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Integrated Urban Water Quality Management  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry weather, while the overflow from the combined sewer system plays a minor role. Oxygen depletion in urban rivers is caused by intermittent discharges from both sewer system and wastewater treatment plant. Neglecting one of them in the evaluation of the environmental impact gives a wrong impression of total system behaviour. Detention basins have limited positive effect for minimizing the acute pollution in rivers, but are useless in terms of accumulative pollution.

Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul

1995-01-01

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Effects of Urbanization on Water Quality: Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

... Contact Back to previous page The effects of urbanization on water quality: Pesticides Pesticides are chemical and ... United States home page. Related topics: Effects of urbanization Ground-water quality Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and ...

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Protecting Water Quality from Urban Runoff  

Science.gov (United States)

... city block generates more than 5 times more runoff than a woodland area of the same size? ... in stream degradation. Protecting Water Quality Managing Urban Runoff What Homeowners Can Do To decrease polluted runoff ...

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An integrated approach for urban water quality assessment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper introduces an integrated approach for the assessment of receiving water quality and the relative contribution of the urban drainage system to perceived receiving water quality problems. The approach combines mass balances with relatively simple receiving water impact models. The research project has learned that the urban drainage system is only one of the determining factors with respect to receiving urban water quality problems. The morphology of the receiving waters and the non-sewer sources of pollution, such as waterbirds, dogs, or inflow of external surface water might be equally important. This conclusion underlines the necessity to changes today's emission based approach and adopt an integral and immission based approach. The integrated approach is illustrated on a case study in Arnhem, where the receiving water quality remained unsatisfactory even after retrofitting a combined sewer system into a separated sewer system.

Beenen AS; Langeveld JG; Liefting HJ; Aalderink RH; Velthorst H

2011-01-01

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An integrated approach for urban water quality assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper introduces an integrated approach for the assessment of receiving water quality and the relative contribution of the urban drainage system to perceived receiving water quality problems. The approach combines mass balances with relatively simple receiving water impact models. The research project has learned that the urban drainage system is only one of the determining factors with respect to receiving urban water quality problems. The morphology of the receiving waters and the non-sewer sources of pollution, such as waterbirds, dogs, or inflow of external surface water might be equally important. This conclusion underlines the necessity to changes today's emission based approach and adopt an integral and immission based approach. The integrated approach is illustrated on a case study in Arnhem, where the receiving water quality remained unsatisfactory even after retrofitting a combined sewer system into a separated sewer system. PMID:22179651

Beenen, A S; Langeveld, J G; Liefting, H J; Aalderink, R H; Velthorst, H

2011-01-01

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URBAN GROWTH AND WATER QUALITY IN THIMPHU, BHUTAN  

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Full Text Available Detailed study was undertaken in 2008 and 2009 on assessment of water quality of River Wang Chhu which flows through Thimphu urban area, the capital city of Bhutan. The water samples were examined at upstream of urban area, within the urban area and its downstream. The water samples were analyzed by studying the physico-chemical, biological and benthic macro-invertebrates. The water quality data obtained during present study are discussed in relation to land use/land cover changes(LULC) and various ongoing human activities at upstream, within the each activity areas and it’s downstream. Analyses of satellite imagery of 1990 and 2008 using GIS revealed that over a period of eighteen years the forest, scrub and agricultural areas have decreased whereas urban area and road network have increased considerably. The forest cover, agriculture area and scrub decreased from 43.3% to 42.57%, 6.88% to 5.33% and 42.55% to 29.42%, respectively. The LULC changes effect water quality in many ways. The water temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, total coliform, and biological oxygen demand were lower at upstream and higher in urban area. On the other hand dissolved oxygen was found higher at upstream and lower in urban area. The pollution sensitive benthic macro-invertebrates population were dominant at upstream sampling sites whereas pollution tolerant benthic macro-invertebrates were found abundant in urban area and its immediate downstream. The rapid development of urban infrastructure in Thimphu city may be posing serious threats to water regime in terms of its quality. Though the deterioration of water quality is restricted to a few localized areas, the trend is serious and needs proper attention of policy planners and decision makers. Proper treatment of effluents from urban areas is urgently needed to reduce water pollution in such affected areas to check further deterioration of water quality. This present study which is based on upstream, within urban area and downstream of Thimphu city can be considered as an eye opener.

Nandu Giri; O. P. Singh

2013-01-01

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Urban water quality evaluation using multivariate analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A data set, obtained for the sake of drinking water quality monitoring, was analysed by multivariate methods. Principal component analysis (PCA) reduced the data dimensionality from 18 original physico-chemical and microbiological parameters determined in drinking water samples to 6 principal components explaining about 83 % of the data variability. These 6 components represented inorganic salts, nitrate/pH, iron, chlorine, nitrite/ammonium traces, and heterotrophic bacteria. Using the PCA scatter plot and the Ward's clustering of the samples characterized by the first and second principal components, three clusters were revealed. These clusters sorted drinking water samples according to their origin - ground and surface water. The PCA results were confirmed by the factor analysis and hierarchical clustering of the original data.

Petr Praus

2007-01-01

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Water Quality Studies of Bellandur Lake, Urban Bangalore, Karnataka, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pace of urbanization is increasing globally, putting more pressure on local water quality. In addition to discharges of urban and industrial wastewater, urban areas add to poor water quality in a number of ways. The study was conducted to assess the water quality values of Bellandur Lake which is a major tank in Varthur of Bangalore SouthTaluk.Samples were collected in clean and sterilized plastic bottles of 2 litercapacity. The samples were collected to examine the water quality in the month of February 2013 of Bellandur Lake, 30 cm below the surface of water and brought to the laboratory for Physico-chemical parameters analysis.Selected parameters were analyzed by following standard methods APHA, (2005).The obtained results were subjected to Statistical Analysisusing Microsoft offices excel 2010.The water quality of Bellandurlakehas exaggerated due by the consequent changes and urbanization, which indicated the physico-chemical concentrations of lakes found in high levels. Despite of some conservation efforts made by the authorities this lake is threatening immeasurably. Continuous monitoring of lakes should be enacted properly as from the origin point at the end to overcome these situations.

V. Pattusamy,; M.Vijay Kumar; K.Bheemappa; N.Nandini

2013-01-01

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ECONOMIC/FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...

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Urban Ethnohydrology: Cultural Knowledge of Water Quality and Water Management in a Desert City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Popular concern over water quality has important implications for public water management because it can both empower water utilities to improve service but also limit their ability to make changes. In the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, obtaining sufficient high-quality water resources for a growing urban population poses a major challenge. Decision makers and urban hydrologists are aware of these challenges to water sustainability but the range of acceptable policy and management options available to them is constrained by public opinion. Therefore, this study examines cultural models of water quality and water management, termed ethnohydrology, among urban residents. The study yields three key findings. First, urban residents appear to have a shared model of ethnohydrology which holds that a) there are significant water quality risks associated with low financial investments in city-wide water treatment and the desert location of Phoenix, and b) government monitoring and management combined with household-level water treatment can yield water of an acceptable quality. Second, people with high incomes are more likely to engage in expensive water filtration activities and to agree with the cultural ethnohydrology model found. Third, people living in communities that are highly concerned about water quality are less likely to share high agreement around ethnohydrology. The results have implications for water policy making and planning, particularly in disadvantaged and vulnerable communities where water quality is perceived to be low.

Meredith Gartin; Beatrice Crona; Amber Wutich; Paul Westerhoff

2010-01-01

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An early warning and control system for urban, drinking water quality protection: China's experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An event-driven, urban, drinking water quality early warning and control system (DEWS) is proposed to cope with China's urgent need for protecting its urban drinking water. The DEWS has a web service structure and provides users with water quality monitoring functions, water quality early warning functions, and water quality accident decision-making functions. The DEWS functionality is guided by the principles of control theory and risk assessment as applied to the feedback control of urban water supply systems. The DEWS has been deployed in several large Chinese cities and found to perform well insofar as water quality early warning and emergency decision-making is concerned. This paper describes a DEWS for urban water quality protection that has been developed in China.

Hou D; Song X; Zhang G; Zhang H; Loaiciga H

2013-07-01

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Quality of source water and drinking water in urban areas of Myanmar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myanmar is one of the least developed countries in the world, and very little information is available regarding the nation's water quality. This report gives an overview of the current situation in the country, presenting the results of various water-quality assessments in urban areas of Myanmar. River, dam, lake, and well water sources were examined and found to be of generally good quality. Both As and F(-) were present in relatively high concentrations and must be removed before deep wells are used. Heterotrophic plate counts in drinking water were highest in public pots, followed by nonpiped tap water, piped tap water, and bottled water. Measures need to be taken to improve low-quality water in pots and nonpiped tap waters. PMID:23844413

Sakai, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Yatsuka; Fukushi, Kensuke

2013-06-10

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Quality of source water and drinking water in urban areas of Myanmar.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Myanmar is one of the least developed countries in the world, and very little information is available regarding the nation's water quality. This report gives an overview of the current situation in the country, presenting the results of various water-quality assessments in urban areas of Myanmar. River, dam, lake, and well water sources were examined and found to be of generally good quality. Both As and F(-) were present in relatively high concentrations and must be removed before deep wells are used. Heterotrophic plate counts in drinking water were highest in public pots, followed by nonpiped tap water, piped tap water, and bottled water. Measures need to be taken to improve low-quality water in pots and nonpiped tap waters.

Sakai H; Kataoka Y; Fukushi K

2013-01-01

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Water quality perceptions and willingness to pay for clean water in peri-urban Cambodian communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper studies household demand for improved water quality in peri-urban Cambodia, with particular attention paid to the influence of water quality on willingness to pay (WTP). Utilizing data from 915 household surveys, we analyze responses to a contingent valuation scenario using multivariate logit regression techniques that account for subjective perceptions of water quality. We estimate a mean household WTP for improved water quality of US$3 (roughly 1.2% of mean income) per month for households in this sample. We also find that the majority of households believe that their in-house water after storage, handling, and treatment is safe to drink. Furthermore, beliefs about existing levels of water quality have a significant impact on WTP for improved water quality. However, while perceptions of quality (and thus WTP) are highly related to taste preferences, actual water quality is relatively uncorrelated with water quality perceptions. These findings suggest that interventions aiming to increase the adoption of water treatment should account for underlying perceptions of water quality. PMID:23981877

Orgill, Jennifer; Shaheed, Ameer; Brown, Joe; Jeuland, Marc

2013-09-01

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Water quality perceptions and willingness to pay for clean water in peri-urban Cambodian communities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper studies household demand for improved water quality in peri-urban Cambodia, with particular attention paid to the influence of water quality on willingness to pay (WTP). Utilizing data from 915 household surveys, we analyze responses to a contingent valuation scenario using multivariate logit regression techniques that account for subjective perceptions of water quality. We estimate a mean household WTP for improved water quality of US$3 (roughly 1.2% of mean income) per month for households in this sample. We also find that the majority of households believe that their in-house water after storage, handling, and treatment is safe to drink. Furthermore, beliefs about existing levels of water quality have a significant impact on WTP for improved water quality. However, while perceptions of quality (and thus WTP) are highly related to taste preferences, actual water quality is relatively uncorrelated with water quality perceptions. These findings suggest that interventions aiming to increase the adoption of water treatment should account for underlying perceptions of water quality.

Orgill J; Shaheed A; Brown J; Jeuland M

2013-09-01

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Relevance of urban glyphosate use for surface water quality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Relative contributions of agricultural and urban uses to the glyphosate contamination of surface waters were studied in a small catchment (25 km(2)) in Switzerland. Monitoring in four sub-catchments with differing land use allowed comparing load and input dynamics from different sources. Agricultural as well as urban use was surveyed in all sub-catchments allowing for a detailed interpretation of the monitoring results. Water samples from the river system and from the urban drainage system (combined sewer overflow, storm sewer and outflow of wastewater treatment plant) were investigated. The concentrations at peak discharge during storm events were elevated throughout the year with maximum concentrations of 4.15 ?g L(-1). Glyphosate concentrations mostly exceeded those of other commonly used herbicides such as atrazine or mecoprop. Fast runoff from hard surfaces led to a fast increase of the glyphosate concentration shortly after the beginning of rainfall not coinciding with the concentration peak normally observed from agricultural fields. The comparison of the agricultural application and the seasonal concentration and load pattern in the main creek from March to November revealed that the occurrence of glyphosate cannot be explained by agricultural use only. Extrapolations from agricultural loss rates and from concentrations found in the urban drainage system showed that more than half of the load during selected rain events originates from urban areas. The inputs from the effluent of the wastewater treatment plant, the overflow of the combined sewer system and of the separate sewer system summed up to 60% of the total load.

Hanke I; Wittmer I; Bischofberger S; Stamm C; Singer H

2010-09-01

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Relevance of urban glyphosate use for surface water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Relative contributions of agricultural and urban uses to the glyphosate contamination of surface waters were studied in a small catchment (25 km(2)) in Switzerland. Monitoring in four sub-catchments with differing land use allowed comparing load and input dynamics from different sources. Agricultural as well as urban use was surveyed in all sub-catchments allowing for a detailed interpretation of the monitoring results. Water samples from the river system and from the urban drainage system (combined sewer overflow, storm sewer and outflow of wastewater treatment plant) were investigated. The concentrations at peak discharge during storm events were elevated throughout the year with maximum concentrations of 4.15 ?g L(-1). Glyphosate concentrations mostly exceeded those of other commonly used herbicides such as atrazine or mecoprop. Fast runoff from hard surfaces led to a fast increase of the glyphosate concentration shortly after the beginning of rainfall not coinciding with the concentration peak normally observed from agricultural fields. The comparison of the agricultural application and the seasonal concentration and load pattern in the main creek from March to November revealed that the occurrence of glyphosate cannot be explained by agricultural use only. Extrapolations from agricultural loss rates and from concentrations found in the urban drainage system showed that more than half of the load during selected rain events originates from urban areas. The inputs from the effluent of the wastewater treatment plant, the overflow of the combined sewer system and of the separate sewer system summed up to 60% of the total load. PMID:20696461

Hanke, Irene; Wittmer, Irene; Bischofberger, Simone; Stamm, Christian; Singer, Heinz

2010-08-08

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Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai has experienced an extensive urban expansion since the early 1980s, with an attendant cost in environmental degradation. We use an integrated pollution index to study the temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas between 1982 and 2005. Data on monitored cross-sections were collected from the Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of surface water quality was determined by the level of urbanization. Surface water qualities in urban and suburban areas were improved by strengthening the environmental policies and management, but were worsening in rural areas. The relationship between economic growth and surface water quality in Shanghai showed an inversed-U-shaped curve, which reflected a similar pattern in most developed countries. This research suggests that decision makers and city officials should be more aware of the recent pollution increases in Shanghai. - An integrated pollution index documents the deterioration of water quality in greater Shanghai, recently most serious in rural sections.

2008-01-01

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Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai has experienced an extensive urban expansion since the early 1980s, with an attendant cost in environmental degradation. We use an integrated pollution index to study the temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas between 1982 and 2005. Data on monitored cross-sections were collected from the Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of surface water quality was determined by the level of urbanization. Surface water qualities in urban and suburban areas were improved by strengthening the environmental policies and management, but were worsening in rural areas. The relationship between economic growth and surface water quality in Shanghai showed an inversed-U-shaped curve, which reflected a similar pattern in most developed countries. This research suggests that decision makers and city officials should be more aware of the recent pollution increases in Shanghai. - An integrated pollution index documents the deterioration of water quality in greater Shanghai, recently most serious in rural sections.

Wang Junying [Shanghai Key Laboratory for Ecology of Urbanization Process and Eco-restoration, Department of Environmental Science, East China Normal University, No. 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China)], E-mail: wangwang0501@hotmail.com; Da Liangjun [Shanghai Key Laboratory for Ecology of Urbanization Process and Eco-restoration, Department of Environmental Science, East China Normal University, No. 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China)], E-mail: ljda@des.ecnu.edu.cn; Song Kun [Shanghai Key Laboratory for Ecology of Urbanization Process and Eco-restoration, Department of Environmental Science, East China Normal University, No. 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China)], E-mail: seceek@yahoo.com.cn; Li Bailian [Shanghai Key Laboratory for Ecology of Urbanization Process and Eco-restoration, Department of Environmental Science, East China Normal University, No. 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Department of Botany and Plant Science, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0124 (United States)], E-mail: bai-lian.li@ucr.edu

2008-03-15

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SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA  

Science.gov (United States)

SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA A.K. Mohanty, K. Mahesh Kumar, B. A. Prakash and V.V.S. Gurunadha Rao Ecology and Environment Group National Geophysical Research Institute, (CSIR) Hyderabad - 500 606, India E-mail:atulyakumarmohanty@yahoo.com Abstract: Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority has taken up restoration of urban lakes around Hyderabad city under Green Hyderabad Environment Program. Restoration of Mir Alam Tank, Durgamcheruvu, Patel cheruvu, Pedda Cheruvu and Nallacheruvu lakes have been taken up under the second phase. There are of six lakes viz., RKPuramcheruvu, Nadimicheruvu (Safilguda), Bandacheruvu Patelcheruvu, Peddacheruvu, Nallacheruvu, in North East Musi Basin covering 38 sq km. Bimonthly monitoring of lake water quality for BOD, COD, Total Nitrogen, Total phosphorous has been carried out for two hydrological cycles during October 2002- October 2004 in all the five lakes at inlet channels and outlets. The sediments in the lake have been also assessed for nutrient status. The nutrient parameters have been used to assess eutrophic condition through computation of Trophic Status Index, which has indicated that all the above lakes under study are under hyper-eutrophic condition. The hydrogeological, geophysical, water quality and groundwater data base collected in two watersheds covering 4 lakes has been used to construct groundwater flow and mass transport models. The interaction of lake-water with groundwater has been computed for assessing the lake water budget combining with inflow and outflow measurements on streams entering and leaving the lakes. Individual lake water budget has been used for design of appropriate capacity of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) on the inlet channels of the lakes for maintaining Full Tank Level (FTL) in each lake. STPs are designed for tertiary treatment i.e. removal of nutrient load viz., Phosphates and Nitrates. Phosphates are removed through addition of Alum to the influent stream to the STPs whereas Nitrates reduction is achieved by sending the treated wastewater from the STP through a wetland before entering the lake. STP Capacity ranging from 2-10 MLD have been recommended depending on lake water budget of individual lake and considering surrounding urbanization. Sediment nutrient data has helped for deciding the need for dredging of lake bed for removal of phosphates. Key Words: Lake water budget, Eutrophication, Trophic Status Index, Urban Lakes Restoration

Mohanty, A. K.

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Urban water quality modelling: a parsimonious holistic approach for a complex real case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the past three decades, scientific research has focused on the preservation of water resources, and in particular, on the polluting impact of urban areas on natural water bodies. One approach to this research has involved the development of tools to describe the phenomena that take place on the urban catchment during both wet and dry periods. Research has demonstrated the importance of the integrated analysis of all the transformation phases that characterise the delivery and treatment of urban water pollutants from source to outfall. With this aim, numerous integrated urban drainage models have been developed to analyse the fate of pollution from urban catchments to the final receiving waters, simulating several physical and chemical processes. Such modelling approaches require calibration, and for this reason, researchers have tried to address two opposing needs: the need for reliable representation of complex systems, and the need to employ parsimonious approaches to cope with the usually insufficient, especially for urban sources, water quality data. The present paper discusses the application of a be-spoke model to a complex integrated catchment: the Nocella basin (Italy). This system is characterised by two main urban areas served by two wastewater treatment plants, and has a small river as the receiving water body. The paper describes the monitoring approach that was used for model calibration, presents some interesting considerations about the monitoring needs for integrated modelling applications, and provides initial results useful for identifying the most relevant polluting sources.

Freni G; Mannina G; Viviani G

2010-01-01

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Urban water quality modelling: a parsimonious holistic approach for a complex real case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past three decades, scientific research has focused on the preservation of water resources, and in particular, on the polluting impact of urban areas on natural water bodies. One approach to this research has involved the development of tools to describe the phenomena that take place on the urban catchment during both wet and dry periods. Research has demonstrated the importance of the integrated analysis of all the transformation phases that characterise the delivery and treatment of urban water pollutants from source to outfall. With this aim, numerous integrated urban drainage models have been developed to analyse the fate of pollution from urban catchments to the final receiving waters, simulating several physical and chemical processes. Such modelling approaches require calibration, and for this reason, researchers have tried to address two opposing needs: the need for reliable representation of complex systems, and the need to employ parsimonious approaches to cope with the usually insufficient, especially for urban sources, water quality data. The present paper discusses the application of a be-spoke model to a complex integrated catchment: the Nocella basin (Italy). This system is characterised by two main urban areas served by two wastewater treatment plants, and has a small river as the receiving water body. The paper describes the monitoring approach that was used for model calibration, presents some interesting considerations about the monitoring needs for integrated modelling applications, and provides initial results useful for identifying the most relevant polluting sources. PMID:20107280

Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

2010-01-01

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Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC), but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistant genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains that may result in increased duration and severity of morbidity.

A. Mark Ibekwe; Shelton E. Murinda; Alexandria K. Graves

2011-01-01

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Frequency analysis of river water quality using integrated urban wastewater models.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years integrated models have been developed to simulate the entire urban wastewater system, including urban drainage systems, wastewater treatment plants, and receiving waterbodies. This paper uses such an integrated urban wastewater model to analyze the frequency of receiving water quality in an urban wastewater system with the aim of assessing the overall system performance during rainfall events. The receiving water quality is represented by two indicators: event mean dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and event mean ammonium concentration. The compliance probability of the water quality indicators satisfying a specific threshold is used to represent the system performance, and is derived using the rainfall events from a series of 10 years' rainfall data. A strong correlation between the depth of each rainfall event and the associated volume of combined sewer overflow (CSO) discharges is revealed for the case study catchment, while there is a low correlation between the intensity/duration of the rainfall event and the volume of the CSO discharges. The frequency analysis results obtained suggest that the event mean DO and ammonium concentrations have very different characteristics in terms of compliance probabilities at two discharging points for CSO and wastewater treatment plant effluent, respectively. In general, the simulation results provide an understanding of the performance of the integrated urban wastewater system and can provide useful information to support water quality management.

Fu G; Butler D

2012-01-01

25

Frequency analysis of river water quality using integrated urban wastewater models.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years integrated models have been developed to simulate the entire urban wastewater system, including urban drainage systems, wastewater treatment plants, and receiving waterbodies. This paper uses such an integrated urban wastewater model to analyze the frequency of receiving water quality in an urban wastewater system with the aim of assessing the overall system performance during rainfall events. The receiving water quality is represented by two indicators: event mean dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and event mean ammonium concentration. The compliance probability of the water quality indicators satisfying a specific threshold is used to represent the system performance, and is derived using the rainfall events from a series of 10 years' rainfall data. A strong correlation between the depth of each rainfall event and the associated volume of combined sewer overflow (CSO) discharges is revealed for the case study catchment, while there is a low correlation between the intensity/duration of the rainfall event and the volume of the CSO discharges. The frequency analysis results obtained suggest that the event mean DO and ammonium concentrations have very different characteristics in terms of compliance probabilities at two discharging points for CSO and wastewater treatment plant effluent, respectively. In general, the simulation results provide an understanding of the performance of the integrated urban wastewater system and can provide useful information to support water quality management. PMID:22643404

Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

2012-01-01

26

Impact of rainfall temporal resolution on urban water quality modelling performance and uncertainties.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A key control on the response of an urban drainage model is how well the observed rainfall records represent the real rainfall variability. Particularly in urban catchments with fast response flow regimes, the selection of temporal resolution in rainfall data collection is critical. Furthermore, the impact of the rainfall variability on the model response is amplified for water quality estimates, as uncertainty in rainfall intensity affects both the rainfall-runoff and pollutant wash-off sub-models, thus compounding uncertainties. A modelling study was designed to investigate the impact of altering rainfall temporal resolution on the magnitude and behaviour of uncertainties associated with the hydrological modelling compared with water quality modelling. The case study was an 85-ha combined sewer sub-catchment in Bogotá (Colombia). Water quality estimates showed greater sensitivity to the inter-event variability in rainfall hyetograph characteristics than to changes in the rainfall input temporal resolution. Overall, uncertainties from the water quality model were two- to five-fold those of the hydrological model. However, owing to the intrinsic scarcity of observations in urban water quality modelling, total model output uncertainties, especially from the water quality model, were too large to make recommendations for particular model structures or parameter values with respect to rainfall temporal resolution.

