WorldWideScience

Sample records for urban water quality

  1. Integrated Urban Water Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry weather, while the overflow from the combined sewer system plays a minor role. Oxygen depletion in urban rivers is caused by intermittent discharges from both sewer system and wastewater treatment plant. Neglecting one of them in the evaluation of the environmental impact gives a wrong impression of total system behaviour. Detention basins have limited positive effect for minimizing the acute pollution in rivers, but are useless in terms of accumulative pollution.

  2. Effects of Urbanization on Water Quality: Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Teachers Contact Back to previous page The effects of urbanization on water quality: Pesticides Pesticides are ... in the United States home page. Related topics: Effects of urbanization Ground-water quality Accessibility FOIA Privacy ...

  3. Water Quality Studies of Bellandur Lake, Urban Bangalore, Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nandini, N.; Bheemappa, K.; Vijay Kumar, M.; V. Pattusamy,

    2013-01-01

    The pace of urbanization is increasing globally, putting more pressure on local water quality. In addition to discharges of urban and industrial wastewater, urban areas add to poor water quality in a number of ways. The study was conducted to assess the water quality values of Bellandur Lake which is a major tank in Varthur of Bangalore SouthTaluk.Samples were collected in clean and sterilized plastic bottles of 2 litercapacity. The samples were collected to examine the water quality in the m...

  4. Urban water quality evaluation using multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Praus

    2007-01-01

    A data set, obtained for the sake of drinking water quality monitoring, was analysed by multivariate methods. Principal component analysis (PCA) reduced the data dimensionality from 18 original physico-chemical and microbiological parameters determined in drinking water samples to 6 principal components explaining about 83 % of the data variability. These 6 components represented inorganic salts, nitrate/pH, iron, chlorine, nitrite/ammonium traces, and heterotrophic bacteria. Using the PCA sc...

  5. Prioritizing Riparian Corridors for Water Quality Protection in Urbanizing Watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Samuel F.; Hunter, Bruce A.; English, April R.

    2010-01-01

    The cumulative effects of urbanization on riparian corridors can decrease the quality of water entering local streams, and ultimately adversely impact drinking water reservoirs of local municipalities. As such, a GIS and remote sensing based analysis tool called the Water Quality Corridor Management (WQCM) model was designed to identify and pri-oritize highly functioning riparian ecosystems for the preservation of stream corridor conditions. Preservation priority among various riparian corrid...

  6. URBAN GROWTH AND WATER QUALITY IN THIMPHU, BHUTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu Giri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detailed study was undertaken in 2008 and 2009 on assessment of water quality of River Wang Chhu which flows through Thimphu urban area, the capital city of Bhutan. The water samples were examined at upstream of urban area, within the urban area and its downstream. The water samples were analyzed by studying the physico-chemical, biological and benthic macro-invertebrates. The water quality data obtained during present study are discussed in relation to land use/land cover changes(LULC and various ongoing human activities at upstream, within the each activity areas and it’s downstream. Analyses of satellite imagery of 1990 and 2008 using GIS revealed that over a period of eighteen years the forest, scrub and agricultural areas have decreased whereas urban area and road network have increased considerably. The forest cover, agriculture area and scrub decreased from 43.3% to 42.57%, 6.88% to 5.33% and 42.55% to 29.42%, respectively. The LULC changes effect water quality in many ways. The water temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, total coliform, and biological oxygen demand were lower at upstream and higher in urban area. On the other hand dissolved oxygen was found higher at upstream and lower in urban area. The pollution sensitive benthic macro-invertebrates population were dominant at upstream sampling sites whereas pollution tolerant benthic macro-invertebrates were found abundant in urban area and its immediate downstream. The rapid development of urban infrastructure in Thimphu city may be posing serious threats to water regime in terms of its quality. Though the deterioration of water quality is restricted to a few localized areas, the trend is serious and needs proper attention of policy planners and decision makers. Proper treatment of effluents from urban areas is urgently needed to reduce water pollution in such affected areas to check further deterioration of water quality. This present study which is based on upstream, within urban area and downstream of Thimphu city can be considered as an eye opener.

  7. Urban water quality evaluation using multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Praus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A data set, obtained for the sake of drinking water quality monitoring, was analysed by multivariate methods. Principal component analysis (PCA reduced the data dimensionality from 18 original physico-chemical and microbiological parameters determined in drinking water samples to 6 principal components explaining about 83 % of the data variability. These 6 components represented inorganic salts, nitrate/pH, iron, chlorine, nitrite/ammonium traces, and heterotrophic bacteria. Using the PCA scatter plot and the Ward's clustering of the samples characterized by the first and second principal components, three clusters were revealed. These clusters sorted drinking water samples according to their origin - ground and surface water. The PCA results were confirmed by the factor analysis and hierarchical clustering of the original data.

  8. Impact of roof surface runoff on urban water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egodawatta, P; Miguntanna, N S; Goonetilleke, A

    2012-01-01

    The pollutant impacts of urban stormwater runoff on receiving waters are well documented in research literature. However, it is road surfaces that are commonly identified as the significant pollutant source. This paper presents the outcomes of an extensive program of research into the role of roof surfaces in urban water quality with particular focus on solids, nutrients and organic carbon. The outcomes confirmed that roof surfaces play an important role in influencing the pollutant characteristics of urban stormwater runoff. Pollutant build-up and wash-off characteristics for roads and roof surfaces were found to be appreciably different. The pollutant wash-off characteristics exhibited by roof surfaces show that it influences the first flush phenomenon more significantly than road surfaces. In most urban catchments, as roof surfaces constitute a higher fraction of impervious area compared with road surfaces, it is important that the pollutant generation role of roof surfaces is specifically taken into consideration in stormwater quality mitigation strategies. PMID:22864440

  9. ECONOMIC/FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...

  10. Urban Ethnohydrology : Cultural Knowledge of Water Quality and Water Management in a Desert City

    OpenAIRE

    Gartin, Meredith; Crona, Beatrice; Wutich, Amber; Westerhoff, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Popular concern over water quality has important implications for public water management because it can both empower water utilities to improve service but also limit their ability to make changes. In the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, obtaining sufficient high-quality water resources for a growing urban population poses a major challenge. Decision makers and urban hydrologists are aware of these challenges to water sustainability but the range of acceptable policy and management options a...

  11. Urban storm-water runoff and ground-water quality (No. 90-2304)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaum, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Urban storm water runoff is a form of nonpoint source pollution which is intimately tied to the hydrologic cycle, human activities, and urbanization. Traditionally, scientific research, water resource management, and regulations have focused on the effects of urban storm water on surface water quality, and seldom on ground-water quality. The Safe Drinking Water Act and other narrowly focused federal legislation along with state and local laws and ordinances, provide a legislative patchwork that attempts to protect the nation's ground-water quality. A clear and enforceable comprehensive federal policy protecting ground-water quality is needed to provide direction to state and local governments. The purpose of the report is to provide a summary of information and key references on urban storm water in relation to ground-water protection for US EPA staff and others responsible for protecting ground-water quality. The report presents a brief overview of the major literature describing: (1) the quality and chemistry of urban storm water runoff; (2) its effects on ground-water resources; and (3) current management practices, strategies, and regulations that attempt to reduce ground-water contamination from urban storm water. Also included is a selected bibliography and list of contacts at the federal, state, and local levels of government.

  12. Protecting Water Quality from Urban Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 to 5 years. They should also practice water conservation measures to extend the life of their septic ... center provides information on protecting the environment and water resources through integrated site design techniques that are intended to replicate preexisting hydrologic site ...

  13. Urban areas impact on surface water quality during rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C. S. S.; Soares, D.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Costa, M. L.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing population and welfare puts water management under stress, especially in what concerns water quality. Surface water properties are strongly linked with hydrological processes and are affected by stream flow variability. Changes in some chemical substances concentrations can be ascribed to different water sources. Runoff generated in urban areas is considered the main responsible for water quality degradation inside catchments. This poster presents the methodology and first results of a study that is being developed to assess the impact of urbanization on surface water quality, during rainfall events. It focuses on the Ribeira dos Covões catchment (620 ha) located in central Portugal. Due to its proximity to the Coimbra city in central region, the urban areas sprawled during the last decades. In 2008, urban areas represented 32% of the area. Recently a highway was constructed crossing the catchment and a technological industrial park is being build-up in the headwaters. Several water samples were collected at four different locations: the catchment outlet and in three sub-catchments with distinct urbanization patterns - Espírito Santo that represents a highly urbanized area (45%) located over sandstone, Porto do Bordalo with 30% of urbanized area located over limestone, and IParque, mainly forest and just downstream the disturbed technological industrial park construction area. The samples were collected at different times during rainfall events to monitor the variability along the hydrograph. Six monitoring campaigns were performed: two in April 2011, at the end of the winter period, and the others between October and November 2011, after the dry summer. The number of samples collected per monitoring campaign is variable according with rainfall pattern. Parameters such as pH, conductivity, turbidity and total suspended sediments were immediately analyzed. The samples were then preserved, after filtered (0.45µm), and later analyzed for dissolved chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorous, nitrogen (Kjeldahl, nitrate and ammonium), some cations and heavy metals, according with standard methods. In each monitored location there is a continuous-recording water-level that provides flow data. The rainfall data is monitored with a raingauge located at the catchment outlet. The results show that surface runoff affects stream water quality according with rainfall pattern. During rainfall events the rising limb flow is associated with an increase in suspended sediment concentration and turbidity, particularly at Iparque. In this sub-catchment, the deforestation and the topsoil removal associated with the technological industrial park construction, promotes suspended sediments growth ranging from 395% to 1645%, corresponding to peak concentrations of 1049mg/L and 3621mg/L, for similar rainfall amounts but with distinct intensities (0.4mm/5minutes and 1.2mm/5minutes, respectively). As regards to the monitored dissolved chemical properties, despite the variability, related with the hydrograph, the increase is much lower comparing with the suspended sediments. Generally, the values are higher at the catchment outlet, which can indicate that the contact time between rainfall and the surfaces before reach the water line affects water quality. This should be considered during urban planning to improve water quality and reduce environmental impacts with low investment.

  14. Urban Ethnohydrology: Cultural Knowledge of Water Quality and Water Management in a Desert City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Westerhoff

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Popular concern over water quality has important implications for public water management because it can both empower water utilities to improve service but also limit their ability to make changes. In the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, obtaining sufficient high-quality water resources for a growing urban population poses a major challenge. Decision makers and urban hydrologists are aware of these challenges to water sustainability but the range of acceptable policy and management options available to them is constrained by public opinion. Therefore, this study examines cultural models of water quality and water management, termed ethnohydrology, among urban residents. The study yields three key findings. First, urban residents appear to have a shared model of ethnohydrology which holds that a there are significant water quality risks associated with low financial investments in city-wide water treatment and the desert location of Phoenix, and b government monitoring and management combined with household-level water treatment can yield water of an acceptable quality. Second, people with high incomes are more likely to engage in expensive water filtration activities and to agree with the cultural ethnohydrology model found. Third, people living in communities that are highly concerned about water quality are less likely to share high agreement around ethnohydrology. The results have implications for water policy making and planning, particularly in disadvantaged and vulnerable communities where water quality is perceived to be low.

  15. Temporal and spatial variations in the relationship between urbanization and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lijun; Cui, Erqian; Sun, Haoyu

    2014-12-01

    With the development of economy, most of Chinese cities are at the stage of rapid urbanization in recent years, which has caused many environmental problems, especially the serious deterioration of water quality. Therefore, the research of the relationship between urbanization and water quality has important theoretical and practical significance, and it is also the main restriction factor in the urbanization advancement. In this work, we investigated the impact of urbanization on the water quality of the nearby river. We established a comprehensive environmental assessment framework by combining urbanization and water quality, and one model was designed to examine the impact of urbanization on the water quality in Jinan from 2001 to 2010 with factor component analysis. The assessment of urbanization level was accomplished using a comprehensive index system, which was based on four aspects: demographic urbanization, economic urbanization, land urbanization, and social urbanization. In addition, synthetic pollution index method was utilized to assess the water pollution of Xiaoqing River in the study area. Through the analysis of regression curves, we conclude that (1) when the urbanization level is below 25 %, the relationship is low and irregular; (2) if the urbanization level varies between 25 and 40 %, there will be an irreversible degradation of stream water quality; (3) there is a positive correlation between urbanization and pollution levels of urban river after the adjustment period; and (4) land and demographic aspects have the highest independent contribution. This study is a useful reference for policymakers in terms of economic and environmental management. PMID:24974792

  16. Quality of Source Water and Drinking Water in Urban Areas of Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Sakai; Yatsuka Kataoka; Kensuke Fukushi

    2013-01-01

    Myanmar is one of the least developed countries in the world, and very little information is available regarding the nation's water quality. This report gives an overview of the current situation in the country, presenting the results of various water-quality assessments in urban areas of Myanmar. River, dam, lake, and well water sources were examined and found to be of generally good quality. Both As and F? were present in relatively high concentrations and must be removed before deep well...

  17. Water quality perceptions and willingness to pay for clean water in peri-urban Cambodian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, Jennifer; Shaheed, Ameer; Brown, Joe; Jeuland, Marc

    2013-09-01

    This paper studies household demand for improved water quality in peri-urban Cambodia, with particular attention paid to the influence of water quality on willingness to pay (WTP). Utilizing data from 915 household surveys, we analyze responses to a contingent valuation scenario using multivariate logit regression techniques that account for subjective perceptions of water quality. We estimate a mean household WTP for improved water quality of US$3 (roughly 1.2% of mean income) per month for households in this sample. We also find that the majority of households believe that their in-house water after storage, handling, and treatment is safe to drink. Furthermore, beliefs about existing levels of water quality have a significant impact on WTP for improved water quality. However, while perceptions of quality (and thus WTP) are highly related to taste preferences, actual water quality is relatively uncorrelated with water quality perceptions. These findings suggest that interventions aiming to increase the adoption of water treatment should account for underlying perceptions of water quality. PMID:23981877

  18. Impact of urbanization on water quality and chemical flux in urban streams: implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushey, J. T.; Aragon-jose, A. T.; Perkins, C.; Lancaster, N.; Ulatowski, G.

    2012-12-01

    Contaminant source and biogeochemical processes are altered in urban ecosystems. Given the high impervious cover and altered hydrologic cycle, contaminant mobilization is particularly important during high discharge events. Many urban systems not only receive contaminant loading from stormwater, but also receive sewage contributions from combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Additionally, biogeochemical processes are altered by the changing chemistry and flashier hydrology. Management of contaminant loading often ignores these temporal shifts in speciation as well as the alteration of fate processes within the receiving water body, further compounding the difficult and challenging problem that many municipalities face of assessing ecological impacts. To assess potential changes in loading and chemical speciation we have collected stream water and sediment samples in the Park River sewershed (Hartford, CT) during base flow and events to assess potential for contaminant loading and mobilization. Six events have been collected to date. Trace metal, TSS and DOC concentrations increased with discharge. However, trace metal concentrations and flux values reflected the degree of urbanization and industry present in the watersheds. All samples contained low DOC with the majority of the flux occurring in the particulate phase. Dissolved transport with DOC, particularly for Hg, decreased with urbanization; however, the dominant phase, dissolved versus particulate, varied by storm. The degree of urbanization also increased TN flux as well as the distribution among N chemical species, with urbanized systems increasing in the NOx fraction. The altered watershed processes was also evident in an analysis of dissolved organic matter binding, with stormwater contributions contributing to higher microbial organic matter fractions as determined by EEMs. This shift in DOM quality has been linked to end member source contributions including forest, stormwater and sewage. Particulate fraction collection and analysis during the events have demonstrated the influence of impervious cover on increasing trace metal and mercury flux. However, the association of these metals with these solids compared with forested binding remains uncertain.

  19. Assessing impact of urbanization on river water quality in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Tingping; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Kuang, Yaoqiu

    2006-09-01

    The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone is one of the most developed regions in China. It has been undergoing a rapid urbanization since the reformation and opening of China in 1978. This process plays a significant impact on the urban environment, particularly river water quality. The main goal of this present study is to assess the impact of urban activities especially urbanization on river water quality for the study area. Some Landsat TM images from 2000 were used to map the areas for different pollution levels of urban river sections for the study area. In addition, an improved equalized synthetic pollution index method was utilized to assess the field analytical results. The results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the rapidity of urbanization and the pollution levels of urban river water. Compared to the rural river water, urban river water was polluted more seriously. During the urban development process, urbanization and urban activities had a significant negative impact on the river water quality. PMID:16738781

  20. Potable water quality characteristics of the urban areas of Peshawar (Pakistan) part 2: well water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality characteristics of 30 samples collected from dug wells, open wells and hand pumps of some urban and adjoining areas of Peshawar (Pakistan) were chemically evaluated and the results were compared with WHO potable water quality standards. The studies indicate an increasing trend in magnesium content than calcium. These studies reveal that magnesium in 18 out of 30 samples is higher than calcium as compared to the previously reported results, where quality characteristics of tube well waters were undertaken. Tube well waters reported in part-I of the studies were found to be less polluted compared to the well water in the present studies. These is due to the fact that wells are shallow (<40 feet ) compared to tube wells (= 350 feet)and are therefore more vulnerable to pollution than tube wells. The general public opinion about the water quality has also been discussed. (author)

  1. Effects of urban stormwater-management strategies on stream-water quantity and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, J.V.; Hogan, Dianna M.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization results in elevated stormwater runoff, greater and more intense streamflow, and increased delivery of pollutants to local streams and downstream aquatic systems such as the Chesapeake Bay. Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) are used to mitigate these effects of urban land use by retaining large volumes of stormwater runoff (water quantity) and removing pollutants in the runoff (water quality). Current USGS research aims to understand how the spatial pattern and connectivity of stormwater BMPs affect water quantity and water quality in urban areas.

  2. Scale Effects on Spatially Varying Relationships Between Urban Landscape Patterns and Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanwei; Guo, Qinghai; Liu, Jian; Wang, Run

    2014-08-01

    Scientific interpretation of the relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality is important for sustainable urban planning and watershed environmental protection. This study applied the ordinary least squares regression model and the geographically weighted regression model to examine the spatially varying relationships between 12 explanatory variables (including three topographical factors, four land use parameters, and five landscape metrics) and 15 water quality indicators in watersheds of Yundang Lake, Maluan Bay, and Xinglin Bay with varying levels of urbanization in Xiamen City, China. A local and global investigation was carried out at the watershed-level, with 50 and 200 m riparian buffer scales. This study found that topographical features and landscape metrics are the dominant factors of water quality, while land uses are too weak to be considered as a strong influential factor on water quality. Such statistical results may be related with the characteristics of land use compositions in our study area. Water quality variations in the 50 m buffer were dominated by topographical variables. The impact of landscape metrics on water quality gradually strengthen with expanding buffer zones. The strongest relationships are obtained in entire watersheds, rather than in 50 and 200 m buffer zones. Spatially varying relationships and effective buffer zones were verified in this study. Spatially varying relationships between explanatory variables and water quality parameters are more diversified and complex in less urbanized areas than in highly urbanized areas. This study hypothesizes that all these varying relationships may be attributed to the heterogeneity of landscape patterns in different urban regions. Adjustment of landscape patterns in an entire watershed should be the key measure to successfully improving urban lake water quality.

  3. Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai has experienced an extensive urban expansion since the early 1980s, with an attendant cost in environmental degradation. We use an integrated pollution index to study the temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas between 1982 and 2005. Data on monitored cross-sections were collected from the Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of surface water quality was determined by the level of urbanization. Surface water qualities in urban and suburban areas were improved by strengthening the environmental policies and management, but were worsening in rural areas. The relationship between economic growth and surface water quality in Shanghai showed an inversed-U-shaped curve, which reflected a similar pattern in most developed countries. This research suggests that decision makers and city officials should be more aware of the recent pollution increases in Shanghai. - An integrated pollution index documents the deterioration of water quality in greater Shanghai, recently most serious in rural sections

  4. SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA A.K. Mohanty, K. Mahesh Kumar, B. A. Prakash and V.V.S. Gurunadha Rao Ecology and Environment Group National Geophysical Research Institute, (CSIR) Hyderabad - 500 606, India E-mail:atulyakumarmohanty@yahoo.com Abstract: Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority has taken up restoration of urban lakes around Hyderabad city under Green Hyderabad Environment Program. Restoration of Mir Alam Tank, Durgamcheruvu, Patel cheruvu, Pedda Cheruvu and Nallacheruvu lakes have been taken up under the second phase. There are of six lakes viz., RKPuramcheruvu, Nadimicheruvu (Safilguda), Bandacheruvu Patelcheruvu, Peddacheruvu, Nallacheruvu, in North East Musi Basin covering 38 sq km. Bimonthly monitoring of lake water quality for BOD, COD, Total Nitrogen, Total phosphorous has been carried out for two hydrological cycles during October 2002- October 2004 in all the five lakes at inlet channels and outlets. The sediments in the lake have been also assessed for nutrient status. The nutrient parameters have been used to assess eutrophic condition through computation of Trophic Status Index, which has indicated that all the above lakes under study are under hyper-eutrophic condition. The hydrogeological, geophysical, water quality and groundwater data base collected in two watersheds covering 4 lakes has been used to construct groundwater flow and mass transport models. The interaction of lake-water with groundwater has been computed for assessing the lake water budget combining with inflow and outflow measurements on streams entering and leaving the lakes. Individual lake water budget has been used for design of appropriate capacity of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) on the inlet channels of the lakes for maintaining Full Tank Level (FTL) in each lake. STPs are designed for tertiary treatment i.e. removal of nutrient load viz., Phosphates and Nitrates. Phosphates are removed through addition of Alum to the influent stream to the STPs whereas Nitrates reduction is achieved by sending the treated wastewater from the STP through a wetland before entering the lake. STP Capacity ranging from 2-10 MLD have been recommended depending on lake water budget of individual lake and considering surrounding urbanization. Sediment nutrient data has helped for deciding the need for dredging of lake bed for removal of phosphates. Key Words: Lake water budget, Eutrophication, Trophic Status Index, Urban Lakes Restoration

  5. Effects of Urban Development on Water Quality in the Piedmont of North Carolina: Association of Landscape Variables With Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, D. A.; Cuffney, T. F.

    2005-12-01

    An assessment of effects of urban development on water quality in the Piedmont of North Carolina is part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Thirty sites along a gradient of undeveloped to fully urbanized basins were selected using geographic information analysis to control variability in natural factors that influence water quality. Data collected include nutrient, pesticide, ion, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, streamflow, stage, habitat characteristics, and algal, benthic invertebrate, and fish communities. Sampling for water chemistry ranged from two samples (at 20 sites) to six samples (at 10 sites) per year from October 2002 to September 2003. Geomorphic and biological data were collected once in each basin. An index that integrates information on human influences, including land cover, population, and socioeconomic characteristics was used to define the urban gradient and to select sites. Relations among landscape, streamflow, temperature, and water-chemistry variables were analyzed to define urban effects on water quality. Distinct patterns of association occurred between landscape variables and water quality. An increase in urban index is associated with increases in pH (r=0.60), specific conductance (0.72), sulfate (0.68), a multiple-constituent chemical index (0.91), and a pesticide index (0.76). Landscape characteristics correlated with water quality in a similar manner. Increasing basin population density is associated with higher pH (0.55, 1990; 0.56, 2000), specific conductance (0.71, 1990), chloride (0.66, 1990), sulfate (0.72), and pesticides (0.71, 1990; 0.68, 2000). This pattern also is reflected in household density (pH (0.60), chemical index (0.87), and pesticide index (0.68)); in the total percentage of developed land in the basin (specific conductance (0.85), chloride (0.77), sulfate (0.81), total nitrogen (0.50), chemical index (0.84), and pesticide index (0.74)); percentage of the basin in commercial, industrial, and transportation land uses (specific conductance (0.90), chloride (0.83), sulfate (0.81), chemical index (0.84), and pesticide index (0.74)); in high-intensity residential land use (pH (0.56), specific conductance (0.82), chloride (0.71), sulfate (0.78), nitrite plus nitrate (0.58), total nitrogen (0.62), chemical index (0.88), and pesticide index (0.74)); and in low-intensity residential land use (specific conductance (0.74), chloride (0.71), sulfate (0.70), and chemical index (0.80)). This pattern of association also occurred in the percentage of a 200-meter-wide riparian buffer in urban land cover (specific conductance (0.78), chloride (0.74), sulfate (0.78), pesticide index (0.86) and chemical index (0.86)) and in basin road density (pH (0.57), specific conductance (0.74), chloride (0.69), sulfate (0.72), pesticide index (0.73), and chemical index (0.89)). Instantaneous stream discharge decreased with increased urban index (-0.60), population density (-0.54, 1990; -0.53, 2000), household density (-0.52), developed land (-0.50), and road density (-0.53). Greater basin forested land cover was associated with decreased specific conductance (-0.78), chloride (-0.70), sulfate (-0.74), total nitrogen (-0.59), chemical index (-0.80), and pesticide index (-0.67). A delay in response of pH, sulfate, and chemical index is evident up to an urban index value of 30. A threshold at this index value corresponds to an impervious area of less than 5 percent and a population density below 250 people per square mile.

  6. Urban water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

    2014-06-01

    Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental understanding of aquatic interface processes in urban environments, advance understanding of current and future system behaviour, and promote an integrated urban water management.

  7. Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria K. Graves

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC, but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistant genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains that may result in increased duration and severity of morbidity.

  8. Trend analysis of a tropical urban river water quality in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Faridah; M E, Alaa Eldin; Mohamed, Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Rivers play a significant role in providing water resources for human and ecosystem survival and health. Hence, river water quality is an important parameter that must be preserved and monitored. As the state of Selangor and the city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, are undergoing tremendous development, the river is subjected to pollution from point and non-point sources. The water quality of the Klang River basin, one of the most densely populated areas within the region, is significantly degraded due to human activities as well as urbanization. Evaluation of the overall river water quality status is normally represented by a water quality index (WQI), which consists of six parameters, namely dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, ammoniacal nitrogen and pH. The objectives of this study are to assess the water quality status for this tropical, urban river and to establish the WQI trend. Using monthly WQI data from 1997 to 2007, time series were plotted and trend analysis was performed by employing the first-order autocorrelated trend model on the moving average values for every station. The initial and final values of either the moving average or the trend model were used as the estimates of the initial and final WQI at the stations. It was found that Klang River water quality has shown some improvement between 1997 and 2007. Water quality remains good in the upper stream area, which provides vital water sources for water treatment plants in the Klang valley. Meanwhile, the water quality has also improved in other stations. Results of the current study suggest that the present policy on managing river quality in the Klang River has produced encouraging results; the policy should, however, be further improved alongside more vigorous monitoring of pollution discharge from various point sources such as industrial wastewater, municipal sewers, wet markets, sand mining and landfills, as well as non-point sources such as agricultural or urban runoff and commercial activity. PMID:23128415

  9. Impact of rainfall temporal resolution on urban water quality modelling performance and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Bastian Johann; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Maksimovi?, Cedo; McIntyre, Neil

    2013-01-01

    A key control on the response of an urban drainage model is how well the observed rainfall records represent the real rainfall variability. Particularly in urban catchments with fast response flow regimes, the selection of temporal resolution in rainfall data collection is critical. Furthermore, the impact of the rainfall variability on the model response is amplified for water quality estimates, as uncertainty in rainfall intensity affects both the rainfall-runoff and pollutant wash-off sub-models, thus compounding uncertainties. A modelling study was designed to investigate the impact of altering rainfall temporal resolution on the magnitude and behaviour of uncertainties associated with the hydrological modelling compared with water quality modelling. The case study was an 85-ha combined sewer sub-catchment in Bogotá (Colombia). Water quality estimates showed greater sensitivity to the inter-event variability in rainfall hyetograph characteristics than to changes in the rainfall input temporal resolution. Overall, uncertainties from the water quality model were two- to five-fold those of the hydrological model. However, owing to the intrinsic scarcity of observations in urban water quality modelling, total model output uncertainties, especially from the water quality model, were too large to make recommendations for particular model structures or parameter values with respect to rainfall temporal resolution. PMID:23823541

  10. Empirical Modeling of Stream Water Quality for Complex Coastal-Urban Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, S.; Abdul-Aziz, O.

    2013-12-01

    This study develops an understanding of the relative influence of land uses, surface hydrology, groundwater, seawater, and upstream contributions on the in-stream water quality of six highly urbanized, complex urban watersheds of South Florida by analyzing seasonal (Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall) time-series of field data. We first explored the correlations among quality parameters (i.e., total nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and specific conductance) and their changes with distance and time. Principle component analysis was then conducted to investigate the mutual correlations and potential group formations among the predictor and response variables. The findings were leveraged to develop regression-based non-linear empirical models for explaining stream water quality in relation to internal (land uses and hydrology) and external (upstream contribution, seawater) sources and drivers. In-stream dissolved oxygen and total phosphorus in the watersheds were dictated by internal stressors, while external stressors were dominant for total nitrogen and specific conductance. The research findings provide important insights into the dominant stressors of seasonal stream water quality of complex coastal-urban watersheds under a changing environment. The research tools will be useful for developing proactive monitoring and seasonally exclusive management strategies for urban stream water quality improvement in South Florida and around the world.

  11. Applications of geographic information system and expert system for urban runoff and water quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Beum-Hee [Pai Chai University, Taejeon(Korea)

    2001-06-30

    It is very important to select appropriate methods of collecting, predicting, and analyzing information for the development of urban water resources and the prevention of disasters. Thus, in this study an accurate data generation method is developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). The methods of development and application of an expert system are suggested to solve more efficiently the problems of water resources and quality induced by the rapid urbanization. The time-varying data in a large region, the An-Yang Cheon watershed, were reasonably obtained by the application of the GIS using ARC/INFO and RS data. The ESPE (Expert System for Parameter Estimation), an expert system is developed using the CLIPS 6.0. The simulated results showed agreement with the measured data globally. These methods are expected to efficiently simulate the runoff and water quality in the rapidly varying urban area. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  12. Urban impacts on the water quality of selected water bodies in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lucas; Holbach, Andreas; Wei, Hu; Wang, Lijing; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Binghui; Norra, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Urban systems belong to the major input sources for pollutants into aquatic systems. In China, the rising urbanisation and industrialisation causes a growing pressure on rivers, lakes and estuaries. With the recent impoundment of the Yangtze River by the Three Gorges Dam, the newly formed Three Gorges Reservoir is additionally experiencing drastic changes in the flow regime [1]. In the frame of the Sino-German "Yangtze-Project" [2] samples were taken from the water bodies in proximity to the Cities of Chongqing, Kaixian and Wushan during a field campaign in April 2011. Water samples were analysed for inorganic contents in suspended solids and the dissolved phase to assess the impact of these cities on the water quality of the reservoir. Results show that input from urban sources, together with the effects from the impoundment of the Yangtze River, deteriorates the quality of water and sediments in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Water in the Wushan Lake is trapped in by the Yangtze River flowing by, which leads to longer retention times of effluent water from the city. The chemical composition of the lake water is also measurable upstream in the Daninghe itself and might be due to the backwater effect. In the Xiaojiang River near Kaixian the low flow velocity from the backwater effect of the Yangtze, together with influences from the city have led to problems with algal blooms. High metal concentrations at Chongqing indicate a strong impact of this megacity on the water quality of the Three Gorges Reservoir and the sediments of the Yangtze River. Acknowledgements: Financial support by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany (BMBF), the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (MOST) and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). References: [1] Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China, 2010: Bulletin on the Ecological and Environmental Monitoring Results of the Three Gorges Project 2010 [2] Bergmann A, et al. (2011) The Yangtze-Hydro Project: a Chinese-German environmental program. ESPR. Doi: 10.1007/s11356-011-0645-7

  13. SUSTAIN ? A Framework for Placement of Best Management Practices in Urban Watersheds to Protect Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed and stormwater managers need modeling tools to evaluate alternative plans for water quality management and flow abatement techniques in urban and developing areas. A watershed-scale, decision-support framework that is based on cost optimization is needed to support gov...

  14. Effects of urbanization on stream water quality in the city of Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N.E.

    2009-01-01

    A long-term stream water quality monitoring network was established in the city of Atlanta, Georgia during 2003 to assess baseline water quality conditions and the effects of urbanization on stream water quality. Routine hydrologically based manual stream sampling, including several concurrent manual point and equal width increment sampling, was conducted ???12 times annually at 21 stations, with drainage areas ranging from 3.7 to 232 km2. Eleven of the stations are real-time (RT) stations having continuous measures of stream stage/ discharge, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature and turbidity, and automatic samplers for stormwater collection. Samples were analyzed for field parameters, and a broad suite of water quality and sediment-related constituents. Field parameters and concentrations of major ions, metals, nutrient species and coliform bacteria among stations were evaluated and with respect to watershed characteristics and plausible sources from 2003 through September 2007. Most constituent concentrations are much higher than nearby reference streams. Concentrations are statistically different among stations for several constituents, despite high variability both within and among stations. Routine manual sampling, automatic sampling during stormflows and RT water quality monitoring provided sufficient information about urban stream water quality variability to evaluate causes of water quality differences among streams. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations of most samples exceeded Georgia's water quality standard for any water-usage class. High chloride concentrations occur at three stations and are hypothesized to be associated with discharges of chlorinated combined sewer overflows, drainage of swimming pool(s) and dissolution and transport during rainstorms of CaCl2, a deicing salt applied to roads during winter storms. One stream was affected by dissolution and transport of ammonium alum [NH4Al(SO4)2] from an alum-manufacturing plant; streamwater has low pH (<5), low alkalinity and high metals concentrations. Several trace metals exceed acute and chronic water quality standards and high concentrations are attributed to washoff from impervious surfaces.

  15. The effect of an industrial effluent on an urban stream benthic community: water quality vs. habitat quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discharges that affect both water quality and habitat quality can have complex effects on flowing water communties. - We studied the effect of an industrial effluent on the water quality, habitat quality, and benthic macroinvertebrates of an urban stream in southwestern Michigan (USA). The effluent affected water quality by raising in-stream temperatures 13-18 deg. C during colder months and carrying high amounts of iron (>20xhigher than ambient) that covered the streambed. The effluent also affected habitat conditions by increasing total stream discharge by 50-150%, causing a significant change in substrate and flow conditions. We used three methods to collect benthic macroinvertebrates in depositional and erosional habitats and to understand the relative importance of habitat quality and water quality alterations. Macroinvertebrate response variables included taxonomic richness, abundance, and proportional abundance of sensitive taxonomic groups. Results indicated that the effluent had a positive effect on macroinvertebrate communities by increasing the quantity of riffle habitat, but a negative effect on macroinvertebrate communities by reducing water quality. Results illustrated the need for careful consideration of habitat quality and water quality in restoration or remediation programs

  16. Quality of water sources used as drinking water in a Brazilian peri-urban area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Tereza Pepe, Razzolini; Wanda Maria Risso, Günther; Francisca Alzira dos Santos, Peternella; Solange, Martone-Rocha; Veridiana Karmann, Bastos; Thaís Filomena da Silva, Santos; Maria Regina Alves, Cardoso.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to assess bacteriological quality of drinking water in a peri-urban area located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 89 water samples were collected from community plastic tanks and 177 water samples from wells were collected bimonthly, from Se [...] ptember 2007 to November 2008, for evaluating bacteriological parameters including: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and heterotrophic plate count (HPC). Clostridium perfringens was investigated in a subsample (40 samples from community plastic tank and 40 from wells). E. coli was present in 5 (5.6%) samples from community plastic tanks (2.0 - 5.1x10(4) MPN/100mL) and in 70 (39.5%) well samples (2.0 - 8.6x10(4) MPN/100mL). Thus, these samples were not in accordance with the Brazilian Regulation. Enterococcus was detected in 20 (22.5%) samples of the community plastic tanks (1 to 79 NC/100mL) and in 142 (80.2%) well samples (1 to >200 NC/100mL). C. perfringens was detected in 5 (12.5%) community plastic tanks samples and in 35 (87.5%) wells samples (2.2 to >16 MPN/100mL). HPC were above 500 CFU/mL in 5 (5.6%) waters from community plastic tanks. In wells samples, the HPC ranged from

  17. Effect of urban aquifer exploitation on subsurface temperature and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hiroaki; Tang, Changyuan; Kondoh, Akihiko

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater pumping induces changes in the hydrodynamics of aquifer systems. Rapid urbanization and pumping-induced changes in local groundwater flow can change the natural heat and chemical balances of an aquifer. In the Nagaoka Plain, Japan, groundwater is being extracted at 145 × 10(6) m3 /year from a highly permeable aquifer consisting of coarse-grained sediments of Late Pleistocene to Holocene age. We used land-cover and groundwater analyses to investigate the processes that change subsurface temperature and water quality induced by urbanization and intensive groundwater extraction. Comparison of temperature and water quality measurements in 2009 with measurements made between 1977 and 2000 revealed an increase in subsurface temperature (at 18 m depth) of 0.050 °C/year in the main urban area of the Nagaoka Plain, which is equivalent to the rate of increase of mean air temperature during that period. The effects of surface warming are apparent as a warm zone under the urban area. An area with low saturation index of calcite (-3.0 to -2.0) was centered around urban areas in 2009, whereas in 2000 the index there was higher (-1.5 to -0.5). The decrease in this index in the center of Nagaoka City over the last decade is consistent with continuous dissolution of carbonates induced there by changes in recharge water sources due to groundwater pumping. These findings suggest that urbanization, intensive groundwater extraction, and recharge with chemically modified surface water are responsible for changes in thermal and chemical properties under the urban area of the Nagaoka Plain. PMID:24393085

  18. Estimation of urban runoff and water quality using remote sensing and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, S R; Park, S Y; Park, D H

    2003-01-01

    Water quality and quantity of runoff are strongly dependent on the landuse and landcover (LULC) criteria. In this study, we developed a more improved parameter estimation procedure for the environmental model using remote sensing (RS) and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. Landsat TM multi-band (7bands) and Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite (KOMPSAT) panchromatic data were selected for input data processing. We employed two kinds of artificial intelligence techniques, RBF-NN (radial-basis-function neural network) and ANN (artificial neural network), to classify LULC of the study area. A bootstrap resampling method, a statistical technique, was employed to generate the confidence intervals and distribution of the unit load. SWMM was used to simulate the urban runoff and water quality and applied to the study watershed. The condition of urban flow and non-point contaminations was simulated with rainfall-runoff and measured water quality data. The estimated total runoff, peak time, and pollutant generation varied considerably according to the classification accuracy and percentile unit load applied. The proposed procedure would efficiently be applied to water quality and runoff simulation in a rapidly changing urban area. PMID:12793696

  19. The influence of rainfall time resolution for urban water quality modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the definition of a methodology to evaluate the impact of the temporal resolution of rainfall measurements in urban drainage modelling applications. More specifically the effect of the temporal resolution on urban water quality modelling is detected analysing the uncertainty of the response of rainfall-runoff modelling. Analyses have been carried out using historical rainfall-discharge data collected for the Fossolo catchment (Bologna, Italy). According to the methodology, the historical rainfall data are taken as a reference, and resampled data have been obtained through a rescaling procedure with variable temporal windows. The shape comparison between 'true' and rescaled rainfall data has been carried out using a non-dimensional accuracy index. Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out applying a parsimonious urban water quality model, using the recorded data and the resampled events. The results of the simulations were used to derive the cumulative probabilities of quantity and quality model outputs (peak discharges, flow volume, peak concentrations and pollutant mass) conditioned on the observation according to the GLUE (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation) methodology. The results showed that when coarser rainfall information is available, the model calibration process is still efficient even if modelling uncertainty progressively increases especially with regards to water quality aspects. PMID:20418636

  20. Monitoring Urban River Water Quality Using Macroinvertebrate and Physico-Chemical Parameters: Case study of Penchala River, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Abas Kutty; Mohammad Shuhaimi-Othman; Akmal Mahazar; Mohamed Nor Mohamed Desa

    2013-01-01

    A study have been carried on urban river, Sungai Penchala to assess the river water quality by using benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicator and also standard Department of Environment (DOE) water quality measurement for physical-chemical analysis of Water Quality Index (WQI). Sampling for benthic macroinvertebrate and water sample was done on 3 sampling sites, named upstream (S1), middle stream (S2) and downstream (S3). The benthic macroinvertebrate sampling was done in the same d...

  1. Water Quality and Environmental Flow Management in Rapidly Urbanizing Shenzhen Estuary Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H.; Su, Q.

    2011-12-01

    Shenzhen estuary is located in a rapidly urbanizing coastal region of Southeast China, and forms the administrative border between mainland China and Hong Kong. It receives the waters of the Shenzhen River, where it enters the Deep Bay. The estuary has great ecological importance with the internationally recognized mangrove wetlands, which provides a habitat for some rare and endangered waterfowl and migratory birds.Water quality in the esturay has deteriorated not only due to increasing wastewater discharges from domestic and industrial sources, but also as a consequence of decreasing base environmental flow during rapid urbanization in the Shenzhen River catchment since 1980s. Measures to improve water quality of the estuary include not only reducing pollutant inputs by intercepting wastewater, but also increasing environmental flow by reusing reclaimed wastewater or withdrawing nearshore seawater into the river. However, salinity alternation due to flow increase is deemed to have impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. In this paper, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) is used to simulate hydrodynamics, salinity, and water quality condition in the Shenzhen estuary. After calibration and validation, the model is used to evaluate effects of various control measures on water quality improvement and salinity alteration in the estuary. The results indicate that implementing different measures independently does not reach the goals of water quality improvement; furthermore, increasing environmental flow by importing nearshore seawater may greatly increase the salinity in the Shenzhen River, destroy the fresh ecosystem of the river and have non-negligible impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. Based on the effectiveness and impacts of the measures, an integrated measure, which combine pollutant loads reduction and environmental flow increase by reusing reclaimed wastewater, is proposed to achieve water environmental sustainability in the study area.

  2. Mimicking Daphnia magna bioassay performance by an electronic tongue for urban water quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsanov, Dmitry, E-mail: d.kirsanov@gmail.com [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sensor Systems LLC, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zagrebin, Anatoly; Ignatieva, Natalia; Rybakin, Vladimir [Institute of Limnology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • -Daphnia magna bioassay can be simulated with multisensor system. • Urban water toxicity can be predicted from potentiometric ET data. • Independent test set validation confirms statistical significance of the results. - Abstract: Toxicity is one of the key parameters of water quality in environmental monitoring. However, being evaluated as a response of living beings (as their mobility, fertility, death rate, etc.) to water quality, toxicity can only be assessed with the help of these living beings. This imposes certain restrictions on toxicity bioassay as an analytical method: biotest organisms must be properly bred, fed and kept under strictly regulated conditions and duration of tests can be quite long (up to several days), thus making the whole procedure the prerogative of the limited number of highly specialized laboratories. This report describes an original application of potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue) when the set of electrochemical sensors was calibrated against Daphnia magna death rate in order to perform toxicity assessment of urban waters without immediate involvement of living creatures. PRM (partial robust M) and PLS (projections on latent structures) regression models based on the data from this multisensor system allowed for prediction of toxicity of unknown water samples in terms of biotests but in the fast and simple instrumental way. Typical errors of water toxicity predictions were below 20% in terms of Daphnia death rate which can be considered as a good result taking into account the complexity of the task.

  3. Mimicking Daphnia magna bioassay performance by an electronic tongue for urban water quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • -Daphnia magna bioassay can be simulated with multisensor system. • Urban water toxicity can be predicted from potentiometric ET data. • Independent test set validation confirms statistical significance of the results. - Abstract: Toxicity is one of the key parameters of water quality in environmental monitoring. However, being evaluated as a response of living beings (as their mobility, fertility, death rate, etc.) to water quality, toxicity can only be assessed with the help of these living beings. This imposes certain restrictions on toxicity bioassay as an analytical method: biotest organisms must be properly bred, fed and kept under strictly regulated conditions and duration of tests can be quite long (up to several days), thus making the whole procedure the prerogative of the limited number of highly specialized laboratories. This report describes an original application of potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue) when the set of electrochemical sensors was calibrated against Daphnia magna death rate in order to perform toxicity assessment of urban waters without immediate involvement of living creatures. PRM (partial robust M) and PLS (projections on latent structures) regression models based on the data from this multisensor system allowed for prediction of toxicity of unknown water samples in terms of biotests but in the fast and simple instrumental way. Typical errors of water toxicity predictions were below 20% in terms of Daphnia death rate which can be considered as a good result taking into account the complexity of the task

  4. Determining Critical Water Quality Conditions For Inorganic Nitrogen in Dry Semi-urbanized Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, J.; Keller, A. A.; Zheng, Y.; Robinson, T. H.

    2004-12-01

    Traditional approaches to establishing critical water quality conditions, based on statistical analysis of low flow conditions and expressed as a recurrence interval for low-flow conditions (e.g. 7Q10), may be inappropriate for drier watersheds. The use of 7Q10 as a standard design flow assumes year-round flow, but in these watersheds 7Q10 is zero or very small. In addition, the increasing use of multiple year dynamic water quality models at daily time steps, can supercede the use of steady-state approaches. Many of these watersheds are also under increasing urbanization pressure, which accentuates the flashiness of runoff and the episodic nature of critical water quality conditions. To illustrate, we consider the conditions in the Santa Clara River, California. A statistical analysis indicates that higher inorganic nitrogen concentrations correlate strongly with low flow. However, peaks in concentrations can occur during the first storms, particularly where non-point source contribution is significant. Critical conditions can thus occur at different flow regimes depending on the relative magnitude of flow and pollutant contributions from various sources. The use of steady-state models for these dry semi-urbanized watersheds based on 7Q10 flows is thus unlikely to accurately simulate the potential for exceeding water quality objectives. Dynamic simulation of water quality is necessary, and as the recent intense storm event sampling data indicates, the models should be formulated to consider even smaller time steps. This places increasing demand on computational resources and datasets to accurately calibrate the models at this temporal resolution.

  5. Road traffic impact on urban water quality: a step towards integrated traffic, air and stormwater modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah Shorshani, Masoud; Bonhomme, Céline; Petrucci, Guido; André, Michel; Seigneur, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Methods for simulating air pollution due to road traffic and the associated effects on stormwater runoff quality in an urban environment are examined with particular emphasis on the integration of the various simulation models into a consistent modelling chain. To that end, the models for traffic, pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and deposition, and stormwater contamination are reviewed. The present study focuses on the implementation of a modelling chain for an actual urban case study, which is the contamination of water runoff by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the Grigny urban catchment near Paris, France. First, traffic emissions are calculated with traffic inputs using the COPERT4 methodology. Next, the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants is simulated with the Polyphemus line source model and pollutant deposition fluxes in different subcatchment areas are calculated. Finally, the SWMM water quantity and quality model is used to estimate the concentrations of pollutants in stormwater runoff. The simulation results are compared to mass flow rates and concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn measured at the catchment outlet. The contribution of local traffic to stormwater contamination is estimated to be significant for Pb and, to a lesser extent, for Zn and Cd; however, Pb is most likely overestimated due to outdated emissions factors. The results demonstrate the importance of treating distributed traffic emissions from major roadways explicitly since the impact of these sources on concentrations in the catchment outlet is underestimated when those traffic emissions are spatially averaged over the catchment area. PMID:24288064

  6. Evaluation of spatial-temporal variations and trends in surface water quality across a rural-suburban-urban interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Kun; Liao, Lingling; Zhu, Yuanli; Lu, Ping; Wang, Zhenfeng; Dahlgren, Randy A; Zhang, Minghua

    2014-07-01

    Water quality degradation is often a severe consequence of rapid economic expansion in developing countries. Methods to assess spatial-temporal patterns and trends in water quality are essential for guiding adaptive management efforts aimed at water quality remediation. Temporal and spatial patterns of surface water quality were investigated for 54 monitoring sites in the Wen-Rui Tang River watershed of eastern China to identify such patterns in water quality occurring across a rural-suburban-urban interface. Twenty physical and chemical water quality parameters were analyzed in surface waters collected once every 4-8 weeks from 2000 to 2010. Temporal and spatial variations among water quality parameters were assessed between seasons (wet/dry) and among major land use zones (urban/suburban/rural). Factor analysis was used to identify parameters that were important in assessing seasonal and spatial variations in water quality. Results revealed that parameters related to organic pollutants (dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (manganese) (COD(Mn)), and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD?)), nutrients (ammonia nitrogen (NH? ?-N), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP)), and salt concentration (electrical conductivity (EC)) were the most important parameters contributing to water quality variation. Collectively, they explained 70.9 % of the total variance. A trend study using the seasonal Kendall test revealed reductions in COD(Mn), BOD?, NH? ?-N, petrol, V-phen, and EC concentrations over the 11-year study period. Cluster analysis was employed to evaluate variation among 14 sampling sites representative of dominant land use categories and indicated three, three, and four clusters based on organic, nutrient, and salt water quality characteristics, respectively. Factors that are typically responsible for water quality degradation (including population, topography, and land use) showed no strong correlation with water quality trends implying considerable point source inputs in the watershed. The results of this study help inform ongoing water quality remediation efforts by documenting trends in water quality across various land use zones. PMID:24659457

  7. Emerging contaminants of public health significance as water quality indicator compounds in the urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amrita; He, Yiliang; Jekel, Martin; Reinhard, Martin; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2014-10-01

    The contamination of the urban water cycle (UWC) with a wide array of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) increases with urbanization and population density. To produce drinking water from the UWC requires close examination of their sources, occurrence, pathways, and health effects and the efficacy of wastewater treatment and natural attenuation processes that may occur in surface water bodies and groundwater. This paper researches in details the structure of the UWC and investigates the routes by which the water cycle is increasingly contaminated with compounds generated from various anthropogenic activities. Along with a thorough survey of chemicals representing compound classes such as hormones, antibiotics, surfactants, endocrine disruptors, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, pesticides and metabolites, disinfection-by-products, algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds, this paper provides a comprehensive and holistic review of the occurrence, fate, transport and potential health impact of the emerging organic contaminants of the UWC. This study also illustrates the widespread distribution of the emerging organic contaminants in the different aortas of the ecosystem and focuses on future research needs. PMID:24972248

  8. The Quality and Health Implications of Urban Irrigation Water Used for Vegetable Production in the Accra Metropolis

    OpenAIRE

    Ampofo, Joseph A.; Danso, Seth K. A.; Akrong, Mark O.

    2012-01-01

    The quality of irrigation water from different sources used by urban farmers in the Accra Metropolis was investigated. These were, tap water stored in dugout, surface water (from stream) and wastewater in drains. The samples were analysed for their bacteriological, physical and chemical qualities using standard methods. Analytical Profile Index (API) identification system was used to characterize and identify the bacterial species isolated in the samples. The results showed that heavy metal c...

  9. [Influence of green roof application on water quantity and quality in urban region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Min; Li, Xing-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Yu, Hui; Hao, You-Zhi; Yang, Wan-Yi

    2014-07-01

    Green roof is widely used in advanced stormwater management as a major measure now. Taking Huxi catchment in Chongqing University as the study area, the relationships between green roof installation with runoff volume and water quality in urban region were investigated. The results showed that roof greening in the urban region contributed to reducing the runoff volume and pollution load. In addition, the spatial distribution and area of green roof also had effects on the runoff water quality. With the conditions that the roof area was 25% of the total watershed area, rainfall duration was 15 min and rainfall intensity was 14.8 mm x h(-1), the peak runoff and total runoff volume were reduced by 5.3% and 31%, the pollution loads of total suspended solid (TSS), total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) decreased by 40.0%, 31.6% and 29.8%, their peak concentrations decreased by 21.0%, 16.0% and -12.2%, and the EMCs (event mean concentrations) were cut down by 13.1%, 0.9% and -1.7%, respectively, when all impervious roofs were greened in the research area. With the increase of roof greening rate, the reduction rates of TSS and TP concentrations increased, while the reduction rate of TN concentration decreased on the whole. Much more improvement could be obtained with the use of green roofs near the outlet of the watershed. PMID:25345054

  10. Water quality and ecological condition of urban streams in Independence, Missouri, June 2005 through December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D.; Harris, Thomas E.; Niesen, Shelley L.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the sources of selected constituents in urban streams and better understand processes affecting water quality and their effects on the ecological condition of urban streams and the Little Blue River in Independence, Missouri the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Independence Water Pollution Control Department initiated a study in June 2005 to characterize water quality and evaluate the ecological condition of streams within Independence. Base-flow and stormflow samples collected from five sites within Independence, from June 2005 to December 2008, were used to characterize the physical, chemical, and biologic effects of storm runoff on the water quality in Independence streams and the Little Blue River. The streams draining Independence-Rock Creek, Sugar Creek, Mill Creek, Fire Prairie Creek, and the Little Blue River-drain to the north and the Missouri River. Two small predominantly urban streams, Crackerneck Creek [12.9-square kilometer (km2) basin] and Spring Branch Creek (25.4-km2 basin), were monitored that enter into the Little Blue River between upstream and downstream monitoring sites. The Little Blue River above the upstream site is regulated by several reservoirs, but streamflow is largely uncontrolled. The Little Blue River Basin encompasses 585 km2 with about 168 km2 or 29 percent of the basin lying within the city limits of Independence. Water-quality samples also were collected for Rock Creek (24.1-km2 basin) that drains the western part of Independence. Data collection included streamflow, physical properties, dissolved oxygen, chloride, metals, nutrients, common organic micro-constituents, and fecal indicator bacteria. Benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys and habitat assessments were conducted to establish a baseline for evaluating the ecological condition and health of streams within Independence. Additional dry-weather screenings during base flow of all streams draining Independence were conducted to identify point-source discharges and other sources of potential contamination. Regression models were used to estimate continuous and annual flow-weighted concentrations, loadings, and yields for chloride, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria densities. Base-flow and stormflow water-quality samples were collected at five sites within Independence. Base-flow samples for Rock Creek and two tributary streams to the Little Blue River exceeded recommended U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards for the protection of aquatic life for total nitrogen and total phosphorus in about 90 percent of samples, whereas samples collected at two Little Blue River sites exceeded both the total nitrogen and total phosphorus standards less often, about 30 percent of the time. Dry-weather screening identified a relatively small number (14.0 percent of all analyses) of potential point-source discharges for total chlorine, phenols, and anionic surfactants. Stormflow had larger median measured concentrations of total common organic micro-constituents than base flow. The four categories of common organic micro-constituents with the most total detections in stormflow were pesticides (100 percent), polyaromatic hydrocarbons and combustion by-products (99 percent), plastics (93 percent), and stimulants (91 percent). Most detections of common organic micro-constituents were less than 2 micrograms per liter. Median instantaneous Escherichia coli densities for stormflow samples showed a 21 percent increase measured at the downstream site on the Little Blue River from the sampled upstream site. Using microbial source-tracking methods, less than 30 percent of Escherichia coli bacteria in samples were identified as having human sources. Base-flow and stormflow data were used to develop regression equations with streamflow and continuous water-quality data to estimate daily concentrations, loads, and yields of various water-quality contaminants.

