthes minutissima, Gomphonema venusta and Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta, whilst urban sites were associated with Diatoma vulgaris, Navicula tripunctata and Amphora pediculus. Agriculture could be separated into high- and low-intensity practices based on species composition. Sites where high-intensity agriculture took place were dominated by motile species of the genus Nitzschia, and low-intensity agriculture was indicated by motile species of the genus Navicula. Urban sites contained a combination of species that were tolerant of spikes in water quality.

G, Walsh; V, Wepener.

2009-10-01

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Water quality indexes in the urban stretch of the River Apodi-Mossoró in Mossoró RN Brazil  

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Full Text Available Water is a basic natural resource for the maintenance of life and is indispensable in all human activities. Since it is a limited natural resource, concern on the conservation of its quality is high, coupled with efficacious mechanisms that may diminish negative environmental impacts. Current analysis applies the Water Quality Index (WQI for hydraulic barriers in the urban stretch of Mossoró RN Brazil and verifies the water body conditions according to usage classes, with special reference to predominant factors and previous classification of the water body. Collection of water for analysis of WQI parameters was undertaken in July 2010 in three barriers within the urban stretch and geo-referenced for the indication of critical sites. Possible exploratory activities linked to the contamination of the water body were listed. An evaluation of rates was undertaken and compared with current legislation guidelines. According to CONAMA n. 357/2005, results showed that analyses during the dry period referred to the salinity of the water body when related to preponderant usage indexes, or Class 1. Total phosphorus failed to comply with rates when parameters were analyzed one by one and compared to standards established by CONAMA n. 357/2005. Water was of good quality at the first barrier and fair in the others from the entrance of the city and downstream, due to the great load of home effluents, agro-industrial wastes and surface runoff.

Joel Medeiros Bezerra

2013-12-01

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Impact of home industries on water quality in a tributary of the Marimba River, Harare: implications for urban water management  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustainable use of water resources requires the integration of demand management with source quality management. The City of Harare is a case in point, where wastewater and runoff from the city flow into its reservoirs. Little has yet been established on the quality of runoff from home industries in the high-density urban environment. In Harare, most of these are located close to streams draining into the city’s reservoirs. The impact of runoff from different land uses on water quality in a tributary of the Marimba River, Kuwadzana high-density suburb, Harare, was assessed. The water quality from two sub-catchments, one of which contained home industries and residential areas and the other, which contained residential areas only, was compared over the 2001-2002 rainy season. It was found that phosphate (1.08 mg/l), TKN (3.2 mg/l), ammonia (1.14 mg/l), faecal coliforms (1000/100 ml), iron (6.9 mg/l), and lead (0.53 mg/l) were the major water quality pollutants. The SCS-SA model was used to estimate the runoff in different sampling points. Pollution loads for certain parameters were, on average, four times higher in the sub-catchment containing home industries (287 kg total phosphates, 319 kg TKN nitrate, 115 kg ammonia, 744 kg iron and 41 kg lead), than in the sub-catchment containing residential areas only (74kg total phosphates, 50 kg TKN nitrate, 21 kg ammonia, 138 kg iron and 12 kg lead). This is due to the higher runoff volumes from the area containing the home industries, while the pollution concentrations at both representative points where not statistically different. Accordingly, it is recommended that the City authorities should reassess current practice and make provision for sewer and drainage systems and adequate disposal of solid and hazardous wastes in areas zoned for home industries and to improve the solid waste management in high-density areas. Efforts should be made to control the storage of materials and scrap in these areas. Most importantly, the City should reconsider the current practice of zoning home industries close to streams.

Mvungi, A.; Hranova, R. K.; Love, D.

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Stream-Groundwater Interaction Buffers Seasonal Changes in Urban Stream Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban streams in the northeastern United States have large road salt inputs during winter, increased nonpoint sources of inorganic nitrogen, and decreased short-term and permanent storage of nutrients. Meadowbrook Creek, a first order stream in Syracuse, New York, flows along a negative urbanization gradient, from a channelized and armored stream running through the middle of a roadway to a pool-riffle stream meandering through a broad, vegetated floodplain with a riparian aquifer. In this study we investigated how reconnection to groundwater and introduction of riparian vegetation impacted surface water chemistry by making bi-weekly longitudinal surveys of stream water chemistry in the creek from May 2012 until June 2013. Chloride concentrations in the upstream, urban reach of Meadowbrook Creek were strongly influenced by discharge of road salt to the creek during snow melt events in winter and by the chemistry of water draining an upstream retention basin in summer. Chloride concentrations ranged from 161.2 mg/L in August to 2172 mg/L in February. Chloride concentrations in the downstream, 'connected' reach had less temporal variation, ranging from 252.0 mg/L in August to 1049 mg/L in January, and were buffered by groundwater discharge, as the groundwater chloride concentrations during the sampling period ranged from 84.0 to 655.4 mg/L. Groundwater discharge resulted in higher chloride concentrations in summer and lower concentrations in winter in the connected reach relative to the urban reach, minimizing annual variation. In summer, there was little-to-no nitrate in the urban reach due to a combination of limited sources and high primary productivity. In contrast, during the summer, nitrate concentrations reached over 1 mg N/L in the connected reach due to the presence of riparian vegetation and lower nitrate uptake due to cooler temperatures and shading. During the winter, when temperatures fell below freezing, nitrate concentrations in the urban reach increased to around 0.58 mg N/L, but were still lower than the connected reach, which averaged 0.88 mg N/L. Groundwater discharge rates were measured longitudinally along the creek during a constant rate Rhodamine WT injection and also confirmed qualitatively by longitudinal changes in stream sulfate and ?18O. The buffering capability of groundwater discharge in urban systems has implications for managers trying to mitigate the effects of urbanization on surface water.

Ledford, S. H.; Lautz, L. K.

2013-12-01

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EVALUATION OF STREAMBANK RESTORATION ON IN-STREAM WATER QUALITY IN AN URBAN WATERSHED  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this on-going project are to: investigate the effectiveness of streambank restoration techniques on increasing available biological habitat and improving in-stream water quality in an impaired stream; and, demonstrate the utility of continuous water-quality moni...

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Characterization and modeling of urban environmental quality indicators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental problems in the urban area of Belém, Pará, Brazil, deny a large portion of the population critical environmental quality. The present study evaluated the environmental quality of the urban village of União, in a neighborhood called Terra Firme, Belém, Pará. An integrated urban environmental quality index was proposed, based on the modeling of indicators of urban environmental quality, urban livability and quality of treated water. These three indices encompass the variables of water supply, garbage collection, vegetation, sewage, road paving, infrastructure condition of households, the existence of urban equipment for common use, public transport, accessibility, family income, employment conditions, education and quality of treated water. The results of the indicators are: urban environmental quality index, 50.0 points (indicating a regular level of environmental quality; urban livability index, 48.6 points (representing moderate level of livability; and quality index of the treated water, 98.1 points (which is an optimal level of water quality. The arithmetic average of the three indices generated an integrated urban environmental quality of 65.6 points, a good environmental quality level of the urban village housing in União. The interpretation of this integrated index reflects the indicators measured in each index. We conclude that the modeling of urban environmental quality indicators was an important tool for the analysis of urban environmental quality in micro or macro scales, and this allowed us to propose more efficient management and restructuring of the urban environment.

Francisco de Assis Cruz Melo

2013-12-01

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Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

What is in that water that you just drank? Is it just hydrogen and oxygen atoms? Is it safe for drinking? All water is of a certain "quality" (and you can't tell by just looking), but what does "water quality" really mean? Water full of dirt and ...

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Hydrology and water quality of an urban stream reach in the Great Basin--Little Cottonwood Creek near Salt Lake City, Utah, water years 1999-2000  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrology and water quality of an urbanized reach of Little Cottonwood Creek near Salt Lake City, Utah, were examined as part of the Great Salt Lake Basins study, part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program. Physical and chemical properties of the stream were referenced to established aquatic-life criteria as available. Two fixed sampling sites were established on Little Cottonwood Creek with the purpose of determining the influence of urbanization on the water quality of the stream. The fixed-site assessment is a component of the National Water-Quality Assessment surface-water study design used to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of selected water-quality constituents. The occurrence and distribution of major ions, nutrients, trace elements, dissolved and suspended organic carbon, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and suspended sediment were monitored during this study. From October 1998 to September 2000, stream samples were collected at regular intervals at the two fixed sites. Additional samples were collected at these sites during periods of high flow, which included runoff from snowmelt in the headwaters and seasonal thunderstorms in the lower basin.

Gerner, Steven J.; Waddell, Kidd M.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Drinking Water Quality Surveillance in a Vulnerable Urban Ward of Ahmedabad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The World Bank estimates that 21% of all communicable diseases in India are related to unsafe water with diarrhoea alone causing more than 0.1 million deaths annually. The WHO drinking water surveillance parameters of quality, quantity, accessibility, affordability and continuity were assessed in one vulnerable ward of Ahmedabad—a fast growing city in Western India. Interviews with key informants of the ward office, health centre and water supply department, secondary analysis and mapping of field test reports and a questionnaire-based survey of different household types were conducted. We found that Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC supplies water to the ward intermittently for two hours during the day. Housing society clusters supplement their AMC water supply with untested bore-well water. The water quality surveillance system is designed for a twenty-four-hour piped distribution of treated surface water. However, in order to maintain surveillance over an intermittent supply that includes ground water, the sampling process should include periodic surveys of water actually consumed by the citizens. The laboratory capacity of the Central Water Testing Laboratory should expand to include more refined tests for microbial and chemical contamination.

Veena Iyer

2014-05-01

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Assessment of hydrochemical quality of ground water under some urban areas within sana'a secreteriat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Groundwater from nine wells of three different districts, located at Sana'a secretariat was analyzed for hydrochemical quality assessment. Measurements of water quality parameters including pH, EC, CO3(2-), HCO3-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-), Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+, K+, and Na+ were carried out . Classification of [...] the groundwater samples according to Cl, SO4(2-), CO3(2-) and HCO3-, hardness (H), total dissolved solids (TDS), base-exchange, and meteoric genesis was demonstrated. Suitability of ground water samples for irrigation and industrial uses according to sodium adsorption ration (SAR), ratio of dissolved sodium (RDS), residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and saturation index (SI) was also investigated. The results of this study showed that almost all ground water samples were of good quality that makes them suitable for drinking and domestic uses. Results also indicated that even though some of the ground water samples were suitable for irrigation purposes, almost all of them were found not be good for industrial uses. Despite all drawbacks of the sewerage system built around Sana'a secretariat at the beginning of the first decade of the third millennium, the results of this study indicate that there is scope of significant improvement in Sana'a secretariat ground water quality.

Wadie S.T, AL- Ariqi; Abduljalil A.D.S, Ghaleb.

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Urgency for sustainable development in coastal urban areas with reference to weather pattern, land use, and water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water pollution is one of the most critical problems affecting mankind. Weather pattern and land use of catchment area have significant role in quality of water bodies. Due to climate change, there is frequent variation in weather pattern all over the world. There is also rapid change in land use due to increase in population and urbanization. The study was carried out to analyze the effect of change in weather pattern during the monsoon periods of 2008 and 2012 on water quality of a tropical coastal lake system. The nature and extent of variation in different water quality parameters namely electrical conductivity (EC), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), sulphate (SO4), turbidity, Secchi disk depth, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), phosphate (PO4), calcium (Ca), and water temperature as well as the effect of various land use activities in the lake basin on water quality have also been studied. There is significant reduction in precipitation, EC, Mg, Na, Cl, SO4, turbidity, and Secchi disk depths whereas a significant rise in the BOD, PO4, Ca, and water temperature were observed in 2012. This significant reduction in electrical conductivity during 2012 revealed that because of less precipitation, the lake was separated from the sea by the sandbar during most of the monsoon period and thereby interrupted the natural flushing process. This caused the accumulation of organic matter including phosphate and thereby resulting reduction in clarity and chlorophyll-a (algae) in the lake. The unsustainable development activities of Thiruvanathapuram city are mainly responsible for the degradation of water bodies. The lack of maintenance and augmentation activities namely replacement of old pipes and periodical cleaning of pipe lines of the old sewer system in the city results in the bypass of sewage into water bodies. Because of the existence of the old sewerage system, no effort has been taken by the individual establishment/house of the city to provide their own treatment system for sewage and sullage and the untreated wastes are discharged into these old sewer pipes and ultimately the wastes reach the water bodies. In this context, decentralized treatment of sewage, sullage, and garbage by individual houses/establishments/hotels/hospitals is a better option for the developing countries. With the rapid developmental activities, and due to the variation of precipitation due to climate change, it is highly essential to provide proper waste treatment/augmentation facilities in urban lake system because a slight variation in the weather pattern can result in serious implications in the already polluted water bodies. PMID:24415134

Sheela, A M; Letha, J; Swarnalatha, K; Baiju, K V; Sankar, Divya

2014-05-01

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Águas urbanas / Urban waters  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As águas urbanas geralmente incluem abastecimento de água e saneamento. Nessa perspectiva, saneamento envolve a coleta de tratamento de efluentes domésticos e industriais, não inclui drenagem urbana, gestão dos resíduos sólidos, porque ainda perdura uma visão desatualizada da gestão das águas urbana [...] s da cidade. Águas urbanas envolvem componentes que permitem o desenvolvimento ambiental sustentável e utilizam os conceitos da gestão integrada dos recursos hídricos (GIRH), necessários para planejamento, implementação e manutenção da infra-estrutura da cidade. Nesse contexto, ficam denominados Gestão Integrada das Águas Urbanas. Neste artigo, analisam-se o desenvolvimento urbano e suas relações com as águas urbanas no Brasil. A gestão dos recursos hídricos no Brasil é realizada por bacias hidrográficas, e o domínio é federal ou estadual. Examinam-se as possibilidades de gestão da água na cidade e na bacia hidrográfica no contexto institucional brasileiro. Abstract in english Urban Waters systems generally include both water supply & sanitation facilities (WSS). Sanitation refers to domestic and industrial sewage collecting and treatment; it does not include urban stormwater or solid waste management systems. Urban water form components of a sustainable urban environment [...] and the use of the integrated water resource management (IWRM) concepts are needed for planning, implementation and maintenance of urban infrastructure. In urban environment, IWRM is referred to specifically as Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM). In this paper urban development and its relations with urban waters in Brazil are assessed. Management of Water Resources in Brazil is developed by basins and the administration is Federal or from the state. This article assess the alternatives of water management in the city and the basin in the Brazilian institutional environment.

Carlos E. M., Tucci.

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Águas urbanas Urban waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As águas urbanas geralmente incluem abastecimento de água e saneamento. Nessa perspectiva, saneamento envolve a coleta de tratamento de efluentes domésticos e industriais, não inclui drenagem urbana, gestão dos resíduos sólidos, porque ainda perdura uma visão desatualizada da gestão das águas urbanas da cidade. Águas urbanas envolvem componentes que permitem o desenvolvimento ambiental sustentável e utilizam os conceitos da gestão integrada dos recursos hídricos (GIRH, necessários para planejamento, implementação e manutenção da infra-estrutura da cidade. Nesse contexto, ficam denominados Gestão Integrada das Águas Urbanas. Neste artigo, analisam-se o desenvolvimento urbano e suas relações com as águas urbanas no Brasil. A gestão dos recursos hídricos no Brasil é realizada por bacias hidrográficas, e o domínio é federal ou estadual. Examinam-se as possibilidades de gestão da água na cidade e na bacia hidrográfica no contexto institucional brasileiro.Urban Waters systems generally include both water supply & sanitation facilities (WSS. Sanitation refers to domestic and industrial sewage collecting and treatment; it does not include urban stormwater or solid waste management systems. Urban water form components of a sustainable urban environment and the use of the integrated water resource management (IWRM concepts are needed for planning, implementation and maintenance of urban infrastructure. In urban environment, IWRM is referred to specifically as Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM. In this paper urban development and its relations with urban waters in Brazil are assessed. Management of Water Resources in Brazil is developed by basins and the administration is Federal or from the state. This article assess the alternatives of water management in the city and the basin in the Brazilian institutional environment.

Carlos E. M. Tucci

2008-01-01

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Chloride dynamics in a restored urban stream and the influence of road salts on water quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the connection between road salts and water quality is essential to assess the implications for human health and ecosystem services from these widely used de-icers. Preliminary analysis identified a probable connection between road salt application and a stream wat...

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Urban Water Resources Management  

Science.gov (United States)

The Urban Water Resources Management Web site is maintained by the Global Development Research Center. The center "carries out initiatives in education, research and practice, in the spheres of environment, urban, community, economy and information, and at scales that are effective." The site contains information and links to topics such as understanding the importance of water; organizations and institutions; documents and information repositories; initiatives, programs, and projects; and more.

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Water quality and health in a Sahelian semi-arid urban context: an integrated geographical approach in Nouakchott, Mauritania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to sufficient quantities of safe drinking water is a human right. Moreover, access to clean water is of public health relevance, particularly in semi-arid and Sahelian cities due to the risks of water contamination and transmission of water-borne diseases. We conducted a study in Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania, to deepen the understanding of diarrhoeal incidence in space and time. We used an integrated geographical approach, combining socio-environmental, microbiological and epidemiological data from various sources, including spatially explicit surveys, laboratory analysis of water samples and reported diarrhoeal episodes. A geospatial technique was applied to determine the environmental and microbiological risk factors that govern diarrhoeal transmission. Statistical and cartographic analyses revealed concentration of unimproved sources of drinking water in the most densely populated areas of the city, coupled with a daily water allocation below the recommended standard of 20 l per person. Bacteriological analysis indicated that 93% of the non-piped water sources supplied at water points were contaminated with 10-80 coliform bacteria per 100 ml. Diarrhoea was the second most important disease reported at health centres, accounting for 12.8% of health care service consultations on average. Diarrhoeal episodes were concentrated in municipalities with the largest number of contaminated water sources. Environmental factors (e.g. lack of improved water sources) and bacteriological aspects (e.g. water contamination with coliform bacteria) are the main drivers explaining the spatio-temporal distribution of diarrhoea. We conclude that integrating environmental, microbiological and epidemiological variables with statistical regression models facilitates risk profiling of diarrhoeal diseases. Modes of water supply and water contamination were the main drivers of diarrhoea in this semi-arid urban context of Nouakchott, and hence require a strategy to improve water quality at the various levels of the supply chain. PMID:24258883

Traoré, Doulo; Sy, Ibrahima; Utzinger, Jürg; Epprecht, Michael; Kengne, Ives M; Lô, Baidy; Odermatt, Peter; Faye, Ousmane; Cissé, Guéladio; Tanner, Marcel

2013-11-01

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Monitoring marine recreational water quality using multiple microbial indicators in an urban tropical environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The microbial water quality at two beaches, Hobie Beach and Crandon Beach, in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA was measured using multiple microbial indicators for the purpose of evaluating correlations between microbes and for identifying possible sources of contamination. The indicator microbes chosen for this study (enterococci, Escherichia coli, fecal coliform, total coliform and C. perfringens) were evaluated through three different sampling efforts. These efforts included daily measureme...

Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-gabriele, Helena M.; Fleming, Lora E.; Elmir, Samir

2004-01-01

70

Low impact urban design by closing the urban water cycle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Current fast urbanization and increasing quality of life result in increments on resources’ demand. Increasing resources demand implies as well increments on waste production. However, limited availability of resources such us: oil, fresh water, phosphorus, metals (Boyle et al., 2010, Gordon et al., 2006; Rockström et al., 2009) and limited earth’s productive and carrying capacity (Rees, 1999) are potential restrictions to urban growth and urban sustainability. These pressures, ...

Agudelo Vera, C. M.; Mels, A. R.; Keesman, K. J.; Rijnaarts, H. H. M.

2011-01-01

71

Water- and sediment-quality effects on Pimephales promelas spawning vary along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient  

Science.gov (United States)

Many streams in the U.S. are "impaired" due to anthropogenic influence. For watershed managers to achieve practical understanding of these impairments, a multitude of factors must be considered, including point and nonpoint-source influence on water quality. A spawning assay was developed in this study to evaluate water- and sediment-quality effects that influenced Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) egg production over a gradient of urban and agricultural land use in 27 small watersheds in Eastern Wisconsin. Six pairs of reproducing fathead minnows were contained in separate mesh cartridges within one larger flow-through chamber. Water- and sediment quality were sampled for an array of parameters. Egg production was monitored for each pair providing an assessment of spawning success throughout the 21-day test periods. Incidences of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in many of these streams negatively impacted spawning success. Nine of 27 streams experienced DO less than 3.1. mg/L and 15 streams experienced DO less than 4.8. mg/L. Low DO was observed in urban and agricultural watersheds, but the upper threshold of minimum DO decreased with increasing urban development. An increase in specific conductance was related to a decrease in spawning success. In previous studies for streams in this region, specific conductance had a linear relation with chloride, suggesting the possibility that chloride could be a factor in egg production. Egg production was lower at sites with substantial urban development, but sites with low egg production were not limited to urban sites. Degradation of water- and sediment-quality parameters with increasing urban development is indicated for multiple parameters while patterns were not detected for others. Results from this study indicate that DO must be a high priority watershed management consideration for this region, specific conductance should be investigated further to determine the mechanism of the relation with egg production, and water- and sediment-quality degrade in relation to urban influence. ?? 2011.

Corsi, S. R.; Klaper, R. D.; Weber, D. N.; Bannerman, R. T.

2011-01-01

72

Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1 the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2 administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3 the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4 planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development.

Hua-peng Qin

2014-10-01

73

EPA'S URBAN RESEARCH PROGRAM IN BMPS AND RESTORATION FOR WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The Urban Watershed Management Branch is responsible for developing, and demonstrating technologies and methods required to managing the risk to public health, property and the environment from wet weather flows (WWF) in urban watersheds. The activities are primarily aimed at re...

74

Valuing water quality in urban watersheds: A comparative analysis of Johnson Creek, Oregon, and Burnt Bridge Creek, Washington  

Science.gov (United States)

study uses the hedonic price method to investigate the effect of five water quality parameters on the sale price of single-family residential properties in two urbanized watersheds in the Portland, Oregon-Vancouver, Washington metropolitan area. Water quality parameters include E. coli or fecal coliform, which can affect human health, decrease water clarity and generate foul odors; pH, dissolved oxygen, and stream temperature, which can impact fish and wildlife populations; and total suspended solids, which can affect water clarity, aquatic life, and aesthetics. Properties within ¼ mile, ½, mile, one mile, or more than one mile from Johnson Creek are estimated to experience an increase in sale price of 13.71%, 7.05%, 8.18%, and 3.12%, respectively, from a one mg/L increase in dissolved oxygen levels during the dry season (May-October). Estimates for a 100 count per 100 mL increase in E. coli during the dry season are -2.81% for properties within ¼ mile of Johnson Creek, -0.86% (½ mile), -1.19% (one mile), and -0.71% (greater than one mile). Results for properties in Burnt Bridge Creek include a significantly positive effect for a one mg/L increase in dissolved oxygen levels during the dry season for properties within ½ mile (4.49%), one mile (2.95%), or greater than one mile from the creek (3.17%). Results for other water quality parameters in Burnt Bridge Creek are generally consistent with a priori expectations. Restoration efforts underway in both study areas might be cost justified based on their estimated effect on property sale prices.

Netusil, Noelwah R.; Kincaid, Michael; Chang, Heejun

2014-05-01

75

Water quality laboratories in Colombia: a GIS-based study of urban and rural accessibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to quantify sample transportation times associated with mandated microbiological monitoring of drinking-water in Colombia. World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality recommend that samples spend no more than 6h between collection and analysis in a laboratory. Census data were used to estimate the minimum number of operational and surveillance samples required from piped water supplies under national regulations. Drive-times were then computed from each supply system to the nearest accredited laboratory and translated into sample holding times based on likely daily monitoring patterns. Of 62,502 surveillance samples required annually, 5694 (9.1%) were found to be more than 6 h from the nearest of 278 accredited laboratories. 612 samples (1.0%) were more than 24 hours' drive from the nearest accredited laboratory, the maximum sample holding time recommended by the World Health Organization. An estimated 30% of required rural samples would have to be stored for more than 6 h before reaching a laboratory. The analysis demonstrates the difficulty of undertaking microbiological monitoring in rural areas and small towns from a fixed laboratory network. Our GIS-based approach could be adapted to optimise monitoring strategies and support planning of testing and transportation infra-structure development. It could also be used to estimate sample transport and holding times in other countries. PMID:24747256

Wright, Jim; Liu, Jing; Bain, Robert; Perez, Andrea; Crocker, Jonny; Bartram, Jamie; Gundry, Stephen

2014-07-01

76

Effects of Agriculture and Urbanization on Quality of Shallow Ground Water in the Arid to Semiarid Western United States, 1993-2004  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the Western United States, agricultural and rural lands are being developed into commercial and residential areas. With changes in land use and increasing population, greater demands are placed on water resources for agricultural, industrial, and domestic supplies. Many areas in the Western United States rely exclusively on ground water as their source of drinking water. Areas that use surface-water resources often need to supplement this supply with ground water. Generally, shallow ground water is susceptible to fluctuating water quality within relatively short time scales and therefore can be used as an indicator of land-use stresses that may, in time, affect deep aquifer systems. This regional study examines data on shallow ground-water quality collected from 1993 to 2004 from 273 agricultural and 181 urban wells from 7 U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment study units in Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, south-central Colorado, and Utah. This report determines important influences that land-use practices may have on the quality of recently recharged ground water, which may ultimately affect deep water supplies within the region. The results of this investigation show that nitrate, the principal species of nitrogen present in ground water, exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter in water from more than 25 percent of agricultural wells and 10 percent of urban wells. In agricultural areas, the probability of exceeding the USEPA MCL for nitrate is influenced primarily by three factors: fertilizer use, irrigation, and aquifer oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions. At the study-unit level, differences in nutrient concentrations between agricultural and urban land use likely are influenced by ground-water redox conditions within respective aquifer systems. The most commonly detected pesticides belonged to the triazine, urea, amide, and carbamate classes. The triazine herbicides were the predominant pesticides present in both agricultural and urban areas. Simazine and diuron were most frequently detected in shallow ground water within agricultural areas, whereas atrazine, prometon, and tebuthiruon were more commonly detected in urban areas. The carbamate pesticides and the amide, metolachlor, were infrequently detected. Pesticide concentrations in shallow ground water within agricultural or urban land-use settings did not exceed established USEPA MCLs for drinking water. Generally, factors that influenced the detection of pesticides in shallow ground water in the regional area were dissolved oxygen, general soil permeability characteristics, temperature, and depth to screened interval. The most commonly detected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within urban areas were the trihalomethanes (THMs), solvents, and the fuel oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl-ether (MTBE). The most frequently detected THM was chloroform and the primary detected solvents were tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). Soil fumigants were detected almost entirely within an agricultural area in the Central Valley of California. The predominant fumigant detected was dibromochloropropane (DBCP), and its occurrence may be a result of its persistence and past use as a soil fumigant. THM concentrations did not exceed the USEPA MCL of 80 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for total THMs in any sample. Two ground-water samples collected within urban areas in Nevada exceeded the USEPA MCL for TCE (5 ?g/L) and the drinking-water advisory for MTBE (20-40 ?g/L). The PCE concentration in one sample from the urban area in Utah and five samples from urban areas within Nevada exceeded the 5 ?g/L MCL. An important factor affecting the detection frequencies of VOCs was the ground-water redox condition. Chloroform and PCE were detected more frequently in well-oxygenated ground water, whereas MTBE was detected more frequently in less-oxygenated water. Multivar

Paul, Angela P.; Seiler, Ralph L.; Rowe, Timothy G.; Rosen, Michael R.

2007-01-01

77

Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Urban Growth Using Land Use/Land Cover, Water Quality and Health Indicators: A Case Study of Arequipa, Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This research assesses the direct effects of urban expansion on land cover/use, river flow, water quality and the indirect effects of these variables in the rate of gastrointestinal disease in people in Arequipa, Peru through the combined use of satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems. Approach: It also uses information about demographic changes, hydrologic data and land cover change in the Arequipa region for the last 17 years. The goal is to understand the relationship between urbanization, water quality in the Chili River and incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. Results: Landsat imagery was used to determine this relationship and to extrapolate business as usual trends into the future ten years from now. Results indicate that there has been notable urban growth and a loss in volcanic material land and cropland between 1990 and 2007, as new urban developments have appeared in these areas. The population expansion over volcanically active area is particularly troubling since it poses a potential human health risk. We also model a business as usual scenario out to the year 2020, which shows continued loss of these land use types and serves as a warning for land managers to consider alternate policies. Conclusion/Recommendations: The analysis also shows a direct correlation between urbanization with the decrease of water quality and the increase in the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases.

O. V. Carpio

2011-01-01

78

Water and sediment quality, nutrient biochemistry and pollution loads in an urban freshwater lake: balancing human and ecological services.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimizing the utility of constructed waterways as residential development with water-frontage, along with a productive and functional habitat for wildlife is of considerable interest to managers. This study examines Lake Hugh Muntz, a large (17 ha) freshwater lake built in Gold Coast City, Australia. A ten year water quality monitoring programme shows that the lake has increasing nutrient concentrations, and together with summer algal blooms, the lake amenity as a popular recreational swimming and triathlon training location is at risk. A survey of fish and aquatic plant communities showed that the lake supports a sub-set of species found in adjacent natural wetlands. Sediment contaminants were below the lower Australian trigger values, except As, Hg, Pb and Zn, probably a function of untreated and uncontrolled stormwater runoff from nearby urban roads. Sediment biogeochemistry showed early signs of oxygen depletion, and an increase in benthic organic matter decomposition and oxygen consumption will result in more nitrogen recycled to the water column as NH4(+) (increasing the intensity of summer algal blooms) and less nitrogen lost to the atmosphere as N2 gas via denitrification. A series of catchment restoration initiatives were modeled and the optimal stormwater runoff restoration effort needed for lake protection will be costly, particularly retrospective, as is the case here. Overall, balancing the lifestyles and livelihoods of residents along with ecosystem protection are possible, but require considerable trade-offs between ecosystem services and human use. PMID:25384753

Waltham, Nathan J; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda; McCann, Damian; Eyre, Bradley D

2014-11-19

79

Urban sustainability and integrated urban water management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aims to point out the features of cities and sustainable urban development, integrated management of water resources and the relationship between them, the basic principles and the advantages of their application in future sustainable development of cities. The method is based on the analysis of bibliographical information relating to sustainable urban development.

Vladut-Severian Iacob

2013-12-01

80

Urban air quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. led growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate more traffic and may thus have the opposite effect. (author)

 
 
 
 
81

Primer on Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

... water quality. What do we mean by "water quality"? Water quality can be thought of as a measure ... as birds. How do natural processes affect water quality? Natural water quality varies from place to place, with the ...

82

Urban water supply and management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Population growth and rapid urbanization lead to considerable stress on already depleting water resources. A great challenge for water authorities of urban cities is to supply adequate and reliable safe water to all consumers. In most of the developing countries water scarcity and high demands have led the water authorities to resort to intermittent supplies. Surface and groundwater are the major sources of supply in urban cities. The direct consequences of intermittent supplies and poor sani...

Kumar, Mohan Ms; Manohar, Usha; Pallavi, Mrm; Anjana, Gr

2013-01-01

83

Northwest Florida estuaries: an overview from urban growth models to water quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Estuarine and coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico possess major ecological and economic resources that support a quality of life that makes this region a popular place to live and work. Florida?s largest economic driver is tourism and recreation, which is typically connected t...

84

Chironomidae and Oligochaeta for water quality evaluation in an urban river in southeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considering the importance of benthic macroinvertebrates for diagnosis of variations in the ecological conditions of aquatic habitats, the aim of this study was to investigate the structure of the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages along an organic pollution gradient. The fauna specimens were obtained with the use of artificial substrates, and the environmental variables were recorded at five sites of the São Lourenço River, during 12 months. Metrics of the assemblage and detrended correspondence analysis were used to verify the response of the fauna to the pollution gradient. Procrustes analysis was used to verify whether the data on the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages, as well as the taxonomic and numerical resolution of these groups, provide similar results in relation to the pollution gradient. The richness, evenness, and taxonomic composition of the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages varied significantly among the collection sites, with distinct conservation conditions. Genera of the subfamilies Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae were associated with the sites upstream of the urban area, where the dissolved oxygen levels are higher. Species of Oligochaeta and the genus Chironomus were associated with more organically polluted sites. No concordance was observed in the response of the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages in relation to the environmental variables, indicating the need to use both groups in biomonitoring studies. On the other hand, both the data on composition (presence or absence) and those on the lowest taxonomic resolution (abundance of subfamilies) were effective to diagnose the pollution gradient in the river studied. Therefore, when the environmental conditions along a river's gradient are contrasting, we suggest the use of the lowest taxonomic resolution of Chironomidae and Oligochaeta in biomonitoring. That procedure considerably reduces the assessment time, besides being a method that can be used by people not specializing in the taxonomy of groups. PMID:25130902

Rosa, Beatriz Jabour Figueiraujo Vescovi; Rodrigues, Luciana Falci Theza; de Oliveira, Gilmar Simões; da Gama Alves, Roberto

2014-11-01

85

Evaluation of Green Roof Water Quantity and Quality Performance in an Urban Climate  

Science.gov (United States)

In this report we present an analysis of water benefits from an array of observed green roof and control (non-vegetated) roof project sites throughout NYC. The projects are located on a variety of building sites and represent a diverse set of available extensive green roof instal...