Manz BJ; Rodríguez JP; Maksimovi? C; McIntyre N

2013-01-01

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Quality of water sources used as drinking water in a Brazilian peri-urban area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to assess bacteriological quality of drinking water in a peri-urban area located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 89 water samples were collected from community plastic tanks and 177 water samples from wells were collected bimonthly, from September 2007 to November 2008, for evaluating bacteriological parameters including: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and heterotrophic plate count (HPC). Clostridium perfringens was investigated in a subsample (40 samples from community plastic tank and 40 from wells). E. coli was present in 5 (5.6%) samples from community plastic tanks (2.0 - 5.1x10(4) MPN/100mL) and in 70 (39.5%) well samples (2.0 - 8.6x10(4) MPN/100mL). Thus, these samples were not in accordance with the Brazilian Regulation. Enterococcus was detected in 20 (22.5%) samples of the community plastic tanks (1 to 79 NC/100mL) and in 142 (80.2%) well samples (1 to >200 NC/100mL). C. perfringens was detected in 5 (12.5%) community plastic tanks samples and in 35 (87.5%) wells samples (2.2 to >16 MPN/100mL). HPC were above 500 CFU/mL in 5 (5.6%) waters from community plastic tanks. In wells samples, the HPC ranged from <1 to 1.6x10(4) CFU/mL. The residual chlorine did not attend the standard established in the drinking water legislation (0.2 mg/L), except in 20 (22.5%) samples. These results confirm the vulnerability of the water supply systems in this peri-urban area what is clearly a public health concern.

Maria Tereza Pepe Razzolini; Wanda Maria Risso Günther; Francisca Alzira dos Santos Peternella; Solange Martone-Rocha; Veridiana Karmann Bastos; Thaís Filomena da Silva Santos; Maria Regina Alves Cardoso

2011-01-01

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Heavy metal assessment and water quality values in urban stream and rain water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water quality monitoring in developing countries is inadequate, especially in stream water affected by urban effluents and runoff. The purpose of this study was to investigate heavy metal contaminants in the Nakivubo Stream water in Kampala, Uganda. Water samples Nakivubo Channelized Stream, tributaries and industrial effluents that drain into the stream were collected and analysed for the total elemental concentration using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that: 1) the wastewater was highly enriched with lead and manganese above the maximum permissible limit; 2) the levels of dissolved oxygen were below the maximum permissible limit, while the biological oxygen demand was above the maximum permissible limit. All industrial effluents/wastewater were classified as strong (> 220 mg/L). Factor analysis results reveal two sources of pollutants; 1) mixed origin or chemical phenomena of industrial and vehicular emissions and 2) multiple origin of lead (vehicular, commercial establishment and industrial). In conclusion, Nakivubo Channelized Stream water is not enriched with heavy metals. These heavy metals (lead, cadmium and zinc) were rapidly removed by co-precipitation with manganese and iron hydroxides and total dissolved solids into stream sediments. This phenomena is controlled by p H in water.

2010-01-01

29

Relation between urbanization and water quality of streams in the Austin area, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Selected water quality properties and constituents of stormflow and base flow at 18 sites on 11 streams in the Austin area, Texas, were compared to determine the relation between degree of urbanization and water quality. Sample sites were grouped into four development classifications based on percentage of impervious cover of the drainage basin. For each site and development classification, concentrations and densities of water quality properties and constituents in samples collected during base flow were compared. Except for dissolved solids, concentrations during the rising stage of stormflow generally were larger than during the falling stage. The concentrations in stormflow were larger than in base flow. For the five sites that had sufficient samples from each flow category for statistical comparisons, median concentrations in stormflow were significantly larger than in base flow. Concentrations in the rising stage were more variable and significantly larger than in the falling stage. Except for dissolved solids, median concentrations in samples collected during stormflow increased with increasing urbanization. Medians for base flow also were larger for more urban classifications. The ratio of the number of samples with detectable concentrations to total sample analyzed of 18 minor inorganic constituents and the concentrations of many of these constituents increased with increasing urbanization. Twenty-two of 42 synthetic organic compounds investigated were detected in one or more samples and were detected more frequently and in larger concentrations at sites with more urban classifications.

Veenhuis, J.E.; Slade, R.M. (Geological Survey, Austin, TX (United States))

1990-01-01

30

Effects of urbanization on stream water quality in the city of Atlanta, Georgia, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

A long-term stream water quality monitoring network was established in the city of Atlanta, Georgia during 2003 to assess baseline water quality conditions and the effects of urbanization on stream water quality. Routine hydrologically based manual stream sampling, including several concurrent manual point and equal width increment sampling, was conducted ???12 times annually at 21 stations, with drainage areas ranging from 3.7 to 232 km2. Eleven of the stations are real-time (RT) stations having continuous measures of stream stage/ discharge, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature and turbidity, and automatic samplers for stormwater collection. Samples were analyzed for field parameters, and a broad suite of water quality and sediment-related constituents. Field parameters and concentrations of major ions, metals, nutrient species and coliform bacteria among stations were evaluated and with respect to watershed characteristics and plausible sources from 2003 through September 2007. Most constituent concentrations are much higher than nearby reference streams. Concentrations are statistically different among stations for several constituents, despite high variability both within and among stations. Routine manual sampling, automatic sampling during stormflows and RT water quality monitoring provided sufficient information about urban stream water quality variability to evaluate causes of water quality differences among streams. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations of most samples exceeded Georgia's water quality standard for any water-usage class. High chloride concentrations occur at three stations and are hypothesized to be associated with discharges of chlorinated combined sewer overflows, drainage of swimming pool(s) and dissolution and transport during rainstorms of CaCl2, a deicing salt applied to roads during winter storms. One stream was affected by dissolution and transport of ammonium alum [NH4Al(SO4)2] from an alum-manufacturing plant; streamwater has low pH (<5), low alkalinity and high metals concentrations. Several trace metals exceed acute and chronic water quality standards and high concentrations are attributed to washoff from impervious surfaces.

Peters, N. E.

2009-01-01

31

Quality of water sources used as drinking water in a Brazilian peri-urban area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to assess bacteriological quality of drinking water in a peri-urban area located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 89 water samples were collected from community plastic tanks and 177 water samples from wells were collected bimonthly, from September 2007 to November 2008, for evaluating bacteriological parameters including: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and heterotrophic plate count (HPC). Clostridium perfringens (more) was investigated in a subsample (40 samples from community plastic tank and 40 from wells). E. coli was present in 5 (5.6%) samples from community plastic tanks (2.0 - 5.1x10(4) MPN/100mL) and in 70 (39.5%) well samples (2.0 - 8.6x10(4) MPN/100mL). Thus, these samples were not in accordance with the Brazilian Regulation. Enterococcus was detected in 20 (22.5%) samples of the community plastic tanks (1 to 79 NC/100mL) and in 142 (80.2%) well samples (1 to >200 NC/100mL). C. perfringens was detected in 5 (12.5%) community plastic tanks samples and in 35 (87.5%) wells samples (2.2 to >16 MPN/100mL). HPC were above 500 CFU/mL in 5 (5.6%) waters from community plastic tanks. In wells samples, the HPC ranged from

Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso; Peternella, Francisca Alzira dos Santos; Martone-Rocha, Solange; Bastos, Veridiana Karmann; Santos, Thaís Filomena da Silva; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves

2011-06-01

32

The effect of an industrial effluent on an urban stream benthic community: water quality vs. habitat quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discharges that affect both water quality and habitat quality can have complex effects on flowing water communties. - We studied the effect of an industrial effluent on the water quality, habitat quality, and benthic macroinvertebrates of an urban stream in southwestern Michigan (USA). The effluent affected water quality by raising in-stream temperatures 13-18 deg. C during colder months and carrying high amounts of iron (>20xhigher than ambient) that covered the streambed. The effluent also affected habitat conditions by increasing total stream discharge by 50-150%, causing a significant change in substrate and flow conditions. We used three methods to collect benthic macroinvertebrates in depositional and erosional habitats and to understand the relative importance of habitat quality and water quality alterations. Macroinvertebrate response variables included taxonomic richness, abundance, and proportional abundance of sensitive taxonomic groups. Results indicated that the effluent had a positive effect on macroinvertebrate communities by increasing the quantity of riffle habitat, but a negative effect on macroinvertebrate communities by reducing water quality. Results illustrated the need for careful consideration of habitat quality and water quality in restoration or remediation programs.

2003-01-01

33

The influence of rainfall time resolution for urban water quality modelling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this paper is the definition of a methodology to evaluate the impact of the temporal resolution of rainfall measurements in urban drainage modelling applications. More specifically the effect of the temporal resolution on urban water quality modelling is detected analysing the uncertainty of the response of rainfall-runoff modelling. Analyses have been carried out using historical rainfall-discharge data collected for the Fossolo catchment (Bologna, Italy). According to the methodology, the historical rainfall data are taken as a reference, and resampled data have been obtained through a rescaling procedure with variable temporal windows. The shape comparison between 'true' and rescaled rainfall data has been carried out using a non-dimensional accuracy index. Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out applying a parsimonious urban water quality model, using the recorded data and the resampled events. The results of the simulations were used to derive the cumulative probabilities of quantity and quality model outputs (peak discharges, flow volume, peak concentrations and pollutant mass) conditioned on the observation according to the GLUE (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation) methodology. The results showed that when coarser rainfall information is available, the model calibration process is still efficient even if modelling uncertainty progressively increases especially with regards to water quality aspects.

Freni G; Mannina G; Viviani G

2010-01-01

34

The influence of rainfall time resolution for urban water quality modelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this paper is the definition of a methodology to evaluate the impact of the temporal resolution of rainfall measurements in urban drainage modelling applications. More specifically the effect of the temporal resolution on urban water quality modelling is detected analysing the uncertainty of the response of rainfall-runoff modelling. Analyses have been carried out using historical rainfall-discharge data collected for the Fossolo catchment (Bologna, Italy). According to the methodology, the historical rainfall data are taken as a reference, and resampled data have been obtained through a rescaling procedure with variable temporal windows. The shape comparison between 'true' and rescaled rainfall data has been carried out using a non-dimensional accuracy index. Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out applying a parsimonious urban water quality model, using the recorded data and the resampled events. The results of the simulations were used to derive the cumulative probabilities of quantity and quality model outputs (peak discharges, flow volume, peak concentrations and pollutant mass) conditioned on the observation according to the GLUE (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation) methodology. The results showed that when coarser rainfall information is available, the model calibration process is still efficient even if modelling uncertainty progressively increases especially with regards to water quality aspects. PMID:20418636

Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

2010-01-01

35

Perceptual assessment of quality of urban soundscapes with combined noise sources and water sounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, urban soundscapes containing combined noise sources were evaluated through field surveys and laboratory experiments. The effect of water sounds on masking urban noises was then examined in order to enhance the soundscape perception. Field surveys in 16 urban spaces were conducted through soundwalking to evaluate the annoyance of combined noise sources. Synthesis curves were derived for the relationships between noise levels and the percentage of highly annoyed (%HA) and the percentage of annoyed (%A) for the combined noise sources. Qualitative analysis was also made using semantic scales for evaluating the quality of the soundscape, and it was shown that the perception of acoustic comfort and loudness was strongly related to the annoyance. A laboratory auditory experiment was then conducted in order to quantify the total annoyance caused by road traffic noise and four types of construction noise. It was shown that the annoyance ratings were related to the types of construction noise in combination with road traffic noise and the level of the road traffic noise. Finally, water sounds were determined to be the best sounds to use for enhancing the urban soundscape. The level of the water sounds should be similar to or not less than 3 dB below the level of the urban noises. PMID:20329835

Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; You, Jin; Kang, Jian

2010-03-01

36

Perceptual assessment of quality of urban soundscapes with combined noise sources and water sounds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, urban soundscapes containing combined noise sources were evaluated through field surveys and laboratory experiments. The effect of water sounds on masking urban noises was then examined in order to enhance the soundscape perception. Field surveys in 16 urban spaces were conducted through soundwalking to evaluate the annoyance of combined noise sources. Synthesis curves were derived for the relationships between noise levels and the percentage of highly annoyed (%HA) and the percentage of annoyed (%A) for the combined noise sources. Qualitative analysis was also made using semantic scales for evaluating the quality of the soundscape, and it was shown that the perception of acoustic comfort and loudness was strongly related to the annoyance. A laboratory auditory experiment was then conducted in order to quantify the total annoyance caused by road traffic noise and four types of construction noise. It was shown that the annoyance ratings were related to the types of construction noise in combination with road traffic noise and the level of the road traffic noise. Finally, water sounds were determined to be the best sounds to use for enhancing the urban soundscape. The level of the water sounds should be similar to or not less than 3 dB below the level of the urban noises.

Jeon JY; Lee PJ; You J; Kang J

2010-03-01

37

Receiving water quality assessment: comparison between simplified and detailed integrated urban modelling approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urban water quality management often requires use of numerical models allowing the evaluation of the cause-effect relationship between the input(s) (i.e. rainfall, pollutant concentrations on catchment surface and in sewer system) and the resulting water quality response. The conventional approach to the system (i.e. sewer system, wastewater treatment plant and receiving water body), considering each component separately, does not enable optimisation of the whole system. However, recent gains in understanding and modelling make it possible to represent the system as a whole and optimise its overall performance. Indeed, integrated urban drainage modelling is of growing interest for tools to cope with Water Framework Directive requirements. Two different approaches can be employed for modelling the whole urban drainage system: detailed and simplified. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. Specifically, detailed approaches can offer a higher level of reliability in the model results, but can be very time consuming from the computational point of view. Simplified approaches are faster but may lead to greater model uncertainty due to an over-simplification. To gain insight into the above problem, two different modelling approaches have been compared with respect to their uncertainty. The first urban drainage integrated model approach uses the Saint-Venant equations and the 1D advection-dispersion equations, for the quantity and for the quality aspects, respectively. The second model approach consists of the simplified reservoir model. The analysis used a parsimonious bespoke model developed in previous studies. For the uncertainty analysis, the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) procedure was used. Model reliability was evaluated on the basis of capacity of globally limiting the uncertainty. Both models have a good capability to fit the experimental data, suggesting that all adopted approaches are equivalent both for quantity and quality. The detailed model approach is more robust and presents less uncertainty in terms of uncertainty bands. On the other hand, the simplified river water quality model approach shows higher uncertainty and may be unsuitable for receiving water body quality assessment.

Mannina G; Viviani G

2010-01-01

38

Receiving water quality assessment: comparison between simplified and detailed integrated urban modelling approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban water quality management often requires use of numerical models allowing the evaluation of the cause-effect relationship between the input(s) (i.e. rainfall, pollutant concentrations on catchment surface and in sewer system) and the resulting water quality response. The conventional approach to the system (i.e. sewer system, wastewater treatment plant and receiving water body), considering each component separately, does not enable optimisation of the whole system. However, recent gains in understanding and modelling make it possible to represent the system as a whole and optimise its overall performance. Indeed, integrated urban drainage modelling is of growing interest for tools to cope with Water Framework Directive requirements. Two different approaches can be employed for modelling the whole urban drainage system: detailed and simplified. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. Specifically, detailed approaches can offer a higher level of reliability in the model results, but can be very time consuming from the computational point of view. Simplified approaches are faster but may lead to greater model uncertainty due to an over-simplification. To gain insight into the above problem, two different modelling approaches have been compared with respect to their uncertainty. The first urban drainage integrated model approach uses the Saint-Venant equations and the 1D advection-dispersion equations, for the quantity and for the quality aspects, respectively. The second model approach consists of the simplified reservoir model. The analysis used a parsimonious bespoke model developed in previous studies. For the uncertainty analysis, the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) procedure was used. Model reliability was evaluated on the basis of capacity of globally limiting the uncertainty. Both models have a good capability to fit the experimental data, suggesting that all adopted approaches are equivalent both for quantity and quality. The detailed model approach is more robust and presents less uncertainty in terms of uncertainty bands. On the other hand, the simplified river water quality model approach shows higher uncertainty and may be unsuitable for receiving water body quality assessment. PMID:21076216

Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

2010-01-01

39

Comparison between the efficiency of two bioindicators for determining surface water quality in an urban environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficiency of two bioindicators, fecal coliforms and ecotoxicity tests, set out in CONAMA Resolution 274/00 and CONAMA Resolution 357/05, in assessment of water quality. For this study, Lake Paranoá, Federal District of Brazil, was chosen, since it is a water body directly contaminated by effluents from a sewage treatment plant. Four sampling points were chosen in accordance with the map of recreational water quality published weekly by CAESB/DF, after analysis of fecal coliforms. Samples from these points were collected for 6 months and tested on Danio rerio fish (acute toxicity) and on the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (acute and chronic toxicity), besides measuring chemical and physico-chemical parameters. The data obtained show great consistency between the observed biological parameters, suggesting that in this urban aquatic environment, under great anthropogenic pressure, the fecal coliform bioindicator seems to be more restrictive and enough to evaluate the safety of surface water.This study evaluated the efficiency of two bioindicators, fecal coliforms and ecotoxicity tests, set out in CONAMA Resolution 274/00 and CONAMA Resolution 357/05, in assessment of water quality. For this study, Lake Paranoá, Federal District of Brazil, was chosen, since it is a water body directly contaminated by effluents from a sewage treatment plant. Four sampling points were chosen in accordance with the map of recreational water quality published weekly by CAESB/DF, after analysis of fecal coliforms. Samples from these points were collected for 6 months and tested on Danio rerio fish (acute toxicity) and on the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (acute and chronic toxicity), besides measuring chemical and physico-chemical parameters. The data obtained show great consistency between the observed biological parameters, suggesting that in this urban aquatic environment, under great anthropogenic pressure, the fecal coliform bioindicator seems to be more restrictive and enough to evaluate the safety of surface water.

Eduardo Cyrino Oliveira-Filho; Marianni Gonçalves Ramos; Ingrid Souza Freire; Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz

2011-01-01

40

Assessment of shallow ground-water quality in recently urbanized areas of Sacramento, California, 1998  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence for anthropogenic impact on shallow ground-water quality beneath recently developed urban areas of Sacramento, California, has been observed in the sampling results from 19 monitoring wells in 1998. Eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), four pesticides, and one pesticide transformation product were detected in low concentrations, and nitrate, as nitrogen, was detected in elevated concentrations; all of these concentrations were below National and State primary and secondary maximum contaminant levels. VOC results from this study are more consistent with the results from urban areas nationwide than from agricultural areas in the Central Valley, indicating that shallow ground-water quality has been impacted by urbanization. VOCs detected may be attributed to either the chlorination of drinking water, such as trichloromethane (chloroform) detected in 16 samples, or to the use of gasoline additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), detected in 2 samples. Pesticides detected may be attributed to use on household lawns and gardens and rights-of-way, such as atrazine detected in three samples, or to past agricultural practices, and potentially to ground-water/surface-water interactions, such as bentazon detected in one sample from a well adjacent to the Sacramento River and downstream from where bentazon historically was used on rice. Concentrations of nitrate may be attributed to natural sources, animal waste, old septic tanks, and fertilizers used on lawns and gardens or previously used on agricultural crops. Seven sample concentrations of nitrate, as nitrogen, exceeded 3.0 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water recharge from rainfall or surface-water runoff also may contribute to the concentrations of VOCs and pesticides observed in ground water. Most VOCs and pesticides detected in ground-water samples also were detected in air and surface-water samples collected at sites within or adjacent to the recently developed urban areas. Five arsenic sample concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) primary maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter adopted in 2001. Measurements that exceeded USEPA or California Department of Health Services recommended secondary maximum contaminant levels include manganese, iron, chloride, total dissolved solids, and specific conductance. These exceedances are probably a result of natural processes. Variations in stable isotope ratios of hydrogen (2H/1H) and oxygen (18O/16O) may indicate different sources or a mixing of recharge waters to the urban ground water. These variations also may indicate recharge directly from surface water in one well adjacent to the Sacramento River. Tritium concentrations indicate that most shallow ground water has been recharged since the mid-1950s, and tritium/helium-3 age dates suggest that recharge has occurred in the last 2 to 30 years in some areas. In areas where water table depths exceed 20 meters and wells are deeper, ground-water recharge may have occurred prior to 1950, but low concentrations of pesticides and VOCs detected in these deeper wells indicate a mixing of younger and older waters. Overall, the recently urbanized areas can be divided into two groups. One group contains wells where few VOCs and pesticides were detected, nitrate mostly was not detected, and National and State maximum contaminant levels, including the USEPA MCL for arsenic, were exceeded; these wells are adjacent to rivers and generally are characterized by younger water, shallow (1 to 4 meters) water table, chemically reducing conditions, finer grained sediments, and higher organics in the soils. In contrast, the other group contains wells where more VOCs, pesticides, and elevated nitrate concentrations were detected; these wells are farther from rivers and are generally characterized by a mixture of young and old waters, intermediate to deep (7 to 35 meters) wate

Shelton, Jennifer L.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

[Study on the linkage between urban built-up land and water quality in the Jiulong River watershed].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Band grouping indices combined with single band characteristic were used to extract urban built-up land based on satellite image in the Jiulong River Watershed. Landscape ecology method and statistical analysis were employed to explore the relationship between urban built-up land and permanganate index, NH4(+) -N, TP concentrations. There were significantly positive correlations between the proportion of urban built-up land and permanganate index, NH4(+) -N, TP (r = 0.701, 0.695, 0.789). It indicates the proportion of urban built-up land areas in the sub-watershed could be an effective indicator of water quality. The largest patch index (LPI) was positively correlated to permanganate index, NH4(+) -N, TP concentrations in the water (r = 0.555, 0.643, 0.722). The landscape shape index(LSI) was positively correlated to permanganate index and TP concentrations in the water (r = 0.564, 0.553). These means the impacts of urban built-up land on water quality are influenced not only by urban built-up land areas but also by spatial patterns. The seasonally linear correlation results show that water quality deteriorates quickly with urban built-up land during the flood season and dry season, and the water is susceptible to eutrophication in both flood and dry seasons. The water quality in most sub-watersheds are impacted by urban built-up land, while the urban built-up land areas of Longmen stream, Su stream and Xiao stream located in headstreams are intensive, which need to be adjusted and controlled to protect the water quality.

Sun QQ; Huang JL; Hong HS; Feng Y

2011-10-01

42

[Study on the linkage between urban built-up land and water quality in the Jiulong River watershed].  