  11. Microbiological quality of drinking water of urban and rural communities, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Giovani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples came from urban and rural communities and to examine the relationship between coliforms occurrence and average water temperature, and a comparison of the rainfall levels. METHODS: A sample of 3,073 untreated and treated (chlorinated water from taps (1,594, reservoir used to store treated water (1,033, spring water (96 and private well (350 collected for routine testing between 1996 and 1999 was analyzed by the multiple dilution tube methods used to detect the most probable number of total and fecal coliforms. These samples were obtained in the region of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. RESULTS: The highest numbers water samples contaminated by TC (83% and FC (48% were found in the untreated water. TC and FC in samples taken from reservoirs used to store treated water was higher than that from taps midway along distribution lines. Among the treated water samples examined, coliform bacteria were found in 171 of the 1,033 sampling reservoirs. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient treatment or regrowth is suggested by the observation that more than 17% of these treated potable water contained coliform. TC and FC positive samples appear to be similar and seasonally influenced in treated water. Two different periods must be considered for the occurrence of both TC and FC positive samples: (i a warm-weather period (September-March with high percentage of contaminated samples; and (ii cold-weather period (April-August were they are lower. Both TC and TF positive samples declined with the decreased of water temperature.

  12. Stormwater management impacts on urban stream water quality and quantity during and after development in Clarksburg, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, J. V.; Noe, G. B.; Jarnagin, S.; Mohamoud, Y. M.; Van Ness, K.; Hogan, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization and urban land use leads to degradation of local stream habitat and 'urban stream syndrome.' Best Management Practices (BMPs) are often used in an attempt to mitigate the impact of urban land use on stream water quality and quantity. Traditional development has employed stormwater BMPs that were placed in a centralized manner located either in the stream channel or near the riparian zone to treat stormwater runoff from large drainage areas; however, urban streams have largely remained impaired. Recently, distributed placement of BMPs throughout the landscape has been implemented in an attempt to detain, treat, and infiltrate stormwater runoff from smaller drainage areas near its source. Despite increasing implementation of distributed BMPs, little has been reported on the catchment-scale (1-10 km^2) performance of distributed BMPs and how they compare to centralized BMPs. The Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA), located in the Washington, DC exurbs within the larger Chesapeake Bay watershed, is undergoing rapid urbanization and employs distributed BMPs on the landscape that treat small drainage areas with the goal of preserving high-quality stream resources in the area. In addition, the presence of a nearby traditionally developed (centralized BMPs) catchment and an undeveloped forested catchment makes the CSPA an ideal setting to understand how the best available stormwater management technology implemented during and after development affects stream water quality and quantity through a comparative watershed analysis. The Clarksburg Integrated Monitoring Partnership is a consortium of local and federal agencies and universities that conducts research in the CSPA including: monitoring of stream water quality, geomorphology, and biology; analysis of stream hydrological and water quality data; and GIS mapping and analysis of land cover, elevation change and BMP implementation data. Here, the impacts of urbanization on stream water quantity, geomorphology, and biology during development while implementing advanced sediment and erosion control BMPs are discussed. Also, effects of centralized versus distributed stormwater BMPs and land cover on stream water quantity and quality following suburban development are presented. This includes stream response to precipitation events, baseflow and stormflow export of water, and water chemistry data. Results from this work have informed land use planning at the local level and are being incorporated through adaptive management to maintain the high-quality stream resources in the CSPA. More generally, results from this work could inform urban development stakeholders on effective strategies to curtail urban stream syndrome.

  13. Sustainable urban environmental quality

    OpenAIRE

    Toškovi? Dobrivoje

    2004-01-01

    MEANING as the essential element of urban quality. The role of the three main factors for the urban quality achievement: PLANNING, DEVELOPMENT and PEOPLE. Next to that, it is important to assume the identity of the local CONTEXT as the essential base for designing and shaping of form development. The problems of the quality achievements in the situation of the permanent changes. In such an environment - the RENEWAL of the towns become the basic strategic orientation requiring - evaluation of ...

  14. Sidestream Elevated Pool Aeration, a Technology for Improving Water Quality in Urban Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, D.; Garcia, T.; Abad, J. D.; Bombardelli, F. A.; Waratuke, A.; Garcia, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    Dissolved Oxygen (DO) levels are frequently depleted in rivers located in urban areas, as in the case of the Matanza-Riachuelo River in Buenos Aires, Argentina. This stream receives both domestic and industrial loads which have received minor or no treatment before being discharged into the water body. Major sources of pollution include, but are not limited, to leather and meat packing industries. Additionally, deep slow moving water in the river is associated with limited reaeration and facilitates deposition of organic-rich sediment, therefore exacerbating the DO consumption through sediment oxygen demand. In this study we assessed the efficiency of Sidestream Elevated Pool Aeration (SEPA) stations as a technology for alleviating conditions characterized by severely low DO levels. A SEPA station takes water from the stream at low DO concentrations, through a screw pump; then, water is transported to an elevated pool from where it flows over a series of weirs for water reaeration; finally, the aerated water is discharged back into the river sufficiently downstream from the intake point. This system mimics a phenomenon that occurs in mountain streams, where water is purified by bubbling over rocks. The impact of the use of SEPA stations on the DO concentrations in the Matanza-Riachuelo River was evaluated at both local and reach scales: this was done by deploying and monitoring an in situ pilot SEPA station, and by performing numerical modeling for the evaluation of the hydrodynamics in the SEPA station and the water quality in the reach where SEPA stations are planned to be implemented. An efficiency of aeration of 99% was estimated from DO measurements in the pilot SEPA, showing the potential of this technology for DO recovery in urban streams. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling, besides assisting in the design of the pilot SEPA, has allowed for designing a prototype SEPA to be built soon. Finally, one-dimensional water quality modeling has provided the optimum number of SEPA stations required to meet a minimum DO concentration standard of 2 mg/l along the whole reach of interest, for future implementation of other SEPA stations, which would have an additional value in terms of landscape aesthetics as they can be used as recreational waterfall parks.

  15. Effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek, Indianapolis, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the effects of combined-sewer overflows (CSO's) and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek during summer 1987 by comparing the water quality of base flow with that of storm runoff and by comparing water quality in the urbanized area with that in the less urbanized area upstream from the CSO's. Data were collected at three streamflow-gaging stations located upstream from, downstream from, and in the middle of 27 CSO's on Fall Creek. The most downstream station also was immediately downstream from the discharge of filter backwash from a water-treatment plant for public supply. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen measured at the station in the middle of the CSO's were less than the Indiana minimum ambient water-quality standard of 4.0 mg/L during all storms. Concentra- tions of ammonia, oxygen demand, copper, lead, zinc, and fecal coliform bacteria at the stations down- stream from the CSO's were much larger during runoff than during base flow. Increased concentrations of oxygen demand in storm runoff probably were caused by combined-sewer overflows, urban runoff, and the resuspension of organic material deposited on the streambed. Some of the increased concentrations of lead, zinc, and probably copper can be attributed to the discharge and resuspension of material back- washed from filters at the water-treatment plant.

  16. Microbiological water quality in urban coastal beaches: the influence of water dynamics and optimization of the sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordalo, Adriano A

    2003-07-01

    In the summer 2001, the microbiological water quality of two contiguous urban coastal beaches (Porto, Portugal) was surveyed for 18 consecutive days. The sampling strategy consisted in sampling surface water in early morning, noon and afternoon. A total of 184 samples were processed at Pastoras beach, a confined area between two jetties, and Ourigo Beach more open to the ocean. At the first beach site, all samples exceeded fecal contamination above guide values (GV) and 82.6% above mandatory values (MV) set out in the EU Bathing Water Directive; whereas at Pastoras Beach, the figures were 93.5% for GV and 26.1% for MV, showing a potential health risk. The periodicity of fecal indicators in raw sewage, the tidal status and wind conditions dramatically influenced the water quality. The quality decreased in the morning regardless of tide conditions, but improved subsequently during the day, particularly during high tide and under the influence of afternoon NW winds. These dynamics are incompatible with the fortnight routine sampling according to the recommendations of the EU Bathing Water Directive, and the strategy should be revised on a beach-to-beach basis, having in mind the profile for the coastal zone. PMID:14509711

  17. Spatio-temporal variability of surface water quality of fresh water resources in Ranchi Urban Agglomeration, India using geospatial techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arvind Chandra; Kumar, Amit

    2015-03-01

    Study was conducted in Ranchi Urban Agglomeration (RUA) to assess the surface water quality of major rivers and reservoirs during pre- and post-monsoon periods. Study indicated increase in chemical contaminants and decrease in biological contaminants during monsoon periods and a positive correlation with built-up land within the catchment of surface water sources. The remote sensing-based approach indicated Swarnrekha river and tributaries as more encroached by built-up land (0.73 km2 within 50 m buffer) than Jumar river and its tributaries (0.21 km2). For the proper management of the surface water sources in RUA, government attention and interventions are required to minimize the contamination and safeguard the health of local residents.

  18. Assessment of anthropogenic influences on surface water quality in urban estuary, northern New Jersey: multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin Y; Artigas, Francisco; Hobble, Christine; Lee, Yung-Seop

    2013-03-01

    Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe, and Zn), nutrients (NO (3) (-) and NH(3)), fecal coliform colonies, and other multiple physical-chemical parameters were measured seasonally from 12 locations in an urban New Jersey estuary between 1994 and 2008. Stepwise regression, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis were used to group water quality results and sampling locations, as well as to assess these data's relationship to sewage treatment effluents and the distance to the mouth of the river. The BOD(5), NH(3), NO (3) (-) and fecal coliform counts clustered as one group and positively correlated to the distances from treated effluent and the measures of magnitude at the discharge points. Dissolved solids and most metal species scored high along a single principal component axes and were significantly correlated with the proximity to the industrialized area. From these data, one can conclude that the effluent discharge has been a main source of anthropogenic input to the Hackensack River over the past 15 years. Therefore, the greatest improvement to water quality would come from eliminating the few remaining combined sewer overflows and improving the removal of nutrients from treated effluents before they are discharged into the creeks and river. PMID:22773080

  19. Evaluation of water quality in the Rimac River Basin of Peru: Huaycoloro urban subbasin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeón Quispe, W.; Vela Cardich, R.; Huamán Paredes, F.

    2013-05-01

    In Peru, the increasing water scarcity and quality deterioration caused public health problems and deterioration of ecosystems that are exacerbated during periods of drought. The most populated basin is the Rimac River which rises in the Andes, between 4000 and 6000 meters and flow into the Pacific Ocean. This basin has pollution problems and a clear example is the Huaycoloro urban subbasin that originated in 2005, the creation of multi-sectoral technical committee for the recovery of health and environmental quality of the Huaycoloro subbasin (DIGESA, 2006a). The objective of this work is the need to generate and evaluate information on water quality in the Huaycoloro subbasin, quantifying physicochemical and microbiological parameters in four monitoring stations for a period from October 1, 2006 to April 24, 2010. The monitoring was conducted in the dry season because the Huaycoloro subbasin is a dry riverbed and therefore this is the critical period for evaluation. Initially samples were taken every two weeks during the months of October and November 2006. In 2007 were sampled monthly in April, June and September. In the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 surveys were conducted once a year, in the months of October, May and April respectively. Wide variations in the results of the various parameters analyzed in each of the stations mainly be explained by differences in the frequency of discharge of domestic and industrial effluent without prior treatment, effluent turn change in quantity and quality according to the various processes associated with each activity. Domestic effluents from populations that do not have sewer, industrial effluents from tannery correspond to activities, laundry, dairy, brewing and other. During field trips, we could be determined, in some instances, significant changes in water quality in a short period of time (one hour or less), manifested by changes in color fluctuations of water and the solids content in suspension. We obtained total chromium present in concentrations which in some cases exceeds the regulated value (0.043, 0.25, 0.067 and 0.080 mg/l for ES-1, ES-2, ES-3 and ES-4, respectively). This behavior is explained especially by effluent discharges tannery activities carried out in the study area. The relationship BOD5/COD in all cases where it has been determined is less than 0.2 or exceeds narrowly except values 0.51 and 0.74 corresponding to the second sampling 2007 to IS -1 and the sampling of 2008 for ES-3. The relationship between the COD and BOD5 gives an idea of the nature of the organic pollutants contained in the water (Orozco et al, 2003). Thus, these results are located generally below or slightly above 0.2, indicates that the compounds organics in the different sampling stations are predominantly non-biodegradable organic in nature. This study indicates that the Huaycoloro urban subbasin is being highly impacted by domestic and industrial discharges so it is necessary to strengthen environmental management mechanisms to improve its environmental quality with the participation of all actors involved in this water resources.

  20. Integration of Drainage, Water Quality and Flood Management in Rural, Urban and Lowland Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Vlotman, W. F.; Wong, T.; Schultz, E.

    2007-01-01

    Managing drainage in rural and peri-urban environments has become an essential part of integrated water management. Drainage has become a science of control, storage and (re)use while meeting triple bottom-line requirements (environment, social and economic assessments). Controlled drainage in rural settings aims at maintaining a groundwater table regime that will provide adequate rootzone aeration and soil salinity control but will not remove or use more water than necessary. In urban and pe...

  1. Microbiological quality of water from hand-dug wells used for domestic purposes in urban communities in Kumasi, Ghana.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akple, M.; Keraita, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Assessment was done on the microbiological quality of water in hand-dug wells in urban communities in Kumasi, Ghana. A total of 256 water samples were taken from eight wells and examined for faecal coliforms, enterococci and helminths. High contamination levels were recorded in the wells, more so in the wet season, with faecal coliforms levels between 6.44 and 10.19 log units and faecal enterococci between 4.23 and 4.85 CFU per 100 ml. Influence on protection and lining of wells on water quality was not pronounced but mechanization reduced contamination significantly by about 3 log units. This study shows a stronger influence of poor sanitation and improper placement of wells on water quality compared to improvements made from lining and protection of wells. In the race to increase access to drinking water in poor urban settlements, quality of groundwater could be a major barrier, if provision of drinking water is not matched with improvements in sanitation and urban planning

  2. Usage of biotic indices in evaluating the impact of the urban centres on the quality of the water in rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Sinitean

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the river waters of the Cri?ul Repede River and the influence of the powerful urban and industrial centre Oradeaupon these have been studied by means of collecting quantitative samples of benthos, for three consecutive years, in a seasonal manner. Thecalculation of the biotic indices that consider the abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates indicating the presence of high qualitative waters(Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera and of those indicating strong loading of the waters and of the under layer of the water ecosystemwith organic matter (Diptera – Chironomidae Family, highlighted an advanced degradation of the water quality, from the upstream towardsthe downstream. Equally, the intensity of the process of degradation of the water quality has been established, which, in the case of this river,is very strong and visible by the increasing prevalence of groups that do not require special ecological conditions, proving to be resistive andeven proliferating in the presence of intense pollution of the water.

  3. Monitoring Urban River Water Quality Using Macroinvertebrate and Physico-Chemical Parameters: Case study of Penchala River, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Abas Kutty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study have been carried on urban river, Sungai Penchala to assess the river water quality by using benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicator and also standard Department of Environment (DOE water quality measurement for physical-chemical analysis of Water Quality Index (WQI. Sampling for benthic macroinvertebrate and water sample was done on 3 sampling sites, named upstream (S1, middle stream (S2 and downstream (S3. The benthic macroinvertebrate sampling was done in the same day at the same place the water samples were collected in 5 replicates, while the water samples were collected in 3 replicates for each river section. The benthic macroinvertebrates was sampled using Surber’s net and water measurement for dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and conductivity was measured in-situ using HYDROLAB Quanta®, multi-parameter water quality instrument. Collected water sample was transferred to laboratory for measurement of total suspended solid, BOD5, chemical oxygen demand and ammoniacal nitrogen. The result from the assessment show that Sungai Penchala is classified as having good water quality on the upstream section but the water quality distorted in the middle and downstream section based on WQI and BMWP score. Non-parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis test show that most water parameter are significantly differ among river section (p>0.05, ? = 0.05.

  4. Real time monitoring of urban surface water quality using a submersible, tryptophan-like fluorescence sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Kieran; Bradley, Chris; Hannah, David; Stevens, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Due to the recent development of field-deployable optical sensor technology, continuous quantification and characterization of surface water dissolved organic matter (DOM) is possible now. Tryptophan-like (T1) fluorescence has the potential to be a particularly useful indicator of human influence on water quality as T1 peaks are associated with the input of labial organic carbon (e.g. sewage or farm waste) and its microbial breakdown. Hence, real-time recording of T1 fluorescence could be particular useful for monitoring waste water infrastructure, treatment efficiency and the identification of contamination events at higher temporal resolution than available hitherto. However, an understanding of sensor measurement repeatability/transferability and interaction with environmental parameters (e.g. turbidity) is required. Here, to address this practical knowledge gap, we present results from a rigorous test of a commercially available submersible tryptophan fluorometer (?ex 285, ?em 350). Sensor performance was first examined in the laboratory by incrementally increasing turbidity under controlled conditions. Further to this the sensor was integrated into a multi-parameter sonde and field tests were undertaken involving: (i) a spatial sampling campaign across a range of surface water sites in the West Midlands, UK; and (ii) collection of high resolution (sub-hourly) samples from an urban stream (Bournbrook, Birmingham, U.K). To determine the ability of the sensor to capture spatiotemporal dynamics of urban waters DOM was characterized for each site or discrete time step using Excitation Emission Matrix spectroscopy and PARAFAC. In both field and laboratory settings fluorescence intensity was attenuated at high turbidity due to suspended particles increasing absorption and light scattering. For the spatial survey, instrument readings were compared to those obtained by a laboratory grade fluorometer (Varian Cary Eclipse) and a strong, linear relationship was apparent (R2 > 0.7). Parallel water sampling and laboratory analysis identified the potential for correction of T1 fluorescence intensity based on turbidity readings. These findings highlight the potential utility of real time monitoring of T1 fluorescence for a range of environmental applications (e.g. monitoring sewage treatment processes and tracing polluting DOM sources). However, if high/variable suspended sediment loads are anticipated concurrent monitoring of turbidity is required for accurate readings.

  5. Usage of biotic indices in evaluating the impact of the urban centres on the quality of the water in rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Sinitean; Milca Petrovici

    2012-01-01

    The quality of the river waters of the Cri?ul Repede River and the influence of the powerful urban and industrial centre Oradeaupon these have been studied by means of collecting quantitative samples of benthos, for three consecutive years, in a seasonal manner. Thecalculation of the biotic indices that consider the abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates indicating the presence of high qualitative waters(Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) and of those indicating strong loading of th...

  6. The influence of land use on water quality and diatom community structures in urban and agriculturally stressed rivers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G, Walsh; V, Wepener.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Epilithic diatom communities offer a holistic and integrated approach for assessing water quality as they remain in one place for a number of months and reflect an ecological memory of water quality over a period of time. The objective of this study is to use diatom assemblages to distinguish betwee [...] n particular land types and associated water quality impacts that are linked to these land-use patterns. Water quality and diatom community data were collected from sites in the Crocodile and Magalies Rivers (Gauteng and North West Province, South Africa) associated with agricultural, urban and natural (reference) adjacent land use respectively. The data collected were subjected to multivariate statistical techniques to analyse spatial and temporal patterns in water quality (principal component analysis) and diatom community structures (non-metric multidimensional scaling) to elucidate hypothesised differences in community structure per land-use type. Five diatom response indices (Generic Diatom Index, Specific Pollution Sensitivity Index, Biological Diatom Index, Eutrophication/Pollution Index and Percentage Pollution Tolerant Valves) incorporated in the OMNIDIA software were implemented to assess the integrity of diatom communities per land-use type. Principle component ordination of water quality describes 56.6% of the variation in data observed, and indicates the separation of reference sites from test sites for low and high flow conditions combined. It was, however, not possible to distinguish between the agricultural and urban land-use sites using PCA based on water quality data. One-way ANOSIM showed a significant difference (p 0.05) between groups made up of sites exhibiting the same land-use patterns. Diatom indices showed that agricultural sites were in a slightly more modified ecological state than urban sites overall. Based on the species similarity (SIMPER analyses), reference sites showed strong associations with Achnanthes minutissima, Gomphonema venusta and Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta, whilst urban sites were associated with Diatoma vulgaris, Navicula tripunctata and Amphora pediculus. Agriculture could be separated into high- and low-intensity practices based on species composition. Sites where high-intensity agriculture took place were dominated by motile species of the genus Nitzschia, and low-intensity agriculture was indicated by motile species of the genus Navicula. Urban sites contained a combination of species that were tolerant of spikes in water quality.

  7. Water Quality Modeling of an Urbanizing Catchment: Model Compatibility and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J. M.; Endreny, T. A.

    2001-12-01

    Predicted pollutant loads and discharge for a variety of storms from the highly parameterized HSPF watershed model were compared with the same from a storm sewer based model. WinHSPF, is the latest USEPA effort to simulate point and nonpoint sources with land uses, while the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) has also seen feature and process upgrades from public and private users. Although WinHSPF is highly parameterized, it lacks some features of urban catchments, such as storm sewer networks, that are present in the SWMM simulations. The different nature of these models and of their water quality segments might justify their combined use in mixed-use watersheds with both overland and storm sewer flow paths. SWMM can use build-up/wash-off or Event Mean Concentration (EMC) loading processes, while WinHSPF is also able to use a suite of nutrient routines accounting for pollutant generation. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of integrating the models and possibly calibrating WinHSPF overland flow and loading processes with SWMM simulation output.

  8. Characterization and modeling of urban environmental quality indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco de Assis Cruz Melo; Mariko Ueno

    2013-01-01

    Environmental problems in the urban area of Belém, Pará, Brazil, deny a large portion of the population critical environmental quality. The present study evaluated the environmental quality of the urban village of União, in a neighborhood called Terra Firme, Belém, Pará. An integrated urban environmental quality index was proposed, based on the modeling of indicators of urban environmental quality, urban livability and quality of treated water. These three indices encompass the variables...

  9. Water quality-based real time control of integrated urban drainage: a preliminary study from Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Lund Christensen, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Global Real Time Control (RTC) of urban drainage systems is increasingly seen as cost-effective solution for responding to increasing performance demands. This study investigated the potential for including water-quality based RTC into the global control strategy which is under implementation in the Lynetten catchment (Copenhagen, Denmark). Two different strategies were simulated, considering: (i) water quality at the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) inlet and (ii) pollution discharge to the bathing areas. These strategies were included in the Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) RTC strategy, which allows for prioritization of the discharge points in the systems according to their sensitivity. A conceptual hydrological model was used to assess the performance of the integrated control strategy over an entire year. The simulation results showed the benefits of the proposed approaches in reducing Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) loads at the WWTP inlet and in an upstream location discharging to sensitive bathing waters for medium CSO events (i.e. those with greater potential for control). Furthermore, when looking at the overall performance across the entire catchment during the simulation period, no significant changes were observed. These preliminary results require further analysis by including detailed water quality measurements and simulations. Nevertheless, the potential for including water-quality RTC in global RTC schemes was unveiled, providing a further option to urban water managers to improve the performance of their systems.

  10. EVALUATION OF STREAMBANK RESTORATION ON IN-STREAM WATER QUALITY IN AN URBAN WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this on-going project are to: investigate the effectiveness of streambank restoration techniques on increasing available biological habitat and improving in-stream water quality in an impaired stream; and, demonstrate the utility of continuous water-quality moni...

  11. Integrated assessment of river water quality in contrasting catchments: Impact of urbanization on particle bound pollutant fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grathwohl, Peter; Ruegner, Hermann; Schwientek, Marc; Beckingham, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Water quality in rivers typically depends on the degree of urbanization or the population density in a catchment. Transport of many pollutants in rivers is coupled to transport of suspended particles, potentially dominated by storm water overflows and mobilization of legacy contamination of sediments. Concentration of pollutants strongly sorbed to suspended particles cannot be diluted by water directly, but depends on the mixture of "polluted" urban and "clean" background particles. In the current study, the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the amount of total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity were measured on a monthly basis in water samples from 5 neighbouring catchments with contrasting land use in Southwest Germany over 1.5 years. In addition, single flood events with large changes in turbidity were sampled at high temporal resolution. Linear correlations of turbidity and TSS where obtained over all catchments investigated. From linear regressions of turbidity vs. total PAH concentrations in water, robust mean concentrations of PAHs on suspended particles could be obtained, which were distinct for each catchment depending on urban influence. PAH concentrations on suspended particles were stable over a large turbidity range (up to 900 NTU) confirmed by samples taken during flood events. No pronounced effects due to changing particle size or origin have been observed for the catchments investigated (PAHs in water samples vs. turbidity thus comprises a robust measure of the average sediment quality in a given catchment and this correlates to the degree of urbanization represented by the number of inhabitants per total flux of suspended particles. The findings are very promising for other particle-bound contaminant fluxes (PCBs, phosphorus, etc.) and in terms of on-line monitoring of turbidity as a proxy for pollution.

  12. Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is in that water that you just drank? Is it just hydrogen and oxygen atoms? Is it safe for drinking? All water is of a certain "quality" (and you can't tell by just looking), but what does "water quality" really mean? Water full of dirt and ...

  13. Hydrology and water quality of an urban stream reach in the Great Basin--Little Cottonwood Creek near Salt Lake City, Utah, water years 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Steven J.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    2003-01-01

    The hydrology and water quality of an urbanized reach of Little Cottonwood Creek near Salt Lake City, Utah, were examined as part of the Great Salt Lake Basins study, part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program. Physical and chemical properties of the stream were referenced to established aquatic-life criteria as available. Two fixed sampling sites were established on Little Cottonwood Creek with the purpose of determining the influence of urbanization on the water quality of the stream. The fixed-site assessment is a component of the National Water-Quality Assessment surface-water study design used to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of selected water-quality constituents. The occurrence and distribution of major ions, nutrients, trace elements, dissolved and suspended organic carbon, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and suspended sediment were monitored during this study. From October 1998 to September 2000, stream samples were collected at regular intervals at the two fixed sites. Additional samples were collected at these sites during periods of high flow, which included runoff from snowmelt in the headwaters and seasonal thunderstorms in the lower basin.

  14. WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR REDIU, CACAINA AND CIRIC RIVER IN URBAN AREA OF IASI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana – Maria Oi?te

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Typically, reports on surface water quality include useful information for people, but the language used addresses rather specialists, which leaded to develop an mathematically index, like water quality index (WQI, very useful and efficient for assessing the suitability of water quality as well as for communicating theinformation to the concerned citizens and policy makers. The present study assessed the surface water quality for three rivers from northern part of Iasi city based on WQI. These water courses were not included into monitoring program, the area being highly populated, the citizens wishing to know the real state of the surface water resources in the area they live. For reaching this goal, there have been collected 19 samples, in June 2011, analysed in situ and in the laboratory. For the WQI were used six parameters (pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO, five days biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5,phosphates (PO4, nitrates (NO3. The results have been statistically processed. The result showed that the WQI for each parameter fit into good status for pH, bad status for turbidity and oxygen indicators, excellent for phosphates and bad status for nitrates in Ciric and Cacaina river and good status on Rediu river. General WQI fall in to medium status with variance between 53 for Ciric river and 67 for Rediu, with different values for eachmonitored point, Rediu being the only river that have two monitoring points that suit to good quality status.

  15. Drinking Water Quality Surveillance in a Vulnerable Urban Ward of Ahmedabad

    OpenAIRE

    Veena Iyer; Nandini Choudhury; Gulrez Shah Azhar; Bhushan Somvanshi

    2014-01-01

    The World Bank estimates that 21% of all communicable diseases in India are related to unsafe water with diarrhoea alone causing more than 0.1 million deaths annually. The WHO drinking water surveillance parameters of quality, quantity, accessibility, affordability and continuity were assessed in one vulnerable ward of Ahmedabad—a fast growing city in Western India. Interviews with key informants of the ward office, health centre and water supply department, secondary analysis and mapping o...

  16. Assessment of hydrochemical quality of ground water under some urban areas within sana'a secreteriat

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wadie S.T, AL- Ariqi; Abduljalil A.D.S, Ghaleb.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Groundwater from nine wells of three different districts, located at Sana'a secretariat was analyzed for hydrochemical quality assessment. Measurements of water quality parameters including pH, EC, CO3(2-), HCO3-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-), Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+, K+, and Na+ were carried out . Classification of [...] the groundwater samples according to Cl, SO4(2-), CO3(2-) and HCO3-, hardness (H), total dissolved solids (TDS), base-exchange, and meteoric genesis was demonstrated. Suitability of ground water samples for irrigation and industrial uses according to sodium adsorption ration (SAR), ratio of dissolved sodium (RDS), residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and saturation index (SI) was also investigated. The results of this study showed that almost all ground water samples were of good quality that makes them suitable for drinking and domestic uses. Results also indicated that even though some of the ground water samples were suitable for irrigation purposes, almost all of them were found not be good for industrial uses. Despite all drawbacks of the sewerage system built around Sana'a secretariat at the beginning of the first decade of the third millennium, the results of this study indicate that there is scope of significant improvement in Sana'a secretariat ground water quality.

  17. Understanding the relationships among phytoplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and water quality variables in peri-urban river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Uthpala; Maheshwari, Basant L; Morris, E Charles

    2014-12-01

    In this article, using the Hawkesbury-Nepean River as a case study, the spatial and temporal trends of water quality variables over three sampling surveys in a peri-urban situation are examined for their effect on benthic macroinvertebrate communities and phytoplankton communities and whether phytoplankton and benthic macroinvertebrate species can be used as indicators for river health assessment. For this, the authors monitored the spatial and temporal difference of 10 water quality parameters: temperature, turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, oxidation reduction potential, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, manganese, and suspended solids. The variability in water quality parameters clearly indicated a complex pattern, depending on the season (interaction p = 0.001), which highlighted how the river condition is stressed at multiple points as a result of anthropogenic effects. In particular, the downstream locations indicated an accumulation of nutrients, the presence of increased sediments, and phytoplankton related variables such as total counts, bio-volumes, chlorophyll-a, and total phosphorus. The patterns of phytoplankton communities varied in a complex way depending on the season (interaction p = 0.001). Abundances of phytoplankton were also found in low concentrations where the water column is not severely disturbed by flow and tide. However, when the water clarity drops resulting from tidal cycles, inflows from tributaries, and intense boating activities, the phytoplankton abundances also increased considerably. On the other hand, benthic macroinvertebrates compositions were significantly different between locations (p = 0.001) with increased abundances associated with upstream sites. Aphanocapsa holsatica and chironomid larvae appeared as the important indicators for upstream and downstream site differences in water quality. Water temperature influenced the phytoplankton community pattern (?(w) = 0.408), whereas pH influenced the benthic macroinvertebrate community pattern (?(w) = 0.437). The findings of this study provide valuable insights into the interactions of water quality parameters on biotic assemblages and to the extent that benthic macroinvertebrates and phytoplankton assemblages are suitable as indicators for monitoring and assessing peri-urban river health. PMID:25654930

  18. Water quality and health in a Sahelian semi-arid urban context: an integrated geographical approach in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Doulo; Sy, Ibrahima; Utzinger, Jürg; Epprecht, Michael; Kengne, Ives M; Lô, Baidy; Odermatt, Peter; Faye, Ousmane; Cissé, Guéladio; Tanner, Marcel

    2013-11-01

    Access to sufficient quantities of safe drinking water is a human right. Moreover, access to clean water is of public health relevance, particularly in semi-arid and Sahelian cities due to the risks of water contamination and transmission of water-borne diseases. We conducted a study in Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania, to deepen the understanding of diarrhoeal incidence in space and time. We used an integrated geographical approach, combining socio-environmental, microbiological and epidemiological data from various sources, including spatially explicit surveys, laboratory analysis of water samples and reported diarrhoeal episodes. A geospatial technique was applied to determine the environmental and microbiological risk factors that govern diarrhoeal transmission. Statistical and cartographic analyses revealed concentration of unimproved sources of drinking water in the most densely populated areas of the city, coupled with a daily water allocation below the recommended standard of 20 l per person. Bacteriological analysis indicated that 93% of the non-piped water sources supplied at water points were contaminated with 10-80 coliform bacteria per 100 ml. Diarrhoea was the second most important disease reported at health centres, accounting for 12.8% of health care service consultations on average. Diarrhoeal episodes were concentrated in municipalities with the largest number of contaminated water sources. Environmental factors (e.g. lack of improved water sources) and bacteriological aspects (e.g. water contamination with coliform bacteria) are the main drivers explaining the spatio-temporal distribution of diarrhoea. We conclude that integrating environmental, microbiological and epidemiological variables with statistical regression models facilitates risk profiling of diarrhoeal diseases. Modes of water supply and water contamination were the main drivers of diarrhoea in this semi-arid urban context of Nouakchott, and hence require a strategy to improve water quality at the various levels of the supply chain. PMID:24258883

  19. Quality assessment of urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsiannikova, T. Y.; Nikolaenko, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the research applicability of quality management problems of construction products. It is offered to expand quality management borders in construction, transferring its principles to urban systems as economic systems of higher level, which qualitative characteristics are substantially defined by quality of construction product. Buildings and structures form spatial-material basis of cities and the most important component of life sphere – urban environment. Authors justify the need for the assessment of urban environment quality as an important factor of social welfare and life quality in urban areas. The authors suggest definition of a term "urban environment". The methodology of quality assessment of urban environment is based on integrated approach which includes the system analysis of all factors and application of both quantitative methods of assessment (calculation of particular and integrated indicators) and qualitative methods (expert estimates and surveys). The authors propose the system of indicators, characterizing quality of the urban environment. This indicators fall into four classes. The authors show the methodology of their definition. The paper presents results of quality assessment of urban environment for several Siberian regions and comparative analysis of these results.

  20. Water Quality of Urban Streams: The Allium cepa Seeds/Seedlings Test as a Tool for Surface Water Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanásio, Camila Gonçalves; Prá, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the genotoxic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of surface waters in urban streams using Allium cepa and analyzes the applicability of this assay for environmental monitoring. Water samples were collected from three streams located in the urban area of a municipality in the south of Brazil. For each stream, two samples were collected, one upstream and one downstream of the pollution discharge site. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that all samples had various degrees of environmental impact, but substantial impact was seen for the downstream samples of the Preto and Pedras streams. All samples increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (P < 0.05). The sample from Pedras downstream site also caused a decrease in mitotic index (P < 0.08) and increase in micronuclei (P < 0.08) frequency, indicating potential cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. The Pedras stream receives mixed industrial and urban wastewater, while the Lajeado and Preto streams receive wastewater predominantly domestic in nature, which may partially explain the difference in toxicity among the samples. Moreover, the Allium cepa seeds/seedlings were shown to be extremely sensitive in detecting the genotoxicity of environmental water samples and can be applied as the first tool for environmental health hazard identification and prediction. PMID:25574484

  1. Urban Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Urban Water Resources Management Web site is maintained by the Global Development Research Center. The center "carries out initiatives in education, research and practice, in the spheres of environment, urban, community, economy and information, and at scales that are effective." The site contains information and links to topics such as understanding the importance of water; organizations and institutions; documents and information repositories; initiatives, programs, and projects; and more.

  2. Low impact urban design by closing the urban water cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo Vera, C. M.; Mels, A. R.; Keesman, K. J.; Rijnaarts, H. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Current fast urbanization and increasing quality of life result in increments on resources’ demand. Increasing resources demand implies as well increments on waste production. However, limited availability of resources such us: oil, fresh water, phosphorus, metals (Boyle et al., 2010, Gordon et al., 2006; Rockström et al., 2009) and limited earth’s productive and carrying capacity (Rees, 1999) are potential restrictions to urban growth and urban sustainability. These pressures, ...

  3. Impact of rainfall on the hygienic quality of blue mussels and water in urban areas in the Inner Oslofjord, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, Ingun; Myrmel, Mette; Østensvik, Øyvin; Wennberg, Aina C; Robertson, Lucy J

    2014-08-15

    The effects of precipitation on the hygienic quality of water and blue mussels collected from five different localities in the urban areas in the Inner Oslofjord were investigated, with samples analysed for Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., pathogenic Vibrio spp., Norovirus, Sapovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis. The sampling sites were located at varying distances from the outlet of combined sewer overflows (CSO)-impacted rivers/streams. In general, 1-3 log?? increases in fecal indicator bacteria and human pathogens were observed after heavy rainfalls. Blue mussels appeared to be a useful indicator of the impact of sewage at these sites, and generally a good correlation was identified between concentrations of E. coli and other human pathogens in the mussels. Provision of general advice to the public of avoiding areas near the outlets of CSO-impacted rivers after heavy rainfall may reduce the risk of gastroenteritis by bathers and others that may swallow water during recreational activities. PMID:24998797

  4. Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-peng Qin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1 the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2 administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3 the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4 planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development.

  5. Spatial changes in water quality of urban lakes in Chennai (India)--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveen, R; Daniel, M

    2010-07-01

    Manifold increase in population of Chennai city (India) has resulted in a rapid decrease in the groundwater level due to its over exploitation. The Government of Tamil Nadu has been exploring various ways and means to combat this problem. The present study was undertaken to assess the quality of water in three important major lakes of Chennai and its suburbs such as Porur lake, Puzhal lake and Chembarambakkam lake which recharge the groundwater as well as these lakes are harnessed by the Tamil Nadu Government to supply potable water to the residents of Chennai. The parameters studied were colour, odour, taste, turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, alkalinity, acidity, chlorides, Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solids and total hardness. Results indicate that the quality of water from these lakes is within the acceptable values. However, the TDS values were on the higher side in all the three lakes even though within the permissible limit prescribed by BIS. All the three lakes appear to be vulnerable to pollution as they are situated within or in close proximity to heavily populated areas. PMID:21391401

  6. Valuing water quality in urban watersheds: A comparative analysis of Johnson Creek, Oregon, and Burnt Bridge Creek, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netusil, Noelwah R.; Kincaid, Michael; Chang, Heejun

    2014-05-01

    This study uses the hedonic price method to investigate the effect of five water quality parameters on the sale price of single-family residential properties in two urbanized watersheds in the Portland, Oregon-Vancouver, Washington metropolitan area. Water quality parameters include E. coli or fecal coliform, which can affect human health, decrease water clarity and generate foul odors; pH, dissolved oxygen, and stream temperature, which can impact fish and wildlife populations; and total suspended solids, which can affect water clarity, aquatic life, and aesthetics. Properties within ¼ mile, ½, mile, one mile, or more than one mile from Johnson Creek are estimated to experience an increase in sale price of 13.71%, 7.05%, 8.18%, and 3.12%, respectively, from a one mg/L increase in dissolved oxygen levels during the dry season (May-October). Estimates for a 100 count per 100 mL increase in E. coli during the dry season are -2.81% for properties within ¼ mile of Johnson Creek, -0.86% (½ mile), -1.19% (one mile), and -0.71% (greater than one mile). Results for properties in Burnt Bridge Creek include a significantly positive effect for a one mg/L increase in dissolved oxygen levels during the dry season for properties within ½ mile (4.49%), one mile (2.95%), or greater than one mile from the creek (3.17%). Results for other water quality parameters in Burnt Bridge Creek are generally consistent with a priori expectations. Restoration efforts underway in both study areas might be cost justified based on their estimated effect on property sale prices.

  7. A WATER QUALITY INDEX APPROACH TO APPRAISE TEMPORAL VARIATION AND HEAVY METAL ACCUMULATION IN URBAN STORM WATER FLOW WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON IRRIGATION UTILITY, CHANDIGARH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Sidhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work has been done to evaluate and classify the water quality of a storm water rivulet (N-Choe, flowing through the heavily urbanized areas of the city Chandigarh for irrigation purposes, by using the model of irrigation water quality index (IWQI developed in Brazil by Meireles et al. (2010. N-Choe which drains the major parts of the city was chosen as the study area to understand the water quality index approach during pre monsoon and post monsoon periods, as water of the N choe receiving toxic effluents from the industrial and residential areas of the city is being utilized by the farmers of the adjacent villages to grow crops. The results showed that the value of IWQI ranged between 70-85 for both the seasons thus falls under the ‘Low restriction’ category for irrigation purposes. Water in this category should be used in the soils with light texture or moderate permeability and should be avoided in soils with high clay. The study area witnessed heavy textured soil indicating that this water which was used for irrigation purpose was potentially leading to the sodicity problem in the area under investigation. The metal concentration in the samples taken from the study area showed the trend of Fe>Ni>Mn>Cd thus showed a severe drop in the water quality. Sodium absorption ratio (SAR, Residual sodium carbonate (RSC, Percent Sodium (% Na, Permeability Index (PI, and Kelly’s Index (KI was calculated for better understanding the suitability of water quality for irrigation purposes.

  8. Human factors and tidal influences on water quality of an urban river in Can Tho, a major city of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Hirokazu; Co, Thi Kinh; Le, Anh Kha; Pham, Viet Nu; Nguyen, Van Be; Tarao, Mitsunori; Nguyen, Huu Chiem; Le, Viet Dung; Nguyen, Hieu Trung; Sagehashi, Masaki; Ninomiya-Lim, Sachi; Gomi, Takashi; Hosomi, Masaaki; Takada, Hideshige

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we focused on water quality in an urban canal and the Mekong River in the city of Can Tho, a central municipality of the Mekong Delta region, southern Vietnam. Water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, BOD5, CODCr, Na(+), Cl(-), NH4 (+)-N, SO4 (2-)-S, NO3 (-)-N, and NO2 (-)-N for both canal and river, and tide level of the urban canal, were monitored once per month from May 2010 to April 2012. The urban canal is subject to severe anthropogenic contamination, owing to poor sewage treatment. In general, water quality in the canal exhibited strong tidal variation, poorer at lower tides and better at higher tides. Some anomalies were observed, with degraded water quality under some high-tide conditions. These were associated with flow from the upstream residential area. Therefore, it was concluded that water quality in the urban canal changed with a balance between dilution effects and extent of contaminant supply, both driven by tidal fluctuations in the Mekong River. PMID:24114277

  9. Improvement of urban lake water quality by removal of Escherichia coli through the action of the bivalve Anodonta californiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Niveen S; Dodd, Hanna; Sassoubre, Lauren M; Horne, Alexander J; Boehm, Alexandria B; Luthy, Richard G

    2015-02-01

    High levels of fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, can be indicative of poor water quality. The use of shellfish to reduce eutrophication has been proposed, but application of bivalves to reduce bacterial levels has not been extensively reported. Removal of E. coli by the native freshwater mussel Anodonta californiensis was studied using laboratory batch systems and field-based flow-through systems. Batch systems were utilized to determine the fate and inactivation of E. coli after uptake by the mussel. Batch experiments demonstrated that uptake patterns followed first order kinetics and E. coli was inactivated with less than 5% of the initial colonies recoverable in fecal matter or tissue. Flow-through systems located at an urban impaired lake in San Francisco, CA were utilized to determine uptake kinetics under environmentally relevant conditions. The bivalves maintained a 1-log removal of E. coli for the duration of exposure. The calculated uptake rates can be used in conjunction with hydrologic models to determine the number of bivalves needed to maintain removal of E. coli in different freshwater systems. The outcomes of this study support the use of native freshwater bivalves to achieve the co-benefits of rehabilitating a freshwater ecosystem and improving water quality via reduction of E. coli in contaminated freshwater systems. PMID:25587628

  10. Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Urban Growth Using Land Use/Land Cover, Water Quality and Health Indicators: A Case Study of Arequipa, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Carpio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This research assesses the direct effects of urban expansion on land cover/use, river flow, water quality and the indirect effects of these variables in the rate of gastrointestinal disease in people in Arequipa, Peru through the combined use of satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems. Approach: It also uses information about demographic changes, hydrologic data and land cover change in the Arequipa region for the last 17 years. The goal is to understand the relationship between urbanization, water quality in the Chili River and incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. Results: Landsat imagery was used to determine this relationship and to extrapolate business as usual trends into the future ten years from now. Results indicate that there has been notable urban growth and a loss in volcanic material land and cropland between 1990 and 2007, as new urban developments have appeared in these areas. The population expansion over volcanically active area is particularly troubling since it poses a potential human health risk. We also model a business as usual scenario out to the year 2020, which shows continued loss of these land use types and serves as a warning for land managers to consider alternate policies. Conclusion/Recommendations: The analysis also shows a direct correlation between urbanization with the decrease of water quality and the increase in the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases.

  11. Water and sediment quality, nutrient biochemistry and pollution loads in an urban freshwater lake: balancing human and ecological services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltham, Nathan J; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda; McCann, Damian; Eyre, Bradley D

    2014-12-01

    Optimizing the utility of constructed waterways as residential development with water-frontage, along with a productive and functional habitat for wildlife is of considerable interest to managers. This study examines Lake Hugh Muntz, a large (17 ha) freshwater lake built in Gold Coast City, Australia. A ten year water quality monitoring programme shows that the lake has increasing nutrient concentrations, and together with summer algal blooms, the lake amenity as a popular recreational swimming and triathlon training location is at risk. A survey of fish and aquatic plant communities showed that the lake supports a sub-set of species found in adjacent natural wetlands. Sediment contaminants were below the lower Australian trigger values, except As, Hg, Pb and Zn, probably a function of untreated and uncontrolled stormwater runoff from nearby urban roads. Sediment biogeochemistry showed early signs of oxygen depletion, and an increase in benthic organic matter decomposition and oxygen consumption will result in more nitrogen recycled to the water column as NH4(+) (increasing the intensity of summer algal blooms) and less nitrogen lost to the atmosphere as N2 gas via denitrification. A series of catchment restoration initiatives were modeled and the optimal stormwater runoff restoration effort needed for lake protection will be costly, particularly retrospective, as is the case here. Overall, balancing the lifestyles and livelihoods of residents along with ecosystem protection are possible, but require considerable trade-offs between ecosystem services and human use. PMID:25384753

  12. Urban sustainability and integrated urban water management

    OpenAIRE

    Vladut-Severian Iacob

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to point out the features of cities and sustainable urban development, integrated management of water resources and the relationship between them, the basic principles and the advantages of their application in future sustainable development of cities. The method is based on the analysis of bibliographical information relating to sustainable urban development.

  13. Primer on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water quality. What do we mean by "water quality"? Water quality can be thought of as a measure ... as birds. How do natural processes affect water quality? Natural water quality varies from place to place, with the ...

  14. Accounting for uncertainty in evaluating water quality impacts of urban development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of urban development plans causes land use change, which can have significant environmental impacts. In light of this, environmental concerns should be considered sufficiently at an early stage of the planning process. However, uncertainties existing in urban development plans hamper the application of strategic environmental assessment, which is applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of policies, plans and programs. This study develops an integrated assessment method based on accounting uncertainty of environmental impacts. And the proposed method consists of four main steps: (1) designing scenarios of economic scale and industrial structure, (2) sampling for possible land use layouts, (3) evaluating each sample's environmental impact, and (4) identifying environmentally sensitive industries. In doing so, uncertainties of environmental impacts can be accounted. Then environmental risk, overall environmental pressure and potential extreme environmental impact of urban development plans can be analyzed, and environmentally sensitive factors can be identified, especially under considerations of uncertainties. It can help decision-makers enhance environmental consideration and take measures in the early stage of decision-making.

  15. Urban air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. led growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate more traffic and may thus have the opposite effect. (author)

  16. Potential of simple filters to improve microbial quality of irrigation water used in urban vegetable farming in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Konradsen, Flemming; Vreugdenhil, Reinout C

    2008-06-01

    Irrigation water used for growing vegetables in urban areas in many low-income countries is contaminated with untreated wastewater. Many wastewater treatment methods are economically prohibitive and continued use of such irrigation water pose health risks for vegetable consumers and farmers. As part of a larger study on possible interventions for health risk reduction, the potential of simple interventions was explored. Column slow sand filters with three levels of sand depths (0.5 m, 0.75 m and 1 m) and fabric filters made of nylon, cotton and netting were assessed. More than 600 water samples were analyzed for helminth eggs and thermotolerant coliforms. Flow rates were also measured. From slow sand filters, 71-96% of helminths and 2 log units (from 7 to 5 log units) of thermotolerant coliforms were removed. Sand depths had no significant influence in the removal. Lower removal rates were achieved by fabric filters, with an average removal of 12-62% for helminth eggs and 1 log unit for thermotolerant coliforms. Nylon filters had higher removal rates especially for helminth eggs (58%). Average flow rates for sand filters were 3 m per day and fabric filters had steady flows of about 1.5 liters per second, but flow reduced with time in cotton filters. The simple filters tested improved the microbial quality of irrigation water and could easily be used in combination with other interventions to further reduce health risks. The unit cost of the filters tested also appear acceptable to farmers and some incentives like better prices will motivate many farmers to invest in such simple interventions. PMID:18444077

  17. Urbanization, Water Pollution, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, George W.; And Others

    Reviewed in this report is a study concerned with water pollution as it relates to urbanization within the Regional Plan Association's set of 21 contiguous New York, New Jersey and Connecticut counties centered upon the numerous bay and estuarial reaches of the Port of New York and New Jersey. With a time frame covering a decade of water quality

  18. Air quality and urban management in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, M. [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

  19. DSM in Urban Water Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Berhe Giday, Kahsay

    2006-01-01

    Meeting public water supply needs efficiently and sustainably in a rapidly urbanizing world is becoming an immense challenge to governments and utilities. Experience has shown that the supply side management approach to water governance has proven to be inadequate in meeting water demands of urban areas in a sustainable manner and protecting the environment. New water sources are not readily available as before for development. Moreover, environmental constraints, political as well as socio-e...

  20. Lake Jackson watershed study: description of sites, methodology and scope of research. [Impact of urbanization on water quality and geochemistry of watershed of recreational lake in north Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.R.; Burton, T.M.; Harriss, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    The Lake Jackson watershed study was undertaken to quantify changes in water quality and geochemical exports resulting from urbanization within the 11,900 hectare watershed of a recreational lake in north Florida. Three subbasins of 430, 611, and 792 hectares in size and otherwise similar in all respects except land-use were instrumented for intensive hydrologic and chemical monitoring during a two-year period (June 1973--May 1976). Two of these subbasins offered considerable contrast in major land use: rapidly developing urban versus stable forested-agricultural. The third subbasin was intermediate between these extremes of land use. The streams draining the subbasins were generally intermittent with respect to flow and thus major emphasis was placed on characterizing storm events. Hydrologic records for each water sampling station were studied and water samples were collected both manually and by automatic discrete samplers. Constituents measured included suspended solids, dissolved solids, chloride, dissolved silicon, and dissolved nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). The data obtained in this study are being used to identify and explore the hydrochemical consequences of urbanization on a small drainage basin scale.

  1. Simulating future trends in urban stormwater quality for changing climate, urban land use and environmental controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borris, Matthias; Viklander, Maria; Gustafsson, Anna-Maria; Marsalek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    The effects of climatic changes, progressing urbanization and improved environmental controls on the simulated urban stormwater quality in a northern Sweden community were studied. Future scenarios accounting for those changes were developed and their effects simulated with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). It was observed that the simulated stormwater quality was highly sensitive to the scenarios, mimicking progressing urbanization with varying catchment imperviousness and area. Thus, land use change was identified as one of the most influential factors and in some scenarios, urban growth caused changes in runoff quantity and quality exceeding those caused by a changing climate. Adaptation measures, including the reduction of directly connected impervious surfaces (DCIS) through the integration of more green spaces into the urban landscape, or disconnection of DCIS were effective in reducing runoff volume and pollutant loads. Furthermore, pollutant source control measures, including material substitution, were effective in reducing pollutant loads and significantly improving stormwater quality. PMID:24225112

  2. Urban air quality in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Mar (ed.) [Spanish Research Council - CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. for Environmental Assessment and Water Research

    2013-07-01

    This book provides an overview of air quality in urban environments in Europe, focusing on air pollutant emission sources and formation mechanisms, measurement and modeling strategies, and future perspectives. The emission sources described are biomass burning, vehicular traffic, industry and agriculture, but also African dust and long-range transport of pollutants across the European regions. The impact of these emission sources and processes on atmospheric particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen oxides and volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is discussed and critical areas for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in Europe are identified. Finally, this volume presents future perspectives, mainly regarding upcoming air quality monitoring strategies, metrics of interest, such as submicron and nanoparticles, and indoor and outdoor exposure scenarios.