86

Air quality and urban management in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

Alberti, M. [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

1995-12-31

87

A new mixing-oxygenating technology for water quality improvement of urban water source and its implication in a reservoir  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Water-lifting Aerator, which is a retrofit of the hydraulic gun, was developed to oxygenate lower-layer water and mix the water on the upper and lower layers in stratified reservoirs where pollutants increase from sediments because of anoxic condition in the lower-layer water. The Fenhe reservoir began to supply raw water to the drinking water treatment plant of the City of Taiyuan, China in 2004. The surface of the reservoir froze in winter, and the lower-layer water above the reservoir bed became anoxic because of oxygen consumption by the sediments. Hence, ammonia-nitrogen released from the sediments and trapped in the lower-layer water. After the ice surface thawed in spring, the ammonia-nitrogen in the deepwater was brought up owing to the wind-wave mixing processes. Thus the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen in the outlet water exceeded the permitted level, and the water supply from the Fenhe reservoir had to be cut off. To solve the problem, the Water-lifting Aerator system was installed in the reservoir in the winter of 2005, the dissolved oxygen concentration in the lower-layer water has been maintained at more than 3 mg/L and the ammonia-nitrogen concentration has been reduced to less than 0.1 mg/L. The ammonia-nitrogen concentration in the outlet water is a 95% reduction compared to the same period of last year before the system installation. Since then the water supply from the Fenhe reservoir has no longer been interrupted. Compared with traditional water treatment technology to remove ammonia-nitrogen, the new technology saves energy for 77%. (author)

Cong, Hai-Bing; Huang, Ting-Lin; Chai, Bei-Bei; Zhao, Jian-Wei [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, 13 Yanta Road, Xi' an, 710055 Shaanxi Province (China)

2009-09-15

88

Water phenomenon: Urban morphology transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research paper deals with the mutual dependence of water phenomenon and urban morphology. Water is a basic subject matter of many analyses, and it is considered a principal existential and vital generator of the formation, sustainability and transformation of different types of cities. The water relevant facts are here presented from the aspect of elementary criteria of generative factors of typification of cities and relationship between urban landscapes and water. By integrating well-known urban and technical factors with presence of water on a surface model, optimum results are obtained with respect to water percentage in cities. Overall results of the research represent an instruction for future transformations of urban structures encouraged by water presence.

?akari? Jasenka

2010-01-01

89

Lake Jackson watershed study: description of sites, methodology and scope of research. [Impact of urbanization on water quality and geochemistry of watershed of recreational lake in north Florida  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lake Jackson watershed study was undertaken to quantify changes in water quality and geochemical exports resulting from urbanization within the 11,900 hectare watershed of a recreational lake in north Florida. Three subbasins of 430, 611, and 792 hectares in size and otherwise similar in all respects except land-use were instrumented for intensive hydrologic and chemical monitoring during a two-year period (June 1973--May 1976). Two of these subbasins offered considerable contrast in major land use: rapidly developing urban versus stable forested-agricultural. The third subbasin was intermediate between these extremes of land use. The streams draining the subbasins were generally intermittent with respect to flow and thus major emphasis was placed on characterizing storm events. Hydrologic records for each water sampling station were studied and water samples were collected both manually and by automatic discrete samplers. Constituents measured included suspended solids, dissolved solids, chloride, dissolved silicon, and dissolved nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). The data obtained in this study are being used to identify and explore the hydrochemical consequences of urbanization on a small drainage basin scale.

Turner, R.R.; Burton, T.M.; Harriss, R.C.

1977-01-01

90

Urban air quality in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book provides an overview of air quality in urban environments in Europe, focusing on air pollutant emission sources and formation mechanisms, measurement and modeling strategies, and future perspectives. The emission sources described are biomass burning, vehicular traffic, industry and agriculture, but also African dust and long-range transport of pollutants across the European regions. The impact of these emission sources and processes on atmospheric particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen oxides and volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is discussed and critical areas for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in Europe are identified. Finally, this volume presents future perspectives, mainly regarding upcoming air quality monitoring strategies, metrics of interest, such as submicron and nanoparticles, and indoor and outdoor exposure scenarios.

Viana, Mar (ed.) [Spanish Research Council - CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. for Environmental Assessment and Water Research

2013-07-01

91

Urban air quality in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book provides an overview of air quality in urban environments in Europe, focusing on air pollutant emission sources and formation mechanisms, measurement and modeling strategies, and future perspectives. The emission sources described are biomass burning, vehicular traffic, industry and agriculture, but also African dust and long-range transport of pollutants across the European regions. The impact of these emission sources and processes on atmospheric particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen oxides and volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is discussed and critical areas for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in Europe are identified. Finally, this volume presents future perspectives, mainly regarding upcoming air quality monitoring strategies, metrics of interest, such as submicron and nanoparticles, and indoor and outdoor exposure scenarios.

92

Final report for the IAEA urban aquifers RCA : determining the effects of storm water infiltration on groundwater quality in an urban fractured rock aquifer, Auckland, New Zealand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Disposal of storm water in the Mt Eden-Mt Albert area of Auckland, New Zealand, is via ''soak holes'' drilled directly into the top of the fractured basalt. These soak holes receive storm water and sediment runoff from city streets throughout Mt Eden. Although this method of disposal has been used for at least 60 years, its sustainability with respect to groundwater quality has not been addressed. This study aimed to determine the impact of soakage on the chemical and isotopic composition of the groundwater. In addition, sediments captured by the soak holes were analysed to determine their effectiveness at trapping contaminants. Groundwater samples were collected between August 1998 and August 1999. Three sampling trips were carried out after rainfall events in October 1998, April 1999 and August 1999. Samples were analysed for major and trace components, including nutrients, dissolved and total heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Ni), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and stable and radiogenic isotopes. Cores of sediment collected in the soak holes were analysed for major components, total and leachable heavy metals, and PAHs to determine the ability of the sediments to adsorp contaminants. In summary, the Mt Eden aquifer system shows the effect of storm water infiltration rapidly after a rainfall event in some parts of the aquifer. Water quality has been effected in some areas, but in general the water quality is quite good considering the quantity of storm water discharge that has occurred in the area for the past 60 years. The relatively high quality of the water in the wells monitored may be attributed to the ability of the accumulated sediment in the soak holes and the aquifer fractures to trap contaminants. Further research is needed to determine if continued use of the groundwater system as a conduit for storm water infiltration will lead to clogging of the fractures in the aquifer and/or transport of particulates and colloids into the aquifer and a gradual deterioration in groundwater quality. (author). 41 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs

93

Developing a framework to assess the water quality and quantity impacts of climate change, shifting land use, and urbanization in a Midwestern agricultural landscape  

Science.gov (United States)

Dynamic hydrological processes play a critical role in the structure and functioning of agricultural watersheds undergoing urbanization. Developing a predictive understanding of the complex interaction between agricultural productivity, ecosystem health, water quality, urban development, and public policy requires an interdisciplinary effort that investigates the important biophysical and social processes of the system. Our research group has initiated such a framework that includes a coordinated program of integrated scenarios, model experiments to assess the effects of changing drivers on a broad set of ecosystem services, evaluations of governance and leverage points, outreach and public engagement, and information management. Our geographic focus is the Yahara River watershed in south-central Wisconsin, which is an exemplar of water-related issues in the Upper Midwest. This research addresses three specific questions. 1) How do different patterns of land use, land cover, land management, and water resources engineering practices affect the resilience and sensitivity of ecosystem services under a changing climate? 2) How can regional governance systems for water and land use be made more resilient and adaptive to meet diverse human needs? 3) In what ways are regional human-environment systems resilient and in what ways are they vulnerable to potential changes in climate and water resources? A comprehensive program of model experiments and biophysical measurements will be utilized to evaluate changes in five freshwater ecosystem services (flood regulation, groundwater recharge, surface water quality, groundwater quality, and lake recreation) and five related ecosystem services (food crop yields, bioenergy crop yields, carbon storage in soil, albedo, and terrestrial recreation). Novel additions to existing biophysical models will allow us to simulate all components of the hydrological cycle as well as agricultural productivity, nitrogen and phosphorus transport, and lake water quality. The integrated model will be validated using a comprehensive observational database that includes soil moisture, evapotranspiration, stomatal conductance, streamflow, stream and lake water quality, and crop yields and productivity. Integrated scenarios will be developed to synthesize decision-maker perspectives, alternative approaches to resource governance, plausible trends in demographic and economic drivers, and model projections under alternate climate and land use regimes to understand future conditions of the watershed and its ecosystem services. The quantitative data and integrated scenarios will then be linked to evaluate governance of water and land use.

Loheide, S. P.; Booth, E. G.; Kucharik, C. J.; Carpenter, S. R.; Gries, C.; Katt-Reinders, E.; Rissman, A. R.; Turner, M. G.

2011-12-01

94

Hydrology, water quality, and response to changes in phosphorus loading of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes, Oneida County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on effects of urbanization  

Science.gov (United States)

Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes are 1,318- and 690-acre interconnected lakes in the popular recreation area of north-central Wisconsin. The lakes are the lower end of a complex chain of lakes in Oneida and Vilas Counties, Wis. There is concern that increased stormwater runoff from rapidly growing residential/commercial developments and impervious surfaces from the urbanized areas of the Town of Minocqua and Woodruff, as well as increased effluent from septic systems around their heavily developed shoreline has increased nutrient loading to the lakes. Maintaining the quality of the lakes to sustain the tourist-based economy of the towns and the area was a concern raised by the Minocqua/Kawaguesaga Lakes Protection Association. Following several small studies, a detailed study during 2006 and 2007 was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minocqua/Kawaguesaga Lakes Protection Association through the Town of Minocqua to describe the hydrology and water quality of the lakes, quantify the sources of phosphorus including those associated with urban development and to better understand the present and future effects of phosphorus loading on the water quality of the lakes. The water quality of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes appears to have improved since 1963, when a new sewage-treatment plant was constructed and its discharge was bypassed around the lakes, resulting in a decrease in phosphorus loading to the lakes. Since the mid-1980s, the water quality of the lakes has changed little in response to fluctuations in phosphorus loading from the watershed. From 1986 to 2009, summer average concentrations of near-surface total phosphorus in the main East Basin of Minocqua Lake fluctuated from 0.009 mg/L to 0.027 mg/L but generally remained less than 0.022 mg/L, indicating that the lake is mesotrophic. Phosphorus concentrations from 1988 through 1996, however, were lower than the long-term average, possibly the result of an extended drought in the area. Water-quality data for Kawaguesaga Lake had a similar pattern to that of Minocqua Lake. Summer average chlorophyll a concentrations and Secchi depths also indicate that the lakes generally are mesotrophic but occasionally borderline eutrophic, with no long-term trends. During the study, major water and phosphorus sources were measured directly, and minor sources were estimated to construct detailed water and phosphorus budgets for the lakes for monitoring years (MY) 2006 and 2007. During these years, the Minocqua Thoroughfare contributed about 38 percent of the total inflow to the lakes, and Tomahawk Thoroughfare contributed 34 percent; near-lake inflow, precipitation, and groundwater contributed about 1, 16, and 11 percent of the total inflow, respectively. Water leaves the lakes primarily through the Tomahawk River outlet (83 percent) or by evaporation (14 percent), with minor outflow to groundwater. Total input of phosphorus to both lakes was about 3,440 pounds in MY 2006 and 2,200 pounds in MY 2007. The largest sources of phosphorus entering the lakes were the Minocqua and Tomahawk Thoroughfares, which delivered about 39 and 26 percent of the total, respectively. The near-lake drainage area, containing most of the urban and residential developments, disproportionately accounted for about 12 percent of the total phosphorus input but only about 1 percent of the total water input (estimated with WinSLAMM). The next largest contributions were from septic systems and precipitation, each contributing about 10 percent, whereas groundwater delivered about 4 percent of the total phosphorus input. Empirical lake water-quality models within BATHTUB were used to simulate the response of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes to 19 phosphorus-loading scenarios. These scenarios included the current base years (2006?07) for which lake water quality and loading were known, nine general increases or decreases in phosphorus loading from controllable external sources (inputs from the tributa

Garn, Herbert S.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Saad, David A.

2010-01-01

95

Data for and adjusted regional regression models of volume and quality of urban storm-water runoff in Boise and Garden City, Idaho, 1993-94  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires information on the volume and quality of urban storm-water runoff to apply for a permit to discharge this water into the Boise River under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Program. Concentrations of selected chemical constituents in storm runoff were determined from samples collected at four storm-sewer outfalls in Boise from October 1993 through June 1994 and at one outfall in Garden City from September through October 1994. Samples were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, water temperature, oxygen demand, fecal indicator bacteria, major ions, dissolved and suspended solids, nutrients, trace elements, and numerous organic compounds. The measurement of storm-runoff volume and mean concentrations of constituents were used to estimate storm-runoff loads.

Kjelstrom, L.C.

1995-01-01

96

Level 1 Water-Quality Inventory of Baseline Levels of Pesticides in Urban Creeks - Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Presidio of San Francisco, California  

Science.gov (United States)

To characterize baseline water-quality levels of pesticides in Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Presidio of San Francisco, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed surface-water and bed-sediment samples at 10 creeks during February, April, and July 2006. Pesticide data were obtained using previously developed methods. Samples from sites in the Presidio were analyzed only for pyrethroid insecticides, whereas the remaining samples were analyzed for pyrethroids and additional current and historical-use pesticides. Pesticide concentrations were low in both the water (below 30 ng/L) and sediment (below 3 ng/g). The pyrethroid bifenthrin was detected in water samples from two sites at concentrations below 2 ng/L. Other compounds detected in water included the herbicides dacthal (DCPA) and prometryn, the insecticide fipronil, the insecticide degradates p,p'-DDE and fipronil sulfone, and the fungicides cyproconazole, myclobutanil and tetraconazole. The only pesticides detected in the sediment samples were p,p'-DDT and its degradates (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE). Pesticide information from the samples collected can provide a reference point for future sampling and can help National Park Service managers assess the water quality of the urban creeks.

Hladik, Michelle L.; Orlando, James L.

2008-01-01

97

Uso de aguas de segunda calidad en ciclo urbano del agua para las condiciones cubanas / Use of secondary quality water for urban sanitation in Cuban conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La escasez de agua se ha convertido en un problema acuciante en muchas ciudades costeras alrededor del mundo. La rápida urbanización, los problemas derivados del cambio climático, las soluciones tradicionales (trasvases, perforación de pozos, captación de la lluvia) y avanzadas (desalación) son insu [...] ficientes, de altos costos y no sustentables desde el punto de vista ambiental para satisfacer la creciente demanda de agua. Tecnologías como el uso de agua de mar para descarga de inodoros y otros usos, se están volviendo a retomar a pesar de los problemas que se han planteado en su contra, como son la corrosión de las instalaciones y la necesidad de un sistema de abasto dual. El uso de estas técnicas está cambiando los paradigmas existentes en el manejo de las aguas en el ambiente urbano. Abstract in english Water shortage is increasingly becoming a problem in many coastal cities in both low and high-income countries (with about 60% of world population). Due to rapid urbanization and climate change, traditional (fresh water transfer, rainwater harvesting) and advanced solutions (sea water desalination) [...] become insufficient, non cost-effective and environmentally unsustainable to match the ever growing water demand. Direct use of seawater for toilet flushing, and other non-potable uses, is often forgotten, easily rejected and traditionally perceived as troublesome due to corrosion issues and the requirement for a dual system. However, the benefits are often overlooked and, in general, not well-studied and documented despite its potential and as a means towards sustainable water cycle management, opening a new paradigm towards the use of saline water as secondary quality water in urban environments.

Carlos M., López-Vázquez; Damir, Brjanovic; Christine M., Hooijmans; Orestes A., González Díaz.

98

Uso de aguas de segunda calidad en ciclo urbano del agua para las condiciones cubanas / Use of secondary quality water for urban sanitation in Cuban conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La escasez de agua se ha convertido en un problema acuciante en muchas ciudades costeras alrededor del mundo. La rápida urbanización, los problemas derivados del cambio climático, las soluciones tradicionales (trasvases, perforación de pozos, captación de la lluvia) y avanzadas (desalación) son insu [...] ficientes, de altos costos y no sustentables desde el punto de vista ambiental para satisfacer la creciente demanda de agua. Tecnologías como el uso de agua de mar para descarga de inodoros y otros usos, se están volviendo a retomar a pesar de los problemas que se han planteado en su contra, como son la corrosión de las instalaciones y la necesidad de un sistema de abasto dual. El uso de estas técnicas está cambiando los paradigmas existentes en el manejo de las aguas en el ambiente urbano. Abstract in english Water shortage is increasingly becoming a problem in many coastal cities in both low and high-income countries (with about 60% of world population). Due to rapid urbanization and climate change, traditional (fresh water transfer, rainwater harvesting) and advanced solutions (sea water desalination) [...] become insufficient, non cost-effective and environmentally unsustainable to match the ever growing water demand. Direct use of seawater for toilet flushing, and other non-potable uses, is often forgotten, easily rejected and traditionally perceived as troublesome due to corrosion issues and the requirement for a dual system. However, the benefits are often overlooked and, in general, not well-studied and documented despite its potential and as a means towards sustainable water cycle management, opening a new paradigm towards the use of saline water as secondary quality water in urban environments.

Carlos M., López-Vázquez; Damir, Brjanovic; Christine M., Hooijmans; Orestes A., González Díaz.

2013-12-01

99

Comparison between the efficiency of two bioindicators for determining surface water quality in an urban environment - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.7725 Comparison between the efficiency of two bioindicators for determining surface water quality in an urban environment - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.7725  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficiency of two bioindicators, fecal coliforms and ecotoxicity tests, set out in CONAMA Resolution 274/00 and CONAMA Resolution 357/05, in assessment of water quality. For this study, Lake Paranoá, Federal District of Brazil, was chosen, since it is a water body directly contaminated by effluents from a sewage treatment plant. Four sampling points were chosen in accordance with the map of recreational water quality published weekly by CAESB/DF, after analysis of fecal coliforms. Samples from these points were collected for 6 months and tested on Danio rerio fish (acute toxicity and on the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (acute and chronic toxicity, besides measuring chemical and physico-chemical parameters. The data obtained show great consistency between the observed biological parameters, suggesting that in this urban aquatic environment, under great anthropogenic pressure, the fecal coliform bioindicator seems to be more restrictive and enough to evaluate the safety of surface water.This study evaluated the efficiency of two bioindicators, fecal coliforms and ecotoxicity tests, set out in CONAMA Resolution 274/00 and CONAMA Resolution 357/05, in assessment of water quality. For this study, Lake Paranoá, Federal District of Brazil, was chosen, since it is a water body directly contaminated by effluents from a sewage treatment plant. Four sampling points were chosen in accordance with the map of recreational water quality published weekly by CAESB/DF, after analysis of fecal coliforms. Samples from these points were collected for 6 months and tested on Danio rerio fish (acute toxicity and on the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (acute and chronic toxicity, besides measuring chemical and physico-chemical parameters. The data obtained show great consistency between the observed biological parameters, suggesting that in this urban aquatic environment, under great anthropogenic pressure, the fecal coliform bioindicator seems to be more restrictive and enough to evaluate the safety of surface water.

Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz

2011-07-01

100

Water Quality: An Introduction  

Science.gov (United States)

An overview of the various aspects of water quality, including a rationale for multidisciplinary cooperation in water quality management, a list of beneficial water uses, a discussion of the major types of water pollutants, and an explanation of the use of aquatic biota in testing for water quality. (CS)

Merritt, LaVere B.

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

The Concept of Urban Space Quality*  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Especially during the last decade, in parallel with the technological and scientific developments in the world, empirical researches have been conducted on the livability in urban spaces, people’s quality of life and the development of the urban space quality, together with a general questioning of the concept of urbanization. The results of these researches are presented as research reports. Urban space is the main tool integrating a city. Urban spaces are shared by the city-dwellers and various users, and serve as the environment in which they convey and relearn cultural accumulation. Moreover, in the context of defining the urban environment (the formation of the image regarding that city, city-dwellers acquire the experience of being a city-dweller as a consequence of their cultural identities, individual development and interaction with each other in these spaces. In cities or urban places, the practical and theoretical problems experienced with respect to public spaces are mostly methodological since it is not exactly known what is meant or understood by “public spaces”. The problem of understanding this complication can be solved not by evaluating the social, political, functional, and aesthetic issues randomly, but by the experts’ clear presentation of the solutions related to their research. In this study, in parallel with the developments in the world, the parameters of space quality to be used were determined for the urban spaces (squares and streets in our country to be redesigned and renewed in the context of the quality of space.

Mehmet ?NCEO?LU

2009-01-01

102

Ecosystem services in urban water investment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasingly, water agencies and utilities have an obligation to consider the broad environmental impacts associated with investments. To aid in understanding water cycle interdependencies when making urban water supply investment decisions, an ecosystem services typology was augmented with the concept of integrated water resources management. This framework is applied to stormwater harvesting in a case study catchment in Adelaide, South Australia. Results show that this methodological framework can effectively facilitate systematic consideration and quantitative assessment of broad environmental impacts of water supply investments. Five ecosystem service impacts were quantified including provision of 1) urban recreational amenity, 2) regulation of coastal water quality, 3) salinity, 4) greenhouse gas emissions, and 5) support of estuarine habitats. This study shows that ignoring broad environmental impacts can underestimate ecosystem service benefits of water supply investments by a value of up to A$1.36/kL, or three times the cost of operating and maintenance of stormwater harvesting. Rigorous assessment of the public welfare impacts of water infrastructure investments is required to guide long-term optimal water supply investment decisions. Numerous challenges remain in the quantification of broad environmental impacts of a water supply investment including a lack of peer-reviewed studies of environmental impacts, aggregation of incommensurable impacts, potential for double-counting errors, uncertainties in available impact estimates, and how to determine the most suitable quantification technique. PMID:24992048

Kandulu, John M; Connor, Jeffery D; MacDonald, Darla Hatton

2014-12-01

103

EVALUATING THE ACCOTINK CREEK URBAN STREAM RESTORATION PROJECT FOR IMPROVING WATER QUALITY, IN-STREAM HABITAT, AND BANK STABILITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased urbanization results in a larger percentage of connected impervious areas and can contribute large quantities of stormwater runoff and significant quantities of debris and pollutants (e.g., litter, oils, microorganisms, sediments, nutrients, organic matter, and heavy me...

104

Quantifying baseflow and water-quality impacts from a gravel-dominated alluvial aquifer in an urban reach of a large Canadian river  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater discharge and non-point source (NPS) loading were evaluated along an urban reach of an eastern-slopes Rocky Mountains river (Bow River, Canada) to understand sources of water-quality impacts and baseflow. The discharge did not increase measurably over a 16-km reach. Groundwater in the river-connected alluvial aquifer was a mixture of river and prairie groundwater, with elevated chloride concentrations (average 379 mg L-1) from road salt. Alluvial groundwater was the major NPS of chloride discharging to the river. Although the mass-flux based estimates of groundwater discharge were small (mean 0.02 m3 s-1 km-1, SD = 0.04 m3 s-1 km-1, n = 30), the associated chloride mass flux over 16 km was significant (equivalent to that discharged from the city's largest wastewater-treatment-plant effluent). Although local groundwater baseflow was previously thought to contribute significantly to overwinter baseflow in this reach, little contribution was measured in this study. Low baseflow generation is consistent with long-term river discharge data that show almost all of the baseflow generation occurs in the Rocky Mountain reach. Thus, local watershed areas are important for water-quality protection, but climate change in the headwaters is most salient to long-term flow.

Cantafio, L. J.; Ryan, M. C.

2014-06-01

105

Microbiologic quality water from  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work has as objective to evaluate the quality of the water of the Ribeirão dos Porcos river, at Espírito Santo do Pinhal-SP, Brazil, through microbiologycal anlyses for fecal and total coliform, fecal enterococci, pH, oxygen dissolved. Twenty four samples of water of 6 different points were collected, being made 4 collections of each point, in copies. The microbiologycal analyses, was accomplished by the method of the Most Probable Number (NMP using by multiple tubes technique. Determination of dissolved oxygen and pH values were made. The results of the microbiologycal analyses showed high levels of fecal and total coliforms (1,1x 105 to 2,4x 105/100 ml from point 1 to 6. In the point 1 (nascent, the fecal total coliforms and fecal enterococci, was inside of the acceptable limits. The results showed largest pollution indexes with fecal coliforms, of the point 2 to 6, mainly in the urban zone, where the river receives domestic and industrial effluents.

Adriano Luís Ferriani Junior

2004-06-01

106

Tsunamis: Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir A ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

107

SEWER COLLECTION EFFECTIVENESS ON WATER QUALITY: A CONTRIBUTION TO THE URBAN PLANNING APPLIED TO JABOTICABAL CITY – SP = EFICIÊNCIA DE INTERCEPTORES DE ESGOTO SOBRE A QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA: UMA CONTRIBUIÇÃO AO PLANEJAMENTO URBANO APLICADO À CIDADE DE JABOTICABAL-SP  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sewer is one of the most relevant environmental factors whichcontributes to loss of life quality in the urban areas. Usually, the sewer final destiny is in the watercourse-bound, since it´s production is inevitable. It demands studies and techniques to be developed and duly applied so that its harmful influence on water quality is avoid, making it as close as possible of its natural conditions. The construction of sewer collection throughout watercourses and its further forwarding to the...

José Marques Júnior; Mário Benincasa; João Antonio Galbiatti; Maurício José Borges; Antonio Sergio Ferraudo

2002-01-01

108

Monitoring suspended sediments and associated chemical constituents in urban environments. Lessons from the city of Atlanta, Georgia, USA Water Quality Monitoring Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background, aim, and scope: The City of Atlanta, Georgia (COA) is part of the ninth largest metropolitan area in the USA and one of the fastest growing (e.g., >24% between 2000 and 2007). Since 2003, the US Geological Survey has been operating an extensive long-term water-quantity and water-quality monitoring network for the COA. The experience gained in operating this network has provided insights into the challenges as well as some solutions associated with determining urban effects on water quality, especially in terms of estimating the annual fluxes of suspended sediment, trace/major elements, and nutrients. Discussion and findings: The majority (>90%) of the annual fluxes of suspended sediment and discharge (>60%) from the COA occur in conjunction with stormflow. Typically, stormflow averages {<=}20% of the year. Normally, annual flux calculations employ a daily time-step; however, due to the 'flashy' nature of the COA's streams, this approach can produce substantial underestimates (from 25% to 64%). Greater accuracy requires time-steps as short as every 2 to 3 h. The annual fluxes of {>=}75% of trace elements (e.g., Cu, Pb, Zn), major elements (e.g., Fe, Al), and total P occur in association with suspended sediment; in turn, {>=}90% of the transport of these constituents occurs in conjunction with stormflow. With the possible exception of nitrogen, baseflow sediment-associated and both baseflow and stormflow dissolved contributions represent relatively insignificant portions of the total annual load; hence, nonpoint (diffuse) sources are the dominant contributors to the fluxes of almost all of these constituents. (orig.)

Horowitz, Arthur J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Atlanta, GA (United States). Georgia Water Science Center

2009-08-15

109

EPANET WATER QUALITY MODEL  

Science.gov (United States)

EPA NET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. PANET performs extended period simulation of hydraulic ...

110

Soil invertebrates as bioindicators of urban soil quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aimed at relating the abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities of urban soils to chemical and physical soil characteristics and to identify the taxa most sensitive or tolerant to soil stressors. The invertebrate community of five urban soils in Naples, Italy, was sampled. To assess soil quality invertebrate community indices (Shannon, Simpson, Menhinick and Pielou indices), Acarina/Collembola ratios, and the soil biological quality index (QBS) were calculated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils strongly differed. Abundance rather than taxa richness of invertebrates were more affected by soil characteristics. The community was more abundant and diverse in the soils with high organic matter and water content and low metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations. The taxa more resistant to the urban environment included Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. Collembolans appeared particularly sensitive to changing soil properties. Among the investigated indices, QBS seems most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Highlights: ? The abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities was related to properties and metal contents of urban soils. ? Several (biodiversity) indices were calculated and compared to evaluate soil quality. ? Metal contamination affected invertebrate density and diversity. ? The taxa more tolerant to metal contamination were Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. ? The soil biological quality index QBS index was most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Soil metal contamination negatively affected soil invertebrate abundance and diversity.

111

Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering) has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been ...

Rodney Stewart; Stuart White; Candice Moy; Ariane Liu; Pierre Mukheibir; Damien Giurco; Thomas Boyle

2013-01-01

112

Total Quality Management's Challenge to Urban Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

With political support, Total Quality Management principles can help urban schools redefine schools' role, purpose, and responsibilities; focus on continuous improvement; plan comprehensive leadership training; create staff development confronting staff attitudes and beliefs; use research- and practice-based information to guide policy and…

Hixson, Judson; Lovelace, Kay

1992-01-01

113

Integrated groundwater quality management in urban areas  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally, groundwater assessments and remediations are approached at the scale of individual groundwater plumes. In urban areas, however, this management of individual groundwater plumes is often problematic for technical, practical or financial reasons, since the groundwater quality is often affected by a combination of sources, including (former) industrial activities, spills and leachate from uncontrolled landfills and building materials. As a result, often a whole series of intermingling contamination plumes is found in large volumes of groundwater. In several countries in the world, this led to stagnation of groundwater remediation in urban areas. Therefore, in the Netherlands there is a tendency managing groundwater in urban areas from an integrated perspective and on a larger scale. This so-called integrated groundwater quality management is often more efficient and hence, cheaper, since the organisation of the management of a cluster of groundwater plumes is much easier than it would be if all individual groundwater plumes were managed at different points in time. Integrated groundwater quality management should follow a tailor-made approach. However, to facilitate practical guidance was developed. This guidance relates to the delineation of the domain, the management of sources for groundwater contamination, procedures for monitoring, and (risk-based) assessment of the groundwater quality. Function-specific risk-based groundwater quality criteria were derived to support the assessment of the groundwater quality.

Swartjes, F. A.; Otte, P. F.

2012-04-01

114

Ecological assessment of water quality in relation to hydrogeology in a shallow urban aquifer: Somesul Mic River aquifer (North-Western, Romania)  

Science.gov (United States)

The River Basin Management Plan is the main instrument for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE), one of its main requirements being the evaluation and quantification of human impacts on aquatic environments including the groundwater or groundwater dependent ecosystems. The Some?-Tisa basin is the largest hydrographical basin in NW Romania (22,380 km2), containing 15 Quaternary detrital groundwater bodies prone to intensive agricultural and urban industrial use. So far, no studies have addressed the groundwater fauna assemblages and their ecological response to human disturbances and aquifer contamination. Here we investigate a Quaternary shallow detrital aquifer (0.60; p>0.05). Conversely, the stygobites species Parastenocaris sp. (Harpacticoida), Bathynella sp. (Syncarida), Niphargus sp. (Amphipoda) and Ostracoda were rare and limited to boreholes were no significant trace metals contamination was detected, whereas nitrates reach a maximum level of 47.5 ?g/l. Crustaceans abundance was linked to high content of total dissolved solids and elements such are Li, Na and Sr; whereas Cs and nitrites were detected to be harmful for crustacean development. The ecological attributes and sensitivity of styfogauna to contaminants makes them significant bioindicators for evaluating the ecological status of groundwater ecosystems and susceptible to get loss when aquifers quality is affected on long term.

Iepure, Sanda; Marin, Constantin; Fekete, Alexandru; Rajka, Geza; Brad, Traian; Samsudean, Cristian

2014-05-01

115

Water quality and zooplankton composition in a receiving pond of the stormwater runoff from an urban catchment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six storm periods were monitored from November 2002 to September 2005 at two stations of a receiving pond of the stormwater runoff from a small urban catchment of the city of Santa Fe, Argentina. Weekly samples were taken before and after rain events under different conditions of temperature, pluvial precipitation, and duration of the previous dry period. A sampling station was established at the outlet of the catchment (S1) and another one near the outlet of the receiving pond (S2). Both stations differed significantly in their dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, temperature, transparency, and zooplankton composition. The concentrations of nutrients and BOD5 values indicated permanently eutrophic condition at both stations. After rainstorms, the concentrations of lead, zinc and suspended solids showed a marked increase. The zooplankton composition at S1 was characterized by the abundance of protozoans (Dexiostoma campylum (Stokes) Didinium nasutum Muller, Plagyopila cf nasuta, and Bdelloidea rotifers (Philodina sp and Rotaria sp), while Monogononta rotifers and small cladocerans were dominant at S2. The most abundant species were the rotifers Platyias quadricornis (Ehrenberg), Mytilina ventralis (Ehrenberg) and Lepadella ovalis (Muller), and the cladoceran Chydorus pubescens Sars. PMID:19295067

Jose de Paggi, Susana; Paggi, Juan; Collins, Pablo; Collins, Jorge; Graciela, Bernal

2008-09-01

116

Assessment of water quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water is the most essential component of all living things and it supports the life process. Without water, it would not have been possible to sustain life on this planet. The total quantity of water on earth is estimated to be 1.4 trillion cubic meter. Of this, less than 1 % water, present in rivers and ground resources is available to meet our requirement. These resources are being contaminated with toxic substances due to ever increasing environmental pollution. To reduce this contamination, many countries have established standards for the discharge of municipal and industrial waste into water streams. We use water for various purposes and for each purpose we require water of appropriate quality. The quality of water is assessed by evaluating the physical chemical, biological and radiological characteristics of water. Water for drinking and food preparation must be free from turbidity, colour, odour and objectionable tastes, as well as from disease causing organisms and inorganic and organic substances, which may produce adverse physiological effects, Such water is referred to as potable water and is produced by treatment of raw water, involving various unit operations. The effectiveness of the treatment processes is checked by assessing the various parameters of water quality, which involves sampling and analysis of water and comparison with the National Quality Standards or WHO standards. Water which conforms to these standards is considered safe and palatable for human consumption. Periodic assessment of water is necessary, to ensure the quality of water supplied to the public. This requires proper sampling at specified locations and analysis of water, employing reliable analytical techniques. (author)

117

02 bathing water quality ni  

BATHING WATER QUALITY N.I. ..(2009) WATER MANAGEMENT ...WM 002 BATHING WATER QUALITY N.I. wHAT IS THE BATHINGw ATER DIRECTIVE? This Directive sets quality standards for bathing waters. All countries in the European ...