Science.gov (United States)

Band grouping indices combined with single band characteristic were used to extract urban built-up land based on satellite image in the Jiulong River Watershed. Landscape ecology method and statistical analysis were employed to explore the relationship between urban built-up land and permanganate index, NH4(+) -N, TP concentrations. There were significantly positive correlations between the proportion of urban built-up land and permanganate index, NH4(+) -N, TP (r = 0.701, 0.695, 0.789). It indicates the proportion of urban built-up land areas in the sub-watershed could be an effective indicator of water quality. The largest patch index (LPI) was positively correlated to permanganate index, NH4(+) -N, TP concentrations in the water (r = 0.555, 0.643, 0.722). The landscape shape index(LSI) was positively correlated to permanganate index and TP concentrations in the water (r = 0.564, 0.553). These means the impacts of urban built-up land on water quality are influenced not only by urban built-up land areas but also by spatial patterns. The seasonally linear correlation results show that water quality deteriorates quickly with urban built-up land during the flood season and dry season, and the water is susceptible to eutrophication in both flood and dry seasons. The water quality in most sub-watersheds are impacted by urban built-up land, while the urban built-up land areas of Longmen stream, Su stream and Xiao stream located in headstreams are intensive, which need to be adjusted and controlled to protect the water quality. PMID:22279891

Sun, Qin-Qin; Huang, Jin-Liang; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Feng, Yuan

2011-10-01

43

Assessment of the integrated urban water quality model complexity through identifiability analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban sources of water pollution have often been cited as the primary cause of poor water quality in receiving water bodies (RWB), and recently many studies have been conducted to investigate both continuous sources, such as wastewater-treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, and intermittent sources, such as combined sewer overflows (CSOs). An urban drainage system must be considered jointly, i.e., by means of an integrated approach. However, although the benefits of an integrated approach have been widely demonstrated, several aspects have prevented its wide application, such as the scarcity of field data for not only the input and output variables but also parameters that govern intermediate stages of the system, which are useful for robust calibration. These factors, along with the high complexity level of the currently adopted approaches, introduce uncertainties in the modelling process that are not always identifiable. In this study, the identifiability analysis was applied to a complex integrated catchment: the Nocella basin (Italy). This system is characterised by two main urban areas served by two WWTPs and has a small river as the RWB. The system was simulated by employing an integrated model developed in previous studies. The main goal of the study was to assess the right number of parameters that can be estimated on the basis of data-source availability. A preliminary sensitivity analysis was undertaken to reduce the model parameters to the most sensitive ones. Subsequently, the identifiability analysis was carried out by progressively considering new data sources and assessing the added value provided by each of them. In the process, several identifiability methods were compared and some new techniques were proposed for reducing subjectivity of the analysis. The study showed the potential of the identifiability analysis for selecting the most relevant parameters in the model, thus allowing for model simplification, and in assessing the impact of data sources for model reliability, thus guiding the analyst in the design of future monitoring campaigns. Further, the analysis showed some critical points in integrated urban drainage modelling, such as the interaction between water quality processes on the catchment and in the sewer, that can prevent the identifiability of some of the related parameters. PMID:20732705

Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

2010-08-11

44

Assessment of the integrated urban water quality model complexity through identifiability analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urban sources of water pollution have often been cited as the primary cause of poor water quality in receiving water bodies (RWB), and recently many studies have been conducted to investigate both continuous sources, such as wastewater-treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, and intermittent sources, such as combined sewer overflows (CSOs). An urban drainage system must be considered jointly, i.e., by means of an integrated approach. However, although the benefits of an integrated approach have been widely demonstrated, several aspects have prevented its wide application, such as the scarcity of field data for not only the input and output variables but also parameters that govern intermediate stages of the system, which are useful for robust calibration. These factors, along with the high complexity level of the currently adopted approaches, introduce uncertainties in the modelling process that are not always identifiable. In this study, the identifiability analysis was applied to a complex integrated catchment: the Nocella basin (Italy). This system is characterised by two main urban areas served by two WWTPs and has a small river as the RWB. The system was simulated by employing an integrated model developed in previous studies. The main goal of the study was to assess the right number of parameters that can be estimated on the basis of data-source availability. A preliminary sensitivity analysis was undertaken to reduce the model parameters to the most sensitive ones. Subsequently, the identifiability analysis was carried out by progressively considering new data sources and assessing the added value provided by each of them. In the process, several identifiability methods were compared and some new techniques were proposed for reducing subjectivity of the analysis. The study showed the potential of the identifiability analysis for selecting the most relevant parameters in the model, thus allowing for model simplification, and in assessing the impact of data sources for model reliability, thus guiding the analyst in the design of future monitoring campaigns. Further, the analysis showed some critical points in integrated urban drainage modelling, such as the interaction between water quality processes on the catchment and in the sewer, that can prevent the identifiability of some of the related parameters.

Freni G; Mannina G; Viviani G

2011-01-01

45

Coastal water quality impact of stormwater runoff from an urban watershed in southern California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Field studies were conducted to assess the coastal water quality impact of stormwater runoff from the Santa Ana River, which drains a large urban watershed located in southern California. Stormwater runoff from the river leads to very poor surf zone water quality, with fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeding California ocean bathing water standards by up to 500%. However, cross-shore currents (e.g., rip cells) dilute contaminated surf zone water with cleaner water from offshore, such that surf zone contamination is generally confined to < 5 km around the river outlet. Offshore of the surf zone, stormwater runoff ejected from the mouth of the river spreads out over a very large area, in some cases exceeding 100 km2 on the basis of satellite observations. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in these large stormwater plumes generally do not exceed California ocean bathing water standards, even in cases where offshore samples test positive for human pathogenic viruses (human adenoviruses and enteroviruses) and fecal indicator viruses (F+ coliphage). Multiple lines of evidence indicate that bacteria and viruses in the offshore stormwater plumes are either associated with relatively small particles (< 53 microm) or not particle-associated. Collectively, these results demonstrate that stormwater runoff from the Santa Ana River negatively impacts coastal water quality, both in the surf zone and offshore. However, the extent of this impact, and its human health significance, is influenced by numerous factors, including prevailing ocean currents, within-plume processing of particles and pathogens, and the timing, magnitude, and nature of runoff discharged from river outlets over the course of a storm.

Ahn JH; Grant SB; Surbeck CQ; DiGiacomo PM; Nezlin NP; Jiang S

2005-08-01

46

Microbiological quality of drinking water of urban and rural communities, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples came from urban and rural communities and to examine the relationship between coliforms occurrence and average water temperature, and a comparison of the rainfall levels. METHODS: A sample of 3,073 untreated and treated (chlorinated) water from taps (1,594), reservoir used to store treated water (1,033), spring water (96) and private well (350) collected for routine testing between 1996 and 1999 was analyzed by the multiple dilution tube methods used to detect the most probable number of total and fecal coliforms. These samples were obtained in the region of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. RESULTS: The highest numbers water samples contaminated by TC (83%) and FC (48%) were found in the untreated water. TC and FC in samples taken from reservoirs used to store treated water was higher than that from taps midway along distribution lines. Among the treated water samples examined, coliform bacteria were found in 171 of the 1,033 sampling reservoirs. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient treatment or regrowth is suggested by the observation that more than 17% of these treated potable water contained coliform. TC and FC positive samples appear to be similar and seasonally influenced in treated water. Two different periods must be considered for the occurrence of both TC and FC positive samples: (i) a warm-weather period (September-March) with high percentage of contaminated samples; and (ii) cold-weather period (April-August) were they are lower. Both TC and TF positive samples declined with the decreased of water temperature.

Nogueira Giovani; Nakamura Celso V; Tognim Maria CB; Abreu Filho Benício A; Dias Filho Benedito P

2003-01-01

47

Water quality assessment of river Hindon at Ghaziabad, India: impact of industrial and urban wastewater.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

River Hindon is a major source of water to the highly populated and predominantly rural population of western Uttar Pradesh, India. The main goal of the present study was to assess the impact of urban and industrial activities on the water quality of river Hindon at the Ghaziabad. For this, river water samples were collected from six different sites all along the route of Hindon main streamline and its branch and were analyzed for pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH) and calcium hardness (Ca-H), chemical oxygen (COD) demand, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (D.O.), sulphate (as SO(4)(2-)), nitrate (as NO(3)(-)) and chloride (Cl-) levels. There were drastic variations for EC (0.83-5.04 ms), turbidity (28.7-109.3 NTU), TDS (222.2-2426.3 mg l(-1)), SO(4) (36.4-162.4 mg l(-1)), NO(3) (106-245 mg l(-1)), TA (347.0-596.3 mg l(-1)), TH (235.1-459.9 mg l(-1)), Ca-H (64.5-402.2 mg l(-1)), BOD (27-51 mg l(-1)) and COD (85.0-337.4 mg l(-1)) levels at different sites. Water pollution indicating parameters were manifold higher than the prescribed limit by the National Pollution Control Agency, i.e. CPCB. This is the first study on itself and the interrelationship of human activities and river water quality makes the study significant and interesting to assess the pollution load discharges in catchments of Hindon at Ghaziabad. Overall, the water quality of Hindon was relatively poor with respect to its use for domestic purposes.

Suthar S; Sharma J; Chabukdhara M; Nema AK

2010-06-01

48

Water quality assessment of river Hindon at Ghaziabad, India: impact of industrial and urban wastewater.  

Science.gov (United States)

River Hindon is a major source of water to the highly populated and predominantly rural population of western Uttar Pradesh, India. The main goal of the present study was to assess the impact of urban and industrial activities on the water quality of river Hindon at the Ghaziabad. For this, river water samples were collected from six different sites all along the route of Hindon main streamline and its branch and were analyzed for pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH) and calcium hardness (Ca-H), chemical oxygen (COD) demand, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (D.O.), sulphate (as SO(4)(2-)), nitrate (as NO(3)(-)) and chloride (Cl-) levels. There were drastic variations for EC (0.83-5.04 ms), turbidity (28.7-109.3 NTU), TDS (222.2-2426.3 mg l(-1)), SO(4) (36.4-162.4 mg l(-1)), NO(3) (106-245 mg l(-1)), TA (347.0-596.3 mg l(-1)), TH (235.1-459.9 mg l(-1)), Ca-H (64.5-402.2 mg l(-1)), BOD (27-51 mg l(-1)) and COD (85.0-337.4 mg l(-1)) levels at different sites. Water pollution indicating parameters were manifold higher than the prescribed limit by the National Pollution Control Agency, i.e. CPCB. This is the first study on itself and the interrelationship of human activities and river water quality makes the study significant and interesting to assess the pollution load discharges in catchments of Hindon at Ghaziabad. Overall, the water quality of Hindon was relatively poor with respect to its use for domestic purposes. PMID:19418235

Suthar, Surindra; Sharma, Jitender; Chabukdhara, Mayuri; Nema, Arvind K

2009-05-06

49

Sidestream Elevated Pool Aeration, a Technology for Improving Water Quality in Urban Rivers  

Science.gov (United States)

Dissolved Oxygen (DO) levels are frequently depleted in rivers located in urban areas, as in the case of the Matanza-Riachuelo River in Buenos Aires, Argentina. This stream receives both domestic and industrial loads which have received minor or no treatment before being discharged into the water body. Major sources of pollution include, but are not limited, to leather and meat packing industries. Additionally, deep slow moving water in the river is associated with limited reaeration and facilitates deposition of organic-rich sediment, therefore exacerbating the DO consumption through sediment oxygen demand. In this study we assessed the efficiency of Sidestream Elevated Pool Aeration (SEPA) stations as a technology for alleviating conditions characterized by severely low DO levels. A SEPA station takes water from the stream at low DO concentrations, through a screw pump; then, water is transported to an elevated pool from where it flows over a series of weirs for water reaeration; finally, the aerated water is discharged back into the river sufficiently downstream from the intake point. This system mimics a phenomenon that occurs in mountain streams, where water is purified by bubbling over rocks. The impact of the use of SEPA stations on the DO concentrations in the Matanza-Riachuelo River was evaluated at both local and reach scales: this was done by deploying and monitoring an in situ pilot SEPA station, and by performing numerical modeling for the evaluation of the hydrodynamics in the SEPA station and the water quality in the reach where SEPA stations are planned to be implemented. An efficiency of aeration of 99% was estimated from DO measurements in the pilot SEPA, showing the potential of this technology for DO recovery in urban streams. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling, besides assisting in the design of the pilot SEPA, has allowed for designing a prototype SEPA to be built soon. Finally, one-dimensional water quality modeling has provided the optimum number of SEPA stations required to meet a minimum DO concentration standard of 2 mg/l along the whole reach of interest, for future implementation of other SEPA stations, which would have an additional value in terms of landscape aesthetics as they can be used as recreational waterfall parks.

Motta, D.; Garcia, T.; Abad, J. D.; Bombardelli, F. A.; Waratuke, A.; Garcia, M. H.

2010-12-01

50

Influences of urban wastewaters on the stream water quality: a case study from Gumushane Province, Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urban wastewater in Turkey is primarily discharged without treatment to marine environments, streams and rivers, and natural and artificial lakes. Since it has been well established that untreated effluent in multi-use waters can have acute and chronic impacts to both the environment and human health, it is important to evaluate the consequences of organic enrichment relative to the structure and function of aquatic environment. We investigated the impacts of untreated municipal wastewater discharge from the city of Gumushane in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey on the surface water quality of the stream Harsit. Several key water-quality indicators were measured: chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen (NH (4)(+)-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO(2)(-)-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)(-)-N), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total nitrogen (TN), orthophosphate phosphorus (PO(4)(3-)-P), methylene blue active substances (MBAS), water temperature (t), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and electrical conductivity (EC). The monitoring and sampling studies were conducted every 15 days from March 2009 to February 2010 at three longitudinally distributed stations. While t, pH, DO, and EC demonstrated relatively little variability over the course of the study, other parameters showed substantial temporal and spatial variations. The most dramatic differences were noted in COD, NH(4)(+)-N, NO(2)(-)-N, TKN, TN, PO(4)(3-) P, and MBAS immediately downstream of the wastewater discharge. Concentration increases of 309 and 418 % for COD, 5,635 and 2,162 % for NH (4)(+)-N, 2,225 and 674 % for NO(2)(-)-N, 283 and 478 % for TKN, 208 and 213 % for PO(4)(3-)-P, and 535 and 1,260 % for MBAS were observed in the summer and autumn, respectively. These changes were associated with greatly diminished seasonal stream flows. Based on NO(2)(-)-N, TKN, PO(4)(3-) P, and MBAS concentrations, it was concluded that Harsit stream water was correctly classified as polluted. The most telling parameter, however, was NH (4) (+) -N, which indicated highly polluted waters in both the summer and autumn. The elevated concentrations of both P and N in the downstream segment of the stream triggered aggressive growth of submerged algae. This eutrophication of river systems is highly representative of many urban corridors and is symptomatic of ongoing organic enrichment that must be addressed through improved water treatment facilities.

Bayram A; Önsoy H; Bulut VN; Akinci G

2013-02-01

51

Assessment of anthropogenic influences on surface water quality in urban estuary, northern New Jersey: multivariate approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe, and Zn), nutrients (NO (3) (-) and NH(3)), fecal coliform colonies, and other multiple physical-chemical parameters were measured seasonally from 12 locations in an urban New Jersey estuary between 1994 and 2008. Stepwise regression, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis were used to group water quality results and sampling locations, as well as to assess these data's relationship to sewage treatment effluents and the distance to the mouth of the river. The BOD(5), NH(3), NO (3) (-) and fecal coliform counts clustered as one group and positively correlated to the distances from treated effluent and the measures of magnitude at the discharge points. Dissolved solids and most metal species scored high along a single principal component axes and were significantly correlated with the proximity to the industrialized area. From these data, one can conclude that the effluent discharge has been a main source of anthropogenic input to the Hackensack River over the past 15 years. Therefore, the greatest improvement to water quality would come from eliminating the few remaining combined sewer overflows and improving the removal of nutrients from treated effluents before they are discharged into the creeks and river.

Shin JY; Artigas F; Hobble C; Lee YS

2013-03-01

52

EVALUATING AN URBAN STREAM RESTORATION PROGRAM FOR IMPROVING WATER QUALITY, IN-STREAM HABITAT, AND BANK STABILITY  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve water quality in urban and suburban areas, watershed managers often incorporate best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the quantity of runoff, as well as minimize pollutants and other stressors contained in stormwater runoff. It is well known that land use practice...

53

Microbiological quality of water from hand-dug wells used for domestic purposes in urban communities in Kumasi, Ghana.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Assessment was done on the microbiological quality of water in hand-dug wells in urban communities in Kumasi, Ghana. A total of 256 water samples were taken from eight wells and examined for faecal coliforms, enterococci and helminths. High contamination levels were recorded in the wells, more so in the wet season, with faecal coliforms levels between 6.44 and 10.19 log units and faecal enterococci between 4.23 and 4.85 CFU per 100 ml. Influence on protection and lining of wells on water quality was not pronounced but mechanization reduced contamination significantly by about 3 log units. This study shows a stronger influence of poor sanitation and improper placement of wells on water quality compared to improvements made from lining and protection of wells. In the race to increase access to drinking water in poor urban settlements, quality of groundwater could be a major barrier, if provision of drinking water is not matched with improvements in sanitation and urban planning

Akple, M.; Keraita, Bernard

2011-01-01

54

Usage of biotic indices in evaluating the impact of the urban centres on the quality of the water in rivers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The quality of the river waters of the Cri?ul Repede River and the influence of the powerful urban and industrial centre Oradeaupon these have been studied by means of collecting quantitative samples of benthos, for three consecutive years, in a seasonal manner. Thecalculation of the biotic indices that consider the abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates indicating the presence of high qualitative waters(Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) and of those indicating strong loading of the waters and of the under layer of the water ecosystemwith organic matter (Diptera – Chironomidae Family), highlighted an advanced degradation of the water quality, from the upstream towardsthe downstream. Equally, the intensity of the process of degradation of the water quality has been established, which, in the case of this river,is very strong and visible by the increasing prevalence of groups that do not require special ecological conditions, proving to be resistive andeven proliferating in the presence of intense pollution of the water.

Adrian Sinitean; Milca Petrovici

2012-01-01

55

Monitoring Urban River Water Quality Using Macroinvertebrate and Physico-Chemical Parameters: Case study of Penchala River, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study have been carried on urban river, Sungai Penchala to assess the river water quality by using benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicator and also standard Department of Environment (DOE) water quality measurement for physical-chemical analysis of Water Quality Index (WQI). Sampling for benthic macroinvertebrate and water sample was done on 3 sampling sites, named upstream (S1), middle stream (S2) and downstream (S3). The benthic macroinvertebrate sampling was done in the same day at the same place the water samples were collected in 5 replicates, while the water samples were collected in 3 replicates for each river section. The benthic macroinvertebrates was sampled using Surber’s net and water measurement for dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and conductivity was measured in-situ using HYDROLAB Quanta®, multi-parameter water quality instrument. Collected water sample was transferred to laboratory for measurement of total suspended solid, BOD5, chemical oxygen demand and ammoniacal nitrogen. The result from the assessment show that Sungai Penchala is classified as having good water quality on the upstream section but the water quality distorted in the middle and downstream section based on WQI and BMWP score. Non-parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis test show that most water parameter are significantly differ among river section (p>0.05, ? = 0.05).

Akmal Mahazar; Mohammad Shuhaimi-Othman; Ahmad Abas Kutty; Mohamed Nor Mohamed Desa

2013-01-01

56

The influence of land use on water quality and diatom community structures in urban and agriculturally stressed rivers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Epilithic diatom communities offer a holistic and integrated approach for assessing water quality as they remain in one place for a number of months and reflect an ecological memory of water quality over a period of time. The objective of this study is to use diatom assemblages to distinguish between particular land types and associated water quality impacts that are linked to these land-use patterns. Water quality and diatom community data were collected from sites in th (more) e Crocodile and Magalies Rivers (Gauteng and North West Province, South Africa) associated with agricultural, urban and natural (reference) adjacent land use respectively. The data collected were subjected to multivariate statistical techniques to analyse spatial and temporal patterns in water quality (principal component analysis) and diatom community structures (non-metric multidimensional scaling) to elucidate hypothesised differences in community structure per land-use type. Five diatom response indices (Generic Diatom Index, Specific Pollution Sensitivity Index, Biological Diatom Index, Eutrophication/Pollution Index and Percentage Pollution Tolerant Valves) incorporated in the OMNIDIA software were implemented to assess the integrity of diatom communities per land-use type. Principle component ordination of water quality describes 56.6% of the variation in data observed, and indicates the separation of reference sites from test sites for low and high flow conditions combined. It was, however, not possible to distinguish between the agricultural and urban land-use sites using PCA based on water quality data. One-way ANOSIM showed a significant difference (p 0.05) between groups made up of sites exhibiting the same land-use patterns. Diatom indices showed that agricultural sites were in a slightly more modified ecological state than urban sites overall. Based on the species similarity (SIMPER analyses), reference sites showed strong associations with Achnanthes minutissima, Gomphonema venusta and Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta, whilst urban sites were associated with Diatoma vulgaris, Navicula tripunctata and Amphora pediculus. Agriculture could be separated into high- and low-intensity practices based on species composition. Sites where high-intensity agriculture took place were dominated by motile species of the genus Nitzschia, and low-intensity agriculture was indicated by motile species of the genus Navicula. Urban sites contained a combination of species that were tolerant of spikes in water quality.

Walsh, G; Wepener, V

2009-10-01

57

Water quality-based assessment of urban drainage impacts in Europe - where do we stand today?  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally, design and optimisation of urban drainage systems was mainly driven by cost efficiency, surface flood prevention, and later by emission reduction. More recent procedures explicitly include ecological conditions of the receiving water in the definition of acceptable pollutant discharges via sewer system and treatment plant outlets. An ambient Water Quality based impact Assessment (WQA) principle therefore requires an integrative system optimisation. However, a broad range of mostly national WQA protocols exist across Europe varying in structure and complexity, assessment concept, spatial and temporal scope and handling of uncertainty. This variety inherently implies a considerable risk of subjectivity in the impact assessment with highly variable outcomes. The present review identifies differences and similarities of WQA protocols in use and discusses their strengths and weaknesses through: (i) a systematic comparison of WQA protocols by selected attributes, (ii) a review of real-life cases reported in the literature and expert interviews, and (iii) an illustration of our main findings by applying selected WQA in an instructive example. The review discusses differences in structure and concept, which are mainly identified for simplistic WQA protocols. The application of selected protocols to an example case shows a wide variety of numerical results and conclusive decisions. It is found that existing protocols target different questions within the decision making process, which users should be more aware of. Generally, to make assessments more reliable, further fundamental research is required to fully understand the relationship between stressors and stream ecosystem responses which will make assessments more reliable. Technically, tools suggested in WQA protocols show severe deficiencies and an uncertainty assessment should be mandatory. PMID:22699334

Blumensaat, F; Staufer, P; Heusch, S; Reußner, F; Schütze, M; Seiffert, S; Gruber, G; Zawilski, M; Rieckermann, J

2012-01-01

58

Water quality-based assessment of urban drainage impacts in Europe - where do we stand today?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Traditionally, design and optimisation of urban drainage systems was mainly driven by cost efficiency, surface flood prevention, and later by emission reduction. More recent procedures explicitly include ecological conditions of the receiving water in the definition of acceptable pollutant discharges via sewer system and treatment plant outlets. An ambient Water Quality based impact Assessment (WQA) principle therefore requires an integrative system optimisation. However, a broad range of mostly national WQA protocols exist across Europe varying in structure and complexity, assessment concept, spatial and temporal scope and handling of uncertainty. This variety inherently implies a considerable risk of subjectivity in the impact assessment with highly variable outcomes. The present review identifies differences and similarities of WQA protocols in use and discusses their strengths and weaknesses through: (i) a systematic comparison of WQA protocols by selected attributes, (ii) a review of real-life cases reported in the literature and expert interviews, and (iii) an illustration of our main findings by applying selected WQA in an instructive example. The review discusses differences in structure and concept, which are mainly identified for simplistic WQA protocols. The application of selected protocols to an example case shows a wide variety of numerical results and conclusive decisions. It is found that existing protocols target different questions within the decision making process, which users should be more aware of. Generally, to make assessments more reliable, further fundamental research is required to fully understand the relationship between stressors and stream ecosystem responses which will make assessments more reliable. Technically, tools suggested in WQA protocols show severe deficiencies and an uncertainty assessment should be mandatory.

Blumensaat F; Staufer P; Heusch S; Reußner F; Schütze M; Seiffert S; Gruber G; Zawilski M; Rieckermann J

2012-01-01

59

Spatial Variations in the Relationships between Land Use and Water Quality across an Urbanization Gradient in the Watersheds of Northern Georgia, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

A spatial statistical technique, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is applied to study the spatial variations in the relationships between four land use indicators, including percentages of urban land, forest, agricultural land, and wetland, and eight water quality indicators including specific conductance (SC), dissolved oxygen, dissolved nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon, in the watersheds of northern Georgia, USA. The results show that GWR has better model performance than ordinary least squares regression (OLS) to analyze the relationships between land use and water quality. There are great spatial variations in the relationships affected by the urbanization level of watersheds. The relationships between urban land and SC are stronger in less-urbanized watersheds, while those between urban land and dissolved nutrients are stronger in highly-urbanized watersheds. Percentage of forest is an indicator of good water quality. Agricultural land is usually associated with good water quality in highly-urbanized watersheds, but might be related to water pollution in less-urbanized watersheds. This study confirms the results obtained from a similar study in eastern Massachusetts, and so suggest that GWR technique is a very useful tool in water environmental research and also has the potential to be applied to other fields of environmental studies and management in other regions.