  3. Developing a framework to assess the water quality and quantity impacts of climate change, shifting land use, and urbanization in a Midwestern agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loheide, S. P.; Booth, E. G.; Kucharik, C. J.; Carpenter, S. R.; Gries, C.; Katt-Reinders, E.; Rissman, A. R.; Turner, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    Dynamic hydrological processes play a critical role in the structure and functioning of agricultural watersheds undergoing urbanization. Developing a predictive understanding of the complex interaction between agricultural productivity, ecosystem health, water quality, urban development, and public policy requires an interdisciplinary effort that investigates the important biophysical and social processes of the system. Our research group has initiated such a framework that includes a coordinated program of integrated scenarios, model experiments to assess the effects of changing drivers on a broad set of ecosystem services, evaluations of governance and leverage points, outreach and public engagement, and information management. Our geographic focus is the Yahara River watershed in south-central Wisconsin, which is an exemplar of water-related issues in the Upper Midwest. This research addresses three specific questions. 1) How do different patterns of land use, land cover, land management, and water resources engineering practices affect the resilience and sensitivity of ecosystem services under a changing climate? 2) How can regional governance systems for water and land use be made more resilient and adaptive to meet diverse human needs? 3) In what ways are regional human-environment systems resilient and in what ways are they vulnerable to potential changes in climate and water resources? A comprehensive program of model experiments and biophysical measurements will be utilized to evaluate changes in five freshwater ecosystem services (flood regulation, groundwater recharge, surface water quality, groundwater quality, and lake recreation) and five related ecosystem services (food crop yields, bioenergy crop yields, carbon storage in soil, albedo, and terrestrial recreation). Novel additions to existing biophysical models will allow us to simulate all components of the hydrological cycle as well as agricultural productivity, nitrogen and phosphorus transport, and lake water quality. The integrated model will be validated using a comprehensive observational database that includes soil moisture, evapotranspiration, stomatal conductance, streamflow, stream and lake water quality, and crop yields and productivity. Integrated scenarios will be developed to synthesize decision-maker perspectives, alternative approaches to resource governance, plausible trends in demographic and economic drivers, and model projections under alternate climate and land use regimes to understand future conditions of the watershed and its ecosystem services. The quantitative data and integrated scenarios will then be linked to evaluate governance of water and land use.

  4. Urban water transactions: the search of a comprehensive framework for interactions between water and urban systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita, Hector; Domínguez, Efraín

    2013-04-01

    United Nations global demographic prospects show that from 1950 to 2050, the number of people living in cities will increase from 0.7 to 6.3 billion, which represents a 9 times fold in 100 years. In contrast, human population as a whole doesn't show the same trends of the urban subset. For instance, rural population is in some regions almost stalled or reducing at small rates, with an average growth rate 50% less than the urban population. This progressive change in global population structure, with more people living mostly in urban areas, already places urban settlements as the main node driving the interaction of human population and other earth systems, at local, regional and global scales. This population dynamics is a major source of concern, mainly because the need to comprehensively understand the two apparent contradictory faces of the urbanization phenomena: Despite cities tend to perform more efficiently in terms of mass and energy requirements as function of population size, the agglomeration process in cities typically implies an increase of overall throughput of mass and energy over time. Thus, a central question is to understand how the apparent per capita energy and material flows minimization occurring in cities can propagate its effects towards other geosystems in future population scenarios. The magnitude of scaled (temporal and spatial) effects is crucial to determine if limits of supporting systems capacity is or will be exceeded for a system of cities, or if otherwise is within steady limits. The Urban Water Transaction (UWT) framework aims for the study of the above question from the perspective of water. Typically between 50 and 70% of mass throughput in urban areas is water, however, that figure doesn't account for other teleconnected flows, such as energy production (hydropower facilities) and food production (virtual water), etc. Therefore, a comprehensive view of actual dependence of urban areas and water faces - in the view of the authors - faces two main limitations: (1) Most of water urban-water interactions occur at temporal or spatial scales associated with groups of cities - the urban system - rather than at the scale of an individual city, (2) Water, as a renewable resource, imposes some conceptual difficulties to quantify its availability if seen only through the lens of "metabolism" or "budget", because many water related activities use, but don't consume water. Understand this changes requires the integration of complementary metrics, such as variations in flow, energy or quality regime of a water systems. The Urban Water Transaction (UWT) framework is proposed as conceptual tool to set a common ground for the different types of direct and indirect interactions of urban systems and water, and to study the urban system properties associated with water integration. Import and export flows constitute the primary and most common examples of UWT that fundamentally occur at the Watershed level, and are mediated mostly by physical hydroclimatic water cycles and human basic water needs. However, with the advent of more complex systems of cities and their supporting water dependent systems, indirect, wider range and legacy flows such as hydrological regimes redistribution, virtual water flows and quality changes, are integrated through the concept of water transactions. In the view of the authors, the importance of this framework deals three aspects of study of the urbanization phenomena: The coupling characteristics urban systems and hydrological systems, the patterns in urban system as a result of the influence of water related constraints and the identification of urban systems properties that result critical towards the long-term viability of water resources.

  5. Hydrology, water quality, and response to changes in phosphorus loading of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes, Oneida County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on effects of urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Herbert S.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Saad, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes are 1,318- and 690-acre interconnected lakes in the popular recreation area of north-central Wisconsin. The lakes are the lower end of a complex chain of lakes in Oneida and Vilas Counties, Wis. There is concern that increased stormwater runoff from rapidly growing residential/commercial developments and impervious surfaces from the urbanized areas of the Town of Minocqua and Woodruff, as well as increased effluent from septic systems around their heavily developed shoreline has increased nutrient loading to the lakes. Maintaining the quality of the lakes to sustain the tourist-based economy of the towns and the area was a concern raised by the Minocqua/Kawaguesaga Lakes Protection Association. Following several small studies, a detailed study during 2006 and 2007 was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minocqua/Kawaguesaga Lakes Protection Association through the Town of Minocqua to describe the hydrology and water quality of the lakes, quantify the sources of phosphorus including those associated with urban development and to better understand the present and future effects of phosphorus loading on the water quality of the lakes. The water quality of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes appears to have improved since 1963, when a new sewage-treatment plant was constructed and its discharge was bypassed around the lakes, resulting in a decrease in phosphorus loading to the lakes. Since the mid-1980s, the water quality of the lakes has changed little in response to fluctuations in phosphorus loading from the watershed. From 1986 to 2009, summer average concentrations of near-surface total phosphorus in the main East Basin of Minocqua Lake fluctuated from 0.009 mg/L to 0.027 mg/L but generally remained less than 0.022 mg/L, indicating that the lake is mesotrophic. Phosphorus concentrations from 1988 through 1996, however, were lower than the long-term average, possibly the result of an extended drought in the area. Water-quality data for Kawaguesaga Lake had a similar pattern to that of Minocqua Lake. Summer average chlorophyll a concentrations and Secchi depths also indicate that the lakes generally are mesotrophic but occasionally borderline eutrophic, with no long-term trends. During the study, major water and phosphorus sources were measured directly, and minor sources were estimated to construct detailed water and phosphorus budgets for the lakes for monitoring years (MY) 2006 and 2007. During these years, the Minocqua Thoroughfare contributed about 38 percent of the total inflow to the lakes, and Tomahawk Thoroughfare contributed 34 percent; near-lake inflow, precipitation, and groundwater contributed about 1, 16, and 11 percent of the total inflow, respectively. Water leaves the lakes primarily through the Tomahawk River outlet (83 percent) or by evaporation (14 percent), with minor outflow to groundwater. Total input of phosphorus to both lakes was about 3,440 pounds in MY 2006 and 2,200 pounds in MY 2007. The largest sources of phosphorus entering the lakes were the Minocqua and Tomahawk Thoroughfares, which delivered about 39 and 26 percent of the total, respectively. The near-lake drainage area, containing most of the urban and residential developments, disproportionately accounted for about 12 percent of the total phosphorus input but only about 1 percent of the total water input (estimated with WinSLAMM). The next largest contributions were from septic systems and precipitation, each contributing about 10 percent, whereas groundwater delivered about 4 percent of the total phosphorus input. Empirical lake water-quality models within BATHTUB were used to simulate the response of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes to 19 phosphorus-loading scenarios. These scenarios included the current base years (2006?07) for which lake water quality and loading were known, nine general increases or decreases in phosphorus loading from controllable external sources (inputs from the tributa

  6. Water quality of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and Ocmulgee river basins related to flooding from Tropical Storm Alberto; pesticides in urban and agricultural watersheds, and nitrate and pesticides in ground water, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippe, D.J.; Wangsness, D.J.; Frick, E.A.; Garrett, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents preliminary water-quality information from three studies that are part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basin and the adjacent Ocmulgee River basin. During the period July 3-7, 1994, heavy rainfall from tropical storm Alberto caused record flooding on the Ocmulgee and Flint Rivers and several of their tributaries. Much of the nitrogen load transported during the flooding was as organic nitrogen generally derived from organic detritus, rather than nitrate derived from other sources, such as fertilizer. More than half the mean annual loads of total phosphorus and organic nitrogen were trans- ported in the Flint and Ocmulgee Rivers during the flood. Fourteen herbicides, five insecticides, and one fungicide were detected in floodwaters of the Ocmulgee, Flint, and Apalachicola Rivers. In a second study, water samples were collected at nearly weekly intervals from March 1993 through April 1994 from one urban and two agricultural watersheds in the ACF River basin, and analyzed for 84 commonly used pesticides. More pesticides were detected and at generally higher concentrations in water from the urban watershed than the agricultural water- sheds, and a greater number of pesticides were persistent throughout much of the year in the urban watershed. Simazine exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking-water standards in one of 57 samples from the urban watershed. In a third study, 38 wells were installed in surficial aquifers adjacent to and downgradient of farm fields within agricultural areas in the southern ACF River basin. Even though regional aquifers are generally used for irrigation and domestic- and public-water supplies, degradation of water quality in the surficial aquifers serves as an early warning of potential contamination of regional aquifers. Nitrate concentrations were less than 3 mg/L as N (indicating minimal effect of human activities) in water from about two-thirds of the wells. Water from the remaining wells had elevated nitrate con- centrations, probably the result of human activity. Nitrate concentrations in two of these wells exceeded EPA drinking-water standards. Water samples from eight wells had pesticide concentrations above method detection limits. With the exception of two samples for shallow ground-water wells and one surface-water sample from the urban watershed, concentrations of nitrate nitrogen and detected pesticides were below EPA standards and guidelines for drinking water. However, concentrations of the insecticides chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and diazinon in the surface-water samples approached or exceeded guidelines for protection of aquatic life.

  7. Review of quantity and quality aspects relevant to urban domestic waste water and rainwater disposal; Indagine sperimentale sugli aspetti quantitativi e qualitativi delle acque di drenaggio urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giulianelli, M.; Benedini, M.; Remedia, G. [CNR, Rome (Italy). IRSA, Istituto di Ricerca Sulle Acque

    1997-12-31

    Following a review of quantity and quality aspects relevant to urban development, with particular attention to domestic wastewater and rainwater disposal, the general criteria of using ad-hoc equipped test catchment are described. Results are also reported of a field investigation, carried out during an eight-year period (from 1985 to 1993) in the `NIR-Mostacciano` urban test catchment, located in the outskirts of Rome. The catchment, stretching over 15 hectares, is equipped with a combined sewage network with various types of duct (including the 0.50 m i.d. circular cross-section and the 0.60 m x 1.20 m egg - shaped one). It drains a residential area and, as concerns its geomorphologic and environmental characteristics, it can represent a typical situation in the Italian urban concern. The experimental results have ascertained, first of all, that this catchment denotes a very quick response to the hydrological input, with the consequential necessity to adjust accordingly the instruments` sensitivity (the concentration time is of the order of 5 min.). Rain-gauges operating in two sites of the catchment have given the opportunity to analyse the time-space precipitation variability. In a parallel way, the quality aspects of urban water have been analysed, in both rain and dry weather, with the possibility of focusing on the first flush phenomenon. During the meteorological events taken into consideration high values of physical, chemical and biological parameters have been found, which confirmed that the rainwater is one of the worst pollution source of natural bodies. It is therefore necessary to give particular attention to the experimental studies related to rainwater.

  8. Frequency analysis of urban runoff quality in an urbanizing catchment of Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huapeng; Tan, Xiaolong; Fu, Guangtao; Zhang, Yingying; Huang, Yuefei

    2013-07-01

    Distributions of four runoff quality indicators are derived from continuous simulation.Impacts of runoff control schemes are analyzed from the distributions.Marginal benefits of improving water quality diminish as runoff control level increases.Pre-flood season has higher water quality risk than other seasons after runoff control.Our approach helps frame a risk-based decision making for urban runoff management.

  9. Uso de aguas de segunda calidad en ciclo urbano del agua para las condiciones cubanas / Use of secondary quality water for urban sanitation in Cuban conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos M., López-Vázquez; Damir, Brjanovic; Christine M., Hooijmans; Orestes A., González Díaz.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La escasez de agua se ha convertido en un problema acuciante en muchas ciudades costeras alrededor del mundo. La rápida urbanización, los problemas derivados del cambio climático, las soluciones tradicionales (trasvases, perforación de pozos, captación de la lluvia) y avanzadas (desalación) son insu [...] ficientes, de altos costos y no sustentables desde el punto de vista ambiental para satisfacer la creciente demanda de agua. Tecnologías como el uso de agua de mar para descarga de inodoros y otros usos, se están volviendo a retomar a pesar de los problemas que se han planteado en su contra, como son la corrosión de las instalaciones y la necesidad de un sistema de abasto dual. El uso de estas técnicas está cambiando los paradigmas existentes en el manejo de las aguas en el ambiente urbano. Abstract in english Water shortage is increasingly becoming a problem in many coastal cities in both low and high-income countries (with about 60% of world population). Due to rapid urbanization and climate change, traditional (fresh water transfer, rainwater harvesting) and advanced solutions (sea water desalination) [...] become insufficient, non cost-effective and environmentally unsustainable to match the ever growing water demand. Direct use of seawater for toilet flushing, and other non-potable uses, is often forgotten, easily rejected and traditionally perceived as troublesome due to corrosion issues and the requirement for a dual system. However, the benefits are often overlooked and, in general, not well-studied and documented despite its potential and as a means towards sustainable water cycle management, opening a new paradigm towards the use of saline water as secondary quality water in urban environments.

  10. Wildlife, urban inputs, and landscape configuration are responsible for degraded swimming water quality at an embayed beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Nevers, Meredith; Whitman, Richard L.; Ge, Zhongfu; Shively, Dawn A.; Spoljaric, Ashley; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Jeorse Park Beach, on southern Lake Michigan, experiences frequent closures due to high Escherichia coli (E. coli) levels since regular monitoring was implemented in 2005. During the summer of 2010, contaminant source tracking techniques, such as the conventional microbial and physical surveys and hydrodynamic models, were used to determine the reasons for poor water quality at Jeorse Park. Fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, enterococci) were high throughout the season, with densities ranging from 12–2419 (culturable E. coli) and 1–2550 and < 1–5831 (culturable and qPCR enterococci, respectively). Genetic markers for human (Bacteroides HF183) and gull (Catellicoccus marimammalium) fecal contamination were found in 15% and 37% of the samples indicating multiple sources contributing to poor water quality. Nesting colonies of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) have steadily increased since 2005, coinciding with high E. colilevels. A hydrodynamic model indicated that limited circulation allows bacteria entering the embayed area to be retained in nearshore areas; and bacterial resuspension from sand and stranded beach wrack during storm events compounds the problem. The integration of hydrodynamics, expanded use of chemical and biological markers, as well as more complex statistical multivariate techniques can improve microbial source tracking, informing management actions to improve recreational water quality. Alterations to embayed structures to improve circulation and reduce nuisance algae as well as growing native plants to retain sand to improve beach morphometry are among some of the restoration strategies under consideration in ongoing multi-agency collaborations.

  11. Urban air quality management. V. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This is the first in a series of reports commissioned by the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) to represent members` views on the management of urban air quality in the growing cities in developing countries. In this report, a general, science based framework is provided as a basis for understanding the nature of the problem in any specific urban area, the range of solutions that might be available, and the potential impact of each solution and its least cost privatisation. The topics covered are: a process for urban air quality management; setting air quality targets; a structured approach to the assessment of current and future air quality modelling methodologies; identification and collation of air quality model input data; development of socio-economic scenarios -long-term trend forecasting; cost effectiveness studies; the IPIECA approach to urban air quality management - development of partnerships; encouraging commitment to implementation of programme recommendations. (7 figures; 2 tables; 18 references). (UK)

  12. Water-quality characteristics of urban storm runoff at selected sites in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, February 2006 through November 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, C. Paul

    2011-01-01

    Water samples were collected at three watersheds in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, during February 2006 through November 2009 for continued evaluation of urban storm runoff. The watersheds represented land uses characterized predominantly as established commercial, industrial, and residential. The following water-quality data are reported: physical and chemical-related properties, fecal coliform, nutrients, trace elements, and organic compounds. Results of water-quality analyses enabled calculation of event-mean concentrations and estimated annual contaminant loads and yields of storm runoff from nonpoint sources for 12 water-quality properties and constituents. Lead met or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 15 micrograms per liter for drinking water standards in 4 of 14 samples. Low level concentrations of mercury were detected in all 14 samples, and half were two to four times above the reporting limit of 0.02 micrograms per liter. The average dissolved phosphorus concentrations from each land use were two to four times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 0.05 milligrams per liter. Diazinon was detected in one sample at a concentration of 0.2 micrograms per liter. In the residential watershed, the largest at 216 acres, contaminant loads for 5 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents were highest, with 4 of these being nutrients. The industrial watershed, 97 acres, had the highest contaminant loads for 6 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents with 3 of these being metals, which is indicative of the type of land use. Zinc had the highest metal load (155 pounds per year) in the industrial watershed, compared to 36 pounds per year in the residential watershed, and 32 pounds per year in the established commercial watershed. The industrial watershed had the highest yields for 8 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents, whereas the established commercial watershed had the lowest yield for 5 of the 12. Lower yields from the established commercial and residential watersheds could be from Best Management Practices in place that help control increased runoff from impervious areas and land development. Metal yields from all the watersheds were less than 1 pound per acre per year, except for the zinc from the industrial watershed, which was 2 pounds per acre per year. Nutrient yields in the established commercial watershed were lowest for total nitrogen, ammonia plus organic nitrogen (Kjeldahl nitrogen), and dissolved phosphorus.

  13. Elements that influence living quality in open urban space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Krajner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of people living in cities in Slovenia is increasing. There fore, the city spreads, urban space is created mostly by different buildings with minimum of open space, usually designed for parking spaces. But despite the fact, that urban structure is spreading, and there should be more of public open spaces, or green open spaces, those are in many cases reached by developers as well. Despite global worming, higher temperatures in city centres and what appears to be what citizens want, the urban open spaces are not big enough, and are usually not designed with key elements, to improve quality of lifestyle in the urban space such as trees, water or natural elements. Therefore at all levels of urban planning it is necessary to strive for larger amount of space that could be designed as public open space or green space to improve quality of life in the city.

  14. Important Water Quality Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site provides basic information about factors commonly analyzed in water quality studies of drinking water, waste water and natural water. The factors are listed alphabetically with descriptions and explanations about what the results of measurements mean in environmental terms.

  15. Water-Quality Characteristics of Urban Storm Runoff at Selected Sites in East Baton Rouge Parish, Lousiana, Frebruary 1998 Through April 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, C. Paul

    2003-01-01

    Water was sampled at four watersheds for continued evaluation of urban storm runoff in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, during February 1998 through April 2002. Eighteen samples were collected from four watersheds representing land uses characterized predominantly as established commercial, industrial, new commercial, and residential. Results of water-quality analyses enabled calculation of event-mean concentrations and estimated annual contaminant loads and yields of storm runoff from nonpoint sources for 12 water-quality properties and constituents. The following water-quality data are reported: physical and chemical-related properties, fecal coliform and enterococci bacteria, major inorganic ions, nutrients, trace elements, and organic compounds. The residential land-use is the largest of the watersheds (550 acres), which resulted in high estimated annual contaminant loads compared to other watersheds for 8 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents. This may indicate that the size of the watershed and runoff from residences with their associated contaminants had substantial effects on annual loads within this land use. The industrial land-use area had the highest estimated annual contaminant loads for metals, followed by the residential landuse area. However, when comparing yields among the watersheds, the industrial watershed had the highest yield for 9 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents, whereas the residential watershed had the lowest yield for 7 of the 12. The industrial watershed yielded more metals per acre per year than any other watershed. Zinc yields were 2.71 pounds per acre per year from the industrial watershed, compared to 0.35 pounds per acre per year from the residential watershed, which was the lowest of all the watersheds. Lead concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 15 micrograms per liter for drinking water standards in 10 of 18 samples. Low-level concentrations of mercury were detected twice at both the new commercial and residential sites, with all concentrations at or just above reporting limits. The average dissolved phosphorus concentrations from each land use were two to four times higher than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 0.05 milligrams per liter. Diazinon, which is widely used as a general-purpose insecticide for lawns and gardens, was detected in all 18 samples. The maximum diazinon concentration detected, 2.7 micrograms per liter, was from the residential site. Malathion, another insecticide used on lawns, gardens, and plants, was also detected at least once from each site, but all concentrations were below the minimum detection limit of 0.1 micrograms per liter.

  16. NPS Water Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This National Park Service, part of the Department of Interior website, looks at issues concerning water quality, policies and objectives, water quality standards, monitoring and the NPS's cooperation with other agencies.

  17. Ecosystem services in urban water investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandulu, John M; Connor, Jeffery D; MacDonald, Darla Hatton

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, water agencies and utilities have an obligation to consider the broad environmental impacts associated with investments. To aid in understanding water cycle interdependencies when making urban water supply investment decisions, an ecosystem services typology was augmented with the concept of integrated water resources management. This framework is applied to stormwater harvesting in a case study catchment in Adelaide, South Australia. Results show that this methodological framework can effectively facilitate systematic consideration and quantitative assessment of broad environmental impacts of water supply investments. Five ecosystem service impacts were quantified including provision of 1) urban recreational amenity, 2) regulation of coastal water quality, 3) salinity, 4) greenhouse gas emissions, and 5) support of estuarine habitats. This study shows that ignoring broad environmental impacts can underestimate ecosystem service benefits of water supply investments by a value of up to A$1.36/kL, or three times the cost of operating and maintenance of stormwater harvesting. Rigorous assessment of the public welfare impacts of water infrastructure investments is required to guide long-term optimal water supply investment decisions. Numerous challenges remain in the quantification of broad environmental impacts of a water supply investment including a lack of peer-reviewed studies of environmental impacts, aggregation of incommensurable impacts, potential for double-counting errors, uncertainties in available impact estimates, and how to determine the most suitable quantification technique. PMID:24992048

  18. EVALUATING THE ACCOTINK CREEK URBAN STREAM RESTORATION PROJECT FOR IMPROVING WATER QUALITY, IN-STREAM HABITAT, AND BANK STABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased urbanization results in a larger percentage of connected impervious areas and can contribute large quantities of stormwater runoff and significant quantities of debris and pollutants (e.g., litter, oils, microorganisms, sediments, nutrients, organic matter, and heavy me...

  19. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  20. Microbiologic quality water from

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Luís Ferriani Junior

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work has as objective to evaluate the quality of the water of the Ribeirão dos Porcos river, at Espírito Santo do Pinhal-SP, Brazil, through microbiologycal anlyses for fecal and total coliform, fecal enterococci, pH, oxygen dissolved. Twenty four samples of water of 6 different points were collected, being made 4 collections of each point, in copies. The microbiologycal analyses, was accomplished by the method of the Most Probable Number (NMP using by multiple tubes technique. Determination of dissolved oxygen and pH values were made. The results of the microbiologycal analyses showed high levels of fecal and total coliforms (1,1x 105 to 2,4x 105/100 ml from point 1 to 6. In the point 1 (nascent, the fecal total coliforms and fecal enterococci, was inside of the acceptable limits. The results showed largest pollution indexes with fecal coliforms, of the point 2 to 6, mainly in the urban zone, where the river receives domestic and industrial effluents.

  1. Oregon DEQ: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Environmental Quality

    This web page hosts information related to groundwater quality in Oregon. Fact sheets about important groundwater problems are available, addressing topics such as septic systems, nonpoint source pollution, total daily maximum loading, drinking water, and storm water management. The site also includes data and maps portraying groundwater quality, describes issues affecting groundwater management, provides results of groundwater assessment programs, and has links to groundwater and water quality regulations and programs. Most of the data and files are in pdf format.

  2. Soil invertebrates as bioindicators of urban soil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at relating the abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities of urban soils to chemical and physical soil characteristics and to identify the taxa most sensitive or tolerant to soil stressors. The invertebrate community of five urban soils in Naples, Italy, was sampled. To assess soil quality invertebrate community indices (Shannon, Simpson, Menhinick and Pielou indices), Acarina/Collembola ratios, and the soil biological quality index (QBS) were calculated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils strongly differed. Abundance rather than taxa richness of invertebrates were more affected by soil characteristics. The community was more abundant and diverse in the soils with high organic matter and water content and low metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations. The taxa more resistant to the urban environment included Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. Collembolans appeared particularly sensitive to changing soil properties. Among the investigated indices, QBS seems most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Highlights: ? The abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities was related to properties and metal contents of urban soils. ? Several (biodiversity) indices were calculated and compared to evaluate soil quality. ? Metal contamination affected invertebrate density and diversity. ? The taxa more tolerant to metal contamination were Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. ? The soil biological qumatoda. ? The soil biological quality index QBS index was most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Soil metal contamination negatively affected soil invertebrate abundance and diversity.

  3. Corporatization of the water sector: implications for transitioning to sustainable urban water management

    OpenAIRE

    Farne? Fratini, Chiara; Brown, Rebekah Ruth; Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2012-01-01

    In the context of climate change, the Danish urban water sector is experiencing two major pressures. On one hand, a number of agents are pushing towards more sustainable urban water management (SUWM) approaches with the aim of improving surface water quality and mitigating flood risk. On the other hand, as part of an international trend, the municipal water management departments were transformed in locally created not-for-profit corporatized companies. Among the drivers are: increase efficie...

  4. Urban growth and air quality in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, O. H. L.

    2010-01-01

    Urban developments, land use patterns and activities not only influence the volume of emissions into the ambient air environment but also affect the ability of the urban ecosystem to purify the air. Therefore, urbanisation affects the quality of air in urban areas. However, urban air quality is also affected by global, regional or trans-boundary pollutants. The objectives of this paper are to understand the trend of air quality level and urban growth in Kuala Lumpur city (KL), and examine the...

  5. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney Stewart; Stuart White; Candice Moy; Ariane Liu; Pierre Mukheibir; Damien Giurco; Thomas Boyle

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering) has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been ...

  6. Water Bodies an Urban Microclimate: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnoosh Manteghi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In urban areas, water bodies have a positive effect upon microclimate of the surroundings with the relative cooling impact it has on evaporative procedure. Hence, evaporative cooling might be one of the pretty efficient methods of passive cooling for urban spaces and buildings.  Differences in temperature between the urban space and the non-urban space which surrounds, is dubbed UHI (Urban Heat Island effect. Water bodies have also been proven to be influential methods of decreasing urban temperatures. A water body temperature is capable of being lower than the surrounding urban environment around 2 - 6 °C. According to these findings; one may conclude that the rise of evapotranspiration in cities, that has roots in vegetation and water body, can efficiently mitigate the influence of the urban heat island. Unfortunately, the effect that water bodies can have upon urban temperatures has not been thoroughly assessed in previous studies, specifically the difference between the daytime and night time influences of water bodies, and the matter the how urban design may be in influential in moving the cooling influence from the water bodies toward the city. This paper provides a theoretical background for the problem and reviews the related literature.

  7. Assessment of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water is the most essential component of all living things and it supports the life process. Without water, it would not have been possible to sustain life on this planet. The total quantity of water on earth is estimated to be 1.4 trillion cubic meter. Of this, less than 1 % water, present in rivers and ground resources is available to meet our requirement. These resources are being contaminated with toxic substances due to ever increasing environmental pollution. To reduce this contamination, many countries have established standards for the discharge of municipal and industrial waste into water streams. We use water for various purposes and for each purpose we require water of appropriate quality. The quality of water is assessed by evaluating the physical chemical, biological and radiological characteristics of water. Water for drinking and food preparation must be free from turbidity, colour, odour and objectionable tastes, as well as from disease causing organisms and inorganic and organic substances, which may produce adverse physiological effects, Such water is referred to as potable water and is produced by treatment of raw water, involving various unit operations. The effectiveness of the treatment processes is checked by assessing the various parameters of water quality, which involves sampling and analysis of water and comparison with the National Quality Standards or WHO standards. Water which conforms to these standards is considered safe and palatable fandards is considered safe and palatable for human consumption. Periodic assessment of water is necessary, to ensure the quality of water supplied to the public. This requires proper sampling at specified locations and analysis of water, employing reliable analytical techniques. (author)

  8. Water quality: 13. Phosphorus

    OpenAIRE

    Bochove, E.; The?riault, G.; Denault, F.; Dechmi, Farida; Rousseau, A. N.; Allaire, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important nutrient for plant and animal growth. However, additions of P to the land as livestock manure and inorganic fertilizer may lead to an increased risk of soil P saturation and resulting movement of P to water bodies. Excessive amounts of P in surface water contributes to eutrophication of rivers and lakes and to Cyanobacteria blooms. These result in decreased water quality and limitations on water use. The Risk of Water Contamination by Phosphorus (IROWC-P) Ind...

  9. Microbiological quality of drinking water of urban and rural communities, Brazil Qualidade microbiológica de água potável de comunidades urbanas e rurais, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Nogueira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples came from urban and rural communities and to examine the relationship between coliforms occurrence and average water temperature, and a comparison of the rainfall levels. METHODS: A sample of 3,073 untreated and treated (chlorinated water from taps (1,594, reservoir used to store treated water (1,033, spring water (96 and private well (350 collected for routine testing between 1996 and 1999 was analyzed by the multiple dilution tube methods used to detect the most probable number of total and fecal coliforms. These samples were obtained in the region of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. RESULTS: The highest numbers water samples contaminated by TC (83% and FC (48% were found in the untreated water. TC and FC in samples taken from reservoirs used to store treated water was higher than that from taps midway along distribution lines. Among the treated water samples examined, coliform bacteria were found in 171 of the 1,033 sampling reservoirs. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient treatment or regrowth is suggested by the observation that more than 17% of these treated potable water contained coliform. TC and FC positive samples appear to be similar and seasonally influenced in treated water. Two different periods must be considered for the occurrence of both TC and FC positive samples: (i a warm-weather period (September-March with high percentage of contaminated samples; and (ii cold-weather period (April-August were they are lower. Both TC and TF positive samples declined with the decreased of water temperature.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade microbiológica de amostras de água tratada e não-tratada proveniente de comunidades urbanas e rurais e examinar a relação entre ocorrência de coliformes e a média de temperatura da água, e uma comparação dos níveis de precipitação de chuva. MÉTODOS: No período de 1996 a 1999, foram analisadas 3.073 amostras de água tratada (clorada e não-tratada pelo método dos tubos múltiplos para determinar o número mais provável de coliformes totais e fecais. Destas, 1.594 provenientes de água de torneiras, 1.033 de reservatório para estocar água tratada, 96 de água de minas e 350 de poços particulares. Tais amostras foram obtidas na região de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. RESULTADOS: O maior número de amostras contaminadas por TC (coliformes totais (83% e FC (coliformes fecais (48% foi observado em água não tratada. O índice de TC e FC foi maior nas amostras de reservatórios do que nas torneiras ao longo de sistema de distribuição. Entre as amostras de água tratada, foram encontradas bactérias do grupo coliforme em 171 dos 1.033 reservatórios amostrados. CONCLUSÕES: A observação de que mais de 17% da água potável tratada contêm coliformes sugere tratamento insuficiente ou recrescimento. Em água tratada, amostras positivas para TC e FC parecem ser similares e sazonalmente influenciadas. Dois diferentes períodos podem ser considerados para a ocorrência de amostras positivas para TC e FC: (i período quente e úmido (Setembro-Março com alta percentagem de amostras contaminadas; e (ii período frio e úmido (Abril-Agosto onde a positividade é baixa. Amostras positivas para TC e FC diminuem com o decréscimo da temperatura da água.

  10. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  11. Irrigation water quality assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing demands on fresh water supplies by municipal and industrial users means decreased fresh water availability for irrigated agriculture in semi arid and arid regions. There is potential for agricultural use of treated wastewaters and low quality waters for irrigation but this will require co...

  12. Water quality diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using a model representing a relationship between the water quality parameter and the dose rate in primary coolant circuits of a water cooled reactor, forecasting for the feature dose rate and abnormality diagnosis for the water quality are conducted. The analysis model for forecasting the reactor water activity or the dose rate receives, as the input, estimated curves for the forecast Fe, Ni, Co concentration in feedwater or reactor water pH, etc. from the water quality data in the post and forecasts the future radioactivity or dose rate in the reactor water. By comparing the result of the forecast and the setting value such as an aimed value, it can be seen whether the water quality at present or estimated to be changed is satisfactory or not. If the quality is not satisfactory, it is possible to take an early countermeasure. Accordingly, the reactor water activity and the dose rate can be kept low. Further, the basic system constitution, diagnosis algorithm, indication, etc. are identical between BWR and PWR reactors, except for only the difference in the mass balance. (K.M.)

  13. Rainwater and reclaimed wastewater for sustainable urban water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumai, Hiroaki

    Concern about the sustainability of urban water use is the strong motivation to understand the potential of rainwater use and water recycling in urbanized cities. The history of water supply in Tokyo and its experience may provide useful information to develop sustainable urban water use and find future possible tasks in rapidly growing cities. Besides, various innovative strategies to meet the current and future water demand in Tokyo may help us to consider new approaches adjusting to the developing mega cities in Asia. In this paper, the past and current practices on utilization of latent water resources such as rainwater and reclaimed wastewater in Tokyo are summarized from the viewpoint of sustainable water use. The storage of rainwater is a useful measure for water demand in emergency cases. In addition, the rainwater use can work as a kind of environmental education to make citizens aware of sustainable urban water use. There are 850 facilities for rainwater use in Tokyo. Since reclaimed wastewater use has several benefits, a huge water volume has been utilized for various purposes such as washing, water-cooling, toilet flushing, waterway restoration and creation of recreational waterfront. From the viewpoint of human health risk, new micropollutants such as estrogens, endocrine disrupters and surfactants should be considered as quality guideline parameter besides the conventional ones. Importance of infiltration facilities should be also highlighted to secure the sound water cycle. Groundwater recharge through the infiltration facilities provide a potential storage of water resource which can be withdrawn in the future if necessary.

  14. Integrated urban water cycle management: the UrbanCycle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, M J; Kuczera, G; Coombes, P J

    2005-01-01

    Integrated urban water cycle management presents a new framework in which solutions to the provision of urban water services can be sought. It enables new and innovative solutions currently constrained by the existing urban water paradigm to be implemented. This paper introduces the UrbanCycle model. The model is being developed in response to the growing and changing needs of the water management sector and in light of the need for tools to evaluate integrated watercycle management approaches. The key concepts underpinning the UrbanCycle model are the adoption of continuous simulation, hierarchical network modelling, and the careful management of computational complexity. The paper reports on the integration of modelling capabilities across the allotment, and subdivision scales, enabling the interactions between these scales to be explored. A case study illustrates the impacts of various mitigation measures possible under an integrated water management framework. The temporal distribution of runoff into ephemeral streams from a residential allotment in Western Sydney is evaluated and linked to the geomorphic and ecological regimes in receiving waters. PMID:16445168

  15. Water quality and water rights in Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report begins with a review of early Colorado water quality law. The present state statutory system of water quality protection is summarized. Special attention is given to those provisions of Colorado's water quality law aimed at protecting water rights. The report then addresses several specific issues which involve the relationship between water quality and water use. Finally, recommendations are made for improving Colorado's approach to integrating quality and quantity concerns

  16. Purified water quality study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals

  17. Stormwater Priority Pollutants Versus Surface Water Quality Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Ledin, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater in urban areas comprises of a substantial part of the urban water cycle, dominating the flow in many small urban streams, and the pollution levels are sizeable. No stormwater quality criteria were found here and no European or national emission limit values exist. Stormwater pollutants however are present in levels exceeding most of the regulated surface water quality criteria and environmental quality standards. Therefore catchment characterisation is needed to chose suitable treatment prior to discharge into receiving surface waters, as the mixing may be insufficient in small streams.

  18. Water quality monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conio, O. [Azienda Mediterranea Gas e Acqua spa, Genua (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    By involving institutions and rules, and technology as well, water resources management presents remarkable complexity. In institutions such a complexity is due to division of competence into monitoring activities, quality control, water utility supply and water treatment. As far as technology goes, complexity results from a wide range of physical, chemical and biological requisites, which define water quality according to specific water uses (for populations, farms, factories). Thus it`s necessary to have reliable and in-time environmental data, so to fulfil two complementary functions: 1) the control of any state of emergency, such as floods and accidental pollution, in order to take immediate measures by means of timely available information; 2) the mid- and long-term planning of water resources, so to achieve their reclamation, conservation and exploitation. An efficient and reliable way to attain these goals is to develop integrated continuous monitoring systems, which allow to control the quality of surface and underground water, the flow of bodies of water and those weather conditions that directly affect it. Such systems compose an environmental information network, which enables to collect and process data relative to the state of the body of water, its aquifer, and the weather conditions.

  19. Gap Filling and Quality Assessment of CO2 and Water Vapour Fluxes above an Urban Area with Radial Basis Function Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Wrzesinsky, T.; Klemm, O.

    2008-03-01

    Vertical turbulent fluxes of water vapour, carbon dioxide, and sensible heat were measured from 16 August to the 28 September 2006 near the city centre of Münster in north-west Germany. In comparison to results of measurements above homogeneous ecosystem sites, the CO2 fluxes above the urban investigation area showed more peaks and higher variances during the course of a day, probably caused by traffic and other varying, anthropogenic sources. The main goal of this study is the introduction and establishment of a new gap filling procedure using radial basis function (RBF) neural networks, which is also applicable under complex environmental conditions. We applied adapted RBF neural networks within a combined modular expert system of neural networks as an innovative approach to fill data gaps in micrometeorological flux time series. We found that RBF networks are superior to multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks in the reproduction of the highly variable turbulent fluxes. In addition, we enhanced the methodology in the field of quality assessment for eddy covariance data. An RBF neural network mapping system was used to identify conditions of a turbulence regime that allows reliable quantification of turbulent fluxes through finding an acceptable minimum of the friction velocity. For the data analysed in this study, the minimum acceptable friction velocity was found to be 0.15 m s-1. The obtained CO2 fluxes, measured on a tower at 65 m a.g.l., reached average values of 12 ?mol m-2 s-1 and fell to nighttime minimum values of 3 ?mol m -2 s-1. Mean daily CO2 emissions of 21 g CO2 m-2d -1 were obtained during our 6-week experiment. Hence, the city centre of Münster appeared to be a significant source of CO2. The half-hourly average values of water vapour fluxes ranged between 0.062 and 0.989 mmol m-2 s-1and showed lower variances than the simultaneously measured fluxes of CO2.

  20. Natural and Urban "Stormwater" Water Cycle Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET),

    Students apply their understanding of the natural water cycle and the urban "stormwater" water cycle, as well as the processes involved in both cycles to hypothesize how the flow of water is affected by altering precipitation. Student groups consider different precipitation scenarios based on both intensity and duration. Once hypotheses and specific experimental steps are developed, students use both a natural water cycle model and an urban water cycle model to test their hypotheses. To conclude, students explain their results, tapping their knowledge of both cycles and the importance of using models to predict water flow in civil and environmental engineering designs. The natural water cycle model is made in advance by the teacher, using simple supplies; a minor adjustment to the model easily turns it into the urban water cycle model.

  1. An integrated approach for urban water modelling, linking a watershed hydrological model and a cyanobacteria dynamics model in urban lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Talita; Vinc?on-leite, Brigitte; Tassin, Bruno; Petrucci, Guido; Seidl, Martin; Lemaire, Bruno; Nascimento, Nilo

    2011-01-01

    In the future, the frequency and the intensity of cyanobacteria blooms in urban lakes are expected to increase in response to climate change and expanding urbanization. In order to study the impacts of watershed changes on cyanobacteria dynamics in urban lakes, a modelling approach, in which an ecological lake model is connected to a hydrological watershed model, is proposed. To validate this approach, the water quality (temperature, transparency, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a) was monit...

  2. Ecological assessment of water quality in relation to hydrogeology in a shallow urban aquifer: Somesul Mic River aquifer (North-Western, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iepure, Sanda; Marin, Constantin; Fekete, Alexandru; Rajka, Geza; Brad, Traian; Samsudean, Cristian

    2014-05-01

    The River Basin Management Plan is the main instrument for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE), one of its main requirements being the evaluation and quantification of human impacts on aquatic environments including the groundwater or groundwater dependent ecosystems. The Some?-Tisa basin is the largest hydrographical basin in NW Romania (22,380 km2), containing 15 Quaternary detrital groundwater bodies prone to intensive agricultural and urban industrial use. So far, no studies have addressed the groundwater fauna assemblages and their ecological response to human disturbances and aquifer contamination. Here we investigate a Quaternary shallow detrital aquifer (metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Mo, Pb), As, Se and nitrates. We conducted a survey in seven monitoring boreholes (1-8 m beneath the surface) through the Quaternary porrous aquifer of the Somesul Mic River on a 10 km long longitudinal transect. Hydrologic and geologic variables (rainfall amount, drainage network density, aquifer and drainage elevation, transmisivity and aquifer porosity) were extracted from previous works and Pearson correlations were calculated for paired variables. Water and faunal sampling was performed on a seasonal basis at one pristine and six impacted sites during 2013. Invertebrates were sampled with a submersible pump by extracting a volume of 50-100 l of water and filtering through a 63 microns planktonic net. Subsequently, 2 l of water was extracted after pumping for compositional analyses of major constituents, trace elements (by ICP-MS) and nutrients. The results of water geochemical analyses indicate a significant pollutant charge of groundwater with Mn (max. 29.26 ?g/l), Ni (16.55 ?g/l), Fe (509.74 ?g/l), As (3.87 ?g/l), Se (5.07 ?g/l), sulphates (549.9 ?g/l) and nitrates (95.4 mg/l) downstream from industrial and agricultural lands. Only seven taxa, dominated by crustaceans, were found within the stygofaunal communities. Copepod stygoxene species (i.e., Megacyclops viridis Jurine, 1820, Diacyclops languidoides ssp.) accounts for almost 80% of the groundwater crustaceans, being abundant in samples from sites with elevated (94 ?g/l) concentration of nitrates (thus indicating a high tolerance to this pollutant). Moreover, these species appear to be tolerant to high content of Cu (8.6 ?g/l) and only slightly tolerant to Sr, Co, Ni, Ti and Pb (r>0.60; p>0.05). Conversely, the stygobites species Parastenocaris sp. (Harpacticoida), Bathynella sp. (Syncarida), Niphargus sp. (Amphipoda) and Ostracoda were rare and limited to boreholes were no significant trace metals contamination was detected, whereas nitrates reach a maximum level of 47.5 ?g/l. Crustaceans abundance was linked to high content of total dissolved solids and elements such are Li, Na and Sr; whereas Cs and nitrites were detected to be harmful for crustacean development. The ecological attributes and sensitivity of styfogauna to contaminants makes them significant bioindicators for evaluating the ecological status of groundwater ecosystems and susceptible to get loss when aquifers quality is affected on long term.

  3. Integrated water resources management: restoration of water quality in water resources from developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Vila; Alvaro, Marti?n

    2013-01-01

    Water is most essential but scarce resource in developing countries. Presently the quality & the availability of the fresh water resources is the most pressing of the many environmental challenges on the national horizon. The stress on water resources is from multiple sources and the impacts can take diverse forms. Geometric increase in population coupled with rapid urbanization, industrialization and agricultural development has resulted in high impact on quality and quantity of water in dev...

  4. Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

  5. Agricultural drainage water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' Agricultural drainage systems have been identified as potential contributors of non-point source pollution. Two of the major concerns have been with nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 - -N) concentrations and bacteria levels exceeding the Maximum Acceptable Concentration in drainage water. Heightened public awareness of environmental issues has led to greater pressure to maintain the environmental quality of water systems. In an ongoing field study, three experiment sites, each with own soil properties and characteristics, are divided into drainage plots and being monitored for NO3 - -N and fecal coliforms contamination. The first site is being used to determine the impact of the rate of manure application on subsurface drainage water quality. The second site is being used to determine the difference between hog manure and inorganic fertilizer in relation to fecal coliforms and NO3-N leaching losses under a carrot rotation system. The third site examines the effect of timing of manure application on water quality, and is the only site equipped with a surface drainage system, as well as a subsurface drainage system. Each of the drains from these fields lead to heated outflow buildings to allow for year-round measurements of flow rates and water samples. Tipping buckets wired to data-loggers record the outflow from each outlet pipe on an hourly basis. Water samples, collected from the flowing drains, are analyzed for NO3 - -N concentrations using the colorimetric methodncentrations using the colorimetric method, and fecal coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Based on this information, we will be able better positioned to assess agricultural impacts on water resources which will help towards the development on industry accepted farming practices. (author)

  6. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries

  7. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, Philip K. [Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708 (United States)], E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu; Cohen, David D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Physics Division, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD), P.O. Box 164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Ni Bangfa [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC), P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pandit, Gauri Girish [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Santoso, Muhayatun [Center for Nuclear Technology of Material and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Chung, Yong-Sam [Hanaro Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Dukjin-dong, Yusung-ku, P.O. Box 105, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31-312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, PINSTECH, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 1482, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, P.O. Box 213, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani [Atomic Energy Authority, 60/460, Baseline Road, Orugodawatta, Wellampitiya (Sri Lanka); Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT), 16 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Thu Bac Vuong [Centre for Radiation Protection, Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5T-160, Cau Giay (Viet Nam)] (and others)

    2008-10-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries.

  8. Methods for Processing and Summarizing Time-Series Temperature Data Collected as Part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program Studies on the Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Brightbill, Robin A.

    2008-01-01

    Temperature data and summary statistics are presented for 256 sites in 9 metropolitan areas as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems. The computer program (GRAN) that was developed to derive uniform data granularity and calculate temperature statistics (means, standard deviations, rates of change, degree days) is described, as are the methods used to estimate missing daily mean temperatures, degree days (annual and summer periods), and 7-day running averages of daily mean temperatures.

  9. Integrated management of water resources in urban water system: Water Sensitive Urban Development as a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Joaquín Suárez López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment has to be concerned with the integrated water resources management, which necessarily includes the concept of basin unity and governance.  The traditional urban water cycle framework, which includes water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment services, is being replaced by a holistic and systemic concept, where water is associated with urbanism and sustainability policies. This global point of view cannot be ignored as new regulations demand systemic and environmental approaches to the administrations, for instance, in the management of urban drainage and sewerage systems. The practical expression of this whole cluster interactions is beginning to take shape in several countries, with the definition of Low Impact Development and Water Sensitivity Urban Design concepts. Intends to integrate this new strategic approach under the name: “Water Sensitive Urban Development” (WSUD. With WSUD approach, the current urban water systems (originally conceived under the traditional concept of urban water cycle can be transformed, conceptual and physically, for an integrated management of the urban water system in new models of sustainable urban development. A WSUD implementing new approach to the management of pollution associated with stormwater in the urban water system is also presented, including advances in environmental regulations and incorporation of several techniques in Spain.

  10. MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Deines

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution systems and sewer networks are both large, highly interconnected, dynamic, subject to time and varying inputs and demands, and difficult to control. Their performance also faces increasing loading due to increasing urbanization and longer-term environmental changes. Therefore, understanding the link between microbial ecology and any potential impacts on short or long-term engineering performance within urban water infrastructure systems is important. By combining the strengths and research expertise of civil-, biochemical engineers and molecular microbial ecologists, we ultimately aim to link microbial community abundance, diversity and function to physical and engineering variables so that novel insights into the performance and management of both water distribution systems and sewer networks can be explored. By presenting the details and principals behind the molecular microbiological techniques that we use, this paper demonstrates the potential of an integrated approach to better understand how urban water system function, and so meet future challenges.

  11. Energy and environmental quality in the urban built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuously increased urbanization, combined with the degradation of the urban climate, and the recent upsurge of concern for the environments as well as the recent technological developments in the field of new energy technologies, defines the major priorities and considerations for urban buildings. This paper discusses the problems inherent in the growth of urban areas. The topics covered include providing buildings, space, good air quality, energy requirements, energy conservation and the effects of the cities on the surrounding country side

  12. Investigating the urban heat island effect on air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughner, C. P.; Allen, D. J.; Dickerson, R. R.; Pickering, K. E.; Shou, Y.; Zhang, D.

    2009-12-01

    Urbanization impacts meteorology and air quality in and downwind of cities. An urban heat island can increase the temperature in and downwind of cities. An increase in temperature may worsen air quality by increasing the amount of photochemically produced ozone. During an air pollution episode on July 9, 2007, in which 8-hour maximum ozone and 24-hour average PM2.5 concentrations reached 125ppb and 40?g/m3 respectively, the Washington, DC urban heat island propagated downwind over Columbia, MD and then Baltimore, MD further amplifying the temperature in and downwind of Baltimore. With the use of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with an urban canopy model (WRF/UCM) and EPA’s Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, the air quality is analyzed within the urban heat island. In addition, the interactions between the Chesapeake Bay breeze, the urban heat island, and the air chemistry are analyzed.

  13. Natural and Urban "Stormwater" Water Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET),

    Through an overview of the components of the hydrologic cycle and the important roles they play in the design of engineered systems, students' awareness of the world's limited fresh water resources is heightened. The hydrologic cycle affects everyone and is the single most critical component to life on Earth. Students examine in detail the water cycle components and phase transitions, and then learn how water moves through the human-made urban environment. This urban "stormwater" water cycle is influenced by the pervasive existence of impervious surfaces that limit the amount of infiltration, resulting in high levels of stormwater runoff, limited groundwater replenishment and reduced groundwater flow. Students show their understanding of the process by writing a description of the path of a water droplet through the urban water cycle, from the droplet's point of view. The lesson lays the groundwork for rest of the unit, so students can begin to think about what they might do to modify the urban "stormwater" water cycle so that it functions more like the natural water cycle. A PowerPoint® presentation and handout are provided.

  14. Handbook for aquaculture water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient aquaculture production depends upon maintaining acceptable water quality conditions in culture units. This handbook discusses background information from chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering necessary for understanding the principles of water quality management in aquaculture. It a...

  15. Water poverty in the peri-urban territories of Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Angueletou, Anastasia

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses water poverty in the peri-urban areas of Mumbai. The term "water poverty" refers to a variety of situations where people lack from sufficient water in terms of quality and quantity or from enough money to buy water from formal and informal providers. The aim of this paper is to identify "water poor peri-urban population" and examine their access to water and how they satisfy their needs. Peri-urban areas are undergoing rapid transformations in the form of economic develop...

  16. Connecting Water Quality With Air Quality Through Microbial Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueker, M. Elias

    Aerosol production from surface waters results in the transfer of aquatic materials (including nutrients and bacteria) to air. These materials can then be transported by onshore winds to land, representing a biogeochemical connection between aquatic and terrestrial systems not normally considered. In urban waterfront environments, this transfer could result in emissions of pathogenic bacteria from contaminated waters. Despite the potential importance of this link, sources, near-shore deposition, identity and viability of microbial aerosols are largely uncharacterized. This dissertation focuses on the environmental and biological mechanisms that define this water-air connection, as a means to build our understanding of the biogeochemical, biogeographical, and public health implications of the transfer of surface water materials to the near-shore environment in both urban and non-urban environments. The effects of tidal height, wind speed and fog on coastal aerosols and microbial content were first quantified on a non-urban coast of Maine, USA. Culture-based, culture-independent, and molecular methods were used to simultaneously sample microbial aerosols while monitoring meteorological parameters. Aerosols at this site displayed clear marine influence and high concentrations of ecologically-relevant nutrients. Coarse aerosol concentrations significantly increased with tidal height, onshore wind speed, and fog presence. Tidal height and fog presence did not significantly influence total microbial aerosol concentrations, but did have a significant effect on culturable microbial aerosol fallout. Molecular analyses of the microbes settling out of near-shore aerosols provided further evidence of local ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes. Aerosol and surface ocean bacterial communities shared species and in general were dominated by organisms previously sampled in marine environments. Fog presence strengthened the microbial connection between water and land through air by increasing microbial aerosol settling rates and enhancing viability of aerosolized marine microbes. Using methods developed for the non-urban site, the role of local environment and winds in mediating water-air connections was further investigated in the urban environment. The local environment, including water surfaces, was an important source of microbial aerosols at urban sites. Large portions of the urban waterfront microbial aerosol communities were aquatic and, at a highly polluted Superfund waterfront, were closely related to bacteria previously described in environments contaminated with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sewage and other industrial waste. Culturable urban aerosols and surface waters contained bacterial genera known to include human pathogens and asthma agents. High onshore winds strengthened this water-air connection by playing both a transport and production role. The microbial connection between water and air quality outlined by this dissertation highlights the need for information on the mechanisms that deliver surface water materials to terrestrial systems on a much larger scale. Moving from point measurements to landscape-level analyses will allow for the quantitative assessment of implications for this microbial water-air-land transfer in both urban and non-urban arenas.

  17. Summarized water quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The available world literature from 27 sources on existing water quality criteria are summarized for the 15 main uses of water. The minimum, median and maximum specified values for 96 different determinands are included. Under each water use the criteria are grouped according to the functional significance of the determinands e.g. aesthetic/physical effects, high toxic potential, low toxic potential etc. A synopsis is included summarizing salient facts for each determinand such as the conditions under which it is toxic and its relationship to other determinands. The significance of the criteria is briefly discussed and the importance of considering functional interactions between determinands emphasized in evaluating the potential for toxic or beneficial effects. From the source literature it appears that the toxic potential, in addition to being determined by concentration, is also affected by the origin of the substance concerned, i.e. whether from natural sources or from anthropogenic pollution

  18. Governing urban water flows in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, L.

    2007-01-01

    China has been witnessing an unprecedented period of continuous high economic growth during the past three decades. But this has been paralleled by severe environmental challenges, of which water problems are of key importance. This thesis addresses the urban water challenges of contemporary China, by focusing especially on the institutional traditions and innovations in Chinese water policies and governance, basically for two additional reasons. First, the large majority of studies regarding...