118

Water quality: 13. Phosphorus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phosphorus (P) is an important nutrient for plant and animal growth. However, additions of P to the land as livestock manure and inorganic fertilizer may lead to an increased risk of soil P saturation and resulting movement of P to water bodies. Excessive amounts of P in surface water contributes to eutrophication of rivers and lakes and to Cyanobacteria blooms. These result in decreased water quality and limitations on water use. The Risk of Water Contamination by Phosphorus (IROWC-P) Ind...

Bochove, E.; The?riault, G.; Denault, F.; Dechmi, Farida; Rousseau, A. N.; Allaire, S. E.

2011-01-01

119

Determination of urban groundwater pollution in alluvial aquifer using linked process models considering urban water cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryThis paper presents the results of the 5th FP project AISUWRS (Assessing and Improving the Sustainability of Urban Water Resources and Systems) which aimed to assess the impact of the urban water infrastructure to underlying or nearby aquifers with the urban water balance modelling approach - a chain of different models that handle with contaminant fluxes and the movement of contaminants from the urban infrastructure into the underlying aquifer. An existing urban water management model UVQ was linked to a model for sewer infiltration and exfiltration (NEIMO), as well as unsaturated zone models (SLeakI/POSI, UL_FLOW) with existing numerical groundwater models. The linked process models offer the prospect of better quantification of urban water balance and contaminant loads, including improved estimates of total recharge and its components in urban areas. Once the model framework has been set up for a selected city, it can easily be updated in the future and it can be used for other purposes like planning of local remediation measures in the vicinity of individual contaminant spillages. This paper describes the application and results of the urban water model chain for the city of Ljubljana, which is the capital of Slovenia. The results from this study suggest that residential land-uses in urban areas with thick unsaturated zone may have significantly smaller impact on the groundwater than agriculture or industry. This can be seen as a speculative understanding of the groundwater pollutions problems. In this respect, use of sustainable urban development systems like on-site infiltration of roof runoff and improved sewer control and standards could result in better groundwater quality.

Vizintin, Goran; Souvent, Petra; Veseli?, Miran; Cencur Curk, Barbara

2009-10-01

120

Management of drinking water quality in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Drinking water quality in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan is not being managed properly. Results of various investigations provide evidence that most of the drinking water supplies are faecally contaminated. At places groundwater quality is deteriorating due to the naturally occurring subsoil contaminants, or by anthropogenic activities. The poor bacteriological quality of drinking water has frequently resulted in high incidence of water borne diseases while subsoil contaminants have caused other ailments to consumers. This paper presents a detailed review of drinking water quality in the country and the consequent health impacts. It identifies various factors contributing to poor water quality and proposes key actions required to ensure safe drinking water supplies to consumers. (author)

 
 
 
 
121

Quality of Drinking Water  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

Roman, Harry T.

2009-01-01

122

Occurrence and fate of PPCPs and correlations with water quality parameters in urban riverine waters of the Pearl River Delta, South China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence and fate of eight PPCPs was studied in river waters from upstream to downstream of the three rivers in the Pearl River Delta, China. The correlations of PPCP levels and water quality parameters were also investigated. The analytes of the highest concentrations were caffeine, acetaminophen, and ciprofloxacin. Carbamazepine and erythromycin-H2O were detected at the lowest concentrations. The highest concentrations of PPCPs were found in the Shijing River, with 865 ng/L caffeine, 339 ng/L acetaminophen, and 304 ng/L ciprofloxacin. In general, the levels of PPCPs in the Zhujiang River were higher at sites where the metropolitan city Guangzhou is located and decreased from the epicenter along the river. Low levels of PPCPs were generally found in the Beijiang River. Positive correlations were found between PPCP levels, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, and cumulative fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) volume. Among the four PPCPs evaluated (caffeine, acetaminophen, ciprofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole), caffeine had the best correlations with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.62 to 0.98. The prediction of PPCP concentrations at specified locations can be substantially simplified. PMID:23608973

Yang, Xin; Chen, Feng; Meng, Fangang; Xie, Yuanyu; Chen, Hui; Young, Kyana; Luo, Wangxing; Ye, Tingjin; Fu, Wenjie

2013-08-01

123

Rainwater and reclaimed wastewater for sustainable urban water use  

Science.gov (United States)

Concern about the sustainability of urban water use is the strong motivation to understand the potential of rainwater use and water recycling in urbanized cities. The history of water supply in Tokyo and its experience may provide useful information to develop sustainable urban water use and find future possible tasks in rapidly growing cities. Besides, various innovative strategies to meet the current and future water demand in Tokyo may help us to consider new approaches adjusting to the developing mega cities in Asia. In this paper, the past and current practices on utilization of latent water resources such as rainwater and reclaimed wastewater in Tokyo are summarized from the viewpoint of sustainable water use. The storage of rainwater is a useful measure for water demand in emergency cases. In addition, the rainwater use can work as a kind of environmental education to make citizens aware of sustainable urban water use. There are 850 facilities for rainwater use in Tokyo. Since reclaimed wastewater use has several benefits, a huge water volume has been utilized for various purposes such as washing, water-cooling, toilet flushing, waterway restoration and creation of recreational waterfront. From the viewpoint of human health risk, new micropollutants such as estrogens, endocrine disrupters and surfactants should be considered as quality guideline parameter besides the conventional ones. Importance of infiltration facilities should be also highlighted to secure the sound water cycle. Groundwater recharge through the infiltration facilities provide a potential storage of water resource which can be withdrawn in the future if necessary.

Furumai, Hiroaki

124

Monitoring and Assessing Our Nation's Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a fact sheet on the water quality programs directly administered by the USGS. USGS provides information on issues such as the suitability of water for public supply and irrigation, aquatic ecosystem health, effects of agriculture and urbanization on water resources, acid rain, and disposal of radioactive waste. There are hot links to several studies and to data available from USGS and other agencies.

Mallard, Gail; Hamilton, Pixie

2002-08-21

125

EPANET water quality model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EPANET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. EPANET performs extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality behavior within water distribution systems. In addition to substance concentration, water age and source tracing can also be simulated. EPANET includes a full featured hydraulic simulation model that can handle various types of pumps, valves, and their control rules. The water quality module is equipped to handle constituent reactions within the bulk pipe flow and at the pipe wall. It also features an efficient computational scheme that automatically determines optimal time steps and pipe segmentation for accurate tracking of material transport over time. EPANET is currently being used in the US to study such issues as loss of chlorine residual, source blending and trihalomethane (THM) formation, how altered tank operation affects water age, and total dissolved solids (TDS) control for an irrigation network.

Rossman, L.A.

1993-01-01

126

Purified water quality study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

2000-04-03

127

Analysis of long-term water quality for effective river health monitoring in peri-urban landscapes--a case study of the Hawkesbury-Nepean river system in NSW, Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hawkesbury-Nepean River (HNR) system in South-Eastern Australia is the main source of water supply for the Sydney Metropolitan area and is one of the more complex river systems due to the influence of urbanisation and other activities in the peri-urban landscape through which it flows. The long-term monitoring of river water quality is likely to suffer from data gaps due to funding cuts, changes in priority and related reasons. Nevertheless, we need to assess river health based on the available information. In this study, we demonstrated how the Factor Analysis (FA), Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA) and Trend Analysis (TA) can be applied to evaluate long-term historic data sets. Six water quality parameters, viz., temperature, chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, oxides of nitrogen, suspended solids and reactive silicates, measured at weekly intervals between 1985 and 2008 at 12 monitoring stations located along the 300 km length of the HNR system were evaluated to understand the human and natural influences on the river system in a peri-urban landscape. The application of FA extracted three latent factors which explained more than 70 % of the total variance of the data and related to the 'bio-geographical', 'natural' and 'nutrient pollutant' dimensions of the HNR system. The bio-geographical and nutrient pollution factors more likely related to the direct influence of changes and activities of peri-urban natures and accounted for approximately 50 % of variability in water quality. The application of HACA indicated two major clusters representing clean and polluted zones of the river. On the spatial scale, one cluster was represented by the upper and lower sections of the river (clean zone) and accounted for approximately 158 km of the river. The other cluster was represented by the middle section (polluted zone) with a length of approximately 98 km. Trend Analysis indicated how the point sources influence river water quality on spatio-temporal scales, taking into account the various effects of nutrient and other pollutant loads from sewerage effluents, agriculture and other point and non-point sources along the river and major tributaries of the HNR. Over the past 26 years, water temperature has significantly increased while suspended solids have significantly decreased (p?cluster the key water quality variables of the HNR system. The insights gained from this study have the potential to improve the effectiveness of river health-monitoring programs in terms of cost, time and effort, particularly in a peri-urban context. PMID:23054266

Pinto, U; Maheshwari, B L; Ollerton, R L

2013-06-01

128

Natural and Urban "Stormwater" Water Cycle Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Students apply their understanding of the natural water cycle and the urban "stormwater" water cycle, as well as the processes involved in both cycles to hypothesize how the flow of water is affected by altering precipitation. Student groups consider different precipitation scenarios based on both intensity and duration. Once hypotheses and specific experimental steps are developed, students use both a natural water cycle model and an urban water cycle model to test their hypotheses. To conclude, students explain their results, tapping their knowledge of both cycles and the importance of using models to predict water flow in civil and environmental engineering designs. The natural water cycle model is made in advance by the teacher, using simple supplies; a minor adjustment to the model easily turns it into the urban water cycle model.

Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET),

129

Water quality diagnosis system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention provides a water quality diagnosis system for always monitoring the state of pipeline component materials and equipments in a power plant to previously detect abnormality. That is, it comprises a water quality sensor for measuring conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, metal concentration, metal composition, chemical form and radioactive concentration, and a computer system. The computer system comprises an abnormal event simulation calculation section based on an abnormality prediction model, intelligence data base reflecting experience and knowledge with reference to corrosion and leaching of metals, water quality data base accumulating base data with reference to corrosion of metals and material data with reference to all over the entire systems of the structural components of the plant and a reasoning engine. Then, the condition and the speed of corrosion for all over the system are determined to forecast the normal state by using the water quality data inputted periodically from the water quality sensor. The condition of abnormality is determined based on the intelligence base and the reasoning engine. (I.S.)

130

Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance  

Science.gov (United States)

In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

2011-12-01

131

Microbiologic quality water from  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present work has as objective to evaluate the quality of the water of the Ribeirão dos Porcos river, at Espírito Santo do Pinhal-SP, Brazil, through microbiologycal anlyses for fecal and total coliform, fecal enterococci, pH, oxygen dissolved. Twenty four samples of water of 6 different points were collected, being made 4 collections of each point, in copies. The microbiologycal analyses, was accomplished by the method of the Most Probable Number (NMP) using by multiple tubes technique....

Adriano Luís Ferriani Junior; Mário Rodrigues Peres; Gilberto José Hussar; Rogéria Maria Alves de Almeida

2004-01-01

132

drinking water quality report 2012  

Drinking Water Quality in Northern Ireland, 2012 A Report by the Drinking Water Inspectorate for Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Environment Agency Drinking Water Quality in Northern Ireland, 2012 A Report by the ...

133

Water quality for the year 2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under an umbrella labeled Water Quality 2000, 86 organizations - ranging from the Natural Resources Defense Council to the Chemical Manufacturers Association - have reached a consensus on the major water quality problems currently facing the US. Their broad-based conclusions have been released in a report entitled Challenges for the Future, which represents one step in an ongoing discussion among representatives of these diverse groups on improving water quality. Although the report presents a long-term view, William Matuszeski from EPA described the document as a superb background for the upcoming debate over reauthorization of the Clean Water Act. In general terms, the report cites the major sources of current water problems as agricultural and urban runoff, especially following storms; airborne pollutants; continued dumping of toxic wastes; accidental spills; overharvesting of fish and shellfish; habitat competition from exotic species; and land and water use practices. This article summarizes some of the findings

134

Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive  

...Bathing waters in Northern Ireland...of freshwater, estuarine and coastal waters by domestic sewage and industrial...the removal of nutrients from waste water. The waters into which these waste waters are discharged must be identified...

135

Urban air quality in the Asian region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries.

Hopke, Philip K. [Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708 (United States)], E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu; Cohen, David D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Physics Division, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD), P.O. Box 164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Ni Bangfa [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC), P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pandit, Gauri Girish [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Santoso, Muhayatun [Center for Nuclear Technology of Material and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Chung, Yong-Sam [Hanaro Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Dukjin-dong, Yusung-ku, P.O. Box 105, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31-312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, PINSTECH, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 1482, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, P.O. Box 213, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani [Atomic Energy Authority, 60/460, Baseline Road, Orugodawatta, Wellampitiya (Sri Lanka); Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT), 16 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Thu Bac Vuong [Centre for Radiation Protection, Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5T-160, Cau Giay (Viet Nam)] (and others)

2008-10-01

136

Urban air quality in the Asian region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries

137

Urbanization and recharge in the vicinity of East Meadow Brook, Nassau County, New York, part 4. Water quality in the headwaters area, 1988-93. Water resources investigations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report (1) discusses the concentration of constituents in precipitation and stormwater in the headwaters area of East Meadow Brook, and (2) describes the extent, and depth to which ground water beneath the stream is affected by stormwater. It also relates the concentrations and loads of selected constituents, including sodium and chloride, to storm discharge and season. This is the final report from the four-part study that examined stormwater and ground water at East Meadow Brook during 1988-93.

Brown, C.J.; Scorca, M.P.; Stockar, G.G.; Stumm, F.; Ku, H.F.H.

1997-12-31

138

Quality of Life in the Economic and Urban Economic Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality of life (QoL) is increasingly becoming a concept researched empirically and theoretically in the field of economics. In urban economics in particular, this increasing interest stems mainly from the fact that QoL affects urban competitiveness and urban growth: research shows that when households and businesses decide where to locate, QoL…

Lambiri, Dionysia; Biagi, Bianca; Royuela, Vicente

2007-01-01

139

Effects of urbanization on stream quality at selected sites in the seacoast region in New Hampshire, 2001-03  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of selected water-quality and macroinvertebrate community data was conducted at 10 stream sites in the Seacoast region of New Hampshire to determine if a relation is present between stream quality and the extent of urbanization in a watershed. Watersheds with similar characteristics, but varying in their degree of urban development, were studied. The percent of impervious surface, the percent of urban land use in a watershed, and the percent of urban land use in two types of stream buffers were compared and correlated with stream-quality variables. Specific conductance, turbidity, nitrite plus nitrate yields, and selected macroinvertebrate community data were significantly correlated with most measures of urbanization used in this study; however, concentrations and total phosphorus yields were not statistically correlated with most measures of urbanization in this study. The measures of urbanization that had the highest correlations with stream-quality variables were those measures that were associated with the percent of urban land in buffer zones near and upstream of a sampling site. A water-quality and habitat conditions score was negatively correlated with the percent of urban land in a 1-kilometer radial buffer of the sampling site (rho (r) = -0.86; p urban land in the watershed (r = -0.67; p urban land in a 1-kilometer radial buffer of the sampling site (r = -0.95; p urban land in the watershed (r = -0.79; p urban land in a 25-meter stream buffer along the stream corridor also had negative correlations with a water-quality and habitat conditions score (r = -0.80; p urbanization in a watershed, indicating that EPT taxa richness may be an appropriate metric to evaluate the effects of urban land use on small streams in this region. Results from this study indicate that the percent of urban land use in buffer zones and the percent of impervious surface in a watershed can be used as indicators of stream quality.

Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Soule, Sally A.; Smith, Thor E.

2005-01-01

140

Assessing urban habitat quality using spectral characteristics of Tilia leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring environmental quality in urban areas is an important issue offering possibilities to control and improve urban habitat quality as well as to avoid adverse effects on human health. A tree leaf reflectance-based bio-monitoring method was used to assess the urban habitat quality of two contrasting habitat classes in the city of Gent (Belgium). As test trees, two Tilia species were selected. Custom made Matlab code is applied to process the measurements of leaf reflectance. This enables the discrimination between polluted and less polluted habitats. The results elicit, that leaf reflectance in the PAR range, as well as the NDAI (Normalised Difference Asymmetry index) are species dependent while Dorsiventral Leaf Reflectance Correlation (DLRC) seems to be independent of species. Therefore the assessment of urban habitat quality is perfectly feasible using leaf reflectance, when taking account of the species specificity of tree leaf physiological and structural responses to habitat quality. -- Highlights: ? Leaf structure and physiological changes in urban habitat classes. ? Leaf reflectance of Linden tree species is affected by urban habitat quality. ? Species dependent leaf reflectance changes due to urban habitat pollution. ? Dorsiventral leaf reflectance properties for assessing habitat quality. ? High capability of the leaf reflectance technique for assessing habitat quality. -- Leaf reflectance and dorsiventral properties of Linden tree species can be used to assess urban habitat quality

 
 
 
 
141

Quality of life in the economic and urban economic literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quality of life (QoL) is increasingly becoming a concept researched empirically and theoretically in the field of economics. In urban economics in particular, this increasing interest stems mainly from the fact that QoL affects urban competitiveness and urban growth: research shows that when households and businesses decide where to locate, QoL considerations can play a very important role. The purpose of the present paper is to examine the way economic literature and urban economic literatur...

Lambiri, Dionysia; Biagi, Bianca; Royuela, Vicente

2007-01-01

142

Natural and Urban "Stormwater" Water Cycles  

Science.gov (United States)

Through an overview of the components of the hydrologic cycle and the important roles they play in the design of engineered systems, students' awareness of the world's limited fresh water resources is heightened. The hydrologic cycle affects everyone and is the single most critical component to life on Earth. Students examine in detail the water cycle components and phase transitions, and then learn how water moves through the human-made urban environment. This urban "stormwater" water cycle is influenced by the pervasive existence of impervious surfaces that limit the amount of infiltration, resulting in high levels of stormwater runoff, limited groundwater replenishment and reduced groundwater flow. Students show their understanding of the process by writing a description of the path of a water droplet through the urban water cycle, from the droplet's point of view. The lesson lays the groundwork for rest of the unit, so students can begin to think about what they might do to modify the urban "stormwater" water cycle so that it functions more like the natural water cycle. A PowerPoint® presentation and handout are provided.

Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET),

143

MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution systems and sewer networks are both large, highly interconnected, dynamic, subject to time and varying inputs and demands, and difficult to control. Their performance also faces increasing loading due to increasing urbanization and longer-term environmental changes. Therefore, understanding the link between microbial ecology and any potential impacts on short or long-term engineering performance within urban water infrastructure systems is important. By combining the strengths and research expertise of civil-, biochemical engineers and molecular microbial ecologists, we ultimately aim to link microbial community abundance, diversity and function to physical and engineering variables so that novel insights into the performance and management of both water distribution systems and sewer networks can be explored. By presenting the details and principals behind the molecular microbiological techniques that we use, this paper demonstrates the potential of an integrated approach to better understand how urban water system function, and so meet future challenges.

P. Deines

2010-07-01

144

drinking water quality report 2006  

...Part 4 - Water Quality in Private Water Supplies in Northern Ireland...in Northern Ireland, 2006 72 • Private Water Supplies Monitoring Programmes 75...pivotal role of the ‘Alpha Public Private Partnerships Project’ for the water...

145

Summarized water quality criteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The available world literature from 27 sources on existing water quality criteria are summarized for the 15 main uses of water. The minimum, median and maximum specified values for 96 different determinands are included. Under each water use the criteria are grouped according to the functional significance of the determinands e.g. aesthetic/physical effects, high toxic potential, low toxic potential etc. A synopsis is included summarizing salient facts for each determinand such as the conditions under which it is toxic and its relationship to other determinands. The significance of the criteria is briefly discussed and the importance of considering functional interactions between determinands emphasized in evaluating the potential for toxic or beneficial effects. From the source literature it appears that the toxic potential, in addition to being determined by concentration, is also affected by the origin of the substance concerned, i.e. whether from natural sources or from anthropogenic pollution

146

Connecting Water Quality With Air Quality Through Microbial Aerosols  

Science.gov (United States)

Aerosol production from surface waters results in the transfer of aquatic materials (including nutrients and bacteria) to air. These materials can then be transported by onshore winds to land, representing a biogeochemical connection between aquatic and terrestrial systems not normally considered. In urban waterfront environments, this transfer could result in emissions of pathogenic bacteria from contaminated waters. Despite the potential importance of this link, sources, near-shore deposition, identity and viability of microbial aerosols are largely uncharacterized. This dissertation focuses on the environmental and biological mechanisms that define this water-air connection, as a means to build our understanding of the biogeochemical, biogeographical, and public health implications of the transfer of surface water materials to the near-shore environment in both urban and non-urban environments. The effects of tidal height, wind speed and fog on coastal aerosols and microbial content were first quantified on a non-urban coast of Maine, USA. Culture-based, culture-independent, and molecular methods were used to simultaneously sample microbial aerosols while monitoring meteorological parameters. Aerosols at this site displayed clear marine influence and high concentrations of ecologically-relevant nutrients. Coarse aerosol concentrations significantly increased with tidal height, onshore wind speed, and fog presence. Tidal height and fog presence did not significantly influence total microbial aerosol concentrations, but did have a significant effect on culturable microbial aerosol fallout. Molecular analyses of the microbes settling out of near-shore aerosols provided further evidence of local ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes. Aerosol and surface ocean bacterial communities shared species and in general were dominated by organisms previously sampled in marine environments. Fog presence strengthened the microbial connection between water and land through air by increasing microbial aerosol settling rates and enhancing viability of aerosolized marine microbes. Using methods developed for the non-urban site, the role of local environment and winds in mediating water-air connections was further investigated in the urban environment. The local environment, including water surfaces, was an important source of microbial aerosols at urban sites. Large portions of the urban waterfront microbial aerosol communities were aquatic and, at a highly polluted Superfund waterfront, were closely related to bacteria previously described in environments contaminated with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sewage and other industrial waste. Culturable urban aerosols and surface waters contained bacterial genera known to include human pathogens and asthma agents. High onshore winds strengthened this water-air connection by playing both a transport and production role. The microbial connection between water and air quality outlined by this dissertation highlights the need for information on the mechanisms that deliver surface water materials to terrestrial systems on a much larger scale. Moving from point measurements to landscape-level analyses will allow for the quantitative assessment of implications for this microbial water-air-land transfer in both urban and non-urban arenas.

Dueker, M. Elias

147

SMART MANAGEMENT OF THE WATER URBAN CYCLE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aguas Municipalizadas de Alicante, AMAEM, is the company in charge of managing the urban water cycle in Alicante and several neighbour towns: San Vicente, Sant Joan, Petrer, Monforte and El Campello. More specifically, AMAEM provides the water distribution service in all of them, and is responsible for the sewage service in Alicante, Sant Joan and Monforte. The population served amounts to 750,000 inhabitants, supplied by a 2,000 km water distribution network and 700 km of sewage drains. A...

Sa?nchez Zaplana, Antonio

2014-01-01

148

CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes polygons for GA, GAA, GAAs, GB, GC and other related ground water quality classes. Each polygon is assigned a ground water quality class, which is s...

149

Urban growth and air quality in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban developments, land use patterns and activities not only influence the volume of emissions into the ambient air environment but also affect the ability of the urban ecosystem to purify the air. Therefore, urbanisation affects the quality of air in urban areas. However, urban air quality is also affected by global, regional or trans-boundary pollutants. The objectives of this paper are to understand the trend of air quality level and urban growth in Kuala Lumpur city (KL, and examine the relationship between these variables. Results of analysis show a significant and strong relationship between the number of unhealthy/hazardous days and urban land uses. The finding is contrary to the argument that the high concentration of air pollutants (unhealthy level in the Malaysian city is contributed by the forest fire in a neighbouring country (haze.

O. H. L. Ling

2010-07-01

150

SEWER COLLECTION EFFECTIVENESS ON WATER QUALITY: A CONTRIBUTION TO THE URBAN PLANNING APPLIED TO JABOTICABAL CITY – SP = EFICIÊNCIA DE INTERCEPTORES DE ESGOTO SOBRE A QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA: UMA CONTRIBUIÇÃO AO PLANEJAMENTO URBANO APLICADO À CIDADE DE JABOTICABAL-SP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sewer is one of the most relevant environmental factors whichcontributes to loss of life quality in the urban areas. Usually, the sewer final destiny is in the watercourse-bound, since it´s production is inevitable. It demands studies and techniques to be developed and duly applied so that its harmful influence on water quality is avoid, making it as close as possible of its natural conditions. The construction of sewer collection throughout watercourses and its further forwarding to the sewer treatment stations have been considered the most recommended technique. In this study we tried to analise the effectiveness of the application of this technique to reestablish the water quality in two watercourses which drain the river basin where Jaboticabal city is placed. The study was based in Cerradinho and Jaboticabal streams and in water quality characterization. The samples of the water were collected monthly during a year, throughout the watercourses, both in the urban and in the rural areas - near the headwater, in the urban area upstream and after the confluence of both, at the urban area downstream. The main aspects, which were analyzed, were the following: temperature, pH, DO, COD, nitrite, nitrate, total-N, total-P, BOD, total coliforms and fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli. Analyses of cluster and main components were used to evaluate theeffect of hidrical parameters in the collect stations. The results of the research showed that there was increase of hidrical pollution from the riverhead to the outfall of Cerradinho and Jaboticabal streams and that the isolated practices of sanitation (collection of the urban sewer improved the water quality but it was not enough to return these streams to the non polluted condition. = Em áreas urbanas, um dos fatores ambientais de maior relevância em contribuir para a perda de qualidade de vida é o esgoto. Sendo inevitável a sua produção, comumente seu destino final são os cursos d’água. Isso determina que estudos e técnicas sejam desenvolvidos e devidamente aplicados, de modo a evitar sua influência nociva sobre a qualidade da água, tornando-a o mais próximo possível das condições naturais. Aconstrução de interceptores de esgoto, ao longo de cursos d’água e seu posterior encaminhamento à estações de despoluição, constitui uma das técnicas mais recomendadas. Neste trabalho, procurou-se estudar a eficiência da aplicação desta técnica em restabelecer a qualidade da água em dois cursos que drenam a bacia hidrográfica na qual se insere a cidade de Jaboticabal-SP, Brasil. O estudo baseou-se na caracterização da bacia hidrográfica do Córrego Jaboticabal e do seu afluente, Córrego Cerradinho, e da qualidade da água, a partir de amostras coletadas mensalmente durante um ano, ao longo de seus cursos, tanto na área urbana, quanto na área rural – próximo às nascentes, à montante da área urbana e após a confluência dos dois córregos, à jusante da área urbana. Os principais aspectos analisados foram: temperatura, pH, OD, DQO, nitrito, nitrato, NTotal, PTotal, DBO, coliformes totais e coliformes fecais (Escherichia coli. Para avaliar o efeito desses parâmetros nas estações de amostragem, foram utilizadas as análises de agrupamento e de componentes principais. Os resultados da pesquisa permitiram concluir que em ambos os córregos houve aumento da poluição hídrica da nascente à foz e que a prática isolada de saneamento (coleta de esgoto urbano com aplicação de interceptores melhorou a qualidade da água mas não foi suficiente para despoluir estes córregos.

José Marques Júnior

2002-01-01

151

Managerial ownership and urban water utilities efficiency in Uganda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper assesses the impact of the early 1980s neoliberalistic reform strategies in urban water distribution in developing countries. It examines in particular, the technical efficiency of two heterogeneous urban water utility-groups in Uganda. Performance is considered in light of the key urban water sector objectives that are to universally increase qualitative water coverage and enhance utility revenue

Mbuvi, Dorcas; Tarsim, Achraf

2011-01-01

152

Quality of surface waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this chapter is evaluation of long-time development of quality of water in Hron River and Vah River on the basis of existing data as well as prediction of development of selected chemical indicators in Hron River and Vah River on one year forward and designation reference conditions for selected chemical indices in Hron River. The second sub-chapter is aimed on deduction of reference conditions on the example of saprobic index of benthic invertebrates. An example of problems connected with modelling of extension of pollution in flow of Hron River at extremely low overflows in the last sub-chapter is presented.

153

Carbon sensitive urban water futures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The challenge of supplying water and energy required for food production and development while mitigating climate change and adapting to its consequences has been termed the Energy Water Nexus. Water, energy, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change are interlinked through a series of relationships. The water sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through several routes including embedded emissions in capital equipment, energy consumption during drinking wate...

Parsons, David; Cabrera Marcet, Enrique; Jeffrey, Paul

2014-01-01

154

Estimation of Water Quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water has a particular ecological function and it is an indicator of the general state of the biosphere. In relation with this summary, the toxicological evaluation of water by biologic testing methods is very actual. The peculiarity of biologic testing information is an integral reflection of all totality properties of examination of the environment in position of its perception by living objects. Rapid integral evaluation of anthropological situation is a base aim of biologic testing. If this evaluation has deviations from normal state, detailed analysis and revelation of dangerous components could be conducted later. The quality of water from the Degelen gallery, where nuclear explosions were conducted, was investigated by bio-testing methods. The micro-organisms (Micrococcus Luteus, Candida crusei, Pseudomonas algaligenes) and water plant elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich) were used as test-objects. It is known that the transporting functions of cell membranes of living organisms are violated the first time in extreme conditions by difference influences. Therefore, ion penetration of elodeas and micro-organisms cells, which contained in the examination water with toxicants, were used as test-function. Alteration of membrane penetration was estimated by measurement of electrolytes electrical conductivity, which gets out from living objects cells to distillate water. Index of water toxic is ratio of electrical conductivity in experience to electrical conductivity in control. Also, observations from common state of plant, which was incubated in toxic water, were made. (Chronic experience conducted for 60 days.) The plants were incubated in water samples, which were picked out from gallery in the years 1996 and 1997. The time of incubation is 1-10 days. The results of investigation showed that ion penetration of elodeas and micro-organisms cells changed very much with influence of radionuclides, which were contained in testing water. Changes are taking place even in cases where the quantity of radionuclides are insignificant. Differences in speed of ions going out began about 30 minutes after start of measurement. Later (1-24 hours) the difference between control and experience samples were more visible. In chronic test, when elodea was incubated in toxic water for 30 days, morphological modification are expressed very well. There were brown and discolored leaves and interruption of sprout growth. After 60 days the plants did not renew formation of new sprouts in most of the test's variants. The plants died in 2 variants and in others its begin was adapted. It has been established that the degree of morphological difference depends on the intensity of ? radiation in test samples of water. By conducting the investigation this way, the possibility of rapid determination of water quality in ecological aspects by biophysics methods with use of living organisms of different taxonomic groups, such as test-objects, is shown. This approach may be used also for inspection aims for sites where nuclear explosions were possibly conducted

155

Toward Quantitative Analysis of Water-Energy-Urban-Climate Nexus for Urban Adaptation Planning  

Science.gov (United States)

Water and energy are two interwoven factors affecting environmental management and urban development planning. Meanwhile, rapid urban development and a changing climate exacerbate the magnitude and effects of water-energy interactions in what nexus defines. These factors and th...

156

Drinking water quality and testing  

...and ResponsibilitiesPolicyWater ResourcesMinister Visits WMUDevelopment ManagementStormwater ManagementDrinking water quality and testingLast updated: 31 July 2014During 2013, Northern Ireland Water Ltd...

157

Assessing urban habitat quality using spectral characteristics of Tilia leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring environmental quality in urban areas is an important issue offering possibilities to control and improve urban habitat quality as well as to avoid adverse effects on human health. A tree leaf reflectance-based bio-monitoring method was used to assess the urban habitat quality of two contrasting habitat classes in the city of Gent (Belgium). As test trees, two Tilia species were selected. Custom made Matlab code is applied to process the measurements of leaf reflectance. This enables the discrimination between polluted and less polluted habitats. The results elicit, that leaf reflectance in the PAR range, as well as the NDAI (Normalised Difference Asymmetry index) are species dependent while Dorsiventral Leaf Reflectance Correlation (DLRC) seems to be independent of species. Therefore the assessment of urban habitat quality is perfectly feasible using leaf reflectance, when taking account of the species specificity of tree leaf physiological and structural responses to habitat quality. PMID:23517817

Khavanin Zadeh, A R; Veroustraete, F; Buytaert, J A N; Dirckx, J; Samson, R

2013-07-01

158

Evaluation of Nonpoint-Source Contamination, Wisconsin; Land-Use and Best-Management-Practices Inventory, Selected Streamwater-Quality Data, Urban-Watershed Quality Assurance and Quality Control, Constituent Loads in Rural Streams, and Snowmelt-Runoff Analysis, Water Year 1994  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of best-management practices (BMP) for controlling nonpoint-source contamination in rural and urban watersheds. This report is an annual summary of the data collected for the program by the U.S Geological Survey and a report of the results of several different detailed analyses of the data. A land-use and BMP inventory is ongoing for 12 evaluation monitoring projects to track the sources of nonpoint-source pollution in each watershed and to document implementation of BMP's that may cause changes in the water quality of streams. Updated information is gathered each year, mapped, and stored in a geographic-information-system data base. Summaries of data collected during water years 1989-94 are presented. A water year is the period beginning October 1 and ending September 30; the water year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Suspended-sediment and total-phosphorus data (storm loads and annual loads) are summarized for eight rural sites. For all sites, the annual suspended-sediment or suspended-solids load for water year 1993 exceeded the average for the period of data collection; the minimum annual loads were transported in water year 1991 or 1992. Continuous dissolved-oxygen data were collected at seven rural sites during water year 1994. Data for water years 1990-93 are summarized and plotted in terms of percentage of time that a particular concentration is equaled or exceeded. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in four streams were less than 9 mg/L at least 50 percent of the time, a condition that fails to meet suggested criterion for coldwater streams. The dissolved-oxygen probability curve for one of the coldwater streams is markedly different than the curves for the other streams, perhaps because of differences in aquatic biomass. Blank quality-assurance samples were collected at two of the urban evaluation monitoring sites to isolate contamination in the sample bottle, the automatic sampler and splitter, and the filtration system. Significant contamination caused excessive concentrations of dissolved chloride, alkalinity, and biochemical oxygen demand. The level of contamination may be large enough to affect data for water samples in which these analytes are present at low concentration. Further investigation is being done to determine the source of contamination and take measures to minimize its effect on the sampling. A preliminary regression analysis was done for the rural sites using data collected during water years 1989-93. Loads of suspended solids and total phosphorus in stormflow were regressed against various precipitation-related measures. The results indicate that, for most sites, changes in constituent load on the order of 40 to 50 percent could be detected with a statistical test. For two sites, the change would have to be 60 to 70 percent to be detected. A detailed comparison of snowmelt runoff and rainfall stormflow in urban and rural areas was done using data collected during water years 1985-93. For the rural sites where statistically significant differences were found between constituent loads in snowmelt and storm runoff, the loads of suspended solids and total phosphorus in snowmelt runoff were greater than those in storm runoff. For the urban sites where statistically significant differences were found between snowmelt and storm runoff, the loads of suspended solids and total phosphorus in storm runoff were greater than those in snowmelt runoff. The importance of including snowmelt runoff in designing and analyzing the effects of BMP's on streamwater quality, particularly in rural areas, is emphasized by these results.