Tu, Jun

2013-01-01

60

Spatial variations in the relationships between land use and water quality across an urbanization gradient in the watersheds of Northern Georgia, USA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A spatial statistical technique, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is applied to study the spatial variations in the relationships between four land use indicators, including percentages of urban land, forest, agricultural land, and wetland, and eight water quality indicators including specific conductance (SC), dissolved oxygen, dissolved nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon, in the watersheds of northern Georgia, USA. The results show that GWR has better model performance than ordinary least squares regression (OLS) to analyze the relationships between land use and water quality. There are great spatial variations in the relationships affected by the urbanization level of watersheds. The relationships between urban land and SC are stronger in less-urbanized watersheds, while those between urban land and dissolved nutrients are stronger in highly-urbanized watersheds. Percentage of forest is an indicator of good water quality. Agricultural land is usually associated with good water quality in highly-urbanized watersheds, but might be related to water pollution in less-urbanized watersheds. This study confirms the results obtained from a similar study in eastern Massachusetts, and so suggest that GWR technique is a very useful tool in water environmental research and also has the potential to be applied to other fields of environmental studies and management in other regions.

Tu J

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

[Monitoring and analysis on evolution process of rainfall runoff water quality in urban area].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to find the water quality evolution law and pollution characteristics of the rainfall runoff from undisturbed to the neighborhood exit, 6 times evolution process of rainfall runoff water quality were monitored and analyzed from July to October in 2011, and contrasted the clarification efficiency of the grassland to the roof runoff rudimentarily at the same time. The research showed: 1. the results of the comparison from "undisturbed, rainfall-roof, rainfall runoff-road, rainfall-runoff the neighborhood exit runoff " showed that the water quality of the undisturbed rain was better than that from the roof and the neighborhood exist, but the road rainfall runoff water quality was the worst; 2. the average concentrations of the parameters such as COD, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen all exceeded the Fifth Class of the Surface Water Quality Standard except for the soluble total phosphorus from undisturbed rainfall to the neighborhood exit; 3. the runoff water quality of the short early fine days was better than that of long early fine days, and the last runoff water quality was better than that of the initial runoff in the same rainfall process; 4. the concentration reduction of the grassland was notable, and the reduction rate of the grassland which is 1.0 meter wide of the roof runoff pollutants such as COD and nitrogen reached 30%. PMID:23668123

Dong, Wen; Li, Huai-En; Li, Jia-Ke

2013-02-01

62

[Monitoring and analysis on evolution process of rainfall runoff water quality in urban area].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to find the water quality evolution law and pollution characteristics of the rainfall runoff from undisturbed to the neighborhood exit, 6 times evolution process of rainfall runoff water quality were monitored and analyzed from July to October in 2011, and contrasted the clarification efficiency of the grassland to the roof runoff rudimentarily at the same time. The research showed: 1. the results of the comparison from "undisturbed, rainfall-roof, rainfall runoff-road, rainfall-runoff the neighborhood exit runoff " showed that the water quality of the undisturbed rain was better than that from the roof and the neighborhood exist, but the road rainfall runoff water quality was the worst; 2. the average concentrations of the parameters such as COD, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen all exceeded the Fifth Class of the Surface Water Quality Standard except for the soluble total phosphorus from undisturbed rainfall to the neighborhood exit; 3. the runoff water quality of the short early fine days was better than that of long early fine days, and the last runoff water quality was better than that of the initial runoff in the same rainfall process; 4. the concentration reduction of the grassland was notable, and the reduction rate of the grassland which is 1.0 meter wide of the roof runoff pollutants such as COD and nitrogen reached 30%.

Dong W; Li HE; Li JK

2013-02-01

63

WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR REDIU, CACAINA AND CIRIC RIVER IN URBAN AREA OF IASI CITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Typically, reports on surface water quality include useful information for people, but the language used addresses rather specialists, which leaded to develop an mathematically index, like water quality index (WQI), very useful and efficient for assessing the suitability of water quality as well as for communicating theinformation to the concerned citizens and policy makers. The present study assessed the surface water quality for three rivers from northern part of Iasi city based on WQI. These water courses were not included into monitoring program, the area being highly populated, the citizens wishing to know the real state of the surface water resources in the area they live. For reaching this goal, there have been collected 19 samples, in June 2011, analysed in situ and in the laboratory. For the WQI were used six parameters (pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), five days biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5),phosphates (PO4), nitrates (NO3). The results have been statistically processed. The result showed that the WQI for each parameter fit into good status for pH, bad status for turbidity and oxygen indicators, excellent for phosphates and bad status for nitrates in Ciric and Cacaina river and good status on Rediu river. General WQI fall in to medium status with variance between 53 for Ciric river and 67 for Rediu, with different values for eachmonitored point, Rediu being the only river that have two monitoring points that suit to good quality status.

Ana – Maria Oi?te; Iuliana Gabriela Breab?n

2012-01-01

64

Águas urbanas/ Urban waters  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As águas urbanas geralmente incluem abastecimento de água e saneamento. Nessa perspectiva, saneamento envolve a coleta de tratamento de efluentes domésticos e industriais, não inclui drenagem urbana, gestão dos resíduos sólidos, porque ainda perdura uma visão desatualizada da gestão das águas urbanas da cidade. Águas urbanas envolvem componentes que permitem o desenvolvimento ambiental sustentável e utilizam os conceitos da gestão integrada dos recursos hídr (more) icos (GIRH), necessários para planejamento, implementação e manutenção da infra-estrutura da cidade. Nesse contexto, ficam denominados Gestão Integrada das Águas Urbanas. Neste artigo, analisam-se o desenvolvimento urbano e suas relações com as águas urbanas no Brasil. A gestão dos recursos hídricos no Brasil é realizada por bacias hidrográficas, e o domínio é federal ou estadual. Examinam-se as possibilidades de gestão da água na cidade e na bacia hidrográfica no contexto institucional brasileiro. Abstract in english Urban Waters systems generally include both water supply & sanitation facilities (WSS). Sanitation refers to domestic and industrial sewage collecting and treatment; it does not include urban stormwater or solid waste management systems. Urban water form components of a sustainable urban environment and the use of the integrated water resource management (IWRM) concepts are needed for planning, implementation and maintenance of urban infrastructure. In urban environment, (more) IWRM is referred to specifically as Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM). In this paper urban development and its relations with urban waters in Brazil are assessed. Management of Water Resources in Brazil is developed by basins and the administration is Federal or from the state. This article assess the alternatives of water management in the city and the basin in the Brazilian institutional environment.

Tucci, Carlos E. M.

2008-01-01

65

Águas urbanas Urban waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As águas urbanas geralmente incluem abastecimento de água e saneamento. Nessa perspectiva, saneamento envolve a coleta de tratamento de efluentes domésticos e industriais, não inclui drenagem urbana, gestão dos resíduos sólidos, porque ainda perdura uma visão desatualizada da gestão das águas urbanas da cidade. Águas urbanas envolvem componentes que permitem o desenvolvimento ambiental sustentável e utilizam os conceitos da gestão integrada dos recursos hídricos (GIRH), necessários para planejamento, implementação e manutenção da infra-estrutura da cidade. Nesse contexto, ficam denominados Gestão Integrada das Águas Urbanas. Neste artigo, analisam-se o desenvolvimento urbano e suas relações com as águas urbanas no Brasil. A gestão dos recursos hídricos no Brasil é realizada por bacias hidrográficas, e o domínio é federal ou estadual. Examinam-se as possibilidades de gestão da água na cidade e na bacia hidrográfica no contexto institucional brasileiro.Urban Waters systems generally include both water supply & sanitation facilities (WSS). Sanitation refers to domestic and industrial sewage collecting and treatment; it does not include urban stormwater or solid waste management systems. Urban water form components of a sustainable urban environment and the use of the integrated water resource management (IWRM) concepts are needed for planning, implementation and maintenance of urban infrastructure. In urban environment, IWRM is referred to specifically as Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM). In this paper urban development and its relations with urban waters in Brazil are assessed. Management of Water Resources in Brazil is developed by basins and the administration is Federal or from the state. This article assess the alternatives of water management in the city and the basin in the Brazilian institutional environment.

Carlos E. M. Tucci

2008-01-01

66

Water resources and the urban environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

140 abstracts from the conference cover topics such as urban stormwater management; geographic information systems, hydrologic and hydraulic computer modeling; groundwater analysis and management; drinking water supply and quality; and international water resources issues.

Loucks, E.D. [ed.

1998-07-01

67

Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

What is in that water that you just drank? Is it just hydrogen and oxygen atoms? Is it safe for drinking? All water is of a certain "quality" (and you can't tell by just looking), but what does "water quality" really mean? Water full of dirt and ...

68

Water quality assessment, by statistical analysis, on rural and urban areas of Chocancharava River (Rio Cuarto), Cordoba, Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water quality has degraded dramatically in the Chocancharava River (Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina) due to point and non-point sources. This paper aims to assess spatial and temporal variations of physical and chemical parameters of the river. Six sampling sites and six sampling campaigns were developed. During the period 2007-2008, wet and dry seasons were included. A statistical analysis was carried out with 23 physical and chemical variables. Then, a new statistical analysis was carried out including the Riparian Corridors Quality Index and the physical and chemical variables (24 variables). Considering a multivariate system, analysis of variance, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used. From the statistical analysis, the river was divided into two zones with different degrees of contamination. The most polluted zone is due to pollution inputs of urban, industrial and agricultural sources. This area showed a remarkable deterioration in water quality, mainly due to wastewater discharges. According to Riparian Quality, better results were found in sections of poor water quality, due to the fact that the river bank forest was less degraded downstream of the sewage discharge.

Gatica EA; Almeida CA; Mallea MA; Del Corigliano MC; González P

2012-12-01

69

Risk assessment of aquifer storage transfer and recovery with urban stormwater for producing water of a potable quality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of the Parafield Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery research project in South Australia is to determine whether stormwater from an urban catchment that is treated in a constructed wetland and stored in an initially brackish aquifer before recovery can meet potable water standards. The water produced by the stormwater harvesting system, which included a constructed wetland, was found to be near potable quality. Parameters exceeding the drinking water guidelines before recharge included small numbers of fecal indicator bacteria and elevated iron concentrations and associated color. This is the first reported study of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) scheme to be assessed following the Australian guidelines for MAR. A comprehensive staged approach to assess the risks to human health and the environment of this project has been undertaken, with 12 hazards being assessed. A quantitative microbial risk assessment undertaken on the water recovered from the aquifer indicated that the residual risks posed by the pathogenic hazards were acceptable if further supplementary treatment was included. Residual risks from organic chemicals were also assessed to be low based on an intensive monitoring program. Elevated iron concentrations in the recovered water exceeded the potable water guidelines. Iron concentrations increased after underground storage but would be acceptable after postrecovery aeration treatment. Arsenic concentrations in the recovered water continuously met the guideline concentrations acceptable for potable water supplies. However, the elevated concentration of arsenic in native groundwater and its presence in aquifer minerals suggest that the continuing acceptable residual risk from arsenic requires further evaluation.

Page D; Dillon P; Vanderzalm J; Toze S; Sidhu J; Barry K; Levett K; Kremer S; Regel R

2010-11-01

70

Risk assessment of aquifer storage transfer and recovery with urban stormwater for producing water of a potable quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the Parafield Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery research project in South Australia is to determine whether stormwater from an urban catchment that is treated in a constructed wetland and stored in an initially brackish aquifer before recovery can meet potable water standards. The water produced by the stormwater harvesting system, which included a constructed wetland, was found to be near potable quality. Parameters exceeding the drinking water guidelines before recharge included small numbers of fecal indicator bacteria and elevated iron concentrations and associated color. This is the first reported study of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) scheme to be assessed following the Australian guidelines for MAR. A comprehensive staged approach to assess the risks to human health and the environment of this project has been undertaken, with 12 hazards being assessed. A quantitative microbial risk assessment undertaken on the water recovered from the aquifer indicated that the residual risks posed by the pathogenic hazards were acceptable if further supplementary treatment was included. Residual risks from organic chemicals were also assessed to be low based on an intensive monitoring program. Elevated iron concentrations in the recovered water exceeded the potable water guidelines. Iron concentrations increased after underground storage but would be acceptable after postrecovery aeration treatment. Arsenic concentrations in the recovered water continuously met the guideline concentrations acceptable for potable water supplies. However, the elevated concentration of arsenic in native groundwater and its presence in aquifer minerals suggest that the continuing acceptable residual risk from arsenic requires further evaluation. PMID:21284300

Page, Declan; Dillon, Peter; Vanderzalm, Joanne; Toze, Simon; Sidhu, Jatinder; Barry, Karen; Levett, Kerry; Kremer, Sarah; Regel, Rudi

71

Storm water management in an urban catchment: effects of source control and real-time management of sewer systems on receiving water quality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For the examination of the effects of different storm water management strategies in an urban catchment area on receiving water quality, an integrated simulation of the sewer system, wastewater treatment plant and receiving water is carried out. In the sewer system real-time control measures are implemented. As examples of source control measures the reduction of wastewater and the reduction of the amount of impervious surfaces producing storm water discharges are examined. The surface runoff calculation and the simulation of the sewer system and the WWTP are based on a MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation environment. The impact of the measures on the receiving water is simulated using AQUASIM. It can be shown that the examined storm water management measures, especially the source control measures, can reduce the combined sewer overflow volume and the pollutant discharge load considerably. All examined measures also have positive effects on the receiving water quality. Moreover, the reduction of impervious surfaces avoids combined sewer overflow activities, and in consequence prevents pollutants from discharging into the receiving water after small rainfall events. However, the receiving water quality improvement may not be seen as important enough to avoid acute receiving water effects in general.

Frehmann T; Nafo I; Niemann A; Geiger WF

2002-01-01

72

Conductivity as a tracer of agricultural and urban runoff to delineate water quality impacts in the northern Everglades.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural and urban runoff pumped into the perimeter canals of the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), a 58,320-ha soft-water wetland, has elevated nutrients which impact the Refuge interior marsh. To best manage the Refuge, linkages between inflows to the perimeter canals and environmental conditions within the marsh need to be understood. Conductivity, which typically is high in the canals and lowest at the most interior sites, was used as a surrogate tracer to characterize patterns of constituent transport. The Refuge was initially classified into four zones based upon patterns and variability in conductivity data: Canal Zone; Perimeter Zone (canal to 2.5 km into the interior); Transition Zone (2.5 to 4.5 km from the canal); Interior Zone (>4.5 km from the canal). Conductivity variability declined from the Perimeter to the Interior Zone, with the highest variability in the marsh observed in the Perimeter Zone and the lowest variability observed in the Interior Zone. Analysis of other water quality parameters indicated that conditions in the Perimeter and Transition Zones were different, and more impacted, than in the Interior Zone. In general, there was a positive relationship between structure inflows and canal phosphorus concentrations, including discharges from treatment wetlands and bypasses of untreated water. This classification approach is applicable for stratified sampling designs, resolving spatial bias in water quality models, and in aiding in management decisions about resource allocation. PMID:18224453

Harwell, Matthew C; Surratt, Donatto D; Barone, Dorianne M; Aumen, Nicholas G

2008-01-26

73

Effects of Agriculture and Urbanization on Quality of Shallow Ground Water in the Arid to Semiarid Western United States, 1993-2004  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the Western United States, agricultural and rural lands are being developed into commercial and residential areas. With changes in land use and increasing population, greater demands are placed on water resources for agricultural, industrial, and domestic supplies. Many areas in the Western United States rely exclusively on ground water as their source of drinking water. Areas that use surface-water resources often need to supplement this supply with ground water. Generally, shallow ground water is susceptible to fluctuating water quality within relatively short time scales and therefore can be used as an indicator of land-use stresses that may, in time, affect deep aquifer systems. This regional study examines data on shallow ground-water quality collected from 1993 to 2004 from 273 agricultural and 181 urban wells from 7 U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment study units in Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, south-central Colorado, and Utah. This report determines important influences that land-use practices may have on the quality of recently recharged ground water, which may ultimately affect deep water supplies within the region. The results of this investigation show that nitrate, the principal species of nitrogen present in ground water, exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter in water from more than 25 percent of agricultural wells and 10 percent of urban wells. In agricultural areas, the probability of exceeding the USEPA MCL for nitrate is influenced primarily by three factors: fertilizer use, irrigation, and aquifer oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions. At the study-unit level, differences in nutrient concentrations between agricultural and urban land use likely are influenced by ground-water redox conditions within respective aquifer systems. The most commonly detected pesticides belonged to the triazine, urea, amide, and carbamate classes. The triazine herbicides were the predominant pesticides present in both agricultural and urban areas. Simazine and diuron were most frequently detected in shallow ground water within agricultural areas, whereas atrazine, prometon, and tebuthiruon were more commonly detected in urban areas. The carbamate pesticides and the amide, metolachlor, were infrequently detected. Pesticide concentrations in shallow ground water within agricultural or urban land-use settings did not exceed established USEPA MCLs for drinking water. Generally, factors that influenced the detection of pesticides in shallow ground water in the regional area were dissolved oxygen, general soil permeability characteristics, temperature, and depth to screened interval. The most commonly detected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within urban areas were the trihalomethanes (THMs), solvents, and the fuel oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl-ether (MTBE). The most frequently detected THM was chloroform and the primary detected solvents were tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). Soil fumigants were detected almost entirely within an agricultural area in the Central Valley of California. The predominant fumigant detected was dibromochloropropane (DBCP), and its occurrence may be a result of its persistence and past use as a soil fumigant. THM concentrations did not exceed the USEPA MCL of 80 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for total THMs in any sample. Two ground-water samples collected within urban areas in Nevada exceeded the USEPA MCL for TCE (5 ?g/L) and the drinking-water advisory for MTBE (20-40 ?g/L). The PCE concentration in one sample from the urban area in Utah and five samples from urban areas within Nevada exceeded the 5 ?g/L MCL. An important factor affecting the detection frequencies of VOCs was the ground-water redox condition. Chloroform and PCE were detected more frequently in well-oxygenated ground water, whereas MTBE was detected more frequently in less-oxygenated water. Multivar

Paul, Angela P.; Seiler, Ralph L.; Rowe, Timothy G.; Rosen, Michael R.

2007-01-01

74

Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Urban Growth Using Land Use/Land Cover, Water Quality and Health Indicators: A Case Study of Arequipa, Peru  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: This research assesses the direct effects of urban expansion on land cover/use, river flow, water quality and the indirect effects of these variables in the rate of gastrointestinal disease in people in Arequipa, Peru through the combined use of satellite remote s...

O. V. Carpio; B. D. Fath

75

[Characteristics of temporal and spatial distribution of water quality in urban wetland of the Xixi National Wetland Park, China].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As the first national wetland park and the representatively urban wetland, Xixi wetland must provide the services of tourism and recreation especially. Based on the data which had been collected monthly from March to August in 2009, the objectives of this paper were to describe the characteristics of water quality in temporally and spatially. The results indicated that: (1) the characteristics of water quality in spatially are significantly corrected with the function of wetland. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) average concentrations are 0.78 mg/L and 0.07 mg/L respectively in natural ponds, while the concentrations of TN and TP in ornamental ponds are 1.37 mg/L and 0.17 mg/L respectively. The concentrations of TN and TP are 2.91 mg/L and 0.18 mg/L in natural streams and 1.91 mg/L and 0.09 mg/L in sight-seeing streams; (2) the nutrition in Xixi wetland is different in temporally. The nutrition in Xixi is at the level of moderate eutrophication, while the nutrition is higher in summer than it in spring; (3) the level of eutrophication in pounds is lower than it in streams, of which the level of eutrophication in natural ponds is lower than it in ornamental ponds and the level of eutrophication in natural streams is higher than it in sight-seeing streams by contraries. In order to improve water quality in Xixi wetland, the valid measure is to strengthen the management of ornamental ponds and natural streams.

Li YF; Liu HY; Cao X; Zheng N; Hao JF

2010-09-01

76

Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Urban Growth Using Land Use/Land Cover, Water Quality and Health Indicators: A Case Study of Arequipa, Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This research assesses the direct effects of urban expansion on land cover/use, river flow, water quality and the indirect effects of these variables in the rate of gastrointestinal disease in people in Arequipa, Peru through the combined use of satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems. Approach: It also uses information about demographic changes, hydrologic data and land cover change in the Arequipa region for the last 17 years. The goal is to understand the relationship between urbanization, water quality in the Chili River and incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. Results: Landsat imagery was used to determine this relationship and to extrapolate business as usual trends into the future ten years from now. Results indicate that there has been notable urban growth and a loss in volcanic material land and cropland between 1990 and 2007, as new urban developments have appeared in these areas. The population expansion over volcanically active area is particularly troubling since it poses a potential human health risk. We also model a business as usual scenario out to the year 2020, which shows continued loss of these land use types and serves as a warning for land managers to consider alternate policies. Conclusion/Recommendations: The analysis also shows a direct correlation between urbanization with the decrease of water quality and the increase in the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases.

O. V. Carpio; B. D. Fath

2011-01-01

77

Water Quality Criteria for Water Bodies in Urban Areas and Accompanying Changes in Surrounding and In-Situ Vegetation: Considerations from the Landscape Aspect of Planning Water Recreational Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water bodies in urban areas are important as recreational areas. Thus, management plans that maintain high water quality are quite important. At the Hatadate Water Park adjacent to Miyagi University, water quality parameters such as visibility, COD, TOC, and TN were monitored at a small pond and the inflowing stream from August to December in 2011, and photographs were taken of these sites. Variations in COD and TOC were highly related to changes in the physical appearance, especially changes in vegetation. These findings suggest: 1) the importance of management of vegetation for water quality control; and 2) the importance of collecting photographic records of sites for research purposes of interpreting data and even as a data point of water quality. Together with the water quality goals for water bodies in urban areas proposed by Sudo et al. [1], these water quality criteria were assessed, and it was notable that COD often exceeded the set goal. These results suggest that the maintenance of vegetation is more important than controlling incoming TN for primary production in the pond. Seasonal variations in COD and TOC were plotted for surface water of Kamafusa and Okura dams, both are important lakes in Miyagi area and the catchments of both lakes are mainly hilly area, using published water quality reports. Similar annual-cycle changing patterns were shown both for the dams, implying that some kinds of ecological factors in the catchments are affecting the water qualities of the dam, even at those larger scale water bodies. Finally, by shifting the focus from only water to upstream features such as small park, or pocket park, with a parking lot for the water body, the importance of landscape including vegetation and tree cover was highlighted.

Shigeki Harada; Risa Wagatsuma; Tatsunari Koseki; Toshiaki Aoki; Taisuke Hashimoto

2013-01-01

78

Bioassessment of wet-weather pollution impacts on fine sediments in urban waters by benthic indices and the sediment quality triad.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benthic invertebrate assessments can be used to gauge the impact of urban wet-weather flows in receiving waters. Experiences from Cemagref in France have shown that standardized benthic indices (e.g. Oligochaete Index of Sediment Bioindication - IOBS) can be used to reliably determine the ecological status of urban streams and can be incorporated into the new European Water Framework Directive. The Canadian studies on streams and stormwater ponds using chemical analyses, benthic toxicity testing and benthic invertebrate community structure (i.e. the sediment quality triad) comparisons have shown that toxicity was more likely to occur in ponds at sites with higher concentrations of heavy metals and heavier polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and at greater water depths, where fine sediments from urban runoff accumulated. A more comprehensive evaluation of wet-weather flow impacts could be obtained by combining approaches from both countries. PMID:18025726

Lafont, M; Grapentine, L; Rochfort, Q; Marsalek, J; Tixier, G; Breil, P

2007-01-01

79

[Water quality  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The quality of water is more and more important in the polluted world of today. The nephrologist is with his patients a great consumer of water; water for dialysis should be of the highest quality as each maintenance dialysis patient uses up to 150 liters 3 times per week for years, in direct contact with his blood through a very thin dialysis membrane. Water may be polluted at the collection-, treatment- or distribution centers or locally at the place of consumption. Aluminum, chloramine, pesticides, copper, herbicides and many other substances as well as bacteria, may be found in water. For these reasons the nephrologist uses a series of devices to clean or purify the water before use in his dialysis unit: softeners, de-ionisators, reverse-osmosis, charcoal filters, ultraviolet irradiation, a.o. A correct water circuit is important as well, as dead spaces could cause bacterial contamination. The ultra pure water has to be mixed before use in the dialyzer, with a concentrated electrolyte solution. The author discusses all these different aspects of water treatment in the particular situation of hemodialysis.