  19. Quality of surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this chapter is evaluation of long-time development of quality of water in Hron River and Vah River on the basis of existing data as well as prediction of development of selected chemical indicators in Hron River and Vah River on one year forward and designation reference conditions for selected chemical indices in Hron River. The second sub-chapter is aimed on deduction of reference conditions on the example of saprobic index of benthic invertebrates. An example of problems connected with modelling of extension of pollution in flow of Hron River at extremely low overflows in the last sub-chapter is presented.

  20. Estimation of Water Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water has a particular ecological function and it is an indicator of the general state of the biosphere. In relation with this summary, the toxicological evaluation of water by biologic testing methods is very actual. The peculiarity of biologic testing information is an integral reflection of all totality properties of examination of the environment in position of its perception by living objects. Rapid integral evaluation of anthropological situation is a base aim of biologic testing. If this evaluation has deviations from normal state, detailed analysis and revelation of dangerous components could be conducted later. The quality of water from the Degelen gallery, where nuclear explosions were conducted, was investigated by bio-testing methods. The micro-organisms (Micrococcus Luteus, Candida crusei, Pseudomonas algaligenes) and water plant elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich) were used as test-objects. It is known that the transporting functions of cell membranes of living organisms are violated the first time in extreme conditions by difference influences. Therefore, ion penetration of elodeas and micro-organisms cells, which contained in the examination water with toxicants, were used as test-function. Alteration of membrane penetration was estimated by measurement of electrolytes electrical conductivity, which gets out from living objects cells to distillate water. Index of water toxic is ratio of electrical conductivity in experience to electrical conductivity in control. Also, observations from common state of plant, which was incubated in toxic water, were made. (Chronic experience conducted for 60 days.) The plants were incubated in water samples, which were picked out from gallery in the years 1996 and 1997. The time of incubation is 1-10 days. The results of investigation showed that ion penetration of elodeas and micro-organisms cells changed very much with influence of radionuclides, which were contained in testing water. Changes are taking place even in cases where the quantity of radionuclides are insignificant. Differences in speed of ions going out began about 30 minutes after start of measurement. Later (1-24 hours) the difference between control and experience samples were more visible. In chronic test, when elodea was incubated in toxic water for 30 days, morphological modification are expressed very well. There were brown and discolored leaves and interruption of sprout growth. After 60 days the plants did not renew formation of new sprouts in most of the test's variants. The plants died in 2 variants and in others its begin was adapted. It has been established that the degree of morphological difference depends on the intensity of ? radiation in test samples of water. By conducting the investigation this way, the possibility of rapid determination of water quality in ecological aspects by biophysics methods with use of living organisms of different taxonomic groups, such as test-objects, is shown. This approach may be used also for inspection aims for sites where nuclear explosions were possibly conducted

  1. Toward Quantitative Analysis of Water-Energy-Urban-Climate Nexus for Urban Adaptation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and energy are two interwoven factors affecting environmental management and urban development planning. Meanwhile, rapid urban development and a changing climate exacerbate the magnitude and effects of water-energy interactions in what nexus defines. These factors and th...

  2. Water Quality Standards Inventory Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Standards Inventory is provided by the Information Center for the Environment, a cooperative effort of environmental scientists at the University of California, Davis. The GIS-based inventory of water quality standards consists of water quality objectives and beneficial uses established by each regional board for California surface waters. Users can browse by water quality regions, Caltrans districts, California counties, waterbody name, beneficial uses (such as cold freshwater habitat), or do keyword searches. This very informative and graphically pleasing database does a good job of presenting the extensive information in an easily accessible manner, making it a terrific resource for those searching for various water information for the state.

  3. Carbon sensitive urban water futures

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, David; Cabrera Marcet, Enrique; Jeffrey, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The challenge of supplying water and energy required for food production and development while mitigating climate change and adapting to its consequences has been termed the Energy Water Nexus. Water, energy, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change are interlinked through a series of relationships. The water sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through several routes including embedded emissions in capital equipment, energy consumption during drinking wate...

  4. Characterization of bacterial pathogens in rural and urban irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijuka, Matthew; Charimba, George; Hugo, Celia J; Buys, Elna M

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to compare the bacteriological quality of an urban and rural irrigation water source. Bacterial counts, characterization, identification and diversity of aerobic bacteria were determined. Escherichia coli isolated from both sites was subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing, virulence gene (Stx1/Stx2 and eae) determination and (GTG)5 Rep-PCR fingerprinting. Low mean monthly counts for aerobic spore formers, anaerobic spore formers and Staphylococcus aureus were noted although occasional spikes were observed. The most prevalent bacterial species at both sites were Bacillus spp., E. coli and Enterobacter spp. In addition, E. coli and Bacillus spp. were most prevalent in winter and summer respectively. Resistance to at least one antibiotic was 84% (rural) and 83% (urban). Highest resistance at both sites was to cephalothin and ampicillin. Prevalence of E. coli possessing at least one virulence gene (Stx1/Stx2 and eae) was 15% (rural) and 42% (urban). All (rural) and 80% (urban) of E. coli possessing virulence genes showed antibiotic resistance. Complete genetic relatedness (100%) was shown by 47% of rural and 67% of urban E. coli isolates. Results from this study show that surface irrigation water sources regardless of geographical location and surrounding land-use practices can be reservoirs of similar bacterial pathogens. PMID:25719470

  5. PROCEEDINGS FOR THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON URBAN STORM WATER: ENHANCING PROGRAMS AT THE LOCAL LEVEL - CD

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide array of effective water quality management and protection tools have been developed for urban environments, but their implementation is being hampered by a lack of technology transfer opportunities. The 2/17-20/2003 National Conference on Urban Stormwater: Enhancing Progr...

  6. Application of predictive control strategies to the management of complex networks in the urban water cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo-marti?nez, Carlos; Puig Cayuela, Vicenc?; Cembrano Gennari, Gabriela; Quevedo Casi?n, Joseba Jokin

    2013-01-01

    The management of the urban water cycle (UWC) is a subject of increasing interest because of its social, economic, and environmental impact. The most important issues include the sustainable use of limited resources and the reliability of service to consumers with adequate quality and pressure levels, as well as the urban drainage management to prevent flooding and polluting discharges to the environment.

  7. Assessing urban habitat quality using spectral characteristics of Tilia leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavanin Zadeh, A R; Veroustraete, F; Buytaert, J A N; Dirckx, J; Samson, R

    2013-07-01

    Monitoring environmental quality in urban areas is an important issue offering possibilities to control and improve urban habitat quality as well as to avoid adverse effects on human health. A tree leaf reflectance-based bio-monitoring method was used to assess the urban habitat quality of two contrasting habitat classes in the city of Gent (Belgium). As test trees, two Tilia species were selected. Custom made Matlab code is applied to process the measurements of leaf reflectance. This enables the discrimination between polluted and less polluted habitats. The results elicit, that leaf reflectance in the PAR range, as well as the NDAI (Normalised Difference Asymmetry index) are species dependent while Dorsiventral Leaf Reflectance Correlation (DLRC) seems to be independent of species. Therefore the assessment of urban habitat quality is perfectly feasible using leaf reflectance, when taking account of the species specificity of tree leaf physiological and structural responses to habitat quality. PMID:23517817

  8. Impact of planted areas on urban environmental quality: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givoni, B.

    The paper discusses the impact of urban planted areas: public parks and private planting around individual buildings, on various aspects of the quality of the urban environment. Specific issues discussed are: functions and impacts of urban planted areas; effect of plants on the climatic characteristics of an area; climatic impacts of private planted areas around buildings; experimental studies on the thermal effect of plants; public parks and the urban climate; range of the effect of urban parks; impact of green spaces on air pollution; planted areas as noise; social functions of urban parks; parks as social interaction areas between neighborhoods; and summary: Climatic guidelines for parks design: Parks in hot, dry regions; Parks in hot, humid regions; and Parks in cold regions. Comment: This paper is based on a book by the author, published by the World Meteorological Organization (Givoni, 1989, Urban Design for Different Climates, WMO).

  9. Calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural del municipio de Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia Bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas of the municipality of Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lilia Ávila de Navia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Guatavita es un municipio ubicado en el Departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia. Posee recursos hídricos como ríos, quebradas, lagunas y nacimientos, que representan un alto porcentaje del agua con que se abastece. El municipio tiene 16 acueductos en funcionamiento, pero solo el que abastece a la población de la zona urbana cuenta con un sistema de tratamiento de agua. En la zona rural existen 14 acueductos con un sistema básico de pretratamiento. Se analizó la calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural (veredas Corales, Potrero Largo y Carbonera Alta, por medio de los indicadores de contaminación: coliformes totales y Escherichia coli, mediante la técnica de filtración por membrana. El agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana cumplió con los parámetros establecidos en la Resolución 2115 de 2007 del Ministerio de Protección Social, contrario a la zona rural, donde se encontraron recuentos de los indicadores de contaminación fecal, superiores a lo establecido. Por lo tanto, este recurso debe ser considerado como "agua natural", no apta para consumo humano, según el Decreto 1594 de 1984, por lo que debe ser destinada para potabilización bajo un tratamiento convencional.Guatavita is a municipality in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Guatavita has water resources such as rivers, streams, lakes and springs, which provide a large proportion of the water consumed by the population. Sixteen water supply systems are in operation, but only the one supplying the urban area is equipped with water treatment facilities. In the rural area there are 14 aqueducts with a basic pretreatment system. An analysis was made of the bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas (districts of Corales, Potrero Largo and Carbonera Alta based on two contamination indicators: total coliforms and Escherichia coli, using membrane filtration technique. The water for human consumption in the urban area complied with the parameters contained in Resolution 2115/2007 of the Ministry of Social Protection. In the rural area, however, fecal contamination indicators were above the established limits. Therefore, this resource should be viewed as "natural water" not suitable for human consumption, according to Decree 1594/1984, and destined for potabilization by conventional treatment.

  10. Water chemistry and poultry processing water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the influences of water chemistry on the quality of process water used in immersion chillers. During commercial poultry processing the bird carcasses come in direct contact with process water during washing and chilling operations. Contamination of the process water with bacteria...

  11. MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Deines

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution systems are large, highly interconnected and dynamic, and difficult to control. Sewer systems are also large and subject to time varying inputs and demands. Their performance also faces increasing loading due to increasing urbanization and longer-term environmental changes. Therefore, understanding the link between microbial ecology and any potential impacts on short or long-term engineering performance is important. By combining the strengths and research expertise of civil-, biochemical engineers and molecular microbial ecologists, we aim to link the abundance and diversity of microorganisms to physical and engineering variables so that novel insights into the ecology of microorganisms within both water distribution systems and sewer networks can be explored. By presenting the details of this multidisciplinary approach, and the principals behind the molecular microbiological methods and techniques that we use, this paper will demonstrate the potential of an integrated approach to better understand urban water system function and so meet future challenges.

  12. Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    The potential effect of widespread rainwater harvesting practices on mains water demand and quality management are investigated for three different types of urban areas characterized by different roof area to water demand ratios. Two rainfall patterns are considered with similar average annual depths but very different temporal distributions. Supply reliability and the extent of reliance on the public distribution system are identified as suitable performance indicators for mains water infrastructure. A uniform temporal distribution of rainfall in an oceanic climate like that of Dinard, Northern France, yielded supply reliabilities close to 100% for reasonable tank sizes (0.065 m3/m2 of roof area in Dinard compared with 0.262 m3/m2 in Nice with a RWSO of 30% for a detached house). However, the collection and use of rainfall results in a permanent decrease in mains water demand leading to an increase in water age in the distribution network. Investigations carried on a real network showed that water age is greatly affected when rainwater supplies more than 30% of the overall water demand. In urban water utilities planning, rainwater supply systems may however be profitable for the community if they enable the deferment of requirements for new mains water infrastructure.

  13. Communicating water quality risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology for detecting and understanding water quality problems and the impacts of activities on long-range groundwater quality has advanced considerably. In the past a technical solution was considered adequate but today one must consider a wide range of both technical and social factors in evaluating technical alternatives that are also acceptable social solutions. Policies developed and implemented with limited local participation generally are resisted and become ineffective if public cooperation is necessary for effective implementation. The public, the experts and the policymakers all must understand and appreciate the different perspectives present in risk policymaking. The typical model used to involve the public in policy decisions is a strategy described as the decide-announce-defend-approach. Much more acceptable to the public, but also more difficult to implement, is a strategy that calls for free flow of information within the community about the problem, policies and potential solutions. Communication about complex issues will be more successful if the communication is substantial; if it takes advantage of existing interpersonal networks and mass media; if it pays particular attention to existing audience knowledge, interest and behaviors; and if it clearly targets messages to various segments of the audience

  14. Monitoring Urban Quality of Life: The Porto Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luis Delfim; Martins, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the monitoring system of the urban quality of life developed by the Porto City Council, a new tool being used to support urban planning and management. The two components of this system--a quantitative approach based on statistical indicators and a qualitative analysis based on the citizens' perceptions of the conditions of…

  15. An Expert System Applied in Construction Water Quality Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Ooshaksaraie; Basri, Noor E. A.

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: An untoward environmental impact of urban growth in Malaysia has been deterioration in a number of watercourses due to severe siltation and other pollutants from the construction site. Water quality monitoring is a plan for decision makers to take into account the adverse impacts of construction activities on the receiving water bodies. It is also a process for collecting the construction water quality monitoring, baseline data and standard level. Approa...

  16. Modeling integrated urban water systems in developing countries: case study of Port Vila, Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poustie, Michael S; Deletic, Ana

    2014-12-01

    Developing countries struggle to provide adequate urban water services, failing to match infrastructure with urban expansion. Despite requiring an improved understanding of alternative infrastructure performance when considering future investments, integrated modeling of urban water systems is infrequent in developing contexts. This paper presents an integrated modeling methodology that can assist strategic planning processes, using Port Vila, Vanuatu, as a case study. 49 future model scenarios designed for the year 2050, developed through extensive stakeholder participation, were modeled with UVQ (Urban Volume and Quality). The results were contrasted with a 2015 model based on current infrastructure, climate, and water demand patterns. Analysis demonstrated that alternative water servicing approaches can reduce Port Vila's water demand by 35 %, stormwater generation by 38 %, and nutrient release by 80 % in comparison to providing no infrastructural development. This paper demonstrates that traditional centralized infrastructure will not solve the wastewater and stormwater challenges facing rapidly growing urban cities in developing countries. PMID:24973053

  17. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Stewart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been driven by the desire for increased data regarding time of use and end-use (such as use by shower, toilet, garden, etc. as well as by the ability of the technology to reduce labour costs for meter reading. Technology development in the water sector generally lags that seen in the electricity sector. In the coming decade, the deployment of intelligent water metering will transition from being predominantly “pilot or demonstration scale” with the occasional city-wide roll-out, to broader mainstream implementation. This means that issues which have hitherto received little focus must now be addressed, namely: the role of real-time data in customer engagement and demand management; data ownership, sharing and privacy; technical data management and infrastructure security, utility workforce skills; and costs and benefits of implementation.

  18. Spatial evaluation of water quality in an urban reservoir (Billings Complex, southeastern Brazil) / Avaliação espacial da qualidade da água em reservatório urbano (Complexo Billings, sudeste do Brasil)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone, Wengrat; Denise de Campos, Bicudo.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Este estudo visa a (a) contribuir com a avaliação espacial da qualidade da água do Complexo Billings; (b) associar informações sobre a geoquímica dos sedimentos superficiais e (c) com base em literatura, fornecer uma avaliação temporal da qualidade da água no Complexo desde a restrição do [...] bombeamento do Rio Pinheiros; Métodos: As amostragens foram realizadas em 12 locais: 2 no Corpo Central (CB), 3 no Braço Taquacetuba (TQ); 3 no Braço Rio Pequeno (RP) e 4 na Represa Rio Grande (RG). A coleta da água foi realizada ao longo do perfil vertical no período de inverno (agosto/2009) e verão (fevereiro/2010) e a dos sedimentos superficiais (2 cm), no inverno. Foram avaliadas características físicas e químicas da água e dos sedimentos, e foi calculado o índice de estado trófico (IET) de Lamparelli; RESULTADOS: As condições limnológicas foram primordialmente influenciadas pelos períodos climáticos. No inverno, a heterogeneidade no Complexo foi mais definida com separação de seus compartimentos espaciais. Maior disponibilidade das formas nitrogenadas ocorreu no inverno, enquanto que, no verão, estas diminuíram e o fósforo apresentou aumento substancial. Os compartimentos mais degradados e associados aos maiores valores de nutrientes foram CB e TQ. De forma inversa, destaca-se o RP, cuja região a montante foi considerada de referência (menos impactada) no Complexo; CONCLUSÃO: Complexo Billings variou de mesotrófico (RP), eutrófico (RG) a supereutrófico (CB e TQ). Variação marcada do IET também ocorreu dentro dos compartimentos e dependendo do período climático, principalmente, associada ao manejo antrópico do Complexo. Os sedimentos salientaram os extremos de qualidade da água e forneceram informações adicionais sobre impactos antrópicos não detectados pela análise da água. Houve leve melhora da qualidade da água do CB e TQ a partir de 2009, possivelmente associada ao projeto de flotação do Rio Pinheiros. Abstract in english AIM: The study aimed at (a) contributing to a spatial evaluation of the Billings Complex water quality; (b) associating information on the geochemistry of the surface sediments; and (c) providing, based on previous studies, a temporal evaluation of the Complex's water quality since the Pinheiros Riv [...] er pumping restriction; METHODS: sampling was performed at 12 sites: 2 in the Central body (CB), 3 in the Taquacetuba branch (TQ), 3 in the Rio Pequeno branch (RP) and 4 in the Rio Grande Reservoir (RG). Water samples were taken along a vertical profile during the winter (August 2009) and summer (February 2010) and in the surface sediments (2 cm) during the winter. Physical and chemical characteristics of water and sediments were evaluated. Lamparelli's Trophic State Index (TSI) was calculated; RESULTS: limnological variability was mostly affected by the season. The spatial heterogeneity of the Complex was more pronounced during winter, with greater differences among its compartments. Nitrogen was higher in the winter, whereas in the summer there was a substantial phosphorus increase along with a nitrogen decrease. The most degraded compartments, associated with the highest nutrient levels, were CB and TQ. In contrast, the upstream region of the RP branch was considered a reference site (the least impacted) for the Complex; CONCLUSION: The Billings Complex ranged from mesotrophic (RP) or eutrophic (RG) to super-eutrophic (CC, TQ). High TSI variation also occurred within compartments and/or depending on the season, mainly associated with the human management of the Complex. The surface sediments underlined the differences observed between the extremes in the Billings Complex water quality, as well as providing additional information on other impacts that was not observed from the water analysis. A slight improvement in the water quality of the Central body and the Taquacetuba branch has been observed since 2009, possibly associated with the Pinheiros River flotatio

  19. Underground Water Assessment using Water Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Yisa, Jonathan; Jimoh, Tijani Oladejo; Oyibo, Ohiemi Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the quality of selected hand dug wells in Maikunkele area of Niger State, Nigeria using Water Quality Index (WQI). ten hand dug wells were randomly selected in Maikunkele area of Bosso Local Government and were tested for nine (9) parameters of National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) using standard analytical procedures. WQI results indicated that the quality of the selected well water samples were medium except for sample 2 that was extremely bad. The findings ...

  20. Adaptive Management of the Water Cycle on the Urban Fringe: Three Australian Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    James Scandol; Greg Walkerden; Alistair Gilmour

    1999-01-01

    Our group at Macquarie University has run three adaptive management projects in New South Wales, Australia. Their objectives were: (1) to evaluate water cycle management strategies to minimize impacts of urban development on water quality in the Hawkesbury-Nepean basin; (2) to evaluate development planning policies to minimize water quality impacts on a series of coastal lakes; and (3) to carry out a preliminary assessment of the potential impacts of greater recreational use of Sydney water c...

  1. Better safe than sorry: towards appropriate water safety plans for urban self supply systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kilanko-oluwasanya, Grace Olutope

    2009-01-01

    Self Supply Systems (SSS) can be defined as privately owned household level water sources. The research focus is on urban self supply hand dug wells in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Self supply wells serve an estimated 45% of Abeokuta’s population. SSS can be gradually upgraded to improve water quality, but water quality can also be improved through effective risk management. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a risk management tool known as Water Safety Plans (WSP), but ...

  2. Channels for change: private water and the urban poor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Matthew; Matthews, Petter; Ryan-Collins, Lily [Engineers Against Poverty (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    For the rapidly urbanising developing world, safe and affordable water is key to health and livelihoods, as well as meeting the Millennium Development Goals. But providing it demands innovative models. Where the context allows and the approach is appropriate, private sector involvement can generate win-win outcomes. Poor people can gain access to high-quality, affordable services, and companies can gain access to new and profitable business opportunities. Two examples of innovative 'private' water suppliers are the Manila Water Company's Water for the Poor Communities (TPSB) programme, and the Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) partnership. Both have a multisector approach to service expansion and provision, including partnerships with local authorities; strong community involvement in selecting, designing and operating options; appropriate service levels to reduce costs; and a flexible range of services. Many elements of these models are also replicable.

  3. Relevance and Benefits of Urban Water Reuse in Tourist Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Gaston Tong Sang; Valentina Lazarova; Vincent Sturny

    2012-01-01

    Urban water reuse is one of the most rapidly growing water reuse applications worldwide and one of the major elements of the sustainable management of urban water cycle. Because of the high probability of direct contact between consumers and recycled water, many technical and regulatory challenges have to be overcome in order to minimize health risks at affordable cost. This paper illustrates the keys to success of one of the first urban water reuse projects in the island Bora Bora, French Po...

  4. North Central Texas Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website presents the collaborative work of Texas Water Resources Institute, the Agriculture Program at Texas A&M University, and Tarrant Regional Water District (TRWD) to investigate water quality protection and improvements in six Texas reservoirs. Visitors can discover the vulnerabilities of Texas's water quality and how this collaboration intends to deal with increasing threats. The website introduces three modeling projects: Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed model, in-stream water-quality models (QUALTX and QUAL2E), and Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP). An online audio and visual presentation details the goals, tasks, and locations of the project. Individuals can find quarterly progress reports, presentations from the training conference, and maps of the study areas.

  5. A landscape based, systems dynamic model for assessing impacts of urban development on water quality for sustainable seagrass growth in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present an integrated assessment model to predict potential unintended consequences of urban development on the sustainability of seagrasses and preservation of ecosystem services, such as catchable fish, in Tampa Bay. Ecosystem services are those ecological functions and pro...

  6. The effects of flow-path modification on water-quality constituent retention in an urban stormwater detention pond and wetland system, Orlando, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gain, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in constituent retention in a wet stormwater-detention pond and wetland system in Orlando, Florida, were evaluated following the 1988 installation of a flow barrier which approximately doubled the flow path and increased detention time in the pond. The pond and wetland were arranged in series so that stormwater first enters the pond and overflows into the wetland before spilling over to the regional stream system. Several principal factors that contribute to constituent retention were examined, including changes in pond-water quality between storms, stormwater quality, and pond-water flushing during storms. A simple, analytical pond-water mixing model was used as the basis for interpreting changes in retention efficiencies caused by pond modification. Retention efficiencies were calculated by a modified event-mean concentration efficiency method using a minimum variance unbiased estimator approach. The results of this study generally support the hypothesis that changes in the geometry of stormwater treatment systems can significantly affect the constituent retention efficiency of the pond and wetland system. However, the results also indicate that these changes in efficiency are caused not only by changes in residence time, but also by changes in stormwater mixing and pond water flushing during storms. Additionally, the use of average efficiencies as indications of treatment effectiveness may fail to account for biases associated with sample distribution and independent physical properties of the system, such as the range and concentrations of constituents in stormwater inflows and stormwater volume. Changes in retention efficiencies varied among chemical constituents and were significantly different in the pond and wetland. Retention efficiency was related to inflow concentration for most constituents. Increased flushing of the pond after modification caused decreases in retention efficiencies for constituents that concentrate in the pond between storms (dissolved solids) and increases in retention efficiency for constituents that settle out of pond and wetland storage between storms. The greatest increase in retention efficiencies in the detention pond was observed for total lead, which increased from 19 percent before modification to 73 percent after modification. However, retention efficiencies for nutrients for nutrients and suspended constituents decreased in the wetland after modification. This was probably because of the flushing of accumulated sediments as a result of a change in flow path through the wetland. As a result, the overall effect of modification on the system (pond and wetland retention efficiencies combined) was a reduction in retention efficiency for all but two constituents (total zinc and total ammonia nitrogen).

  7. QUALITY OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SERVICES IN URBAN AREA OF ORADEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silaghi Simona

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of public transport in urban areas due to increased mobility at regional and national levels, discrepancies among urban areas with same population and lack of statistical data related to performance and quality of public transport services are the main determinants of this paper. A separation line must be drawn between quality of services and performance indicators of public transport system. Service quality is a multi subjective outcome of an array of intangible variables. Service quality can be approached from four directions: consumer, vehicle performance (including the human operator, specialized company in passenger transport, and the Government (local Councils. Availability, comfort and convenience are the two main indicators that must be evaluated by citizens as being with high grades for a good quality of urban transport services. The instrument used to gather data is the preference survey.

  8. Runoff quality prediction from small urban catchments using SWMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A.; Hamid, Rizwan

    1998-02-01

    The RUNOFF block of EPA's storm water management model (SWMM) was used to simulate the quantity and quality of urban storm water runoff from four relatively small sites (i.e. 5·97-23·56 ha) in South Florida, each with a specific predominant land use (i.e. low density residential, high density residential, highway and commercial). The objectives of the study were to test the applicability of this model in small subtropical urban catchments and provide modellers with a way to select appropriate input parameters to be used in planning studies. A total of 58 storm events, measured by the US Geological Survey (USGS), provided hyetographs, hydrographs and pollutant loadings for biological oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and lead (Pb), and were used for calibration of the model. Several other catchment characteristics, also measured or estimated by USGS, were used in model input preparation. Application of the model was done using the Green-Ampt equation for infiltration loss computation, a pollutant accumulation equation using a power build-up equation dependent on the number of dry days, and a power wash-off equation dependent on the predicted runoff rate. Calibrated quantity input parameters are presented and compared with suggested values in the literature. The impervious depression storage was generally found to be the most sensitive calibration parameter, followed by the Manning's roughness coefficients of conduit and overland flow, the Green-Ampt infiltration parameters and, finally, the pervious depression storage. Calibrated quality input parameters are presented in the form of regression equations, as a function of rainfall depth and the number of antecedent dry days. A total of 16 independent rainfall events were used for verification of the model, which showed a good comparison with observed data for both hydrographs and pollutant loadings. Average model predictions for the four constituent concentrations from the verification runs also showed good agreement with NURP published values in Florida and US sites.

  9. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106...Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary...added to the water to maintain water quality standards. Facilities...

  10. Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across regions, and across sectors demand for an integrated approach to assess main causes of water quality degradation.

  11. Calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural del municipio de Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia / Bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas of the municipality of Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sara Lilia, Ávila de Navia; Sandra Mónica, Estupiñán Torres.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Guatavita es un municipio ubicado en el Departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia. Posee recursos hídricos como ríos, quebradas, lagunas y nacimientos, que representan un alto porcentaje del agua con que se abastece. El municipio tiene 16 acueductos en funcionamiento, pero solo el que abastece a la pob [...] lación de la zona urbana cuenta con un sistema de tratamiento de agua. En la zona rural existen 14 acueductos con un sistema básico de pretratamiento. Se analizó la calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural (veredas Corales, Potrero Largo y Carbonera Alta), por medio de los indicadores de contaminación: coliformes totales y Escherichia coli, mediante la técnica de filtración por membrana. El agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana cumplió con los parámetros establecidos en la Resolución 2115 de 2007 del Ministerio de Protección Social, contrario a la zona rural, donde se encontraron recuentos de los indicadores de contaminación fecal, superiores a lo establecido. Por lo tanto, este recurso debe ser considerado como "agua natural", no apta para consumo humano, según el Decreto 1594 de 1984, por lo que debe ser destinada para potabilización bajo un tratamiento convencional. Abstract in english Guatavita is a municipality in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Guatavita has water resources such as rivers, streams, lakes and springs, which provide a large proportion of the water consumed by the population. Sixteen water supply systems are in operation, but only the one supplying the u [...] rban area is equipped with water treatment facilities. In the rural area there are 14 aqueducts with a basic pretreatment system. An analysis was made of the bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas (districts of Corales, Potrero Largo and Carbonera Alta) based on two contamination indicators: total coliforms and Escherichia coli, using membrane filtration technique. The water for human consumption in the urban area complied with the parameters contained in Resolution 2115/2007 of the Ministry of Social Protection. In the rural area, however, fecal contamination indicators were above the established limits. Therefore, this resource should be viewed as "natural water" not suitable for human consumption, according to Decree 1594/1984, and destined for potabilization by conventional treatment.

  12. Application of the urban water use model for urban water use management purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Dos Santos, D; Benetti, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present an application of the urban water use (UWU) model, which is a support decision tool to define the best group of efficient water use measures for UWU management purposes. Therefore, the UWU was developed under integrated urban water management (IUWM) and strategic planning principles to promote a systemic approach for decision taking. The IUWM considers the interfaces between water service systems, while by strategic planning it is possible to elaborate a vision to be achieved in future scenarios. Specifically to define the best measure group of efficient water use, the UWU has many alternatives for these measures, which are based on water demand management, decentralized sanitation, ecological sanitation and sustainable urban drainage system philosophies. In this context, the UWU application presented was developed for Seara city, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In this application a vision and five scenarios were built. The measure groups were composed by greywater systems, filterstrips, water saving devices in buildings, and water loss reduction in water supply systems and wastewater treatment system. In this context the UWU model was applied. The measure group that presented the highest effectiveness was based on the water demand management and decentralized sanitation strategies. PMID:25098868

  13. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  14. WATER QUALITY AND ECTOPARASITE DISEASES OF CY- PRINIDAE FISH

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Tomec; Mato Hacmanjek; Zlatica Teskeredži?; Emin Teskeredži?; Rozelinda ?ož-Rakovac

    1995-01-01

    On large carp fish farms water from larger surface streams is used, which have been affected by industrial and urban pollution, making the zoohygienic conditions bad for the culturing region. The quality of the culturing region directly affects the growth, condition and health of the fish. The aim of this work was to investigate the components of phytoplankton and the physico-chemical indicators of water quality on the occurrence of ectoparasites on the cyprinidae fish farms. Investigation we...

  15. Impacts of anthropogenic pressures on the water quality of the Gironde Estuary (SW France) from the Urban Agglomeration of Bordeaux: spatial characterization and inputs of trace metal elements (Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessaci, Kahina; Coynel, Alexandra; Blanc, Gérard; Deycard, Victoria N.; Derriennic, Hervé; Schäfer, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Recent European legislation (2000/60/CE) has listed eight trace metal elements as priority toxic substances for water quality. Urban metal inputs into hydrosystems are of increasing interest to both scientists and managers facing restrictive environmental protection policies, population increase and changing metal applications. The Gironde Estuary (SW France; 625 km2) is known for its metal/metalloid pollution originating from industrial (e.g. Cd, Zn, Cu, As, Ag, Hg) or agricultural sources (e.g. Cu) in the main fluvial tributaries (Garonne and Dordogne Rivers). However, little peer-reviewed scientific work has addressed the impact of urban sources on the Gironde Estuary, especially the Urban Agglomeration of Bordeaux (~1 million inhabitants) located on the downstream branch of the Garonne River. In this study, a snapshot sampling campaign was performed in 2011 for characterizing the spatial distribution of dissolved and particulate metal/metalloid (As, Ag, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu) concentrations in three suburban watersheds: the Jalle of Blanquefort (330 km2), Eau Bourde (140 km2), and Peugue (112 km2). Furthermore, particulate metal Enrichment Factors (EF) were calculated using local geochemical background measured at the bottom of a sediment core (492 cm). Results indicated that metal concentrations displayed a high spatial variability depending on the suburban watershed and the studied element. Local concentrations anomalies were observed for: (i) As in the Eau Bourde River in dissolved (4.2 ?g/l) and particulate phases (246 mg/kg; EF= 20) and attributed to a nearby industrial incinerator; (ii) Zn in the Peugue River with maximum dissolved and particulate concentrations of 87 ?g/l and 1580 mg/kg (EF=17), respectively, probably due to urban habitation runoff; (iii) Ag in the Jalle of Blanquefort River with high dissolved (74 ng/l) and particulate concentrations (33.7 mg/kg; EF=117) due to industrial activities in the downstream part. Based on hydro-geochemical monitoring of both suburban rivers and local wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), we present a first estimate of metal/metalloid fluxes and compare them to the respective loads in the Garonne River. Our results suggest that suburban metal inputs may significantly increase metal concentrations and fluxes in the fluvial Gironde Estuary, especially for Ag due to inputs exported by WWTPS and the Jalle of Blanquefort River.

  16. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Gu; Jinsong Deng; Ke Wang; Yi Lin; Jun Li; Muye Gan; Ligang Ma; Yang Hong

    2014-01-01

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservo...

  17. An Expert System Applied in Construction Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ooshaksaraie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An untoward environmental impact of urban growth in Malaysia has been deterioration in a number of watercourses due to severe siltation and other pollutants from the construction site. Water quality monitoring is a plan for decision makers to take into account the adverse impacts of construction activities on the receiving water bodies. It is also a process for collecting the construction water quality monitoring, baseline data and standard level. Approach: In recent years, expert systems have been used extensively in different applications areas including environmental studies. In this study, expert system software -CWQM- developed by using Microsoft Visual Basic was introduced. CWQM to be used for water quality monitoring during construction activities was designed based on the legal process in Malaysia. Results: According to the water quality monitoring regulation enacted in Malaysia, construction activities require mandatory water quality monitoring plans duly approved by Department of Environment before staring activities. CWQM primarily aims to provide educational and support system for water quality monitoring engineers and decision-makers during construction activities. It displays water quality monitoring plan in report form, water sampling location in GIS format and water quality monitoring data in graph. Conclusion: When the use of CWQM in construction water quality monitoring becomes widespread, it is highly possible that it will be benefited in terms of having more accurate and objective decisions on construction projects which are mainly focused on reducing the stormwater pollution.

  18. Spatio-temporal evaluation of Yamchi Dam basin water quality using Canadian water quality index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Djahed, Babak; Shahsavani, Esmaeel; Poureshg, Yousef

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the growth of population and increase of the industries around the tributaries of Yamchi Dam basin have led to deterioration of dam water quality. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the Yamchi Dam basin water, which is used for drinking and irrigation consumptions using Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI) model, and to determine the main water pollution sources of this basin. Initially, nine sampling stations were selected in the sensitive locations of the mentioned basin's tributaries, and 12 physico-chemical parameters and 2 biological parameters were measured. The CWQI for drinking consumptions was under 40 at all the stations indicating a poor water quality for drinking consumptions. On the other hand, the CWQI was 62-100 for irrigation at different stations; thus, the water had an excellent to fair quality for irrigation consumptions. Almost in all the stations, the quality of irrigation and drinking water in cold season was better. Besides, for drinking use, total coliform and fecal coliform had the highest frequency of failure, and total coliform had the maximum deviation from the specified objective. For irrigation use, total suspended solids had the highest frequency of failure and deviation from the objective in most of the stations. The pisciculture center, aquaculture center, and the Nir City wastewater discharge were determined as the main pollution sources of the Yamchi Dam basin. Therefore, to improve the water quality in this important surface water resource, urban and industrial wastewater treatment prior to disposal and more stringent environmental legislations are recommended. PMID:25750066

  19. NEUSE RIVER WATER QUALITY DATABASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Neuse River water quality database is a Microsoft Access application that includes multiple data tables and some associated queries. The database was developed by Prof. Jim Bowen's research group....

  20. AMBIENT WATER QUALITY MONITORING SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Management, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, developed the digital Ambient Water Quality Monitoring Sites data to enhance planning, sit...

  1. Corporatization of the water sector: implications for transitioning to sustainable urban water management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farné Fratini, Chiara; Brown, Rebekah Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In the context of climate change, the Danish urban water sector is experiencing two major pressures. On one hand, a number of agents are pushing towards more sustainable urban water management (SUWM) approaches with the aim of improving surface water quality and mitigating flood risk. On the other hand, as part of an international trend, the municipal water management departments were transformed in locally created not-for-profit corporatized companies. Among the drivers are: increase efficiency and cost recovering by reducing political control on utility budgets. Scholars have described the influencing factors for transitioning to SUWM and highlighted the potential governance attributes for enhancing and/or constraining such change. This paper explores the corporatization of the water sector and its implications for transitioning to sustainable urban water management. Corporatization is described and compared to other water governance models. The principles and the challenges of SUWM are introduced on the base of the existing literature. The aim is to develop a conceptual framework to analyse and discuss the implications of this governance shift for transitioning to SUWM. Corporatization is a hybrid between hierarchical and market based governance models, whose attributes demonstrated to represent potential barriers for transitioning to SUWM if not counterbalanced by parallel network-based governance approaches where the involvement of a large range of stakeholders allow cumulative insights from local-scale experiments. If such mechanisms are not created and sustained with proper intuitional reforms to build capacity for change, the transition towards SUWM might be at risk of failure.

  2. Soil cover and water quality for irrigation purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Bertossi

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the relationship between land cover and water quality for irrigation in the sub-basin of the stream Horizonte, located in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil, we selected five places in the sub-basin to collect surface water and groundwater, each influenced by different soil cover types: pasture, forest, coffee, upstream and downstream of the urban area. Collecting samples were made during periods of drought and rainfall. The physical-chemical analysis of water was made by de...

  3. Multi-objective optimization for combined quality–quantity urban runoff control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oraei Zare

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban development affects the quantity and quality of urban surface runoff. In recent years, the best management practices (BMPs concept has been widely promoted for control of both quality and quantity of urban floods. However, means to optimize the BMPs in a conjunctive quantity/quality framework are still under research. In this paper, three objective functions were considered: (1 minimization of the total flood damages, cost of BMP implementation and cost of land-use development; (2 reducing the amount of TSS (total suspended solid and BOD5 (biological oxygen demand, representing the pollution characteristics, to below the threshold level; and (3 minimizing the total runoff volume. The biological oxygen demand and total suspended solid values were employed as two measures of urban runoff quality. The total surface runoff volume produced by sub-basins was representative of the runoff quantity. The construction and maintenance costs of the BMPs were also estimated based on the local price standards. Urban runoff quantity and quality in the case study watershed were simulated with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM. The NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II optimization technique was applied to derive the optimal trade off curve between various objectives. In the proposed structure for the NSGA-II algorithm, a continuous structure and intermediate crossover were used because they perform better as far as the optimization efficiency is concerned. Finally, urban runoff management scenarios were presented based on the optimal trade-off curve using the k-means method. Subsequently, a specific runoff control scenario was proposed to the urban managers.

  4. Multi-objective optimization for combined quality-quantity urban runoff control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraei Zare, S.; Saghafian, B.; Shamsai, A.

    2012-12-01

    Urban development affects the quantity and quality of urban surface runoff. In recent years, the best management practices (BMPs) concept has been widely promoted for control of both quality and quantity of urban floods. However, means to optimize the BMPs in a conjunctive quantity/quality framework are still under research. In this paper, three objective functions were considered: (1) minimization of the total flood damages, cost of BMP implementation and cost of land-use development; (2) reducing the amount of TSS (total suspended solid) and BOD5 (biological oxygen demand), representing the pollution characteristics, to below the threshold level; and (3) minimizing the total runoff volume. The biological oxygen demand and total suspended solid values were employed as two measures of urban runoff quality. The total surface runoff volume produced by sub-basins was representative of the runoff quantity. The construction and maintenance costs of the BMPs were also estimated based on the local price standards. Urban runoff quantity and quality in the case study watershed were simulated with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). The NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II) optimization technique was applied to derive the optimal trade off curve between various objectives. In the proposed structure for the NSGA-II algorithm, a continuous structure and intermediate crossover were used because they perform better as far as the optimization efficiency is concerned. Finally, urban runoff management scenarios were presented based on the optimal trade-off curve using the k-means method. Subsequently, a specific runoff control scenario was proposed to the urban managers.

  5. Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Eiko Yoshida

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate the relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP; METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center, ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro; RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P INTRODUÇÃO: Riachos de referência dizem respeito a ambientes íntegros, sendo possível utilizar suas características ambientais como valores patamares de qualidade. Além dos impactos orgânicos medidos pelos programas de biomonitoramento da qualidade da água, se faz necessário avaliar as relações entre as alterações da paisagem dos riachos e de seu entorno com as mudanças na estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados desses ambientes; OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivos correlacionar as mudanças da paisagem com os atributos ecológicos da comunidade e índices de qualidade da água e, recomendar valores de condição referencial de integridade de riachos para a região de Jundiaí/SP; MÉTODOS: Foram amostradas a fauna bentônica de três riachos urbanos, três rurais e três preservados, com amostrador do tipo Surber, em julho de 2010. As características da paisagem foram avaliadas por meio da Diversidade de Habitat (DH; a comunidade, analisada quanto a S, N, J', H' e curvas de rarefação S e de dominância K e; a qualidade da água aferida pelos índices ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC, ASPT e SOMI; RESULTADOS: A estrutura e a composição das comunidades variaram em função dos riachos e refletiram-se nos valores dos índices biológicos e de qualidade ambiental. As melhores condições foram encontradas nos riachos preservados, as intermediárias, nos riachos rurais e, as piores, nos urbanos. As significativas correlações (r > 0.73 e P < 0.05 entre o índice de diversidade de habitat (DH e os atributos ecológicos e de qualidade da água dos riachos de Jundiaí, demonstraram que DH pode ser um bom preditor das características ambientais avaliadas e como tal, recomenda-se como valores de condição de referencia de riachos: DH ? 80; H' ? 2,3 e J ? 0.8 (família como nível taxonômico e; qualidade de água boa (ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC e BI, de levemente poluída a limpa (ASPT e regular (SOMI.

  6. Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Eiko Yoshida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate the relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP; METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center, ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro; RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P INTRODUÇÃO: Riachos de referência dizem respeito a ambientes íntegros, sendo possível utilizar suas características ambientais como valores patamares de qualidade. Além dos impactos orgânicos medidos pelos programas de biomonitoramento da qualidade da água, se faz necessário avaliar as relações entre as alterações da paisagem dos riachos e de seu entorno com as mudanças na estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados desses ambientes; OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivos correlacionar as mudanças da paisagem com os atributos ecológicos da comunidade e índices de qualidade da água e, recomendar valores de condição referencial de integridade de riachos para a região de Jundiaí/SP; MÉTODOS: Foram amostradas a fauna bentônica de três riachos urbanos, três rurais e três preservados, com amostrador do tipo Surber, em julho de 2010. As características da paisagem foram avaliadas por meio da Diversidade de Habitat (DH; a comunidade, analisada quanto a S, N, J', H' e curvas de rarefação S e de dominância K e; a qualidade da água aferida pelos índices ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC, ASPT e SOMI; RESULTADOS: A estrutura e a composição das comunidades variaram em função dos riachos e refletiram-se nos valores dos índices biológicos e de qualidade ambiental. As melhores condições foram encontradas nos riachos preservados, as intermediárias, nos riachos rurais e, as piores, nos urbanos. As significativas correlações (r > 0.73 e P < 0.05 entre o índice de diversidade de habitat (DH e os atributos ecológicos e de qualidade da água dos riachos de Jundiaí, demonstraram que DH pode ser um bom preditor das características ambientais avaliadas e como tal, recomenda-se como valores de condição de referencia de riachos: DH ? 80; H' ? 2,3 e J ? 0.8 (família como nível taxonômico e; qualidade de água boa (ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC e BI, de levemente poluída a limpa (ASPT e regular (SOMI.

  7. Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments / Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia Eiko, Yoshida; Ana Paula Pozzo Rios, Rolla.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Riachos de referência dizem respeito a ambientes íntegros, sendo possível utilizar suas características ambientais como valores patamares de qualidade. Além dos impactos orgânicos medidos pelos programas de biomonitoramento da qualidade da água, se faz necessário avaliar as relações entr [...] e as alterações da paisagem dos riachos e de seu entorno com as mudanças na estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados desses ambientes; OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivos correlacionar as mudanças da paisagem com os atributos ecológicos da comunidade e índices de qualidade da água e, recomendar valores de condição referencial de integridade de riachos para a região de Jundiaí/SP; MÉTODOS: Foram amostradas a fauna bentônica de três riachos urbanos, três rurais e três preservados, com amostrador do tipo Surber, em julho de 2010. As características da paisagem foram avaliadas por meio da Diversidade de Habitat (DH); a comunidade, analisada quanto a S, N, J', H' e curvas de rarefação S e de dominância K e; a qualidade da água aferida pelos índices ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC, ASPT e SOMI; RESULTADOS: A estrutura e a composição das comunidades variaram em função dos riachos e refletiram-se nos valores dos índices biológicos e de qualidade ambiental. As melhores condições foram encontradas nos riachos preservados, as intermediárias, nos riachos rurais e, as piores, nos urbanos. As significativas correlações (r > 0.73 e P Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate th [...] e relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP); METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center), ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro)); RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P

  8. Invertebrados bentónicos como indicadores de calidad del agua en ríos urbanos (Paraná-Entre Ríos, Argentina) / Benthic invertebrates as indicators of water quality in urban rivers (Paraná-Entre Ríos, Argentina)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paola J, Pave; Mercedes, Marchese.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudió la incidencia de los efluentes industriales y cloacales sobre la estructura del bentos en el río Las Tunas y su afluente Saucesito (Paraná, Provincia de Entre Ríos, Argentina). Se determinaron las especies y asociaciones de especies en gradientes de buena a mala calidad del agua de estos [...] ríos urbanos. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos, entre julio de 2000 y febrero de 2002, en cuatro estaciones a lo largo del curso. Los resultados obtenidos revelaron que, tanto la densidad como la diversidad específica fueron influenciadas por la contaminación orgánica, con una disminución brusca en la estación afectada por el vertido de los efluentes del parque industrial. Se registraron 85 taxa, siendo los oligoquetos y quironómidos los dominantes. Del análisis de componentes principales, se infirió que la demanda biológica de oxígeno fue el factor que más incidió en la distribución y composición de organismos bentónicos. El río Las Tunas presentó altos valores de DBO5, la menor densidad, riqueza y diversidad específica, sin recuperación de la calidad del agua en todo el tramo. Aguas arriba, el río Saucesito presentó una mejor calidad, principalmente en la estación de referencia ubicada antes del parque industrial. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to assess the effects of industrial and sewage discharges on the benthic structure of urban rivers. Also, the species assemblages associated to different water quality conditions were studied. Four sampling sites were analyzed, from July 2000 to February 2002, during high wa [...] ter level in two urban rivers. In order to determine the quality of the water and the species assemblages, ANOVA, principal components analysis, species diversity and distance index among sites were applied. Eighty-five species or morphospecies were identified, dominated by Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. Average density of benthic invertebrates varied between 233 ind/m² and 29265 ind/m², with higher densities registered in the reference sampling site than in the ones affected by industrial discharges. The species richness ranged from four to 43 taxa, and the Shannon-Wiener index, from 1.37 to 3.95, with the highest value registered in Saucesito river. Filtering and gathering collectors were the dominant feeding groups in all the sites because of the high fine particulate organic matter content. The biological oxygen demand was the main factor in determinating the benthic invertebrates distribution and composition. Las Tunas River is hardly polluted, with low benthic density, species richness and diversity, and high DBO5 values. Saucesito River shows a better water quality, mainly upstream of the industrial discharges. The gradient from clean to polluted water quality, was characterized by the species assemblages Ostracods Podocopida, Tanytarsus sp., D. (D.) obtusa, Djalmabatista sp. 2, Rheotanytarsus sp. 1, S. fossularis and Cricotopus sp. 1 ? N. variabilis, C. xanthus and L. hoffmeisteri.

  9. Water engineering. Reducing sewer corrosion through integrated urban water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaar, Ilje; Sharma, Keshab R; Hu, Shihu; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-08-15

    Sewer systems are among the most critical infrastructure assets for modern urban societies and provide essential human health protection. Sulfide-induced concrete sewer corrosion costs billions of dollars annually and has been identified as a main cause of global sewer deterioration. We performed a 2-year sampling campaign in South East Queensland (Australia), an extensive industry survey across Australia, and a comprehensive model-based scenario analysis of the various sources of sulfide. Aluminum sulfate addition during drinking water production contributes substantially to the sulfate load in sewage and indirectly serves as the primary source of sulfide. This unintended consequence of urban water management structures could be avoided by switching to sulfate-free coagulants, with no or only marginal additional expenses compared with the large potential savings in sewer corrosion costs. PMID:25124439

  10. ESTIMATION OF WATER QUALITY CRITERIA VIOLATION FREQUENCIES USING PEARSON PERCENTILES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A numerical technique is developed for estimating water quality violation frequencies due to pollutant discharges from urban areas during combined sewer overflow events. The first four moments of in-stream pollutant concentration are found by integrating a pollutant loading - wat...

  11. Fluidic aspects of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following subjects are discussed: Diffusion and dispersion of conservative and non-conservative media, analytical solutions in limited and unlimited media and oscillating flows, artificial ventilation, stratified flows, selective withdrawal, short-range mixing temperature and water quality in completely mixed and stratified water level elevation, measuring programs. Engineers with a good knowledge of mathematics and basic hydrodynamics will get an insight into the fluidic aspects of water quality. The paper discusses mainly those mathematical solutions which can be completely presented. (HP/orig.)

  12. EFFECT OF URBANIZATION ON FISH ASSEMBLAGES AND HABITAT QUALITY IN A PIEDMONT RIVER BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    We quantified the relationships among urbanization, fishes, and habitat quality to determine how assemblags respond to urbanization and if a habitat quality assessment reflects urban effects on stream ecosystems. We sampled 30 wadeable streams along an urban gradient in the Etow...

  13. Species pool versus site limitations of macrophytes in urban waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermonden, K.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity in urban areas is affected by a multitude of stressors. In addition to physico-chemical stress factors, the native regional species pool can be greatly reduced in highly urbanized landscapes due to area loss and fragmentation. In this study, we investigated how macrophyte composition and diversity in urban water systems are limited by the regional species pool and local environmental conditions. Canonical correspondence analysis of the macrophyte species composition revealed that urban and semi-natural water systems differed and differences could be related to local abiotic variables such as pH and iron concentrations. Macrophytes in the semi-natural area were typical for slightly acid and oligotrophic conditions. In urban water systems, exotic species characteristic of eutrophic conditions were present. In the semi-natural areas, the number of macrophyte species exceeded the number of species expected from species-area relationships of artificial water bodies in rural areas. In urban areas, the number of macrophyte species was similar to artificial water systems in rural areas. Macrophyte species present in the study areas also were generally found within 20-30 km distance to the study area. Macrophyte species composition in urban water systems and semi-natural water systems appeared to be influenced by the regional species pool within approximately 30 km of the locations. Nevertheless, site limitation ultimately determined the local macrophyte species composition and diversity in urban water systems and in semi-natural water systems

  14. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, F. P.; Fenger, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. T...

  15. Centre-Based Child Care Quality in Urban Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimine, Karin; Wilson, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the quality of childcare centres in urban Australian communities designated according to different bands of Centre Location Demographics (CLD). Childcare centres were assessed using the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale- Revised Edition (ECERS-R) and the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Extension (ECERS-E).…

  16. A PHOTOCHEMICAL BOX MODEL FOR URBAN AIR QUALITY SIMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple 'box-approach' to air quality simulation modeling has been developed in conjunction with a newly formulated photochemical kinetic mechanism to produce an easily applied Photochemical Box Model (PBM). This approach represents an urban area as a single cell 20 km in both l...

  17. Application of GDAHP on Quality Evaluation of Urban Lake Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan ZHANG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality evaluation of urban lake landscape (QEULL is extremely important for the healthy development of lake landscape. In this research, the evaluation model was established with the group decision analytic hierarchy process (GDAHP method, which consisted of four layers including the target layer, the factor layer, the index layer and the criterion layer, thus forming a model tree based on their subordinate relation-ships. The GDAHP method was employed to determine the weights of constituting factors of each layer in the evaluation model, and the fuzzy method was used to establish the factors remark sets of the criterion layer, thus the single-layer evaluation and comprehensive evaluation of urban lake landscape quality was carried out. Quality evaluation model of urban lake landscape established based on the GDAHP method can provide grounds for planning, design, and renewal of urban lake landscape. This model has been used to evaluate and analyze the artificial lake in People’s Park of Xinxiang City, Henan Province. The results proved that the overall landscape quality of the artificial lake of Peoples Park in Xinxiang city was good.

  18. EFFECTS OF URBANIZATION ON THE SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL CHEMICAL QUALITY OF THREE TIDAL BAYOUS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and sediment quality in three tidal bayous located near Pensacola, Florida, were assessed during 1993-1995. The primary objective was to determine the environmental condition of the relatively small urban bayous by comparing the chemical quality of the sediments and surface...

  19. A DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cities have to seek sustainable development to meet the needs of the growing human populations while managing and minimizing their impact on the natural environment. The water system is an important component in any urban area. Urban water management involves the interaction be...