Walker, J. F.; Graczyk, D. J.; Corsi, S. R.; Owens, D. W.; Wierl, J. A.

1995-01-01

159

Consumers’ perceptions on urban water services and connection to sustainable behavior  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents the results of a survey on urban consumers of tap water and public waterservices. We discuss seven types of awareness and perceptions an their connexion to sustainablebehavior: consumers’ awareness of water company (1) name, (2) location and (3) services delivered,their evaluation (4) of the the water-sewerage network state and (5) of its importance, their evaluations(6) of the overall tap water quality and (7) of the importance of water quality. Results of the researchsh...

Petrescu, Dacinia C.

2013-01-01

160

Urban Stormwater Runoff. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban stormwater runoff collects pollutants from many parts of a city and is an important consideration in water quality planning. Presented is an instructor's guide for a learning session covering various aspects of urban runoff including pollutant sources, management practices, and regulatory programs. Intended for citizen advisory groups, this…

Simko, Robert A.

 
 
 
 
161

Calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural del municipio de Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia Bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas of the municipality of Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Guatavita es un municipio ubicado en el Departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia. Posee recursos hídricos como ríos, quebradas, lagunas y nacimientos, que representan un alto porcentaje del agua con que se abastece. El municipio tiene 16 acueductos en funcionamiento, pero solo el que abastece a la población de la zona urbana cuenta con un sistema de tratamiento de agua. En la zona rural existen 14 acueductos con un sistema básico de pretratamiento. Se analizó la calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural (veredas Corales, Potrero Largo y Carbonera Alta, por medio de los indicadores de contaminación: coliformes totales y Escherichia coli, mediante la técnica de filtración por membrana. El agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana cumplió con los parámetros establecidos en la Resolución 2115 de 2007 del Ministerio de Protección Social, contrario a la zona rural, donde se encontraron recuentos de los indicadores de contaminación fecal, superiores a lo establecido. Por lo tanto, este recurso debe ser considerado como "agua natural", no apta para consumo humano, según el Decreto 1594 de 1984, por lo que debe ser destinada para potabilización bajo un tratamiento convencional.Guatavita is a municipality in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Guatavita has water resources such as rivers, streams, lakes and springs, which provide a large proportion of the water consumed by the population. Sixteen water supply systems are in operation, but only the one supplying the urban area is equipped with water treatment facilities. In the rural area there are 14 aqueducts with a basic pretreatment system. An analysis was made of the bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas (districts of Corales, Potrero Largo and Carbonera Alta based on two contamination indicators: total coliforms and Escherichia coli, using membrane filtration technique. The water for human consumption in the urban area complied with the parameters contained in Resolution 2115/2007 of the Ministry of Social Protection. In the rural area, however, fecal contamination indicators were above the established limits. Therefore, this resource should be viewed as "natural water" not suitable for human consumption, according to Decree 1594/1984, and destined for potabilization by conventional treatment.

Sara Lilia Ávila de Navia

2012-08-01

162

Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a comparative assessment of public perception of drinking water quality in two underprivileged urban areas in Lebanon and Jordan with nearly similar cultural and demographic characteristics. It compares the quality of bottled water to the quality of the drinking water supplied through the public network and examines the economic implications of bottled water consumption in the two study areas. Participants' perception of the quality of drinking water provided via the public network was generally negative, and bottled water was perceived to be of better quality in both areas, thus affecting drinking water preferences and consumption patterns. The results reveal that the quality of bottled water is questionable in areas that lack enforcement of water quality standards, thus adding to the burden of an already disadvantaged community. Both areas demonstrated a considerable cost incurred for purchasing bottled water in low income communities reaching up to 26 % of total income. PMID:22828978

Massoud, M A; Maroun, R; Abdelnabi, H; Jamali, I I; El-Fadel, M

2013-04-01

163

Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review  

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Full Text Available This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been driven by the desire for increased data regarding time of use and end-use (such as use by shower, toilet, garden, etc. as well as by the ability of the technology to reduce labour costs for meter reading. Technology development in the water sector generally lags that seen in the electricity sector. In the coming decade, the deployment of intelligent water metering will transition from being predominantly “pilot or demonstration scale” with the occasional city-wide roll-out, to broader mainstream implementation. This means that issues which have hitherto received little focus must now be addressed, namely: the role of real-time data in customer engagement and demand management; data ownership, sharing and privacy; technical data management and infrastructure security, utility workforce skills; and costs and benefits of implementation.

Rodney Stewart

2013-07-01

164

Spatial evaluation of water quality in an urban reservoir (Billings Complex, southeastern Brazil) / Avaliação espacial da qualidade da água em reservatório urbano (Complexo Billings, sudeste do Brasil)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Este estudo visa a (a) contribuir com a avaliação espacial da qualidade da água do Complexo Billings; (b) associar informações sobre a geoquímica dos sedimentos superficiais e (c) com base em literatura, fornecer uma avaliação temporal da qualidade da água no Complexo desde a restrição do [...] bombeamento do Rio Pinheiros; Métodos: As amostragens foram realizadas em 12 locais: 2 no Corpo Central (CB), 3 no Braço Taquacetuba (TQ); 3 no Braço Rio Pequeno (RP) e 4 na Represa Rio Grande (RG). A coleta da água foi realizada ao longo do perfil vertical no período de inverno (agosto/2009) e verão (fevereiro/2010) e a dos sedimentos superficiais (2 cm), no inverno. Foram avaliadas características físicas e químicas da água e dos sedimentos, e foi calculado o índice de estado trófico (IET) de Lamparelli; RESULTADOS: As condições limnológicas foram primordialmente influenciadas pelos períodos climáticos. No inverno, a heterogeneidade no Complexo foi mais definida com separação de seus compartimentos espaciais. Maior disponibilidade das formas nitrogenadas ocorreu no inverno, enquanto que, no verão, estas diminuíram e o fósforo apresentou aumento substancial. Os compartimentos mais degradados e associados aos maiores valores de nutrientes foram CB e TQ. De forma inversa, destaca-se o RP, cuja região a montante foi considerada de referência (menos impactada) no Complexo; CONCLUSÃO: Complexo Billings variou de mesotrófico (RP), eutrófico (RG) a supereutrófico (CB e TQ). Variação marcada do IET também ocorreu dentro dos compartimentos e dependendo do período climático, principalmente, associada ao manejo antrópico do Complexo. Os sedimentos salientaram os extremos de qualidade da água e forneceram informações adicionais sobre impactos antrópicos não detectados pela análise da água. Houve leve melhora da qualidade da água do CB e TQ a partir de 2009, possivelmente associada ao projeto de flotação do Rio Pinheiros. Abstract in english AIM: The study aimed at (a) contributing to a spatial evaluation of the Billings Complex water quality; (b) associating information on the geochemistry of the surface sediments; and (c) providing, based on previous studies, a temporal evaluation of the Complex's water quality since the Pinheiros Riv [...] er pumping restriction; METHODS: sampling was performed at 12 sites: 2 in the Central body (CB), 3 in the Taquacetuba branch (TQ), 3 in the Rio Pequeno branch (RP) and 4 in the Rio Grande Reservoir (RG). Water samples were taken along a vertical profile during the winter (August 2009) and summer (February 2010) and in the surface sediments (2 cm) during the winter. Physical and chemical characteristics of water and sediments were evaluated. Lamparelli's Trophic State Index (TSI) was calculated; RESULTS: limnological variability was mostly affected by the season. The spatial heterogeneity of the Complex was more pronounced during winter, with greater differences among its compartments. Nitrogen was higher in the winter, whereas in the summer there was a substantial phosphorus increase along with a nitrogen decrease. The most degraded compartments, associated with the highest nutrient levels, were CB and TQ. In contrast, the upstream region of the RP branch was considered a reference site (the least impacted) for the Complex; CONCLUSION: The Billings Complex ranged from mesotrophic (RP) or eutrophic (RG) to super-eutrophic (CC, TQ). High TSI variation also occurred within compartments and/or depending on the season, mainly associated with the human management of the Complex. The surface sediments underlined the differences observed between the extremes in the Billings Complex water quality, as well as providing additional information on other impacts that was not observed from the water analysis. A slight improvement in the water quality of the Central body and the Taquacetuba branch has been observed since 2009, possibly associated with the Pinheiros River flotatio

Simone, Wengrat; Denise de Campos, Bicudo.

2011-06-01

165

MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution systems are large, highly interconnected and dynamic, and difficult to control. Sewer systems are also large and subject to time varying inputs and demands. Their performance also faces increasing loading due to increasing urbanization and longer-term environmental changes. Therefore, understanding the link between microbial ecology and any potential impacts on short or long-term engineering performance is important. By combining the strengths and research expertise of civil-, biochemical engineers and molecular microbial ecologists, we aim to link the abundance and diversity of microorganisms to physical and engineering variables so that novel insights into the ecology of microorganisms within both water distribution systems and sewer networks can be explored. By presenting the details of this multidisciplinary approach, and the principals behind the molecular microbiological methods and techniques that we use, this paper will demonstrate the potential of an integrated approach to better understand urban water system function and so meet future challenges.

P. Deines

2010-01-01

166

A FEDERATED PARTNERSHIP FOR URBAN METEOROLOGICAL AND AIR QUALITY MODELING  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, applications of urban meteorological and air quality models have been performed at resolutions on the order of km grid sizes. This necessitated development and incorporation of high resolution landcover data and additional boundary layer parameters that serve to descri...

167

Modeling integrated urban water systems in developing countries: case study of Port Vila, Vanuatu.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing countries struggle to provide adequate urban water services, failing to match infrastructure with urban expansion. Despite requiring an improved understanding of alternative infrastructure performance when considering future investments, integrated modeling of urban water systems is infrequent in developing contexts. This paper presents an integrated modeling methodology that can assist strategic planning processes, using Port Vila, Vanuatu, as a case study. 49 future model scenarios designed for the year 2050, developed through extensive stakeholder participation, were modeled with UVQ (Urban Volume and Quality). The results were contrasted with a 2015 model based on current infrastructure, climate, and water demand patterns. Analysis demonstrated that alternative water servicing approaches can reduce Port Vila's water demand by 35 %, stormwater generation by 38 %, and nutrient release by 80 % in comparison to providing no infrastructural development. This paper demonstrates that traditional centralized infrastructure will not solve the wastewater and stormwater challenges facing rapidly growing urban cities in developing countries. PMID:24973053

Poustie, Michael S; Deletic, Ana

2014-12-01

168

Compliance with Drinking Water Quality Standards  

...from different locations within the water supply chain: from water treatment works; water supply points; service reservoirs; and...Quality of water leaving Water Treatment Works...Quality of water leaving Consumers' Tap (Water Supply Zones)...

169

Underground Water Assessment using Water Quality Index  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was designed to assess the quality of selected hand dug wells in Maikunkele area of Niger State, Nigeria using Water Quality Index (WQI). ten hand dug wells were randomly selected in Maikunkele area of Bosso Local Government and were tested for nine (9) parameters of National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) using standard analytical procedures. WQI results indicated that the quality of the selected well water samples were medium except for sample 2 that was extremely bad. The findings ...

Yisa, Jonathan; Jimoh, Tijani Oladejo; Oyibo, Ohiemi Michael

2012-01-01

170

[Relationships between urbanization and water resource utilization in Dongting Lake District of South-central China].  

Science.gov (United States)

By using analytic hierarchy process and entropy method, the evaluation index system and the response relationship model of comprehensive development level of urbanization and comprehensive development and utilization potential of water resources in Dongting Lake District were constructed, with the key affecting factors, their change characteristics, and response characteristics from 2001 to 2010 analyzed. During the study period, the Dongting Lake District was undergoing a rapid development of urbanization, and at a scale expansion stage. The economic and social development level was lagged behind the population and area increase, and the quality and efficiency of urbanization were still needed to be improved. With the advance of urbanization, the water consumption increased yearly, and the water resources utilization efficiency and management level improved steadily. However, the background condition of water resources and their development and utilization level were more affected by hydrological environment rather than urbanization. To a certain extent, the development of urbanization in 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009 was slowed down by the shortage of water resources. At present, Dongting Lake region was confronted with the dual task of improving the level and quality of urbanization, and hence, it would be necessary to reform the traditional epitaxial expansion of urbanization and to enhance the water resource support capability. PMID:24066557

Li, Jing-Zhi; Zhu, Xiang; Li, Jing-Bao; Xu, Mei

2013-06-01

171

MEASURES TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main measures to prevent pollution of surface water -rivers, streams, lakes - consist of domestic and industrial wastewaterwhich, if untreated reach the emissary, it could degrade water quality, making it even unusable.

Sa?mbotin, L.; Moisa, S.; DANA SÂMBOTIN; ANA MARIANA DINCU; Ilie, C.

2010-01-01

172

MEASURES TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main measures to prevent pollution of surface water -rivers, streams, lakes - consist of domestic and industrial wastewaterwhich, if untreated reach the emissary, it could degrade water quality, making it even unusable.

L. SÂMBOTIN

2010-05-01

173

A landscape based, systems dynamic model for assessing impacts of urban development on water quality for sustainable seagrass growth in Tampa Bay, Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an integrated assessment model to predict potential unintended consequences of urban development on the sustainability of seagrasses and preservation of ecosystem services, such as catchable fish, in Tampa Bay. Ecosystem services are those ecological functions and pro...

174

The effects of flow-path modification on water-quality constituent retention in an urban stormwater detention pond and wetland system, Orlando, Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in constituent retention in a wet stormwater-detention pond and wetland system in Orlando, Florida, were evaluated following the 1988 installation of a flow barrier which approximately doubled the flow path and increased detention time in the pond. The pond and wetland were arranged in series so that stormwater first enters the pond and overflows into the wetland before spilling over to the regional stream system. Several principal factors that contribute to constituent retention were examined, including changes in pond-water quality between storms, stormwater quality, and pond-water flushing during storms. A simple, analytical pond-water mixing model was used as the basis for interpreting changes in retention efficiencies caused by pond modification. Retention efficiencies were calculated by a modified event-mean concentration efficiency method using a minimum variance unbiased estimator approach. The results of this study generally support the hypothesis that changes in the geometry of stormwater treatment systems can significantly affect the constituent retention efficiency of the pond and wetland system. However, the results also indicate that these changes in efficiency are caused not only by changes in residence time, but also by changes in stormwater mixing and pond water flushing during storms. Additionally, the use of average efficiencies as indications of treatment effectiveness may fail to account for biases associated with sample distribution and independent physical properties of the system, such as the range and concentrations of constituents in stormwater inflows and stormwater volume. Changes in retention efficiencies varied among chemical constituents and were significantly different in the pond and wetland. Retention efficiency was related to inflow concentration for most constituents. Increased flushing of the pond after modification caused decreases in retention efficiencies for constituents that concentrate in the pond between storms (dissolved solids) and increases in retention efficiency for constituents that settle out of pond and wetland storage between storms. The greatest increase in retention efficiencies in the detention pond was observed for total lead, which increased from 19 percent before modification to 73 percent after modification. However, retention efficiencies for nutrients for nutrients and suspended constituents decreased in the wetland after modification. This was probably because of the flushing of accumulated sediments as a result of a change in flow path through the wetland. As a result, the overall effect of modification on the system (pond and wetland retention efficiencies combined) was a reduction in retention efficiency for all but two constituents (total zinc and total ammonia nitrogen).

Gain, W.S.

1996-01-01

175

Channels for change: private water and the urban poor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the rapidly urbanising developing world, safe and affordable water is key to health and livelihoods, as well as meeting the Millennium Development Goals. But providing it demands innovative models. Where the context allows and the approach is appropriate, private sector involvement can generate win-win outcomes. Poor people can gain access to high-quality, affordable services, and companies can gain access to new and profitable business opportunities. Two examples of innovative 'private' water suppliers are the Manila Water Company's Water for the Poor Communities (TPSB) programme, and the Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) partnership. Both have a multisector approach to service expansion and provision, including partnerships with local authorities; strong community involvement in selecting, designing and operating options; appropriate service levels to reduce costs; and a flexible range of services. Many elements of these models are also replicable.

Lynch, Matthew; Matthews, Petter; Ryan-Collins, Lily [Engineers Against Poverty (United Kingdom)

2010-05-15

176

Better safe than sorry: towards appropriate water safety plans for urban self supply systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Self Supply Systems (SSS) can be defined as privately owned household level water sources. The research focus is on urban self supply hand dug wells in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Self supply wells serve an estimated 45% of Abeokuta’s population. SSS can be gradually upgraded to improve water quality, but water quality can also be improved through effective risk management. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a risk management tool known as Water Safety Plans (WSP), but ...

Kilanko-oluwasanya, Grace Olutope

2009-01-01

177

Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado Avaliação de parâmetros de qualidade de água para monitoramento de áreas naturais, urbanas e agrícolas no Cerrado brasileiro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil's Federal District (FD has seen steep population growth in recent years, and this has increased demand for high-quality water. AIM: The present work aims to evaluate the quality of surface water from two water bodies in the FD at six sampling points, three of which are in the Sobradinho River (the receiving body of a sewage treatment plant effluent and three in the Jardim River (located in an agricultural region. METHODS: Analyses were carried out every thirty days, for twelve months, covering rainy and dry seasons. Parameters were analyzed such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, main ions, total and fecal coliforms (E. coli in water. Ecotoxicological evaluation was also performed, using the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTS: Data of physical and chemical determinations showed DO, conductivity, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2- and Na+ to be important in indicating contamination by urban effluents. On the subject of biological parameters - E. coli and ecotoxicological evaluation - the former was seen to be more effective in the urban area. However, in the countryside, the assay with C. dubia proved to be the most sensitive, although less than ideal, because the organism is very sensitive to low water hardness. CONCLUSIONS: The fecal coliform indicator (E. coli was the most effective one for comparing water quality in the two basins, mainly for the urbanized one, while ecotoxicity assays with C. dubia were harmed by the natural chemical composition of the water.INTRODUÇÃO: O Distrito Federal (DF tem apresentado grande crescimento populacional nos últimos anos, o que vem ocasionando aumento da necessidade por água de qualidade, tanto pelas cidades quanto pela área rural. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água superficial de dois corpos hídricos no DF em seis pontos de amostragem, três localizados no Ribeirão Sobradinho (corpo receptor de Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto e três no Alto Rio Jardim (região com forte atividade agrícola. MÉTODOS: Análises de temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido (OD, condutividade, turbidez, dureza total, principais íons, coliformes totais e fecais (E. coli da água, foram realizadas mensalmente durante doze meses envolvendo períodos seco e chuvoso. Além disso, também foi realizada avaliação ecotoxicológica utilizando o microcrustáceo Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTADOS: Os dados físico-químicos mostraram que OD, condutividade, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2- e Na+ foram importantes para indicar a contaminação por efluentes urbanos. Quanto aos parâmetros biológicos, E. coli e avaliação ecotoxicológica, observou-se que o primeiro foi mais efetivo para avaliar qualidade da água na área urbana, enquanto que na área rural, o ensaio com C. dubia mostrou-se mais sensível, mas não ideal, tendo em vista a alta sensibilidade do organismo à baixa dureza da água. CONCLUSÕES: A presença de coliformes fecais (E. coli foi o indicador mais efetivo para comparar a qualidade da água entre as duas bacias, principalmente na urbanizada, enquanto que os ensaios de ecotoxicidade com C. dubia foram prejudicados pela composição química natural da água.

Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz

2011-09-01

178

Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado / Avaliação de parâmetros de qualidade de água para monitoramento de áreas naturais, urbanas e agrícolas no Cerrado brasileiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O Distrito Federal (DF) tem apresentado grande crescimento populacional nos últimos anos, o que vem ocasionando aumento da necessidade por água de qualidade, tanto pelas cidades quanto pela área rural. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água superfici [...] al de dois corpos hídricos no DF em seis pontos de amostragem, três localizados no Ribeirão Sobradinho (corpo receptor de Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto) e três no Alto Rio Jardim (região com forte atividade agrícola). MÉTODOS: Análises de temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido (OD), condutividade, turbidez, dureza total, principais íons, coliformes totais e fecais (E. coli) da água, foram realizadas mensalmente durante doze meses envolvendo períodos seco e chuvoso. Além disso, também foi realizada avaliação ecotoxicológica utilizando o microcrustáceo Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTADOS: Os dados físico-químicos mostraram que OD, condutividade, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-) e Na+ foram importantes para indicar a contaminação por efluentes urbanos. Quanto aos parâmetros biológicos, E. coli e avaliação ecotoxicológica, observou-se que o primeiro foi mais efetivo para avaliar qualidade da água na área urbana, enquanto que na área rural, o ensaio com C. dubia mostrou-se mais sensível, mas não ideal, tendo em vista a alta sensibilidade do organismo à baixa dureza da água. CONCLUSÕES: A presença de coliformes fecais (E. coli) foi o indicador mais efetivo para comparar a qualidade da água entre as duas bacias, principalmente na urbanizada, enquanto que os ensaios de ecotoxicidade com C. dubia foram prejudicados pela composição química natural da água. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Brazil's Federal District (FD) has seen steep population growth in recent years, and this has increased demand for high-quality water. AIM: The present work aims to evaluate the quality of surface water from two water bodies in the FD at six sampling points, three of which are in the S [...] obradinho River (the receiving body of a sewage treatment plant effluent) and three in the Jardim River (located in an agricultural region). METHODS: Analyses were carried out every thirty days, for twelve months, covering rainy and dry seasons. Parameters were analyzed such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, main ions, total and fecal coliforms (E. coli) in water. Ecotoxicological evaluation was also performed, using the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTS: Data of physical and chemical determinations showed DO, conductivity, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-) and Na+ to be important in indicating contamination by urban effluents. On the subject of biological parameters - E. coli and ecotoxicological evaluation - the former was seen to be more effective in the urban area. However, in the countryside, the assay with C. dubia proved to be the most sensitive, although less than ideal, because the organism is very sensitive to low water hardness. CONCLUSIONS: The fecal coliform indicator (E. coli) was the most effective one for comparing water quality in the two basins, mainly for the urbanized one, while ecotoxicity assays with C. dubia were harmed by the natural chemical composition of the water.

Daphne Heloisa de Freitas, Muniz; Aline Silva, Moraes; Ingrid de Souza, Freire; Carlos José Domingos da, Cruz; Jorge Enoch Furquim Werneck, Lima; Eduardo Cyrino, Oliveira-Filho.

2011-09-01

179

Our water quality policy  

...HomeSignificant Water Management IssuesWater...WMUDevelopment ManagementStormwater...planning, marine licensing, marine nature conservation, fisheries management, and a marine management organisation.This consultation...

180

Funding Sources for Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Provided by the Water Quality Information Center at the USDA National Agricultural Library, this new resource offers a large selection of links for specific water quality funding programs and opportunities across the US government. The funding opportunities come from departments such as the DOI, EPA, FHA, NOAA, USDA, and USGS, among others.

 
 
 
 
181

Calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural del municipio de Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia / Bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas of the municipality of Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Guatavita es un municipio ubicado en el Departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia. Posee recursos hídricos como ríos, quebradas, lagunas y nacimientos, que representan un alto porcentaje del agua con que se abastece. El municipio tiene 16 acueductos en funcionamiento, pero solo el que abastece a la pob [...] lación de la zona urbana cuenta con un sistema de tratamiento de agua. En la zona rural existen 14 acueductos con un sistema básico de pretratamiento. Se analizó la calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural (veredas Corales, Potrero Largo y Carbonera Alta), por medio de los indicadores de contaminación: coliformes totales y Escherichia coli, mediante la técnica de filtración por membrana. El agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana cumplió con los parámetros establecidos en la Resolución 2115 de 2007 del Ministerio de Protección Social, contrario a la zona rural, donde se encontraron recuentos de los indicadores de contaminación fecal, superiores a lo establecido. Por lo tanto, este recurso debe ser considerado como "agua natural", no apta para consumo humano, según el Decreto 1594 de 1984, por lo que debe ser destinada para potabilización bajo un tratamiento convencional. Abstract in english Guatavita is a municipality in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Guatavita has water resources such as rivers, streams, lakes and springs, which provide a large proportion of the water consumed by the population. Sixteen water supply systems are in operation, but only the one supplying the u [...] rban area is equipped with water treatment facilities. In the rural area there are 14 aqueducts with a basic pretreatment system. An analysis was made of the bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas (districts of Corales, Potrero Largo and Carbonera Alta) based on two contamination indicators: total coliforms and Escherichia coli, using membrane filtration technique. The water for human consumption in the urban area complied with the parameters contained in Resolution 2115/2007 of the Ministry of Social Protection. In the rural area, however, fecal contamination indicators were above the established limits. Therefore, this resource should be viewed as "natural water" not suitable for human consumption, according to Decree 1594/1984, and destined for potabilization by conventional treatment.

Sara Lilia, Ávila de Navia; Sandra Mónica, Estupiñán Torres.

2012-08-01

182

Calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural del municipio de Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia / Bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas of the municipality of Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Guatavita es un municipio ubicado en el Departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia. Posee recursos hídricos como ríos, quebradas, lagunas y nacimientos, que representan un alto porcentaje del agua con que se abastece. El municipio tiene 16 acueductos en funcionamiento, pero solo el que abastece a la pob [...] lación de la zona urbana cuenta con un sistema de tratamiento de agua. En la zona rural existen 14 acueductos con un sistema básico de pretratamiento. Se analizó la calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural (veredas Corales, Potrero Largo y Carbonera Alta), por medio de los indicadores de contaminación: coliformes totales y Escherichia coli, mediante la técnica de filtración por membrana. El agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana cumplió con los parámetros establecidos en la Resolución 2115 de 2007 del Ministerio de Protección Social, contrario a la zona rural, donde se encontraron recuentos de los indicadores de contaminación fecal, superiores a lo establecido. Por lo tanto, este recurso debe ser considerado como "agua natural", no apta para consumo humano, según el Decreto 1594 de 1984, por lo que debe ser destinada para potabilización bajo un tratamiento convencional. Abstract in english Guatavita is a municipality in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Guatavita has water resources such as rivers, streams, lakes and springs, which provide a large proportion of the water consumed by the population. Sixteen water supply systems are in operation, but only the one supplying the u [...] rban area is equipped with water treatment facilities. In the rural area there are 14 aqueducts with a basic pretreatment system. An analysis was made of the bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas (districts of Corales, Potrero Largo and Carbonera Alta) based on two contamination indicators: total coliforms and Escherichia coli, using membrane filtration technique. The water for human consumption in the urban area complied with the parameters contained in Resolution 2115/2007 of the Ministry of Social Protection. In the rural area, however, fecal contamination indicators were above the established limits. Therefore, this resource should be viewed as "natural water" not suitable for human consumption, according to Decree 1594/1984, and destined for potabilization by conventional treatment.

Sara Lilia, Ávila de Navia; Sandra Mónica, Estupiñán Torres.

183

9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106...Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary...added to the water to maintain water quality standards. Facilities...

2010-01-01

184

Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling  

Science.gov (United States)

Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across regions, and across sectors demand for an integrated approach to assess main causes of water quality degradation.

Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

2014-05-01

185

What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

186

Measuring urban quality of life using multivariate geostatistical models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban quality of life (QOL) is usually measured through an index de ned as the estimated value of a set of urban amenities. However there is an increasing awareness that omitted variables might seriously undermine the method's ability to accurately estimate QOL. Here we extend the hedonic approach using a multivariate geostatistical model to address the omitted variable bias by identifying the latent common factors responsible for the spatial distribution of the amenities. A new QOL index ...

Michelangeli, Alessandra; Ferrari, Clarissa; Minozzo, Marco

2011-01-01

187

Impacts of anthropogenic pressures on the water quality of the Gironde Estuary (SW France) from the Urban Agglomeration of Bordeaux: spatial characterization and inputs of trace metal elements (Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn)  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent European legislation (2000/60/CE) has listed eight trace metal elements as priority toxic substances for water quality. Urban metal inputs into hydrosystems are of increasing interest to both scientists and managers facing restrictive environmental protection policies, population increase and changing metal applications. The Gironde Estuary (SW France; 625 km2) is known for its metal/metalloid pollution originating from industrial (e.g. Cd, Zn, Cu, As, Ag, Hg) or agricultural sources (e.g. Cu) in the main fluvial tributaries (Garonne and Dordogne Rivers). However, little peer-reviewed scientific work has addressed the impact of urban sources on the Gironde Estuary, especially the Urban Agglomeration of Bordeaux (~1 million inhabitants) located on the downstream branch of the Garonne River. In this study, a snapshot sampling campaign was performed in 2011 for characterizing the spatial distribution of dissolved and particulate metal/metalloid (As, Ag, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu) concentrations in three suburban watersheds: the Jalle of Blanquefort (330 km2), Eau Bourde (140 km2), and Peugue (112 km2). Furthermore, particulate metal Enrichment Factors (EF) were calculated using local geochemical background measured at the bottom of a sediment core (492 cm). Results indicated that metal concentrations displayed a high spatial variability depending on the suburban watershed and the studied element. Local concentrations anomalies were observed for: (i) As in the Eau Bourde River in dissolved (4.2 ?g/l) and particulate phases (246 mg/kg; EF= 20) and attributed to a nearby industrial incinerator; (ii) Zn in the Peugue River with maximum dissolved and particulate concentrations of 87 ?g/l and 1580 mg/kg (EF=17), respectively, probably due to urban habitation runoff; (iii) Ag in the Jalle of Blanquefort River with high dissolved (74 ng/l) and particulate concentrations (33.7 mg/kg; EF=117) due to industrial activities in the downstream part. Based on hydro-geochemical monitoring of both suburban rivers and local wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), we present a first estimate of metal/metalloid fluxes and compare them to the respective loads in the Garonne River. Our results suggest that suburban metal inputs may significantly increase metal concentrations and fluxes in the fluvial Gironde Estuary, especially for Ag due to inputs exported by WWTPS and the Jalle of Blanquefort River.

Kessaci, Kahina; Coynel, Alexandra; Blanc, Gérard; Deycard, Victoria N.; Derriennic, Hervé; Schäfer, Jörg

2014-05-01

188

WATER QUALITY AND ECTOPARASITE DISEASES OF CY- PRINIDAE FISH  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On large carp fish farms water from larger surface streams is used, which have been affected by industrial and urban pollution, making the zoohygienic conditions bad for the culturing region. The quality of the culturing region directly affects the growth, condition and health of the fish. The aim of this work was to investigate the components of phytoplankton and the physico-chemical indicators of water quality on the occurrence of ectoparasites on the cyprinidae fish farms. Investigation we...

Marija Tomec; Mato Hacmanjek; Zlatica Teskeredži?; Emin Teskeredži?; Rozelinda ?ož-Rakovac

1995-01-01

189

Effects of urbanization on stream quality at selected sites in the seacoast region in New Hampshire, 2001-03  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of selected water-quality and macroinvertebrate community data was conducted at 10 stream sites in the Seacoast region of New Hampshire to determine if a relation is present between stream quality and the extent of urbanization in a watershed. Watersheds with similar characteristics, but varying in their degree of urban development, were studied. The percent of impervious surface, the percent of urban land use in a watershed, and the percent of urban land use in two types of stream buffers were compared and correlated with stream-quality variables. Specific conductance, turbidity, nitrite plus nitrate yields, and selected macroinvertebrate community data were significantly correlated with most measures of urbanization used in this study; however, concentrations and total phosphorus yields were not statistically correlated with most measures of urbanization in this study. The measures of urbanization that had the highest correlations with stream-quality variables were those measures that were associated with the percent of urban land in buffer zones near and upstream of a sampling site. A water-quality and habitat conditions score was negatively correlated with the percent of urban land in a 1-kilometer radial buffer of the sampling site (rho (r) = -0.86; p site (r = -0.95; p stream buffer along the stream corridor also had negative correlations with a water-quality and habitat conditions score (r = -0.80; p streams in this region. Results from this study indicate that the percent of urban land use in buffer zones and the percent of impervious surface in a watershed can be used as indicators of stream quality.

Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Soule, Sally A.; Smith, Thor E.