Ringoir S

1992-01-01

80

Water Requirements for Urban Lawns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water requirements and application rates of urban lawns were studied in a 3-state (Arizona, Colorado and Wyoming) area. The study measured the water use of Kentucky bluegrass in Colorado and Wyoming, and of different bermudagrass cultivars, zoysia, St. Au...

W. R. Kneebone I. L. Pepper R. E. Danielson W. E. Hart L. O. Pochop

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

A new mixing-oxygenating technology for water quality improvement of urban water source and its implication in a reservoir  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Water-lifting Aerator, which is a retrofit of the hydraulic gun, was developed to oxygenate lower-layer water and mix the water on the upper and lower layers in stratified reservoirs where pollutants increase from sediments because of anoxic condition in the lower-layer water. The Fenhe reservoir began to supply raw water to the drinking water treatment plant of the City of Taiyuan, China in 2004. The surface of the reservoir froze in winter, and the lower-layer water above the reservoir bed became anoxic because of oxygen consumption by the sediments. Hence, ammonia-nitrogen released from the sediments and trapped in the lower-layer water. After the ice surface thawed in spring, the ammonia-nitrogen in the deepwater was brought up owing to the wind-wave mixing processes. Thus the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen in the outlet water exceeded the permitted level, and the water supply from the Fenhe reservoir had to be cut off. To solve the problem, the Water-lifting Aerator system was installed in the reservoir in the winter of 2005, the dissolved oxygen concentration in the lower-layer water has been maintained at more than 3 mg/L and the ammonia-nitrogen concentration has been reduced to less than 0.1 mg/L. The ammonia-nitrogen concentration in the outlet water is a 95% reduction compared to the same period of last year before the system installation. Since then the water supply from the Fenhe reservoir has no longer been interrupted. Compared with traditional water treatment technology to remove ammonia-nitrogen, the new technology saves energy for 77%. (author)

Cong, Hai-Bing; Huang, Ting-Lin; Chai, Bei-Bei; Zhao, Jian-Wei [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, 13 Yanta Road, Xi' an, 710055 Shaanxi Province (China)

2009-09-15

82

Effect of pollutants from snow and ice on quality of water from urban drainage basins. Technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of the research was to identify and quantify winter pollution arising from urban areas located in snowbelt regions of the U.S. Both quantity and quality of snow and snowmelt were measured in three small experimental watersheds, (residential, commercial, and a freeway interchange) located in the Milwaukee, Wisconsin metropolitan area. The research report is divided into three parts. Part I deals with estimating snow depths and snowmelt quantity. Three models were evaluated using data from Duluth, Minnesota and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, including Degree-Day model, modified Degree-Day model, and Heat Balance model.

Novotny, V.

1986-07-01

83

Modeling and estimation on an improvement of sewerage construction and household waste water treatment tanks in water quality of urban small river. Toshi ka shita chusho kasen no suishitsu ni oyobosu gesuido to seibi koka no model kaiseki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study conducted a simulation of a flow load by conducting a parametric change of the dimensions in the respective mesh for analyzing a pollutant flow-out mechanism in order for estimating/assessing the effect of improving the water quality of the urban small rivers wherein the pollution has progressed. The mesh analysis model can estimate flow rate, flowing pollutant loads and water quality in any cross section of the river. It also can estimate the changes of these figures by urbanization, sewage works construction, settlement of household waste watertreatment tanks. According to the examination at the actual river (Sanda river), in an urban small river, the water quality was found to be improved by the construction of the sewerage system around the dense population area, but the installment of a combined waste water treatment tanks could only improve the water quality even by its installment in all the houses in the dense area because of nutitive salts. 20 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

Wada, Y.; Miura, H. (Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

1991-05-20

84

A stochastic optimization approach for integrated urban water resource planning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urban water is facing the challenges of both scarcity and water quality deterioration. Consideration of nonconventional water resources has increasingly become essential over the last decade in urban water resource planning. In addition, rapid urbanization and economic development has led to an increasing uncertain water demand and fragile water infrastructures. Planning of urban water resources is thus in need of not only an integrated consideration of both conventional and nonconventional urban water resources including reclaimed wastewater and harvested rainwater, but also the ability to design under gross future uncertainties for better reliability. This paper developed an integrated nonlinear stochastic optimization model for urban water resource evaluation and planning in order to optimize urban water flows. It accounted for not only water quantity but also water quality from different sources and for different uses with different costs. The model successfully applied to a case study in Beijing, which is facing a significant water shortage. The results reveal how various urban water resources could be cost-effectively allocated by different planning alternatives and how their reliabilities would change.

Huang Y; Chen J; Zeng S; Sun F; Dong X

2013-01-01

85

Changes in water qualities and human activities at the urban coastal areas; Toshienganiki niokeru suishitsuhenkann to ningen katsudo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The population masses in many coastal zones in Japan, and human activities are greatly effected. The representative water area is the Tokyo Bay. The population of the Tokyo Bay reaches 26 million at present, and a mass of organic substance and nutrient salt flow into it through rivers and sewage-treatment plants, etc. With the improvement of pollution source countermeasure and sewerage in the area, the inflow load to the Bay gradually decreases, but in the inner bay, red tide is generating in the summertime mainly. And, the anoxic water areas observed in bottom layer in summertime make large effects on the seafood. It is a large theme to clarify formation process of the anoxic water area and to solve this problem for the Tokyo Bay in the twenty-first century. In this paper, changes in water qualities and human activities and fundamental approach of water quality conservation of the Tokyo Bay are described. As maintenance and regeneration countermeasures of the water quality in the Tokyo Bay, maintenance of the forest, maintenance of farmland and paddy field, pollution source countermeasure, countermeasure (utilization of charcoals) in lateral groove and water channel, utilization of the self-purification in the rivers, countermeasure (roles of tideland, shoal) in river mouth and coastal zone have been raised. (NEDO)

Ogura, N. [Tokyo University of Agriclture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

2000-01-05

86

Hydrology, water quality, and response to changes in phosphorus loading of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes, Oneida County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on effects of urbanization  

Science.gov (United States)

Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes are 1,318- and 690-acre interconnected lakes in the popular recreation area of north-central Wisconsin. The lakes are the lower end of a complex chain of lakes in Oneida and Vilas Counties, Wis. There is concern that increased stormwater runoff from rapidly growing residential/commercial developments and impervious surfaces from the urbanized areas of the Town of Minocqua and Woodruff, as well as increased effluent from septic systems around their heavily developed shoreline has increased nutrient loading to the lakes. Maintaining the quality of the lakes to sustain the tourist-based economy of the towns and the area was a concern raised by the Minocqua/Kawaguesaga Lakes Protection Association. Following several small studies, a detailed study during 2006 and 2007 was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minocqua/Kawaguesaga Lakes Protection Association through the Town of Minocqua to describe the hydrology and water quality of the lakes, quantify the sources of phosphorus including those associated with urban development and to better understand the present and future effects of phosphorus loading on the water quality of the lakes. The water quality of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes appears to have improved since 1963, when a new sewage-treatment plant was constructed and its discharge was bypassed around the lakes, resulting in a decrease in phosphorus loading to the lakes. Since the mid-1980s, the water quality of the lakes has changed little in response to fluctuations in phosphorus loading from the watershed. From 1986 to 2009, summer average concentrations of near-surface total phosphorus in the main East Basin of Minocqua Lake fluctuated from 0.009 mg/L to 0.027 mg/L but generally remained less than 0.022 mg/L, indicating that the lake is mesotrophic. Phosphorus concentrations from 1988 through 1996, however, were lower than the long-term average, possibly the result of an extended drought in the area. Water-quality data for Kawaguesaga Lake had a similar pattern to that of Minocqua Lake. Summer average chlorophyll a concentrations and Secchi depths also indicate that the lakes generally are mesotrophic but occasionally borderline eutrophic, with no long-term trends. During the study, major water and phosphorus sources were measured directly, and minor sources were estimated to construct detailed water and phosphorus budgets for the lakes for monitoring years (MY) 2006 and 2007. During these years, the Minocqua Thoroughfare contributed about 38 percent of the total inflow to the lakes, and Tomahawk Thoroughfare contributed 34 percent; near-lake inflow, precipitation, and groundwater contributed about 1, 16, and 11 percent of the total inflow, respectively. Water leaves the lakes primarily through the Tomahawk River outlet (83 percent) or by evaporation (14 percent), with minor outflow to groundwater. Total input of phosphorus to both lakes was about 3,440 pounds in MY 2006 and 2,200 pounds in MY 2007. The largest sources of phosphorus entering the lakes were the Minocqua and Tomahawk Thoroughfares, which delivered about 39 and 26 percent of the total, respectively. The near-lake drainage area, containing most of the urban and residential developments, disproportionately accounted for about 12 percent of the total phosphorus input but only about 1 percent of the total water input (estimated with WinSLAMM). The next largest contributions were from septic systems and precipitation, each contributing about 10 percent, whereas groundwater delivered about 4 percent of the total phosphorus input. Empirical lake water-quality models within BATHTUB were used to simulate the response of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes to 19 phosphorus-loading scenarios. These scenarios included the current base years (2006?07) for which lake water quality and loading were known, nine general increases or decreases in phosphorus loading from controllable external sources (inputs from the tributa

Garn, Herbert S.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Saad, David A.

2010-01-01

87

SAR imagery for urban air quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study focuses on the assessment of the potentialities of the Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery to study urban micro-climate and air quality. In urban area, air quality is quite dependent on the air flow drag which is influenced by the aerodynamic roughness parameters of the ground. These paramet...

Basly, Ludovic; Couvercelle, Christophe; Cauneau, François; Ranchin, Thierry; Wald, Lucien

88

Uso de aguas de segunda calidad en ciclo urbano del agua para las condiciones cubanas/ Use of secondary quality water for urban sanitation in Cuban conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La escasez de agua se ha convertido en un problema acuciante en muchas ciudades costeras alrededor del mundo. La rápida urbanización, los problemas derivados del cambio climático, las soluciones tradicionales (trasvases, perforación de pozos, captación de la lluvia) y avanzadas (desalación) son insuficientes, de altos costos y no sustentables desde el punto de vista ambiental para satisfacer la creciente demanda de agua. Tecnologías como el uso de agua de mar para (more) descarga de inodoros y otros usos, se están volviendo a retomar a pesar de los problemas que se han planteado en su contra, como son la corrosión de las instalaciones y la necesidad de un sistema de abasto dual. El uso de estas técnicas está cambiando los paradigmas existentes en el manejo de las aguas en el ambiente urbano. Abstract in english Water shortage is increasingly becoming a problem in many coastal cities in both low and high-income countries (with about 60% of world population). Due to rapid urbanization and climate change, traditional (fresh water transfer, rainwater harvesting) and advanced solutions (sea water desalination) become insufficient, non cost-effective and environmentally unsustainable to match the ever growing water demand. Direct use of seawater for toilet flushing, and other non-pota (more) ble uses, is often forgotten, easily rejected and traditionally perceived as troublesome due to corrosion issues and the requirement for a dual system. However, the benefits are often overlooked and, in general, not well-studied and documented despite its potential and as a means towards sustainable water cycle management, opening a new paradigm towards the use of saline water as secondary quality water in urban environments.

López-Vázquez, Carlos M.; Brjanovic, Damir; Hooijmans, Christine M.; González Díaz, Orestes A.

2013-12-01

89

Elements that influence living quality in open urban space  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The number of people living in cities in Slovenia is increasing. There fore, the city spreads, urban space is created mostly by different buildings with minimum of open space, usually designed for parking spaces. But despite the fact, that urban structure is spreading, and there should be more of public open spaces, or green open spaces, those are in many cases reached by developers as well. Despite global worming, higher temperatures in city centres and what appears to be what citizens want, the urban open spaces are not big enough, and are usually not designed with key elements, to improve quality of lifestyle in the urban space such as trees, water or natural elements. Therefore at all levels of urban planning it is necessary to strive for larger amount of space that could be designed as public open space or green space to improve quality of life in the city.

Petra Krajner

2007-01-01

90

Evaluation of Urban Park Service Quality Based on Factor Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban park is an important component of urban public green space which provides leisure, recreation, activity place, etc. Urban park service quality was evaluated by quantitative method in this paper to provide scientific evidence for renewal and development of urban park. 5 urban parks in Xinxiang, Henan province, China were selected as evaluation samples, and 13 indexes were evaluated, including plant landscape, cultural experience, activity place, ecological environment, road design, topographical management, fitness facilities, water landscape, service facility, night landscape, landscape aesthetics, information mark and shelter landscape. Then the data were analyzed by factor analysis. Results: the information contained in the 13 evaluation indexes had considerable repeatability. Therefore, 5 main factors including landscape elements, sports and entertainment, cultural quality, ecology and night scene and traffic facilities were extracted which accounted for 80.881% of total variation. The number of factor variables was far less than the number of index variables, which reduced the complexity of evaluation and indicated that factor analysis had good dimension-reducing effect. Based on the results of factor analysis, not only the contribution rate of each index and each factor in the park service quality evaluation, but also single factor scores and comprehensive scores in different parks could be obtained, which facilitated the analysis and comparison of service quality of different parks. Our work can provide support for urban park renewal, reconstruction and development, thereby promoting the urban park service quality.

Yichuan Zhang; Lei Feng

2012-01-01

91

Effect of conservation programs on the quality of urban lawns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Growing populations and a limited water supply have made water conservation a necessary part of municipal supply programs for most Front Range Colorado cities. The study was conducted to determine if intensity of conservation programs has an effect on the quality of urban lawns. Lawn quality was measured on a random sample of 209 lawns in seven northern Colorado cities. The statistical tests and other observations contain trends suggesting that higher conservation intensity and water price result in lower lawn quality. However, acceptable lawn quality can be expected even with a moderate level of conservation intensity and price.

Winje, A.S.; Flack, J.E.

1986-09-01

92

The Concept of Urban Space Quality*  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Especially during the last decade, in parallel with the technological and scientific developments in the world, empirical researches have been conducted on the livability in urban spaces, people’s quality of life and the development of the urban space quality, together with a general questioning of the concept of urbanization. The results of these researches are presented as research reports. Urban space is the main tool integrating a city. Urban spaces are shared by the city-dwellers and various users, and serve as the environment in which they convey and relearn cultural accumulation. Moreover, in the context of defining the urban environment (the formation of the image regarding that city), city-dwellers acquire the experience of being a city-dweller as a consequence of their cultural identities, individual development and interaction with each other in these spaces. In cities or urban places, the practical and theoretical problems experienced with respect to public spaces are mostly methodological since it is not exactly known what is meant or understood by “public spaces”. The problem of understanding this complication can be solved not by evaluating the social, political, functional, and aesthetic issues randomly, but by the experts’ clear presentation of the solutions related to their research. In this study, in parallel with the developments in the world, the parameters of space quality to be used were determined for the urban spaces (squares and streets) in our country to be redesigned and renewed in the context of the quality of space.

Mehmet ?NCEO?LU; Ayfer AYTU?

2009-01-01

93

EVALUATING THE ACCOTINK CREEK URBAN STREAM RESTORATION PROJECT FOR IMPROVING WATER QUALITY, IN-STREAM HABITAT, AND BANK STABILITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased urbanization results in a larger percentage of connected impervious areas and can contribute large quantities of stormwater runoff and significant quantities of debris and pollutants (e.g., litter, oils, microorganisms, sediments, nutrients, organic matter, and heavy me...

94

Water quality in okara and its suburbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ground water samples (70), collected from Okara and its sburbs were studied. Thirty samples were collected from municipal supply of urban areas while forty from deep water pumps of non-urban areas. The samples were investigated for various physiochemical parameters. Outcome of the study is that ground water of municipal supply area is suitable for human consumption while the water quality of non supply area is slightly brackish to saline and nitrate content is high above the acceptable levels of drinking water quality. (author)

2007-01-01

95

NPS Water Quality Management  

Science.gov (United States)

This National Park Service, part of the Department of Interior website, looks at issues concerning water quality, policies and objectives, water quality standards, monitoring and the NPS's cooperation with other agencies.

2008-09-23

96

Water quality and zooplankton composition in a receiving pond of the stormwater runoff from an urban catchment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six storm periods were monitored from November 2002 to September 2005 at two stations of a receiving pond of the stormwater runoff from a small urban catchment of the city of Santa Fe, Argentina. Weekly samples were taken before and after rain events under different conditions of temperature, pluvial precipitation, and duration of the previous dry period. A sampling station was established at the outlet of the catchment (S1) and another one near the outlet of the receiving pond (S2). Both stations differed significantly in their dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, temperature, transparency, and zooplankton composition. The concentrations of nutrients and BOD5 values indicated permanently eutrophic condition at both stations. After rainstorms, the concentrations of lead, zinc and suspended solids showed a marked increase. The zooplankton composition at S1 was characterized by the abundance of protozoans (Dexiostoma campylum (Stokes) Didinium nasutum Muller, Plagyopila cf nasuta, and Bdelloidea rotifers (Philodina sp and Rotaria sp), while Monogononta rotifers and small cladocerans were dominant at S2. The most abundant species were the rotifers Platyias quadricornis (Ehrenberg), Mytilina ventralis (Ehrenberg) and Lepadella ovalis (Muller), and the cladoceran Chydorus pubescens Sars.

Jose de Paggi S; Paggi J; Collins P; Collins J; Graciela B

2008-09-01

97

Water quality and zooplankton composition in a receiving pond of the stormwater runoff from an urban catchment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six storm periods were monitored from November 2002 to September 2005 at two stations of a receiving pond of the stormwater runoff from a small urban catchment of the city of Santa Fe, Argentina. Weekly samples were taken before and after rain events under different conditions of temperature, pluvial precipitation, and duration of the previous dry period. A sampling station was established at the outlet of the catchment (S1) and another one near the outlet of the receiving pond (S2). Both stations differed significantly in their dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, temperature, transparency, and zooplankton composition. The concentrations of nutrients and BOD5 values indicated permanently eutrophic condition at both stations. After rainstorms, the concentrations of lead, zinc and suspended solids showed a marked increase. The zooplankton composition at S1 was characterized by the abundance of protozoans (Dexiostoma campylum (Stokes) Didinium nasutum Muller, Plagyopila cf nasuta, and Bdelloidea rotifers (Philodina sp and Rotaria sp), while Monogononta rotifers and small cladocerans were dominant at S2. The most abundant species were the rotifers Platyias quadricornis (Ehrenberg), Mytilina ventralis (Ehrenberg) and Lepadella ovalis (Muller), and the cladoceran Chydorus pubescens Sars. PMID:19295067

Jose de Paggi, Susana; Paggi, Juan; Collins, Pablo; Collins, Jorge; Graciela, Bernal

2008-09-01

98

Microbiological quality of drinking water of urban and rural communities, Brazil Qualidade microbiológica de água potável de comunidades urbanas e rurais, Paraná  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples came from urban and rural communities and to examine the relationship between coliforms occurrence and average water temperature, and a comparison of the rainfall levels. METHODS: A sample of 3,073 untreated and treated (chlorinated) water from taps (1,594), reservoir used to store treated water (1,033), spring water (96) and private well (350) collected for routine testing between 1996 and 1999 was analyzed by the multiple dilution tube methods used to detect the most probable number of total and fecal coliforms. These samples were obtained in the region of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. RESULTS: The highest numbers water samples contaminated by TC (83%) and FC (48%) were found in the untreated water. TC and FC in samples taken from reservoirs used to store treated water was higher than that from taps midway along distribution lines. Among the treated water samples examined, coliform bacteria were found in 171 of the 1,033 sampling reservoirs. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient treatment or regrowth is suggested by the observation that more than 17% of these treated potable water contained coliform. TC and FC positive samples appear to be similar and seasonally influenced in treated water. Two different periods must be considered for the occurrence of both TC and FC positive samples: (i) a warm-weather period (September-March) with high percentage of contaminated samples; and (ii) cold-weather period (April-August) were they are lower. Both TC and TF positive samples declined with the decreased of water temperature.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade microbiológica de amostras de água tratada e não-tratada proveniente de comunidades urbanas e rurais e examinar a relação entre ocorrência de coliformes e a média de temperatura da água, e uma comparação dos níveis de precipitação de chuva. MÉTODOS: No período de 1996 a 1999, foram analisadas 3.073 amostras de água tratada (clorada) e não-tratada pelo método dos tubos múltiplos para determinar o número mais provável de coliformes totais e fecais. Destas, 1.594 provenientes de água de torneiras, 1.033 de reservatório para estocar água tratada, 96 de água de minas e 350 de poços particulares. Tais amostras foram obtidas na região de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. RESULTADOS: O maior número de amostras contaminadas por TC (coliformes totais) (83%) e FC (coliformes fecais) (48%) foi observado em água não tratada. O índice de TC e FC foi maior nas amostras de reservatórios do que nas torneiras ao longo de sistema de distribuição. Entre as amostras de água tratada, foram encontradas bactérias do grupo coliforme em 171 dos 1.033 reservatórios amostrados. CONCLUSÕES: A observação de que mais de 17% da água potável tratada contêm coliformes sugere tratamento insuficiente ou recrescimento. Em água tratada, amostras positivas para TC e FC parecem ser similares e sazonalmente influenciadas. Dois diferentes períodos podem ser considerados para a ocorrência de amostras positivas para TC e FC: (i) período quente e úmido (Setembro-Março) com alta percentagem de amostras contaminadas; e (ii) período frio e úmido (Abril-Agosto) onde a positividade é baixa. Amostras positivas para TC e FC diminuem com o decréscimo da temperatura da água.

Giovani Nogueira; Celso V Nakamura; Maria CB Tognim; Benício A Abreu Filho; Benedito P Dias Filho

2003-01-01

99

Understanding the patterns and mechanisms of urban water ecosystem degradation: phytoplankton community structure and water quality in the Qinhuai River, Nanjing City, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of environmental parameters and the phytoplankton community were investigated in October 2010 and January 2011 in the Qinhuai River, Nanjing, China. Results showed that the water quality in the study area was generally poor, and the main parameters exceeding standards (level V) were nitrogen and phosphorus. The observed average concentrations of the total nitrogen (TN) were 4.90 mg L(-1) in autumn and 9.29 mg L(-1) in winter, and those of the total phosphorus (TP) were 0.24 mg L(-1) in autumn and 0.88 mg L(-1) in winter, respectively. Thirty-seven species, 30 genera, and four phyla of phytoplankton were detected in the river. Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta were the dominant phyla in autumn, with average abundance and biomass of 221.5 × 10(4) cells L(-1) and 4.41 mg L(-1), respectively. The dominant population in winter was Bacillariophyta, and the average abundance and biomass were 153.4 × 10(4) cells L(-1) and 6.58 mg L(-1), respectively. The results of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) between environmental parameters and phytoplankton communities showed that Chlorophyta could tolerate the higher concentrations of the permanganate index, nitrogen, and phosphorus in eutrophic water; Bacillariophyta could adapt well to changing water environments; and the TN/TP ratio had obvious impacts on the distributions of Cyanophyta, Euglenophyta, and some species of Chlorophyta. CCA analyses for autumn and winter data revealed that the main environmental parameters influencing phytoplankton distribution were water temperature, conductivity, and total nitrogen, and the secondary factors were dissolved oxygen, NH4(+)-N, NO3-N, TN, CODMn, TN/TP ratio, and oxidation-reduction potential. PMID:23329129

Zhao, Zhenhua; Mi, Tengfei; Xia, Liling; Yan, Wenming; Jiang, Ying; Gao, Yanzheng

2013-01-18

100

A Changing Framework for Urban Water Systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urban water infrastructure and the institutions responsible for its management have gradually evolved over the past two centuries. Today, they are under increasing stress as water scarcity and a growing recognition of the importance of factors other than the cost of service provision are forcing a reexamination of long-held ideas. Research and development that supports new technological approaches and more effective management strategies are needed to ensure that the emerging framework for urban water systems will meet future societal needs.