  20. Water quality issues in southern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or ?g/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in trace concentrations. Most of the ailments, including mood disturbances and psychological disorders, are reportedly on the increase in most urban and industrialized areas of Nigeria. Perhaps a study should be conducted among the population in order to relate the pattern of water pollution related diseases to health factors in Nigeria

  1. Role of water in urban planning and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William Joseph; Rickert, David A.; Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1973-01-01

    Concentrations of people in urban areas intensify water problems such as flooding and pollution, but these deleterious effects on water resources can be minimized or corrected by comprehensive planning and management. Such planning of the water resources of an urban area must be based on adequate hydrologic data. Through the use of a matrix, urban water problems can be evaluated and availability of data assessed. The Washington-Baltimore metropolitan area is used as a case study. The completed matrix provides both a means for developing a meaningful dialogue between the hydrologist and the urban planner and a method for developing a work plan to insure consideration of water-resources data in urban planning.

  2. Best practices for Sustainable Urban Water Cycle Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Makropoulos, Christos; Rozos, Evangelos; Bruaset, Stian; Frijns, Jos; Zouwen, Marie?lle

    2014-01-01

    Aging infrastructure, demographic change, water scarcity, pollution, climate change and other megatrends create the need for a transition towards more sustainable urban water cycle services (UWCS) in the cities. This report "Best practices for Sustainable Urban Water Cycle Systems - an overview of and enabling and constraining factors for a transition to sustainable UWCSs" deals with and reviews best practices in the water sector. It is divided in four different themes in UWCS which are: dema...

  3. How to face groundwater salinization and contamination under global environmental change in its societal context. Challenge of water quality in the urban environment of Recife (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro, Suzana Maria Gico Lima; Hirata, Ricardo; Petelet Giraud, Emmanuelle; Cary, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Due to an increasing demographic pressure, the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR, the fifth largest metropolitan area in Brazil), went through remarkable water and land use changes over the last decades. These evolutions gave rise to numerous environmental consequences, such as a dramatic decline of the piezometric levels, groundwater salinization and contamination. This degradation of natural resources is linked to the increase of water demand, punctually amplified by drought periods which ...

  4. Part 2: Surface water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996 the surface water quality measurements were performed, according to the Agreement, at 8 profiles on the Hungarian territory and at 15 profiles on the Slovak territory. Basic physical and chemical parameters (as water temperature, pH values, conductivity, suspended solids, cations and anions (nitrates, ammonium ion, nitrites, total nitrogen, phosphates, total phosphorus, oxygen and organic carbon regime parameters), metals (iron, manganese and heavy metals), biological and microbiological parameters (coliform bacteria, chlorophyll-a, saprobity index and other biological parameters) and quality of sediment were measured

  5. Urban heat island and linkage with air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urban heat island (UHI) effect can be noticed in cities where the temperature is higher than the surrounding countryside, on average 2 deg. C above. In summer during a heat wave, the gap can up to over ten-degree. UHI causes a thermal stress which induces some repercussions on health. The formation of UHI is more and more documented but further studies have to be conducted in order to qualify and quantify the impacts on our health and environment, and the link with atmospheric pollution. Studies have shown air quality deterioration in UHI areas: Both phenomena can be simultaneous because their conditions of appearance are often linked. Henceforth the stake is to manage and if possible reduce UHI to adapt cities to the expected climate change. Dense cities in the future will also have to be naturally cooled down. In order to do so, we will have to act on the most influential UHI formation factors, namely: vegetation and water, buildings (shapes and materials), production and consumption of energy. (authors)

  6. Application of predictive control strategies to the management of complex networks in the urban water cycle [Applications of control

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo-martinez, Carlos; Puig, Vicenc?; Cembrano, G.; Quevedo, J.

    2013-01-01

    The management of the urban water cycle (UWC) is a subject of increasing interest because of its social, economic and environmental impact. The most important issues include the sustainable use of limited resources and the reliability of service to consumers with adequate quality and pressure levels, as well as the urban drainage management to prevent flooding and polluting discharges to the environment.

  7. Uncertainties in selected surface water quality data

    OpenAIRE

    Rode, M.; Suhr, U.

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring of surface waters is primarily done to detect the status and trends in water quality and to identify whether observed trends arise form natural or anthropogenic causes. Empirical quality of surface water quality data is rarely certain and knowledge of their uncertainties is essential to assess the reliability of water quality models and their predictions. The objective of this paper is to assess the uncertainties in selected surface water quality data, i.e. suspended sedim...

  8. Simulating Urban Tree Effects on Air, Water, and Heat Pollution Mitigation: iTree-Hydro Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Endreny, T. A.; Nowak, D.

    2011-12-01

    Urban and suburban development changes land surface thermal, radiative, porous, and roughness properties and pollutant loading rates, with the combined effect leading to increased air, water, and heat pollution (e.g., urban heat islands). In this research we present the USDA Forest Service urban forest ecosystem and hydrology model, iTree Eco and Hydro, used to analyze how tree cover can deliver valuable ecosystem services to mitigate air, water, and heat pollution. Air pollution mitigation is simulated by dry deposition processes based on detected pollutant levels for CO, NO2, SO2, O3 and atmospheric stability and leaf area indices. Water quality mitigation is simulated with event mean concentration loading algorithms for N, P, metals, and TSS, and by green infrastructure pollutant filtering algorithms that consider flow path dispersal areas. Urban cooling considers direct shading and indirect evapotranspiration. Spatially distributed estimates of hourly tree evapotranspiration during the growing season are used to estimate human thermal comfort. Two main factors regulating evapotranspiration are soil moisture and canopy radiation. Spatial variation of soil moisture is represented by a modified urban topographic index and radiation for each tree is modified by considering aspect, slope and shade from surrounding buildings or hills. We compare the urban cooling algorithms used in iTree-Hydro with the urban canopy and land surface physics schemes used in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. We conclude by identifying biophysical feedbacks between tree-modulated air and water quality environmental services and how these may respond to urban heating and cooling. Improvements to this iTree model are intended to assist managers identify valuable tree services for urban living.

  9. Epidemiology of urban water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardet, Jean-Pierre; Little, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Urban water distribution systems worldwide contain numerous old and fragile pipes that inevitably break, flood streets and damage property, and disrupt economic and social activities. Such breaks often present dramatically in temporal clusters as occurred in Los Angeles during 2009. These clustered pipe breaks share many characteristics with human mortality observed during extreme climatological events such as heat waves or air pollution. Drawing from research and empirical studies in human epidemiology, a framework is introduced to analyze the time variations of disruptive pipe breaks that can help water agencies better understand clustered pipe failures and institute measures to minimize the disruptions caused by them. It is posited that at any time, a cohort of the pipes comprising the water distribution system will be in a weakened state due to fatigue and corrosion. This frail cohort becomes vulnerable during normal operations and ultimately breaks due to rapid increase in crack lengths induced by abnormal stressors. The epidemiological harvesting model developed in this paper simulates an observed time series of monthly pipe breaks and has both explanatory and predictive power. It also demonstrates that models from nonengineering disciplines such as medicine can provide improved insights into the performance of infrastructure systems.

  10. WATER QUALITY IN LAKE LOWELL, IDAHO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality in Lake Lowell (17050114) is suitable for irrigation; recreational use is limited by dense summer algal blooms. Dissolved oxygen concentrations and fecal coliform bacteria counts occasionally exceed Idaho Water Quality Standards for primary contact recreation water...

  11. Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines for Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Article containing information about the water quality guidelines for irrigation water and the salinity and constituent materials allowed in irrigation water for crops to grow. Included are directions for sending in water samples and interpretations of water testing results.

  12. Urban sprawl and water supply in the Colombian coffee region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the current situation of water supply systems in the context of urban sprawl in the Colombian coffee region. The authors suggest three factors to understand local and regional water supply systems: land use within areas of urban sprawl; land use in the ecosystems that sustain the water supply; and operation and technical efficiency of the utilities. Accordingly, the work provides an estimate of the degree of urbanization and the spatial extent of urban sprawl in the cities of Manizales, Pereira y Armenia. The ecological land use in Andean and sub Andean ecosystems that supply the aqueducts of these cities is characterized, as well as the operative and technical conditions of water supply providers involved in urban sprawl, highlighting their strengths and their increasing weaknesses.

  13. Water quality relationships and evaluation using a new water quality index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water quality is dependent on a variety of measures, including dissolved oxygen, microbial contamination, turbidity, nutrients, temperature, pH, and other constituents. Determining relationships between water quality parameters can improve water quality assessment, and watershed management. In addition, these relationships can be very valuable in case of evaluating water quality in watersheds that have few water quality data. (author)

  14. Obtaining traffic information by urban air quality inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transportation and its environmental impacts are a major component of urban environmental management. At the same time, transportation and mobility are an important part of urban economics and quality of life. To analyze urban transportation and its environmental impacts, a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach is needed. Unfortunately, theoretical works about traffic flow and pollutant dynamic have independently evolved, rarely meeting contact points. Our works aims to provide a contribution in linking traffic flow and pollutant dynamic by proponing a new traffic model, able to calculate the number of running vehicles, once the ground level of an arbitrary pollutant concentration is know. The validation and simulation of this model is made possible by the training of an adaptive.(Author)

  15. Water quality for liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To facilitate the automation of the operation for a liquid wastes processing system by enabling continuous analysis for the main ingredients in the liquid wastes accurately and rapidly. Constitution: The water quality monitor comprises a sampling pipeway system for taking out sample water for the analysis of liquid wastes from a pipeway introducing liquid wastes to the liquid wastes concentrator, a filter for removing suspended matters in the sample water and absorption photometer as a water quality analyzer. A portion of the liquid wastes is passed through the suspended matter filter by a feedpump. In this case, sulfate ions and chloride ions in the sample are retained in the upper portion of a separation color and, subsequently, the respective ingredients are separated and leached out by eluting solution. Since the leached out ingredients form ferric ions and yellow complexes respectively, their concentrations can be detected by the spectrum photometer. Accordingly, concentration for the sodium sulfate and sodium chloride in the liquid wastes can be analyzed rapidly, accurately and repeatedly by which the water quality can be determined rapidly and accurately. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. Reactor water quality control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An autoclave for electrochemical measurement is connected to a recycling line of a reactor pressure vessel. A reference electrode for potential measurement, a specimen electrode for corrosion potential measurement, an electrode for pH measurement, a platinum electrode for redox potential measurement and a temperature sensor are inserted in the autoclave. pH values, redox potentials and corrosion potentials of reactor water and reactor structural components are measured by using these electrodes and the sensor to recognize properties of metal oxide layers formed on the surface of the reactor structural components. Then, a gas or a liquid chemical is injected to a feedwater line so as to make the metal oxide to have the most stable potential and pH region in order to control the water quality. This can suppress leaching of metals and reducing radiation dose deposited on pipelines while improving the water quality, taking notice on stress corrosion crackings of the structural materials. (I.N.)

  17. Study on the Model Building for the Influence of the Water Environment on Urban Tourism Ecological Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Zu-yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article first define the concept of the urban water environment and city tourism environment capacity and points out that the urban tourism environment capacity including urban tourism ecological capacity, urban tourism spatial capacity, urban tourism economy capacity and city tourism mental capacity, on the basis of which, the tourist ecological capacity of the influence factors were analyzed. And from the water environment of tourist’s capital input and the relationship among the water environment of the city tourism ecological capacity of six son model and influence comprehensive model, in order to improve the water quality and water environment, promote the city tourism economy and here comes the theory basis.

  18. Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado Avaliação de parâmetros de qualidade de água para monitoramento de áreas naturais, urbanas e agrícolas no Cerrado brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz; Aline Silva Moraes; Ingrid de Souza Freire; Carlos José Domingos da Cruz; Jorge Enoch Furquim Werneck Lima; Eduardo Cyrino Oliveira-Filho

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Brazil's Federal District (FD) has seen steep population growth in recent years, and this has increased demand for high-quality water. AIM: The present work aims to evaluate the quality of surface water from two water bodies in the FD at six sampling points, three of which are in the Sobradinho River (the receiving body of a sewage treatment plant effluent) and three in the Jardim River (located in an agricultural region). METHODS: Analyses were carried out every thirty days, fo...

  19. Household characteristics affecting drinking water quality and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan's water crisis, especially serious water shortages have had a great impact on the health of the general population. Today majority of Pakistanis have no access to improved water sources which force people to consume polluted drinking water that results in the shape of waterborne diseases. In addition to this, household characteristics, includes mother's education and family income, also have an impact on drinking water quality and ultimately on human health. This study was conducted in three districts of Province Punjab both in urban and rural areas. The sample size of this study was 600 females of age group 20-60 years. From the data, it was concluded that mother's education and family income were affecting drinking water quality and human health. As the mother's years of education increased, the health issues decreased. Similarly, as the level of income increased, people suffered from water related diseases decreased. (author)

  20. An assessment of the drainage quality and quantity associated with recycled wastewater irrigation in an urban park

    OpenAIRE

    Nouri, Hamideh; Beecham, Simon; Hassanli, Ali; Ingelton, Greg; Bolan, Nanthi

    2013-01-01

    Quantification of drainage to remove excess water from the soil profile and provide a suitable environment for vegetation has been developed over the years. Drainage estimation is fairly challenging particularly in the heterogeneous urban environs. This research studied the temporal variation of drainage rate and nutrient leaching in Veale Gardens of Adelaide Parklands, Australia. A zero tension pan lysimeter was installed in an urban mixed vegetation park to study the quantity and quality of...

  1. Saline sewage treatment and source separation of urine for more sustainable urban water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A; Wilsenach, J A; Chen, G H

    2011-01-01

    While energy consumption and its associated carbon emission should be minimized in wastewater treatment, it has a much lower priority than human and environmental health, which are both closely related to efficient water quality management. So conservation of surface water quality and quantity are more important for sustainable development than green house gas (GHG) emissions per se. In this paper, two urban water management strategies to conserve fresh water quality and quantity are considered: (1) source separation of urine for improved water quality and (2) saline (e.g. sea) water toilet flushing for reduced fresh water consumption in coastal and mining cities. The former holds promise for simpler and shorter sludge age activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (no nitrification and denitrification), nutrient (Mg, K, P) recovery and improved effluent quality (reduced endocrine disruptor and environmental oestrogen concentrations) and the latter for significantly reduced fresh water consumption, sludge production and oxygen demand (through using anaerobic bioprocesses) and hence energy consumption. Combining source separation of urine and saline water toilet flushing can reduce sewer crown corrosion and reduce effluent P concentrations. To realize the advantages of these two approaches will require significant urban water management changes in that both need dual (fresh and saline) water distribution and (yellow and grey/brown) wastewater collection systems. While considerable work is still required to evaluate these new approaches and quantify their advantages and disadvantages, it would appear that the investment for dual water distribution and wastewater collection systems may be worth making to unlock their benefits for more sustainable urban development. PMID:22214085

  2. Saline waters and soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Dazzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

  3. Saline waters and soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Dazzi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

  4. Construction of the Quality Evaluation System for Healthy Urbanization from the Angle of Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Huiying Wang

    2009-01-01

    In allusion to the problems in the present theoretical study and practice about urbanization, this paper elucidated the connotation of healthy urbanization from the angle of economics, and put forward the economic definition of healthy urbanization; further more, it put forward things that should be attached importance to when evaluating healthy urbanization and the framework of quality evaluation system.

  5. A decision support tool for sustainable planning of urban water systems: presenting the Dynamic Urban Water Simulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willuweit, Lars; O'Sullivan, John J

    2013-12-15

    Population growth, urbanisation and climate change represent significant pressures on urban water resources, requiring water managers to consider a wider array of management options that account for economic, social and environmental factors. The Dynamic Urban Water Simulation Model (DUWSiM) developed in this study links urban water balance concepts with the land use dynamics model MOLAND and the climate model LARS-WG, providing a platform for long term planning of urban water supply and water demand by analysing the effects of urbanisation scenarios and climatic changes on the urban water cycle. Based on potential urbanisation scenarios and their effects on a city's water cycle, DUWSiM provides the functionality for assessing the feasibility of centralised and decentralised water supply and water demand management options based on forecasted water demand, stormwater and wastewater generation, whole life cost and energy and potential for water recycling. DUWSiM has been tested using data from Dublin, the capital of Ireland, and it has been shown that the model is able to satisfactorily predict water demand and stormwater runoff. PMID:24183560

  6. Urban Design Competition versus Design Interactivity and Quality Judgment

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemian, Reza

    2011-01-01

    The study is targeted to analyze the essence of interactive design process, design methodology and the communicability of quality judgment of urban design competitions. The aim is to provide a political argument which supports organizational and procedural reforms of the entire cycle of competition, from judgment to selection and implementation of a prize-winning architectural design. The study is searching to provide some principle definitions of the concepts of design methodology and design...

  7. Application of GDAHP on Quality Evaluation of Urban Lake Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yichuan; Qiao, Lifang

    2009-01-01

    The quality evaluation of urban lake landscape (QEULL) is extremely important for the healthy development of lake landscape. In this research, the evaluation model was established with the group decision analytic hierarchy process (GDAHP) method, which consisted of four layers including the target layer, the factor layer, the index layer and the criterion layer, thus forming a model tree based on their subordinate relation-ships. The GDAHP method was employed to determine the weights of const...

  8. Sustainable green urban planning: the workbench spatial quality method

    OpenAIRE

    Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, Derk Jan; Timmermans, W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Amersfoort Local Municipality implemented the workbench spatial quality method (referred to as workbench method) to enhance participation in green-planning processes. Design/methodology/approach – As part of the Valuing Attractive Landscapes in the Urban Economy project (made possible by INTERREG IVB North West Europe, European Regional Development Fund, European Territorial Cooperation, 2007-2013), the method was evaluated based on its contribution to three core issues: unders...

  9. Understanding, management and modelling of urban hydrology and its consequences for receiving waters: A state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, T. D.; Andrieu, H.; Hamel, P.

    2013-01-01

    Urban hydrology has evolved to improve the way urban runoff is managed for flood protection, public health and environmental protection. There have been significant recent advances in the measurement and prediction of urban rainfall, with technologies such as radar and microwave networks showing promise. The ability to predict urban hydrology has also evolved, to deliver models suited to the small temporal and spatial scales typical of urban and peri-urban applications. Urban stormwater management increasingly consider the needs of receiving environments as well as those of humans. There is a clear trend towards approaches that attempt to restore pre-development flow-regimes and water quality, with an increasing recognition that restoring a more natural water balance benefits not only the environment, but enhances the liveability of the urban landscape. Once regarded only as a nuisance, stormwater is now increasingly regarded as a resource. Despite the advances, many important challenges in urban hydrology remain. Further research into the spatio-temporal dynamics of urban rainfall is required to improve short-term rainfall prediction. The performance of stormwater technologies in restoring the water balance and in removing emerging priority pollutants remain poorly quantified. All of these challenges are overlaid by the uncertainty of climate change, which imposes a requirement to ensure that stormwater management systems are adaptable and resilient to changes. Urban hydrology will play a critical role in addressing these challenges.

  10. Hurricane Isabel Water Quality Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurricane Isabel swept through the east coast of the United States on September 18 and 19 of 2003. This site, created by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, discusses how this strong hurricane with winds in some areas up to 60 miles per hour affected the Chesapeake and Coastal Bays region. Students and educators can see how the hurricane affected water quality by viewing the assorted graphs demonstrating the varying wind speeds, water levels, salinity, turbidity, and chlorophyll amounts from September 16th to the 22nd.

  11. Determination of Optimal Water Quality Monitoring Points in Sewer Systems using Entropy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ho Lee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To monitor water quality continuously over the entire sewer network is important for efficient management of the system. However, it is practically impossible to implement continuous water quality monitoring of all junctions of a sewer system due to budget constraints. Therefore, water quality monitoring locations must be selected as those points which are the most representative of the dataset throughout a system. However, the optimal selection of water quality monitoring locations in urban sewer networks has rarely been studied. This study proposes a method for the optimal selection of water quality monitoring points in sewer systems based on entropy theory. The proposed model searches for a quantitative assessment of data collected from monitoring points. The points that maximize the total information among the collected data at multiple locations are selected using genetic algorithm (GA for water quality monitoring. The proposed model is demonstrated for a small urban sewer system.

  12. Relevance and Benefits of Urban Water Reuse in Tourist Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Tong Sang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban water reuse is one of the most rapidly growing water reuse applications worldwide and one of the major elements of the sustainable management of urban water cycle. Because of the high probability of direct contact between consumers and recycled water, many technical and regulatory challenges have to be overcome in order to minimize health risks at affordable cost. This paper illustrates the keys to success of one of the first urban water reuse projects in the island Bora Bora, French Polynesia. Special emphasis is given on the reliability of operation of the membrane tertiary treatment, economic viability in terms of pricing of recycled water and operating costs, as well as on the benefits of water reuse for the sustainable development of tourist areas.

  13. Water Quality Monitoring System based on WSN

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Teng

    2012-01-01

    With the growth of economy in recent years, the water quality monitoring becomes a critical issue about water pollution. Water Quality Monitoring has a big influence on the aquaculture management, waste water treatment, drinking water and some other applications. There is a trend to build a wireless sensor network system for water quality monitoring. This system detects pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, temperature, ORP (Oxidation-Reduction Potential), BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Dem...

  14. Water quality control method for reactor water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During operation of a BWR type nuclear reactor, chemical species such as chromium and molibdenum are supplied, in addition to hydrogen supplied so far, to reactor water for suppressing corrosion of materials, then the water quality is detected and a hydrogen concentration is controlled by a hydrogen supply rate. Both of the supply rate of the chemical species and the amount of chemical species captured to an ion exchange resin are varied to control the concentration of the chemical species. Thus, the amount of hydrogen injected required for the reduction of the progressing rate of cracks can be saved. Further, since these chemical species are converted into acids in reactor water to transfer pH to an acidic region, N-16 transferred radiation to a main steam system is reduced and the thickness of corrosive layers formed on materials is decreased. Then, since denser coating layers are formed, Co-60 radiation deposited on pipelines can be reduced. As a method for controlling the concentration of the reactor water, the amount of chemical species captured to the ion exchange resin in the reactor water cleanup system is previously controlled so as to balance with the concentration of the chemical species. (N.H.)

  15. Soil cover and water quality for irrigation purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bertossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the relationship between land cover and water quality for irrigation in the sub-basin of the stream Horizonte, located in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil, we selected five places in the sub-basin to collect surface water and groundwater, each influenced by different soil cover types: pasture, forest, coffee, upstream and downstream of the urban area. Collecting samples were made during periods of drought and rainfall. The physical-chemical analysis of water was made by determining the pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, sodium and calculated sodium adsorption ratio (SAR. According to the results we can conclude that the soil cover did not change the quality of water for irrigation and water evaluated, both surface and groundwater, showed no risk of soil salinization, but can cause problems sodification, making it difficult to water infiltration.

  16. Confronting the Water Crisis of Beijing Municipality in a Systems Perspective : Focusing on Water Quantity and Quality Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jin

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, water systems worldwide are under crisis due to excessive human interventions particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions. In many cities, the water quantity situation has become more and more serious, caused either by absolute water shortage or water pollution. Considering population growth and fast urbanization, ensuring adequate water supply with acceptable water quality is crucial to socio-economic development in the coming decades. In this context, one key point is ...

  17. The impact of meteorological parameters on urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Nicole R.; Klein, Petra M.; Moore, Berrien

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that global climate change will have a significant impact on both regional and urban air quality. As air temperatures continue to rise and mid-latitude cyclone frequencies decrease, the overall air quality is expected to degrade. Climate models are currently predicting an increased frequency of record setting heat and drought for Oklahoma during the summer months. A statistical analysis was thus performed on ozone and meteorological data to evaluate the potential effect of increasing surface temperatures and stagnation patterns on urban air quality in the Oklahoma City Metropolitan area. Compared to the climatological normal, the years 2011 and 2012 were exceptionally warm and dry, and were therefore used as case study years for determining the impact of hot, dry conditions on air quality. These results were then compared to cooler, wetter summers to show how urban air quality is affected by a change in meteorological parameters. It was found that an increase in summertime heat and a decrease in summertime precipitation will lead to a substantial increase in both the minimum and maximum ozone concentrations as well as an increase in the total number of exceedance days. During the hotter, drier years, the number of days with ozone concentrations above the legal regulatory limit increased nearly threefold. The length of time in which humans and crops are exposed to these unsafe levels was also doubled. Furthermore, a significant increase was noted in the overnight minimum ozone concentrations. This in turn can lead to significant, adverse affects on both health and agriculture statewide.

  18. U.S. Midwestern Residents Perceptions of Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Wright Morton

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The plurality of conservation and environmental viewpoints often challenge community leaders and government agency staff as they seek to engage citizens and build partnerships around watershed planning and management to solve complex water quality issues. The U.S. Midwest Heartland region (covering the states of Missouri, Kansa, Iowa, and Nebraska is dominated by row crop production and animal agriculture, where an understanding of perceptions held by residents of different locations (urban, rural non-farm, and rural farm towards water quality and the environment can provide a foundation for public deliberation and decision making. A stratified random sample mail survey of 1,042 Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska residents (54% response rate reveals many areas of agreement among farm, rural non-farm, and those who live in towns on the importance of water issues including the importance and use of water resources; beliefs about water quality and perceptions of impaired water quality causality; beliefs about protecting local waters; and environmental attitudes. With two ordinal logistic models, we also found that respondents with strong environmental attitudes have the least confidence in ground and surface water quality. The findings about differences and areas of agreement among the residents of different sectors can provide a communication bridge among divergent viewpoints and assist local leaders and agency staff as they seek to engage the public in discussions which lead to negotiating solutions to difficult water issues.

  19. Characterizing Water Quality in Students' Own Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, S. K.; Speelman, Nicole; Yeary, Amber; Slattery, William

    2007-01-01

    The surface water quality studies are developed to help first year college students who are preparing to become high school teachers. These water quality impact studies allow students to correlate geologic conditions and chemistry.

  20. Urban Growth Modeling to Predict the Changes in the Urban Microclimate and Urban Water Cycle :

    OpenAIRE

    Veerbeek, W.; Denekew, H.; Pathirana, A.; Brdjanovic, D.; Zevenbergen, C.; Bacchin, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of urban growth on the exposure, sensitivity but also as a driver of flooding are often underexposed. Yet, the rate of current urbanization is unprecedented and might increase future flood risk dramatically. To gain insight in this issue, a study on urban development has been performed using 3 case study areas: the megacities of Beijing, and Mumbai and 1 regular city: Can Tho, Vietnam. Using a physically urban growth model, future growth patterns are obtained that show l...

  1. Water quality control system and water quality control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the water quality control system of the present invention, portions in contact with water comprise a metal material having a controlled content of iron or chromium, and the chromium content on the surface is increased than that of mother material in a state where compression stresses remain on the surface by mechanical polishing to form an uniform corrosion resistant coating film. In addition, equipments and/or pipelines to which a material controlling corrosion potential stably is applied on the surface are used. There are disposed a cleaning device made of a material less forming impurities, and detecting intrusion of impurities and removing them selectively depending on chemical species and/or a cleaning device for recovering drain from various kinds of equipment to feedwater, connecting a feedwater pipeline and a condensate pipeline and removing impurities and corrosion products. Then, water can be kept to neutral purified water, and the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen in water are controlled within an optimum range to suppress occurrence of corrosion products. (N.H.)

  2. Conservation Strategies for Kavandi Lake Based on Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Bhutekar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Kavandi Lake (located at 18° 07’ N, 75° 37’ E, 530 m above MSL, in Ambad town, Maharashtra, India was constructed by Devi Ahilyabai Holkar to fulfill the demand of drinking water for Ambad town. The physico-chemical and ecological study of the water body was conducted to assess the present status of water quality and to suggest the conservation strategies based on the findings. In order to determine the water quality, samples were collected monthly during 2012-13 from five different sampling points and analyzed for pH, EC, BOD, DO, COD, phosphates, nitrates etc. Present investigation revealed that, the urban development in the town led adverse changes in the physico-chemical and ecological characteristics of lake water. The discharge of sewage, the agricultural and urban runoff and dumping of solid waste deteriorated the water quality of lake and it is getting enriched with plant nutrients and other pollutants, becoming more and more infested with macrophytes, getting slowly shallower and shallower and shrinking gradually in size. In conclusion, the water is moderately polluted and unfit for drinking purpose without any treatment. The eutrophic condition affected the aesthetic value of lake. The best suggested strategies among conservation of lake on the basis of conducted study includes prevention of pollution, lake cleaning by de-silting, de-weeding, bioremediation, public awareness and public participation.

  3. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modelling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and stormwater drainage systems. However, some micropollutants have the tendency to occur in more than one environmental medium. In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is “wrapped around” a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment. The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios: a reference scenario and a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS). A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in a reduced surface water concentration for the latter scenario. However, the model also showed that this was at the expense of increased fluxes to air and groundwater.

  4. Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  5. Water Quality Testing in your Local Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. B. Anderson

    Students analyze local water chemistry by identifying and collecting local water samples, deciding upon questions they want to answer about their local water sources, and then performing simple water quality tests on their samples.

  6. Applying Climate Science to Urban Water Infrastructure Planning in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, K. O.; Khimsara, P.; Brown, K.

    2013-12-01

    Operators of urban water systems in California routinely develop long-range infrastructure plans to keep the communities they serve informed and to facilitate financing of planned projects. These plans compare baseline water supplies and demands to future projections, and they assess the adequacy of existing infrastructure for delivering water from raw water sources to customer connections under a variety of scenarios. In spite of these planning efforts, urban infrastructure projects are vulnerable to extreme climate and socioeconomic events. This paper examines the challenges facing infrastructure planners seeking to adapt urban water infrastructure to climate change using the current generation of climate predictions. A case study of small urban water systems in Lompoc Valley in California highlights the gap between climate variables available from global climate model predictions and decision parameters used in water infrastructure planning. Solutions are proposed for addressing some of the challenges encountered during climate impact analysis and vulnerability assessment. The paper also highlights outstanding gaps in our understanding of climate change and societal responses which could have profound impacts on urban water use and infrastructure needs.

  7. Case study on rehabilitation of a polluted urban water body in Yangtze River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Cheng, Shuiping; Li, Zhu; Guo, Weijie; Zhong, Fei; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-10-01

    In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (purban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base. PMID:23247519

  8. U.S. Midwestern Residents Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Lois Wright Morton; Zhihua Hu

    2011-01-01

    The plurality of conservation and environmental viewpoints often challenge community leaders and government agency staff as they seek to engage citizens and build partnerships around watershed planning and management to solve complex water quality issues. The U.S. Midwest Heartland region (covering the states of Missouri, Kansa, Iowa, and Nebraska) is dominated by row crop production and animal agriculture, where an understanding of perceptions held by residents of different locations (urban,...

  9. Neighborhood Quality and Housing Value: Evidence from Urban Micro Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Using urban residential micro data from CHNS, this paper employs Hedonic Pricing Model to investigate the impact of Neighborhood Quality on housing value and its mechanism. We find that, Human Capitals measured by average schooling years and occupational diversity have significant positive effect while cultural capitals such as Ethnic Diversity have significant negative effect on housing value. Compared with the empirical results from developed counties, Social Capitals measured by length of tenure and own room rate have insignificant effect on housing value. In addition, having Kindergarten and Hospitals near the communities are positively correlated with the housing value while Internet cafe or transportation services are negative. We believe that these facts are closely related to the stage of economy transition and rapid urbanization in current China. The conclusions have important implications for the effective construction of harmonious commodities.

  10. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrous dioxide (NO2) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P 10, SO2, and NO2 in urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. - Highlights: • We investigate the distributions of PM10, SO2 and NO2 in urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. • We explore the associations of air pollution and male semen quality. • The concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 are significantly higher in urban areas. • Median values of some semen quality parameters in rural male were higher than urban male. • PM10, SO2, and NO2 were negatively associated with semen quality parameters. - Air pollution is higher in the urban area while there is better semen quality in rural males. Polluted air may thus account for worse semen quality in urban males

  11. Implication of urbanization on meteorology and air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chun-Fung

    This dissertation focuses on investigating the feature and mechanism of local and regional scale atmospheric circulations and its associated pollution transport and trapping in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, which is a highly urbanized area with complex terrain and coastlines. The first step of this research was to set up a localized fine-scale (1 km) land-surface/urban modeling system coupled with the mesoscale meteorological model MM5, to provide a more accurate and realistic prediction of meteorological condition over the region. After the model evaluations, a number of numerical experiments have been conducted in order to understand the impact of urbanization and its associated urban heat islands on meteorology over the PRD. The modeling system was then coupled with a particle trajectory model to demonstrate the unique land-sea breeze circulation features and the temporal evolution, and develop a conceptual model for the air pollution trapping phenomenon in the region. Further sensitivity experiments were used to illustrate the impact of urbanization and large-scale flows on the pollution processes. After that, a new methodology was introduced to identify the contribution of primary and secondary pollutants from the emissions of local/regional area sources and power plants to Hong Kong. Several weighting factors were established to the air mass/pollutant trajectory calculations and used to evaluate the local and regional contribution of primary pollutants to Hong Kong pollution. The relationships between emission inventories, physical paths and chemical transformation rates of the pollutants, and observational measurements were formulated. The local and regional contributions of secondary pollutants were obtained by this conceptual module. Finally, this study challenges the backward trajectory analysis, which is a well accepted analytical method in air quality research in Hong Kong. The result demonstrates large uncertainties in their behavior when comparing calculations using different resolution of wind fields, indicating that care must be taken on choosing the suitable resolution of wind fields when calculating trajectories for diagnostic studies.

  12. Impact of urbanization level on urban air quality: a case of fine particles (PM(2.5)) in Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng; Li, Li

    2014-11-01

    We examined and compared PM2.5 concentrations in urban and the surrounding regions, and further investigated the impact of urbanization on urban PM2.5 concentrations at the Chinese prefectures. Annual PM2.5 concentrations in most prefectures were greater than 10 ?g/m(3), the air quality guideline of the World Health Organization. Those prefectures were mainly distributed along the east coast and southeast of Sichuan province; The urban PM2.5 concentrations ( [Formula: see text] ) in 85 cities were greater than (>10 ?g/m(3)) those in the surrounding area. Those cities were mainly located in the Beijing-Sichuan and Shanghai-Guangxi belts. In addition, [Formula: see text] was less than (positive correlations were found between [Formula: see text] and urban population (R(2) = 0.99, P urban second industry fraction (R(2) = 0.71, P urbanization had considerable impact on PM2.5 concentrations. PMID:25113968

  13. Characterisations and Interventions of the Water-Energy Nexus in Urban Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the water-energy nexus of urban water services and the water-related energy demands that stem from them. The initial objective provides insight into the development of nexus analyses through a review of international literature. Based on data from recent urban water system metabolism studies, and process factors identified in literature, an in-depth analysis was also performed to explain the variations in energy consumption and emission intensities per unit of water demand...

  14. Quality of Care for Myocardial Infarction in Rural and Urban Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Chan, Leighton; Andrilla, C. Holly A.; Huff, Edwin D.; Hart, L. Gary

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the mid-1990s, significant gaps existed in the quality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care between rural and urban hospitals. Since then, overall AMI care quality has improved. This study uses more recent data to determine whether rural-urban AMI quality gaps have persisted. Methods: Using inpatient records data for 34,776…

  15. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES §...

  16. Indicating anthropogenic effectson urban water system - indicators and extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, G.; Ufz-Team

    2003-04-01

    Urban water systems are polluted by diffusive and direct contribution of anthropogenic activities. Besides industrial contaminants like aromatic and chlorinated HC and other persistent organic compounds, the urban aquatic environment is increasingly polluted by low concentrated but high eco-toxic compounds as pharmaceuticals, fragrances, plasticizers which most have disrupt endocrine functions, and trace elements carried in by surface and sub-surface waste water and seeping processes. This contamination could have a longtime impact on the urban ecosystem and on the human health. The interdisciplinary project on risk assessment of water pollution was initiated to explore new methodologies for assessing human activities on the urban water system and processes among urban watersheds. In a first assumption we used a flow model concept with in- and output and surface water transport represented by the city of Halle, Germany, and the river Saale. The river Saale acts as surface water system collecting waste water inputs along the city traverse. We investigated the anthropogenic effect on the urban water system using the indicators hydrological parameters, compound specific pattern of complex organic substances and trace elements, isotopic signatures of water (H, O) and dissolved substances (sulfate, DIC, nitrate), pathogens, and microbiota. A first balance modeling showed that main ions are not very sensitive concerning the direct urban input into the river. Depending on the discharge of the river in high and low flood stages the load of dissolved matter has no specific urban effect. However, the concentration pattern of fragrances (tonalid, galaxolid) and endocrine disrupters (t-nonylphenol) point to a different pollution along the city traverse: downstream of the sewage plant a higher load was observed in comparison to the upstream passage. Furthermore, a degradation ability of fungi and bacteria occurred in the bank sediments could be detected in lab experiments concerning the fragrances, and endocrine disrupters (t-nonylphenol, phthalate). The Saale water samples contain components able to eco-toxic and immunomodulated effects as measured on the vitality and cytokine-secretion profile of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Even fragrances caused such effects which are unknown so far. The study of assessing urban effects onto the water system is still under investigation.

  17. Surface water flood forecasting for urban communities: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ghimire, S.; Dunn, S.; Golding, B. W.; Pierce, C. P.; Roberts, N. M.; Moore, R. J.; Cole, S. J.; Speight, L.

    2013-01-01

    The CREW project “Surface water flood forecasting for urban communities” aims to assist SEPA in increasing its surface water flood forecasting capabilities. Two detailed review reports have been produced. The first report (Golding et al., 2013) reviews recent advances in rainfall estimation and forecasting techniques with a view to identifying the best rainfall data for surface water flood forecasting. The second report (Ghimire et al., 2013) reviews current surface water flood modelling ...

  18. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-01

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources. PMID:24919129

  19. [Microbial risk assessment of urban water bodies for aesthetical and recreational uses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fu; Sha, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Liu, Yan-Hua

    2013-03-01

    With the increasing public access to urban water bodies for aesthetical and recreational purposes, it is of critical importance for densely populated urban areas to conduct microbial risk assessment and accordingly implement effective risk management. Based on the methodology of quantitative microbial risk assessment, a case study was conducted on three typical urban water bodies for aesthetical and recreational uses in a southern city in China. Exposure assessment was carried out through water quality monitoring, field survey and literature review, and accordingly human health risk was assessed with different dose-response equations based on fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli (EC) and Enterococci (ENT). Microbial risk estimated by different dose-response equations was found consistent with and comparable to each other. Stream B located in a residential area was not suitable for primary- or secondary-contact recreational uses, and its microbial risk to the public mainly came from water abstraction for household miscellaneous uses. Stream C and Lake E, located in a public open space and a scenic area respectively, could meet the current recreational requirements, and their microbial risk to the public was generally attributed to various recreational activities. It was necessary to address the public health risk associated with the unauthorized or inappropriate water uses (e.g. abstraction for household miscellaneous uses) of urban aesthetical and recreational water bodies. PMID:23745397

  20. Urban climate and air quality in Trier Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junk, Jürgen; Helbig, Alfred; Lüers, Johannes

    2003-08-01

    To conceptualize strategies for regional environmental management in the Trier region, extensive urban meteorological measurements were undertaken. Weather stations from the German Weather Service and the state Pollution Monitoring Network were used as well as a number of our automatic meteorological stations and a mobile platform (instrumented van). The bioclimatic conditions in the city of Trier are affected by the valley of the Moselle River. Both the wind field and the thermal stratification in the urban boundary layer showed local characteristics especially marked in the diurnal variation and monthly mean concentrations of the air pollutants nitrogen and sulfurdioxide (NO(x), SO(2)), ozone (O(3)) and particle matter (PM10). Catabatic flows from the side valleys partially reduce the urban heat island and increase the ozone concentration in the city in the evening during calm weather conditions. The impact-based air-quality index is mostly determined by a high PM10 concentration. Strategies to reduce air pollutions in the Trier region are discussed. PMID:12700954

  1. Towards Adaptive Urban Water Management: Up-Scaling Local Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Quitzau, Maj-Britt

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, the need for adaptive urban water management approaches is advertised, but the transition towards such approaches in the urban water sector seems to be slow. The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth study of how an innovative approach has been adopted in practice by looking into how contextual knowledge from a local project has been up-scaled to more generic knowledge. Specifically, the paper outlines how two planners from a Danish municipality succeeded in developing a more innovative sewage plan on the basis of a local project with implementation of local handling of rainwater. This insight into the processes of learning aggregation of water practices points towards the important role that the dedicated work performed by local facilitators and intermediaries play in relation to a transition towards more adaptive urban water management.

  2. Recent Advances in Point-of-Access Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Velusamy, V.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Clean water is one of our most valuable natural resources. In addition to providing safe drinking water it assures functional ecosystems that support fisheries and recreation. Human population growth and its associated increased demands on water pose risks to maintaining acceptable water quality. It is vital to assess source waters and the aquatic systems that receive inputs from industrial waste and sewage treatment plants, storm water systems, and runoff from urban and agricultural lands. Rapid and confident assessments of aquatic resources form the basis for sound environmental management. Current methods engaged in tracing the presence of various bacteria in water employ bulky laboratory equipment and are time consuming. Thus, real-time water quality monitoring is essential for National and International Health and Safety. Environmental water monitoring includes measurements of physical characteristics (e.g. pH, temperature, conductivity), chemical parameters (e.g. oxygen, alkalinity, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds), and abundance of certain biological taxa. Monitoring could also include assays of biological activity such as alkaline phosphatase, tests for toxins such as microcystins and direct measurements of pollutants such as heavy metals or hydrocarbons. Real time detection can significantly reduce the level of damage and also the cost to remedy the problem. This paper presents overview of state-of-the-art methods and devices used for point-of-access water quality monitoring and suggest further developments in this area.

  3. Water quality evaluation method for reactor water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a selection of materials suitable to prevent corrosions and failures of equipments in a pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor and a method of controlling reactor cooling water. Electrochemical calculation is conducted while having oxygen, hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide concentrations at each point of reactor structures obtained by radiolysis calculation as inputs. The density of current caused by electrochemical reaction on the surface of metals is calculated depending on the concentration of chemical species at each of the points. In addition, the density of current caused by melting reaction of metals when the electrochemical reaction of chemical species take place is also taken into consideration. The circumstance of stress corrosion crackings at a specific position of the reactor structures is evaluated by using a relationship formula between the crack propagating speed and the density of current previously obtained based on the density of current while having a crack propagating speed as an index. Countermeasures for decreasing the crack propagating speed are carried out based on the predetermined standard values. The crack propagating speed can be analyzed and evaluated by simulation, so that effective control for water quality relative to stress corrosion crackings is enabled. (N.H.)

  4. Obtaining Traffic Information by Urban Air Quality Inspection

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrante, P; Nicolosi, S; Scaccianoce, G; Traverso, M; Rizzo, G

    2011-01-01

    The level of air quality in urban centres is affected by emission of several pollutants, mainly coming from the vehicles flowing in their road networks. This is a well known phenomenon that influences the quality of life of people. Despite the deep concern of researchers and technicians, we are far from a total understanding of this phenomenon. On the contrary, the availability of reliable forecasting models would constitute an important tool for administrators in order of assessing suitable actions concerning the transportation policies, public as well private. Referring to the situation of the running fleet and the measured pollutant concentrations concerning the Italian town of Palermo, a data-deduced traffic model is here derived, its truthfulness being justified by a fuzzyfication of the phenomenon. A first validation of the model is supplied by utilising the emissions characteristics and the pollutant concentrations referring to a two years period of time. This work could represent a first attempt in de...

  5. Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Eiko Yoshida; Ana Paula Pozzo Rios Rolla

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate the relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to ...

  6. Regression modeling of particle size distributions in urban storm water: advancements through improved sample collection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Selbig, William R.

    2012-01-01

    A new sample collection system was developed to improve the representation of sediment entrained in urban storm water by integrating water quality samples from the entire water column. The depth-integrated sampler arm (DISA) was able to mitigate sediment stratification bias in storm water, thereby improving the characterization of suspended-sediment concentration and particle size distribution at three independent study locations. Use of the DISA decreased variability, which improved statistical regression to predict particle size distribution using surrogate environmental parameters, such as precipitation depth and intensity. The performance of this statistical modeling technique was compared to results using traditional fixed-point sampling methods and was found to perform better. When environmental parameters can be used to predict particle size distributions, environmental managers have more options when characterizing concentrations, loads, and particle size distributions in urban runoff.

  7. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5...INTERIOR OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY...APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance...

  8. Comparative evaluation of runoff and water quality using HSPF and SWMM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sae-Bom; Yoon, Chun-Gyeong; Jung, Kwang Wook; Hwang, Ha Sun

    2010-01-01

    Stormwater pollution is the untreated contaminated water that drains into natural waterways from land uses within an urban catchment. Several studies have demonstrated the deterioration of water quality in receiving bodies of water caused by stormwater runoff. The data have reported that urban runoff play primary roles in degrading water quality in adjacent aquatic systems. The accurate estimation of non-pollutant loads from urban runoff and the prediction of water quality in receiving waters are important. The objective of this paper is to assess the applicability of the watershed scale hydrologic and water quality simulation models SWMM and HSPF to simulate the hydrology of a small watershed in the Han River Basin. Monitoring was performed in small scale watersheds, which is homogeneous land use. The applicability of SWMM and HSPF model was examined for small watersheds using hourly monitoring data. The results of SWMM were reasonably reflected with observed data in small scale urban area. HSPF model was effective at specifying parameters related to runoff and water quality when using hourly monitoring data. The watershed models used in this study adequately simulated watershed characteristics and are recommended to support watershed management. PMID:20861556

  9. APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING FIXED BED BIOFILM AND MEMBRAN BIOREACTOR FOR WATER REUSE IN URBAN HOUSING AREA

    OpenAIRE

    ELIS HASTUTI; IDA MEDAWATY; Pamekas, R.

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate application of water reuse technologies, with major emphasis of water reuse for non-potable applications in urban housing area. To study the systems performance, secondary treatment development at pilot scale has been studied to achieve desired water reuse quality. There were two systems applied for water reuse scheme using biofilter or fixed bed biofilm system for treating wastewater from Turangga’s flat in Bandung City and membrane bioreactor system for trea...

  10. Studies in planning water-quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbaghi, A.

    1981-01-01

    This study focuses on three questions relevant to water-quality management: (1) what is the optimum allocation of water within a River Basin and what are the control policies which would ensure that allocation through a set of efficiency standards; (2) what is the proper role of a pricing system as an instrument of water-quality management; and (3) what is the role of water reuse as an alternative to other sources of water. The first question is studied within a regional model. It is assumed that a River Basin Authority acts as the central decision-making institution in distributing water on the basis of cost-benefit analysis. The second question is studied within the framework of a convex programming model. It is assumed that there are various qualities of water to be supplied, each higher quality requiring more treatment and costing more. It is further assumed that the total cost of supplying water or any given quality is a convex increasing function, approximated by a piecewise linear function. The third question is treated within the framework of an optimization model. It is assumed that various qualities of water can satisfy the demand: reuse is considered as an attractive alternative source of water supply, particularly in the water-short regions and cities. It is shown that water reuse combined with a multiple distribution system may be viewed as an important instrument in water-quality management.

  11. Evaluation of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF model using measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.-H.; Kim, S.-W.; Angevine, W. M.; Bianco, L.; McKeen, S. A.; Senff, C. J.; Trainer, M.; Tucker, S. C.; Zamora, R. J.

    2010-10-01

    The impact of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model on the simulation of local meteorological fields is investigated. The Noah land surface model (LSM), a modified LSM, and a single-layer urban canopy model (UCM) have been compared, focusing on urban patches. The model simulations were performed for 6 days from 12 August to 17 August during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign. Analysis was focused on the Houston-Galveston metropolitan area. The model simulated temperature, wind, and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height were compared with observations from surface meteorological stations (Continuous Ambient Monitoring Stations, CAMS), wind profilers, the NOAA Twin Otter aircraft, and the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. The UCM simulation showed better results in the comparison of ABL height and surface temperature than the LSM simulations, whereas the original LSM overestimated both the surface temperature and ABL height significantly in urban areas. The modified LSM, which activates hydrological processes associated with urban vegetation mainly through transpiration, slightly reduced warm and high biases in surface temperature and ABL height. A comparison of surface energy balance fluxes in an urban area indicated the UCM reproduces a realistic partitioning of sensible heat and latent heat fluxes, consequently improving the simulation of urban boundary layer. However, the LSMs have a higher Bowen ratio than the observation due to significant suppression of latent heat flux. The comparison results suggest that the subgrid heterogeneity by urban vegetation and urban morphological characteristics should be taken into account along with the associated physical parameterizations for accurate simulation of urban boundary layer if the region of interest has a large fraction of vegetation within the urban patch. Model showed significant discrepancies in the specific meteorological conditions when nocturnal low-level jets exist and a thermal internal boundary layer over water forms.

  12. Evaluation of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF model using measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-H. Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model on the simulation of local meteorological fields is investigated. The Noah land surface model (LSM, a modified LSM, and a single-layer urban canopy model (UCM have been compared, focusing on urban patches. The model simulations were performed for 6 days from 12 August to 17 August during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign. Analysis was focused on the Houston-Galveston metropolitan area. The model simulated temperature, wind, and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL height were compared with observations from surface meteorological stations (Continuous Ambient Monitoring Stations, CAMS, wind profilers, the NOAA Twin Otter aircraft, and the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. The UCM simulation showed better results in the comparison of ABL height and surface temperature than the LSM simulations, whereas the original LSM overestimated both the surface temperature and ABL height significantly in urban areas. The modified LSM, which activates hydrological processes associated with urban vegetation mainly through transpiration, slightly reduced warm and high biases in surface temperature and ABL height. A comparison of surface energy balance fluxes in an urban area indicated the UCM reproduces a realistic partitioning of sensible heat and latent heat fluxes, consequently improving the simulation of urban boundary layer. However, the LSMs have a higher Bowen ratio than the observation due to significant suppression of latent heat flux. The comparison results suggest that the subgrid heterogeneity by urban vegetation and urban morphological characteristics should be taken into account along with the associated physical parameterizations for accurate simulation of urban boundary layer if the region of interest has a large fraction of vegetation within the urban patch. Model showed significant discrepancies in the specific meteorological conditions when nocturnal low-level jets exist and a thermal internal boundary layer over water forms.

  13. Urbanization affects water and nitrogen use in the food chain in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, W.; Ma, L.; Zhang, F. S.; Oenema, O.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urbanization and agriculture are highly coupled. However, the impacts of urbanization(e.g. transformation in urban and rural population and change in diet) on water and nitrogen (N) use remain poorly understood. The objectives of this study are to quantify water flows in the food chain of China, to analyze the complex relationship between urbanization and water and N use efficiency, and to project water and N demand in China via various scenarios, using a combination of water foo...

  14. The Economics of Sustainable Urban Water Management: The Case of Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, X.

    2011-01-01

    A rapidly growing urban population leads to the dramatic increase of water consumption in the world. The water resources available to the human being are limited. Meanwhile climate variability and environmental pollution decrease the quantity of water resources available for human use. It is a significant challenge to provide sufficient water to urban residents in a sustainable and effective way. Facing urban water crisis, researchers point out a paradigm shift in urban wate...

  15. Applications of artificial neural networks for microbial water quality modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brion, G.M.; Lingireddy, S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

    2002-06-15

    There has been a significant shift in the recent past towards protecting chemical and microbial quality of source waters rather than developing advanced methods to treat heavily polluted water. The key to successful best management practices in protecting the source waters is to identify sources of non-point pollution and their collective impact on the quality of water at the intake. This article presents a few successful applications where artificial neural networks (ANN) have proven to be the useful mathematical tools in correlating the nonlinear relationships between routinely measured parameters (such as rainfall, turbidity, fecal coliforms etc.) and quality of source waters and/or nature of fecal sources. These applications include, prediction of peak concentrations of Giardia and Cryptosporidium, sorting of fecal sources (e.g. agricultural animals vs. urban animals), predicting relative ages of the runoff sources, identifying the potential for sewage contamination. The ability of ANNs to work with complex, inter-related multiparameter databases, and provide superior predictive power in non-linear relationships has been the key for their successful application to microbial water quality studies. (author)

  16. Applications of artificial neural networks for microbial water quality modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a significant shift in the recent past towards protecting chemical and microbial quality of source waters rather than developing advanced methods to treat heavily polluted water. The key to successful best management practices in protecting the source waters is to identify sources of non-point pollution and their collective impact on the quality of water at the intake. This article presents a few successful applications where artificial neural networks (ANN) have proven to be the useful mathematical tools in correlating the nonlinear relationships between routinely measured parameters (such as rainfall, turbidity, fecal coliforms etc.) and quality of source waters and/or nature of fecal sources. These applications include, prediction of peak concentrations of Giardia and Cryptosporidium, sorting of fecal sources (e.g. agricultural animals vs. urban animals), predicting relative ages of the runoff sources, identifying the potential for sewage contamination. The ability of ANNs to work with complex, inter-related multiparameter databases, and provide superior predictive power in non-linear relationships has been the key for their successful application to microbial water quality studies. (author)

  17. Corporatization of the water sector: Implications for transitioning to sustainable urban water management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Chiara; Elle, Morten

    2012-01-01

    In the context of climate change, the Danish water sector is experiencing two major pressures. On one hand, a number of agents are pushing towards more sustainable urban water management (SUWM) approaches with the aim of improving surface water quality and mitigating flood risk. On the other hand, as part of an international trend, the municipal water management departments were transformed to locally created not-for-profit corporatized companies. Main drivers for corporatization are increased efficiency and cost recovery by reduced municipal control on utility budgets. Scholars have described the influencing factors for transitioning to SUWM and highlighted the potential governance attributes for enhancing and/or constraining such change. This paper explores the corporatization of the water sector and its implications for transitioning to SUWM. On the base of a preliminary literature review we identify the rationales for and drawbacks of corporatization and compare them with the critical factors to build institutional capacity for SUWM. Preliminary results suggest that corporatization is expected to create a range of challenges that might hinder the transition towards more SUWM approaches. A more direct collaboration of the national regulator of competitive performances with government institutions and other non-governmental actors might be an effective answer to such challenges.