2005-01-01

190

A critical review of integrated urban water modelling – Urban drainage and beyond  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modelling interactions in urban drainage, water supply and broader integrated urban water systems has been conceptually and logistically challenging as evidenced in a diverse body of literature, found to be confusing and intimidating to new researchers. This review consolidates thirty years of research (initially driven by interest in urban drainage modelling) and critically reflects upon integrated modelling in the scope of urban water systems. We propose a typology to classify integrated urban water system models at one of four ‘degrees of integration’ (followed by its exemplification). Key considerations (e.g. data issues, model structure, computational and integration-related aspects), common methodology for model development (through a systems approach), calibration/optimisation and uncertainty are discussed, placing importance on pragmatism and parsimony. Integrated urban water models should focus more on addressing interplay between social/economical and biophysical/technical issues, while its encompassing software should become more user-friendly. Possible future directions include exploring uncertainties and broader participatory modelling.

Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

2014-01-01

191

EAR methodology: an approach to Sustainable Urban Water Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last few decades, urban drainage systems have become much more than a simple removal of storm-water and sewage out of the city. Urban water management must adapt to the city and its evolutions; the driving forces are numerous with a diverse range of origins: social evolution (increasing expectations regarding levels of service), societal evolution (increasing complexity of regulations and institutions, which make urban water management more complex), environmental evolution (climate ch...

Granger, Damien; Cherqui, Fre?de?ric; Chocat, Bernard

2010-01-01

192

AMBIENT WATER QUALITY MONITORING SITES  

Science.gov (United States)

The North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Management, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, developed the digital Ambient Water Quality Monitoring Sites data to enhance planning, sit...

193

Urban water infrastructure asset management - a structured approach in four water utilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water services are a strategic sector of large social and economic relevance. It is therefore essential that they are managed rationally and efficiently. Advanced water supply and wastewater infrastructure asset management (IAM) is key in achieving adequate levels of service in the future, particularly with regard to reliable and high quality drinking water supply, prevention of urban flooding, efficient use of natural resources and prevention of pollution. This paper presents a methodology for supporting the development of urban water IAM, developed during the AWARE-P project as well as an appraisal of its implementation in four water utilities. Both water supply and wastewater systems were considered. Due to the different contexts and features of the utilities, the main concerns vary from case to case; some problems essentially are related to performance, others to risk. Cost is a common deciding factor. The paper describes the procedure applied, focusing on the diversity of drivers, constraints, benefits and outcomes. It also points out the main challenges and the results obtained through the implementation of a structured procedure for supporting urban water IAM. PMID:23109589

Cardoso, M A; Silva, M Santos; Coelho, S T; Almeida, M C; Covas, D I C

2012-01-01

194

Urban Densification and Recreational Quality of Public Urban Green Spaces—A Viennese Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Public urban green spaces play an important role in urban sustainability. These places should provide high-quality recreation experiences for the urban residents. However, they are often overused. The Wienerberg area in the south of Vienna, Austria, was transformed from a waste disposal site into a natural recreation area. During the past years, intensive settlement densification processes have taken place, resulting in a doubling of the local population living within a few minutes walking distance. An on-site survey among green space visitors (N = 231 revealed that the majority of them considered the area to be overcrowded on Sundays/holidays and reported a perceived increase in visitor numbers during the past years. Visitors with more past experience, as well as those who have perceived an increase in visitor numbers during recent years, reported higher crowding perceptions. A significant proportion of them try to avoid these crowds, relying on behavioral coping strategies, such as inter-area displacement. While urban regeneration has provided an attractive recreation area, urban densification around the green space appears to have reduced its recreational quality. Monitoring recreation quality indicators, such as crowding perceptions, seems to be useful for sustainable urban green space management and city planning.

Arne Arnberger

2012-04-01

195

An Expert System Applied in Construction Water Quality Monitoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: An untoward environmental impact of urban growth in Malaysia has been deterioration in a number of watercourses due to severe siltation and other pollutants from the construction site. Water quality monitoring is a plan for decision makers to take into account the adverse impacts of construction activities on the receiving water bodies. It is also a process for collecting the construction water quality monitoring, baseline data and standard level. Approach: In recent years, expert systems have been used extensively in different applications areas including environmental studies. In this study, expert system software -CWQM- developed by using Microsoft Visual Basic was introduced. CWQM to be used for water quality monitoring during construction activities was designed based on the legal process in Malaysia. Results: According to the water quality monitoring regulation enacted in Malaysia, construction activities require mandatory water quality monitoring plans duly approved by Department of Environment before staring activities. CWQM primarily aims to provide educational and support system for water quality monitoring engineers and decision-makers during construction activities. It displays water quality monitoring plan in report form, water sampling location in GIS format and water quality monitoring data in graph. Conclusion: When the use of CWQM in construction water quality monitoring becomes widespread, it is highly possible that it will be benefited in terms of having more accurate and objective decisions on construction projects which are mainly focused on reducing the stormwater pollution.

Leila Ooshaksaraie

2011-01-01

196

18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7...GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States...responsibility in the basin for water quality management and control....

2010-04-01

197

Water engineering. Reducing sewer corrosion through integrated urban water management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sewer systems are among the most critical infrastructure assets for modern urban societies and provide essential human health protection. Sulfide-induced concrete sewer corrosion costs billions of dollars annually and has been identified as a main cause of global sewer deterioration. We performed a 2-year sampling campaign in South East Queensland (Australia), an extensive industry survey across Australia, and a comprehensive model-based scenario analysis of the various sources of sulfide. Aluminum sulfate addition during drinking water production contributes substantially to the sulfate load in sewage and indirectly serves as the primary source of sulfide. This unintended consequence of urban water management structures could be avoided by switching to sulfate-free coagulants, with no or only marginal additional expenses compared with the large potential savings in sewer corrosion costs. PMID:25124439

Pikaar, Ilje; Sharma, Keshab R; Hu, Shihu; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

2014-08-15

198

Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate the relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP; METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center, ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro; RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P INTRODUÇÃO: Riachos de referência dizem respeito a ambientes íntegros, sendo possível utilizar suas características ambientais como valores patamares de qualidade. Além dos impactos orgânicos medidos pelos programas de biomonitoramento da qualidade da água, se faz necessário avaliar as relações entre as alterações da paisagem dos riachos e de seu entorno com as mudanças na estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados desses ambientes; OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivos correlacionar as mudanças da paisagem com os atributos ecológicos da comunidade e índices de qualidade da água e, recomendar valores de condição referencial de integridade de riachos para a região de Jundiaí/SP; MÉTODOS: Foram amostradas a fauna bentônica de três riachos urbanos, três rurais e três preservados, com amostrador do tipo Surber, em julho de 2010. As características da paisagem foram avaliadas por meio da Diversidade de Habitat (DH; a comunidade, analisada quanto a S, N, J', H' e curvas de rarefação S e de dominância K e; a qualidade da água aferida pelos índices ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC, ASPT e SOMI; RESULTADOS: A estrutura e a composição das comunidades variaram em função dos riachos e refletiram-se nos valores dos índices biológicos e de qualidade ambiental. As melhores condições foram encontradas nos riachos preservados, as intermediárias, nos riachos rurais e, as piores, nos urbanos. As significativas correlações (r > 0.73 e P < 0.05 entre o índice de diversidade de habitat (DH e os atributos ecológicos e de qualidade da água dos riachos de Jundiaí, demonstraram que DH pode ser um bom preditor das características ambientais avaliadas e como tal, recomenda-se como valores de condição de referencia de riachos: DH ? 80; H' ? 2,3 e J ? 0.8 (família como nível taxonômico e; qualidade de água boa (ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC e BI, de levemente poluída a limpa (ASPT e regular (SOMI.

Claudia Eiko Yoshida

2012-01-01

199

Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate the relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP; METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center, ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro; RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P INTRODUÇÃO: Riachos de referência dizem respeito a ambientes íntegros, sendo possível utilizar suas características ambientais como valores patamares de qualidade. Além dos impactos orgânicos medidos pelos programas de biomonitoramento da qualidade da água, se faz necessário avaliar as relações entre as alterações da paisagem dos riachos e de seu entorno com as mudanças na estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados desses ambientes; OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivos correlacionar as mudanças da paisagem com os atributos ecológicos da comunidade e índices de qualidade da água e, recomendar valores de condição referencial de integridade de riachos para a região de Jundiaí/SP; MÉTODOS: Foram amostradas a fauna bentônica de três riachos urbanos, três rurais e três preservados, com amostrador do tipo Surber, em julho de 2010. As características da paisagem foram avaliadas por meio da Diversidade de Habitat (DH; a comunidade, analisada quanto a S, N, J', H' e curvas de rarefação S e de dominância K e; a qualidade da água aferida pelos índices ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC, ASPT e SOMI; RESULTADOS: A estrutura e a composição das comunidades variaram em função dos riachos e refletiram-se nos valores dos índices biológicos e de qualidade ambiental. As melhores condições foram encontradas nos riachos preservados, as intermediárias, nos riachos rurais e, as piores, nos urbanos. As significativas correlações (r > 0.73 e P < 0.05 entre o índice de diversidade de habitat (DH e os atributos ecológicos e de qualidade da água dos riachos de Jundiaí, demonstraram que DH pode ser um bom preditor das características ambientais avaliadas e como tal, recomenda-se como valores de condição de referencia de riachos: DH ? 80; H' ? 2,3 e J ? 0.8 (família como nível taxonômico e; qualidade de água boa (ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC e BI, de levemente poluída a limpa (ASPT e regular (SOMI.

Claudia Eiko Yoshida

2012-09-01

200

Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments / Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Riachos de referência dizem respeito a ambientes íntegros, sendo possível utilizar suas características ambientais como valores patamares de qualidade. Além dos impactos orgânicos medidos pelos programas de biomonitoramento da qualidade da água, se faz necessário avaliar as relações entr [...] e as alterações da paisagem dos riachos e de seu entorno com as mudanças na estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados desses ambientes; OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivos correlacionar as mudanças da paisagem com os atributos ecológicos da comunidade e índices de qualidade da água e, recomendar valores de condição referencial de integridade de riachos para a região de Jundiaí/SP; MÉTODOS: Foram amostradas a fauna bentônica de três riachos urbanos, três rurais e três preservados, com amostrador do tipo Surber, em julho de 2010. As características da paisagem foram avaliadas por meio da Diversidade de Habitat (DH); a comunidade, analisada quanto a S, N, J', H' e curvas de rarefação S e de dominância K e; a qualidade da água aferida pelos índices ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC, ASPT e SOMI; RESULTADOS: A estrutura e a composição das comunidades variaram em função dos riachos e refletiram-se nos valores dos índices biológicos e de qualidade ambiental. As melhores condições foram encontradas nos riachos preservados, as intermediárias, nos riachos rurais e, as piores, nos urbanos. As significativas correlações (r > 0.73 e P Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate th [...] e relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP); METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center), ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro)); RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P

Claudia Eiko, Yoshida; Ana Paula Pozzo Rios, Rolla.

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
201

Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments / Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Riachos de referência dizem respeito a ambientes íntegros, sendo possível utilizar suas características ambientais como valores patamares de qualidade. Além dos impactos orgânicos medidos pelos programas de biomonitoramento da qualidade da água, se faz necessário avaliar as relações entr [...] e as alterações da paisagem dos riachos e de seu entorno com as mudanças na estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados desses ambientes; OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivos correlacionar as mudanças da paisagem com os atributos ecológicos da comunidade e índices de qualidade da água e, recomendar valores de condição referencial de integridade de riachos para a região de Jundiaí/SP; MÉTODOS: Foram amostradas a fauna bentônica de três riachos urbanos, três rurais e três preservados, com amostrador do tipo Surber, em julho de 2010. As características da paisagem foram avaliadas por meio da Diversidade de Habitat (DH); a comunidade, analisada quanto a S, N, J', H' e curvas de rarefação S e de dominância K e; a qualidade da água aferida pelos índices ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC, ASPT e SOMI; RESULTADOS: A estrutura e a composição das comunidades variaram em função dos riachos e refletiram-se nos valores dos índices biológicos e de qualidade ambiental. As melhores condições foram encontradas nos riachos preservados, as intermediárias, nos riachos rurais e, as piores, nos urbanos. As significativas correlações (r > 0.73 e P Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate th [...] e relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP); METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center), ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro)); RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P

Claudia Eiko, Yoshida; Ana Paula Pozzo Rios, Rolla.

202

Influence of water quality on the embodied energy of drinking water treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban water treatment plants rely on energy intensive processes to provide safe, reliable water to users. Changes in influent water quality may alter the operation of a water treatment plant and its associated energy use or embodied energy. Therefore the objective of this study is to estimate the effect of influent water quality on the operational embodied energy of drinking water, using the city of Tampa, Florida as a case study. Water quality and water treatment data were obtained from the David L Tippin Water Treatment Facility (Tippin WTF). Life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) was conducted to calculate treatment chemical embodied energy values. Statistical methods including Pearson's correlation, linear regression, and relative importance were used to determine the influence of water quality on treatment plant operation and subsequently, embodied energy. Results showed that influent water quality was responsible for about 14.5% of the total operational embodied energy, mainly due to changes in treatment chemical dosages. The method used in this study can be applied to other urban drinking water contexts to determine if drinking water source quality control or modification of treatment processes will significantly minimize drinking water treatment embodied energy. PMID:24517328

Santana, Mark V E; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

2014-03-01

203

Invertebrados bentónicos como indicadores de calidad del agua en ríos urbanos (Paraná-Entre Ríos, Argentina) / Benthic invertebrates as indicators of water quality in urban rivers (Paraná-Entre Ríos, Argentina)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudió la incidencia de los efluentes industriales y cloacales sobre la estructura del bentos en el río Las Tunas y su afluente Saucesito (Paraná, Provincia de Entre Ríos, Argentina). Se determinaron las especies y asociaciones de especies en gradientes de buena a mala calidad del agua de estos [...] ríos urbanos. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos, entre julio de 2000 y febrero de 2002, en cuatro estaciones a lo largo del curso. Los resultados obtenidos revelaron que, tanto la densidad como la diversidad específica fueron influenciadas por la contaminación orgánica, con una disminución brusca en la estación afectada por el vertido de los efluentes del parque industrial. Se registraron 85 taxa, siendo los oligoquetos y quironómidos los dominantes. Del análisis de componentes principales, se infirió que la demanda biológica de oxígeno fue el factor que más incidió en la distribución y composición de organismos bentónicos. El río Las Tunas presentó altos valores de DBO5, la menor densidad, riqueza y diversidad específica, sin recuperación de la calidad del agua en todo el tramo. Aguas arriba, el río Saucesito presentó una mejor calidad, principalmente en la estación de referencia ubicada antes del parque industrial. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to assess the effects of industrial and sewage discharges on the benthic structure of urban rivers. Also, the species assemblages associated to different water quality conditions were studied. Four sampling sites were analyzed, from July 2000 to February 2002, during high wa [...] ter level in two urban rivers. In order to determine the quality of the water and the species assemblages, ANOVA, principal components analysis, species diversity and distance index among sites were applied. Eighty-five species or morphospecies were identified, dominated by Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. Average density of benthic invertebrates varied between 233 ind/m² and 29265 ind/m², with higher densities registered in the reference sampling site than in the ones affected by industrial discharges. The species richness ranged from four to 43 taxa, and the Shannon-Wiener index, from 1.37 to 3.95, with the highest value registered in Saucesito river. Filtering and gathering collectors were the dominant feeding groups in all the sites because of the high fine particulate organic matter content. The biological oxygen demand was the main factor in determinating the benthic invertebrates distribution and composition. Las Tunas River is hardly polluted, with low benthic density, species richness and diversity, and high DBO5 values. Saucesito River shows a better water quality, mainly upstream of the industrial discharges. The gradient from clean to polluted water quality, was characterized by the species assemblages Ostracods Podocopida, Tanytarsus sp., D. (D.) obtusa, Djalmabatista sp. 2, Rheotanytarsus sp. 1, S. fossularis and Cricotopus sp. 1 ? N. variabilis, C. xanthus and L. hoffmeisteri.

Paola J, Pave; Mercedes, Marchese.

2005-12-01

204

Invertebrados bentónicos como indicadores de calidad del agua en ríos urbanos (Paraná-Entre Ríos, Argentina) / Benthic invertebrates as indicators of water quality in urban rivers (Paraná-Entre Ríos, Argentina)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudió la incidencia de los efluentes industriales y cloacales sobre la estructura del bentos en el río Las Tunas y su afluente Saucesito (Paraná, Provincia de Entre Ríos, Argentina). Se determinaron las especies y asociaciones de especies en gradientes de buena a mala calidad del agua de estos [...] ríos urbanos. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos, entre julio de 2000 y febrero de 2002, en cuatro estaciones a lo largo del curso. Los resultados obtenidos revelaron que, tanto la densidad como la diversidad específica fueron influenciadas por la contaminación orgánica, con una disminución brusca en la estación afectada por el vertido de los efluentes del parque industrial. Se registraron 85 taxa, siendo los oligoquetos y quironómidos los dominantes. Del análisis de componentes principales, se infirió que la demanda biológica de oxígeno fue el factor que más incidió en la distribución y composición de organismos bentónicos. El río Las Tunas presentó altos valores de DBO5, la menor densidad, riqueza y diversidad específica, sin recuperación de la calidad del agua en todo el tramo. Aguas arriba, el río Saucesito presentó una mejor calidad, principalmente en la estación de referencia ubicada antes del parque industrial. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to assess the effects of industrial and sewage discharges on the benthic structure of urban rivers. Also, the species assemblages associated to different water quality conditions were studied. Four sampling sites were analyzed, from July 2000 to February 2002, during high wa [...] ter level in two urban rivers. In order to determine the quality of the water and the species assemblages, ANOVA, principal components analysis, species diversity and distance index among sites were applied. Eighty-five species or morphospecies were identified, dominated by Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. Average density of benthic invertebrates varied between 233 ind/m² and 29265 ind/m², with higher densities registered in the reference sampling site than in the ones affected by industrial discharges. The species richness ranged from four to 43 taxa, and the Shannon-Wiener index, from 1.37 to 3.95, with the highest value registered in Saucesito river. Filtering and gathering collectors were the dominant feeding groups in all the sites because of the high fine particulate organic matter content. The biological oxygen demand was the main factor in determinating the benthic invertebrates distribution and composition. Las Tunas River is hardly polluted, with low benthic density, species richness and diversity, and high DBO5 values. Saucesito River shows a better water quality, mainly upstream of the industrial discharges. The gradient from clean to polluted water quality, was characterized by the species assemblages Ostracods Podocopida, Tanytarsus sp., D. (D.) obtusa, Djalmabatista sp. 2, Rheotanytarsus sp. 1, S. fossularis and Cricotopus sp. 1 ? N. variabilis, C. xanthus and L. hoffmeisteri.

Paola J, Pave; Mercedes, Marchese.

205

The environmental context for water quality variation in Scotland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The variation in water quality experienced in Scotland reflects differences in the physical environment and land management. These differences occur both as a result of natural variability, societal development and pollutant inputs. A large proportion of the land area of Scotland is upland in nature which is extensively managed. Whereas in the lowlands, intensive land management predominates. In addition, water quality in the lowland areas in the vicinity of Glasgow and Edinburgh is influenced through the legacy of Victorian and latter day industrial and urban development. A general introduction to the spatial distribution of these facets of Scotland and their relation to water quality is presented. PMID:11227284

Langan, S J; Soulsby, C

2001-01-29

206

Multi-objective optimization for combined quality-quantity urban runoff control  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban development affects the quantity and quality of urban surface runoff. In recent years, the best management practices (BMPs) concept has been widely promoted for control of both quality and quantity of urban floods. However, means to optimize the BMPs in a conjunctive quantity/quality framework are still under research. In this paper, three objective functions were considered: (1) minimization of the total flood damages, cost of BMP implementation and cost of land-use development; (2) reducing the amount of TSS (total suspended solid) and BOD5 (biological oxygen demand), representing the pollution characteristics, to below the threshold level; and (3) minimizing the total runoff volume. The biological oxygen demand and total suspended solid values were employed as two measures of urban runoff quality. The total surface runoff volume produced by sub-basins was representative of the runoff quantity. The construction and maintenance costs of the BMPs were also estimated based on the local price standards. Urban runoff quantity and quality in the case study watershed were simulated with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). The NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II) optimization technique was applied to derive the optimal trade off curve between various objectives. In the proposed structure for the NSGA-II algorithm, a continuous structure and intermediate crossover were used because they perform better as far as the optimization efficiency is concerned. Finally, urban runoff management scenarios were presented based on the optimal trade-off curve using the k-means method. Subsequently, a specific runoff control scenario was proposed to the urban managers.

Oraei Zare, S.; Saghafian, B.; Shamsai, A.

2012-12-01

207

Multi-objective optimization for combined quality–quantity urban runoff control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban development affects the quantity and quality of urban surface runoff. In recent years, the best management practices (BMPs concept has been widely promoted for control of both quality and quantity of urban floods. However, means to optimize the BMPs in a conjunctive quantity/quality framework are still under research. In this paper, three objective functions were considered: (1 minimization of the total flood damages, cost of BMP implementation and cost of land-use development; (2 reducing the amount of TSS (total suspended solid and BOD5 (biological oxygen demand, representing the pollution characteristics, to below the threshold level; and (3 minimizing the total runoff volume. The biological oxygen demand and total suspended solid values were employed as two measures of urban runoff quality. The total surface runoff volume produced by sub-basins was representative of the runoff quantity. The construction and maintenance costs of the BMPs were also estimated based on the local price standards. Urban runoff quantity and quality in the case study watershed were simulated with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM. The NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II optimization technique was applied to derive the optimal trade off curve between various objectives. In the proposed structure for the NSGA-II algorithm, a continuous structure and intermediate crossover were used because they perform better as far as the optimization efficiency is concerned. Finally, urban runoff management scenarios were presented based on the optimal trade-off curve using the k-means method. Subsequently, a specific runoff control scenario was proposed to the urban managers.

S. Oraei Zare

2012-12-01

208

CONNECTICUT SURFACE WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Surface Water Quality Classifications for Connecticut. It is comprised of two 0Shapefiles with line and polygon features. Both Shapefiles must be used together with the Hydrography datalayer. The polygon Shapefile includes surface water qual...

209

GREAT LAKES WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines and evaluates phosphorus loadings in the Great Lakes and suggests a strategy for its control. he municipal industrial and commercial and agricultural contribution use to the Great Lakes waters has led to a concomitant deterioration of the water quality. e must...

210

The impacts of road traffic management on urban air quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of road traffic emissions on urban air quality are investigated, using long-term nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) data. The effectiveness of the several traffic management measures that have been made in Dundee city centre, UK, within the last 5 years in relation to urban air quality is discussed. The information assessed during this study indicates that the annual mean NO{sub 2} levels at all the study sites are, at present, below the current EC and WHO (long-term) air quality standards for NO{sub 2} concentration in the ambient air. Traffic restrictions appear to be effective in protecting urban air quality. The annual mean NO{sub 2} concentration at two of the study sites is currently close to 40 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, a value published in the Air Quality Regulations 1997 for the air quality objective to be achieved by the year 2005. Proactive traffic management mitigation measures are proposed for these sites and a methodology for the consideration of traffic management alternatives, based upon traffic flow modal split, is described. Some measures proposed are based upon a survey of vehicle occupancy rates, carried out at the busiest of the four study sites. The methodology and assessment procedures presented should be invaluable to assessors of traffic management and local air quality management in a small city, both at the planning and at the auditing stage

Oduyemi, K.O.K. [School of Construction and Environment, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Davidson, B. [Department of Environmental Health and Consumer Protection, Dundee City Council, Tayside House, Crichton Street, Dundee (United Kingdom)

1998-07-11

211

Underground Water Assessment using Water Quality Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the quality of selected hand dug wells in Maikunkele area of Niger State, Nigeria using Water Quality Index (WQI. ten hand dug wells were randomly selected in Maikunkele area of Bosso Local Government and were tested for nine (9 parameters of National Sanitation Foundation (NSF using standard analytical procedures. WQI results indicated that the quality of the selected well water samples were medium except for sample 2 that was extremely bad. The findings also revealed that all the samples except samples 2 and 3 had high coliform levels as high as 91 coliform/100cm3. This was an indication of faecal contamination substantiating the proximity of some of the wells to septic systems. The nitrate levels in all the samples exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL of WHO, EPA, APHA and the Nigerian Drinking Water Standards. Based on the results obtained, the quality of the well water samples was therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques were highly recommended.

Jonathan YISA

2012-12-01

212

Fluidic aspects of water quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following subjects are discussed: Diffusion and dispersion of conservative and non-conservative media, analytical solutions in limited and unlimited media and oscillating flows, artificial ventilation, stratified flows, selective withdrawal, short-range mixing temperature and water quality in completely mixed and stratified water level elevation, measuring programs. Engineers with a good knowledge of mathematics and basic hydrodynamics will get an insight into the fluidic aspects of water quality. The paper discusses mainly those mathematical solutions which can be completely presented. (HP/orig.)

213

Water Resources Management In The Eastern Himalayan Urban Ecosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayan ecosystem is one of the most important and threatened ecosystems on the earth. In this region, the scarcity of water in general, and drinking water in par- ticular is affecting common people and drawing the attention of researchers. Given the present situation and governance, in the near future it is most likely to deteriorate further. With expanding population and urbanization, accelerating human activities, and increasing per capita water consumption, problem of water supply in the moun- tain households will be certainly acute in the coming years. This crisis of decreasing availability of water is not only going to hamper the economic development of the region, but is also likely to threaten the very survival of the already marginalised and deprived people who are also on the brink of poverty and are incapable of coping with such crisis. Sustainable water harvesting and management of water resources offers the best hope for meeting the challenges of the growing water crisis. For this appropriate policy intervention, use of latest technology, application of tools like GIS and information from the satellite imageries, community participation and use of tra- ditional knowledge and traditional water management practices will be essential to overcome the challenge of looming water crisis. Darjiling Himalaya, located in the eastern Himalayas has a fragile environment and it is witnessing serious problems both in quality and quantity of water supply. Weak institutional arrangements, lack of awareness among citizens and a gap in the effective arrangements are huge stumbling blocks. This region is endowed with abundance of water resources and rich ecosystem. Therefore, this calls for an effective and participatory water management system with due attention given to the upgradation and expansion of the existing infrastructure. This paper takes a stock of the existing water resources in the Darjiling Himalaya, especially around the town of Darjiling, discusses the problem as perceived by the people and comes out with some viable suggestions.

Bomjan, S.

214

The EPANET water quality model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EPANET is a software package developed by US EPA`s Drinking Water Research Division for modeling hydraulic and water quality behavior within water distribution systems. Starting with a geometric description of the pipe network, a set of initial conditions, estimates of water usage, and a set of rules for how the system is operated, EPANET predicts all flows, pressures, and water quality levels throughout the network during an extended period of operation. In addition to substance concentration, water age and source tracing can also be simulated. EPANET offers a number of advanced features including: modular, highly portable C language code with no pre-set limits on network size; a simple data input format based on a problem oriented language; a full-featured hydraulic simulator; improved water quality algorithms; analysis of water quality reactions both within the bulk flow and at the pipe wall; an optional graphical user interface running under Microsoft{reg_sign} Windows{trademark}. The Windows user interface allows one to edit EPANET input files, run a simulation, and view the results all within a single program. Simulation output can be visualized through: color-coded maps of the distribution system with full zooming, panning and labeling capabilities and a slider control to move forward or backward through time; spreadsheet-like tables that can be searched for entries meeting a specified criterion; and time series graphs of both predicted and observed values for any variable at any location in the network. EPANET is currently being used to analyze a number of water quality issues in different distribution systems across the country. These include: chlorine decay dynamics, raw water source blending, altered tank operation, and integration with real-time monitoring and control systems.

Rossman, L.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-10-01

215

Species pool versus site limitations of macrophytes in urban waters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biodiversity in urban areas is affected by a multitude of stressors. In addition to physico-chemical stress factors, the native regional species pool can be greatly reduced in highly urbanized landscapes due to area loss and fragmentation. In this study, we investigated how macrophyte composition and diversity in urban water systems are limited by the regional species pool and local environmental conditions. Canonical correspondence analysis of the macrophyte species composition revealed that urban and semi-natural water systems differed and differences could be related to local abiotic variables such as pH and iron concentrations. Macrophytes in the semi-natural area were typical for slightly acid and oligotrophic conditions. In urban water systems, exotic species characteristic of eutrophic conditions were present. In the semi-natural areas, the number of macrophyte species exceeded the number of species expected from species-area relationships of artificial water bodies in rural areas. In urban areas, the number of macrophyte species was similar to artificial water systems in rural areas. Macrophyte species present in the study areas also were generally found within 20-30 km distance to the study area. Macrophyte species composition in urban water systems and semi-natural water systems appeared to be influenced by the regional species pool within approximately 30 km of the locations. Nevertheless, site limitation ultimately determined the local macrophyte species composition and diversity in urban water systems and in semi-natural water systems

Vermonden, K.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.

2010-01-01

216

The implementation challenge of urban air quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, the policy followed has booked some significant successes in the structural reduction of the emissions by a number of air polluting substances (e.g. sulphur dioxide and lead). However, the Third Environmental Outlook 1993-2015 has determined that the policy goals for a number of other air polluting substances will not be achieved, particularly in urban areas. This concerns fine dust (PM-10) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen dioxide, benzene and black smoke. The policy goals for the above priority substances have been set so as to protect the population against the negative effects on health from too high concentrations of these substances. Forty-six per cent of the Dutch population live in cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants, and, hence, many people are exposed to (too) high concentrations. For this reason, the Netherlands` Second National Environmental Policy Plan lays down that government, provinces and municipalities will together develop a plan of action to reduce urban air pollution to acceptable levels. The formulated strategy is presented in the document here. To that end, the problem analysis and current policy related to the issue are considered in more detail below. On the basis of this, the additional policy strategy is formulated. (author)

Lint, R.J.T. van; Buitenkamp, S.; Zebregs, M. [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Air Quality and Acidification Abatement Div.

1995-12-31

217

drinking water quality in northern ireland 2011  

Drinking Water Quality in Northern Ireland, 2011 A Report by the Drinking Water Inspectorate for Northern Ireland Drinking Water Quality in Northern Ireland, 2010 A Northern Ireland Environment Agency Drinking Water ...

218

Microbial Analysis of Drinking Water and Water Distribution System in New Urban Peshawar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water pollution due to chemicals and microbes is one of the serious environmental problems, which has greatly impacted human health. Recorded history of contaminated drinking water supply has witnessed various viral, bacterial and protozoan diseases, globally. It is estimated that >250 million cases of waterborne diseases are reported worldwide and over 25 million deaths are blamed due to waterborne-diseases. Pakistan has been facing the same problem due to improper water management, obsolete distribution infrastructure, bad sanitary condition and poor drinking water quality. An estimated 70% Pakistani population living in rural areas have no access to potable water distribution system, whereas in urban areas, between 40-60% urban population has access to safe and clean drinking water. In Pakistan, water filtration before distribution is almost non-existence and furthermore, WHO standards or NEQs are not followed for physiochemical and bacteriological analysis of drinking water. This study was conducted for physiochemical and bacteriological analysis of drinking water of new urban areas of Peshawar and compared the old historical areas of the city. Ten areas for drinking water samples were selected and samples were collected from water supply, distribution system and storage tanks. Physio-chemical (pH, turbidity and Total Suspended Solids (TSS and microbial analyses (Total and fecal coli form and E. coli were conducted (APHA, 2005. According to the results, there was a variation of the analyzed physio-chemical parameter in the water sample between old & new urban areas and was found as: pH (6.65-7.91, turbidity (3-9NTU and TSS (2-6 mg/L. The pH of the all samples was within the permissible limit of WHO guidelines. TSS of the 5 samples was above the permissible limits and turbidity of only 4 samples was within permissible limits. In bacteriological analysis, except one sample collected from the tube well, most samples were Total coliform positive. On the other hand, 6 samples of drinking water from distribution system were fecal coliform positive and 4 samples were E. coli positive. Further epidemiological studies are on-going and more drinking water samples from old urban Peshawar are being evaluated.

Roohul-Amin

2012-11-01

219

Estimation and accumulation parameters for urban runoff quality modeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parameter identification techniques for estimating the accumulation parameters from measured runoff quality data are presented along with a sensitivity analysis of the parameters. Results from application of the techniques and the sensitivity analysis suggest a need for data quantifying the magnitude and identifiying the shape of constituent accumulation curves. An exponential accumulation curve is shown to be more general than the linear accumulation curves used in most urban runoff quality models.-from Authors

Alley, W. M.; Smith, P. E.

1981-01-01

220

A PHOTOCHEMICAL BOX MODEL FOR URBAN AIR QUALITY SIMULATION  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple 'box-approach' to air quality simulation modeling has been developed in conjunction with a newly formulated photochemical kinetic mechanism to produce an easily applied Photochemical Box Model (PBM). This approach represents an urban area as a single cell 20 km in both l...

 
 
 
 
221

Application of GDAHP on Quality Evaluation of Urban Lake Landscape  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The quality evaluation of urban lake landscape (QEULL is extremely important for the healthy development of lake landscape. In this research, the evaluation model was established with the group decision analytic hierarchy process (GDAHP method, which consisted of four layers including the target layer, the factor layer, the index layer and the criterion layer, thus forming a model tree based on their subordinate relation-ships. The GDAHP method was employed to determine the weights of constituting factors of each layer in the evaluation model, and the fuzzy method was used to establish the factors remark sets of the criterion layer, thus the single-layer evaluation and comprehensive evaluation of urban lake landscape quality was carried out. Quality evaluation model of urban lake landscape established based on the GDAHP method can provide grounds for planning, design, and renewal of urban lake landscape. This model has been used to evaluate and analyze the artificial lake in People’s Park of Xinxiang City, Henan Province. The results proved that the overall landscape quality of the artificial lake of Peoples Park in Xinxiang city was good.