Hering JG; Waite TD; Luthy RG; Drewes JE; Sedlak DL

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Occurrence and fate of PPCPs and correlations with water quality parameters in urban riverine waters of the Pearl River Delta, South China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The occurrence and fate of eight PPCPs was studied in river waters from upstream to downstream of the three rivers in the Pearl River Delta, China. The correlations of PPCP levels and water quality parameters were also investigated. The analytes of the highest concentrations were caffeine, acetaminophen, and ciprofloxacin. Carbamazepine and erythromycin-H2O were detected at the lowest concentrations. The highest concentrations of PPCPs were found in the Shijing River, with 865 ng/L caffeine, 339 ng/L acetaminophen, and 304 ng/L ciprofloxacin. In general, the levels of PPCPs in the Zhujiang River were higher at sites where the metropolitan city Guangzhou is located and decreased from the epicenter along the river. Low levels of PPCPs were generally found in the Beijiang River. Positive correlations were found between PPCP levels, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, and cumulative fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) volume. Among the four PPCPs evaluated (caffeine, acetaminophen, ciprofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole), caffeine had the best correlations with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.62 to 0.98. The prediction of PPCP concentrations at specified locations can be substantially simplified.

Yang X; Chen F; Meng F; Xie Y; Chen H; Young K; Luo W; Ye T; Fu W

2013-08-01

102

Quality of Drinking Water  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

Roman, Harry T.

2009-01-01

103

Monitoring and Assessing Our Nation's Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a fact sheet on the water quality programs directly administered by the USGS. USGS provides information on issues such as the suitability of water for public supply and irrigation, aquatic ecosystem health, effects of agriculture and urbanization on water resources, acid rain, and disposal of radioactive waste. There are hot links to several studies and to data available from USGS and other agencies.

Mallard, Gail; Hamilton, Pixie

2002-08-21

104

Great Lakes Water Quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report provides an assessment of the present water quality of the Great Lakes and their connecting channels and critically examines the data collection and analysis programs available for this evaluation. The status of remedial programs being implemen...

1974-01-01

105

Water quality and water rights in Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report begins with a review of early Colorado water quality law. The present state statutory system of water quality protection is summarized. Special attention is given to those provisions of Colorado's water quality law aimed at protecting water rights. The report then addresses several specific issues which involve the relationship between water quality and water use. Finally, recommendations are made for improving Colorado's approach to integrating quality and quantity concerns.

MacDonnell, L.J.

1989-07-01

106

Stormwater Priority Pollutants Versus Surface Water Quality Criteria  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stormwater in urban areas comprises of a substantial part of the urban water cycle, dominating the flow in many small urban streams, and the pollution levels are sizeable. No stormwater quality criteria were found here and no European or national emission limit values exist. Stormwater pollutants however are present in levels exceeding most of the regulated surface water quality criteria and environmental quality standards. Therefore catchment characterisation is needed to chose suitable treatment prior to discharge into receiving surface waters, as the mixing may be insufficient in small streams.

Eriksson, Eva; Ledin, Anna

2011-01-01

107

Urban air quality in the Asian region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries.

Hopke, Philip K. [Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708 (United States)], E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu; Cohen, David D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Physics Division, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD), P.O. Box 164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Ni Bangfa [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC), P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pandit, Gauri Girish [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Santoso, Muhayatun [Center for Nuclear Technology of Material and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Chung, Yong-Sam [Hanaro Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Dukjin-dong, Yusung-ku, P.O. Box 105, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31-312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, PINSTECH, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 1482, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, P.O. Box 213, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani [Atomic Energy Authority, 60/460, Baseline Road, Orugodawatta, Wellampitiya (Sri Lanka); Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT), 16 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Thu Bac Vuong [Centre for Radiation Protection, Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5T-160, Cau Giay (Viet Nam)] (and others)

2008-10-01

108

MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems) – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS) is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution systems and sewer networks are both large, highly interconnected, dynamic, subject to time and varying inputs and demands, and difficult to control. Their performance also faces increasing loading due to increasing urbanization and longer-term environmental changes. Therefore, understanding the link between microbial ecology and any potential impacts on short or long-term engineering performance within urban water infrastructure systems is important. By combining the strengths and research expertise of civil-, biochemical engineers and molecular microbial ecologists, we ultimately aim to link microbial community abundance, diversity and function to physical and engineering variables so that novel insights into the performance and management of both water distribution systems and sewer networks can be explored. By presenting the details and principals behind the molecular microbiological techniques that we use, this paper demonstrates the potential of an integrated approach to better understand how urban water system function, and so meet future challenges.

P. Deines; R. Sekar; H. S. Jensen; S. Tait; J. B. Boxall; A. M. Osborn; C. A. Biggs

2010-01-01

109

Meeting growing urban water needs through water reclamation and reuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The subject of this presentation is the crisis in water management that results from exploding urban population growth. The world population is growing at a rate of almost 100 million per year, with urban growth being most of that. The problems of providing water and controlling pollution grow exponentially as population grows. Sources of water need to be larger and are inevitably more distant and more costly, if available. In urban areas, with attendant commercial and industrial enterprises, the concentrated heavy loads of pollutants seriously overburden receiving waters. Fish is often destroyed, with the loss of both essential food and employment, to say nothing of the impact of urban pollution on downstream water supplies.

Okun, D.A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

1994-12-31

110

Urban Densification and Recreational Quality of Public Urban Green Spaces—A Viennese Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public urban green spaces play an important role in urban sustainability. These places should provide high-quality recreation experiences for the urban residents. However, they are often overused. The Wienerberg area in the south of Vienna, Austria, was transformed from a waste disposal site into a ...

Arne Arnberger

111

Urbanization and recharge in the vicinity of East Meadow Brook, Nassau County, New York, part 4. Water quality in the headwaters area, 1988-93. Water resources investigations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report (1) discusses the concentration of constituents in precipitation and stormwater in the headwaters area of East Meadow Brook, and (2) describes the extent, and depth to which ground water beneath the stream is affected by stormwater. It also relates the concentrations and loads of selected constituents, including sodium and chloride, to storm discharge and season. This is the final report from the four-part study that examined stormwater and ground water at East Meadow Brook during 1988-93.

Brown, C.J.; Scorca, M.P.; Stockar, G.G.; Stumm, F.; Ku, H.F.H.

1997-12-31

112

Energy and environmental quality in the urban built environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The continuously increased urbanization, combined with the degradation of the urban climate, and the recent upsurge of concern for the environments as well as the recent technological developments in the field of new energy technologies, defines the major priorities and considerations for urban buildings. This paper discusses the problems inherent in the growth of urban areas. The topics covered include providing buildings, space, good air quality, energy requirements, energy conservation and the effects of the cities on the surrounding country side

2000-01-01

113

Urban rain water drainage networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban public services rely on a considerable amount of infrastructure which, over the years, becomes part of a city's historical heritage. Today, rather than new facilities, new techniques are needed to operate these networks and maintain them in good working order. These needs can be met thanks to new data processing technologies. However, the setting up of management strategies, the detection and identification of problems, the setting of priorities for repairs and replacements, have broug...

Marcel Miramond

1996-01-01

114

Urban waste water ecological treatment and comprehensive utilization method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to an urban waste water ecological treatment and comprehensive utilization method, which belongs to the technical field of urban sewage environmental control. The method adopts serial ecological treatment and the comprehensive utilization of river sewage aeration, aquatic plant planting, aquaculture fish culture, aquatic plant utilization, and the like to establish a complete and complex food chain in the river so that the migration, the transformation and the gradual transmission of energy of the pollutant in river are carried out, the organic pollutant is degraded and transformed, not only the pollutant is removed, the water quality is purified, but also the water surface of the urban waste water river channel is fundamentally controlled, the urban environment is beautified, and the significant economic benefit is obtained and the invention saves the investment, has low running cost, can save a great amount of depreciation cost of the equipment and the sludge treatment expenses, can change waste into valuable, takes the aquatic plant and the aquatic product form as the resource recovery, enables the sewage treatment and the utilization to be combined together, realizes the sewage treatment resources and is suitable for the treatment of waste water in all cities.

ZHE JIN

115

Agricultural drainage water quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

'Full text:' Agricultural drainage systems have been identified as potential contributors of non-point source pollution. Two of the major concerns have been with nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 - -N) concentrations and bacteria levels exceeding the Maximum Acceptable Concentration in drainage water. Heightened public awareness of environmental issues has led to greater pressure to maintain the environmental quality of water systems. In an ongoing field study, three experiment sites, each with own soil properties and characteristics, are divided into drainage plots and being monitored for NO3 - -N and fecal coliforms contamination. The first site is being used to determine the impact of the rate of manure application on subsurface drainage water quality. The second site is being used to determine the difference between hog manure and inorganic fertilizer in relation to fecal coliforms and NO3-N leaching losses under a carrot rotation system. The third site examines the effect of timing of manure application on water quality, and is the only site equipped with a surface drainage system, as well as a subsurface drainage system. Each of the drains from these fields lead to heated outflow buildings to allow for year-round measurements of flow rates and water samples. Tipping buckets wired to data-loggers record the outflow from each outlet pipe on an hourly basis. Water samples, collected from the flowing drains, are analyzed for NO3 - -N concentrations using the colorimetric method, and fecal coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Based on this information, we will be able better positioned to assess agricultural impacts on water resources which will help towards the development on industry accepted farming practices. (author)

Madani, A.; Gordon, R. [Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, Nova Scotia (Canada)

2002-06-15

116

Urban growth and air quality in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban developments, land use patterns and activities not only influence the volume of emissions into the ambient air environment but also affect the ability of the urban ecosystem to purify the air. Therefore, urbanisation affects the quality of air in urban areas. However, urban air quality is also affected by global, regional or trans-boundary pollutants. The objectives of this paper are to understand the trend of air quality level and urban growth in Kuala Lumpur city (KL), and examine the relationship between these variables. Results of analysis show a significant and strong relationship between the number of unhealthy/hazardous days and urban land uses. The finding is contrary to the argument that the high concentration of air pollutants (unhealthy level) in the Malaysian city is contributed by the forest fire in a neighbouring country (haze).

O. H. L. Ling

2010-01-01

117

Green roof runoff water quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From 1997 to 2001 the rate of urban development averaged 890,000 ha/year, resulting in increased volumes of stormwater runoff and water quality problems throughout affected watersheds. Green roofs have been suggested as a method to reduce these impacts by reducing the amounts of impervious surfaces within a developed zone. The stormwater advantages offered by green roofs include direct retention of a portion of the rainfall, as well as delaying the runoff peak and decreasing the peak rate of runoff from the site. Growing medium depth and porosity plays a significant role in stormwater retention and plant growth. Plants provide shade to the surface below the foliage, intercept rainfall, and slow the direct runoff from sloped roofs. In addition to reducing runoff water quantity green roofs also have the potential to influence runoff water quality. In this study, stormwater runoff samples were collected from 5 small buildings at the Center for Green Roof Research at Rock Springs, Pennsylvania during the period from January 2005 through May 2006. Green roofs had many positive impacts on stormwater runoff quality in this study, with the most consistent benefit being the higher pH in runoff from green roofs. Another benefit was a pronounced reduction in the observed nutrient loading rate for nitrate. Total loading for metals was also reduced. The concentration in runoff solution and total loading of other common soil and fertilizer salts, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and magnesium was increased in the runoff from green roofs. However, this was seasonal and similar to what might be expected as leaching from any other planted system in the landscape. Concentrations of lead and mercury were below detection limits. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

Berghage, R.; Beattie, D.; Jarrett, A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Horticulture, Dept. of Agriculture and Biological Engineering; O' Connor, T. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

2007-07-01

118

SEWER COLLECTION EFFECTIVENESS ON WATER QUALITY: A CONTRIBUTION TO THE URBAN PLANNING APPLIED TO JABOTICABAL CITY – SP = EFICIÊNCIA DE INTERCEPTORES DE ESGOTO SOBRE A QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA: UMA CONTRIBUIÇÃO AO PLANEJAMENTO URBANO APLICADO À CIDADE DE JABOTICABAL-SP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sewer is one of the most relevant environmental factors whichcontributes to loss of life quality in the urban areas. Usually, the sewer final destiny is in the watercourse-bound, since it´s production is inevitable. It demands studies and techniques to be developed and duly applied so that its harmful influence on water quality is avoid, making it as close as possible of its natural conditions. The construction of sewer collection throughout watercourses and its further forwarding to the sewer treatment stations have been considered the most recommended technique. In this study we tried to analise the effectiveness of the application of this technique to reestablish the water quality in two watercourses which drain the river basin where Jaboticabal city is placed. The study was based in Cerradinho and Jaboticabal streams and in water quality characterization. The samples of the water were collected monthly during a year, throughout the watercourses, both in the urban and in the rural areas - near the headwater, in the urban area upstream and after the confluence of both, at the urban area downstream. The main aspects, which were analyzed, were the following: temperature, pH, DO, COD, nitrite, nitrate, total-N, total-P, BOD, total coliforms and fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli). Analyses of cluster and main components were used to evaluate theeffect of hidrical parameters in the collect stations. The results of the research showed that there was increase of hidrical pollution from the riverhead to the outfall of Cerradinho and Jaboticabal streams and that the isolated practices of sanitation (collection of the urban sewer) improved the water quality but it was not enough to return these streams to the non polluted condition. = Em áreas urbanas, um dos fatores ambientais de maior relevância em contribuir para a perda de qualidade de vida é o esgoto. Sendo inevitável a sua produção, comumente seu destino final são os cursos d’água. Isso determina que estudos e técnicas sejam desenvolvidos e devidamente aplicados, de modo a evitar sua influência nociva sobre a qualidade da água, tornando-a o mais próximo possível das condições naturais. Aconstrução de interceptores de esgoto, ao longo de cursos d’água e seu posterior encaminhamento à estações de despoluição, constitui uma das técnicas mais recomendadas. Neste trabalho, procurou-se estudar a eficiência da aplicação desta técnica em restabelecer a qualidade da água em dois cursos que drenam a bacia hidrográfica na qual se insere a cidade de Jaboticabal-SP, Brasil. O estudo baseou-se na caracterização da bacia hidrográfica do Córrego Jaboticabal e do seu afluente, Córrego Cerradinho, e da qualidade da água, a partir de amostras coletadas mensalmente durante um ano, ao longo de seus cursos, tanto na área urbana, quanto na área rural – próximo às nascentes, à montante da área urbana e após a confluência dos dois córregos, à jusante da área urbana. Os principais aspectos analisados foram: temperatura, pH, OD, DQO, nitrito, nitrato, NTotal, PTotal, DBO, coliformes totais e coliformes fecais (Escherichia coli). Para avaliar o efeito desses parâmetros nas estações de amostragem, foram utilizadas as análises de agrupamento e de componentes principais. Os resultados da pesquisa permitiram concluir que em ambos os córregos houve aumento da poluição hídrica da nascente à foz e que a prática isolada de saneamento (coleta de esgoto urbano com aplicação de interceptores) melhorou a qualidade da água mas não foi suficiente para despoluir estes córregos.

Maurício José Borges; João Antonio Galbiatti; Mário Benincasa; José Marques Júnior; Antonio Sergio Ferraudo

2002-01-01

119

Rain water harvesting in urban New Zealand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rainwater harvesting is a practice already widely used throughout rural New-Zealand, which makes it well developed on the country’s market as well as in people’s minds. Therefore, it is pertinent to study whether this sustainable practice could be implemented in urban areas so as to provide water fo...

Golay, Franklin

120

Summarized water quality criteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The available world literature from 27 sources on existing water quality criteria are summarized for the 15 main uses of water. The minimum, median and maximum specified values for 96 different determinands are included. Under each water use the criteria are grouped according to the functional significance of the determinands e.g. aesthetic/physical effects, high toxic potential, low toxic potential etc. A synopsis is included summarizing salient facts for each determinand such as the conditions under which it is toxic and its relationship to other determinands. The significance of the criteria is briefly discussed and the importance of considering functional interactions between determinands emphasized in evaluating the potential for toxic or beneficial effects. From the source literature it appears that the toxic potential, in addition to being determined by concentration, is also affected by the origin of the substance concerned, i.e. whether from natural sources or from anthropogenic pollution

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Priority organic pollutants in the urban water cycle (Toulouse, France).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Application of the European Water Framework Directive requires Member States to have better understanding of the quality of surface waters in order to improve knowledge of priority pollutants. Xenobiotics in urban receiving waters are an emerging concern. This study proposes a screening campaign of nine molecular species of xenobiotics in a separated sewer system. Five sites were investigated over one year in Toulouse (France) using quantitative monitoring. For each sample, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, nonylphenols, diethelhexylphthalate, linear alkylbenzene sulphonates, methyl tert-butylether, total hydrocarbons, estradiol and ethinylestradiol were analysed. Ground, rain and roof collected water concentrations are similar to treated wastewater levels. Run-off water was the most polluted of the five types investigated, discharged into the aquatic environment. The wastewater treatment plant reduced xenobiotic concentrations by 66% before discharge into the environment. Regarding environmental quality standards, observed concentrations in waters were in compliance with standards. The results show that xenobiotic concentrations are variable over time and space in all urban water compartments.

Sablayrolles C; Breton A; Vialle C; Vignoles C; Montréjaud-Vignoles M

2011-01-01

122

Assessing urban habitat quality using spectral characteristics of Tilia leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring environmental quality in urban areas is an important issue offering possibilities to control and improve urban habitat quality as well as to avoid adverse effects on human health. A tree leaf reflectance-based bio-monitoring method was used to assess the urban habitat quality of two contrasting habitat classes in the city of Gent (Belgium). As test trees, two Tilia species were selected. Custom made Matlab code is applied to process the measurements of leaf reflectance. This enables the discrimination between polluted and less polluted habitats. The results elicit, that leaf reflectance in the PAR range, as well as the NDAI (Normalised Difference Asymmetry index) are species dependent while Dorsiventral Leaf Reflectance Correlation (DLRC) seems to be independent of species. Therefore the assessment of urban habitat quality is perfectly feasible using leaf reflectance, when taking account of the species specificity of tree leaf physiological and structural responses to habitat quality. PMID:23517817

Khavanin Zadeh, A R; Veroustraete, F; Buytaert, J A N; Dirckx, J; Samson, R

2013-03-19

123

Assessing urban habitat quality using spectral characteristics of Tilia leaves.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Monitoring environmental quality in urban areas is an important issue offering possibilities to control and improve urban habitat quality as well as to avoid adverse effects on human health. A tree leaf reflectance-based bio-monitoring method was used to assess the urban habitat quality of two contrasting habitat classes in the city of Gent (Belgium). As test trees, two Tilia species were selected. Custom made Matlab code is applied to process the measurements of leaf reflectance. This enables the discrimination between polluted and less polluted habitats. The results elicit, that leaf reflectance in the PAR range, as well as the NDAI (Normalised Difference Asymmetry index) are species dependent while Dorsiventral Leaf Reflectance Correlation (DLRC) seems to be independent of species. Therefore the assessment of urban habitat quality is perfectly feasible using leaf reflectance, when taking account of the species specificity of tree leaf physiological and structural responses to habitat quality.

Khavanin Zadeh AR; Veroustraete F; Buytaert JA; Dirckx J; Samson R

2013-07-01

124

Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering) has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been driven by the desire for increased data regarding time of use and end-use (such as use by shower, toilet, garden, etc.) as well as by the ability of the technology to reduce labour costs for meter reading. Technology development in the water sector generally lags that seen in the electricity sector. In the coming decade, the deployment of intelligent water metering will transition from being predominantly “pilot or demonstration scale” with the occasional city-wide roll-out, to broader mainstream implementation. This means that issues which have hitherto received little focus must now be addressed, namely: the role of real-time data in customer engagement and demand management; data ownership, sharing and privacy; technical data management and infrastructure security, utility workforce skills; and costs and benefits of implementation.

Thomas Boyle; Damien Giurco; Pierre Mukheibir; Ariane Liu; Candice Moy; Stuart White; Rodney Stewart

2013-01-01

125

MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems) – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS) is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution systems are large, highly interconnected and dynamic, and difficult to control. Sewer systems are also large and subject to time varying inputs and demands. Their performance also faces increasing loading due to increasing urbanization and longer-term environmental changes. Therefore, understanding the link between microbial ecology and any potential impacts on short or long-term engineering performance is important. By combining the strengths and research expertise of civil-, biochemical engineers and molecular microbial ecologists, we aim to link the abundance and diversity of microorganisms to physical and engineering variables so that novel insights into the ecology of microorganisms within both water distribution systems and sewer networks can be explored. By presenting the details of this multidisciplinary approach, and the principals behind the molecular microbiological methods and techniques that we use, this paper will demonstrate the potential of an integrated approach to better understand urban water system function and so meet future challenges.

P. Deines; R. Sekar; H. S. Jensen; S. Tait; J. B. Boxall; A. M. Osborn; C. A. Biggs

2010-01-01

126

Assessing the urban water balance: the Urban Water Flow Model and its application in Cyprus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Modelling the urban water balance enables the understanding of the interactions of water within an urban area and allows for better management of water resources. However, few models today provide a comprehensive overview of all water sources and uses. The objective of the current paper was to develop a user-friendly tool that quantifies and visualizes all water flows, losses and inefficiencies in urban environments. The Urban Water Flow Model was implemented in a spreadsheet and includes a water-savings application that computes the contributions of user-selected saving options to the overall water balance. The model was applied to the coastal town of Limassol, Cyprus, for the hydrologic years 2003/04-2008/09. Data were collected from the different authorities and hydrologic equations and estimations were added to complete the balance. Average precipitation was 363 mm/yr, amounting to 25.4 × 10(6)m(3)/yr, more than double the annual potable water supply to the town. Surface runoff constituted 29.6% of all outflows, while evapotranspiration from impervious areas was 21.6%. Possible potable water savings for 2008/09 were estimated at 5.3 × 10(3) m(3), which is 50% of the total potable water provided to the area. This saving would also result in a 6% reduction of surface runoff.

Charalambous K; Bruggeman A; Lange MA

2012-01-01

127

Water Quality Analysis of Yosemite Creek Watershed, San Francisco, California  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface water quality in urban settings can become contaminated by anthropogenic inputs. Yosemite Creek watershed is situated on the east side of San Francisco near Bayview Hunters Point and provides an ideal location for water quality investigations in urban environments. Accordingly, students from Philip and Sala Burton High School monitored water quality at three locations for their physicochemical and biological characteristics. Water was tested for pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, total dissolved solids, salinity, and oxidation reduction potential. In addition, a Hach DR 850 digital colorimeter was utilized to measure chlorine, fluorine, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfate. The biological component was assessed via monitoring benthic macro invertebrates. Specifically, the presence of caddisfly (Trichoptera) were used to indicate low levels of contaminants and good water quality. Our results indicate that water quality and macro invertebrate populations varied spatially within the watershed. Further investigation is needed to pinpoint the precise location of contaminant inputs.

Davis, J. R.; Snow, M. K.; Aquino, A.; Huang, C.; Thai, A.; Yuen, C.

2003-12-01

128

Hemodialysis and water quality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed.

Coulliette AD; Arduino MJ

2013-07-01

129

Hemodialysis and water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed. PMID:23859187

Coulliette, Angela D; Arduino, Matthew J

130

Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents a comparative assessment of public perception of drinking water quality in two underprivileged urban areas in Lebanon and Jordan with nearly similar cultural and demographic characteristics. It compares the quality of bottled water to the quality of the drinking water supplied through the public network and examines the economic implications of bottled water consumption in the two study areas. Participants' perception of the quality of drinking water provided via the public network was generally negative, and bottled water was perceived to be of better quality in both areas, thus affecting drinking water preferences and consumption patterns. The results reveal that the quality of bottled water is questionable in areas that lack enforcement of water quality standards, thus adding to the burden of an already disadvantaged community. Both areas demonstrated a considerable cost incurred for purchasing bottled water in low income communities reaching up to 26 % of total income.