  18. DRINKING WATER MICROBIOLOGY - NEW DIRECTIONS TOWARD WATER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many concerns result from information on new waterborne agents, treatment problems of raw water qualities, biofilm development in some distribution systems, and special quality needs unique to hospitals and industries. Protozoan cyst penetration after some disinfection practices ...

  19. Water quality in the Knysna estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, I. A.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of water temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, secchi disk depth, turbidity and total suspended solids were taken monthly in the Knysna estuary between 1991 and 1994. Measurements of turbidity and total suspended solids of waters entering the Knysna estuary via rivers and man-made inlets were also taken on an ad hoc basis. These results are described and compared to published data on past water quality conditions. No clear long-term changes in water quality in the estuary ...

  20. Exploring urban mines : pipe length and material stocks in urban water and wastewater networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Govindarajan, Venkatesh; Brattebø, Helge; Mu?ller, Daniel Beat

    2013-01-01

    This is an Author's Original Manuscript of an article whose final and definitive form, the Version of Record, has been published in the Urban Water Journal, Published online: 17 Jun 2013, © Taylor & Francis, available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/doi:1573062X.2013.795234

  1. Controls on Stormwater Runoff Quality and Quantity in Semi-arid, Urban Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, E. L.; Brooks, P. D.; Lohse, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    Utilization of recharged urban runoff to complement municipal water supply has gained importance in arid regions where populations and their urban footprint continue to grow, and where water resources are scarce. However, our understanding of how runoff quantity and quality respond to urbanization in arid landscapes is largely incomplete and poses a challenge for water resources management. Here we address the question: What controls the hydrologic and hydrochemical responses of arid urban catchments? We collected water samples and stream stage data from 5 urban catchments of varied land uses (low, medium and high density residential, mixed and commercial land use) in southern Arizona during the summer rainfall seasons of 2007 and 2008. The most homogeneous catchments, as indicated by the index of landscape heterogeneity, were the least and most impervious, while the most heterogeneous sites had mid-range imperviousness. Hydrochemical responses were mixed, did not correlate with imperviousness or vegetation abundance, and were not strongly controlled by land use. Clustering analysis highlight hydrologic and sourcing controls on hydrochemistry, specifically conservative solute transport, land use specific and geologic solute sourcing and atmospheric deposition. Overall, water yields were surprisingly small (< 15%) and increased with imperviousness. Our data show that discharge responses were more sensitive to rainfall magnitude in homogeneous sites. We suggest that imperviousness and rainfall magnitude control water yields; whereas landscape heterogeneity may control a catchment’s sensitivity to generate runoff. The coupling of landscape and hydrology in controlling hydrochemistry is well illustrated by chloride (Cl), a non-reactive hydrologic tracer that was positively correlated with a large number of solutes such as ammonium, dissolved organic carbon, cadmium and zinc. We observed the highest concentrations and coefficients of variation of Cl at least and most impervious sites. We suggest that because the least and most impervious catchments are highly homogeneous and generate runoff in response to a wider range of rainfall magnitudes, flushing and transport of Cl is enhanced and therefore results in similar hydrochemical responses at these two sites despite large differences in their land use and imperviousness. Finally, we suggest that solutes positively correlated with Cl are subject to similar transport processes. Our study indicates that contrary to conceptual models developed for more humid areas, imperviousness is not a reliable predictor of hydrochemical response.

  2. Habitat quality, water quality and otter distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Mason

    1995-01-01

    Abstract In recent decades the otter (Lutra lutra) has declined over much of Europe. Good habitat has been shown to be essential to otters. Specific elements of cover have been identified in some studies but the minimum cover requirements to support otter populations are not known. These are likely to vary in relation to other factors, such as disturbance. Habitat destruction has been severe in many areas of Europe. Water quantity is importan...

  3. USGS: National Water Quality Assessment Data Warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    This incredibly comprehensive and well-organized site from the USGS offers visitors all sorts of information on water quality studies from all over the United States. By clicking on a map of the US, users are taken to a list of study areas, with over fifty to pick from. By clicking on an individual study, such as the Western Lake Michigan Drainages, the user is provided with a description of the study, maps, publications, and water quality information. As part of the USDS and initiated in 1991, the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) been "systematically collecting chemical, biological, and physical water quality data." Since then, over 6,000 surface water sites and 7,000 wells have been sampled represented by tens of thousands of samples. This data is summarized for visitors to the site and should be very useful for those studying surface water quality and educators looking for recent data to augment their teaching.

  4. Water Infrastructure Adaptation in New Urban Design: Possibilities and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural constraints, including climate change and dynamic socioeconomic development, can significantly impact the way we plan, design, and operate water infrastructure, thus its sustainability to deliver reliable quality water supplies and comply with environmental regulations. ...

  5. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  6. Air quality control monitoring at an urban and industrialized area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air particulate matter analysis has been performed since 1999, within a contract for air quality monitoring of an urban waste incinerator. Air collection was made with Gent samplers, which collect size-fractionated aerosol samples in three sampling sites. Samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Some INAA results are discussed. PM10 mass concentrations are compared with the limit values for human health protection regulated by the European Council Directive 1999/30/CE. Weekend day and weekday samples are compared concerning As, Co, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn mean concentrations collected at Bobadela for 1999. Enrichment factors are also presented. Enrichments were found for As, Sb, Se and Zn for both fractions in the three sampling sites. In order to quantify the evolution for the 1999-2001 period, basic statistics was performed for the enriched elements. (author)

  7. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF URBAN WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Almeida de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The chaotic growth of cities results in numerous problems related to public health and urban environment. One of these problems is the crisis in urban water supply systems. The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical model for the water supply system crisis in urban environment (WSC able to tackle with the ambiguity of the real available data.Design/methodology/approach – The applied methodology comprises the following steps: (1 identification of the influencing factors in WSC; (2 proposal of a conceptual model for WSC description; (3 gathering and simulation of the necessary and available data; (4 optimization of the conceptual model parameters; and (5 verification of the proposed model performance.Findings – The results indicated that there is a great amount of influencing factors in WSC (showed in the complete text; the conceptual model that was developed is composed by two others partial models ( . The first partial model explained the water consumption ( ,and the second partial model explained the water availability ( , in which functions are related to influencing factors in water consumption (i.e. temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, revenues collected, unemployment indicator, and functions are related to the influencing factors in water availability (i.e. total water-loss, intermittence in water supply system. The proposed conceptual model has showed good agreement to the simulated data.Originality/value – The paper is among the first works to describe a WSC model and to analyze the possibility of applying fuzzy logic to deal with the ambiguity of the real data. The water supply crisis in urban environments was adequately modelled.

  8. Multiple sources of boron in urban surface waters and groundwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenmueller, Elizabeth A., E-mail: eahasenm@wustl.edu; Criss, Robert E.

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies attribute abnormal boron (B) levels in streams and groundwaters to wastewater and fertilizer inputs. This study shows that municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation contributes substantial non-point loads of B and other chemicals (S-species, Li, and Cu) to surface waters and shallow groundwaters in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. Background levels and potential B sources were characterized by analysis of lawn and street runoff, streams, rivers, springs, local rainfall, wastewater influent and effluent, and fertilizers. Urban surface waters and groundwaters are highly enriched in B (to 250 ?g/L) compared to background levels found in rain and pristine, carbonate-hosted streams and springs (< 25 ?g/L), but have similar concentrations (150 to 259 ?g/L) compared to municipal drinking waters derived from the Missouri River. Other data including B/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}?S and B/Li ratios confirm major contributions from this source. Moreover, sequential samples of runoff collected during storms show that B concentrations decrease with increased discharge, proving that elevated B levels are not primarily derived from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) during flooding. Instead, non-point source B exhibits complex behavior depending on land use. In urban settings B is rapidly mobilized from lawns during “first flush” events, likely representing surficial salt residues from drinking water used to irrigate lawns, and is also associated with the baseflow fraction, likely derived from the shallow groundwater reservoir that over time accumulates B from drinking water that percolates into the subsurface. The opposite occurs in small rural watersheds, where B is leached from soils by recent rainfall and covaries with the event water fraction. Highlights: ? Boron sources and loads differ between urban and rural watersheds. ? Wastewaters are not the major boron source in small St. Louis, MO watersheds. ? Municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation can be high in boron. ? Lawn irrigation practices can considerably alter urban water chemistry.

  9. Water quality changes in the world's first special economic zone, Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Zhao; Du, Shiqiang; Shi, Peijun; Tao, Fulu; Doyle, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Shenzhen, as the first special economic zone in the world, has been in the process of rapid urbanization for 30 years. Many special economic zones have been established in China and other nations following Shenzhen's experience. However, Shenzhen has attained significant economic development with an attendant cost of environmental degradation, and similar results may be seen in other zones in the future. Here we use a pollution index method to evaluate the effect of such rapid urban development on the surface water quality in Shenzhen from 1991 to 2008. Rapid urbanization has affected surface water quality, but environmental policies can mitigate some of these effects, although such policy-induced improvements required some time before showing efficacy. As their use of special economic zones proliferates worldwide, greater consideration of the potential effects on water quality, and their overall sustainability, must receive greater attention.

  10. Evaluation of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF model using measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-H. Lee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of different urban surface parameterizations in the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting in simulating urban boundary layer (UBL was investigated using extensive measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign. The extensive field measurements collected on surface (meteorological, wind profiler, energy balance flux sites, a research aircraft, and a research vessel characterized 3-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structures over the Houston-Galveston Bay area, providing a unique opportunity for the evaluation of the physical parameterizations. The model simulations were performed over the Houston metropolitan area for a summertime period (12–17 August using a bulk urban parameterization in the Noah land surface model (original LSM, a modified LSM, and a single-layer urban canopy model (UCM. The UCM simulation compared quite well with the observations over the Houston urban areas, reducing the systematic model biases in the original LSM simulation by 1–2 °C in near-surface air temperature and by 200–400 m in UBL height, on average. A more realistic turbulent (sensible and latent heat energy partitioning contributed to the improvements in the UCM simulation. The original LSM significantly overestimated the sensible heat flux (~200 W m?2 over the urban areas, resulting in warmer and higher UBL. The modified LSM slightly reduced warm and high biases in near-surface air temperature (0.5–1 °C and UBL height (~100 m as a result of the effects of urban vegetation. The relatively strong thermal contrast between the Houston area and the water bodies (Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico in the LSM simulations enhanced the sea/bay breezes, but the model performance in predicting local wind fields was similar among the simulations in terms of statistical evaluations. These results suggest that a proper surface representation (e.g. urban vegetation, surface morphology and explicit parameterizations of urban physical processes are required for accurate urban atmospheric numerical modeling.

  11. Evaluation of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF model using measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.-H.; Kim, S.-W.; Angevine, W. M.; Bianco, L.; McKeen, S. A.; Senff, C. J.; Trainer, M.; Tucker, S. C.; Zamora, R. J.

    2011-03-01

    The performance of different urban surface parameterizations in the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) in simulating urban boundary layer (UBL) was investigated using extensive measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign. The extensive field measurements collected on surface (meteorological, wind profiler, energy balance flux) sites, a research aircraft, and a research vessel characterized 3-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structures over the Houston-Galveston Bay area, providing a unique opportunity for the evaluation of the physical parameterizations. The model simulations were performed over the Houston metropolitan area for a summertime period (12-17 August) using a bulk urban parameterization in the Noah land surface model (original LSM), a modified LSM, and a single-layer urban canopy model (UCM). The UCM simulation compared quite well with the observations over the Houston urban areas, reducing the systematic model biases in the original LSM simulation by 1-2 °C in near-surface air temperature and by 200-400 m in UBL height, on average. A more realistic turbulent (sensible and latent heat) energy partitioning contributed to the improvements in the UCM simulation. The original LSM significantly overestimated the sensible heat flux (~200 W m-2) over the urban areas, resulting in warmer and higher UBL. The modified LSM slightly reduced warm and high biases in near-surface air temperature (0.5-1 °C) and UBL height (~100 m) as a result of the effects of urban vegetation. The relatively strong thermal contrast between the Houston area and the water bodies (Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico) in the LSM simulations enhanced the sea/bay breezes, but the model performance in predicting local wind fields was similar among the simulations in terms of statistical evaluations. These results suggest that a proper surface representation (e.g. urban vegetation, surface morphology) and explicit parameterizations of urban physical processes are required for accurate urban atmospheric numerical modeling.

  12. WATER QUALITY OF THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clear Spring Foods, Inc., conducted a year-long study in the Middle Snake River to provide a perspective on water quality issues and the impact of aquaculture activities on water quality. The study area extended from Shoshone Falls Park to below Box Canyon. Physical and chemical ...

  13. Multiple sources of boron in urban surface waters and groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies attribute abnormal boron (B) levels in streams and groundwaters to wastewater and fertilizer inputs. This study shows that municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation contributes substantial non-point loads of B and other chemicals (S-species, Li, and Cu) to surface waters and shallow groundwaters in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. Background levels and potential B sources were characterized by analysis of lawn and street runoff, streams, rivers, springs, local rainfall, wastewater influent and effluent, and fertilizers. Urban surface waters and groundwaters are highly enriched in B (to 250 ?g/L) compared to background levels found in rain and pristine, carbonate-hosted streams and springs (42-?S and B/Li ratios confirm major contributions from this source. Moreover, sequential samples of runoff collected during storms show that B concentrations decrease with increased discharge, proving that elevated B levels are not primarily derived from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) during flooding. Instead, non-point source B exhibits complex behavior depending on land use. In urban settings B is rapidly mobilized from lawns during “first flush” events, likely representing surficial salt residues from drinking water used to irrigate lawns, and is also associated with the baseflow fraction, likely derived from the shallow groundwater reservoir that over time accumulates B from drinking water that percolates into the subsurface. The opposite occurs in small rural watersheds, where B is leached from soils by recent rainfall and covaries with the event water fraction. Highlights: ? Boron sources and loads differ between urban and rural watersheds. ? Wastewaters are not the major boron source in small St. Louis, MO watersheds. ? Municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation can be high in boron. ? Lawn irrigation practices can considerably alter urban water chemistry

  14. Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Bain, Robert; Wright, Jim; Aondoakaa, Stephen; Hossain, Rifat; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-08-15

    Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban-rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban-rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban-rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban-rural dichotomy. PMID:24858228

  15. Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Russo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management (SWM requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1 How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2 What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3 What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4 What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1 all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2 increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation.

  16. Decentralised urban water reuse: the implications of system scale for cost and pathogen risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fane, S A; Ashbolt, N J; White, S B

    2002-01-01

    The non-potable reuse of treated sewage in urban areas provides significant conservation of potable supplies beyond that available through water use efficiency. Effluent reuse is also an inevitable requirement in novel decentralised wastewater systems. At present, urban water reuse, where pursued, usually involves large-scale schemes based on new or existing centralised sewage treatment plants. This is despite the diseconomy of scale inherent in pipe networks that balances economies of scale in sewage treatment and negates any cost advantage for wastewater systems with more than around 1,000 connections. In light of this, the theoretical relationship between effluent reuse system scale and pathogen risks was examined at various effluent qualities. Waterborne disease was seen to be a significant factor when reusing effluent in urban areas and smaller systems were found to pose a lower risk of waterborne infection, all other things being equal. Pathogen risks were then included within an economic analysis of system scale. It was concluded that with the inclusion of pathogen risks as a costed externality, taking a decentralised approach to urban water reuse would be economically advantageous in most cases. This conclusion holds despite an exact evaluation of increased waterborne disease due to effluent reuse remaining problematic. PMID:12381002

  17. Scope sensitivity in households' willingness to pay for maintained and improved water supplies in a developing world urban area: Investigating the influence of baseline supply quality and income distribution upon stated preferences in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Montes de Oca, Gloria; Bateman, Ian J.

    2006-07-01

    We present the first assessment of willingness to pay (WTP) for water supply change to be conducted in the largest city in the developing world: Mexico City. Two large sample contingent valuation surveys are conducted to investigate WTP for two levels of water service quality: maintenance of or improvement over current provision levels. This study design permits one of the first tests of the "scope sensitivity" of WTP responses to different levels of baseline supply provision. This testing is complicated within the present case because as our study confirms, higher-income households typically enjoy better levels of current provision, while poorer households generally endure lower current standards of water supply. We incorporate this heterogeneity of service and correlation with income within a suite of novel scope sensitivity tests. These confirm prior expectations that richer households enjoying higher baseline service levels would prefer programs to maintain the status quo, while poorer households enduring lower initial quality of service would prefer schemes which improve the quality of supplies. The implications of these findings are further investigated by contrasting conventional benefit-cost analysis aggregation procedures with an equity weighting approach which confirms the difference in priorities according to initial supply conditions. In this case, the ranking of programs changes when the ability to pay is equalized across society. In fiscal terms, aggregate WTP figures show that authorities could collect the resources necessary to fund households' preferred schemes and simultaneously substantially reduce current subsidies.

  18. Cost Sharing and Water Pricing to Improve River Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hadihardaja, Iwan K.; Sri Sangkawati; Joetata Hadihardaja

    2013-01-01

    When the water is polluted, it can be improved by diluting the degradated water with the higher quality water. Supply of water dilution trigger several costs, as the cost to build reservoir for water discharge. The clasification of project in river basin is appropriate with the benefit, there are single purpose and multi purposes project, so in relation to water discharge as dilution, it needs cost sharing with other beneficiaries. The cost sharing of BJP-SDA with the case study on Brantas ...

  19. Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh AlOtaibi Eed L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water. These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. Results A total of 95 water samples from bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water were collected randomly from the study area using different gathering and analysing techniques. The bacteriological examination of water samples included the most probable number of presumptive coliforms, faecal coliforms, and faecal streptococci (MPN/100 ml. The results showed that the total coliform count (MPN/100 ml was not detected in any samples taken from bottled water, while it was detected in those taken from desalinated, surface, and well water: percentages were 12.9, 80.0, and 100.0, respectively. Faecal coliforms were detected in desalinated, surface, and well water, with percentages of 3.23, 60.0 and 87.88, respectively. About 6.45% of desalinated water, 53.33% of surface water, and 57.58% of well water was found positive for faecal streptococci. Colonies of coliforms were identified in different micro-organisms with various percentages. Conclusion Water derived from traditional sources (wells showed increases in most of the investigated bacteriological parameters, followed by surface water as compared to bottled or desalinated water. This may be attributed to the fact that well and surface water are at risk of contamination as indicated by the higher levels of most bacteriological parameters. Moreover, well water is exposed to point sources of pollution such as septic wells and domestic and farming effluents, as well as to soil with a high humus content. The lower bacteriological characteristics in samples from bottled water indicate that it is satisfactory for human drinking purposes. Contamination of desalinated water that is the main urban water source may occur during transportation from the desalination plant or in the house reservoir of the consumer. Improving and expanding the existing water treatment and sanitation systems is more likely to provide safe and sustainable sources of water over the long term. Strict hygienic measures should be applied to improve water quality and to avoid deleterious effects on public health, by using periodical monitoring programmes to detect sewage pollution running over local hydrological networks and valleys.

  20. National Water Quality Laboratory, 1994 services catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timme, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    This Services Catalog contains information about field supplies and analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., and field supplies available from the Quality Water Service Unit in Ocala, Fla., to members of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, this catalog lists sample volume, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation requirements for samples. (USGS)

  1. Geotechnical Parameters Impact on Artificial Ground Water Recharging Technique for Urban Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Patel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is a serious problem throughout the world for both urban & rural community. Urban centers in India are facing an ironical situation of water scarcity today. This paper includes an Analytical solution, Numerical modeling, Empirical approaches, In-situ test results to predict recharge (rate mound of the ground-water and capacity of recharge well which is essential for the proper management of suitable artificial ground-water recharge systems to maintain water balance and stop salt water intrusion. Authors have derived analytical equation for predicting growth as well as decline of the ground-water mound depending on the intensity of recharge rate qr with different value of permeability k, depth of pervious strata H and diameter of well d, also studying the effects of variation in the geotechnical parameters on water-table fluctuations. In this paper to study the impact of numerical modeling using quadratic equation for unconfined aquifer base on rainfall intensity P and a change in saturated thickness H with variation in piezometric level. Empirical approaches are for evaluation of correct value of k of an undercharged unconfined aquifer with drawdown s0, influence zone L, recharge rate qr. In-situ test results give actual correlation between value of recharging rate of well and permeability on field. Authors have verified recharging rate of installed well from all approaches. A result obtained from the various field case studies gives the validation of the derived equation. Scientific quality measures of aquifer water are also recorded.

  2. Analytical optimization of demand management strategies across all urban water use sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Kenneth; Heaney, James P.; Morales, Miguel; Palenchar, John

    2014-07-01

    An effective urban water demand management program can greatly influence both peak and average demand and therefore long-term water supply and infrastructure planning. Although a theoretical framework for evaluating residential indoor demand management has been well established, little has been done to evaluate other water use sectors such as residential irrigation in a compatible manner for integrating these results into an overall solution. This paper presents a systematic procedure to evaluate the optimal blend of single family residential irrigation demand management strategies to achieve a specified goal based on performance functions derived from parcel level tax assessor's data linked to customer level monthly water billing data. This framework is then generalized to apply to any urban water sector, as exponential functions can be fit to all resulting cumulative water savings functions. Two alternative formulations are presented: maximize net benefits, or minimize total costs subject to satisfying a target water savings. Explicit analytical solutions are presented for both formulations based on appropriate exponential best fits of performance functions. A direct result of this solution is the dual variable which represents the marginal cost of water saved at a specified target water savings goal. A case study of 16,303 single family irrigators in Gainesville Regional Utilities utilizing high quality tax assessor and monthly billing data along with parcel level GIS data provide an illustrative example of these techniques. Spatial clustering of targeted homes can be easily performed in GIS to identify priority demand management areas.

  3. Water quality and MTBE water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research project, here presented, was defined with the aim of evaluating the eventual presence of MTBE and the possible relative impact in water destined to human use; the territorial valence of the project was extended to the competence region n. 4 of the Tuscany water authority (AATO n. 4). University of Florence, ARPAT, AATO n. 4 and Nuove Acque SpA, in this role of manager for the integrated water cycle in the country, have productively contributed to the project

  4. Temporal and spatial patterns of micropollutants in urban receiving waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a monitoring program over the course of a year, we characterize the temporal and spatial distribution of selected micropollutants in an urban watershed within the city of Leipzig, Germany. Micropollutants revealed a ubiquitous presence in untreated and treated wastewater, surface water and groundwater. The loads of 4-nonylphenol in the effluents of the municipal wastewater treatment plant followed a seasonal trend, whereas the loads of all other micropollutants were highly variable and not correlated to seasons. In the surface water, load seasonality of caffeine, galaxolide and tonalide resulted from a rapid removal with increased water temperature. The loads of 4-nonylphenol and of caffeine in the colder months increased when rainfall occurred. In the groundwater, complex spatial and temporal patterns were apparent and were related to varying input, retardation and removal processes. As a consequence, an assessment of micropollutants in urban waters should consider different micropollutants' temporal and spatial variability. - Micropollutants in urban receiving waters are characterized by variable temporal and spatial concentration and load patterns that have to be considered in risk assessments.

  5. Air Quality and Land Use in Urban Region of Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam and Klang, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Ling Hoon Leh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the global trend of urbanisation, large population are staying in urban areas as compared to rural. However, urban area /region is always related to higher air pollution level as compared to less developed area/region. The major contributors of air pollution are mobile sources (transportation and stationary sources (e.g. industry and power plant. Thus, the issue of air pollution is potentially caused by human choices and activities, and potentially affecting the human health. Therefore, the relationship between the urban activities (land use coverage/distribution and air quality level should be well understood. It helps the urban managers, planners and all parties in constructing healthier urban policies. A study of air quality and the relationship with urban land uses was carried out in Malaysia?s urban growth region of Klang-Shah Alam-Petaling Jaya. Air quality data was analysed in Air Pollution Index (API with the classification of good, moderate, unhealthy, very unhealthy and hazardous levels. The urban land uses were mainly divided into two categories, i.e. pollution-prone land uses (transportation, industrial, and infrastructure, and green land uses. This study found that urban area with higher coverage of transportation, industrial and infrastructure land uses are potentially unhealthier in term of the air quality than the area with less coverage of these land uses. Strategic proposal was discussed in line with the findings.

  6. Water quality and restoration in a coastal subdivision stormwater pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Lorimar; DeLorenzo, Marie E

    2008-07-01

    Stormwater ponds are commonly used in residential and commercial areas to control flooding. The accumulation of urban contaminants in stormwater ponds can lead to a number of water quality problems including high nutrient, chemical contaminant, and bacterial levels. This study examined the interaction between land use and coastal pond water quality in a South Carolina residential subdivision pond. Eutrophic levels of chlorophyll and phosphorus were present in all seasons. Harmful cyanobacterial blooms were prevalent during the summer months. Microcystin toxin and fecal coliform bacteria levels were measured that exceeded health and safety standards. Low concentrations of herbicides (atrazine and 2,4-D) were also detected during summer months. Drainage from the stormwater pond may transport contaminants into the adjacent tidal creek and estuary. A survey of residents within the pond's watershed indicated poor pet waste management and frequent use of fertilizers and pesticides as possible contamination sources. Educational and outreach activities were provided to community members to create an awareness of the water quality conditions in the pond. Pond management strategies were then recommended, and selected mitigation actions were implemented. Water quality problems identified in this study have been observed in other coastal stormwater ponds of varying size and salinity, leading this project to serve as a potential model for coastal stormwater pond management. PMID:17368919

  7. Landscaping practices, land use patterns and stormwater quantity and quality in urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, B.; Band, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing quantity and decreasing quality of urban stormwater threatens biodiversity in local streams and reservoirs, jeopardizes water supplies, and ultimately contributes to estuarine eutrophication. To estimate the effects that present and alternative landscaping practices and land use patterns may have on urban stormwater quantity and quality, simulations of existing land use/land cover using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys), a process-based surface hydrology and biogeochemistry model, were developed for watersheds in Baltimore, MD (as part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) NSF Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site) and Durham, NC (as part of the NSF Urban Long-Term Research Area (ULTRA) program). The influence of land use patterns and landscaping practices on nutrient export in urban watersheds has been explored as part of the BES; this work has focused on improving our understanding of how residential landscaping practices (i.e. lawn fertilization rates) vary across land use and socioeconomic gradients. Elsewhere, others have explored the political ecology of residential landscaping practices - seeking to understand the economic, political, and cultural influences on the practice of high-input residential turf-grass management. Going forward, my research will synthesize and extend this prior work. Rather than pre-supposing predominant residential land use patterns and landscaping practices (i.e. lower-density periphery development incorporating high-input turf landscapes) alternate land use and landscaping scenarios (e.g. higher-density/transit-oriented development, rain gardens, vegetable gardens, native plant/xeriscaping) will be developed through interviews/focus groups with stakeholders (citizens, public officials, developers, non-profits). These scenarios will then be applied to the RHESSys models already developed for catchments in Baltimore and Durham. The modeled scenario results will be used to identify alternate land use patterns and landscaping practices that would: (1) help to reduce non-point sources of nutrient pollution in urban watersheds; and (2) be likely to gain public support. This research will inform sustainable development policy while furthering interdisciplinary research in the fields of planning and water resource management.

  8. Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Quality EPA 841-F-05-001 Clean Water Is Everybody’s Business T he United States has more than 330 million acres of agricultural ... Database www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/ama Clean Water Act ... Reserve and Conservation Reserve Enhancement Programs (www.fsa. ...

  9. The Impact of Urbanization on the Precipitation Component of the Water Cycle: A New Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, J. Marshal

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in cities (UNFP, 1999). As cities continue to grow, urban sprawl (e.g., the expansion of urban surfaces outward into rural surroundings) creates unique problems related to land use, transportation, agriculture, housing, pollution, and development. Urban expansion also has measurable impacts on environmental processes. Urban areas modify boundary layer processes through the creation of an urban heat island (UHI). The literature indicates that the signature of the urban heat island effect may be resolvable in rainfall patterns over and downwind of metropolitan areas. However, a recent U.S. Weather Research Program panel concluded that more observational and modeling research is needed in this area (Dabberdt et al. 2000). NASA and other agencies initiated programs such as the Atlanta Land-use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality Project (ATLANTA) (Quattrochi et al. 1998) which aimed to identify and understand how urban heat islands impact the environment. However, a comprehensive assessment of the role of urban-induced rainfall in the global water and energy cycle (GWEC) and cycling of freshwater was not a primary focus of these efforts. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) seeks to develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural or human-induced changes to enable improved prediction capability for climate, weather, and natural hazards (NASA, 2000). Within this mission, the ESE has three basic thrusts: science research to increase Earth system knowledge; an applications program to transfer science knowledge to practical use in society; and a technology program to enable new, better, and cheaper capabilities for observing the earth. Within this framework, a research program is underway to further address the co-relationship between land cover use and change (e.g. urban development) and its impact on key components of the GWEC (e.g., precipitation). This presentation discusses the feasibility of using the TRMM or GPM satellite to identify precipitation anomalies likely caused by urbanization (Shepherd et al. 2002). Recent results from analyses of TRMM data around several major U.S. cities (e.g. Dallas, Atlanta, Houston) will be discussed. The presentation also summarizes a NASA-funded research effort to investigate the phenomenon of urban-induced precipitation anomalies using TRMM (future GPM) satellite-based remote sensing, an intensive ground observation/validation effort near Atlanta, and coupled atmosphere-land numerical modeling techniques.

  10. Environmental Affects on Drinking Water Quality and Drinking Water Quality Differences Depending on the Source

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, Thomas Allan; Mackevica, Aiga; Jiang, Xiang; Panovas, Emilis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to give the reader an understanding in how drinking water quality differs from different water sources and how water quality changes during different scenarios (exposure to environment and temperature differences). At first, water quality requirements (standards) and theory are explained for assessing which factors are relevant to test, both chemical and microbiological. Several parameters were chosen to be tested in the empirical part, taking into consideration ...

  11. Evaluating integrated urban water systems alternatives for Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, G; Gray, S; Shipton, B; Woolley, R; Erbacher, J; Egerton, G; McKnoulty, J

    2003-01-01

    The Brazil Development Study investigates the feasibility of alternative approaches to providing sustainable water services to a 226 ha mixed residential and industrial greenfield development within the city of Brisbane, Australia. The alternatives include techniques such a the use of rainwater tanks, water use efficiency, a local wastewater treatment plant for recycling of reclaimed water and composting toilets amongst others. This paper evaluates a series of urban development scenarios against the objectives of the study. The insights gained into the drivers for cost and environmental impact for this particular site are discussed as well as a number of issues of concern and challenges to Council and the community. PMID:12793655

  12. Statistical assessment for spatio-temporal water quality in Angkor, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Seo Jin; Kang, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Young Geun; Lee, Yun Seok; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Joon Ha

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive water quality monitoring was conducted to assess the water quality conditions and to determine the impact of urban infrastructure on ambient water quality in Angkor, Cambodia. During this study, surface water, groundwater, and sediment samples were collected for two distinctive seasons in 2006-2007 at 58 monitoring sites along and near the Siem Reap River, in Tole Sap Lake (TSL), and West Baray, the primary water resources in this region. To assess the seasonal and spatial variability of 27 water quality parameters, multivariate analysis of variance, hierarchical cluster analysis, and the Kruskal-Wallis test were conducted using the obtained data. Differences and relationships between the surface water and groundwater were also investigated using t-test and correlation analysis, respectively. The results of these tests showed that the bacterial indicators need special attention as the urban infrastructure of the downtown area caused increased levels of these bacterial indicators in both surface water and groundwater. However, for most parameters, though surface water showed strong seasonal variations, groundwater presented relatively stable conditions between seasons (p > 0.05) with site-specific geochemical conditions. Sediment quality illustrated that pollution levels of 10 trace metals were the highest in TSL because of its unique characteristic (river with backward flow), but did not reflect any potential enrichment from urban development. Overall, the results reveal that while the urban infrastructure in this region has not significantly affected most of the water quality parameters, bacteria and coliphages are still a main concern due to their contributions in widespread waterborne diseases. Thus, careful mitigation plans for reducing each pollutant source are needed in the Angkor area. PMID:19494456

  13. Water quality issues and status in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Per capita water availability in Pakistan has dropped drastically during the last fifty years. Recent extended droughts have further aggravated the situation. In order to meet the shortage and crop water requirements, groundwater is being used extensively in the Indus Basin. Groundwater is also the main source of water for drinking and industrial uses. This increased pressure on groundwater has lowered the water table in many cities. It is reported that water table has dropped by more than 3 m in many cities. This excessive use of groundwater has seriously affected the quality of groundwater and has increased the incidences of water-borne diseases many folds. A recent water quality study has shown that out of 560,000 tube wells of Indus Basin, about 70 percent are pumping sodic water. The use of sodic water has in turn affected the soil health and crop yields. This situation is being further aggravated due to changes in climate and rainfall patterns. To monitor changes in surface and groundwater quality and groundwater levels, Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources has undertaken a countrywide programme of water quality monitoring. This programme covers twenty-one cities from the four provinces, five rivers, 10 storage reservoirs and lakes and two main drains of Pakistan. Under this programme a permanent monitoring network is established from where water samples are collected and analyzed once every year. The collected water samples are analyzed for aestheticd water samples are analyzed for aesthetic, chemical and bacteriological parameters to determine their suitability for agricultural, domestic and industrial uses. The results of the present study indicate serious contamination in many cities. Excessive levels of arsenic, fluoride and sodium have been detected in many cities. This paper highlights the major water quality issues and briefly presents the preliminary results of the groundwater analysis for major cities of Pakistan. (author)

  14. Uncertainty Management in Urban Water Engineering Adaptation to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current water resource planning and engineering assume a stationary climate, in which the observed historical water flow rate and water quality variations are often used to define the technical basis. When the non-stationarity is considered, however, climate change projection co...

  15. Modeling relationships between catchment attributes and river water quality in southern catchments of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani Sangani, Mohammad; Jabbarian Amiri, Bahman; Alizadeh Shabani, Afshin; Sakieh, Yousef; Ashrafi, Sohrab

    2015-04-01

    Increasing land utilization through diverse forms of human activities, such as agriculture, forestry, urban growth, and industrial development, has led to negative impacts on the water quality of rivers. To find out how catchment attributes, such as land use, hydrologic soil groups, and lithology, can affect water quality variables (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), Cl(-), HCO 3 (-) , pH, TDS, EC, SAR), a spatio-statistical approach was applied to 23 catchments in southern basins of the Caspian Sea. All input data layers (digital maps of land use, soil, and lithology) were prepared using geographic information system (GIS) and spatial analysis. Relationships between water quality variables and catchment attributes were then examined by Spearman rank correlation tests and multiple linear regression. Stepwise approach-based multiple linear regressions were developed to examine the relationship between catchment attributes and water quality variables. The areas (%) of marl, tuff, or diorite, as well as those of good-quality rangeland and bare land had negative effects on all water quality variables, while those of basalt, forest land cover were found to contribute to improved river water quality. Moreover, lithological variables showed the greatest most potential for predicting the mean concentration values of water quality variables, and noting that measure of EC and TDS have inversely associated with area (%) of urban land use. PMID:25395322

  16. Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in urban receiving waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.B. [Urban Pollution Research Centre, Middlesex University, Queensway, Enfield, London EN3 4SA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: b.ellis@mdx.ac.uk

    2006-11-15

    The transport pathways of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) discharges within the urban water cycle include both combined and separate sewer systems with only the former receiving treatment. The dry-weather flow dilution patterns for selected PPCPs following discharge from a sewage treatment works (STW) to a North London stream indicate a persistent downstream increase in concentration. The dilution ratio analysis also indicates that the STW's final effluent only contributes a dilution of the endogenous concentrations already present in the river flow which reflects a progressive PPCP load with increasing urbanization; 'worst-case' scenarios being probably related to wet-weather conditions. Maximum PPCP concentrations fall above the reported PEC levels and the analysis highlights the deficiencies of conventional acute toxicity for the evaluation of long-term effects of episodic urban discharges. Groundwater analysis points to sewer exfiltration which is limited in terms of PPCP impact to 25-50 cm depths. - PPCP compounds are ubiquitous and persistent in urban receiving waters reflecting input from both point and non-point sources.

  17. Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in urban receiving waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport pathways of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) discharges within the urban water cycle include both combined and separate sewer systems with only the former receiving treatment. The dry-weather flow dilution patterns for selected PPCPs following discharge from a sewage treatment works (STW) to a North London stream indicate a persistent downstream increase in concentration. The dilution ratio analysis also indicates that the STW's final effluent only contributes a dilution of the endogenous concentrations already present in the river flow which reflects a progressive PPCP load with increasing urbanization; 'worst-case' scenarios being probably related to wet-weather conditions. Maximum PPCP concentrations fall above the reported PEC levels and the analysis highlights the deficiencies of conventional acute toxicity for the evaluation of long-term effects of episodic urban discharges. Groundwater analysis points to sewer exfiltration which is limited in terms of PPCP impact to 25-50 cm depths. - PPCP compounds are ubiquitous and persistent in urban receiving waters reflecting input from both point and non-point sources

  18. A water quality monitoring system for HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfias, F.; Bernal, A.; Tinoco, S.; Iriarte, A.

    2012-09-01

    HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov), is a gamma ray (?) large aperture observatory with high sensitivity that will be able to continuously monitor the sky for transient sources of photons with energies between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. HAWC is under construction in Sierra Negra, Puebla, Mexico, which is located at a high altitude of 4100m. HAWC will be an array of 300 Cherenkov detectors each one with 200,000 liters of highly pure water. The sensitivity of the instrument depends strongly on the water quality. We present the design and construction of the HAWC water quality monitoring system. We seek monitor the transparency in violet-blue range to achieve and maintain the required water transparency quality in each detector. The system is robust and user friendly. The measurements are reproducible. Also we present some results from the monitoring the water from the VAMOS detector tanks and of the filtering system.

  19. Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M; Zuleeg, S; Vonbank, R; Schmid, P; Hean, S; Lamani, X; Bester, K; Boller, M

    2011-01-01

    Urban water management requires further clarification about pollutants in storm water. Little is known about the release of organic additives used in construction materials and the impact of these compounds to storm water runoff. We investigated sources and pathways of additives used in construction materials, i.e., biocides in facades' render as well as root protection products in bitumen membranes for rooftops. Under wet-weather conditions, the concentrations of diuron, terbutryn, carbendazim, irgarol 1051 (all from facades) and mecoprop in storm water and receiving water exceeded the predicted no-effect concentrations values and the Swiss water quality standard of 0.1 microg/L. Under laboratory conditions maximum concentrations of additives were in the range of a few milligrams and a few hundred micrograms per litre in runoff of facades and bitumen membranes. Runoff from aged materials shows approximately one to two orders of magnitude lower concentrations. Concentrations decreased also during individual runoff events. In storm water and receiving water the occurrence of additives did not follow the typical first flush model. This can be explained by the release lasting over the time of rainfall and the complexity of the drainage network. Beside the amounts used, the impact of construction materials containing hazardous additives on water quality is related clearly to the age of the buildings and the separated sewer network. The development of improved products regarding release of hazardous additives is the most efficient way of reducing the pollutant load from construction materials in storm water runoff. PMID:21902038

  20. Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkhardt, Mike; Zuleeg, S.

    2011-01-01

    Urban water management requires further clarification about pollutants in storm water. Little is known about the release of organic additives used in construction materials and the impact of these compounds to storm water runoff. We investigated sources and pathways of additives used in construction materials, i.e., biocides in facades’ render as well as root protection products in bitumen membranes for rooftops. Under wet-weather conditions, the concentrations of diuron, terbutryn, carbendazim, irgarol®1051 (all from facades) and mecoprop in storm water and receiving water exceeded the predicted no-effect concentrations values and the Swiss water quality standard of 0.1 ?g/L. Under laboratory conditions maximum concentrations of additives were in the range of a few milligrams and a few hundred micrograms per litre in runoff of facades and bitumen membranes. Runoff from aged materials shows approximately one to two orders of magnitude lower concentrations. Concentrations decreased also during individual runoff events. In storm water and receiving water the occurrence of additives did not follow the typical first flush model. This can be explained by the release lasting over the time of rainfall and the complexity of the drainage network. Beside the amounts used, the impact of construction materials containing hazardous additives on water quality is related clearly to the age of the buildings and the separated sewer network. The development of improved products regarding release of hazardous additives is the most efficient way of reducing the pollutant load from construction materials in storm water runoff.

  1. Computaional Complexity Analysis on Water Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Prabakaran & Dr. B. Poorna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The computational algorithms are used to determine the features and applications from large data sets in real time environment. The computational applications are also used in environmental computing to evaluate the degree of air, water and sound pollutions and measures of prevention. The computational process of water quality index (WQI is determined through analysis of water quality attributes. Though existing methods produced WQI with certain water quality attributes according to the nature and need of the applcations but it is not applicable to all other water quality attributes and the WQI computation procedures. The computing methodology of WQI is to be standardised for the assessment of the water quality which is applicable to all the domains in the same standard assessment process. Therefore, the complexity of computing the WQI value is analysed. In this paper, to evaluate the computational procedure, the WQI was computed by considering two different approaches classified into 9 water quality attributes by assigning standard weights and 6 attributes with different weights as a model. The same computation was carried out with possible combinational attributes analysis. The comparative study was made and the computational complexity is presented as part of this paper.

  2. Evaluation of green roof as green technology for urban stormwater quantity and quality controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promoting green design, construction, reconstruction and operation of buildings has never been more critical than now due to the ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions and rapid urbanizations that are fuelling climate change more quickly. Driven by environmental needs, Green Building Index (GBI) was founded in Malaysia to drive initiative to lead the property industry towards becoming more environment-friendly. Green roof system is one of the assessment criteria of this rating system which is under category of sustainable site planning and management. An extensive green roof was constructed in Humid Tropics Center (HTC) Kuala Lumpur as one of the components for Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) in order to obtain scientific data of the system. This paper evaluates the performance of extensive green roof at Humid Tropics Center with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater quantity and quality controls. Findings indicate that there was a reduction of around 1.5°C for indoor temperature of the building after installation of green roof. Simulations showed that the peak discharge was reduced up to 24% relative to impervious brown roof. The results show an increment of pH and high concentration of phosphate for the runoff generated from the green roof and the runoff water quality ranged between class I and II under INWQS.

  3. Evaluation of green roof as green technology for urban stormwater quantity and quality controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, K. H.; Sidek, L. M.; Abidin, M. R. Z.; Basri, H.; Muda, Z. C.; Beddu, S.

    2013-06-01

    Promoting green design, construction, reconstruction and operation of buildings has never been more critical than now due to the ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions and rapid urbanizations that are fuelling climate change more quickly. Driven by environmental needs, Green Building Index (GBI) was founded in Malaysia to drive initiative to lead the property industry towards becoming more environment-friendly. Green roof system is one of the assessment criteria of this rating system which is under category of sustainable site planning and management. An extensive green roof was constructed in Humid Tropics Center (HTC) Kuala Lumpur as one of the components for Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) in order to obtain scientific data of the system. This paper evaluates the performance of extensive green roof at Humid Tropics Center with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater quantity and quality controls. Findings indicate that there was a reduction of around 1.5°C for indoor temperature of the building after installation of green roof. Simulations showed that the peak discharge was reduced up to 24% relative to impervious brown roof. The results show an increment of pH and high concentration of phosphate for the runoff generated from the green roof and the runoff water quality ranged between class I and II under INWQS.

  4. Urban liveability versus economic efficiency : an issue of scale in the governance of sustainability transitions of the urban water sector in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farné Fratini, Chiara; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2013-01-01

    The urban water management regime in Copenhagen is currently influenced by contradictive models of innovation. During the last 20 years the development of the water infrastructure in Copenhagen has been under the influence of an urban political agenda. This agenda has addressed water as a place based infrastructure, i.e. as an infrastructure that has been understood and developed as an integrated component of the urban fabric. An outcome of this agenda has been the establishment of bathing facilities in the inner harbor of Copenhagen, which has linked water to urban livability and urban development. Against this agenda a national strategy is currently being enforced which addresses water as a context-independent functional sector. This agenda operates with a narrow definition of economic efficiency in service provision through a benchmarking system focusing only on technical performances without acknowledging the context specific relations between water infrastructure and urban quality. The national function oriented innovation agenda and the urban place based innovation agenda hence address the question of innovation from very different viewpoints. While the functional innovation agenda addresses the infrastructure as a discrete system - thus pushing for one-way influence of the infrastructure to the cityscape - the place based innovation agenda has traditionally been more inclusive towards the context specific priorities of urban planners. In this paper we apply the arena of development approach advocated by Jørgensen (2012) to understand the emergence of the functional innovation agenda as well as the specific political navigations by which Copenhagen’s traditional place based water managements regime is responding to this new agenda. We thus demonstrate how the functional innovation agenda was formulated and advocated as a response to specific tension and ambiguities within and among the socio-material actor-worlds of the established water management regime, and how the agenda was translated into new institutional arrangements. We then analyse the navigations by which the traditional actor worlds are responding to these institutional arrangements and identifies the tensions and contradictions that are generated in this process.

  5. Missed Opportunities: How We Keep High-Quality Teachers out of Urban Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jessica; Quinn, Meredith

    This report examines urban district hiring practices and their effect on applicant attrition and teacher quality, analyzing data from four hard-to-staff urban districts collected via telephone surveys with applicants who left for other districts, written surveys, focus groups with preservice and inservice teachers, and applicant tracking data.…

  6. Digital Resource Package for Teaching Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Moin

    This digital resource package is a collection of online sources to help K-12 teachers create lessons on the Geology subject of water quality. Topics include Field Trips and Labs, Simulations and Media, Case Studies, Lesson Plans, and Reference Material.

  7. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2102 Section...Works § 35.2102 Water quality management planning. Before grant...a) Included in any water quality management plan being implemented...

  8. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2023 Section...Works § 35.2023 Water quality management planning. (a) From...the States to carry out water quality management planning including but...

  9. Environmental impact of leachate characteristics on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumar, Sampath Kumar Mandyam; Nagaraja, Balasubramanya

    2011-07-01

    Improper urbanization and industrialization are causing a critical stress on groundwater quality in urban areas of the developing countries. The present study under investigation describes the pollution caused by leachate from a waste management site in southwestern Bangalore city causing pollution of the surface water and groundwater reserves. The characterization of 20 groundwater samples and Haralukunte lake sample indicated high pollution of these water reserves by leachate entry into the groundwater and surface water sources. The study area focuses around the solid waste management site, carrying out bio-composting and vermi-composting of municipal solid waste. Further investigations on the severe health problems faced by the public in the study area has revealed a clear pointer towards the usage of polluted water for rearing live-stock, farming, and domestic activities. The characterization of the leachate with high values of BOD at 1,450 mg/l, TDS at 17,200 mg/l, nitrates at 240 mg/l, and MPN at 545/100 ml indicates a clear nuisance potential, which has been substantiated by the characterization of lake water sample with chlorides at 3,400 mg/l, TDS at 8,020 mg/l, and lead and cadmium at 0.18 and 0.08 mg/l, respectively. Analysis of groundwater samples shows alarming physicochemical values closer to the waste disposal site and relatively reduced values away from the source of the waste management site. Bureau of Indian Standards have been adapted as the benchmark for the analysis and validation of observed water quality criteria. PMID:20859680

  10. Urban water reuse: microbial pathogens control by direct filtration and ultraviolet disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Isaac, Ricardo; Dos Santos, Luciana Urbano; Tosetto, Mariana S; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Guimarães, José Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Physicochemical treatment efficiency for unrestricted urban water reuse was evaluated at a conventional activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Pilot plant set-up consisted of an alum coagulation step, granular media upflow flocculation and direct downflow dual-media filtration followed by ultraviolet disinfection (dose of 95 mJ cm?²). Optimum aluminum sulfate dosage of 10 mg L?¹ and coagulation pH 7.0 were preset based on bench scale tests. Under WWTP stable operation, water quality met United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) suggested guidelines for unrestricted urban reuse regarding turbidity (mean value 1.3 NTU) and suspended solids (mean value 2.1 mg L?¹). When WWTP overall plant performance dropped from 90 to 80% (although BOD value stayed below 6 mg O? L?¹, suggesting unrestricted reuse), solids breakthrough in filtrate was observed. Microorganism removal rates were: total coliforms 60.0%, Escherichia coli 63.0%, Giardia spp. 81.0%, and helminth eggs 62.5%; thus organisms still remained in filtrate. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection efficiency was 4.1- and 3.8-log for total coliforms and E. coli, respectively. Considering low UV efficiency obtained for helminths and the survival of protozoa and helminths in the environment, effluent quality presents risk to public health if destined for unrestricted urban reuse. PMID:25252350

  11. A potential hyperspectral remote sensing imager for water quality measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, Yoav; Braun, Ofer; Stavitsky, David; Blasberger, Avigdor

    2003-04-01

    Utilization of Pan Chromatic and Multi Spectral Remote Sensing Imagery is wide spreading and becoming an established business for commercial suppliers of such imagery like ISI and others. Some emerging technologies are being used to generate Hyper-Spectral imagery (HSI) by aircraft as well as other platforms. The commercialization of such technology for Remote Sensing from space is still questionable and depends upon several parameters including maturity, cost, market reception and many others. HSI can be used in a variety of applications in agriculture, urban mapping, geology and others. One outstanding potential usage of HSI is for water quality monitoring, a subject studied in this paper. Water quality monitoring is becoming a major area of interest in HSI due to the increase in water demand around the globe. The ability to monitor water quality in real time having both spatial and temporal resolution is one of the advantages of Remote Sensing. This ability is not limited only for measurements of oceans and inland water, but can be applied for drinking and irrigation water reservoirs as well. HSI in the UV-VNIR has the ability to measure a wide range of constituents that define water quality. Among the constituents that can be measured are the pigment concentration of various algae, chlorophyll a and c, carotenoids and phycocyanin, thus enabling to define the algal phyla. Other parameters that can be measured are TSS (Total Suspended Solids), turbidity, BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand), hydrocarbons, oxygen demand. The study specifies the properties of such a space borne device that results from the spectral signatures and the absorption bands of the constituents in question. Other parameters considered are the repetition of measurements, the spatial aspects of the sensor and the SNR of the sensor in question.

  12. Current State of Sustainability of Urban Water Cycle Services

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuwen, Kees; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2014-01-01

    TRUST released a first sustainability assessment of current UWCS's of its pilot cities which gives a general insight into how TRUST cities and regions score on different dimensions of sustainability at the moment. The whole report aims to contribute to a more sustainable urban water cycle system and to provide a basis on which TRUST city/region stakeholders can discuss their vision and strategies into a more sustainable future.

  13. Uncertainty Assessment in Urban Storm Water Drainage Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Thorndahl, Søren

    2007-01-01

     The object of this paper is to make an overall description of the author's PhD study, concerning uncertainties in numerical urban storm water drainage models. Initially an uncertainty localization and assessment of model inputs and parameters as well as uncertainties caused by different model complexities are investigated. It is the main purpose to make an overall uncertainty estimation of the model output. This is accomplished by implementation of stochastic methods when operating the nume...

  14. Water Words Dictionary: A Compilation of Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Words Dictionary: A Compilation of Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms is a helpful collection of resources for water researchers and professionals provided by the Nevada Division of Water Resources and the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. This extensive and freely accessed dictionary contains hundreds of words, which are organized alphabetically, making it perfect for searching and printing. Also provided are dozens of appendixes, abbreviations and acronyms, conversion tables and flow equivalents, and more.

  15. Fuzzy synthetic evaluation of Weihe water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Yani; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Chundi; Zhao, Y. Q.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the fuzzy logic principle, a modified Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation (FSE) is proposed to assess water quality status of Weihe River (Baoji, China). The potential application of the FSE has been tested in a case study. Twelve sampling locations of Weihe River and its tributaries in Baoji area were selected and seven water quality parameters of BOD5, COD, fluoride, ammonia, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and permanganate index, were monitored from 2008 to 2009. The findings cl...

  16. National Water Quality Laboratory, 1995 services catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timme, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Services Catalog contains information about field supplies and analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., and field supplies available from the Quality Water Service Unit in Ocala, Fla., to members of the U.S. Geological Survey. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, this catalog lists sample volume, required containers, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation requirements for samples.