Yichuan ZHANG

2009-12-01

222

Centre-Based Child Care Quality in Urban Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the quality of childcare centres in urban Australian communities designated according to different bands of Centre Location Demographics (CLD). Childcare centres were assessed using the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale- Revised Edition (ECERS-R) and the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Extension (ECERS-E).…

Ishimine, Karin; Wilson, Rachel

2009-01-01

223

Scientific research in urban areas air quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presence of consistent amounts of polluting agents in the urban atmosphere is a fact widely confirmed which poses serious problems to the people responsible for the environment management. It is well known that the majority of the polluting agents are produced by the intense traffic or vehicles which introduces in the atmosphere a large quantity of compounds. The toxic effect of some of these (primary polluters) is direct; others (secondary polluters) are the result of chemical reactions occurring within the atmosphere. Consequently, the management of the atmospheric environment requires the knowledge of a great number of processes, which begin with the emission of the polluting agents, and continue with their diffusion in the air, their transformation, the way they move, and how they are deposited or removed

224

Agroecosystem Impacts on Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Agroecosystems can have large scale impacts on soil water and groundwater quality by mobilizing salts into underlying aquifers through enhanced recharge and increasing chemical loading to systems through fertilizer applications and irrigation water. Crop evapotranspiration is similar to desalinization in that root-water uptake excludes most salts, and soil-water salinity levels may build up when water drainage or percolation through the root zone is insufficient to flush accumulated salts. The objective of this study was to evaluate impacts of agroecosystems on soil water and groundwater quality using data from the US High Plains and California Central Valley. Natural ecosystems accumulated large reservoirs of salts in unsaturated soils in the southern High Plains and southern part of the Central Valley. Increased recharge under rainfed and irrigated agriculture mobilized these salt reservoirs into the underlying aquifer in the southern High Plains, increasing groundwater salinity, particularly chloride and sulfate. Deficit irrigation in the southern High Plains has created large salt bulges in the unsaturated zone because of insufficient irrigation to flush these salts into the underlying aquifer. Irrigation in both the High Plains and Central Valley regions has markedly increased groundwater nitrate levels, particularly in irrigated areas because of higher fertilizer applications. Agroecosystem impacts on water quality reflect a delicate balance between water and salt cycles and crop production should be managed to minimize negative environmental impacts.

Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.

2010-12-01

225

Role of water in urban planning and management  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrations of people in urban areas intensify water problems such as flooding and pollution, but these deleterious effects on water resources can be minimized or corrected by comprehensive planning and management. Such planning of the water resources of an urban area must be based on adequate hydrologic data. Through the use of a matrix, urban water problems can be evaluated and availability of data assessed. The Washington-Baltimore metropolitan area is used as a case study. The completed matrix provides both a means for developing a meaningful dialogue between the hydrologist and the urban planner and a method for developing a work plan to insure consideration of water-resources data in urban planning.

Schneider, William Joseph; Rickert, David A.; Spieker, Andrew Maute

1973-01-01

226

Undernutrition and Household Environmental Quality among Urban and Rural Children in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explored the association between child undernutrition and household environmental quality in urban and rural households. Anthropometric assessments were conducted on 370 preschool children in three urban communities (high, medium and low-density and one rural community. A structured questionnaire for mothers and an observation checklist were used to collect sociodemographic and environmental data. An Environmental Quality Index (EQI combining four composite indicators of household environment (water, sanitation, housing, waste disposal/drainage was developed. Results Overall prevalence was 16.8% for wasting, 29.7% for stunting and 28.4% for underweight. There was a significant association between the EQI and stunting (r = -0.437, p =0.000 and also, underweight (r = -0.491, p = 0.000 but not with wasting (r = -0.152, p =0.201. Dissagregation of data into rural and urban revealed that the significant associations disappeared in the rural but persisted among the urban children. The findings reiterate the significance of environmental inadequacies to childhood undernutrition. However, environmental quality appears to be a more important determinant of undernutrition among urban than rural children.

Folake, O. Samuel

2008-01-01

227

Consumers’ perceptions on urban water services and connection to sustainable behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a survey on urban consumers of tap water and public waterservices. We discuss seven types of awareness and perceptions an their connexion to sustainablebehavior: consumers’ awareness of water company (1 name, (2 location and (3 services delivered,their evaluation (4 of the the water-sewerage network state and (5 of its importance, their evaluations(6 of the overall tap water quality and (7 of the importance of water quality. Results of the researchshow that: water company name is known by two thirds of the subjects; location by one third; supply ofdrink water is the best known service and raw water treatment is the least known one; the evaluationsgiven to water-sewerage network state and tap water quality are predominantely positive, but there isplace for improvements; almost all customers consider these two aspects important and very important,which will make them sensitive to changes.

Dacinia C. Petrescu

2013-03-01

228

The impact of major earthquakes and subsequent sewage discharges on the microbial quality of water and sediments in an urban river.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of large earthquakes struck the city of Christchurch, New Zealand in 2010-2011. Major damage sustained by the sewerage infrastructure required direct discharge of up to 38,000 m(3)/day of raw sewage into the Avon River of Christchurch for approximately six months. This allowed evaluation of the relationship between concentrations of indicator microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and F-RNA phage) and pathogens (Campylobacter, Giardia and Cryptosporidium) in recreational water and sediment both during and post-cessation of sewage discharges. Giardia was the pathogen found most frequently in river water and sediment, although Campylobacter was found at higher levels in water samples. E. coli levels in water above 550 CFU/100 mL were associated with increased likelihood of detection of Campylobacter, Giardia and Cryptosporidium, supporting the use of E. coli as a reliable indicator for public health risk. The strength of the correlation of microbial indicators with pathogen detection in water decreased in the following order: E. coli>F-RNA phage>C. perfringens. All the microorganisms assayed in this study could be recovered from sediments. C. perfringens was observed to accumulate in sediments, which may have confounded its usefulness as an indicator of fresh sewage discharge. F-RNA phage, however, did not appear to accumulate in sediment and in conjunction with E. coli, may have potential as an indicator of recent human sewage discharge in freshwater. There is evidence to support the low-level persistence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, but not Campylobacter, in river sediments after cessation of sewage discharges. In the event of disturbances of the sediment, it is highly probable that there could be re-mobilisation of microorganisms beyond the sediment-water exchange processes occurring under base flow conditions. Re-suspension events do, therefore, increase the potential risk to human health for those who participate in recreational and work-related activities in the river environment. PMID:24747258

Devane, Megan L; Moriarty, Elaine M; Wood, David; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Gilpin, Brent J

2014-07-01

229

Part 2: Surface water quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1996 the surface water quality measurements were performed, according to the Agreement, at 8 profiles on the Hungarian territory and at 15 profiles on the Slovak territory. Basic physical and chemical parameters (as water temperature, pH values, conductivity, suspended solids, cations and anions (nitrates, ammonium ion, nitrites, total nitrogen, phosphates, total phosphorus, oxygen and organic carbon regime parameters), metals (iron, manganese and heavy metals), biological and microbiological parameters (coliform bacteria, chlorophyll-a, saprobity index and other biological parameters) and quality of sediment were measured

230

43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public Lands...APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality. (a) Water Quality is not...

2010-10-01

231

Case study on rehabilitation of a polluted urban water body in Yangtze River Basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (pzooplankton and benthos were also improved after the vegetation replanting. The study confirmed that vegetation replanting could alleviate the increasing water pollution and rehabilitate the degraded aquatic ecosystem. The case study would be an example for polluted urban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base. PMID:23247519

Wu, Juan; Cheng, Shuiping; Li, Zhu; Guo, Weijie; Zhong, Fei; Yin, Daqiang

2013-10-01

232

Urban sprawl and water supply in the Colombian coffee region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyses the current situation of water supply systems in the context of urban sprawl in the Colombian coffee region. The authors suggest three factors to understand local and regional water supply systems: land use within areas of urban sprawl; land use in the ecosystems that sustain the water supply; and operation and technical efficiency of the utilities. Accordingly, the work provides an estimate of the degree of urbanization and the spatial extent of urban sprawl in the cities of Manizales, Pereira y Armenia. The ecological land use in Andean and sub Andean ecosystems that supply the aqueducts of these cities is characterized, as well as the operative and technical conditions of water supply providers involved in urban sprawl, highlighting their strengths and their increasing weaknesses.

233

Obtaining traffic information by urban air quality inspection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transportation and its environmental impacts are a major component of urban environmental management. At the same time, transportation and mobility are an important part of urban economics and quality of life. To analyze urban transportation and its environmental impacts, a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach is needed. Unfortunately, theoretical works about traffic flow and pollutant dynamic have independently evolved, rarely meeting contact points. Our works aims to provide a contribution in linking traffic flow and pollutant dynamic by proponing a new traffic model, able to calculate the number of running vehicles, once the ground level of an arbitrary pollutant concentration is know. The validation and simulation of this model is made possible by the training of an adaptive.(Author)

234

Water Quality and Aquatic Macroinvertebrates  

Science.gov (United States)

This website includes several resources relating to water quality and the identification of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Three lessons are avaialable both on the page and for download as pdf files. Extensions, charts for invertebrate identifications, and instructions for the use of the CBL equipment are included along with several exam[ples of environmental factors which may effect the organisms.

Cleveland, April J.; Grable, Lisa L.

2000-07-27

235

Pesticide Use and Water Quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication describes in nontechnical language the problem of pesticide use and how it affects water quality. It provides information on laws affecting pesticide use and the reasons for them, as well as giving directions for the proper use of pesticides. The booklet is divided into five chapters, each of which concludes with a list of study…

Reneau, Fred

236

TOWARD INSTREAM WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

This report compares two approaches to the agricultural nonpoint source pollution control problem: source control and instream water quality management (ISWQM). Source control is a strategy of controlling pollution loadings by using standards such as soil loss limits or best mana...

237

WATER QUALITY MODELING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the use of models for predicting water quality in distribution systems. esults of an extensive field study conducted by the USEPA and North Penn Mater Authority are examined. A case study of the model application to a waterborne disease outbreak in Cabool, Miss...

238

WATER QUALITY IN LAKE LOWELL, IDAHO  

Science.gov (United States)

Water quality in Lake Lowell (17050114) is suitable for irrigation; recreational use is limited by dense summer algal blooms. Dissolved oxygen concentrations and fecal coliform bacteria counts occasionally exceed Idaho Water Quality Standards for primary contact recreation water...

239

drinking water quality in northern ireland 2007  

Drinking Water Quality in Northern Ireland, 2007 A Report by the Drinking Water Inspectorate for Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Environment Agency Drinking Water Quality in Northern Ireland, 2007 A Report by the ...

240

drinking water quality in northern ireland 2008  

Drinking Water Quality in Northern Ireland, 2008 A Report by the Drinking Water Inspectorate for Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Environment Agency Drinking Water Quality in Northern Ireland, 2008 A Report by the ...

 
 
 
 
241

Impacts of urban solid waste disposal on the quality of surface water in three cities of Minas Gerais - Brazil / Impactos da disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos na qualidade da água superficial em três municípios de Minas Gerais - Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os impactos ambientais de três diferentes tipologias de áreas de disposição de Resíduos Sólidos Urbanos - ADRSU, sobre a qualidade das águas superficiais situadas nas proximidades do aterro sanitário de Campo Belo (Córrego dos Varões), do aterro controlado de Santo Antônio do Amparo (Córrego do Fabi [...] ano) e do lixão encerrado de Elói Mendes (Ribeirão Mutuca), municípios situados no Sul de Minas Gerais - Brasil foram avaliados. Para cada curso d'água foram coletadas 5 amostras de água no período chuvoso e 5 amostras no período seco, em três diferentes pontos para cada um dos três cursos d'água sendo: (P1) a montante das ADRSU, (P2) logo após o local de descarga da Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto - ETE (no aterro sanitário, e nas outras tipologias, após ponto de lançamento do escoamento superficial proveniente das ADSRU, e (P3) à jusante das ADSRU. Realizaram-se análises físico-químicas e bacteriológicas, cujos resultados foram analisados com base na estatística descritiva e comparados com valores de referência da Resolução CONAMA 357/2005, bem como utilizados para cálculo do índice de qualidade de água (IQA). Não foi possível detectar efeito significativo das ADRSU, nos parâmetros indicadores da qualidade da água, a qual se apresentou em condições não satisfatórias em função das violações dos parâmetros fósforo, amônia, coliformes termotolerantes e da relação DQO/DBO mesmo à montante da ADSRU. No Ribeirão Mutuca, essa situação foi ainda mais crítica pois o IQA foi classificado como ruim em todos os pontos durante o período monitorado. Abstract in english The environmental impact of three different urban solid waste facilities (USWF) on the quality of the surface water. The studied areas were the Campo Belo sanitary landfill (Varões River), the controlled landfill of Santo Antônio do Amparo (Fabiano River), and the closed dump of Elói Mendes (Mutuca [...] River), which are cities located in southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil were evaluated. At each sampling point water samples were collected at five occasions in the raining season (October - March) and in the dry season (April - June) at three sampling points: (P1) upstream the solid waste facility, (P2) downstream nearby the point of influx from the sewage treatment plant in the sanitary landfill, or at the drainage point from the surface flow of the dump and controlled landfill, and (P3) downstream the solid waste facility. Physicochemical and bacteriological analyses were performed, and the results were analyzed based on descriptive statistics. The data were also compared with reference values from the National Environmental Council (CONAMA) Resolution 357/2005 and were used to calculate the water quality index (WQI). It was not possible to detect a significant effect of the solid waste facility on the water quality indicators. The water conditions were unsatisfactory due to violations of the concentrations of phosphorus, ammonia, fecal coliform, and the biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand ratio (BOD/COD), probably related to other uses along the drainage area upstream the solid waste facility. These conditions were more critical in the Mutuca river, where the WQI was classified as bad during the entire period at all sampling points.

Rosângela Francisca de Paula Vitor, Marques; Antônio Marciano da, Silva; Luciano dos Santos, Rodrigues; Gilberto, Coelho.

2012-12-01

242

Impacts of urban solid waste disposal on the quality of surface water in three cities of Minas Gerais - Brazil / Impactos da disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos na qualidade da água superficial em três municípios de Minas Gerais - Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os impactos ambientais de três diferentes tipologias de áreas de disposição de Resíduos Sólidos Urbanos - ADRSU, sobre a qualidade das águas superficiais situadas nas proximidades do aterro sanitário de Campo Belo (Córrego dos Varões), do aterro controlado de Santo Antônio do Amparo (Córrego do Fabi [...] ano) e do lixão encerrado de Elói Mendes (Ribeirão Mutuca), municípios situados no Sul de Minas Gerais - Brasil foram avaliados. Para cada curso d'água foram coletadas 5 amostras de água no período chuvoso e 5 amostras no período seco, em três diferentes pontos para cada um dos três cursos d'água sendo: (P1) a montante das ADRSU, (P2) logo após o local de descarga da Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto - ETE (no aterro sanitário, e nas outras tipologias, após ponto de lançamento do escoamento superficial proveniente das ADSRU, e (P3) à jusante das ADSRU. Realizaram-se análises físico-químicas e bacteriológicas, cujos resultados foram analisados com base na estatística descritiva e comparados com valores de referência da Resolução CONAMA 357/2005, bem como utilizados para cálculo do índice de qualidade de água (IQA). Não foi possível detectar efeito significativo das ADRSU, nos parâmetros indicadores da qualidade da água, a qual se apresentou em condições não satisfatórias em função das violações dos parâmetros fósforo, amônia, coliformes termotolerantes e da relação DQO/DBO mesmo à montante da ADSRU. No Ribeirão Mutuca, essa situação foi ainda mais crítica pois o IQA foi classificado como ruim em todos os pontos durante o período monitorado. Abstract in english The environmental impact of three different urban solid waste facilities (USWF) on the quality of the surface water. The studied areas were the Campo Belo sanitary landfill (Varões River), the controlled landfill of Santo Antônio do Amparo (Fabiano River), and the closed dump of Elói Mendes (Mutuca [...] River), which are cities located in southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil were evaluated. At each sampling point water samples were collected at five occasions in the raining season (October - March) and in the dry season (April - June) at three sampling points: (P1) upstream the solid waste facility, (P2) downstream nearby the point of influx from the sewage treatment plant in the sanitary landfill, or at the drainage point from the surface flow of the dump and controlled landfill, and (P3) downstream the solid waste facility. Physicochemical and bacteriological analyses were performed, and the results were analyzed based on descriptive statistics. The data were also compared with reference values from the National Environmental Council (CONAMA) Resolution 357/2005 and were used to calculate the water quality index (WQI). It was not possible to detect a significant effect of the solid waste facility on the water quality indicators. The water conditions were unsatisfactory due to violations of the concentrations of phosphorus, ammonia, fecal coliform, and the biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand ratio (BOD/COD), probably related to other uses along the drainage area upstream the solid waste facility. These conditions were more critical in the Mutuca river, where the WQI was classified as bad during the entire period at all sampling points.

Rosângela Francisca de Paula Vitor, Marques; Antônio Marciano da, Silva; Luciano dos Santos, Rodrigues; Gilberto, Coelho.

243

Water quality for liquid wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To facilitate the automation of the operation for a liquid wastes processing system by enabling continuous analysis for the main ingredients in the liquid wastes accurately and rapidly. Constitution: The water quality monitor comprises a sampling pipeway system for taking out sample water for the analysis of liquid wastes from a pipeway introducing liquid wastes to the liquid wastes concentrator, a filter for removing suspended matters in the sample water and absorption photometer as a water quality analyzer. A portion of the liquid wastes is passed through the suspended matter filter by a feedpump. In this case, sulfate ions and chloride ions in the sample are retained in the upper portion of a separation color and, subsequently, the respective ingredients are separated and leached out by eluting solution. Since the leached out ingredients form ferric ions and yellow complexes respectively, their concentrations can be detected by the spectrum photometer. Accordingly, concentration for the sodium sulfate and sodium chloride in the liquid wastes can be analyzed rapidly, accurately and repeatedly by which the water quality can be determined rapidly and accurately. (Yoshino, Y.)

244

Comparison of 2002 Water Year and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Population growth and changes in land-use practices have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local sponsors, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, and Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations, stations that are considered as long term and stations that are rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions have changed over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short term concerns. Another group of stations (rotational group 2) will be chosen and sampled beginning in water year 2004. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality sampling in the upper Gunnison River basin. This summary includes data collected during water year 2002. The introduction provides a map of the sampling locations, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water year 2002 are compared to historical data (data collected for this network since 1995), state water-quality standards, and federal water-quality guidelines. Data were collected during water year 2002 following USGS protocols (U.S. Geological Survey, variously dated).

Spahr, N.E.

2003-01-01

245

A real-time control framework for urban water reservoirs operation  

Science.gov (United States)

Drinking water demand in urban areas is growing parallel to the worldwide urban population, and it is acquiring an increasing part of the total water consumption. Since the delivery of sufficient water volumes in urban areas represents a difficult logistic and economical problem, different metropolitan areas are evaluating the opportunity of constructing relatively small reservoirs within urban areas. Singapore, for example, is developing the so-called 'Four National Taps Strategies', which detects the maximization of water yields from local, urban catchments as one of the most important water sources. However, the peculiar location of these reservoirs can provide a certain advantage from the logistical point of view, but it can pose serious difficulties in their daily management. Urban catchments are indeed characterized by large impervious areas: this results in a change of the hydrological cycle, with decreased infiltration and groundwater recharge, and increased patterns of surface and river discharges, with higher peak flows, volumes and concentration time. Moreover, the high concentrations of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges can cause further water quality problems. In this critical hydrological context, the effective operation of urban water reservoirs must rely on real-time control techniques, which can exploit hydro-meteorological information available in real-time from hydrological and nowcasting models. This work proposes a novel framework for the real-time control of combined water quality and quantity objectives in urban reservoirs. The core of this framework is a non-linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme, which employs the current state of the system, the future discharges furnished by a predictive model and a further model describing the internal dynamics of the controlled sub-system to determine an optimal control sequence over a finite prediction horizon. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its reduced computational requests and the capability of exploiting real-time hydro-meteorological information, which are crucial for an effective operation of these fast-varying hydrological systems. The framework is here demonstrated on the operation of Marina Reservoir (Singapore), whose recent construction in late 2008 increased the effective catchment area to about 50% of the total available. Its operation, which accounts for drinking water supply, flash floods control and water quality standards, is here designed by combining the MPC scheme with the process-based hydrological model SOBEK. Extensive simulation experiments show the validity of the proposed framework.

Galelli, S.; Goedbloed, A.; Schwanenberg, D.

2012-04-01

246

Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado Avaliação de parâmetros de qualidade de água para monitoramento de áreas naturais, urbanas e agrícolas no Cerrado brasileiro  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

INTRODUCTION: Brazil's Federal District (FD) has seen steep population growth in recent years, and this has increased demand for high-quality water. AIM: The present work aims to evaluate the quality of surface water from two water bodies in the FD at six sampling points, three of which are in the Sobradinho River (the receiving body of a sewage treatment plant effluent) and three in the Jardim River (located in an agricultural region). METHODS: Analyses were carried out every thirty days, fo...

Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz; Aline Silva Moraes; Ingrid de Souza Freire; Carlos José Domingos da Cruz; Jorge Enoch Furquim Werneck Lima; Eduardo Cyrino Oliveira-Filho

2011-01-01

247

Study on the Model Building for the Influence of the Water Environment on Urban Tourism Ecological Capacity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article first define the concept of the urban water environment and city tourism environment capacity and points out that the urban tourism environment capacity including urban tourism ecological capacity, urban tourism spatial capacity, urban tourism economy capacity and city tourism mental capacity, on the basis of which, the tourist ecological capacity of the influence factors were analyzed. And from the water environment of tourist’s capital input and the relationship among the water environment of the city tourism ecological capacity of six son model and influence comprehensive model, in order to improve the water quality and water environment, promote the city tourism economy and here comes the theory basis.

Wan Zu-yong

2013-01-01

248

Application of GDAHP on Quality Evaluation of Urban Lake Landscape  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quality evaluation of urban lake landscape (QEULL) is extremely important for the healthy development of lake landscape. In this research, the evaluation model was established with the group decision analytic hierarchy process (GDAHP) method, which consisted of four layers including the target layer, the factor layer, the index layer and the criterion layer, thus forming a model tree based on their subordinate relation-ships. The GDAHP method was employed to determine the weights of const...

Zhang, Yichuan; Qiao, Lifang

2009-01-01

249

Saline waters and soil quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

Carmelo Dazzi

250

Saline waters and soil quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

Carmelo Dazzi

2011-02-01

251

Improving urban air quality in China: Beijing case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

China is undergoing rapid urbanization because of unprecedented economic growth. As a result, many cities suffer from air pollution. Two-thirds of China's cities have not attained the ambient air quality standards applicable to urban residential areas (Grade II). Particulate matter (PM), rather than sulfur dioxide (SO2), is the major pollutant reflecting the shift from coal burning to mixed source pollution. In 2002, 63.2 and 22.4% of the monitored cities have PM and SO2 concentrations exceeding the Grade II standard, respectively. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentration kept a relatively stable level near the Grade II standard in the last decade and had an increasing potential in recent years because of the rapid motorization. In general, the air pollutants emission did not increase as quickly as the economic growth and energy consumption, and air quality in Chinese cities has improved to some extent. Beijing, a typical representative of rapidly developing cities, is an example to illustrate the possible options for urban air pollution control. Beijing's case provides hope that the challenges associated with improving air quality can be met during a period of explosive development and motorization. PMID:16259425

Hao, Jiming; Wang, Litao

2005-09-01

252

Seasonal Variation of Zooplankton Population with Reference to Water Quality of Iril River in Imphal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The zooplankton population of Iril river of Imphal valley of Manipur was investigated with reference to water quality. The fish biodiversity potential of the river remain intake despite the sub-urban exposure of the river. Since plankton play a great food chain role for fish community, knowing the population of zooplankton as secondary resource is needed. Deterioration of water quality in urban area remain, in most cases, a basic feature. The present investigation endeavour to establish the ...

Thankhum Saron; Bijen Meitei

2013-01-01

253

DETERMINING INDICATORS OF URBAN HOUSEHOLD WATER CONSUMPTION THROUGH MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water has a decisive influence on populations’ life quality – specifically in areas like urban supply, drainage, and effluents treatment – due to its sound impact over public health. Water rational use constitutes the greatest challenge faced by water demand management, mainly with regard to urban household water consumption. This makes it important to develop researches to assist water managers and public policy-makers in planning and formulating water demand measures which may allow urban water rational use to be met. This work utilized the multivariate techniques Factor Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis – in order to determine the participation level of socioeconomic and climatic variables in monthly urban household consumption changes – applying them to two districts of Campina Grande city (State of Paraíba, Brazil. The districts were chosen based on socioeconomic criterion (income level so as to evaluate their water consumer’s behavior. A 9-year monthly data series (from year 2000 up to 2008 was utilized, comprising family income, water tariff, and quantity of household connections (economies – as socioeconomic variables – and average temperature and precipitation, as climatic variables. For both the selected districts of Campina Grande city, the obtained results point out the variables “water tariff” and “family income” as indicators of these district’s household consumption.

Gledsneli Maria Lima Lins

2010-12-01

254

Household characteristics affecting drinking water quality and human health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistan's water crisis, especially serious water shortages have had a great impact on the health of the general population. Today majority of Pakistanis have no access to improved water sources which force people to consume polluted drinking water that results in the shape of waterborne diseases. In addition to this, household characteristics, includes mother's education and family income, also have an impact on drinking water quality and ultimately on human health. This study was conducted in three districts of Province Punjab both in urban and rural areas. The sample size of this study was 600 females of age group 20-60 years. From the data, it was concluded that mother's education and family income were affecting drinking water quality and human health. As the mother's years of education increased, the health issues decreased. Similarly, as the level of income increased, people suffered from water related diseases decreased. (author)

255

Relevance and Benefits of Urban Water Reuse in Tourist Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban water reuse is one of the most rapidly growing water reuse applications worldwide and one of the major elements of the sustainable management of urban water cycle. Because of the high probability of direct contact between consumers and recycled water, many technical and regulatory challenges have to be overcome in order to minimize health risks at affordable cost. This paper illustrates the keys to success of one of the first urban water reuse projects in the island Bora Bora, French Polynesia. Special emphasis is given on the reliability of operation of the membrane tertiary treatment, economic viability in terms of pricing of recycled water and operating costs, as well as on the benefits of water reuse for the sustainable development of tourist areas.

Gaston Tong Sang

2012-01-01

256

The impact of meteorological parameters on urban air quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown that global climate change will have a significant impact on both regional and urban air quality. As air temperatures continue to rise and mid-latitude cyclone frequencies decrease, the overall air quality is expected to degrade. Climate models are currently predicting an increased frequency of record setting heat and drought for Oklahoma during the summer months. A statistical analysis was thus performed on ozone and meteorological data to evaluate the potential effect of increasing surface temperatures and stagnation patterns on urban air quality in the Oklahoma City Metropolitan area. Compared to the climatological normal, the years 2011 and 2012 were exceptionally warm and dry, and were therefore used as case study years for determining the impact of hot, dry conditions on air quality. These results were then compared to cooler, wetter summers to show how urban air quality is affected by a change in meteorological parameters. It was found that an increase in summertime heat and a decrease in summertime precipitation will lead to a substantial increase in both the minimum and maximum ozone concentrations as well as an increase in the total number of exceedance days. During the hotter, drier years, the number of days with ozone concentrations above the legal regulatory limit increased nearly threefold. The length of time in which humans and crops are exposed to these unsafe levels was also doubled. Furthermore, a significant increase was noted in the overnight minimum ozone concentrations. This in turn can lead to significant, adverse affects on both health and agriculture statewide.

Ramsey, Nicole R.; Klein, Petra M.; Moore, Berrien

2014-04-01

257

Robust Control of Urban Industrial Water Mismatching Uncertain System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban industrial water system parameter fluctuation producing uncertainty may not occur in a control input channel, can be applied mismatching uncertain system to describe. Based on Lyapunov direct method and linear matrix inequality, design the urban industrial water mismatching uncertain system feedback stabilization robust control scheme. Avoid the defects that the feedback stabilization control method based on the matrix Riccati equation need to preset equation parameters, easier to solve...

Li, Kebai; Zhao, Yuhua

2013-01-01

258

Robust Control of Urban Industrial Water Mismatching Uncertain System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban industrial water system parameter fluctuation producing uncertainty may not occur in a control input channel, can be applied mismatching uncertain system to describe. Based on Lyapunov direct method and linear matrix inequality, design the urban industrial water mismatching uncertain system feedback stabilization robust control scheme. Avoid the defects that the feedback stabilization control method based on the matrix Riccati equation need to preset equation parameters, easier to solve and can reduce the conservative.

LI Kebai

2013-02-01

259

Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

Sailor, D.J.

1993-08-01

260

The Storm Event Water Balance of Urban Watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

The storm event water balance of urban watersheds is examined through experimental studies in Baltimore, Maryland and Princeton, New Jersey. Analyses focus on the role of urban infrastructure, rainfall variability and soil hydraulic properties in controlling runoff processes in urban watersheds. The Dead Run (14.3 sq. km.) and Moores Run (9.1 sq. km.) watersheds in Baltimore and Harry's Brook (6.7 sq. km.) watershed in Princeton are the study watersheds used for examining the urban water balance. The Dead Run watershed has a nested network of 6 stream gages at basin scales ranging from 1.2 sq. km. to 14.3 sq. km. Analyses in Harry's Brook are based on a network of 4 stream gages. Stream gaging in small urban rivers is difficult, with particular problems arising in specifying stage-discharge rating curves for both high flow and low flow conditions. The role of measurement error in constraining analyses of the urban water balance is examined, based on analyses of direct discharge measurements and hydraulic modeling studies. Storm event water balance analyses from the study sites are used to characterize runoff production mechanisms in urban watersheds.

Smith, J. A.; Miller, A. J.; Baeck, M. L.; Meierdiercks, K.

2006-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Protecting Water Quality from Urban Runoff  

Science.gov (United States)

... Drivers should check their cars for leaks and recycle their motor oil and antifreeze when these fluids ... hot spots” of runoff pollution or have multiple benefits, such as high-efficiency street sweeping (which addresses ...

262

Analytical Studies on Water Quality Index of River Landzu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: River Landzu is of particular importance in the study of surface water pollution because effluents from cottage industries, municipal sewage, agricultural and urban run-off are discharged into it bringing about considerable change in the water quality. Approach: This study aimed at using the application of Water Quality Index (WQI in evaluating the quality of River Landzu for public usage. This was done by subjecting the 120 water samples collected to comprehensive physicochemical analysis using APHA standard methods of analysis. Results: The WQI for the samples was 171.85. The high value of WQI had been found mainly from the higher values of iron, chromium and manganese, COD and turbidity. The results of the analysis when compared with World Health Organization (WHO and Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS permissible limit indicated that the river was polluted and so the water is not safe for domestic use and would need further treatment. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated application of water quality index in estimating/understanding the quality of river water and appeared to be promising in the field of water quality management.

J. Yisa

2010-01-01

263

Water quality in the Golijska Moravica basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The basin of the Golijska Moravica River is rich in water, and therefore its water is used for water supply of towns and industry not only in the basin but in the whole region as well. This paper presents the status of water quality in the main rivers of the basin, and recommends measures for water quality protection.

Urošev Marko

2006-01-01

264

Soil cover and water quality for irrigation purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to assess the relationship between land cover and water quality for irrigation in the sub-basin of the stream Horizonte, located in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil, we selected five places in the sub-basin to collect surface water and groundwater, each influenced by different soil cover types: pasture, forest, coffee, upstream and downstream of the urban area. Collecting samples were made during periods of drought and rainfall. The physical-chemical analysis of water was made by determining the pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, sodium and calculated sodium adsorption ratio (SAR. According to the results we can conclude that the soil cover did not change the quality of water for irrigation and water evaluated, both surface and groundwater, showed no risk of soil salinization, but can cause problems sodification, making it difficult to water infiltration.

Ana Paula Bertossi

2014-02-01

265

Quantifying Spatial Variability in Runoff Quality in Semi-arid Urban Catchments  

Science.gov (United States)

Urbanization alters ecosystem function and subsequently impacts quantity and quality of stormwater runoff. In arid and semi-arid urban ecosystems, solutes may accumulate in upland environments for several months between rainfall events, which flush these potential pollutants to stream channels. Although this decline in water quality is well documented with urbanization, it is unclear how different urbanization intensities affect catchment hydrologic responses and N dynamics in semi-arid regions. We expected that N would decline with increasing impervious cover. In heavily urbanized watersheds, N delivery would be controlled primarily by hydrologic transport and would exhibit a conservative flushing response. In watersheds with a lower density of development, N delivery would be related to complex source-sink relationships and would not exhibit a conservative flushing response. To address these hypotheses, we collected rainfall and stormwater runoff samples from 22 catchments in Tucson AZ that vary in percent impervious cover (IC, 2.92% to 90.7%) and catchment area (0.33km2 to 28.48km2.) We used a combination of 22 single-stage siphon samplers; one per catchment, paired with six multiple-stage automatic water collectors in a subset of catchments, to efficiently and inexpensively collect runoff samples across a wide these gradients of urbanization. There is a strong (r2 = 0.79) and significant (p < 0.05) correlation between the auto sampler and siphon sampler runoff quality. We found that pH and EC do not vary with catchment area, suggesting that the entire catchment may not be contributing surface runoff and solutes to streamflow. However, EC significantly increases with IC, while pH significantly decreases with IC. Data suggest that at high IC, pH of runoff begins to approximate the pH of rainfall (6.75). Given that urban catchments are designed to efficiently route runoff into waterways, it is plausible the increased IC results in more efficient mobilization of solutes, in a shorter time range, which may explain why pH begins to approximate rainfall at higher IC. We observe a significant decrease in EC over the monsoon (July to Sept) while at the same time observing a significant increase in pH, which may be the result of seasonal solute flushing. Preliminary data show that NH4-N does not vary with IC and catchment area, while PO4-P appears to decrease with catchment size and increase with IC, suggesting that some runoff solutes more directly impacted by land cover and biogeochemical catchment processes. Findings from our study suggest that imperviousness and seasonal dynamics impart a greater control on runoff quality than catchment size.