Massoud MA; Maroun R; Abdelnabi H; Jamali II; El-Fadel M

2013-04-01

131

Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The potential effect of widespread rainwater harvesting practices on mains water demand and quality management are investigated for three different types of urban areas characterized by different roof area to water demand ratios. Two rainfall patterns are considered with similar average annual depths but very different temporal distributions. Supply reliability and the extent of reliance on the public distribution system are identified as suitable performance indicators for mains water infrastructure. A uniform temporal distribution of rainfall in an oceanic climate like that of Dinard, Northern France, yielded supply reliabilities close to 100% for reasonable tank sizes (0.065 m3/m2 of roof area in Dinard compared with 0.262 m3/m2 in Nice with a RWSO of 30% for a detached house). However, the collection and use of rainfall results in a permanent decrease in mains water demand leading to an increase in water age in the distribution network. Investigations carried on a real network showed that water age is greatly affected when rainwater supplies more than 30% of the overall water demand. In urban water utilities planning, rainwater supply systems may however be profitable for the community if they enable the deferment of requirements for new mains water infrastructure.

Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John

2010-01-01

132

Calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural del municipio de Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia Bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas of the municipality of Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Guatavita es un municipio ubicado en el Departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia. Posee recursos hídricos como ríos, quebradas, lagunas y nacimientos, que representan un alto porcentaje del agua con que se abastece. El municipio tiene 16 acueductos en funcionamiento, pero solo el que abastece a la población de la zona urbana cuenta con un sistema de tratamiento de agua. En la zona rural existen 14 acueductos con un sistema básico de pretratamiento. Se analizó la calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural (veredas Corales, Potrero Largo y Carbonera Alta), por medio de los indicadores de contaminación: coliformes totales y Escherichia coli, mediante la técnica de filtración por membrana. El agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana cumplió con los parámetros establecidos en la Resolución 2115 de 2007 del Ministerio de Protección Social, contrario a la zona rural, donde se encontraron recuentos de los indicadores de contaminación fecal, superiores a lo establecido. Por lo tanto, este recurso debe ser considerado como "agua natural", no apta para consumo humano, según el Decreto 1594 de 1984, por lo que debe ser destinada para potabilización bajo un tratamiento convencional.Guatavita is a municipality in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Guatavita has water resources such as rivers, streams, lakes and springs, which provide a large proportion of the water consumed by the population. Sixteen water supply systems are in operation, but only the one supplying the urban area is equipped with water treatment facilities. In the rural area there are 14 aqueducts with a basic pretreatment system. An analysis was made of the bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas (districts of Corales, Potrero Largo and Carbonera Alta) based on two contamination indicators: total coliforms and Escherichia coli, using membrane filtration technique. The water for human consumption in the urban area complied with the parameters contained in Resolution 2115/2007 of the Ministry of Social Protection. In the rural area, however, fecal contamination indicators were above the established limits. Therefore, this resource should be viewed as "natural water" not suitable for human consumption, according to Decree 1594/1984, and destined for potabilization by conventional treatment.

Sara Lilia Ávila de Navia; Sandra Mónica Estupiñán Torres

2012-01-01

133

The indicator quality of dippers (Cinclus c. aquaticus) for detecting residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) - a contribution to the monitoring of the water quality of river systems in urban-industrial regions and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Since 1977, the dipper population of the river system of the Wupper in the Remscheid/Wuppertal urban region has been investigated with regard to breeding biology and population dynamics. Inexplicable irregularities in breeding behavior and success first appeared in a sub-population. They caused suspicion of a pollutant load in one of the tributaries. The further investigations provided impressive proof of the indicator quality of the dipper for identification of pollution phenomena. It can indicate environmental hazards without great technical expenditure, and it can complete the biochemical and saprobia-systematic results in the phase of intensive post-research. (orig.)

1992-01-01

134

Micropollutant loads in the urban water cycle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The assessment of micropollutants in the urban aquatic environment is a challenging task since both the water balance and the contaminant concentrations are characterized by a pronounced variability in time and space. In this study the water balance of a central European urban drainage catchment is quantified for a period of one year. On the basis of a concentration monitoring of several micropollutants, a contaminant mass balance for the study area's wastewater, surface water, and groundwater is derived. The release of micropollutants from the catchment was mainly driven by the discharge of the wastewater treatment plant. However, combined sewer overflows (CSO) released significant loads of caffeine, bisphenol A, and technical 4-nonylphenol. Since an estimated fraction of 9.9-13.0% of the wastewater's dry weather flow was lost as sewer leakages to the groundwater, considerable loads of bisphenol A and technical 4-nonylphenol were also released by the groundwater pathway. The different temporal dynamics of release loads by CSO as an intermittent source and groundwater as well as treated wastewater as continuous pathways may induce acute as well as chronic effects on the receiving aquatic ecosystem. This study points out the importance of the pollution pathway CSO and groundwater for the contamination assessments of urban water resources. PMID:20509608

Musolff, Andreas; Leschik, Sebastian; Reinstorf, Frido; Strauch, Gerhard; Schirmer, Mario

2010-07-01

135

Micropollutant loads in the urban water cycle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The assessment of micropollutants in the urban aquatic environment is a challenging task since both the water balance and the contaminant concentrations are characterized by a pronounced variability in time and space. In this study the water balance of a central European urban drainage catchment is quantified for a period of one year. On the basis of a concentration monitoring of several micropollutants, a contaminant mass balance for the study area's wastewater, surface water, and groundwater is derived. The release of micropollutants from the catchment was mainly driven by the discharge of the wastewater treatment plant. However, combined sewer overflows (CSO) released significant loads of caffeine, bisphenol A, and technical 4-nonylphenol. Since an estimated fraction of 9.9-13.0% of the wastewater's dry weather flow was lost as sewer leakages to the groundwater, considerable loads of bisphenol A and technical 4-nonylphenol were also released by the groundwater pathway. The different temporal dynamics of release loads by CSO as an intermittent source and groundwater as well as treated wastewater as continuous pathways may induce acute as well as chronic effects on the receiving aquatic ecosystem. This study points out the importance of the pollution pathway CSO and groundwater for the contamination assessments of urban water resources.

Musolff A; Leschik S; Reinstorf F; Strauch G; Schirmer M

2010-07-01

136

[Relationships between urbanization and water resource utilization in Dongting Lake District of South-central China].  

Science.gov (United States)

By using analytic hierarchy process and entropy method, the evaluation index system and the response relationship model of comprehensive development level of urbanization and comprehensive development and utilization potential of water resources in Dongting Lake District were constructed, with the key affecting factors, their change characteristics, and response characteristics from 2001 to 2010 analyzed. During the study period, the Dongting Lake District was undergoing a rapid development of urbanization, and at a scale expansion stage. The economic and social development level was lagged behind the population and area increase, and the quality and efficiency of urbanization were still needed to be improved. With the advance of urbanization, the water consumption increased yearly, and the water resources utilization efficiency and management level improved steadily. However, the background condition of water resources and their development and utilization level were more affected by hydrological environment rather than urbanization. To a certain extent, the development of urbanization in 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009 was slowed down by the shortage of water resources. At present, Dongting Lake region was confronted with the dual task of improving the level and quality of urbanization, and hence, it would be necessary to reform the traditional epitaxial expansion of urbanization and to enhance the water resource support capability. PMID:24066557

Li, Jing-Zhi; Zhu, Xiang; Li, Jing-Bao; Xu, Mei

2013-06-01

137

[Relationships between urbanization and water resource utilization in Dongting Lake District of South-central China].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By using analytic hierarchy process and entropy method, the evaluation index system and the response relationship model of comprehensive development level of urbanization and comprehensive development and utilization potential of water resources in Dongting Lake District were constructed, with the key affecting factors, their change characteristics, and response characteristics from 2001 to 2010 analyzed. During the study period, the Dongting Lake District was undergoing a rapid development of urbanization, and at a scale expansion stage. The economic and social development level was lagged behind the population and area increase, and the quality and efficiency of urbanization were still needed to be improved. With the advance of urbanization, the water consumption increased yearly, and the water resources utilization efficiency and management level improved steadily. However, the background condition of water resources and their development and utilization level were more affected by hydrological environment rather than urbanization. To a certain extent, the development of urbanization in 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009 was slowed down by the shortage of water resources. At present, Dongting Lake region was confronted with the dual task of improving the level and quality of urbanization, and hence, it would be necessary to reform the traditional epitaxial expansion of urbanization and to enhance the water resource support capability.

Li JZ; Zhu X; Li JB; Xu M

2013-06-01

138

A FEDERATED PARTNERSHIP FOR URBAN METEOROLOGICAL AND AIR QUALITY MODELING  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, applications of urban meteorological and air quality models have been performed at resolutions on the order of km grid sizes. This necessitated development and incorporation of high resolution landcover data and additional boundary layer parameters that serve to descri...

139

Spatial evaluation of water quality in an urban reservoir (Billings Complex, southeastern Brazil)/ Avaliação espacial da qualidade da água em reservatório urbano (Complexo Billings, sudeste do Brasil)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Este estudo visa a (a) contribuir com a avaliação espacial da qualidade da água do Complexo Billings; (b) associar informações sobre a geoquímica dos sedimentos superficiais e (c) com base em literatura, fornecer uma avaliação temporal da qualidade da água no Complexo desde a restrição do bombeamento do Rio Pinheiros; Métodos: As amostragens foram realizadas em 12 locais: 2 no Corpo Central (CB), 3 no Braço Taquacetuba (TQ); 3 no Braço Rio Pequeno (more) (RP) e 4 na Represa Rio Grande (RG). A coleta da água foi realizada ao longo do perfil vertical no período de inverno (agosto/2009) e verão (fevereiro/2010) e a dos sedimentos superficiais (2 cm), no inverno. Foram avaliadas características físicas e químicas da água e dos sedimentos, e foi calculado o índice de estado trófico (IET) de Lamparelli; RESULTADOS: As condições limnológicas foram primordialmente influenciadas pelos períodos climáticos. No inverno, a heterogeneidade no Complexo foi mais definida com separação de seus compartimentos espaciais. Maior disponibilidade das formas nitrogenadas ocorreu no inverno, enquanto que, no verão, estas diminuíram e o fósforo apresentou aumento substancial. Os compartimentos mais degradados e associados aos maiores valores de nutrientes foram CB e TQ. De forma inversa, destaca-se o RP, cuja região a montante foi considerada de referência (menos impactada) no Complexo; CONCLUSÃO: Complexo Billings variou de mesotrófico (RP), eutrófico (RG) a supereutrófico (CB e TQ). Variação marcada do IET também ocorreu dentro dos compartimentos e dependendo do período climático, principalmente, associada ao manejo antrópico do Complexo. Os sedimentos salientaram os extremos de qualidade da água e forneceram informações adicionais sobre impactos antrópicos não detectados pela análise da água. Houve leve melhora da qualidade da água do CB e TQ a partir de 2009, possivelmente associada ao projeto de flotação do Rio Pinheiros. Abstract in english AIM: The study aimed at (a) contributing to a spatial evaluation of the Billings Complex water quality; (b) associating information on the geochemistry of the surface sediments; and (c) providing, based on previous studies, a temporal evaluation of the Complex's water quality since the Pinheiros River pumping restriction; METHODS: sampling was performed at 12 sites: 2 in the Central body (CB), 3 in the Taquacetuba branch (TQ), 3 in the Rio Pequeno branch (RP) and 4 in the (more) Rio Grande Reservoir (RG). Water samples were taken along a vertical profile during the winter (August 2009) and summer (February 2010) and in the surface sediments (2 cm) during the winter. Physical and chemical characteristics of water and sediments were evaluated. Lamparelli's Trophic State Index (TSI) was calculated; RESULTS: limnological variability was mostly affected by the season. The spatial heterogeneity of the Complex was more pronounced during winter, with greater differences among its compartments. Nitrogen was higher in the winter, whereas in the summer there was a substantial phosphorus increase along with a nitrogen decrease. The most degraded compartments, associated with the highest nutrient levels, were CB and TQ. In contrast, the upstream region of the RP branch was considered a reference site (the least impacted) for the Complex; CONCLUSION: The Billings Complex ranged from mesotrophic (RP) or eutrophic (RG) to super-eutrophic (CC, TQ). High TSI variation also occurred within compartments and/or depending on the season, mainly associated with the human management of the Complex. The surface sediments underlined the differences observed between the extremes in the Billings Complex water quality, as well as providing additional information on other impacts that was not observed from the water analysis. A slight improvement in the water quality of the Central body and the Taquacetuba branch has been observed since 2009, possibly associated with the Pinheiros River flotation project.

Wengrat, Simone; Bicudo, Denise de Campos

2011-06-01

140

Channels for change: private water and the urban poor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the rapidly urbanising developing world, safe and affordable water is key to health and livelihoods, as well as meeting the Millennium Development Goals. But providing it demands innovative models. Where the context allows and the approach is appropriate, private sector involvement can generate win-win outcomes. Poor people can gain access to high-quality, affordable services, and companies can gain access to new and profitable business opportunities. Two examples of innovative 'private' water suppliers are the Manila Water Company's Water for the Poor Communities (TPSB) programme, and the Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) partnership. Both have a multisector approach to service expansion and provision, including partnerships with local authorities; strong community involvement in selecting, designing and operating options; appropriate service levels to reduce costs; and a flexible range of services. Many elements of these models are also replicable.

Lynch, Matthew; Matthews, Petter; Ryan-Collins, Lily [Engineers Against Poverty (United Kingdom)

2010-05-15

 
 
 
 
141

A Primer On Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

This USGS Fact sheet provides an overview of water quality considerations. Each brief section contains definitions and descriptions. The topics include how to measure water quality, why there are standards and guidelines, the effect of natural processes, the effect of human activities, pathogens found in water, and links to sites in USGS with additional information.

Cordy, Gail

2001-08-10

142

Water quality: Characteristics, modeling, modification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A quantitative introduction water quality management that covers timely topics such as new methods of water and wastewater treatment, groundwater modeling and quality. Offers creative solutions to water management problems. Substantially supported by hundreds of discussion questions, references, tables, and appendices.

Tchobanoglous, G.; Schroeder, E.E.

1985-01-01

143

QUALITY OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SERVICES IN URBAN AREA OF ORADEA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intensification of public transport in urban areas due to increased mobility at regional and national levels, discrepancies among urban areas with same population and lack of statistical data related to performance and quality of public transport services are the main determinants of this paper. A separation line must be drawn between quality of services and performance indicators of public transport system. Service quality is a multi subjective outcome of an array of intangible variables. Service quality can be approached from four directions: consumer, vehicle performance (including the human operator), specialized company in passenger transport, and the Government (local Councils). Availability, comfort and convenience are the two main indicators that must be evaluated by citizens as being with high grades for a good quality of urban transport services. The instrument used to gather data is the preference survey.

Silaghi Simona

2010-01-01

144

Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado/ Avaliação de parâmetros de qualidade de água para monitoramento de áreas naturais, urbanas e agrícolas no Cerrado brasileiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O Distrito Federal (DF) tem apresentado grande crescimento populacional nos últimos anos, o que vem ocasionando aumento da necessidade por água de qualidade, tanto pelas cidades quanto pela área rural. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água superficial de dois corpos hídricos no DF em seis pontos de amostragem, três localizados no Ribeirão Sobradinho (corpo receptor de Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto) e três no (more) Alto Rio Jardim (região com forte atividade agrícola). MÉTODOS: Análises de temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido (OD), condutividade, turbidez, dureza total, principais íons, coliformes totais e fecais (E. coli) da água, foram realizadas mensalmente durante doze meses envolvendo períodos seco e chuvoso. Além disso, também foi realizada avaliação ecotoxicológica utilizando o microcrustáceo Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTADOS: Os dados físico-químicos mostraram que OD, condutividade, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-) e Na+ foram importantes para indicar a contaminação por efluentes urbanos. Quanto aos parâmetros biológicos, E. coli e avaliação ecotoxicológica, observou-se que o primeiro foi mais efetivo para avaliar qualidade da água na área urbana, enquanto que na área rural, o ensaio com C. dubia mostrou-se mais sensível, mas não ideal, tendo em vista a alta sensibilidade do organismo à baixa dureza da água. CONCLUSÕES: A presença de coliformes fecais (E. coli) foi o indicador mais efetivo para comparar a qualidade da água entre as duas bacias, principalmente na urbanizada, enquanto que os ensaios de ecotoxicidade com C. dubia foram prejudicados pela composição química natural da água. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Brazil's Federal District (FD) has seen steep population growth in recent years, and this has increased demand for high-quality water. AIM: The present work aims to evaluate the quality of surface water from two water bodies in the FD at six sampling points, three of which are in the Sobradinho River (the receiving body of a sewage treatment plant effluent) and three in the Jardim River (located in an agricultural region). METHODS: Analyses were carried out (more) every thirty days, for twelve months, covering rainy and dry seasons. Parameters were analyzed such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, main ions, total and fecal coliforms (E. coli) in water. Ecotoxicological evaluation was also performed, using the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTS: Data of physical and chemical determinations showed DO, conductivity, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-) and Na+ to be important in indicating contamination by urban effluents. On the subject of biological parameters - E. coli and ecotoxicological evaluation - the former was seen to be more effective in the urban area. However, in the countryside, the assay with C. dubia proved to be the most sensitive, although less than ideal, because the organism is very sensitive to low water hardness. CONCLUSIONS: The fecal coliform indicator (E. coli) was the most effective one for comparing water quality in the two basins, mainly for the urbanized one, while ecotoxicity assays with C. dubia were harmed by the natural chemical composition of the water.

Muniz, Daphne Heloisa de Freitas; Moraes, Aline Silva; Freire, Ingrid de Souza; Cruz, Carlos José Domingos da; Lima, Jorge Enoch Furquim Werneck; Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo Cyrino

2011-09-01

145

Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado Avaliação de parâmetros de qualidade de água para monitoramento de áreas naturais, urbanas e agrícolas no Cerrado brasileiro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil's Federal District (FD) has seen steep population growth in recent years, and this has increased demand for high-quality water. AIM: The present work aims to evaluate the quality of surface water from two water bodies in the FD at six sampling points, three of which are in the Sobradinho River (the receiving body of a sewage treatment plant effluent) and three in the Jardim River (located in an agricultural region). METHODS: Analyses were carried out every thirty days, for twelve months, covering rainy and dry seasons. Parameters were analyzed such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, main ions, total and fecal coliforms (E. coli) in water. Ecotoxicological evaluation was also performed, using the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTS: Data of physical and chemical determinations showed DO, conductivity, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-) and Na+ to be important in indicating contamination by urban effluents. On the subject of biological parameters - E. coli and ecotoxicological evaluation - the former was seen to be more effective in the urban area. However, in the countryside, the assay with C. dubia proved to be the most sensitive, although less than ideal, because the organism is very sensitive to low water hardness. CONCLUSIONS: The fecal coliform indicator (E. coli) was the most effective one for comparing water quality in the two basins, mainly for the urbanized one, while ecotoxicity assays with C. dubia were harmed by the natural chemical composition of the water.INTRODUÇÃO: O Distrito Federal (DF) tem apresentado grande crescimento populacional nos últimos anos, o que vem ocasionando aumento da necessidade por água de qualidade, tanto pelas cidades quanto pela área rural. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água superficial de dois corpos hídricos no DF em seis pontos de amostragem, três localizados no Ribeirão Sobradinho (corpo receptor de Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto) e três no Alto Rio Jardim (região com forte atividade agrícola). MÉTODOS: Análises de temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido (OD), condutividade, turbidez, dureza total, principais íons, coliformes totais e fecais (E. coli) da água, foram realizadas mensalmente durante doze meses envolvendo períodos seco e chuvoso. Além disso, também foi realizada avaliação ecotoxicológica utilizando o microcrustáceo Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTADOS: Os dados físico-químicos mostraram que OD, condutividade, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-) e Na+ foram importantes para indicar a contaminação por efluentes urbanos. Quanto aos parâmetros biológicos, E. coli e avaliação ecotoxicológica, observou-se que o primeiro foi mais efetivo para avaliar qualidade da água na área urbana, enquanto que na área rural, o ensaio com C. dubia mostrou-se mais sensível, mas não ideal, tendo em vista a alta sensibilidade do organismo à baixa dureza da água. CONCLUSÕES: A presença de coliformes fecais (E. coli) foi o indicador mais efetivo para comparar a qualidade da água entre as duas bacias, principalmente na urbanizada, enquanto que os ensaios de ecotoxicidade com C. dubia foram prejudicados pela composição química natural da água.

Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz; Aline Silva Moraes; Ingrid de Souza Freire; Carlos José Domingos da Cruz; Jorge Enoch Furquim Werneck Lima; Eduardo Cyrino Oliveira-Filho

2011-01-01

146

Water Woes in Zimbabwe’s Urban Areas in the Middist Of Plenty: 2000 -Present  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zimbabwe’s urban areas are choking under the weight of over-crowdedness amidstdilapidated infrastructure that is characterised by constant service failure. The water andsewer systems of the country’s major urban centres are on the verge of collapse, thusputting millions of people in danger of consuming contaminated water, including thatfrom underground sources. Waste management and water supply problems manifestthemselves as challenges bedevilling many an urban area in the country. The quality andquantity of water supplied in Zimbabwe’s urban centres has plummeted in recent yearsand has assumed crisis proportions owing to the difficult economic situation and otherchallenges faced by the country. The situation is desperate and dire, as is evidenced by thepoor quality of delivered water, severe water rationing and the outbreak of water-bornediseases in the urban areas dotted across the country. The situation demands and dictatesthat solutions be proffered as a matter of urgency.The recent outbreak of epidemics hasbeen blamed on lack of access to safe water and poor sanitation, two crucial factors incontrolling the spread of diseases. An overly bureaucratic environment, where decisionsand processes take longer, makes life complicated for poor urban residents. Such ascenario motivated the researchers to examine the problem with a view to suggest waysand means of intervening to mitigate and resolve the problem. It emerged from thefindings that the problem is multifaceted in nature, hence a whole range of measures needto be adopted if a long-term solution is to be provided.

Enock C.Makwara; Baxter Tavuyanago

2012-01-01

147

Review on urban air quality in Finland; Maamme kaupunkien ilmanlaatu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article is a review of the air quality in Finnish cities and towns, based on the data from urban measurement networks. The data was compiled from 42 Finnish cities and towns from measurements conducted in 1990-1993. The location of the monitoring stations vary substantially, but most of the stations are located in the streetside, in urban background or in suburban environments. The measured data is annually collected to the National Urban Air Quality Database, which has been developed and updated continuously by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The measured concentrations were used for computing statistical concentration parameters, which were compared with the new, proposed national air quality guidelines (1996) and the limit values of the European Union. Traffic-originated emissions are the most important reason for the exceedings of the new national air quality guidelines, although in some areas the industry or energy production are more important. Measured data shows that the proposed national air quality guidelines have been fairly often exceeded in urban areas during 1990-1993. The exceedings have been most common for particulates, both for particles smaller than 10 pm (PM{sub 10}) and for the total suspended particles (TSP). Some exceedings have also occurred for nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide, mainly in places with high traffic densities, and often in street canyon conditions. High concentrations are also found near junctions of roads or streets. The sulphur dioxide concentrations do not usually cause problems in urban air quality. (orig.)

Kukkonen, J.; Saari, H.; Karstastenpaeae, R. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

1997-11-01

148

MEASURES TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main measures to prevent pollution of surface water -rivers, streams, lakes - consist of domestic and industrial wastewaterwhich, if untreated reach the emissary, it could degrade water quality, making it even unusable.