  17. Assessing the microbiological performance and potential cost of boiling drinking water in urban Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psutka, Rebecca; Peletz, Rachel; Michelo, Sandford; Kelly, Paul; Clasen, Thomas

    2011-07-15

    Boiling is the most common method of disinfecting water in the home and the benchmark against which other point-of-use water treatment is measured. In a six-week study in peri-urban Zambia, we assessed the microbiological effectiveness and potential cost of boiling among 49 households without a water connection who reported "always" or "almost always" boiling their water before drinking it. Source and household drinking water samples were compared weekly for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), an indicator of fecal contamination. Demographics, costs, and other information were collected through surveys and structured observations. Drinking water samples taken at the household (geometric mean 7.2 TTC/100 mL, 95% CI, 5.4-9.7) were actually worse in microbiological quality than source water (geometric mean 4.0 TTC/100 mL, 95% CI, 3.1-5.1) (p water samples were reported to have actually been boiled at the time of collection from the home, suggesting over-reporting and inconsistent compliance. However, these samples were of no higher microbiological quality. Evidence suggests that water quality deteriorated after boiling due to lack of residual protection and unsafe storage and handling. The potential cost of fuel or electricity for boiling was estimated at 5% and 7% of income, respectively. In this setting where microbiological water quality was relatively good at the source, safe-storage practices that minimize recontamination may be more effective in managing the risk of disease from drinking water at a fraction of the cost of boiling. PMID:21650207

  18. [Characteristics of water infiltration in urban soils of Nanjing City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Ling; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Yuan, Da-Gang

    2008-02-01

    By using dual-ring method, this paper measured the water infiltration rate in urban soils under representative land use patterns in Nanjing City, and studied the characteristics of water infiltration in the soils with different compaction degree. The results showed that there was a great difference in the infiltration rate among the soils with different compactness. Soil infiltration rate decreased with increasing bulk density and decreasing porosity, and the water-transport-limiting layer existed in heavily compacted soils resulted in a dramatic decrease of final stabilized infiltration rate. There was a significant linear relationship between the initial and final infiltration rates in the same soil though their absolute values had a great difference. The urban soils in Nanjing City had a wide range of final infiltration rate varied from 1 mm X h(-1) to 679 mm X h(-1), which was highly related to the soil compactness, structural status, and skeleton grain contents. The decrease of urban soil infiltration rate could induce the increase of runoff and of the probability and intensity of flooding. PMID:18464644

  19. [Evaluation of urban human settlement quality in Ningxia based on AHP and the entropy method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Wei, Hong; Ni, Xi-Lu; Gu, Yan-Wen; Li, Chang-Xiao

    2014-09-01

    As one of the key indicators of the urbanization and the sustainable development of cities, urban human settlement quality has been a hot issue. In this paper, an evaluation system containing indicators related to four aspects (ecological, social, humanities and economic environments) was established to assess the urban human settlement quality in five main cities in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Northwest China. After calculating each indicator' s weight in the evaluation system through AHP and the entropy method, the quality of urban human settlement was analyzed. Results showed that Yinchuan had a score of 0. 85 for the quality of human settlement, Shizuishan 0.62, Wuzhong 0.43, Zhongwei 0.33, and Guyuan 0.32, respectively. Shizuishan got the highest score in the eco-environment aspect, and Yinchuan had the highest scores for social, humanities and economic environments. Zhongwei and Guyuan had relatively low scores in all the four urban human settlement aspects. Coordination analysis showed that internal coordination was moderate for Yinchuan (0.79) and Shizuishan (0.72), and relatively good for the other cities. However, coordination was relatively poor among the five cities, especially in social environment (0.48). These results suggested that an unsatisfied situation existed in terms of the urban human settlement quality in Ningxia, and that corresponding measures should be taken to accelerate the development of vulnerable indicators, so as to coordinate all the urban human settlement aspects within and among cities. PMID:25757325

  20. Dorsi-ventral leaf reflectance properties of Carpinus betulus L.: An indicator of urban habitat quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to give an account of the evaluation of the effect of urban habitat quality on dorsi-ventral leaf reflectance asymmetry to bio-monitor urban habitat pollution. Reflectance in the RGB bands of a reflex camera is measured at the adaxial and abaxial sides of Carpinus betulus L. leaves for two contrasting urban habitats, e.g.; suburban green and industrial habitats in the city of Gent (Belgium). Abaxial leaf reflectance is consistently higher than adaxial leaf reflectance. We quantified leaf dorsi-ventral reflectance asymmetry with a newly defined Normalized Dorsi-ventral Asymmetry Index (NDAI). The NDAI is significantly higher in industrial habitats as opposed to suburban green ones. Our optical observations indicate that changes in Carpinus betulus L. leaf morphology are related to urban habitat quality. Hence, we suggest that leaf dorsi-ventral reflectance asymmetry allows the estimation of the magnitude and spatial extent of environmental pollution in urban environments. - Highlights: ? Carpinus betulus L. leaf asymmetry relates with urban habitat quality. ? The Normalized Difference Asymmetry Index estimates leaf dorsi-ventral asymmetry. ? The NDAI allows magnitude and spatial extent estimation of habitat quality. - Optical observations indicate that leaf dorsi-ventral reflectance asymmetry of Carpinus betulus L. leaves is related to urban habitat quality.

  1. Testing biological effects of hand-washing grey water for reuse in irrigation on an urban farm: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Zain; Sim, Yei Lin; Lin, Yang Jian; Lai, Ka Man

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of reusing hand-washing grey water contaminated with antibacterial hand-washing liquid for irrigation purposes in an urban farm is explored in this case study. Experiments are carried out to investigate if the quality of this grey water allows for its reuse in agriculture as per the guidelines established by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, there is no guideline to test the biological effect of grey water prior to agricultural use. It is plausible that the antibacterial property of the grey water can harm the soil microbial system and plants when applied to land, even if all other water quality parameters satisfy the WHO limit. We use algae (Chlorella vulgaris) and indigenous soil bacteria as initial plant and soil bacteria indicators, respectively, to test the potential inhibition of the water on plants and soil bacteria. Results show that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the grey water is 10% higher than the WHO permissible level, while all other water quality parameters are within the limits after four days of our experimental period. An inhibitory effect is observed in all of the biological tests. However, the inhibitory effect on algae and soil bacteria is not observed after the four-day period. The case study demonstrates a new approach for testing the biological effect of grey water, which can be used in conjunction with the WHO guideline, and provides data for this urban farm to set up a future water treatment system for grey-water reuse in irrigation. PMID:23530370

  2. Navigating Troubled Waters. An analysis of how urban water regimes in the global South reproduce inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Nastar, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    This research is an attempt to conceptualize the underlying forces behind persistent and ubiquitous problems of inequality in access to water in cities of the global south. Inequality in water access is hypothesized to result from urban water regimes that tend to prioritize the right to water access or to provide preferential terms of access for some groups in society, while marginalizing others. By employing a critical realist approach, different theories in relation to inequality are app...

  3. A photochemical box model for urban air quality study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shengxin; Demerjian, Kenneth

    The photochemical box model (PBM) developed in the present study is based on the principle of mass conservation. It has a horizontal domain of the size of a typical city and a vertical dimension defined by the mixed-layer height. The concentration of any pollutant is determined by horizontal advection, vertical entrainment, source emissions and chemical reactions. A one-dimensional high resolution boundary layer model by Blackadar ( Preprints, Third Symp. on Atmospheric Turbulence, Diffusion, and Air Quality, Raleigh, Am. Met. Soc., pp. 443-447, 1976; Advances in Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1 (edited by Pfafflin J. and Ziegler E.), pp. 50-85. Gordon and Breach, New York, 1979) has been incorporated in the PBM and further developed to consider the effect of urban heat islands in the simulation of mixed layer height. The predicted mixed-layer heights compare very well with observations. The gas phase chemical kinetic mechanism used in the Regional Acid Deposition Model II (RADM2) and that of an earlier version of PBM have been used to calculate the contributions of chemical reactions to the changes of pollutant concentrations. Detailed analysis and comparisons of the two chemical mechanisms have been made. The simulated pollutant concentrations using both chemical mechanisms are in very good agreement with available observations for CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3. A radiative transfer model developed by Madronich ( J. geophys. Res.92, 9740-9752, 1987) has been incorporated in the PBM for the calculation of actinic flux and photolytic rate constants. Height-averaged and radiation-corrected photolytic rate constants are used for the photochemical reactions. Budget analyses conducted for CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3 have enhanced our understanding of the relative contributions of horizontal advection, vertical entrainment, source emissions and chemical reactions to the overall rate of change of their concentrations. Model predictions are not sensitive to the large number of peroxy radical-peroxy radical reactions in the RADM2 chemical mechanism under urban conditions.

  4. Service Quality Evaluation of Urban Parks Based on AHP Method and SD Software

    OpenAIRE

    Jiangping Wang; Yichuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Public satisfaction is the main base to measure the service quality of urban parks. In this study, six factors influencing the service quality of urban parks, namely, place environment, landscape environment, culture environment, eco-environment, traffic environment and facilities environment, were screened and been subdivided into 18 impact indexes. Three-hierarchy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model consisting of target layer, factor layer and index layer ...

  5. Science Teacher Quality and Effectiveness: Gweru Urban Junior Secondary School Students’ Points of View

    OpenAIRE

    Mandina Shadreck; Mambanda Isaac

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions among junior secondary science students from Gweru Urban secondary schools in Zimbabwe towards science teachers' teaching quality and effectiveness. This qualitative study approached and interviewed Form 2 students from 10 different schools in Gweru urban. The results show that three key dimensions of science teacher quality and effectiveness emerged: teacher's scientific knowledge, teacher’s pedagogical skills and teacher's social co...

  6. Effects or urbanized modelling in fine resolution eulerian air quality simulations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Resler, Jaroslav; Liczki, Jitka; Belda, Michal; Eben, Kryštof; Juruš, Pavel; Karel, J.; Jareš, R.; Vl?ek, O.; Kazmuková, M.

    Hatfield : University of Hertfordshire, 2014 - (Mitto, T.; Fallmann, J.; Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Singh, V.; Sokhi, R.). s. 263-263 ISBN 978-1-909291-20-1. [International Conference on Air Quality - Science and Application /9./. 24.03.2014-28.03.2014, Garmisch-Partenkirchen] Grant ostatní: Central Europe Project 3CE292P3 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : urban air quality * heat island * urban meteorology Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  7. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Y.-H.; Baik, J.-J.; Kwak, K.-H.; Kim, S.; Moon, N.

    2013-02-01

    Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban-rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3) episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ). Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island) significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural) emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the sea-breeze inflow layer reduces NOx levels, thus contributing to the elevated O3 levels in the urban area.

  8. Increasing the spatial resolution of air quality assessments in urban areas: A comparison of biomagnetic monitoring and urban scale modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Jelle; Lefebvre, Wouter; Janssen, Stijn; Nackaerts, Ruben; Nuyts, Siegmund; Mattheyses, Lars; Samson, Roeland

    2014-08-01

    Increasing the spatial resolution of air quality assessments in urban environments is designated as a priority area within current research. Biomagnetic monitoring and air quality modelling are both methodologies able to provide information about the spatial variation of particulate pollutant levels within urban environments. This study evaluates both methods by comparing results of a biomagnetic monitoring campaign at 110 locations throughout Antwerp, Belgium, with modelled pollutant concentrations of PM10 and NO2. Due to the relation of biomagnetic monitoring with railway traffic, analyses were conducted for both all locations (n = 110) and railway traffic excluded locations (n = 67). While the general spatial variation, land use comparison and the relation with traffic intensity were comparable between the two applied methodologies, an overall bad agreement is obtained when the methodologies are correlated to each other. While no correlation was found between SIRM and PM10 results (p = 0.75 for n = 110 and p = 0.68 for n = 67), a significant but low (r ? 0.33) correlation was found between SIRM and NO2 (p < 0.01 for n = 110 and p = 0.04 for n = 67). While biomagnetic monitoring and air quality modelling are both able to provide high spatial resolution information about urban pollutant levels, we need to take into account some considerations. While uncertainty in the biomagnetic monitoring approach might arise from the processes that determine leaf particulate deposition and the incorporation of multiple emission sources with diverging magnetic composition, air quality modelling remains an approximation of reality which implies its dependency on accurate emission factors, implication of atmospheric processes and representation of the urban morphology. Therefore, continuous evaluation of model performance against measured data is essential to produce reliable model results. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that in addition to telemetric monitoring networks, the combination of both air quality modelling and biomagnetic monitoring is a valuable approach to provide insights into the variation of atmospheric pollutants in heterogeneous urban environments.

  9. Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban WaterConservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

    2007-05-01

    This report documents a project undertaken for theCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council (the Council) to create a newmethod of accounting for the diverse environmental benefits of raw watersavings. The environmental benefits (EB) model was designed to providewater utilities with a practical tool that they can use to assign amonetary value to the benefits that may accrue from implementing any ofthe Council-recommended Best Management Practices. The model treats onlyenvironmental services associated directly with water, and is intended tocover miscellaneous impacts that are not currently accounted for in anyother cost-benefit analysis.

  10. Water Quality Evaluation: Toxic Cyanobacteria in Surface Water

    OpenAIRE

    Dovile Lileikyte; Olga Belous

    2011-01-01

    Task of this article is to discuss the risk of blue green algal bloom to public health and to compare water quality assessment standards of surface waters among the EU Member States: France, Germany and Lithuania, drawing attention to the EU Water Framework Directive and its aims. Influence of toxic cyanobacteria on human health and the need of more detailed measures of concentration of cyanobacteria in surface waters are pointed out. This article was prepared with a contribution from EU FP7 ...

  11. Summary and conclusions from the SIWI seminar for young water professionals food and urban security--breaking the urban/rural division in water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjömander Magnusson, T

    2005-01-01

    At the Seminar for Young Water Professionals, a group of young people from different parts of the world met to discuss and debate: the interface between the urban and rural environment--how can water management see to the interest of both the farmer and the urban citizen; how the spatial boundaries within water resources management will develop in the future due to changing population patterns. Three key themes crystallized during the day: the challenges of the urban/rural interface, the need for new boundaries in water resources management and the importance of site-specific, appropriate solutions in relation to water re-use. PMID:16007948

  12. ???????????????? An International Comparison of China’s Urban Water Resource Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ??

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Water is the most fundamental resource that human survival and social development must rely on. At present, the global water resource shortage is increasingly serious along with the rapid development of social economy. Because of the rising water consumption and increasing pollution, the urban water resource is also faced with severe challenges. This paper first introduces the strategies of urban water resource management and utilization home and overseas from the following three aspects: the water resource supply-demand balance, water saving measures, and the relevant laws and policies. After the analysis and comparison of global urban water resource strategies, the paper has then identified the existing issues of urban water resource management in China. They are: 1 weak citizen water saving conscious; 2 the lagged theory research on urban water management; 3 insufficient laws and technical regulations; 4 weak urban underground drainage system. Finally, the paper proposes some policy suggestions for China’s urban water resource strategies: 1 carry out water-saving education and vigorously promote the water-saving appliances to establish a water-saving society; 2 enhance the theory study and technology innovation in water resource management; 3 perfect the laws and the specific technical regulations; 4 encourage the treated wastewater used in agricultural irrigation; 5 reconstruct the urban underground drainage system.

  13. Evaluation of surface water quality and pollution in Lepenica river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanovi? Ana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepenica river basin is axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija region. However, because of disorderly water regime of Lepenica river and its tributaries, it appears several hydrologic problems on this territory, as example insufficiency of drinking and irrigating water by one cite, and floods and torrents (especially in Kragujevac valley by other cite. Particular problem is water quality and pollution in river basin. In this paper will be analyzed water quality of Lepenica river and artificial lakes, built in its river basin, according to the data of Republic Hydrometeorologic Institute of Serbia. Also, it will be present polluter cadastre in river basin.

  14. Screening-level microbial risk assessment of urban water locations: a tool for prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Ortells, Helena; Medema, Gertjan

    2014-08-19

    People in urban areas are exposed to microbial hazards in urban waters. In this study, various hazards, diseases, and water systems, where different recreation activities take place, are compared in an integrated quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The event and annual probability of gastrointestinal illness (GI) and Legionnaires'disease (LD) were analyzed in QMRA models using selected literature data. Highest mean event probabilities of GI were found for playing in pluvial flood from a combined sewer overflow (34%), swimming (18%), and rowing (13%) in the river, swimming (8.7%) and rowing (4.5%) in the lake, and playing in a water playground (3.7%) and in the pluvial flood from stormwater sewers (4.7%). At these locations, the GI probability was above the EU Bathing Water Directive threshold for excellent water quality (3%). All the annual risk medians were below the national incidence of legionellosis of 0.002%. The illness probability was most sensitive to the pathogens concentration (particularly Campylobacter, Norovirus, and Legionella) and exposure frequency. Therefore, site-specific pathogen data collection is the best next step to strengthen the certainty of the risk estimates. This study created an evidence-base that was used by water authorities to understand the health risks and set priorities for risk management. PMID:25061968

  15. Radar monitoring of wetland hydrology: Water quality implications for the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are hydrologically dynamic ecosystems which have the potential to improve water quality. Unfortunately, many of the Chesapeake Bay’s wetlands, especially forested wetlands, have been lost or degraded due to human impacts primarily associated with agriculture and urban/suburban development. ...

  16. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral Resources...MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the...

  17. Domestic Wastewater Quality and Pollutant Loadings from Urban Housing Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Y Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are important spawning and nursery ground for fish and prawns. However, wetlands have been reported to be polluted in different parts of the world. One of the pollution sources is domestic wastewater. Therefore, in this study, domestic wastewater quality was studied at three major housing areas. Samplings were conducted in three trips. Results showed that pH ranged from 6.64 to 7.31 and temperature ranged from 23.5 to 31.7 oC. DO values were low, that is, below 3.5 mg/L for all trips at all areas studied indicating that it was not suitable for aquatic life. Nutrients such as ammoniacal nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus of the housing areas ranged from 11.1 to 17.2 mg/L and 1.05 to 2.43 mg/L respectively. Biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids concentrations at all the housing areas exceeded the Standard B maximum permitted values of Effluent Discharge Standard of Environmental Quality Act 1974. Loadings of pollutants from housing areas in Kuching were computed. This study shows that domestic wastewater was low in DO, high in oxygen demand, high in solids and nutrients thus loading the rivers with pollutants. Therefore, domestic wastewater must be treated before being channeled to the adjacent water bodies to avoid eutrophication in the receiving water and to recover nutrients.

  18. Drinking water quality monitoring using trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Eteläniemi, Mira; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2014-06-01

    One of the common quality parameters for drinking water is residual aluminium. High doses of residual aluminium in drinking water or water used in the food industry have been proved to be at least a minor health risk or even to increase the risk of more serious health effects, and cause economic losses to the water treatment plant. In this study, the trend index is developed from scaled measurement data to detect a warning of changes in residual aluminium level in drinking water. The scaling is based on monotonously increasing, non-linear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. The severity of the situations is evaluated by deviation indices. The trend episodes and the deviation indices provide good tools for detecting changes in water quality and for process control. PMID:24937217

  19. Drinking water quality concerns and water vending machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drinking water quality is a vital public health concern to consumers and regulators alike. This article describes some of the current microbiological, chemical, and radiological concerns about drinking water and the evolution of water vending machines. Also addressed are the typical treatment processes used in water vending machines and their effectiveness, as well as a brief examination of a certification program sponsored by the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA), which provides a uniform standard for the design and construction of food and beverage vending machines. For some consumers, the water dispensed from vending machines is an attractive alternative to residential tap water which may be objectionable for aesthetic or other reasons

  20. Water quality irrigation in district of Lecce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work represents the continuation of the study undertaken in June 1991 and addressed to characterize the quality of subterranean waters in district of Lecce. The results of the determination, both chemical-analytical and microbiological, handled on patterns of stratum water used to irrigated and taken from 39 wells in the reclaimed area of Ugento Li Foggi illustrated and discussed. The results show the high contents of salinity and chlorides of the water caused by a sea water intrusion in the stratum which limits the use of the water resources in agriculture

  1. River and lake water quality: future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, P. G.; Battarbee, R. W.; Crossman, J.; Elliott, J. A.; Wilby, R.; Monteith, D. T.; Kernan, M.

    2012-01-01

    It is now accepted that some human-induced climate change is unavoidable. Potential impacts on water supply have received much attention, but relatively little is known about the likely impacts on water quality. Projected changes in air temperature and rainfall will affect river flows and, hence, the mobility and dilution of nutrients and contaminants. Increased water temperatures will affect chemical reaction kinetics, lake stratification, in stream process and freshwater ecological status. ...

  2. Water-quality indices for specific water uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Water-quality indices were developed to assess waters for two specific uses--public water supply and irrigation. The assessment for a spcific water use is based on the availability f (of (1) a set of limits for each water quality property selected, (2) a rationale for selection, and (3) information that permits one to appraise the relationship of the concentration of the selected property to the suitability of the specific water use. The selected properties are divided into two classes: Type-I properties, those normaly considered toxic at low concentrations, and type-II properties, those which affect aesthetic conditions or which at high concentrations can be considered toxic or would otherwise render the water unfit for its intended use. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Impact of urban parameterization on high resolution air quality forecast with the GEM - AQ model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzewska, J.; Kaminski, J. W.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of urban cover on high-resolution air quality forecast simulations with the GEM-AQ (Global Environmental Multiscale and Air Quality) model. The impact of urban area on the ambient atmosphere is non-stationary, and short-term variability of meteorological conditions may result in significant changes of the observed intensity of urban heat island and pollutant concentrations. In this study we used the Town Energy Balance (TEB) parameterization to represent urban effects on modelled meteorological and air quality parameters at the final nesting level with horizontal resolution of ~5 km over Southern Poland. Three one-day cases representing different meteorological conditions were selected and the model was run with and without the TEB parameterization. Three urban cover categories were used in the TEB parameterization: mid-high buildings, very low buildings and low density suburbs. Urban cover layers were constructed based on an area fraction of towns in a grid cell. To analyze the impact of urban parameterization on modelled meteorological and air quality parameters, anomalies in the lowest model layer for the air temperature, wind speed and pollutant concentrations were calculated. Anomalies of the specific humidity fields indicate that the use of the TEB parameterization leads to a systematic reduction of moisture content in the air. Comparison with temperature and wind speed measurements taken at urban background monitoring stations shows that application of urban parameterization improves model results. For primary pollutants the impact of urban areas is most significant in regions characterized with high emissions. In most cases the anomalies of NO2 and CO concentrations were negative. This reduction is most likely caused by an enhanced vertical mixing due to elevated surface temperature and modified vertical stability.

  4. Impact of urban parameterization on high resolution air quality forecast with the GEM – AQ model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Struzewska

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the impact of urban cover on high-resolution air quality forecast simulations with the GEM-AQ (Global Environmental Multiscale and Air Quality model. The impact of urban area on the ambient atmosphere is non-stationary, and short-term variability of meteorological conditions may result in significant changes of the observed intensity of urban heat island and pollutant concentrations. In this study we used the Town Energy Balance (TEB parameterization to represent urban effects on modelled meteorological and air quality parameters at the final nesting level with horizontal resolution of ~5 km over Southern Poland. Three one-day cases representing different meteorological conditions were selected and the model was run with and without the TEB parameterization. Three urban cover categories were used in the TEB parameterization: mid-high buildings, very low buildings and low density suburbs. Urban cover layers were constructed based on an area fraction of towns in a grid cell. To analyze the impact of urban parameterization on modelled meteorological and air quality parameters, anomalies in the lowest model layer for the air temperature, wind speed and pollutant concentrations were calculated. Anomalies of the specific humidity fields indicate that the use of the TEB parameterization leads to a systematic reduction of moisture content in the air. Comparison with temperature and wind speed measurements taken at urban background monitoring stations shows that application of urban parameterization improves model results. For primary pollutants the impact of urban areas is most significant in regions characterized with high emissions. In most cases the anomalies of NO2 and CO concentrations were negative. This reduction is most likely caused by an enhanced vertical mixing due to elevated surface temperature and modified vertical stability.

  5. Acid deposition: Drinking water quality and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standards set by European Community (EC) legislation for those parameters affected by acidification, in both source and treated waters, along with public health implications of water quality changes are examined. The adverse consequences of acidification or treatment processes and costs for both the Welsh Water Authority (WWA) and owners of private supplies are also considered. The effects of acidification of specific water quality parameters was evaluated. The parameters evaluated included: (1) pH and alkalinity; (2) color; (3) manganese content; (4) iron content; (5) aluminum content; and (6) lead content. The extent to which acidification is involved in such variations is extremely difficult to assess but it is likely that in the acid sensitive areas of Wales it affects process efficiency and leads to increased operating costs. While compliance with the EC Surface Water and Drinking Water directives affords protection of drinking water supplies, there is a need for an immediate policy review regarding alkalinity and aluminum. In the short term, acidification of source waters which are treated by WWA is most unlikely to cause any adverse health effects. If current water quality standards are to be maintained in the longer term, considerable capital and revenue costs may be incurred. The effects of acidification on private supplies are more readily identifiable as many have inadequate treatment or none at all. It is essential that remedial action is implemented itial that remedial action is implemented in acid sensitive areas to reduce the problems associated with corrosion

  6. Influences of Hydrological Regime on Runoff Quality and Pollutant Loadings in Tropical Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, M.; Yusop, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Experience in many developed countries suggests that non point source (NPS) pollution is still the main contributor to pollutant loadings into water bodies in urban areas. However, the mechanism of NPS pollutant transport and the influences of hydrologic regime on the pollutant loading are still unclear. Understanding these interactions will be useful for improving design criteria and strategies for controlling NPS pollution in urban areas. This issue is also extremely relevant in tropical environment because its rainfall and the runoff generation processes are so different from the temperate regions where most of the studies on NPS pollutant have been carried out. In this regard, an intensive study to investigate the extent of this pollution was carried out in Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. Three small catchments, each represents commercial, residential and industrial land use were selected. Stormwater samples and flow rate data were collected at these catchments over 52 storm events from year 2008 to 2009. Samples were analyzed for ten water quality constituents including total suspended solids, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, soluble phosphorus, total phosphorus and zinc. Quality of stormwater runoff is estimated using Event Mean Concentration (EMC) value. The storm characteristics analyzed included rainfall depth, rainfall duration, mean intensity, max 5 minutes intensity, antecedent dry day, runoff volume and peak flow. Correlation coefficients were determined between storm parameters and EMCs for the residential, commercial and industrial catchments. Except for the antecedent storm mean intensity and antecedent dry days, the other rainfall and runoff variables were negatively correlated with EMCs of most pollutants. This study reinforced the earlier findings on the importance of antecedent dry days for causing greater EMC values with exceptions for oil and grease, nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus and zinc. There is no positive correlation between rainfall intensity and EMC of constituents in all the studied catchments. In contrast, the pollutant loadings are influenced primarily by the rainfall and runoff characteristics. Rainfall depth, mean intensity, max 5 minute intensity, runoff volume and peak flow were positively correlated with the loadings of most of the constituents. Antecedent storm mean intensity and antecedent dry days seemed to be less important for estimating the pollutant loadings. Such study should be further conducted for acquiring a long term monitoring data related to storm runoff quality during rainfall, in order to have a better understanding on NPS pollution in urban areas.

  7. Rare Event Detection Algorithm Of Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungs, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    A novel method is presented describing the development and implementation of an on-line water quality event detection algorithm. An algorithm was developed to distinguish between normal variation in water quality parameters and changes in these parameters triggered by the presence of contaminant spikes. Emphasis is placed on simultaneously limiting the number of false alarms (which are called false positives) that occur and the number of misses (called false negatives). The problem of excessive false alarms is common to existing change detection algorithms. EPA's standard measure of evaluation for event detection algorithms is to have a false alarm rate of less than 0.5 percent and a false positive rate less than 2 percent (EPA 817-R-07-002). A detailed description of the algorithm's development is presented. The algorithm is tested using historical water quality data collected by a public water supply agency at multiple locations and using spiking contaminants developed by the USEPA, Water Security Division. The water quality parameters of specific conductivity, chlorine residual, total organic carbon, pH, and oxidation reduction potential are considered. Abnormal data sets are generated by superimposing water quality changes on the historical or baseline data. Eddies-ET has defined reaction expressions which specify how the peak or spike concentration of a particular contaminant affects each water quality parameter. Nine default contaminants (Eddies-ET) were previously derived from pipe-loop tests performed at EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Test and Evaluation (T&E) Facility. A contaminant strength value of approximately 1.5 is considered to be a significant threat. The proposed algorithm has been able to achieve a combined false alarm rate of less than 0.03 percent for both false positives and for false negatives using contaminant spikes of strength 2 or more.

  8. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Y.-H.; Baik, J.-J.; Kwak, K.-H.; Kim, S.; Moon, N.

    2012-09-01

    Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban-rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on air quality during a high ozone (O3) episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ). Under a fair weather condition, the temperature excess (urban heat island) significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deepened urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the less O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection process but also the chemical process under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural) emissions play important roles in forming O3. The intrusion of the air masses, characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length, from surroundings increases ozone production efficiency in the urban area, thus leading to more O3 production. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the sea-breeze inflow layer reduces NOx levels, thus contributing to the elevated O3 levels in the urban area.

  9. EVALUACIÓN PRELIMINAR DE LA CALIDAD DE LA ESCORRENTÍA PLUVIAL SOBRE TEJADOS PARA SU POSIBLE APROVECHAMIENTO EN ZONAS PERIURBANAS DE BOGOTÁ PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF ROOF RUNOFF RAIN WATER QUALITY FOR POTENTIAL HARVESTING IN BOGOTA’S PERI-URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Torres

    Full Text Available En Colombia, varias comunidades, cuyo acceso al servicio de agua potable es limitado o precario, recolectan aguas lluvias para diferentes usos domésticos. Este artículo presenta los resultados de análisis de calidad de aguas lluvias de escorrentía sobre tejados, en barrios de Kennedy (Bogotá y del municipio de Soacha (Cundinamarca, con miras a evaluar su adaptabilidad para satisfacer usos domésticos, en dichas comunidades. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, el agua muestreada no es apta para ninguno de los usos de las comunidades estudiadas, debido principalmente a altos valores de turbiedad y altas concentraciones de Sólidos Suspendidos Totales, Demanda Bioquímica de Oxígeno a los cinco días y metales pesados; sin embargo, se detectó una alta variabilidad espacial y temporal de los resultados, así como en función de los materiales de los techos de las casas. En algunos casos y condiciones especiales, el agua lluvia de escorrentía sobre tejados, se podría adaptar para ser utilizada como fuente alternativa para satisfacer algunos usos domésticos.In Colombia, several communities with limited or precarious access to potable water services collect rain water for different domestic uses. This paper presents results of the quality analysis of runoff rainwater on roofs in Kennedy (Bogotá and Soacha (Cundinamarca in order to evaluate their adaptability to satisfy domestic uses in these districts. Based on the results obtained, it can be conclude that the sampled water is not suitable for none of the possible domestic uses in these communities. This is due to high values of turbidity and high concentrations of Total Suspended Solids, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and heavy metals. Nevertheless, high spatial and temporal variability was detected, as well as variability in function of the roof material. In some of the analyzed samples, the runoff water of the roofs could be adapted as an alternative for domestic uses.

  10. EVALUACIÓN PRELIMINAR DE LA CALIDAD DE LA ESCORRENTÍA PLUVIAL SOBRE TEJADOS PARA SU POSIBLE APROVECHAMIENTO EN ZONAS PERIURBANAS DE BOGOTÁ / PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF ROOF RUNOFF RAIN WATER QUALITY FOR POTENTIAL HARVESTING IN BOGOTA’S PERI-URBAN AREAS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrés, Torres; Sandra, Méndez-Fajardo; Liliana, López-Kleine; Valentina, Marín; Jorge Andrés, González; Juan Camilo, Suárez; Julián David, Pinzón; Alejandra, Ruiz.

    2011-06-30

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Colombia, varias comunidades, cuyo acceso al servicio de agua potable es limitado o precario, recolectan aguas lluvias para diferentes usos domésticos. Este artículo presenta los resultados de análisis de calidad de aguas lluvias de escorrentía sobre tejados, en barrios de Kennedy (Bogotá) y del [...] municipio de Soacha (Cundinamarca), con miras a evaluar su adaptabilidad para satisfacer usos domésticos, en dichas comunidades. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, el agua muestreada no es apta para ninguno de los usos de las comunidades estudiadas, debido principalmente a altos valores de turbiedad y altas concentraciones de Sólidos Suspendidos Totales, Demanda Bioquímica de Oxígeno a los cinco días y metales pesados; sin embargo, se detectó una alta variabilidad espacial y temporal de los resultados, así como en función de los materiales de los techos de las casas. En algunos casos y condiciones especiales, el agua lluvia de escorrentía sobre tejados, se podría adaptar para ser utilizada como fuente alternativa para satisfacer algunos usos domésticos. Abstract in english In Colombia, several communities with limited or precarious access to potable water services collect rain water for different domestic uses. This paper presents results of the quality analysis of runoff rainwater on roofs in Kennedy (Bogotá) and Soacha (Cundinamarca) in order to evaluate their adapt [...] ability to satisfy domestic uses in these districts. Based on the results obtained, it can be conclude that the sampled water is not suitable for none of the possible domestic uses in these communities. This is due to high values of turbidity and high concentrations of Total Suspended Solids, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and heavy metals. Nevertheless, high spatial and temporal variability was detected, as well as variability in function of the roof material. In some of the analyzed samples, the runoff water of the roofs could be adapted as an alternative for domestic uses.

  11. Managing the water quality of the Kafue River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambole, Michael Sankwe

    Most vital surface water bodies in developing countries are under serious threat of degradation resulting from constant discharge of polluted effluents stemming from industrial, agricultural, mining and domestic/sewage activities. The most affected river systems are those traversing cities and towns in urban areas. The Kafue River in Zambia is one such river system that is threatened with serious degradation and probable loss of biodiversity. Kafue River cuts across the country in a North-South direction, stretches for about 1576 km before draining into the Zambezi River. It covers an area of 152,000 km 2 and generates a mean annual runoff of 350 m 3/s which represents about 12% of the Zambezi’s mean annual runoff at the confluence [Water Resources Development and Vector-borne Diseases in Zambia: Report of a National Seminar held at Kafue Gorge, Zambia, WHO, Geneva, 1995]. The area coverage of the Kafue River Basin (KRB) is approximately 20% of Zambia’s land area (743,000 km 2) and approximately 17% of the Zambezi Basin [Water Resources Use in the Zambezi Basin: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Kasane, Botswana, IUCN, 1993]. More than half of Zambia’s population live in the KRB, of which about 65% are in urban while 35% are in rural areas. Over the years, however, the Kafue River has been receiving all sorts of pollutant and effluents from all sectors of economical development in Zambia that include mining, industrial and agricultural. The continuous discharge of pollutants into the Kafue river has led to the deterioration of the river water quality. The consequences have been heightened eutrophic conditions, increased heavy metal concentration in the river sediments and aquatic life, increased suspended solids, etc. leading to proliferation of Salvinia molesta in some sections of the river, decreased fish catch and fish size and objectionable taste of the Kafue River water. Fishermen along the Chanyanya-Kafue Gorge stretch of the Kafue River have complained about the alleged loss of taste and the decrease in both the fish catch and size in these areas of the Kafue River. The communities along the same stretch have also complained about the objectionable taste of the river water [Report of the Proceedings of the First Multi-sectoral Workshop on the Effects of Environmental Pollution and Degradation on the Kafue River Basin (KRB) on the Community in the Kafue Town Area, AREZ, 2001]. This paper reviews the water quality of the Kafue River resulting from anthropogenic activities and proposes the framework for the sustainable management of river water quality.

  12. Qualidade microbiológica da água em rios de áreas urbanas e periurbanas no baixo Amazonas: o caso do Amapá Microbiologic water quality in urban and periurban rivers on low Amazon river - study of case: Amapá State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cavalacanti da Cunha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo versa sobre a variação espacial-temporal de parâmetros da qualidade da água e foi realizado em quatro rios estuarinos próximos às cidades de Macapá e Santana (AP - Brasil, e trata especialmente de poluição microbiológica (coliformes fecais - CF, delineada em pesquisa de campo ocorrida entre o período de setembro de 1999 a setembro de 2002. A análise espacial-temporal dos parâmetros bacteriológicos mostrou um significativo grau de comprometimento e degradação ambiental em algumas seções de coleta. A obtenção de faixas de concentração mostrou-se importante para avaliar as freqüências e distribuições estatísticas de parâmetros da qualidade da água, principalmente para indicar riscos à saúde pública e aos ecossistemas aquáticos. Finalmente, devido a quase completa ausência de informações hidrodinâmica e climática sistematizada, a abordagem fundamentou-se na utilização de análise estatística. Contudo, verificou-se uma tendência de aderência dos dados a uma distribuição normal e um grau de deterioração da qualidade da água já presente nas seções estudadas.This study presents the spatial and temporal variability of water quality parameters in rivers of Macapá and Santana region, State of Amapá, Brazil, especially faecal coliforms (FC, being used as indicators. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted in four estuarine rivers. The experiment included five sampling locations and the research was conducted from September 1999 to September 2002. Samples were collected once a monthly. The results of analysis provided us useful information for sanitary and public health planning. In addiction, a socio-economic study of several critical areas in the watershed was carried out. The results showed high faecal coliform concentrations. The complexity of space-temporal variability of the water quality was affected by various factors, such as climatic conditions, tidal variation and human activities. This information can be used in forecasting environmental and public health risks.

  13. Qualidade microbiológica da água em rios de áreas urbanas e periurbanas no baixo Amazonas: o caso do Amapá / Microbiologic water quality in urban and periurban rivers on low Amazon river - study of case: Amapá State

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alan Cavalacanti da, Cunha; Helenilza Ferreira Albuquerque, Cunha; Antônio César Pinho, Brasil Júnior; Luis Antonio, Daniel; Harry Edmar, Schulz.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo versa sobre a variação espacial-temporal de parâmetros da qualidade da água e foi realizado em quatro rios estuarinos próximos às cidades de Macapá e Santana (AP) - Brasil, e trata especialmente de poluição microbiológica (coliformes fecais - CF), delineada em pesquisa de campo oco [...] rrida entre o período de setembro de 1999 a setembro de 2002. A análise espacial-temporal dos parâmetros bacteriológicos mostrou um significativo grau de comprometimento e degradação ambiental em algumas seções de coleta. A obtenção de faixas de concentração mostrou-se importante para avaliar as freqüências e distribuições estatísticas de parâmetros da qualidade da água, principalmente para indicar riscos à saúde pública e aos ecossistemas aquáticos. Finalmente, devido a quase completa ausência de informações hidrodinâmica e climática sistematizada, a abordagem fundamentou-se na utilização de análise estatística. Contudo, verificou-se uma tendência de aderência dos dados a uma distribuição normal e um grau de deterioração da qualidade da água já presente nas seções estudadas. Abstract in english This study presents the spatial and temporal variability of water quality parameters in rivers of Macapá and Santana region, State of Amapá, Brazil, especially faecal coliforms (FC), being used as indicators. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted in four estuarine rivers. The experiment in [...] cluded five sampling locations and the research was conducted from September 1999 to September 2002. Samples were collected once a monthly. The results of analysis provided us useful information for sanitary and public health planning. In addiction, a socio-economic study of several critical areas in the watershed was carried out. The results showed high faecal coliform concentrations. The complexity of space-temporal variability of the water quality was affected by various factors, such as climatic conditions, tidal variation and human activities. This information can be used in forecasting environmental and public health risks.

  14. THE WATER QUALITY FROM SAINT ANA LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.VIGH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inside the Ciomad Massive appears a unique lake in Romania, with an exclusive precipitations alimentation regime. The lake’s origin and the morphometric elements, together with the touristic activity, determine the water’s quality and characteristics. Water status evaluation was realized using random samples taken between the years 2005 and 2010. Qualitative parameters indicate the existence of a clear water lake, belonging to ultra-oligotrophic faze. This is because the crater is covered with forest and the surface erosion is very poor. Also the aquatic vegetation is rare. From all analyzed indicators, only ammonium and total mineral nitrogen have higher values during last years. In the future, the lake needs a higher protection against water quality degradation.

  15. Assessing urban water sustainability in South Africa - not just performance measurement

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K, Carden; NP, Armitage.

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Urban water management - and the impacts that rapid population growth, industrialisation and climate change are having on it - is gaining increasing attention worldwide. In South Africa (SA), cities are under pressure to respond to not only the challenges of water availability and quality, but also [...] to economic transformation and social division. New solutions for improving the sustainability of cities need to be found, including the development of tools to guide decision-makers. Several benchmarking initiatives have been implemented in the SA water sector - mostly in terms of performance measurement of specific water services for regulatory purposes - but none provide an integrated analysis to enable a deeper understanding of sustainability. The research described in this paper was thus focused on using a systems approach to create an understanding of, and measure the potential for, sustainability in a South African urban water context. This has been achieved through the development and evaluation of a composite index, the Sustainability Index for Integrated Urban Water Management (SIUWM). The first step involved compiling a vision of sustainability for the SA water sector, and expanding it into a sustainability framework to help identify suitable indicators for the assessment process, as well as those which link with existing measurement initiatives. Key performance indicator results from the Department of Water Affairs' Regulatory Performance Management System (RPMS) and the Blue Drop / Green Drop schemes were used as partial input to the SIUWM, and scores were computed for the nine member cities of the South African Cities Network (SACN). The SIUWM links the results from the regulatory systems with a broader sustainability assessment process to provide a more detailed analysis which can be used to establish goals and inform strategic processes to leverage support for improved water services. In this way, the connections that link the different aspects of urban water management can be used to generate a greater awareness of the underlying issues by key decision makers and thus guide appropriate action

  16. Benthic macroinvertebrate as biological indicator for water quality in Sungai Penchala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahazar, Akmal; Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Kutty, Ahmad Abas

    2013-11-01

    Sungai Penchala is one of the main tributaries for Sungai Klang which flows through the urban area of Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur before merging with Sungai Klang in the Petaling Jaya district. As urban river, Sungai Penchala is polluted because of anthropogenic activities and this include direct garbage load, untreated drainage system from nearby residential area and also runoff from frequent heavy rain as the country located in tropical area. Currently, there are efforts from government and educational sectors to monitor and rehabilitate the river with vision to return it into its former natural function and not as a sink for urban population. Unlike pristine or recreational river, the water quality of urban river changes drastically over day even hours. Thus there is need for a procedure that can be used for water quality inspection in time of sampling but also provides reliable information that can resemble past event. Therefore, to do that the river monitoring was carried out by employing the traditional physical-chemical parameter by using Hydrolab Quanta® multi parameter reader. The benthic macroinvertebrate was collected using Surber's sampler and preserved in 95% ethanol for identification purposes. The data collected was analyzed for Water Quality Index (WQI) and Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) to determine the river condition. The system used has its own strength and weakness but when employed together, it is expected to give better knowledge in evaluating river condition. Thus, increase the accuracy of evaluation process. In this study, the biological monitoring shows that changes in water quality influence the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate. This study prove that biological monitoring by utilizing benthic macroinvertebrate can also be used in determining water quality of urban type river. It is also produced result that more readily interprets as it reveal past event disturbance which sometimes missed by physical-chemical parameters.

  17. Pollutant transfer through air and water pathways in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.; Burian, S.; McPherson, T.; Streit, G.; Costigan, K.; Greene, B.

    1998-12-31

    The authors are attempting to simulate the transport and fate of pollutants through air and water pathways in an urban environment. This cross-disciplinary study involves linking together models of mesoscale meteorology, air pollution chemistry and deposition, urban runoff and stormwater transport, water quality, and wetland chemistry and biology. The authors are focusing on the transport and fate of nitrogen species because (1) they track through both air and water pathways, (2) the physics, chemistry, and biology of the complete cycle is not well understood, and (3) they have important health, local ecosystem, and global climate implications. The authors will apply their linked modeling system to the Los Angeles basin, following the fate of nitrates from their beginning as nitrate-precursors produced by auto emissions and industrial processes, tracking their dispersion and chemistry as they are transported by regional winds and eventually wet or dry deposit on the ground, tracing their path as they are entrained into surface water runoff during rain events and carried into the stormwater system, and then evaluating their impact on receiving water bodies such as wetlands where biologically-mediated chemical reactions take place. In this paper, the authors wish to give an overview of the project and at the conference show preliminary results.

  18. Water Quality Improvement Performance of Geotextiles Within Permeable Pavement Systems: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Miklas Scholz

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable drainage systems (SuDS; or best management practices) are increasingly being used as ecological engineering techniques to prevent the contamination of receiving watercourses and groundwater. Permeable paving is a SuDS technique, which is commonplace in car parks, driveways and minor roads where one of their functions is to improve the quality of urban runoff. However, little is known about the water quality benefits of incorporating an upper geotextile within the paving structure....

  19. USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since its inception in 1991, the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program has been collecting and analyzing data about more than 50 major river basins and aquifers across the United States. The core mission is "to develop long-term consistent and comparable information on streams, ground water, and aquatic ecosystems to support sound management and policy decisions." Visitors can begin by selecting one of over 50 research sites from a drop-down menu of states, or by looking at research activities by river basin. The main homepage for the NAWQA also contains a section that explains how and why water quality varies across the country by discussing the various elements, such as pesticides and nutrients, that contribute to the quality of various water sources. Of course, the site also features a number of more technical reports on water quality, including detailed information about each basin area. As might be expected, the site also offers a glossary of frequently used terms within the fields of water chemistry and hydrology, and also contains a What's New section that contains announcements about the release of new reports, fact sheets, and upcoming conferences of note.

  20. In Brief: Improving Mississippi River water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-10-01

    If water quality in the Mississippi River and the northern Gulf of Mexico is to improve, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs to take a stronger leadership role in implementing the federal Clean Water Act, according to a 16 October report from the U.S. National Research Council. The report notes that EPA has failed to use its authority to coordinate and oversee activities along the river. In addition, river states need to be more proactive and cooperative in efforts to monitor and improve water quality, and the river should be monitored and evaluated as a single system, the report indicates. Currently, the 10 states along the river conduct separate and widely varying water quality monitoring programs. ``The limited attention being given to monitoring and managing the Mississippi's water quality does not match the river's significant economic, ecological, and cultural importance,'' said committee chair David A. Dzombak, director of the Steinbrenner Institute for Environmental Education and Research at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa. The report notes that while measures taken under the Clean Water Act have successfully reduced much point source pollution, nutrient and sediment loads from nonpoint sources continue to be significant problems. For more information, visit the Web site: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12051.

  1. Reductions in urban outdoor water use as an adaptation to declining water supplies in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, D. E.; Hogue, T. S.; Litvak, E.; Mini, C.; Pincetl, S.

    2012-12-01

    Many irrigated cities in the semi-arid west wish to reduce their water consumption by more efficiently planning and managing outdoor landscapes. This requires accurate information about the actual water budget of these landscapes, which is still quite uncertain. We evaluated urban water use and the potential for reductions in outdoor water use in Los Angeles, which relies heavily on imported water from high elevation recharge outside the urban area, and is therefore very sensitive to declining snowpack as a result of climate change. Most landscapes in Los Angeles are irrigated, and outdoor water use constitutes a significant fraction of total municipal water use. Quantifying the fate of this water and the implications for water-conserving landscape designs requires a combination of direct measurements, hydrologic modeling, and analysis of water consumption data. We analyzed water billing records in relation to climatic and land use characteristics, directly measured transpiration in a variety of species and landscape types, and characterized regional evapotranspiration (ET) with a remote-sensing based model. We found that climate variables explaining approximately 1-30% of the variability in residential water use depending on neighborhood. Over a 10 year period, there was no correlation between interannual variability in water use and interannual variability in remote-sensing based vegetation greenness. Following the implementation of conservation measures, residential water use declined throughout the city, but greenness remained constant. Direct measurements of plant water use and plant water relations confirmed that most vegetation was well-watered and showed few signs of water stress. Transpiration rates were highly species specific, with the highest transpiration rates and lowest water use efficiency found in species originating from humid environments or from riparian habitats. Unshaded turfgrass showed the highest rates of ET in any measured landscape, but turfgrass shaded by trees showed relatively low ET. Hence, adding trees to turfgrass landscapes appears to be a water-saving measure. The most water efficient trees that we measured in Los Angeles were species that originate from climates with a high native vapor pressure deficit, such as Mediterranean pine species and Australian species (including Eucalyptus). Preliminary results from a sensitivity analysis with a remote sensing-based model of ET indicate that widespread xeriscaping, as represented with a 50% reduction in urban vegetation greenness, could result in a 10% reduction in municipal water use. However, the consequences for urban surface temperature and climate of a such a dramatic reduction in vegetation cover needs to be evaluated, as tree cover is closely related to surface temperatures in this region.

  2. WATER QUALITY AND ECTOPARASITE DISEASES OF CY- PRINIDAE FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tomec

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available On large carp fish farms water from larger surface streams is used, which have been affected by industrial and urban pollution, making the zoohygienic conditions bad for the culturing region. The quality of the culturing region directly affects the growth, condition and health of the fish. The aim of this work was to investigate the components of phytoplankton and the physico-chemical indicators of water quality on the occurrence of ectoparasites on the cyprinidae fish farms. Investigation were carried out from May to September 1992 on the fish farms Narta and Blatnica. The main stock of the farms were there year old carp fry. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phytoplankton, as well as the basic physico-chemical indicators were carried out by methods used in limnology. The health examination of the fish was carried out in view of the general clinical, microscopic and path anatomic examination. In the components of phytoplankton the species which participated in the group s were: Cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta, Euglenophita, Phyrrophyta, Chryso- phita and Chlorophyta. Eventhough there were indicators of greater and lesser water pollution, the betamesosaprobic representative were dominant. The obtained values of physico-chemical indicators ranged in the limitis characteristic of the cyprinidae fish farms. An exception was in the concentration of disolved oxygen in the water, which was relatively lower that the optimal concentration for cyprinidae, amounting to 1.4 mg.l-1 (pond 9. Based on the health examination of the ectoparasite fish, determined were representatives of the families: Trichodina, Argulus, Dactylogorus and Gyrodactylus, ectopara sites which mainly occur when there is low water quality, bad zoohygienic conditions in the ponds and an increase in water temperature. A higher invasion of ectoparasites was determined in the fish from ponds 9 and 10.

  3. Evaluation of water and sediment quality of urban streams in Santa Cruz do Sul County, RS, Brasil, using ecotoxicological assays / Avaliação da qualidade da água e sedimento de arroios urbanos no município de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil, utilizando ensaios ecotoxicológicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luã de, Vargas; Camila, Athanásio; Adriana, Düpont; Adilson Ben da, Costa; Eduardo Aléxis, Lobo.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água e do sedimento de córregos urbanos (Lajeado, Preto, Pedras e Lewis-Pedroso) localizados no município de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil, utilizando o microcrustáceo Ceriodaphnia dubia como organismo-teste. MÉTODOS: Excursões ci [...] entíficas trimestrais foram realizadas nesses arroios, em agosto e novembro de 2011; fevereiro e maio de 2012, para coletar amostras de água e sedimento nos trechos superiores (P2, P4, P6 e P8) e nos trechos inferiores (P1, P3, P5 e P7), totalizando 8 pontos. Para avaliar a toxicidade (aguda e crônica), utilizou-se o microcrustáceo C. dubia. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicaram alta toxicidade nos pontos P2, P6 e P8 (trechos inferiores), uma vez que causaram 100% de mortalidade dos organismos nas amostras de água (P6 e P8) e amostras de sedimento (P2 e P8), denotando efeito agudo. Ainda, todos os trechos superiores mostraram efeito crônico em amostras de sedimento, em pelo menos uma época de amostragem, com os maiores níveis de toxicidade significativa entre todas as amostras (55.2%), o que indica a presença de contaminação mesmos em trechos superiores. Estes resultados indicaram uma forte degradação da qualidade da água e do sedimento dos arroios urbanos proveniente das descargas de águas residuais e industriais da área urbana, que podem causar danos à biota, bem como a saúde pública, devido aos múltiplos usos de água que a população local faz, destacando muitos deles como inadequados para a qualidade da água detectada, como a recreação de contato primário (balneabilididade). Abstract in english AIM: This study aimed to assess the quality of water and sediment of urban streams (Lajeado, Preto, Pedras and Lewis-Pedroso) located in Santa Cruz do Sul County, RS, Brazil, using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia as test-organism. METHODS: Quarterly scientific excursions to the streams were h [...] eld on August and November 2011, February and May of 2012 in order to collect water and sediment samples, in the upper reaches (P1, P3, P5, P7) and lower reaches (P2, P4, P6, P8), totalizing 8 points. To evaluate the toxicity (acute and chronic), the microcrustacean C. dubia was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results indicated high toxicity levels detected in samples P2, P6 and P8 (lower reaches), as they caused the mortality of 100% of organisms in the water samples (P6 and P8) and sediment samples (P2 and P8), denoting acute effect. Yet, all upstream sites showed chronic effects in sediment samples, at least for one collection period, with the highest significant toxicity level among all samples (55.2%), which indicates the presence of contamination even in upper areas. These results indicated a strong degradation of the water and sediment quality of urban streams coming from the wastewater and industrial discharges of the urban area, which can cause damage to the biota as well as the public health, due to the multiples uses of water that the local population does, highlighting many of them as inappropriate to the water quality detected, such as the primary contact recreation (balneability).

  4. URBAN SEDIMENTS: ENVIRONMENT AND WATER = SEDIMENTOS URBANOS: AMBIENTE E ÁGUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the metal´s transport pathways by sediments is sufficiently complex and it is influenced for some variables such as the sediment size-grain distribution, origin and its potential sources as well the type and occupation of the urban watershed. Therefore, it´s necessary to understand the involved processes in the sources-transport-deposit of the sediments in urban environments to be able to characterize (quantity and quality these loads of pollutants that arrive in freshwater bodies. This kind of information can be used like support for sustainable projects conception of urban draining and it allows to minimize the degradation of the aquatic´s environments quality. = Os sedimentos urbanos são considerados, atualmente, como a maior fonte de poluição difusa para os corpos de água em áreas urbanas devido ao transporte de metais pesados e outros poluentes. Metais pesados são considerados potencialmente perigosos devido ao seu potencial tóxico e bio-acumulativo, ainda que em pequenas concentrações. A dinâmica do processo de transporte de metais pelos sedimentos é bastante complexa e está sujeita a variáveis, tais como a distribuição granulométrica de partículas de sedimentos, a origem e suas fontes potenciais, além do tipo e ocupação da bacia hidrográfica. Por isso, é necessário entender os processos envolvidos na origem-transporte-deposição dos sedimentos em ambientes urbanos para poder caracterizar (quantidade e qualidade essas cargas de poluentes que aportam nos corpos de água. Estes tipos de informações podem ser utilizados como uma forma de suporte para a concepção de projetos sustentáveis de drenagem urbana, que permitam minimizar a degradação da qualidade dos ambientes aquáticos.