Peterson, A. M.; Gallo, E. L.; Lohse, K. A.; Brooks, P. D.; Meixner, T.

2010-12-01

266

43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Secretary does not warrant the quality of water released or delivered under Storage and Interstate Release Agreements, and the United States will not be liable for damages of any kind resulting from water quality...

2010-10-01

267

Characterizing Water Quality in Students' Own Community  

Science.gov (United States)

The surface water quality studies are developed to help first year college students who are preparing to become high school teachers. These water quality impact studies allow students to correlate geologic conditions and chemistry.

Lunsford, S. K.; Speelman, Nicole; Yeary, Amber; Slattery, William

2007-01-01

268

Determination of Optimal Water Quality Monitoring Points in Sewer Systems using Entropy Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To monitor water quality continuously over the entire sewer network is important for efficient management of the system. However, it is practically impossible to implement continuous water quality monitoring of all junctions of a sewer system due to budget constraints. Therefore, water quality monitoring locations must be selected as those points which are the most representative of the dataset throughout a system. However, the optimal selection of water quality monitoring locations in urban sewer networks has rarely been studied. This study proposes a method for the optimal selection of water quality monitoring points in sewer systems based on entropy theory. The proposed model searches for a quantitative assessment of data collected from monitoring points. The points that maximize the total information among the collected data at multiple locations are selected using genetic algorithm (GA for water quality monitoring. The proposed model is demonstrated for a small urban sewer system.

Jung Ho Lee

2013-08-01

269

Neighborhood Quality and Housing Value: Evidence from Urban Micro Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using urban residential micro data from CHNS, this paper employs Hedonic Pricing Model to investigate the impact of Neighborhood Quality on housing value and its mechanism. We find that, Human Capitals measured by average schooling years and occupational diversity have significant positive effect while cultural capitals such as Ethnic Diversity have significant negative effect on housing value. Compared with the empirical results from developed counties, Social Capitals measured by length of tenure and own room rate have insignificant effect on housing value. In addition, having Kindergarten and Hospitals near the communities are positively correlated with the housing value while Internet cafe or transportation services are negative. We believe that these facts are closely related to the stage of economy transition and rapid urbanization in current China. The conclusions have important implications for the effective construction of harmonious commodities.

Yi Wang

2012-02-01

270

U.S. Midwestern Residents Perceptions of Water Quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The plurality of conservation and environmental viewpoints often challenge community leaders and government agency staff as they seek to engage citizens and build partnerships around watershed planning and management to solve complex water quality issues. The U.S. Midwest Heartland region (covering the states of Missouri, Kansa, Iowa, and Nebraska is dominated by row crop production and animal agriculture, where an understanding of perceptions held by residents of different locations (urban, rural non-farm, and rural farm towards water quality and the environment can provide a foundation for public deliberation and decision making. A stratified random sample mail survey of 1,042 Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska residents (54% response rate reveals many areas of agreement among farm, rural non-farm, and those who live in towns on the importance of water issues including the importance and use of water resources; beliefs about water quality and perceptions of impaired water quality causality; beliefs about protecting local waters; and environmental attitudes. With two ordinal logistic models, we also found that respondents with strong environmental attitudes have the least confidence in ground and surface water quality. The findings about differences and areas of agreement among the residents of different sectors can provide a communication bridge among divergent viewpoints and assist local leaders and agency staff as they seek to engage the public in discussions which lead to negotiating solutions to difficult water issues.

Lois Wright Morton

2011-02-01

271

Implication of urbanization on meteorology and air quality  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation focuses on investigating the feature and mechanism of local and regional scale atmospheric circulations and its associated pollution transport and trapping in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, which is a highly urbanized area with complex terrain and coastlines. The first step of this research was to set up a localized fine-scale (1 km) land-surface/urban modeling system coupled with the mesoscale meteorological model MM5, to provide a more accurate and realistic prediction of meteorological condition over the region. After the model evaluations, a number of numerical experiments have been conducted in order to understand the impact of urbanization and its associated urban heat islands on meteorology over the PRD. The modeling system was then coupled with a particle trajectory model to demonstrate the unique land-sea breeze circulation features and the temporal evolution, and develop a conceptual model for the air pollution trapping phenomenon in the region. Further sensitivity experiments were used to illustrate the impact of urbanization and large-scale flows on the pollution processes. After that, a new methodology was introduced to identify the contribution of primary and secondary pollutants from the emissions of local/regional area sources and power plants to Hong Kong. Several weighting factors were established to the air mass/pollutant trajectory calculations and used to evaluate the local and regional contribution of primary pollutants to Hong Kong pollution. The relationships between emission inventories, physical paths and chemical transformation rates of the pollutants, and observational measurements were formulated. The local and regional contributions of secondary pollutants were obtained by this conceptual module. Finally, this study challenges the backward trajectory analysis, which is a well accepted analytical method in air quality research in Hong Kong. The result demonstrates large uncertainties in their behavior when comparing calculations using different resolution of wind fields, indicating that care must be taken on choosing the suitable resolution of wind fields when calculating trajectories for diagnostic studies.

Lo, Chun-Fung

272

Confronting the Water Crisis of Beijing Municipality in a Systems Perspective : Focusing on Water Quantity and Quality Changes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent decades, water systems worldwide are under crisis due to excessive human interventions particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions. In many cities, the water quantity situation has become more and more serious, caused either by absolute water shortage or water pollution. Considering population growth and fast urbanization, ensuring adequate water supply with acceptable water quality is crucial to socio-economic development in the coming decades. In this context, one key point is ...

Ma, Jin

2011-01-01

273

WATER QUALITY INDEX – AN INSTRUMENT FOR WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water quality status assessment can be defined as the evaluation of physical, chemical, biological state of the water in relation with the natural state, anthropogenic effects and future uses. Water quality index reduces the number of parameters used in monitoring water quality to a simple expression in order to facilitate interpretation of the data, allowing public access to water quality data. This study is a summary of an interdisciplinary research program on surface water quality monitoring carried out during the years 2011-2012 in the eastern part of Romania. Water quality index provides a single value expressing the average quality of water at a time, based on analytical values of physico-chemical parameters. For the water quality index calculation were used six physico-chemical parameters: pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, nitrate (NO3 and phosphate (PO4.

PAIU M?D?LINA

2014-03-01

274

Water Quality Testing in your Local Water Cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

Students analyze local water chemistry by identifying and collecting local water samples, deciding upon questions they want to answer about their local water sources, and then performing simple water quality tests on their samples.

Anderson, Jennifer L.

275

Global analysis of urban surface water supply vulnerability  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents a global analysis of urban water supply vulnerability in 71 surface-water supplied cities, with populations exceeding 750 000 and lacking source water diversity. Vulnerability represents the failure of an urban supply-basin to simultaneously meet demands from human, environmental and agricultural users. We assess a baseline (2010) condition and a future scenario (2040) that considers increased demand from urban population growth and projected agricultural demand. We do not account for climate change, which can potentially exacerbate or reduce urban supply vulnerability. In 2010, 35% of large cities are vulnerable as they compete with agricultural users. By 2040, without additional measures 45% of cities are vulnerable due to increased agricultural and urban demands. Of the vulnerable cities in 2040, the majority are river-supplied with mean flows so low (1200 liters per person per day, l/p/d) that the cities experience ‘chronic water scarcity’ (1370 l/p/d). Reservoirs supply the majority of cities facing individual future threats, revealing that constructed storage potentially provides tenuous water security. In 2040, of the 32 vulnerable cities, 14 would reduce their vulnerability via reallocating water by reducing environmental flows, and 16 would similarly benefit by transferring water from irrigated agriculture. Approximately half remain vulnerable under either potential remedy.

Padowski, Julie C.; Gorelick, Steven M.

2014-10-01

276

Impact of land-use on water pollution in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Many catchments in developing countries are undergoing fast urbanization which is usually characterized by population increase, economic growth as well as drastic changes of land-use from natural/rural to urban area. During the urbanization process, some catchments experience water quality deterioration due to rapid increase of pollution loads. Nonpoint source pollution resulting from storm water runoff has been recognized as one of the major causes of pollutants in many cities in developing countries. The composition of land-use for a rapidly urbanizing catchment is usually heterogeneous, and this may result in significant spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and increase the difficulties of water quality management in the catchment. The Shiyan Reservoir catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing area in China, is chosen as the study area, and temporary monitoring sites were set at the outlets of its 6 sub-catchments to synchronously measured rainfall, runoff and water quality during 4 storm events. Three indicators, event pollutant loads per unit area (EPL), event mean concentration (EMC) and pollutant loads transported by the first 50% of runoff volume (FF50), were used to describe the runoff pollution for different pollutants (such as COD, BOD, NH3-N, TN, TP and SS) in each sub-catchment during the storm events; and the correlations between runoff pollution spatial variations and land-use patterns were tested by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The results indicated that similar spatial variation trends were found for different pollutants (EPL or EMC) in light storm events, which strongly correlate with the proportion of residential land-use; however, they have different trends in heavy storm events, which correlate with the different proportional combination of residential, industrial, agricultural and bare land-use. It is also shown that it is necessary to consider some pervious land-use types in runoff pollution monitoring or management for a rapidly urbanizing area, particularly in heavy storm.

Khu, Soon-Thiam; Qin, Huapeng

2010-05-01

277

Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems to Study Urban Quality of Life and Urban Forest Amenities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines urban quality of life by assessing the relationship between observed socioeconomic conditions and urban forest amenities in Terre Haute, Indiana, USA. Using remote-sensing methods and techniques, and ordinary least squares regression, the paper determines the relationship between urban leaf area and a population density parameter with median income and median housing value. Results demonstrate positive correlations between urban leaf area, population density, and their interaction with median income and median housing value. Furthermore, leaf area, density, and their interaction statistically account for observed variance in median income and median housing value, indicating that these variables may be used to study observed quality-of-life metrics. The methods used in this study may be useful to city managers, planners, and foresters who are concerned with urban quality-of-life issues, and who are interested in developing and implementing alternative policy assessment regimes.

Jay Gatrell

2004-12-01

278

The Soundscape Quality in Some Urban Parks in Milan, Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban parks play an important role in preserving and promoting the health of citizens who are often exposed to noise pollution and the stress of daily life. The present study describes the main results obtained from a survey performed in five urban parks in Milan. Measurements of the acoustic environment were carried out in 29 sites together with interviews with 231 users on certain aspects of the parks not limited to merely sound. Acoustic data show that the surveyed parks mostly do not comply with the noise limit issued by the Italian legislation on protected areas. The unweighted 1/3-octave spectrum centre of gravity G and LA50 perform satisfactorily in discriminating among the acoustic environments. Such clear distinction was not observed in the subjective ratings on the perceived quality of the soundscape, likely due to the influence by non-acoustic factors that act as mediators in the assessment. This hypothesis is supported by the collected data on the perceived quality of quietness, which was rated worse than that of the soundscape. Comparing acoustic data with ratings, the perceived quality of the total environment was found to be less dependent on LAeq than soundscape and quietness.

Giovanni Zambon

2013-06-01

279

The soundscape quality in some urban parks in Milan, Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban parks play an important role in preserving and promoting the health of citizens who are often exposed to noise pollution and the stress of daily life. The present study describes the main results obtained from a survey performed in five urban parks in Milan. Measurements of the acoustic environment were carried out in 29 sites together with interviews with 231 users on certain aspects of the parks not limited to merely sound. Acoustic data show that the surveyed parks mostly do not comply with the noise limit issued by the Italian legislation on protected areas. The unweighted 1/3-octave spectrum centre of gravity G and LA50 perform satisfactorily in discriminating among the acoustic environments. Such clear distinction was not observed in the subjective ratings on the perceived quality of the soundscape, likely due to the influence by non-acoustic factors that act as mediators in the assessment. This hypothesis is supported by the collected data on the perceived quality of quietness, which was rated worse than that of the soundscape. Comparing acoustic data with ratings, the perceived quality of the total environment was found to be less dependent on LAeq than soundscape and quietness. PMID:23743795

Brambilla, Giovanni; Gallo, Veronica; Zambon, Giovanni

2013-06-01

280

40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Water quality management plans. 130.6...PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water...a) Water quality management (WQM) plans...Continuing water quality planning shall be based...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. PMID:19896758

Kardel, F; Wuyts, K; Babanezhad, M; Vitharana, U W A; Wuytack, T; Potters, G; Samson, R

2010-03-01

282

Quality of Care for Myocardial Infarction in Rural and Urban Hospitals  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: In the mid-1990s, significant gaps existed in the quality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care between rural and urban hospitals. Since then, overall AMI care quality has improved. This study uses more recent data to determine whether rural-urban AMI quality gaps have persisted. Methods: Using inpatient records data for 34,776…

Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Chan, Leighton; Andrilla, C. Holly A.; Huff, Edwin D.; Hart, L. Gary

2010-01-01

283

Urban climate and air quality in Trier Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

To conceptualize strategies for regional environmental management in the Trier region, extensive urban meteorological measurements were undertaken. Weather stations from the German Weather Service and the state Pollution Monitoring Network were used as well as a number of our automatic meteorological stations and a mobile platform (instrumented van). The bioclimatic conditions in the city of Trier are affected by the valley of the Moselle River. Both the wind field and the thermal stratification in the urban boundary layer showed local characteristics especially marked in the diurnal variation and monthly mean concentrations of the air pollutants nitrogen and sulfurdioxide (NO(x), SO(2)), ozone (O(3)) and particle matter (PM10). Catabatic flows from the side valleys partially reduce the urban heat island and increase the ozone concentration in the city in the evening during calm weather conditions. The impact-based air-quality index is mostly determined by a high PM10 concentration. Strategies to reduce air pollutions in the Trier region are discussed. PMID:12700954

Junk, Jürgen; Helbig, Alfred; Lüers, Johannes

2003-08-01

284

18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES §...

2010-04-01

285

Towards Adaptive Urban Water Management: Up-Scaling Local Projects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Increasingly, the need for adaptive urban water management approaches is advertised, but the transition towards such approaches in the urban water sector seems to be slow. The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth study of how an innovative approach has been adopted in practice by looking into how contextual knowledge from a local project has been up-scaled to more generic knowledge. Specifically, the paper outlines how two planners from a Danish municipality succeeded in developing a more innovative sewage plan on the basis of a local project with implementation of local handling of rainwater. This insight into the processes of learning aggregation of water practices points towards the important role that the dedicated work performed by local facilitators and intermediaries play in relation to a transition towards more adaptive urban water management.

Zhou, Qianqian; Quitzau, Maj-Britt

2013-01-01

286

Sustainable Urban Water and Wastewater Services: The TRUST Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The TRUST (Transitions to the Urban Water Services of Tomorrow) Project is a research program funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme. The overall objective of TRUST is to help water and wastewater authorities and utilities across Europe to formulate and impleme...

287

Making Space for Water Urban Flood Risk and Integrated Drainage ...  

Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (UWWTD) .................................................... \\.... structures in and around the channel. If flood management .... industrial and \\residential land uses on the river, meaning that the river has had to be .... There is \\a potential reduction in energy usage of up to 53 % if storm water were to be \\dealt ...

288

Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the USGS Ohio Water Science Center  

Science.gov (United States)

In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been written for use by the Ohio Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Ohio Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Ohio Water Science Center quality-assurance plans for water-quality monitors, the microbiology laboratory, and surface-water and ground-water activities.

Francy, Donna S.; Shaffer, Kimberly H.

2008-01-01

289

Sustainable Urban Infrastructure Development and the Role of Water Technologies in the U.S.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased climate variability and rapid urbanization are fundamentally changing the urban watershed hydrology and consequently sustainability of water systems. However, our urban planning and engineering practices are based on decades-old hydrological theory and guidance based o...

290

78 FR 20252 - Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9795-8] RIN 2040-AF33 Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal...and recordkeeping requirements, Water pollution control. Dated: March 22, 2013. Bob...amended as follows: PART 131--WATER QUALITY STANDARDS 0 1. The...

2013-04-04

291

Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate the relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to ...

Claudia Eiko Yoshida; Ana Paula Pozzo Rios Rolla

2012-01-01

292

What drives the urban water regime? An analysis of water governance arrangements in Hyderabad, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban water scarcity is increasingly seen as a governance issue, not least in cities like Hyderabad, India, where the demand for urban water exceeds the available supply to the extent that some low priority areas in the city receive water for only a few hours on alternate days. Based on a multi-level perspective in transition studies, this study explores the major interplay between actors in the urban water regime and analyzes how that influences access to water among the urban poor. The findings show how the practices of the consolidated regime are environmentally, socially, and economically unsustainable. In investigating the driving forces behind the attributes of the urban water regime, we draw attention to the impact of landscape pressures, i.e., international donors' influence on water policy, and initiatives at the regime and niche levels. Further, and in response to that, we investigate potential niche experiments promoting water access for the urban poor. Accordingly, it is suggested that socio-technical and socio-political "niche" experiments could be combined into a citizen-based challenge against the existing urban regime practices and the dominant discourses at the landscape level. Here water harvesting techniques could be a viable niche innovation with citizen involvement to be scaled-up in an enabling institutional setting. This requires a coalition of social movement and political action, providing an arena for a new vision in the water sector that would replace the one imposed by landscape forces represented by international donors.

Maryam Nastar

2014-06-01

293

Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs  

Science.gov (United States)

Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources. PMID:24919129

Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

2014-01-01

294

Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate, were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

Qing Gu

2014-06-01

295

Recent Advances in Point-of-Access Water Quality Monitoring  

Science.gov (United States)

Clean water is one of our most valuable natural resources. In addition to providing safe drinking water it assures functional ecosystems that support fisheries and recreation. Human population growth and its associated increased demands on water pose risks to maintaining acceptable water quality. It is vital to assess source waters and the aquatic systems that receive inputs from industrial waste and sewage treatment plants, storm water systems, and runoff from urban and agricultural lands. Rapid and confident assessments of aquatic resources form the basis for sound environmental management. Current methods engaged in tracing the presence of various bacteria in water employ bulky laboratory equipment and are time consuming. Thus, real-time water quality monitoring is essential for National and International Health and Safety. Environmental water monitoring includes measurements of physical characteristics (e.g. pH, temperature, conductivity), chemical parameters (e.g. oxygen, alkalinity, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds), and abundance of certain biological taxa. Monitoring could also include assays of biological activity such as alkaline phosphatase, tests for toxins such as microcystins and direct measurements of pollutants such as heavy metals or hydrocarbons. Real time detection can significantly reduce the level of damage and also the cost to remedy the problem. This paper presents overview of state-of-the-art methods and devices used for point-of-access water quality monitoring and suggest further developments in this area.

Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Velusamy, V.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

296

Urban Quality vs single travel: the Personal Rapid Transit Urban Quality vs single travel: the Personal Rapid Transit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with the con­sequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, together with short-sighted policies of transport and urban development spread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion and unlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel to people living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to those living in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonable urban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic, conside­red, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of the deterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italian cities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities, although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovative solutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by public administrations. One of the main environmental detractors is car traffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike the previous period. Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reaching the modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managing the demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation., such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developing and increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport, car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollution reduction and vehicular traffic reduction. For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal Rapid Transit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to join two apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuring individual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acoustic and air pol­lution as well as the congestion caused by private vehicular traffic. In Italy this system is still not well known despite the versatility of its fields of application. In the United States and all over the world the most successful applications concern circumscribed mono-functional urban ambits, such as large areas for offices, airports and so on, but the characteristics of this system - such as flexibility, capability of integration with other wide-range systems of public transport, little dimensions of the exchange junctions, quite low cost - can allow to realize it also in different typologies of area.If many people are doubtful about the effectiveness of this system, on the contrary, other people think that its steady implementation and experimentation is necessary to improve urban liveability.These last ones believe, in fact, that the combination of small vehicles similar to private car, the advantage of trips without intermediate stops and changes of car, cost reduction, possibility of a wider accessibility not reachable by traditional means of public transport are the key basic elements to replace car travels with low polluting means of public transport.The great increase in the demand for private mobility with the con­sequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, together with short-sighted policies of transport and urban development spread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion and unlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel to people living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to those living in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonable urban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic, conside­red, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of the deterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italian cities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities, although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovative solutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by public administrations. One of the main environmental detractors is car traffic, which has recently

Carmela Gargiulo

2011-08-01

297

CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS - WELLS  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications for public supply wells in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes GAA areas for public water supply wells. Each polygon is assigned a GAA ground water quality class, which is stored in the d...

298

43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5...INTERIOR OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY...APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance...

2010-10-01

299

Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modeling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOS) and stormwater drainage systems However, some micropollutants tend to appear in more than one environmental medium (air, water, sediment, soil, groundwater, etc) In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is "wrapped around" a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios on the one hand a reference scenario with a combined sewerage system and on the other hand a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in reduced surface water concentrations for the latter scenario However, the model also showed that this was at the expense of increased fluxes to air, groundwater and infiltration pond soil The latter effects are generally not included in IUWS models, whereas MTFMs usually do not consider dynamic surface water concentrations hence the combined model approach provides a better basis for integrated environmental assessment of micropollutants' fate in urban environments.

Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

2010-01-01

300

Neural network for water quality classification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water is essential resource for human life, the preservation of water resources is very important issue. The water reserves are subject to deterioration due to many factors. It's necessary to define the water quality index and to develop methods to recover the non-drinking water. This requires a reliable monitoring and remedial actions

 
 
 
 
301

Utah Water Quality- Utah Ground Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ground water is important to the economic and physical well-being of the people of Utah. About 95% of Utah's fresh water is ground water. It provides more than 70% of the state's drinking water and is a major source of water for agriculture and irrigation.

Deer, Howard; Peralta, Richard C.; Hill, Robert W.

1991-01-01

302

Final opportunity to rehabilitate an urban river as a water source for Mexico City.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and quality of water in the Magdalena-Eslava river system and to propose alternatives for sustainable water use. The system is the last urban river in the vicinity of Mexico City that supplies surface water to the urban area. Historical flow data were analyzed (1973-2010), along with the physicochemical and bacteriological attributes, documenting the evolution of these variables over the course of five years (2008-2012) in both dry and rainy seasons. The analyses show that the flow regime has been significantly altered. The physicochemical variables show significant differences between the natural area, where the river originates, and the urban area, where the river receives untreated wastewater. Nutrient and conductivity concentrations in the river were equivalent to domestic wastewater. Fecal pollution indicators and various pathogens were present in elevated densities, demonstrating a threat to the population living near the river. Estimates of the value of the water lost as a result of mixing clean and contaminated water are presented. This urban river should be rehabilitated as a sustainability practice, and if possible, these efforts should be replicated in other areas. Because of the public health issues and in view of the population exposure where the river flows through the city, the river should be improved aesthetically and should be treated to allow its ecosystem services to recover. This river represents an iconic case for Mexico City because it connects the natural and urban areas in a socio-ecological system that can potentially provide clean water for human consumption. Contaminated water could be treated and reused for irrigation in one of the green areas of the city. Wastewater treatment plants and the operation of the existing purification plants are urgent priorities that could lead to better, more sustainable water use practices in Mexico City. PMID:25054805

Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; Pérez-Ortiz, Gustavo; Orta-Ledesma, María Teresa; Armas-Vargas, Felipe; Tapia, Marco A; Solano-Ortiz, Rosa; Silva, Miguel A; Yañez-Noguez, Isaura; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Díaz-Ávalos, Carlos

2014-01-01

303

Utah water quality: Utah ground water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ground water is important to the economic and physical well-being of the people of Utah. About 95% of Utah's fresh water is ground water. It provides more than 70% of the state's drinking water and is a major source of water for agriculture and irrigation (see table below). Like lakes and streams, ground water can be polluted by human activities. The many possible sources of contaminants include mining activities, landfills, septic systems, fertilizers, pesticides and municipal, agricultural ...

Deer, Howard M.; Peralta, R. C.; Hill, Robert W.

1993-01-01

304

Towards Sustainable Water Quality In Estuarine Impoundments: The Current State.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several estuarine impoundment schemes have been built or are proposed in the UK and worldwide. The impounding of estuaries is currently a popular approach to urban regeneration in the UK. By creation of an aesthetically pleasing amenity impound- ment, including the drowning of "unsightly" tidal mud flats, it is hoped that prestige development will be encouraged in the estuarine area. Impounding fundamentally alters the dynamics of estuaries, with consequences in terms of sedimentation patterns and rates, and water quality. The SIMBA Project at- tempts to understand the controls on water quality in impoundments, with a view to- wards long term and sustainable high water quality through good barrage design and management practice. Detailed water quality surveys have been carried out on a total of 79 dates on the Tees, Tawe, Wansbeck and Blyth estuaries. Water quality parameters which have been determined are pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), conductivity, transparency, suspended solids, alkalinity, temperature, nutri- ents (nitrate+nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate), and a large range of dissolved metals. Statistical analyses are used to demonstrate the major controls on water qual- ity in impoundments. A distinction is made between total tidal exclusion (freshwater) systems, in which water quality is primarily influenced by external/catchment factors, and partial tidal exclusion systems, in which water quality is processed internally. This internal processing is due to density stratification creating compartments of saline wa- ter in contact with oxygen demanding sediments and isolated from the atmosphere, which leads to conditions of low DO and changes in redox conditions which may lead to release of metals and phosphate from the sediment.

Wright, J.; Worrall, F.

305

Urbanization and Quality of Urban Environment Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in East Delhi-India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An explosive increase of urban population, practically in all major cities and towns, has the consequent strain on the existing system manifested in an environmental chaos. The phenomena of accelerated urbanisation is the main culprit, wherein besides bringing higher standard of living, it has also brought problems, as growth of dense and unplanned residential areas, environmental pollution, non-availability of services and amenities, solid waste etc. Remote sensing satellite data is suitable for urban land use mapping to get detail and up- to-date information for environmental management. Where as GIS helps in developing database system for urban information, which supports decision making process. Development of digital database on all aspects of land use and urban planning is the next crucial task for the future in which remote sensing based informa-tion is going to play a major role. In Delhi, rise in population and growth in economic activity has led to en-vironmental degradation. With this view an attempt has been made to study the quality of urban environment in the East district of Delhi, which is experiencing very high urban growth with 98.75% urban population in 2001. For this study Landsat ASTER (MSS data of year 2001 (15 m Ground resolution, Guide map of the year 1982 and demographic and environmental data has been used. Eight parameters were selected, which affect the urban environmental quality, namely built-up area, open spaces, household density, occupancy ra-tio, population density, accessibility to roads, noise and smell affected area. The study shows that the quality of environment has been degraded when we compare 1982 and 2003 data. Most of the East district was in a better state of environment in 1982, but in 2003 things have been changed and now 50% area is in very good, fair and desirable condition. The public participation and involvement should be encouraged planning and decisions making for the improvement in better urban environmental quality.

Atiqur Rahman

2011-01-01

306

Quantifying Outdoor Water Consumption of Urban Land Use/Land Cover: Sensitivity to Drought  

Science.gov (United States)

Outdoor water use is a key component in arid city water systems for achieving sustainable water use and ensuring water security. Using evapotranspiration (ET) calculations as a proxy for outdoor water consumption, the objectives of this research are to quantify outdoor water consumption of different land use and land cover types, and compare the spatio-temporal variation in water consumption between drought and wet years. An energy balance model was applied to Landsat 5 TM time series images to estimate daily and seasonal ET for the Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research region (CAP-LTER). Modeled ET estimations were correlated with water use data in 49 parks within CAP-LTER and showed good agreement ( r 2 = 0.77), indicating model effectiveness to capture the variations across park water consumption. Seasonally, active agriculture shows high ET (>500 mm) for both wet and dry conditions, while the desert and urban land cover types experienced lower ET during drought (<300 mm). Within urban locales of CAP-LTER, xeric neighborhoods show significant differences from year to year, while mesic neighborhoods retain their ET values (400-500 mm) during drought, implying considerable use of irrigation to sustain their greenness. Considering the potentially limiting water availability of this region in the future due to large population increases and the threat of a warming and drying climate, maintaining large water-consuming, irrigated landscapes challenges sustainable practices of water conservation and the need to provide amenities of this desert area for enhancing quality of life.

Kaplan, Shai; Myint, Soe W.; Fan, Chao; Brazel, Anthony J.

2014-04-01

307

Trends in Surface Water Quality for Korean River basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Water quality is an ongoing problem in many Korean river basins. Maintaining good water quality is essential for the sustainability of the country. While point source pollution has declined with stringent regulation and management (e.g., wastewater discharge permit and the installation of wastewater treatment facilities in major municipalities), nonpoint source pollution is a persistent problem in major metropolitan areas. We used the nonparametric seasonal Kendall's test to determine trends in surface water quality for the period between 1993 and 2002. For temperature, trends were detected only a small number of stations. pH increased significantly in more than half of the stations. Dissolved oxygen showed two opposite trends: upward trends at stations in the main stem river and the upper basin and downward trends at tributary stations. Suspended solids declined in major tributaries, but increased in tributaries adjacent to new suburban development areas. Total phosphorus and total nitrogen showed upward trends except for tributary stations in forested areas, suggesting the ineffectiveness of wastewater treatment facilities in removing these nutrients and confirming the importance of nonpoint source pollution. While urban land cover is positively associated with nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, there are strong regional and local variations in water quality. The relationship between trends and land use change at the local scale did not reveal strong evidence of possible causation. This study demonstrates the complexity of identifying the causal mechanisms of water quality change in highly heterogeneous river basins.

Chang, H.; Boeder, M.

2006-05-01

308

Air quality control monitoring at an urban and industrialized area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air particulate matter analysis has been performed since 1999, within a contract for air quality monitoring of an urban waste incinerator. Air collection was made with Gent samplers, which collect size-fractionated aerosol samples in three sampling sites. Samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Some INAA results are discussed. PM10 mass concentrations are compared with the limit values for human health protection regulated by the European Council Directive 1999/30/CE. Weekend day and weekday samples are compared concerning As, Co, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn mean concentrations collected at Bobadela for 1999. Enrichment factors are also presented. Enrichments were found for As, Sb, Se and Zn for both fractions in the three sampling sites. In order to quantify the evolution for the 1999-2001 period, basic statistics was performed for the enriched elements. (author)

309

Macroinvertebrates and Indicators of Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity is a field investigation where students can go to a body of water and collect the macroinvertebrates there and identify them. Based on what they find, they can assess the water quality by determining the biotic index.

Kim Truchan, Winona S.

310

drinking water quality in northern ireland 2009  

Drinking Water Quality in Northern Ireland, 2009 A Report by the Drinking Water Inspectorate for Northern Ireland © Crown copyright 2010 The maps used in this report are based upon Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland’s ...

311

Quality of Water Leaving Consumers' Taps  

...and ResponsibilitiesPolicyWater ResourcesMinister Visits WMUDevelopment ManagementStormwater ManagementQuality of Water Leaving Consumers' TapsLast updated: 29 May 2007European Directive StandardsNational...

312

Controls on Stormwater Runoff Quality and Quantity in Semi-arid, Urban Catchments  

Science.gov (United States)

Utilization of recharged urban runoff to complement municipal water supply has gained importance in arid regions where populations and their urban footprint continue to grow, and where water resources are scarce. However, our understanding of how runoff quantity and quality respond to urbanization in arid landscapes is largely incomplete and poses a challenge for water resources management. Here we address the question: What controls the hydrologic and hydrochemical responses of arid urban catchments? We collected water samples and stream stage data from 5 urban catchments of varied land uses (low, medium and high density residential, mixed and commercial land use) in southern Arizona during the summer rainfall seasons of 2007 and 2008. The most homogeneous catchments, as indicated by the index of landscape heterogeneity, were the least and most impervious, while the most heterogeneous sites had mid-range imperviousness. Hydrochemical responses were mixed, did not correlate with imperviousness or vegetation abundance, and were not strongly controlled by land use. Clustering analysis highlight hydrologic and sourcing controls on hydrochemistry, specifically conservative solute transport, land use specific and geologic solute sourcing and atmospheric deposition. Overall, water yields were surprisingly small (< 15%) and increased with imperviousness. Our data show that discharge responses were more sensitive to rainfall magnitude in homogeneous sites. We suggest that imperviousness and rainfall magnitude control water yields; whereas landscape heterogeneity may control a catchment’s sensitivity to generate runoff. The coupling of landscape and hydrology in controlling hydrochemistry is well illustrated by chloride (Cl), a non-reactive hydrologic tracer that was positively correlated with a large number of solutes such as ammonium, dissolved organic carbon, cadmium and zinc. We observed the highest concentrations and coefficients of variation of Cl at least and most impervious sites. We suggest that because the least and most impervious catchments are highly homogeneous and generate runoff in response to a wider range of rainfall magnitudes, flushing and transport of Cl is enhanced and therefore results in similar hydrochemical responses at these two sites despite large differences in their land use and imperviousness. Finally, we suggest that solutes positively correlated with Cl are subject to similar transport processes. Our study indicates that contrary to conceptual models developed for more humid areas, imperviousness is not a reliable predictor of hydrochemical response.

Gallo, E. L.; Brooks, P. D.; Lohse, K. A.