  5. Water quality in conventional and home haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasiewicz, Matthew J; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Kerr, Peter G

    2012-12-01

    Dialysis water can be contaminated by chemical and microbiological factors, all of which are potentially hazardous to patients on haemodialysis. The quality of dialysis water has seen incremental improvements over the years, with advances in water preparation, monitoring and disinfection methods, and high standards are now readily achievable in clinical practice. Advances in dialysis membrane technology have refocused attention on water quality and its potential role in the bioincompatibility of haemodialysis circuits and adverse patient outcomes. The role of ultrapure dialysate is increasingly being advocated, given its proposed clinical benefits and relative ease of production as a result of the widespread use of reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration. Many of the issues pertaining to water quality in hospital-based dialysis units are also pertinent to haemodialysis in the home. Furthermore, an increased awareness of the environmental and financial consequences of home haemodialysis has resulted in the development of automated and more efficient dialysis machines. These new machines have an increased emphasis on water conservation and recycling along with a decreased need for a complex infrastructure for water purification and maintenance. PMID:23090444

  6. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  7. A Review of Quantitative Methods for Evaluating Impacts of Climate Change on Urban Water Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is widely accepted that global climate change will impact the regional and local climate and alter some aspects of the hydrologic cycle, which in turn can affect the performance of the urban water supply, wastewater and storm water infrastructur4e. How the urban water infrastr...

  8. [Anoxic bioremediation of urban polluted river water with biofilm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Ming; Hu, Yi-Zhen; Yan, Rong; Liu, Fang

    2009-07-15

    Reactor like oxidation ditch was used for anaerobic bioremediation of urban river water, in which biofilm formed on ceramic honeycomb carrier was used instated of activated sludge. The dissolved oxygen in the wastewater was controlled under 0.5 mg/L for anoxic oxidation, and ammonia nitrogen was removed 40 to 60 percent, and total nitrogen removed 40 to 45 percent, that is ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen were removed at the same time, also, nitrite was not any accumulated during the process. The biofilm was taken into flask to culture under anoxic oxidation condition in order to prove if anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) occurred in the process, and ammonia and nitrite nitrogen were also removed at the same time in the experiment, which suggested that nitrification-denitrification and ANAMMOX occurred in bioremediation of urban surface water with low ratio of carbon and nitrogen at the same time. The anammox bacteria were existed in the biofilm according to molecular biological analysis. The experiment will be significant for bioremediation of eutrophication water body. PMID:19774985

  9. Quality of Potable Water in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia M. Al-Ruwaih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Kuwait is an arid country with limited natural water resources. As such, Kuwait produces its drinking water using the Multi-Stage-Flash method (MSF in distillation plants to produce distilled water from sea water. The distilled water is blended with the brackish groundwater in different blending ratios, to produce drinking water, as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO. Approach: The main purposes of this study were to determine the best blending ratios in the blending plants of Kuwait to get the best quality of drinking water according to the WHO guidelines and to reveal and control the corrosivity of the produced drinking water. In order to find out the best blending ratio, samples of drinking water from the different blending plants and groundwater samples from water well fields have been collected during 2007-2008 and analyzed for the determination of basic cations and anions. Moreover, water samples collected from the main pump stations were analyzed for Langelier Index, to reveal the corossivity level of the drinking water. Results: It was found that the best blending ratio between distilled water and brackish groundwater to obtain drinking water is in the range of 7-8% at Shuwaikh blending plant, 8-9% at Shuaiba blending plant and 8% at Doha blending plant respectively. While the best blending ratio at Az-Zour blending lines is between 3-4% and between 4-5% at Sabiya blending lines. Conclusion: It was found that the produced distilled water is corrosive and causing red water problem. In addition, it was found that the mean value of the Langelier Index at Shuaiba pump station is (-0.6 and the mean value of the total alkalinity is 21.4 mg L-1 as CaCO3, which reveals that the drinking water from Shuaiba plant is more corrosive than the drinking water from the other plants.

  10. Evaluation of the quality of urban soils in Sopron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Adrienn; Kámán, Orsolya; Németh, Eszter; Sz?cs, Péter; Bidló, András

    2013-04-01

    The location and evolution of the cities were fundamentally influenced by the environmental factors and the characteristics of the landscape. In order to investigate the soil we have collected samples from various sampling sites in a west hungarian city, called Sopron. The soil samples were taken from 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth within a standard network in the city and its industrial territories. The values we gained through our examinations were placed on a digital map with GIS (Geospatial Information system) methods. After entering the pH values, the acidity of the parental material can be observed in both layers on the southwest forest territories of the city, moreover the - so far insignificant - alkalizing of the city territories compared to the surroundings due to the land-shaping activities of mankind. We cannot find any carbonated lime in one fourth of the samples, these samples came mostly from the mountainous surrounding of the city. In the samples from the internal areas of the city, however, carbonated lime could be found particularly due to the disposal of construction scrap. The upper layer of the examined soil is rich on humus, in spite of the increasing landscape usage and alteration of the structure. The highest humus and nitrogen values could be found in the soil of the forests near to the television tower, in the lower layers the amount of organic material was less. The lowest AL-solvent potassium values could be found in these areas, as well. We have found significant values of AL-solvent phosphorus, KCI-solvent potassium and magnesium in vehicular zones or near agricultural land. Higher iron content could be found in the samples of acid forest territories, the manganese values follow these tendencies. The highest zinc values can be shown in both layers near the bus station and the roads with the highest traffic. The copper tests gave us steadily high values at several sampling points throughout the Virágvölgy-site and the separate house zone of the city. In the course of our examination we were trying to find a connection between land usage and land status which would allow the evaluation of the future status and the processing of the necessary improvement methods. Based on our experiments the unique character of the city is fading away, the qualification of the peripheral areas is changing, the land use is condensing which lead to a declining quality of urban soil. In this year we will start to analyse the heavy metal content and chemical compositions of the collected soil samples with infrared spectrometry to get a whole picture about the industrial and the anthropogenic effects.

  11. Disconnecting the autopilot in urban water projects : creating an innovation platform for sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2011-01-01

    How can we motivate urban planners, water utilities and house owners to collaborate about sustainable urban water projects and to aim for solutions that go beyond the narrow perspective of individual stakeholder interests? A concept for framing a multidisciplinary learning process is developed in the research project: Black blue green: Integrated infrastructure planning as key to sustainable urban water systems, with the acronym 2BG. The concept addresses the need for local authorities to develop competences for adopting an integrated approach including different internal departments. The concept is referred to as ‘the 2BG platform concept’. The 2BG platform concept as been tested three times and proves to a step in the intended directions of developing organisational competences for an integrated approach in sustainable urban water projects. Primarily because it invites urban planners, road and park managers, and sewage managers to a dialogue about sustainable urban water projects while exploring cases of new design solutions; secondly because it facilitates an appreciative communication between “softer” and “harder” disciplines, and thirdly because it promotes multidisciplinary thinking during the early stages of an urban water project. To realise new sustainable urban water designs a project team will need to engage and get acceptance from internal and external stakeholders, and this calls for communication and social skills rather than technical skills. The paper identifies potential stakeholders that can support or potentially stop urban water projects. Competences of network governance represent a need to break out of the conventional urban water design and to develop new designs where storm water is handled visible to citizens. The platform concept is in a Danish context a milestone in capacity building for integrating urban planning with water management and management of parks and roads, and might inspire others to rethink planning processes and to build organisational competences to innovate urban watermanagement for the benefit of present and future citizens.

  12. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column

  13. Ground-Water Quality and its Relation to Land Use on Oahu, Hawaii, 2000-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Water quality in the main drinking-water source aquifers of Oahu was assessed by a one-time sampling of untreated ground water from 30 public-supply wells and 15 monitoring wells. The 384 square-mile study area, which includes urban Honolulu and large tracts of forested, agricultural, and suburban residential lands in central Oahu, accounts for 93 percent of the island's ground-water withdrawals. Organic compounds were detected in 73 percent of public-supply wells, but mostly at low concentrations below minimum reporting levels. Concentrations exceeded drinking-water standards in just a few cases: the solvent trichloroethene and the radionuclide radon-222 exceeded Federal standards in one public-supply well each, and the fumigants 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) exceeded State standards in three public-supply wells each. Solvents, fumigants, trihalomethanes, and herbicides were prevalent (detected in more than 30 percent of samples) but gasoline components and insecticides were detected in few wells. Most water samples contained complex mixtures of organic compounds: multiple solvents, fumigants, or herbicides, and in some cases compounds from two or all three of these classes. Characteristic suites of chemicals were associated with particular land uses and geographic locales. Solvents were associated with central Oahu urban-military lands whereas fumigants, herbicides, and fertilizer nutrients were associated with central Oahu agricultural lands. Somewhat unexpectedly, little contamination was detected in Honolulu where urban density is highest, most likely as a consequence of sound land-use planning, favorable aquifer structure, and less intensive application of chemicals (or of less mobile chemicals) over recharge zones in comparison to agricultural areas. For the most part, organic and nutrient contamination appear to reflect decades-old releases and former land use. Most ground-water ages were decades old, with recharge dates ranging from pre-1940 to the present, and with most dates falling within the 1950s to 1980s time span. Several widely detected compounds were discontinued as long ago as the 1970s but have yet to be flushed from the ground-water system. Although large tracts of land in central Oahu have been converted from agriculture to residential urban use since the 1950s, water quality in the converted areas still more closely reflects the former agricultural land. It appears to be too early to detect a distinct water-quality signature characteristic of the newer urban use, although several urban turfgrass herbicides in use for just 10 years or so were detected in monitoring wells and may represent early arrivals of urban contaminants at the water table.

  14. Water-quality assessment of the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky; results of investigations of surface-water quality, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, K.H.; Garcia, Rene; Jarrett, G.L.; Porter, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated the water quality of the Kentucky River Basin in Kentucky as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment program. Data collected during 1987-90 were used to describe the spatial and temporal variability of water-quality constituents including metals and trace elements, nutrients, sediments, pesticides, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-coliform bacteria. Oil-production activities were the source of barium, bromide, chloride, magnesium, and sodium in several watersheds. High concentrations of aluminum, iron, and zinc were related to surface mining in the Eastern Coal Field Region. High concentrations of lead and zinc occurred in streambed sediments in urban areas, whereas concentrations of arsenic, strontium, and uranium were associated with natural geologic sources. Concentrations of phosphorus were significantly correlated with urban and agricultural land use. The high phosphorus content of Bluegrass Region soils was an important source of phosphorus in streams. At many sites in urban areas, most of the stream nitrogen load was attributable to wastewater-treatment-plant effluent. Average suspended-sediment concentrations were positively correlated with discharge. There was a downward trend in suspended-sediment concentrations downstream in the Kentucky River main stem during the study. The most frequently detected herbicides in water samples were atrazine, 2,4-D, alachlor, metolachlor, and dicamba. Diazinon, malathion, and parathion were the most frequently detected organophosphate insecticides in water samples. Detectable concentrations of aldrin, chlordane, DDT, DDE, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, heptachlor, and lindane were found in streambed-sediment samples. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were sometimes below the minimum concentration needed to sustain aquatic life. At some sites, high concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were found and water samples did not meet sanitary water-quality criteria.

  15. Water quality protection in the coastal artificial water areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Kantardgi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The method based on the numerical modeling of the processes, forecasting and sea water quality assurance at the design stage of the coastal hydraulic constructions like ports, recreational and bank protection structures is presented. The half-closed coastal water areas are the object of the intensive pollution and in the same time have the limited water exchange with the main basin. The research objective was the development of forecasting method of the water quality in the harborage and the guidelines on the required water quality supply. The study was carried out for the conditions of the yacht port “Grand-Marina Sochi”, which is being designed for placing in the area of seaport Sochi. The oil spill and the failures at the wastewater treatment facilities are considered like the sources of the pollution. The numerical modeling of flow fields has been applied to forecast the spreading of the pollution under the determined hydro-meteorological scenarios. On the basis of the study there were made recommendations on the program of the environmental monitoring of the sea water quality in the harborage.

  16. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3 Section 130.3 ...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3...

  17. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8...

  18. Quality of urban runoff, Tecolote Creek drainage area, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setmire, James G.; Bradford, Wesley L.

    1980-01-01

    The quality of storm runoff from a 9.2-square-mile urbanized watershed, Tecolote Creek, San Diego County, Calif., was studied during nine storms from September 1976 through May 1977. Specific conductance reached 2,100 micromhos and total residue concentrations reached 2,770 milligrams per liter. The chemical oxygen demand concentration in 95% of the samples exceeded 50 milligrams per liter, a concentration that may be sufficient to cause severe oxygen depletion in areas of the receiving water, Mission Bay. Lead concentrations in all samples exceeded concentrations thought to affect some aquatic organisms. Median total nitrogen and total orthophosphorus concentrations were far in excess of concentrations known to cause nuisance growth of algae in lakes. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations greatly exceeded recommended levels for primary contact recreation water. Concentrations of pesticides--heptachlor, malathion, chlordane, DDT, diazinon, and dieldrin--frequently exceeded the recommended maximums for marine or freshwater aquatic systems. Total loads of selected constituents are calculated and may be used to estimate the impact of runoff on the receiving water. (USGS)

  19. The Economics of Groundwater Replenishment for Reliable Urban Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential economic benefits of water banking in aquifers to meet drought and emergency supplies for cities where the population is growing and changing climate has reduced the availability of water. A simplified case study based on the city of Perth, Australia was used to estimate the savings that could be achieved by water banking. Scenarios for investment in seawater desalination plants and groundwater replenishment were considered over a 20 year period of growing demand, using a Monte Carlo analysis that embedded the Markov model. An optimisation algorithm identified the minimum cost solutions that met specified criteria for supply reliability. The impact of depreciation of recharge credits was explored. The results revealed savings of more than A$1B (~US$1B or 37% to 33% of supply augmentation costs by including water banking in aquifers for 95% and 99.5% reliability of supply respectively. When the hypothetically assumed recharge credit depreciation rate was increased from 1% p.a. to 10% p.a. savings were still 33% to 31% for the same reliabilities. These preliminary results show that water banking in aquifers has potential to offer a highly attractive solution for efficiently increasing the security of urban water supplies where aquifers are suitable.

  20. Urban community perception towards intermittent water supply system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M W; Talkhande, A V; Andey, S P; Kelkar, P S

    2002-04-01

    While evaluating intermittent and continuous water supply systems, consumers opinion survey was undertaken for critical appraisal of both modes of operation. With the help of a pre-designed set of questions relating to various aspects of water supply and the opinion of consumers regarding degree of service, a house to house survey was conducted in the study area of Ghaziabad and Jaipur. The consumer opinion survey clearly indicated a satisfactory degree of service wherever adequate quantity of water was made available irrespective of the mode of water supply. Number of complaints regarding quality of water supplied, timings of supply, low pressures and breakdowns in supply were reported during intermittent water supply. Every family stored water for drinking and other uses. Most of the families discard drinking water once the fresh water supply is resumed next day. Discarded drinking water is usually used in kitchen for washing and gardening. Storage for other purposes depends on economic status and availability of other sources like open dug well in the house. While most of the respondents had no complaints on water tariff, all of them were in favour of continuous water supply. PMID:14503384

  1. Groundwater quality and water quality index at Bhandara District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajankar, Prashant N; Tambekar, Dilip H; Wate, Satish R

    2011-08-01

    The present investigation reports the results of a monitoring study focusing on groundwater quality of Bhandara District of central India. Since, remediation of groundwater is very difficult, knowledge of the existing nature, magnitude, and sources of the various pollution loads is a prerequisite to assessing groundwater quality. The water quality index (WQI) value as a function of various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters was determined for groundwater obtained from a total of 21 locations. The WQI during pre-monsoon season varied from 68 to 83, while for post-monsoon, it was between 56 and 76. Significantly (P < 0.01) lower WQI for the post-monsoon season was observed, indicating deterioration of the groundwater overall in corresponding season. The study revealed that groundwater from only 19% locations was fit for domestic use, thus indicating the need of proper treatment before use. PMID:21063769

  2. Quality requirements for reclaimed/recycled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Daniel S.; Sauer, Richard L.; Pierson, Duane L.; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

    1987-01-01

    Water used during current and previous space missions has been either carried or made aloft. Future human space endeavors will require some form of water reclamation and recycling. There is little experience in the U.S. space program with this technology. Water reclamation and recycling constitute engineering challenges of the broadest nature that will require an intensive research and development effort if this technology is to mature in time for practical use on the proposed U.S. Space Station. In order for this to happen, reclaimed/recycled water specifications will need to be devised to guide engineering development. Present NASA Potable Water Specifications are not applicable to reclaimed or recycled water. Adequate specifications for ensuring the quality of the reclaimed or recycled potable water system is reviewed, limitations of present water specifications are examined, world experience with potable water reclamation/recycling systems and systems analogs is reviewed, and an approach to developing pertinent biomedical water specifications for spacecraft is presented. Space Station water specifications should be designed to ensure the health of all likely spacecraft inhabitants including man, animals, and plants.

  3. Water Quality Evaluation: Toxic Cyanobacteria in Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovile Lileikyte

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Task of this article is to discuss the risk of blue green algal bloom to public health and to compare water quality assessment standards of surface waters among the EU Member States: France, Germany and Lithuania, drawing attention to the EU Water Framework Directive and its aims. Influence of toxic cyanobacteria on human health and the need of more detailed measures of concentration of cyanobacteria in surface waters are pointed out. This article was prepared with a contribution from EU FP7 project "GENESIS".

  4. Littered cigarette butts as a source of nicotine in urban waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder Green, Amy L.; Putschew, Anke; Nehls, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The effect of nicotine from littered cigarette butts on the quality of urban water resources has yet to be investigated. This two-part study addresses the spatial variation, seasonal dynamics and average residence time of littered cigarette butts in public space, as well as the release of nicotine from cigarette butts to run-off in urban areas during its residence time. Thereby, we tested two typical situations: release to standing water in a puddle and release during alternating rainfall and drying. The study took place in Berlin, Germany, a city which completely relies on its own water resources to meet its drinking water demand. Nine typical sites located in a central district, each divided into 20 plots were studied during five sampling periods between May 2012 and February 2013. The nicotine release from standardized cigarette butts prepared with a smoking machine was examined in batch and rainfall experiments. Littered cigarette butts are unevenly distributed among both sites and plots. The average butt concentration was 2.7 m-2 (SD = 0.6 m-2, N = 862); the maximum plot concentration was 48.8 butts m-2. This heterogeneity is caused by preferential littering (gastronomy, entrances, bus stops), redistribution processes such as litter removal (gastronomy, shop owners), and the increased accumulation in plots protected from mechanized street sweeping (tree pits, bicycle stands). No significant seasonal variation of cigarette butt accumulation was observed. On average, cigarette butt accumulation is characterized by a 6 days cadence due to the rhythm and effectiveness of street sweeping (mean weekly butt accumulation rate = 0.18 m-2 d-1; SD = 0.15 m-1). Once the butt is exposed to standing water, elution of nicotine occurs rapidly. Standardized butts released 7.3 mg g-1 nicotine in a batch experiment (equivalent to 2.5 mg L-1), 50% of which occurred within the first 27 min. In the rainfall experiment, the cumulative nicotine release from fifteen consecutive precipitation events (each 1.4 mm) was 3.8 mg g-1, with 47% during the first event. According to these results, one cigarette butt may contaminate an amount of 1000 L water to concentrations above the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) of only 2.4 × 10-3 mg L-1 (Valcárcel et al., 2011). Given the continuous littering of cigarette butts, and the rapid release of nicotine, cigarette butts are assessed to be a relevant threat to the quality of urban waters and consequently to drinking water.

  5. Zebrafish and clean water technology: assessing soil bioretention as a protective treatment for toxic urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J K; Davis, J W; Incardona, J P; Stark, J D; Anulacion, B F; Scholz, N L

    2014-12-01

    Urban stormwater contains a complex mixture of contaminants that can be acutely toxic to aquatic biota. Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) is a set of evolving technologies intended to reduce impacts on natural systems by slowing and filtering runoff. The extent to which GSI methods work as intended is usually assessed in terms of water quantity (hydrology) and quality (chemistry). Biological indicators of GSI effectiveness have received less attention, despite an overarching goal of protecting the health of aquatic species. Here we use the zebrafish (Danio rerio) experimental model to evaluate bioinfiltration as a relatively inexpensive technology for treating runoff from an urban highway with dense motor vehicle traffic. Zebrafish embryos exposed to untreated runoff (48-96h; six storm events) displayed an array of developmental abnormalities, including delayed hatching, reduced growth, pericardial edema, microphthalmia (small eyes), and reduced swim bladder inflation. Three of the six storms were acutely lethal, and sublethal toxicity was evident across all storms, even when stormwater was diluted by as much as 95% in clean water. As anticipated from exposure to cardiotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), untreated runoff also caused heart failure, as indicated by circulatory stasis, pericardial edema, and looping defects. Bioretention treatment dramatically improved stormwater quality and reversed nearly all forms of developmental toxicity. The zebrafish model therefore provides a versatile experimental platform for rapidly assessing GSI effectiveness. PMID:25217993

  6. The psychology of drinking water quality: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, Geoffrey J.; Williams, Katrina D.

    1993-12-01

    Perceptions of drinking water quality were measured for residents at four locations in Western Australia. The total dissolved solid levels for the locations varied. Four scales of drinking water satisfaction were measured: acceptability of water quality; water quality risk judgment; perception of neighborhood water quality; and attitudes toward fluoride as an additive. Responses to each of these scales did not appear to be highly related to total dissolved solids. The relationship between attitudes toward water quality and a variety of psychological, attitudinal, experiential, and demographic variables was investigated. It was found that responses to the acceptability of water quality and water quality risk judgment scales related to perceived credibility of societal institutions and feelings of control over water quality and environmental problems. For the remaining two scales few significant correlations were found. The results support those who advocate localized information and involvement campaigns on drinking water quality issues.

  7. AFRRI TRIGA Reactor water quality monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AFRRI has started a water quality monitoring program to provide base line data for early detection of tank leaks. This program revealed problems with growth of algae and bacteria in the pool as a result of contamination with nitrogenous matter. Steps have been taken to reduce the nitrogen levels and to kill and remove algae and bacteria from the reactor pool. (author)

  8. Quality assurance plan, Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Quality Assurance Program used by Westinghouse Nuclear Energy Systems Water Reactor Divisions is described. The purpose of the program is to assure that the design, materials, and workmanship on Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) equipment meet applicable safety requirements, fulfill the requirements of the contracts with the applicants, and satisfy the applicable codes, standards, and regulatory requirements

  9. Evaluating Water Quality in a Suburban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S. M.; Garza, N.

    2008-12-01

    A water quality analysis and modeling study is currently being conducted on the Martinez Creek, a small catchment within Cibolo watershed, a sub-basin of the San Antonio River, Texas. Several other major creeks, such as Salatrillo, Escondido, and Woman Hollering merge with Martinez Creek. Land use and land cover analysis shows that the major portion of the watershed is dominated by residential development with average impervious cover percentage of approximately 40% along with a some of agricultural areas and brushlands. This catchment is characterized by the presence of three small wastewater treatment plants. Previous site visits and sampling of water quality indicate the presence of algae and fecal coliform bacteria at levels well above state standards at several locations in the catchment throughout the year. Due to the presence of livestock, residential development and wastewater treatment plants, a comprehensive understanding of water quality is important to evaluate the sources and find means to control pollution. As part of the study, a spatial and temporal water quality analyses of conventional parameters as well as emerging contaminants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals and microbial pathogens is being conducted to identify critical locations and sources. Additionally, the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) will be used to identify best management practices that can be incorporated given the projected growth and development and feasibility.

  10. Water Price as a Policy Variable in Managing Urban Water Use: Tucson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William E.; Kulakowski, Susan

    1991-02-01

    An informal analysis of readily available time series data relevant to urban water use in Tucson, Arizona, is presented as an illustration of how a management-oriented empirical analysis, structured with general knowledge of the results of formal econometric studies, can produce useful insights for making applied price policy. Precise estimates of urban water demand price and income elasticities are not required in order to achieve conservation-oriented goals. In the Tucson experience, annual water price increases equal to the rate of inflation plus approximately the rate of change in real per capita income would have been necessary just to maintain constant rather than increasing water use. Given the actual price policy, it is not surprising that Tucson has not achieved its mandated conservation goal.

  11. The Interflow of Two Rivers: An Inter-School CSCL Project on Improving Water Quality by Using Videoconferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Leo Sun-wai; Chan, Yu-nang

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the effectiveness of using videoconferencing as a tool for collaborative learning on water pollution among students from two secondary schools located in different districts. The poor water quality of the nullahs in urban areas aroused the interest of students from two secondary schools in Tin Shui Wai and Wong…

  12. Water for a few : a history of urban water and sanitation in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, David

    2006-01-01

    This licentiate thesis describes and analyses the modern history of the socio-technical systems for urban water supply and sanitation in East Africa with focus on Uganda and Kenya. The key objective of the thesis is to evaluate to what extent the historic processes frame and influence the water and sanitation services sectors in these countries today. The theoretical approach combines the Large Technical Systems approach from the discipline of History of Technology with New Institutional Econ...

  13. Artificial neural network modeling of the water quality index using land use areas as predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaz, Nabeel M; Yusoff, Mohd Kamil; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Juahir, Hafizan; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the design of an artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict the water quality index (WQI) using land use areas as predictors. Ten-year records of land use statistics and water quality data for Kinta River (Malaysia) were employed in the modeling process. The most accurate WQI predictions were obtained with the network architecture 7-23-1; the back propagation training algorithm; and a learning rate of 0.02. The WQI forecasts of this model had significant (p classes to WQI predictions followed the order: mining > rubber > forest > logging > urban areas > agriculture > oil palm. These findings show that the ANNs are highly reliable means of relating water quality to land use, thus integrating land use development with river water quality management. PMID:25790513

  14. Water Quality Data Analysis for Kanhan River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal K. Kamble

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Kanhan River originates from the high lands of Chindawara District and flows in south east direction for about 160 kms before it enters the state of Maharashtra near Raiwari village in Saoner Taluka of Nagpur District. Nagpur city is presently getting water for from two major sources namely Kanhan River (Head work located near village Juni Kamptee &Pench Dam (through Right Bank Canal with Lifting Point at Mahadula at 48.5 Km of canal. Samples were collected from seven major locations along the stretch of river. The samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis and performed during summer, rainy and winter seasons. The physicochemical parameters of the water samples includes pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity (EC, suspended solids (SS, total dissolved solids (TDS, total solids (TS, dissolved oxygen (DO and biological oxygen demand (BOD. The water quality index (WQI is used to evaluate the quality of the river water for drinking in rainy, winter and summer season.The study was carried out to examine the change in the quality of the river water due to addition of human waste discharge, industrial waste discharge into river body and the seasonal variation in the physicochemical properties of the river.

  15. Water quality key to protecting patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Susan

    2012-11-01

    According to David Graham of the Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service (SNBTS), "the importance of the safe diagnosis and treatment of patients cannot be overstated - yet the role played by water quality in patient safety has sometimes been under-stated". David Graham was speaking at a one day Pall Medical-sponsored meeting on the prevention and control of healthcare-associated waterborne infections in healthcare facilities held in Edinburgh earlier this year. David Graham, other speakers, and the chair, Consultant Microbiologist and Infection Prevention and Control Doctor for NHS Grampian, Dr Anne Marie Karcher, stressed that good quality water is essential in healthcare premises to prevent the potentially catastrophic consequences of contaminated water for some patients. Susan Pearson BSc reports. PMID:23193926

  16. Connecting carbon and nitrogen storage in rural wetland soil to groundwater abstraction for urban water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David Bruce; Feit, Sharon J

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether groundwater abstraction for urban water supply diminishes the storage of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and organic matter in the soil of rural wetlands. Wetland soil organic matter (SOM) benefits air and water quality by sequestering large masses of C and N. Yet, the accumulation of wetland SOM depends on soil inundation, so we hypothesized that groundwater abstraction would diminish stocks of SOM, C, and N in wetland soils. Predictions of this hypothesis were tested in two types of subtropical, depressional-basin wetland: forested swamps and herbaceous-vegetation marshes. In west-central Florida, >650 ML groundwater day(-1) are abstracted for use primarily in the Tampa Bay metropolis. At higher abstraction volumes, water tables were lower and wetlands had shorter hydroperiods (less time inundated). In turn, wetlands with shorter hydroperiods had 50-60% less SOM, C, and N per kg soil. In swamps, SOM loss caused soil bulk density to double, so areal soil C and N storage per m(2) through 30.5 cm depth was diminished by 25-30% in short-hydroperiod swamps. In herbaceous-vegetation marshes, short hydroperiods caused a sharper decline in N than in C. Soil organic matter, C, and N pools were not correlated with soil texture or with wetland draining-reflooding frequency. Many years of shortened hydroperiod were probably required to diminish soil organic matter, C, and N pools by the magnitudes we observed. This diminution might have occurred decades ago, but could be maintained contemporarily by the failure each year of chronically drained soils to retain new organic matter inputs. In sum, our study attributes the contraction of hydroperiod and loss of soil organic matter, C, and N from rural wetlands to groundwater abstraction performed largely for urban water supply, revealing teleconnections between rural ecosystem change and urban resource demand. PMID:25394332

  17. Water quality in the Allegheny and Monongahela River basins, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, New York, and Maryland, 1996-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert M.; Beer, Kevin M.; Buckwalter, Theodore F.; Clark, Mary E.; McAuley, Steven D.; Sams, James I., III; Williams, Donald R.

    2000-01-01

    Major influences and findings for ground water quality, surface water quality, and biology in the Allegheny and Monongahela River basins are described and illustrated. Samples were collected in a variety of media to determine trace elements, sulfate, pesticides, nitrate, volatile organic compounds, organochlorine compounds, and radon-222. This report discusses the influences of several land-use practices, such as coal mining, urbanization, agriculture, and forestry. The report also includes a summary of a regional investigation of water quality and quality invertebrates in the Northern and Central Appalachian coal regions.

  18. Dissolved organic matter quality and bioavailability changes across an urbanization gradient in headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosen, Jacob D; McDonough, Owen T; Febria, Catherine M; Palmer, Margaret A

    2014-07-15

    Landscape urbanization broadly alters watersheds and stream ecosystems, yet the impact of nonpoint source urban inputs on the quantity, quality, and ultimate fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is poorly understood. We assessed DOM quality and microbial bioavailability in eight first-order Coastal Plain headwater streams along a gradient of urbanization (i.e., percent watershed impervious cover); none of the streams had point source discharges. DOM quality was measured using fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Bioavailability was assessed using biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) incubations. Results showed that watershed impervious cover was significantly related to stream DOM composition: increasing impervious cover was associated with decreased amounts of natural humic-like DOM and enriched amounts of anthropogenic fulvic acid-like and protein-like DOM. Microbial bioavailability of DOM was greater in urbanized streams during spring and summer, and was related to decreasing proportions of humic-like DOM and increasing proportions of protein-like DOM. Increased bioavailability was associated with elevated extracellular enzyme activity of the initial microbial community supplied to samples during BDOC incubations. These findings indicate that changes in stream DOM quality due to watershed urbanization may impact stream ecosystem metabolism and ultimately the fate of organic carbon transported through fluvial systems. PMID:24919113

  19. Informal water suppliers meeting water needs in the peri-urban territories of Mumbai, an Indian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Angueletou-marteau, Anastasia

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of informal water providers in the peri-urban areas of Mumbai. The term “informal water providers” refers to all the types of water suppliers who are not operating in the legal framework of water management in a given area.The paper examine whether we are heading towards new forms of urban governance, where informal actors no longer compete with each other, but cooperate with public utilities and emerge as an extension of the public utility.

  20. Linking biological and physicochemical water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatowicz, Waldemar; Weiss, Annett; Matschullat, Jörg

    2009-12-01

    To define water quality, the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) demands complex assessments through physicochemical, biological, and hydromorphological controls of water bodies. Since the biological assessment became the central focus with hydrochemistry playing a supporting role, an evaluation of the interrelationships within this approach deems necessary. This work identified and tested these relationships to help improve the quality and efficiency of related efforts. Data from the 384 km(2) Weisseritz catchment (eastern Erzgebirge, Saxony, Germany and northern Bohemia, Czech Republic) were used as a representative example for central European streams in mountainous areas. The data cover the time frame 1992 to 2003. To implement WFD demands, the analysis was based on accepted German methods and classifications, WFD quality standards, and novel German methods for the biological status assessment. Selected chemical parameters were compared with different versions of the German Saprobic Index, based on macroinvertebrate indicator taxa. Relevant dependencies applicable for integrated stream assessment were statistically tested. Correlation analysis showed significant relationships. The highest scores were found for nutrients (NO(2)(-), N(inorg), and total N), salinity (Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), conductivity), and microelements (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)). The Saprobic Index used in the Integrated Assessment System for the Ecological Quality of Streams and Rivers throughout Europe using Benthic Macro-invertebrates program seems to be the most sensitive indicator to correlate with chemical parameters. PMID:19067209

  1. Assessing point-of-use ultraviolet disinfection for safe water in urban developing communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, Christina K; Dotson, Aaron D; Linden, Karl G

    2014-12-01

    Residents of urban developing communities often have a tap in their home providing treated and sometimes filtered water but its microbial quality cannot be guaranteed. Point-of-use (POU) disinfection systems can provide safe drinking water to the millions who lack access to clean water in urban communities. While many POU systems exist, there are several concerns that can lead to low user acceptability, including low flow rate, taste and odor issues, high cost, recontamination, and ineffectiveness at treating common pathogens. An ultraviolet (UV) POU system was constructed utilizing developing community-appropriate materials and simple construction techniques based around an inexpensive low-wattage, low pressure UV bulb. The system was tested at the bench scale to characterize its hydrodynamic properties and microbial disinfection efficacy. Hydraulically the system most closely resembled a plug flow reactor with minor short-circuiting. The system was challenge tested and validated for a UV fluence of 50 mJ/cm(2) and greater, over varying flow rates and UV transmittances, corresponding to a greater than 4 log reduction of most pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa of public health concern. This study presents the designed system and testing results to demonstrate the potential architecture of a low-cost, open-source UV system for further prototyping and field-testing. PMID:25473974

  2. Evaluation of Ravi river water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation from 1989 to 1998 on river Ravi pollution was carried out to study the effects of wastewater discharges on its water quality in relation to its various water use. The sources of pollution entering the river between Syphon (20 Km upstream) and Balloki Head works (75 Km downstream) includes Upper Chenab Canal (U.C.) which bring industrial effluents through Deg municipal swage from the city of Lahore. Investigation revealed that the flow in the river are highly variable with time during the year U.C. canal with a capacity of 220 m/sup 3//S at the tail and Qadiarabad (Q.B.) Link canal with a capacity of 410 m3/S are mainly responsible for higher flows during dry season. A desecrating trend has been observed in the D.O. Levels indicating increasing pollution. Over times D.O values are above 4 mg/l indicating recovery due to dilution biodegradation and aeration. An increasing trend has been observed in Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), suspended solids, total dissolved solids and indicator organisms. Even with the discharges of pollutions from U.C. canal, Hudiara Nullah and city sewage, BOD at Balloki was unexpectedly low. It was investigated that because of pollution free Q.B. link canal which joins the river just before Balloki Head works makes the water diluted, which accounted for low BOD. Water of river Ravi meet the chemical water quality requirement for irrigation. However the water quality does not meet the coliform and faecal coliform criteria for mostform and faecal coliform criteria for most water use. (orig../A.B.)

  3. 76 FR 295 - Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ...COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Provide for Regulation...Commission (``Commission'') proposes to amend its Water Quality Regulations (``WQR''), Water...

  4. 78 FR 58985 - Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ...Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water Quality Criteria for pH AGENCY: Delaware...Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to update stream quality objectives (also...

  5. APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING FIXED BED BIOFILM AND MEMBRAN BIOREACTOR FOR WATER REUSE IN URBAN HOUSING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIS HASTUTI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate application of water reuse technologies, with major emphasis of water reuse for non-potable applications in urban housing area. To study the systems performance, secondary treatment development at pilot scale has been studied to achieve desired water reuse quality. There were two systems applied for water reuse scheme using biofilter or fixed bed biofilm system for treating wastewater from Turangga’s flat in Bandung City and membrane bioreactor system for treating wastewater from anaerobic pond of Bojong Soang’s Wastewater Treatment Plant, Bandung City, West Java. The systems produce water quality meets water reuse for domestic purposes, such as toilet flushing, washing, garden irrigation, etc. In general, these applications show assessing a treatment process ability to produce water contains turbidity is less than 2 mgL-1 and BOD is less than 5 mgL-1. This paper concludes that treated wastewater is potential reuse for public/domestic purposes mainly for water scared urban area, which depends on characteristic of wastewater and the methods or degree of treatment required.

  6. Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions quality assurance plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Quality Assurance Program used by Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions is described. The purpose of the program is to assure that the design, materials, and workmanship on Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) equipment meet applicable safety requirements, fulfill the requirements of the contracts with the applicants, and satisfy the applicable codes, standards, and regulatory requirements. This program satisfies the NRC Quality Assurance Criteria, 10CFR50 Appendix B, to the extent that these criteria apply to safety related NSSS equipment. Also, it follows the regulatory position provided in NRC regulatory guides and the requirements of ANSI Standard N45.2.12 as identified in this Topical Report

  7. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the IdentifiedObject individuals are linked to the ChEBI ontology for definitions of chemical substances.. Second, to allow compatibility with SKOS-based tools and to ensure the vocabulary does not violate the meta-modelling constraints of the OWL-DL profile, the relevant classes in QUDT are declared to be subclasses of SKOS Concept and a shadow SKOS view of ChEBI was generated (as ChEBI models all elements and substances as OWL classes). The provenance of each SKOS concept shadowing an OWL class is recorded using the PROV-O ontology. Some aspects of these processing steps can be automated through SPARQL queries, while other aspects must be done manually. For maintenance and provenance purposes, the complete vocabulary and ontologies are persisted in around 20 separate RDF files (in addition to the QUDT and ChEBI sources), each of which constitutes a separate RDF graph and reflects the various aspects of above steps. The vocabularies are published in multiple ways: - For download as files from the ontology URI - At a SPARQL endpoint - Through a URI-based SKOS API (SISSvoc) - Through search UIs built on top of the SPARQL endpoint or SISSvoc service

  8. Overview of water quality and water resource research in the Water Quality and Ecology Research Unit, Oxford, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality and Ecology Research Unit (WQERU) is part of the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) National Sedimentation Laboratory located in Oxford, Mississippi. The stated research mission of the WQERU is to “address issues of water quality/quan...

  9. Optimization of Microcystin Extraction for Their Subsequent Analysis by HPLC-MS/MS Method in Urban Lake Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Jiang-qi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents to propose an effective extraction procedure for traditional toxin determination techniques in urban lake. Efficiency of each extraction solvent as well as other key parameters affecting extraction efficiency including ultrasonication time and extraction pH were evaluated and optimized. The present study results indicated that 40% acidified methanol (pH~3 with sonication 15~20min has been shown to be a rapid and efficient method for the routine analysis of a wide range of microcystins in water samples. Our study also suggested that analytical method based on HPLC–MS/MS with SPE techniques provides a simplified enrichment procedure and rich information for both quantization and identification effective tool for analysis of urban landscape water quality. The development of this method may facilitate the understanding of the best extraction method for the routine analysis of microcystins in water bodies. Moreover, it may be valuable for purification scale.

  10. EVALUATION OF WATER QUALITY FOR IRRIGATION IN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erivelto Mercante

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the quest for sustainable development and rational use of resources natural, the implementation of irrigation systems becomes a necessity in regions of seasonal scarcity of water and great agricultural productivity, as in case of Paraná. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the parameters Physico-chemical water quality in the city of Salto do Lontra –Paraná. The Physical-chemical analysis included: pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Solids Soluble (STS, nitrate (N-NO3, RAS, Sodium (Na++, chlorine (Cl- and bicarbonate (HCO3, being held in 40 properties, according to APHA (1998. The analysis Statistical surveys were performed using the Minitab 15 software. The results in the study period, showed average values in the range limits recommended by FAO for the use ofirrigation water considering all parameters measured and there was no restrictions on water use in irrigation.

  11. Decentralized Urban Wastewater Reuse in China : - with Focus on Grey Water

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Grey water reuse has attracted more and more attention among researchers and professionals in recent years. As most of the Chinese cities are undergoing the process of fast urbanization and economic development, many water-related problems have occurred and urban water resources management has become a strategic issue. The urge to reconsider the conventional ways of utilizing water and discharging the wastewater in cities is calling. As a relatively simple and flexible way, decentralized grey...

  12. Quality of Life Assessment in Urban Environment Using a Geographical Informational System Model. Case Study: Br?ila City

    OpenAIRE

    MARIA IOANA VLAD ?ANDRU

    2012-01-01

    The study on the quality of life ( QoL) in urban areas is gaining interest from a variety of disciplines such as planning, geography, sociology, economics, psychology, political science, marketing, and is becoming an important tool for urban planning and management. At present, there is a great deal of ambiguity and controversy on the concept of QoL, its elements and indicators. Thus, the present paper focuses on the development of a methodology for assessing quality of life in urban environm...

  13. Mathematical Models in Danube Water Quality

    CERN Document Server

    Antohe, Valerian

    2009-01-01

    The mathematical shaping in the study of water quality has become a branch of environmental engineering. The comprehension and effective application of mathematical models in studying environmental phenomena keep up with the results in the domain of mathematics and the development of specialized software as well. Integrated software programs simulate and predict extreme events, propose solutions, analyzing and processing data in due time. This paper presents a browsing through some mathematical categories of processing the statistical data, examples and their analysis concerning the degree of water pollution downstream the river Danube.

  14. Mathematical Models in Danube Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerian Antohe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical shaping in the study of water quality has become a branch of environmental engineering. The comprehension and effective application of mathematical models in studying environmental phenomena keep up with the results in the domain of mathematics and the development of specialized software as well. Integrated software programs simulate and predict extreme events, propose solutions, analyzing and processing data in due time. This paper presents a browsing through some mathematical categories of processing the statistical data, examples and their analysis concerning the degree of water pollution downstream the river Danube.

  15. Turbidity as an Indicator of Water Quality in Diverse Watersheds of the Upper Pecos River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M. Huey

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS and turbidity vary with stream hydrology and land use. Turbidity, TSS, and microbial concentrations, loads and yields from four watersheds were assessed: an unburned montane forest, a catastrophically burned montane forest, urban land use and rangeland prairie. Concentrations and loads for most water quality variables were greatest during storm events. Turbidity was an effective indicator of TSS, E. coli and Enterococci spp. The greatest threat to public health from microbial contamination occurs during storm runoff events. Efforts to manage surface runoff and erosion would likely improve water quality of the upper Pecos River basin in New Mexico, USA.

  16. Marine water quality monitoring: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karydis, Michael; Kitsiou, Dimitra

    2013-12-15

    Marine water quality monitoring is performed for compliance with regulatory issues, trend detection, model validation and assessment of the effectiveness of adopted policies. As the end users are managers and policy makers, the objectives should be of practical interest and the answers should reduce the uncertainty concerning environmental impact, supporting planning and decision making. Simple and clearcut answers on environmental issues require synthesis of the field information using statistics, simulation models and multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Statistics is easy to apply whereas simulation models enable researchers to forecast future trends as well as test different scenarios. MCA allows the co-estimation of socio-economic variables providing a compromise between scientists' and policy makers' priorities. In addition, stakeholders and the public have the right to know and participate. This article reviews marine water quality monitoring principles, design and data analysis procedures. A brief review of international conventions of regional seas is also included. PMID:24090882

  17. Do Contaminants Originating from State-of-the-Art Treated Wastewater Impact the Ecological Quality of Surface Waters?

    OpenAIRE

    Stalter, Daniel; Magdeburg, Axel; Quednow, Kristin; Botzat, Alexandra; Oehlmann, Jo?rg

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, advances in wastewater treatment technology have led to considerably improved surface water quality in the urban areas of many high income countries. However, trace concentrations of organic wastewater-associated contaminants may still pose a key environmental hazard impairing the ecological quality of surface waters. To identify key impact factors, we analyzed the effects of a wide range of anthropogenic and environmental variables on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community....

  18. Water quality in a rural river environment: distribution of metals among water and sediment compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A.; Parker, A.; Alencoao, A.

    2009-04-01

    Sediments have a significant influence on water quality, owing to their role both as a sink and a potential source of pollutants. In fluvial environments from mountainous catchments, the dynamics of sediment particles and particle-bound contaminants are still poorly understood. As stated by Symader et al. (2007), bottom sediments of small rivers in mountainous areas behave like a transport system of its own and show high temporal variation in their chemical composition. The transport of significant sedimentary loads, as suspended matter, in short periods of time, mainly in winter, poses some issues concerning monitoring and modelling approaches of the transport and fate of micro-pollutants at the catchment scale. On one hand, high stream-flow velocity peaks make it difficult or impossible to maintain suspended sediment samplers fixed in the river channel. On the other hand, the cycle of deposition and re-suspension of finer material, throughout the hydrological year, leads to temporal changes of sediment properties. Our contribution reports some results of an investigation on the water quality in a mountainous rural meso-scale catchment, located in the NE of Portugal. The study integrates the examination of metal contents in the sediments and the water body. The river-bottom sediments and water were simply collected in a planned sampling network, in two different periods of the hydrological year (high and low flow). The finer and most recently deposited sediment was preferentially sampled, and the water and in the sediment fractions studied are observed. The transport mechanisms and the exchange of material exert a joint influence. Regarding the possible origin of the considered elements we observe peaks of contents in sites influenced by geological mineralisation and urban effluents. The influence of agricultural practices in the fluvial environment quality is more noticeable in the zones of the basin where small agricultural fields, in narrow terraces, are inter-related with urban settlements. In the valleys the impact is lower; the soil layer is thicker and the topography is smoother, attenuating the superficial transport and higher retention of these metals in soils. The results show that the pollutant dispersion and transport in mountainous fluvial environments is governed by multiple interrelated factors difficult to control over time, and predictive models still need better information about the processes governing the transport into and within the fluvial network. The regular monitoring of bed sediments in this kind of basins is important to give some insight into the micro-pollutant transport in small mountainous catchments with an impact on the quality of receiving waters. Symader, W.; Bierl R.; Kurtenbach, A.; Krein, A. (2007). Transport Indicators. In: Sediment Dynamics and Pollutant Mobility in Rivers (eds Westrich, B. & Forstner, U.), pp. 269-304, Springer.

  19. Service Quality Evaluation of Urban Parks Based on AHP Method and SD Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public satisfaction is the main base to measure the service quality of urban parks. In this study, six factors influencing the service quality of urban parks, namely, place environment, landscape environment, culture environment, eco-environment, traffic environment and facilities environment, were screened and been subdivided into 18 impact indexes. Three-hierarchy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP model consisting of target layer, factor layer and index layer was established and the service quality was selected to be the target layer. Three urban parks of Zhengzhou, Henan Province, namely, People’s Park, CBD Park and Zijinshan Park, were the objects to be evaluated and 150 visitors of each park were surveyed about their satisfaction degree with quality service. Super Decisions (SD software which can perform the AHP calculation, was used to obtain the weight of elements of each layer relative to the elements of the previous layer as well as the sequencing of total weight. Survey data of public satisfaction were combined with element weight to obtain the factor score and comprehensive score of service quality of the three parks. The result indicates that the service quality of CBD Park is the highest and can provide service of high quality to the public. Thus, CBD Park can be used as the model for the renovation and new parks’ construction.

  20. Developing effective urban air quality management systems in the United Kingdom. Case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsom, D.M.; Crabbe, H. [Oxford Brookes Univ. (United Kingdom). Geography Unit

    1995-12-31

    During the past few years an increasing number of local authorities have expressed concern about the ambient levels of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, benzene and fine particulates that residents may be experiencing in traffic-congested parts of towns and cities. Although recent legislation is intended to reduce vehicle emissions (e.g. stricter exhaust emission standards requiring new cars to be equipped with catalytic converters), the growth in the number of motor vehicles, their frequency of use and the congestion they are causing in urban centres have resulted in little or no improvement in air quality. Although total vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are expected to fall significantly during the next ten years, air quality will still remain a problem in some urban areas. Clearly, not all local air quality problems can be eliminated by the use of national legislation. For several years, local authorities and environmental organisations (e.g. National Society for Clean Air and Environmental Protection) have argued for local authorities to be given a statutory duty, together with appropriate funding from central government, to produce local air quality management plans which assess the seriousness of any air quality problems and which, if necessary, set out how poor air quality can be improved. This presentation examines the progress towards urban air quality management in the UK. (author)

  1. Air-Quality and Climate Coupling in High Resolution for Urban Heat Island Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halenka, T.; Huszar, P.; Belda, M.

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies show considerable effect of atmospheric chemistry and aerosols on climate on regional and local scale. For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the magnitude of climate forcing due to atmospheric chemistry/aerosols on regional scale and climate change effects on air-quality the regional climate model RegCM and chemistry/aerosol model CAMx was coupled. Climate change impacts on air-quality have been studied in high resolution of 10km with interactive two-way coupling of the effects of air-quality on climate. The experiments with the couple were performed for EC FP7 project MEGAPOLI assessing the impact of the megacities and industrialized areas on climate. New experiments in high resolution are prepared andsimulated for Urban Heat Island studies within the OP Central Europe Project UHI. Meteorological fields generated by RCM drive CAMx transport, chemistry and a dry/wet deposition. A preprocessor utility was developed for transforming RegCM provided fields to CAMx input fields and format. There is critical issue of the emission inventories available for 10km resolution including the urban hot-spots, TNO emissions are adopted for the experiments. Sensitivity tests switching on/off urban areas emissions are analysed as well. The results for year 2005 are presented and discussed, interactive coupling is compared to study the potential of possible impact of urban air-pollution to the urban area climate.

  2. Household air quality risk factors associated with childhood pneumonia in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Pavani K; Dutt, Dhiman; Silk, Benjamin J; Doshi, Saumil; Rudra, Carole B; Abedin, Jaynal; Goswami, Doli; Fry, Alicia M; Brooks, W Abdullah; Luby, Stephen P; Cohen, Adam L

    2014-05-01

    To inform interventions to reduce the high burden of pneumonia in urban settings such as Kamalapur, Bangladesh, we evaluated household air quality risk factors for radiographically confirmed pneumonia in children. In 2009-2010, we recruited children < 5 years of age with pneumonia and controls from a population-based surveillance for respiratory and febrile illnesses. Piped natural gas was used by 85% of 331 case and 91% of 663 control households. Crowding, a tin roof in the living space, low socioeconomic status, and male sex of the child were risk factors for pneumonia. The living space in case households was 28% less likely than in control households to be cross-ventilated. Particulate matter concentrations were not significantly associated with pneumonia. With increasing urbanization and supply of improved cooking fuels to urban areas, the high burden of respiratory illnesses in urban populations such as Kamalapur may be reduced by decreasing crowding and improving ventilation in living spaces. PMID:24664785

  3. Water Quality Teaching Package 2012 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Torie

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation material from Torie Bunn of Montana State University. The presentation included information in support of teaching a water quality course. The presentation also touched on a few example hands-on exercises. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item. The document is available in PDF file format.

  4. Assessing the link between coastal urbanization and the quality of nekton habitat in mangrove tidal tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Justin M.; Bell, Susan S.; McIvor, Carole C.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the potential influence of coastal development on habitat quality for estuarine nekton, we characterized body condition and reproduction for common nekton from tidal tributaries classified as undeveloped, industrial, urban or man-made (i.e., mosquito-control ditches). We then evaluated these metrics of nekton performance, along with several abundance-based metrics and community structure from a companion paper (Krebs et al. 2013) to determine which metrics best reflected variation in land-use and in-stream habitat among tributaries. Body condition was not significantly different among undeveloped, industrial, and man-made tidal tributaries for six of nine taxa; however, three of those taxa were in significantly better condition in urban compared to undeveloped tributaries. Palaemonetes shrimp were the only taxon in significantly poorer condition in urban tributaries. For Poecilia latipinna, there was no difference in body condition (length–weight) between undeveloped and urban tributaries, but energetic condition was significantly better in urban tributaries. Reproductive output was reduced for both P. latipinna (i.e., fecundity) and grass shrimp (i.e., very low densities, few ovigerous females) in urban tributaries; however a tradeoff between fecundity and offspring size confounded meaningful interpretation of reproduction among land-use classes for P. latipinna. Reproductive allotment by P. latipinna did not differ significantly among land-use classes. Canonical correspondence analysis differentiated urban and non-urban tributaries based on greater impervious surface, less natural mangrove shoreline, higher frequency of hypoxia and lower, more variable salinities in urban tributaries. These characteristics explained 36 % of the variation in nekton performance, including high densities of poeciliid fishes, greater energetic condition of sailfin mollies, and low densities of several common nekton and economically important taxa from urban tributaries. While variation among tributaries in our study can be largely explained by impervious surface beyond the shorelines of the tributary, variation in nekton metrics among non-urban tributaries was better explained by habitat factors within the tributary and along the shorelines. Our results support the paradigm that urban development in coastal areas has the potential to alter habitat quality in small tidal tributaries as reflected by variation in nekton performance among tributaries from representative land-use classes.

  5. Safe and high quality food production using low quality waters and improved irrigation systems and management : SAFIR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2010-01-01

    The present paper presents the SAFIR project (www.safir4eu.org), which addresses two fundamental problems that over the past decade increasingly have become concerns of the general public: the one problem being the jeopardizing of safety and quality of our food products, while the other being the increasing competition for clean freshwater. The SAFIR project has a multi-disciplinary approach, which integrates the European as well as the global dimension of the EU-policy on food quality and safety. The main driving force behind the project idea is new research results that demonstrated that scheduled uneven irrigation patterns can increase the water use efficiency as well as the quality of vegetable crops. Furthermore, recent innovations in the water treatment and irrigation industry have shown potential for the use of low quality water resources, such as reclaimed water or surface water in peri-urban agriculture, for irrigation of vegetable crops without threaten food safety and quality. The results of SAFIRwere achieved from field experiments in Europe and China and modeling activities both at field and farm scale. The present article describes the structure of the project and highlights the main findings and recommendations of the project described in detail in already published papers and in accompanying papers in this special issue.