2009-12-01

313

Mobility of trace metals associated with urban particles exposed to natural waters of various salinities from the Gironde Estuary, France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background, aim and scope: Urban systems are hot spots of environmental pollution caused by manifold anthropogenic activities generating traffic-related, industrial and domestic emissions. Besides air, soil and groundwater pollution, pollution of surface water systems is of major concern because they are often (ab)used to export waste of various consistence out of urban areas and become contaminated on varying scales. The Gironde Estuary (southwest France) is affected by various anthropogenic contaminations derived from historic polymetallic pollution mainly due to former mining and ore-treatment and, additionally, from agriculture and urban areas. Although detailed knowledge is available on the impact of mining and anthropogenic activities on the water quality of the Gironde Estuary, almost nothing is known on the urban impact, even though the Garonne Branch which is one tributary of the Gironde system crosses the large urban agglomeration of Bordeaux. The present work links urban geochemistry and estuary research and aims at evaluating the mobility of potentially toxic trace elements (Cd, Cu, Zn, V, Co, Mo, Pb) associated with urban particles under estuarine conditions owing to the particles' role as potential vectors transporting urban pollutants into the estuary. For this, environmentally available fractions of trace elements in representative urban particles (urban dust, road sediment, riverbank sediment, construction materials) from the city of Bordeaux were extracted by natural estuarine waters of varying salinities and compared to commonly applied HNO{sub 3} extractions. Materials and methods: For the assessment of the urban particles' contribution to the pollution of the Gironde/Garonne system, various particle types were sampled in Bordeaux: road sediments, urban bulk deposition, construction materials (concrete, asphalt, tile and gravel) and flood sediments. Potentially environmental available fractions of Cd, Cu, Zn, V, Co, Mo and Pb were extracted by means of concentrated HNO{sub 3}, estuarine freshwaters and waters of two different salinities (S=15 and S=31). Analysis of trace elements was carried out by means of quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, single particles from road sediments were characterised with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: SEM analysis clearly showed that some particles contained fairly high concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements. Extractions of materials investigated by varying acidities and salinities documented that the potentially bioavailable fractions extracted by concentrated HNO{sub 3} may cover wide concentration ranges. Natural estuarine waters of various salinities (S=0.5; S=15; S=31) extracted high proportions of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd from urban particles, especially for high-salinity water (S=31). Extractions with freshwater revealed the lowest concentrations of desorbed trace elements. Particulate Mo, Pb and V showed similar or lower mobility in saline water compared with freshwater, depending on the sample type. Discussion: Trace element mobility in estuarine waters varied according to the type of urban particles and depended on salinity for Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd. This is of high importance for towns located directly at the coast or for cities like Bordeaux, where water courses crossing the agglomerations are connected to saline water masses. Since trace elements desorbed from particles in saline waters may become highly bioavailable, they bear a potential risk for organisms. Comprehensive studies on the behaviour of urban particles in estuarine waters and the related potential environmental impact are still missing. Conclusions: Saline waters mobilise relatively high amounts of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd from urban particles suggesting considerable metal fluxes from riverine urban systems into coastal waters. Although estimates of trace metal inputs by urban bulk deposition (urban dust) and other types of urban particles are preliminary for Bordeaux and may bear important uncertainties due to several assumptions

Schaefer, Joerg; Blanc, Gerard [Bordeaux Univ., Talence (France). UMR 5805 EPOC; Norra, Stefan [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Mineralogy and Geochemistry; Klein, Daniel [Bordeaux Univ., Talence (France). UMR 5805 EPOC; Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Mineralogy and Geochemistry

2009-08-15

314

Impacts of peat production on water quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An important environmental issue concerning peat production is the impact the peat production areas may have on the water quality in the surrounding rivers and lakes. These effects on water quality, for example the loading of nutrients and suspended solids, have been monitored for for many years in Northern Finland. In 2007 the the water quality from 71 peat production areas was studied in an annual monitoring project in Northern Ostrobothnia. According to the results, the water quality varied significantly between different sampling stations. For example the total phosphorous concentration ranged from 11 to 161 mug /I. There were also differences between different water treatment methods. The majority of the measured concentrations were higher than average natural background levels. Generalizations of the impacts on water quality in the receiving water bodies should, however, not be made without thorough study because the water quality in natural waters also varies significantly and it can sometimes be even weaker than the water from peat production areas. The effects of forestry and agriculture on water quality are similar to the impacts of peat production. (orig.)

Pekkala, M.; Hilli, T. (Poeyry Environment Oy, Oulu (Finland)), Email: mari.pekkala@poyry.com, Email: tuija.hilli@poyry.com

2009-07-01

315

MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF URBAN WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM CRISIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose – The chaotic growth of cities results in numerous problems related to public health and urban environment. One of these problems is the crisis in urban water supply systems. The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical model for the water supply system crisis in urban environment (WSC able to tackle with the ambiguity of the real available data.Design/methodology/approach – The applied methodology comprises the following steps: (1 identification of the influencing factors in WSC; (2 proposal of a conceptual model for WSC description; (3 gathering and simulation of the necessary and available data; (4 optimization of the conceptual model parameters; and (5 verification of the proposed model performance.Findings – The results indicated that there is a great amount of influencing factors in WSC (showed in the complete text; the conceptual model that was developed is composed by two others partial models ( . The first partial model explained the water consumption ( ,and the second partial model explained the water availability ( , in which functions are related to influencing factors in water consumption (i.e. temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, revenues collected, unemployment indicator, and functions are related to the influencing factors in water availability (i.e. total water-loss, intermittence in water supply system. The proposed conceptual model has showed good agreement to the simulated data.Originality/value – The paper is among the first works to describe a WSC model and to analyze the possibility of applying fuzzy logic to deal with the ambiguity of the real data. The water supply crisis in urban environments was adequately modelled.

Marco Antonio Almeida de Souza

2011-06-01

316

DRINKING WATER MICROBIOLOGY - NEW DIRECTIONS TOWARD WATER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Many concerns result from information on new waterborne agents, treatment problems of raw water qualities, biofilm development in some distribution systems, and special quality needs unique to hospitals and industries. Protozoan cyst penetration after some disinfection practices ...

317

Urban water resources quota management: the core strategy for water demand management in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since China has the largest population in the world, the available water resources per capita in China are very limited. With the rapid economic development that is currently occurring, the shortage of water resources at the national level has become extremely critical. How to solve the problems due to water scarcity and water pollution has received increasing attention from the Chinese government and various communities. In order to provide a sustainable development environment for 1.6 billion people in the future, the whole country has started to reform urban water resources management systems in terms of related policies, regulations, methodologies, and technologies focusing on improving the efficiency and effectiveness in water use. Urban water quota management has now become a core strategy in developing a water resources governance model for water demand management aiming at establishing a water-saving society. This paper introduces the main stages and the processes of implementing water quota management in China, analyzes the basic principles, and expounds the elements, information foundation, core module and operational model of the urban water quota management system. It has been demonstrated that urban water quota management has made some remarkable contribution not only in transforming the pattern of water mode and strengthening water management enforcement but also in integrating various management methods in saving water and preventing pollution. PMID:21090001

Jiang, YanLing; Chen, YuanSheng; Younos, Tamim; Huang, HeQing; He, JianPing

2010-11-01

318

Urbanization and water supplies for northeastern Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing populations in northeastern Colorado have resulted in reductions in irrigated acreage and the proportionate quantities of water available to support that segment of the agricultural industry. The growth has caused increased demands for municipal-domestic and industrial water supplies from the South Platte and Colorado River Basins. These impacts have been determined by comparing hydrologic data in conjunction with water use for agricultural, municipal-domestic, and industrial purposes between the period 1975 to 1979. Pricing and water rights ownership were also compared for the same period, as were land conversion data, population data, and crop production valuation. Proper administration of nonconsumptive return flows coupled with the importation of water from the Colorado River Basin will provide adequate, industrial, and irrigation water supplies for this growth intense area and downstream farm lands. 8 figures.

Smith, R.R.

1981-03-01

319

Quantitative Assessment of Water Use Efficiency in Urban and Domestic Buildings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential of water savings at property, household and urban levels, through the application of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs, as well as their quantification using the software Wise Water. Household centered measures are identified that allow for significant reduction of drinking water consumption with comparatively small effort, and without limitation of comfort. Furthermore, a method for the estimation of water recycling, for rainwater harvesting and for the utilization potential as locally available renewable freshwater is presented. Based on this study, the average drinking water consumption in urban households of industrialized countries could be reduced by approximately one third, without significant investment costs, either within the framework of new constructions or by the remodeling of water and sanitation systems in residential buildings. By using a secondary water quality, the drinking water demand could even be reduced by 50%. In the case of an area-wide application, the overall fresh water demand of cities and the exploitation of fresh water resources could be significantly reduced. Due to the comparability of the domestic water use of the investigated households, the findings are internationally transferable, for example to countries in Europe, Asia, and also the USA.

Vicente Santiago-Fandiño

2013-08-01

320

Water Management and Sediment Control for Urbanizing Areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

This handbook, developed for use by the Soil Conservation Service and property owners, land developers, local government agencies, and consulting firms, is designed to provide information on water management and minimizing erosion on land undergoing development in urban areas. The standards and specifications listed in this handbook are to provide…

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Columbus, OH.

 
 
 
 
321

Heavy Water Quality Management in HANARO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heavy water quality management in the reflector tank is a very important element to maintain the good thermal neutron flux and to ensure the performance of reflector cooling system. This report is written to provide a guidance for the future by describing the history of the heavy water quality management during HANARO operation. The heavy water quality in the reflector tank has been managed by measuring the electrical conductivity at the inlet and outlet of the ion exchanger and by measuring pH of the heavy water. In this report, the heavy water quality management activities performed in HANARO from 1996 to 2007 ere described including a basic theory of the heavy water quality management, exchanging history of used resin in the reflector cooling system, measurement data of the pH and the electrical conductivity, and operation history of the reflector cooling system

322

The potential of solar water disinfection as a household water treatment method in peri-urban Zimbabwe  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential for reducing diarrhoea morbidity and improving the health status of children in developing countries using solar water disinfection (SODIS) has been demonstrated in past research. A baseline survey was conducted to explore the feasibility and necessity of introducing SODIS in peri-urban communities of Zimbabwe. The survey sought to establish drinking water quality in these areas and to determine the health and hygiene beliefs as well as practices related to water handling in the household. Microbiological water quality tests and personal interviews were carried out in Epworth township and Hopley farm, two peri-urban areas near the capital of Zimbabwe, Harare. These two areas are among the poorest settlements around Harare with 80% of inhabitants being informal settlers. Community meetings were held to introduce solar water disinfection prior to the survey. This was followed by administration of questionnaires, which aimed to investigate whether the community had ever heard about SODIS, whether they were practicing it, other means that were being used to treat drinking water as well as health and hygiene beliefs and practices. It was found out that most households cannot afford basic water treatment like boiling as firewood is expensive. People generally reported that the water was not palatable due to objectionable odour and taste. Microbiological water quality tests proved that drinking water was contaminated in both areas, which makes the water unsafe for drinking and shows the necessity of treatment. Although the majority of people interviewed had not heard of SODIS prior to the interview, attitudes towards its introduction were very positive and the intention to do SODIS in the future was high. Amongst the ones who had heard about SODIS before the study, usage was high. Plastic PET bottles, which were used for the SODIS experiments are currently unavailable and this has been identified as a potential hindrance to the successful implementation of SODIS.

Murinda, Sharon; Kraemer, Silvie

323

Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

2009-01-01

324

Alternatives for safe water provision in urban and peri-urban slums.  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to rapid urbanization throughout the global South, urban and peri-urban slums are expanding at an alarming rate. Owing to inadequate financial and institutional resources at the municipal level, conventional approaches for safe water provision with centralized treatment and distribution infrastructure have been unable to keep pace with rapidly growing demand. In the absence of alternatives to centralized systems, a global public health emergency of infectious water-related diseases has developed. Alternative decentralized water treatment systems have been promoted in recent years as a means of achieving rapid health gains among vulnerable populations. Though much work with decentralized systems, especially in urban environments, has been at the household level, there is also considerable potential for development at the community level. Both levels of approach have unique sets of advantages and disadvantages that, just as with treatment technologies, may make certain options more appropriate than others in a particular setting. Integrating community, government and other relevant stakeholders into the process of systems development and implementation is essential if the outcome is to be appropriate to local circumstances and sustainable in the long term. PMID:20705983

Ali, Syed Imran

2010-12-01

325

Condenser cooling water quality at Kaiga  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Once-through circulation of river water is envisaged in Kaiga for cooling the condenser and other related equipment. Water drawn from Kali river will be used for this purpose. After cooling the condenser, the water is let into the river through the outfall system. The materials used in the cooling water system consist mainly of SS 316 and carbon steel. Chlorination is the treatment proposed to the cooling water. The cooling water quality is found to be satisfactory. (author). 2 refs

326

Multiple sources of boron in urban surface waters and groundwaters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies attribute abnormal boron (B) levels in streams and groundwaters to wastewater and fertilizer inputs. This study shows that municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation contributes substantial non-point loads of B and other chemicals (S-species, Li, and Cu) to surface waters and shallow groundwaters in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. Background levels and potential B sources were characterized by analysis of lawn and street runoff, streams, rivers, springs, local rainfall, wastewater influent and effluent, and fertilizers. Urban surface waters and groundwaters are highly enriched in B (to 250 ?g/L) compared to background levels found in rain and pristine, carbonate-hosted streams and springs (42-?S and B/Li ratios confirm major contributions from this source. Moreover, sequential samples of runoff collected during storms show that B concentrations decrease with increased discharge, proving that elevated B levels are not primarily derived from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) during flooding. Instead, non-point source B exhibits complex behavior depending on land use. In urban settings B is rapidly mobilized from lawns during “first flush” events, likely representing surficial salt residues from drinking water used to irrigate lawns, and is also associated with the baseflow fraction, likely derived from the shallow groundwater reservoir that over time accumulates B from drinking water that percolates into the subsurface. The opposite occurs in small rural watersheds, where B is leached from soils by recent rainfall and covaries with the event water fraction. Highlights: ? Boron sources and loads differ between urban and rural watersheds. ? Wastewaters are not the major boron source in small St. Louis, MO watersheds. ? Municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation can be high in boron. ? Lawn irrigation practices can considerably alter urban water chemistry

327

Parents' perceptions of water safety and quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Every day parents make choices about the source of water their families consume. There are many contributing factors which could affect decisions about water consumption including taste, smell, color, safety, cost, and convenience. However, few studies have investigated what parents with young children think about water quality and safety in the US and how this affects the choices they are making. This study aimed to describe the perceptions of parents with regard to water quality and safety and to compare bottled water and tap water use, as well as to examine motivation for water choices. We conducted an online questionnaire to survey parents living in Pennsylvania about water quality and safety, and preference for bottled versus tap water. Parents were recruited through child care centers, and 143 surveys were returned. The survey results showed high overall scores for perception of tap water quality and safety, and a preference for tap water over bottled water. We found that parents were concerned for the environmental impact that buying bottled water may have but were also concerned about potential contamination of tap water by natural gas drilling processes and nuclear power plants. These findings regarding parental concerns are critical to inform pediatric health care providers, water sellers, and suppliers in order that they may provide parents with the necessary information to make educated choices for their families. PMID:21717208

Merkel, Lori; Bicking, Cara; Sekhar, Deepa

2012-02-01

328

WATER QUALITY OF THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER  

Science.gov (United States)

Clear Spring Foods, Inc., conducted a year-long study in the Middle Snake River to provide a perspective on water quality issues and the impact of aquaculture activities on water quality. The study area extended from Shoshone Falls Park to below Box Canyon. Physical and chemical ...

329

Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban-rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban-rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban-rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban-rural dichotomy. PMID:24858228

Christenson, Elizabeth; Bain, Robert; Wright, Jim; Aondoakaa, Stephen; Hossain, Rifat; Bartram, Jamie

2014-08-15

330

Towards Sustainable Water Quality In Estuarine Impoundments: Sediment Processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several estuarine impoundment schemes have been built or are proposed in the UK and worldwide. The impounding of estuaries is currently a popular approach to urban regeneration in the UK. By creation of an aesthetically pleasing amenity impound- ment, including the drowning of "unsightly" tidal mud flats, it is hoped that prestige development will be encouraged in the estuarine area. Impounding fundamentally alters the dynamics of estuaries, with consequences in terms of sedimentation patterns and rates, and water quality. The SIMBA Project at- tempts to understand the controls on water quality in impoundments, with a view to- wards long term and sustainable high water quality through good barrage design and management practice. The results of process based studies, concentrating on interactions between sediment and water quality in the systems, are presented. A series of sequential extraction exper- iments have been carried out on cores of sediment to model the releases from sediment under different environmental conditions likely to be encountered in the impound- ments. Results are related to similar experiments carried out on suspended particulate material, and to pore-water experiments carried out using gel-probes.

Wright, J.; Worrall, F.

331

Water quality protection in the coastal artificial water areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The method based on the numerical modeling of the processes, forecasting and sea water quality assurance at the design stage of the coastal hydraulic constructions like ports, recreational and bank protection structures is presented. The half-closed coastal water areas are the object of the intensive pollution and in the same time have the limited water exchange with the main basin. The research objective was the development of forecasting method of the water quality in the harborage and the ...

Kantardgi, I. G.; Maderich, V. S.

2013-01-01

332

Water quality and MTBE water pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research project, here presented, was defined with the aim of evaluating the eventual presence of MTBE and the possible relative impact in water destined to human use; the territorial valence of the project was extended to the competence region n. 4 of the Tuscany water authority (AATO n. 4). University of Florence, ARPAT, AATO n. 4 and Nuove Acque SpA, in this role of manager for the integrated water cycle in the country, have productively contributed to the project

333

Identifying Slag Water Contributions to an Urban Stream  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the growing focus on urban hydrology, a clear understanding of the relative importance of the variety of source waters has not necessarily emerged. This study characterized stream water metal concentrations in three years of biweekly samples along a longitudinal transect of Nine Mile Run (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). Nine Mile Run drains a basin underlain with sedimentary rocks, including carbonate deposits and the water chemistry reflects this lithology. Overprinted on this chemistry are elements typically associated with urban systems as well as dissolved materials associated with a large slag dump covering the lower portion of the watershed. Slag is mostly composed of limestone and should impart an even stronger carbonate signal to stream water, however, in Nine Mile Run, neither Ca nor Mg concentrations are elevated in the station below the slag. Increases in K, Rb, Mo, and Cs concentrations are evident at these sampling points, and likely indicate water sourced from the slag dump. In samples collected above the slag dump, greater concentrations of Mn, Co, Ni, and Cd suggest an influence of urban inputs on stream chemistry. We compared stream water chemistry with literature values for slag and carbonate elemental concentrations and found that of the most likely slag enrichments (K, Cu, Ti, Mn, and Si) only K and Si are evident in the stream water in the lower reach. Additionally, stream water chemistry during storms at stations above the slag transition from typical upper watershed low flow values toward values indicative of the slag dump chemistry, suggesting smaller pockets of slag in upper sections of the watershed become connected during stormflow and influence stream water chemistry. Tracking slag influence on stream water chemistry with these tools can be applied to all regions where iron and steel production has historically occurred.

ONeill, B.; Bain, D. J.; Divers, M. T.; Elliott, E.

2013-12-01

334

Predictive models for forecasting hourly urban water demand  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryOne of the goals of efficient water supply management is the regular supply of clean water at the pressure required by consumers. In this context, predicting water consumption in urban areas is of key importance for water supply management. This prediction is also relevant in processes for reviewing prices; as well as for operational management of a water network. In this paper, we describe and compare a series of predictive models for forecasting water demand. The models are obtained using time series data from water consumption in an urban area of a city in south-eastern Spain. This includes highly non-linear time series data, which has conditioned the type of models we have included in our study. Namely, we have considered artificial neural networks, projection pursuit regression, multivariate adaptive regression splines, random forests and support vector regression. Apart from these models, we also propose a simple model based on the weighted demand profile resulting from our exploratory analysis of the data. In our comparative study, all predictive models were evaluated using an experimental methodology for hourly time series data that detailed water demand in a hydraulic sector of a water supply network in a city in south-eastern Spain. The accuracy of the obtained results, together with the medium size of the demand area, suggests that this was a suitable environment for making adequate management decisions.

Herrera, Manuel; Torgo, Luís; Izquierdo, Joaquín; Pérez-García, Rafael

2010-06-01

335

Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D. [Little Big Horn Coll., Crow Agency, MT (United States)

1995-10-01

336

Temporal and spatial patterns of micropollutants in urban receiving waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on a monitoring program over the course of a year, we characterize the temporal and spatial distribution of selected micropollutants in an urban watershed within the city of Leipzig, Germany. Micropollutants revealed a ubiquitous presence in untreated and treated wastewater, surface water and groundwater. The loads of 4-nonylphenol in the effluents of the municipal wastewater treatment plant followed a seasonal trend, whereas the loads of all other micropollutants were highly variable and not correlated to seasons. In the surface water, load seasonality of caffeine, galaxolide and tonalide resulted from a rapid removal with increased water temperature. The loads of 4-nonylphenol and of caffeine in the colder months increased when rainfall occurred. In the groundwater, complex spatial and temporal patterns were apparent and were related to varying input, retardation and removal processes. As a consequence, an assessment of micropollutants in urban waters should consider different micropollutants' temporal and spatial variability. - Micropollutants in urban receiving waters are characterized by variable temporal and spatial concentration and load patterns that have to be considered in risk assessments.

Musolff, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.musolff@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Leschik, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.leschik@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Moeder, Monika, E-mail: monika.moeder@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Strauch, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard.strauch@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Reinstorf, Frido, E-mail: frido.reinstorf@hs-magdeburg.d [University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, Department of Water and Waste Management, Breitscheidstr. 2, 39114 Magdeburg (Germany); Schirmer, Mario, E-mail: mario.schirmer@eawag.c [Eawag, The Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Ueberlandstr. 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

2009-11-15

337

Drinking water quality assessment in Southern Sindh (Pakistan).  

Science.gov (United States)

The southern Sindh province of Pakistan adjoins the Arabian Sea coast where drinking water quality is deteriorating due to dumping of industrial and urban waste and use of agrochemicals and yet has limited fresh water resources. The study assessed the drinking water quality of canal, shallow pumps, dug wells, and water supply schemes from the administrative districts of Thatta, Badin, and Thar by measuring physical, chemical, and biological (total coliform) quality parameters. All four water bodies (dug wells, shallow pumps canal water, and water supply schemes) exceeded WHO MPL for turbidity (24%, 28%, 96%, 69%), coliform (96%, 77%, 92%, 81%), and electrical conductivity (100%, 99%, 44%, 63%), respectively. However, the turbidity was lower in underground water, i.e., 24% and 28% in dug wells and shallow pumps as compared to open water, i.e., 96% and 69% in canal and water supply schemes, respectively. In dug wells and shallow pumps, limits for TDS, alkalinity, hardness, and sodium exceeded, respectively, by 63% and 33%; 59% and 70%, 40% and 27%, and 78% and 26%. Sodium was major problem in dug wells and shallow pumps of district Thar and considerable percent in shallow pumps of Badin. Iron was major problem in all water bodies of district Badin ranging from 50% to 69% and to some extent in open waters of Thatta. Other parameters as pH, copper, manganese, zinc, and phosphorus were within standard permissible limits of World Health Organization. Some common diseases found in the study area were gastroenteritis, diarrhea and vomiting, kidney, and skin problems. PMID:20658360

Memon, Mehrunisa; Soomro, Mohammed Saleh; Akhtar, Mohammad Saleem; Memon, Kazi Suleman

2011-06-01

338

Water supply services for Africa's urban poor: the role of resale.  

Science.gov (United States)

In sub-Saharan Africa only 35% of the urban population has access to a piped water connection on their premises. The majority of households obtain water from public standpipes or from neighbors who are connected to the municipal network. Water resale is often prohibited, however, because of concerns about affordability and risks to public health. Using data collected from 1,377 households in Maputo, Mozambique, we compare the microbiological quality, as well as the time and money costs of water supply from individual house connections, public standpipes, and water obtained from neighbors. Households with their own water connections have better service across virtually all indicators measured, and express greater satisfaction with their service, as compared with those using other water sources. Households purchasing water from their neighbors pay lower time and money costs per liter of water, on average, as compared with those using standpipes. Resale competes favorably with standpipes along a number of service quality dimensions; however, after controlling for water supply characteristics, households purchasing water from neighbors are significantly less likely to be satisfied with their water service as compared with those using standpipes. PMID:22048436

Zuin, Valentina; Ortolano, Leonard; Alvarinho, Manuel; Russel, Kory; Thebo, Anne; Muximpua, Odete; Davis, Jennifer

2011-12-01

339

Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water. These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. Results A total of 95 water samples from bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water were collected randomly from the study area using different gathering and analysing techniques. The bacteriological examination of water samples included the most probable number of presumptive coliforms, faecal coliforms, and faecal streptococci (MPN/100 ml. The results showed that the total coliform count (MPN/100 ml was not detected in any samples taken from bottled water, while it was detected in those taken from desalinated, surface, and well water: percentages were 12.9, 80.0, and 100.0, respectively. Faecal coliforms were detected in desalinated, surface, and well water, with percentages of 3.23, 60.0 and 87.88, respectively. About 6.45% of desalinated water, 53.33% of surface water, and 57.58% of well water was found positive for faecal streptococci. Colonies of coliforms were identified in different micro-organisms with various percentages. Conclusion Water derived from traditional sources (wells showed increases in most of the investigated bacteriological parameters, followed by surface water as compared to bottled or desalinated water. This may be attributed to the fact that well and surface water are at risk of contamination as indicated by the higher levels of most bacteriological parameters. Moreover, well water is exposed to point sources of pollution such as septic wells and domestic and farming effluents, as well as to soil with a high humus content. The lower bacteriological characteristics in samples from bottled water indicate that it is satisfactory for human drinking purposes. Contamination of desalinated water that is the main urban water source may occur during transportation from the desalination plant or in the house reservoir of the consumer. Improving and expanding the existing water treatment and sanitation systems is more likely to provide safe and sustainable sources of water over the long term. Strict hygienic measures should be applied to improve water quality and to avoid deleterious effects on public health, by using periodical monitoring programmes to detect sewage pollution running over local hydrological networks and valleys.

Sh AlOtaibi Eed L

2009-03-01

340

Air Quality and Land Use in Urban Region of Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam and Klang, Malaysia.  

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Full Text Available In line with the global trend of urbanisation, large population are staying in urban areas as compared to rural. However, urban area /region is always related to higher air pollution level as compared to less developed area/region. The major contributors of air pollution are mobile sources (transportation and stationary sources (e.g. industry and power plant. Thus, the issue of air pollution is potentially caused by human choices and activities, and potentially affecting the human health. Therefore, the relationship between the urban activities (land use coverage/distribution and air quality level should be well understood. It helps the urban managers, planners and all parties in constructing healthier urban policies. A study of air quality and the relationship with urban land uses was carried out in Malaysia?s urban growth region of Klang-Shah Alam-Petaling Jaya. Air quality data was analysed in Air Pollution Index (API with the classification of good, moderate, unhealthy, very unhealthy and hazardous levels. The urban land uses were mainly divided into two categories, i.e. pollution-prone land uses (transportation, industrial, and infrastructure, and green land uses. This study found that urban area with higher coverage of transportation, industrial and infrastructure land uses are potentially unhealthier in term of the air quality than the area with less coverage of these land uses. Strategic proposal was discussed in line with the findings.

Oliver Ling Hoon Leh

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

Kardel, F.; Wuyts, K. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Babanezhad, M. [Department of statistics, Faculty of Science, Golestan University, Gorgan, Golestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vitharana, U.W.A. [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Wuytack, T.; Potters, G. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Samson, R., E-mail: Roeland.Samson@ua.ac.b [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

2010-03-15

342

Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

343

Geotechnical Parameters Impact on Artificial Ground Water Recharging Technique for Urban Centers  

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Full Text Available Water scarcity is a serious problem throughout the world for both urban & rural community. Urban centers in India are facing an ironical situation of water scarcity today. This paper includes an Analytical solution, Numerical modeling, Empirical approaches, In-situ test results to predict recharge (rate mound of the ground-water and capacity of recharge well which is essential for the proper management of suitable artificial ground-water recharge systems to maintain water balance and stop salt water intrusion. Authors have derived analytical equation for predicting growth as well as decline of the ground-water mound depending on the intensity of recharge rate qr with different value of permeability k, depth of pervious strata H and diameter of well d, also studying the effects of variation in the geotechnical parameters on water-table fluctuations. In this paper to study the impact of numerical modeling using quadratic equation for unconfined aquifer base on rainfall intensity P and a change in saturated thickness H with variation in piezometric level. Empirical approaches are for evaluation of correct value of k of an undercharged unconfined aquifer with drawdown s0, influence zone L, recharge rate qr. In-situ test results give actual correlation between value of recharging rate of well and permeability on field. Authors have verified recharging rate of installed well from all approaches. A result obtained from the various field case studies gives the validation of the derived equation. Scientific quality measures of aquifer water are also recorded.

Pratima Patel

2011-05-01

344

Analytical optimization of demand management strategies across all urban water use sectors  

Science.gov (United States)

effective urban water demand management program can greatly influence both peak and average demand and therefore long-term water supply and infrastructure planning. Although a theoretical framework for evaluating residential indoor demand management has been well established, little has been done to evaluate other water use sectors such as residential irrigation in a compatible manner for integrating these results into an overall solution. This paper presents a systematic procedure to evaluate the optimal blend of single family residential irrigation demand management strategies to achieve a specified goal based on performance functions derived from parcel level tax assessor's data linked to customer level monthly water billing data. This framework is then generalized to apply to any urban water sector, as exponential functions can be fit to all resulting cumulative water savings functions. Two alternative formulations are presented: maximize net benefits, or minimize total costs subject to satisfying a target water savings. Explicit analytical solutions are presented for both formulations based on appropriate exponential best fits of performance functions. A direct result of this solution is the dual variable which represents the marginal cost of water saved at a specified target water savings goal. A case study of 16,303 single family irrigators in Gainesville Regional Utilities utilizing high quality tax assessor and monthly billing data along with parcel level GIS data provide an illustrative example of these techniques. Spatial clustering of targeted homes can be easily performed in GIS to identify priority demand management areas.

Friedman, Kenneth; Heaney, James P.; Morales, Miguel; Palenchar, John

2014-07-01

345

Uncertainties in selected river water quality data  

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Full Text Available Monitoring of surface waters is primarily done to detect the status and trends in water quality and to identify whether observed trends arise from natural or anthropogenic causes. Empirical quality of river water quality data is rarely certain and knowledge of their uncertainties is essential to assess the reliability of water quality models and their predictions. The objective of this paper is to assess the uncertainties in selected river water quality data, i.e. suspended sediment, nitrogen fraction, phosphorus fraction, heavy metals and biological compounds. The methodology used to structure the uncertainty is based on the empirical quality of data and the sources of uncertainty in data (van Loon et al., 2005. A literature review was carried out including additional experimental data of the Elbe river. All data of compounds associated with suspended particulate matter have considerable higher sampling uncertainties than soluble concentrations. This is due to high variability within the cross section of a given river. This variability is positively correlated with total suspended particulate matter concentrations. Sampling location has also considerable effect on the representativeness of a water sample. These sampling uncertainties are highly site specific. The estimation of uncertainty in sampling can only be achieved by taking at least a proportion of samples in duplicates. Compared to sampling uncertainties, measurement and analytical uncertainties are much lower. Instrument quality can be stated well suited for field and laboratory situations for all considered constituents. Analytical errors can contribute considerably to the overall uncertainty of river water quality data. Temporal autocorrelation of river water quality data is present but literature on general behaviour of water quality compounds is rare. For meso scale river catchments (500–3000 km2 reasonable yearly dissolved load calculations can be achieved using biweekly sample frequencies. For suspended sediments none of the methods investigated produced very reliable load estimates when weekly concentrations data were used. Uncertainties associated with loads estimates based on infrequent samples will decrease with increasing size of rivers.

M. Rode

2007-01-01

346

Uncertainties in selected surface water quality data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Monitoring of surface waters is primarily done to detect the status and trends in water quality and to identify whether observed trends arise form natural or anthropogenic causes. Empirical quality of surface water quality data is rarely certain and knowledge of their uncertainties is essential to assess the reliability of water quality models and their predictions. The objective of this paper is to assess the uncertainties in selected surface water quality data, i.e. suspended sediment, nitrogen fraction, phosphorus fraction, heavy metals and biological compounds. The methodology used to structure the uncertainty is based on the empirical quality of data and the sources of uncertainty in data (van Loon et al., 2006. A literature review was carried out including additional experimental data of the Elbe river. All data of compounds associated with suspended particulate matter have considerable higher sampling uncertainties than soluble concentrations. This is due to high variability's within the cross section of a given river. This variability is positively correlated with total suspended particulate matter concentrations. Sampling location has also considerable effect on the representativeness of a water sample. These sampling uncertainties are highly site specific. The estimation of uncertainty in sampling can only be achieved by taking at least a proportion of samples in duplicates. Compared to sampling uncertainties measurement and analytical uncertainties are much lower. Instrument quality can be stated well suited for field and laboratory situations for all considered constituents. Analytical errors can contribute considerable to the overall uncertainty of surface water quality data. Temporal autocorrelation of surface water quality data is present but literature on general behaviour of water quality compounds is rare. For meso scale river catchments reasonable yearly dissolved load calculations can be achieved using biweekly sample frequencies. For suspended sediments none of the methods investigated produced very reliable load estimates when weekly concentrations data were used. Uncertainties associated with loads estimates based on infrequent samples will decrease with increasing size of rivers.

M. Rode

2006-09-01

347

Water Quality Indicators Guide [and Teacher's Handbook]: Surface Waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide aids in finding water quality solutions to problems from sediment, animal wastes, nutrients, pesticides, and salts. The guide allows users to learn the fundamental concepts of water quality assessment by extracting basic tenets from geology, hydrology, biology, ecology, and wastewater treatment. An intro