L. SÂMBOTIN; S. MOISA; DANA SÂMBOTIN; ANA MARIANA DINCU; C. ILIE

2010-01-01

149

Estuarine habitat quality reflects urbanization at large spatial scales in South Carolina's coastal zone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Land cover patterns were evaluated in 29 estuarine watersheds of South Carolina to determine relationships between urban/suburban development and estuarine habitat quality. Principal components analysis and Pearson product moment correlation analyses were used to examine the relationships between ten land cover categories and selected measures of nutrient or bacterial enrichment in the water column and contaminant enrichment in sediments. These analyses indicated strong relationships between land cover categories representing upland development and a composite measure of 24 inorganic and organic contaminants using the Effect Range Median-Quotient (ERM-Q). Similar relationships also were observed for the summed concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, and metals. Data obtained from tidal creeks generally showed stronger correlations between urban/suburban land use and pesticides and metals compared to data obtained from larger open water habitats. Correlations between PAH concentrations and the urban/suburban land cover categories were similar between creek and open water habitats. PCB concentrations generally showed very little relationship to any of the land cover categories. Measures of nutrient enrichment, which included total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), nitrate-nitrite, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, and total organic carbon, were generally not significantly correlated with any land cover categories, whereas fecal coliform bacteria were significantly and positively correlated with the urban/suburban land cover categories and negatively correlated with the non-urban land cover categories. Fecal coliform correlations were stronger using data from the open water sites than from the tidal creek sites. Both ERM-Q and fecal coliform concentrations were much greater and more pervasive in watersheds with relatively high (>50%) urban/suburban cover compared to watersheds with low (<30%) urban/suburban cover. These analyses support the hypotheses that estuarine habitat quality reflects upland development patterns at large spatial scales, and that upland urbanization can result in increased risk of biological degradation and reduced safe human use of South Carolina's coastal resources.

Van Dolah RF; Riekerk GH; Bergquist DC; Felber J; Chestnut DE; Holland AF

2008-02-01

150

Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainability Analysis of Urban Infrastructure  

Science.gov (United States)

Water and transportation infrastructures define spatial distribution of urban population and economic activities. In this context, energy and water consumed per capita are tangible measures of how efficient water and transportation systems are constructed and operated. At a hig...

151

CFD Modeling For Urban Air Quality Studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach has been increasingly applied to many atmospheric applications, including flow over buildings and complex terrain, and dispersion of hazardous releases. However there has been much less activity on the coupling of CFD with atmospheric chemistry. Most of the atmospheric chemistry applications have been focused on the modeling of chemistry on larger spatial scales, such as global or urban airshed scale. However, the increased attentions to terrorism threats have stimulated the need of much more detailed simulations involving chemical releases within urban areas. This motivated us to develop a new CFD/coupled-chemistry capability as part of our modeling effort.

Lee, R L; Lucas, L J; Humphreys, T D; Chan, S T

2003-10-27

152

Effects of urbanization on stream quality at selected sites in the seacoast region in New Hampshire, 2001-03  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of selected water-quality and macroinvertebrate community data was conducted at 10 stream sites in the Seacoast region of New Hampshire to determine if a relation is present between stream quality and the extent of urbanization in a watershed. Watersheds with similar characteristics, but varying in their degree of urban development, were studied. The percent of impervious surface, the percent of urban land use in a watershed, and the percent of urban land use in two types of stream buffers were compared and correlated with stream-quality variables. Specific conductance, turbidity, nitrite plus nitrate yields, and selected macroinvertebrate community data were significantly correlated with most measures of urbanization used in this study; however, concentrations and total phosphorus yields were not statistically correlated with most measures of urbanization in this study. The measures of urbanization that had the highest correlations with stream-quality variables were those measures that were associated with the percent of urban land in buffer zones near and upstream of a sampling site. A water-quality and habitat conditions score was negatively correlated with the percent of urban land in a 1-kilometer radial buffer of the sampling site (rho (r) = -0.86; p < 0.001), the percent of impervious surface (r = -0.70; p < 0.05), and the percent of urban land in the watershed (r = -0.67; p < 0.05). A biological condition score also was negatively correlated with the percent of urban land in a 1-kilometer radial buffer of the sampling site (r = -0.95; p < 0.0001), the percent of impervious surface (r = -0.75; p < 0.05), and the percent of urban land in the watershed (r = -0.79; p < 0.01). The percent of urban land in a 25-meter stream buffer along the stream corridor also had negative correlations with a water-quality and habitat conditions score (r = -0.80; p < 0.01) and a biological condition score (r = -0.86; p < 0.01). Mean Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa richness showed a response to urbanization in a watershed, indicating that EPT taxa richness may be an appropriate metric to evaluate the effects of urban land use on small streams in this region. Results from this study indicate that the percent of urban land use in buffer zones and the percent of impervious surface in a watershed can be used as indicators of stream quality.

Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Soule, Sally A.; Smith, Thor E.

2005-01-01

153

Corporatization of the water sector: implications for transitioning to sustainable urban water management  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the context of climate change, the Danish urban water sector is experiencing two major pressures. On one hand, a number of agents are pushing towards more sustainable urban water management (SUWM) approaches with the aim of improving surface water quality and mitigating flood risk. On the other hand, as part of an international trend, the municipal water management departments were transformed in locally created not-for-profit corporatized companies. Among the drivers are: increase efficiency and cost recovering by reducing political control on utility budgets. Scholars have described the influencing factors for transitioning to SUWM and highlighted the potential governance attributes for enhancing and/or constraining such change. This paper explores the corporatization of the water sector and its implications for transitioning to sustainable urban water management. Corporatization is described and compared to other water governance models. The principles and the challenges of SUWM are introduced on the base of the existing literature. The aim is to develop a conceptual framework to analyse and discuss the implications of this governance shift for transitioning to SUWM. Corporatization is a hybrid between hierarchical and market based governance models, whose attributes demonstrated to represent potential barriers for transitioning to SUWM if not counterbalanced by parallel network-based governance approaches where the involvement of a large range of stakeholders allow cumulative insights from local-scale experiments. If such mechanisms are not created and sustained with proper intuitional reforms to build capacity for change, the transition towards SUWM might be at risk of failure.

Farné Fratini, Chiara; Brown, Rebekah Ruth

2012-01-01

154

Urban water infrastructure asset management - a structured approach in four water utilities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water services are a strategic sector of large social and economic relevance. It is therefore essential that they are managed rationally and efficiently. Advanced water supply and wastewater infrastructure asset management (IAM) is key in achieving adequate levels of service in the future, particularly with regard to reliable and high quality drinking water supply, prevention of urban flooding, efficient use of natural resources and prevention of pollution. This paper presents a methodology for supporting the development of urban water IAM, developed during the AWARE-P project as well as an appraisal of its implementation in four water utilities. Both water supply and wastewater systems were considered. Due to the different contexts and features of the utilities, the main concerns vary from case to case; some problems essentially are related to performance, others to risk. Cost is a common deciding factor. The paper describes the procedure applied, focusing on the diversity of drivers, constraints, benefits and outcomes. It also points out the main challenges and the results obtained through the implementation of a structured procedure for supporting urban water IAM.

Cardoso MA; Silva MS; Coelho ST; Almeida MC; Covas DI

2012-01-01

155

Adaptive Management of the Water Cycle on the Urban Fringe: Three Australian Case Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our group at Macquarie University has run three adaptive management projects in New South Wales, Australia. Their objectives were: (1) to evaluate water cycle management strategies to minimize impacts of urban development on water quality in the Hawkesbury-Nepean basin; (2) to evaluate development p...

Alistair Gilmour; Greg Walkerden; James Scandol

156

Efeitos dos escoamentos urbanos e rurais na qualidade das águas do córrego verruga em vitória da conquista - Bahia, Brasil Effects of the urban and rural drainages in the quality of waters of verruga stream in vitória da conquista - Bahia, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the spatial and temporal variations of 13 physico-chemical parameters in water and sediment samples collected along the rural and urban section of Verruga Stream. The metal concentrations were determined by FAAS. The conductivity and the concentration of Na+, Cl-, and Ca2+ showed the largest variations in the urban area demonstrating that these parameters are appropriate indicators of urban contamination. The application of cluster and principal component analysis showed that the Cd2+ and Mn2+ are associated with the use of fertilizers in the rural area.

Maria Lúcia Pires dos Santos; José Soares dos Santos; Jarbas Rodrigues dos Santos; Leandra Brito de Oliveira

2008-01-01

157

Efeitos dos escoamentos urbanos e rurais na qualidade das águas do córrego verruga em vitória da conquista - Bahia, Brasil/ Effects of the urban and rural drainages in the quality of waters of verruga stream in vitória da conquista - Bahia, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This study examined the spatial and temporal variations of 13 physico-chemical parameters in water and sediment samples collected along the rural and urban section of Verruga Stream. The metal concentrations were determined by FAAS. The conductivity and the concentration of Na+, Cl-, and Ca2+ showed the largest variations in the urban area demonstrating that these parameters are appropriate indicators of urban contamination. The application of cluster and principal component analysis showed that the Cd2+ and Mn2+ are associated with the use of fertilizers in the rural area.

Santos, Maria Lúcia Pires dos; Santos, José Soares dos; Santos, Jarbas Rodrigues dos; Oliveira, Leandra Brito de

2008-01-01

158

Urban Densification and Recreational Quality of Public Urban Green Spaces—A Viennese Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Public urban green spaces play an important role in urban sustainability. These places should provide high-quality recreation experiences for the urban residents. However, they are often overused. The Wienerberg area in the south of Vienna, Austria, was transformed from a waste disposal site into a natural recreation area. During the past years, intensive settlement densification processes have taken place, resulting in a doubling of the local population living within a few minutes walking distance. An on-site survey among green space visitors (N = 231) revealed that the majority of them considered the area to be overcrowded on Sundays/holidays and reported a perceived increase in visitor numbers during the past years. Visitors with more past experience, as well as those who have perceived an increase in visitor numbers during recent years, reported higher crowding perceptions. A significant proportion of them try to avoid these crowds, relying on behavioral coping strategies, such as inter-area displacement. While urban regeneration has provided an attractive recreation area, urban densification around the green space appears to have reduced its recreational quality. Monitoring recreation quality indicators, such as crowding perceptions, seems to be useful for sustainable urban green space management and city planning.

Arne Arnberger

2012-01-01

159

Invertebrados bentónicos como indicadores de calidad del agua en ríos urbanos (Paraná-Entre Ríos, Argentina)/ Benthic invertebrates as indicators of water quality in urban rivers (Paraná-Entre Ríos, Argentina)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se estudió la incidencia de los efluentes industriales y cloacales sobre la estructura del bentos en el río Las Tunas y su afluente Saucesito (Paraná, Provincia de Entre Ríos, Argentina). Se determinaron las especies y asociaciones de especies en gradientes de buena a mala calidad del agua de estos ríos urbanos. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos, entre julio de 2000 y febrero de 2002, en cuatro estaciones a lo largo del curso. Los resultados obtenidos revelaron que, tan (more) to la densidad como la diversidad específica fueron influenciadas por la contaminación orgánica, con una disminución brusca en la estación afectada por el vertido de los efluentes del parque industrial. Se registraron 85 taxa, siendo los oligoquetos y quironómidos los dominantes. Del análisis de componentes principales, se infirió que la demanda biológica de oxígeno fue el factor que más incidió en la distribución y composición de organismos bentónicos. El río Las Tunas presentó altos valores de DBO5, la menor densidad, riqueza y diversidad específica, sin recuperación de la calidad del agua en todo el tramo. Aguas arriba, el río Saucesito presentó una mejor calidad, principalmente en la estación de referencia ubicada antes del parque industrial. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to assess the effects of industrial and sewage discharges on the benthic structure of urban rivers. Also, the species assemblages associated to different water quality conditions were studied. Four sampling sites were analyzed, from July 2000 to February 2002, during high water level in two urban rivers. In order to determine the quality of the water and the species assemblages, ANOVA, principal components analysis, species diversity and distance (more) index among sites were applied. Eighty-five species or morphospecies were identified, dominated by Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. Average density of benthic invertebrates varied between 233 ind/m² and 29265 ind/m², with higher densities registered in the reference sampling site than in the ones affected by industrial discharges. The species richness ranged from four to 43 taxa, and the Shannon-Wiener index, from 1.37 to 3.95, with the highest value registered in Saucesito river. Filtering and gathering collectors were the dominant feeding groups in all the sites because of the high fine particulate organic matter content. The biological oxygen demand was the main factor in determinating the benthic invertebrates distribution and composition. Las Tunas River is hardly polluted, with low benthic density, species richness and diversity, and high DBO5 values. Saucesito River shows a better water quality, mainly upstream of the industrial discharges. The gradient from clean to polluted water quality, was characterized by the species assemblages Ostracods Podocopida, Tanytarsus sp., D. (D.) obtusa, Djalmabatista sp. 2, Rheotanytarsus sp. 1, S. fossularis and Cricotopus sp. 1 ? N. variabilis, C. xanthus and L. hoffmeisteri.

Pave, Paola J; Marchese, Mercedes

2005-12-01

160

Study on Urban Green Zones Planning Standard considering the Water Resources constraints in China  

Science.gov (United States)

China is currently undergoing rapid urbanization and is no doubt, in a key period of urbanization. In order to improve people's urban environment, quality of life and living experiences, many cities have assigned large areas of artificial green spaces as part of their master plans. However, most of the existing green space/ zone planning do not consider the availability, requirements and constraints of water resources. Hence, the implementations of such plans fly in the face of water resources scarcity and associated risks. This paper investigates the relationship the level of economic development, and a composite index for local water resources and localized urban planning, for 26 cities in China. Using remote sensing image interpretation technology, the status quo of urban green space data can be extracted and the above relationship can be quantified using factor analysis. Based on the results of such factor analysis, China's urbanization relationship with water resources can be grouped into three classifications, i.e. urban green space planning standards: (1) Northwest criteria; (2) Yangtse & Huaihe River criteria; (3) South criteria. Three cities are selected from three typical climatic zones: Lanzhou, Hefei, and Hangzhou for verification of this relationship. The study showed that the three criteria proposed in this paper can serve as a basis for future planning of urban green spaces.

Liu, Jiahong; Wang, Minna; Hou, Zhuo; Qin, Dayong

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Multi-objective optimization for combined quality–quantity urban runoff control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban development affects the quantity and quality of urban surface runoff. In recent years, the best management practices (BMPs) concept has been widely promoted for control of both quality and quantity of urban floods. However, means to optimize the BMPs in a conjunctive quantity/quality framework are still under research. In this paper, three objective functions were considered: (1) minimization of the total flood damages, cost of BMP implementation and cost of land-use development; (2) reducing the amount of TSS (total suspended solid) and BOD5 (biological oxygen demand), representing the pollution characteristics, to below the threshold level; and (3) minimizing the total runoff volume. The biological oxygen demand and total suspended solid values were employed as two measures of urban runoff quality. The total surface runoff volume produced by sub-basins was representative of the runoff quantity. The construction and maintenance costs of the BMPs were also estimated based on the local price standards. Urban runoff quantity and quality in the case study watershed were simulated with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). The NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II) optimization technique was applied to derive the optimal trade off curve between various objectives. In the proposed structure for the NSGA-II algorithm, a continuous structure and intermediate crossover were used because they perform better as far as the optimization efficiency is concerned. Finally, urban runoff management scenarios were presented based on the optimal trade-off curve using the k-means method. Subsequently, a specific runoff control scenario was proposed to the urban managers.

S. Oraei Zare; B. Saghafian; A. Shamsai

2012-01-01

162

Uncertainty in urban stormwater quality modelling: the influence of likelihood measure formulation in the GLUE methodology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the last years, the attention on integrated analysis of sewer networks, wastewater treatment plants and receiving waters has been growing. However, the common lack of data in the urban water-quality field and the incomplete knowledge regarding the interpretation of the main phenomena taking part in integrated urban water systems draw attention to the necessity of evaluating the reliability of model results. Uncertainty analysis can provide useful hints and information regarding the best model approach to be used by assessing its degrees of significance and reliability. Few studies deal with uncertainty assessment in the integrated urban-drainage field. In order to fill this gap, there has been a general trend towards transferring the knowledge and the methodologies from other fields. In this respect, the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Evaluation (GLUE) methodology, which is widely applied in the field of hydrology, can be a possible candidate for providing a solution to the above problem. However, the methodology relies on several user-defined hypotheses in the selection of a specific formulation of the likelihood measure. This paper presents a survey aimed at evaluating the influence of the likelihood measure formulation in the assessment of uncertainty in integrated urban-drainage modelling. To accomplish this objective, a home-made integrated urban-drainage model was applied to the Savena case study (Bologna, IT). In particular, the integrated urban-drainage model uncertainty was evaluated employing different likelihood measures. The results demonstrate that the subjective selection of the likelihood measure greatly affects the GLUE uncertainty analysis.

Freni G; Mannina G; Viviani G

2009-12-01

163

Species pool versus site limitations of macrophytes in urban waters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biodiversity in urban areas is affected by a multitude of stressors. In addition to physico-chemical stress factors, the native regional species pool can be greatly reduced in highly urbanized landscapes due to area loss and fragmentation. In this study, we investigated how macrophyte composition and diversity in urban water systems are limited by the regional species pool and local environmental conditions. Canonical correspondence analysis of the macrophyte species composition revealed that urban and semi-natural water systems differed and differences could be related to local abiotic variables such as pH and iron concentrations. Macrophytes in the semi-natural area were typical for slightly acid and oligotrophic conditions. In urban water systems, exotic species characteristic of eutrophic conditions were present. In the semi-natural areas, the number of macrophyte species exceeded the number of species expected from species-area relationships of artificial water bodies in rural areas. In urban areas, the number of macrophyte species was similar to artificial water systems in rural areas. Macrophyte species present in the study areas also were generally found within 20-30 km distance to the study area. Macrophyte species composition in urban water systems and semi-natural water systems appeared to be influenced by the regional species pool within approximately 30 km of the locations. Nevertheless, site limitation ultimately determined the local macrophyte species composition and diversity in urban water systems and in semi-natural water systems

Vermonden, K.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.

2010-01-01

164

Influence of rainfall and catchment characteristics on urban stormwater quality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The accuracy and reliability of urban stormwater quality modelling outcomes are important for stormwater management decision making. The commonly adopted approach where only a limited number of factors are used to predict urban stormwater quality may not adequately represent the complexity of the quality response to a rainfall event or site-to-site differences to support efficient treatment design. This paper discusses an investigation into the influence of rainfall and catchment characteristics on urban stormwater quality in order to investigate the potential areas for errors in current stormwater quality modelling practices. It was found that the influence of rainfall characteristics on pollutant wash-off is step-wise based on specific thresholds. This means that a modelling approach where the wash-off process is predicted as a continuous function of rainfall intensity and duration is not appropriate. Additionally, other than conventional catchment characteristics, namely, land use and impervious surface fraction, other catchment characteristics such as impervious area layout, urban form and site specific characteristics have an important influence on both, pollutant build-up and wash-off processes. Finally, the use of solids as a surrogate to estimate other pollutant species was found to be inappropriate. Individually considering build-up and wash-off processes for each pollutant species should be the preferred option.

Liu A; Egodawatta P; Guan Y; Goonetilleke A

2013-02-01

165

Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate the relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP); METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center), ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro)); RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P INTRODUÇÃO: Riachos de referência dizem respeito a ambientes íntegros, sendo possível utilizar suas características ambientais como valores patamares de qualidade. Além dos impactos orgânicos medidos pelos programas de biomonitoramento da qualidade da água, se faz necessário avaliar as relações entre as alterações da paisagem dos riachos e de seu entorno com as mudanças na estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados desses ambientes; OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivos correlacionar as mudanças da paisagem com os atributos ecológicos da comunidade e índices de qualidade da água e, recomendar valores de condição referencial de integridade de riachos para a região de Jundiaí/SP; MÉTODOS: Foram amostradas a fauna bentônica de três riachos urbanos, três rurais e três preservados, com amostrador do tipo Surber, em julho de 2010. As características da paisagem foram avaliadas por meio da Diversidade de Habitat (DH); a comunidade, analisada quanto a S, N, J', H' e curvas de rarefação S e de dominância K e; a qualidade da água aferida pelos índices ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC, ASPT e SOMI; RESULTADOS: A estrutura e a composição das comunidades variaram em função dos riachos e refletiram-se nos valores dos índices biológicos e de qualidade ambiental. As melhores condições foram encontradas nos riachos preservados, as intermediárias, nos riachos rurais e, as piores, nos urbanos. As significativas correlações (r > 0.73 e P < 0.05) entre o índice de diversidade de habitat (DH) e os atributos ecológicos e de qualidade da água dos riachos de Jundiaí, demonstraram que DH pode ser um bom preditor das características ambientais avaliadas e como tal, recomenda-se como valores de condição de referencia de riachos: DH ? 80; H' ? 2,3 e J ? 0.8 (família como nível taxonômico) e; qualidade de água boa (ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC e BI), de levemente poluída a limpa (ASPT) e regular (SOMI).

Claudia Eiko Yoshida; Ana Paula Pozzo Rios Rolla

2012-01-01

166

Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments/ Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Riachos de referência dizem respeito a ambientes íntegros, sendo possível utilizar suas características ambientais como valores patamares de qualidade. Além dos impactos orgânicos medidos pelos programas de biomonitoramento da qualidade da água, se faz necessário avaliar as relações entre as alterações da paisagem dos riachos e de seu entorno com as mudanças na estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados desses ambientes; OBJETIVOS: O presente (more) estudo teve como objetivos correlacionar as mudanças da paisagem com os atributos ecológicos da comunidade e índices de qualidade da água e, recomendar valores de condição referencial de integridade de riachos para a região de Jundiaí/SP; MÉTODOS: Foram amostradas a fauna bentônica de três riachos urbanos, três rurais e três preservados, com amostrador do tipo Surber, em julho de 2010. As características da paisagem foram avaliadas por meio da Diversidade de Habitat (DH); a comunidade, analisada quanto a S, N, J', H' e curvas de rarefação S e de dominância K e; a qualidade da água aferida pelos índices ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC, ASPT e SOMI; RESULTADOS: A estrutura e a composição das comunidades variaram em função dos riachos e refletiram-se nos valores dos índices biológicos e de qualidade ambiental. As melhores condições foram encontradas nos riachos preservados, as intermediárias, nos riachos rurais e, as piores, nos urbanos. As significativas correlações (r > 0.73 e P Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate the relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the (more) present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP); METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center), ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro)); RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P

Yoshida, Claudia Eiko; Rolla, Ana Paula Pozzo Rios

2012-09-01

167

Microbial Analysis of Drinking Water and Water Distribution System in New Urban Peshawar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water pollution due to chemicals and microbes is one of the serious environmental problems, which has greatly impacted human health. Recorded history of contaminated drinking water supply has witnessed various viral, bacterial and protozoan diseases, globally. It is estimated that >250 million cases of waterborne diseases are reported worldwide and over 25 million deaths are blamed due to waterborne-diseases. Pakistan has been facing the same problem due to improper water management, obsolete distribution infrastructure, bad sanitary condition and poor drinking water quality. An estimated 70% Pakistani population living in rural areas have no access to potable water distribution system, whereas in urban areas, between 40-60% urban population has access to safe and clean drinking water. In Pakistan, water filtration before distribution is almost non-existence and furthermore, WHO standards or NEQs are not followed for physiochemical and bacteriological analysis of drinking water. This study was conducted for physiochemical and bacteriological analysis of drinking water of new urban areas of Peshawar and compared the old historical areas of the city. Ten areas for drinking water samples were selected and samples were collected from water supply, distribution system and storage tanks. Physio-chemical (pH, turbidity and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and microbial analyses (Total and fecal coli form and E. coli were conducted (APHA, 2005). According to the results, there was a variation of the analyzed physio-chemical parameter in the water sample between old & new urban areas and was found as: pH (6.65-7.91), turbidity (3-9NTU) and TSS (2-6 mg/L). The pH of the all samples was within the permissible limit of WHO guidelines. TSS of the 5 samples was above the permissible limits and turbidity of only 4 samples was within permissible limits. In bacteriological analysis, except one sample collected from the tube well, most samples were Total coliform positive. On the other hand, 6 samples of drinking water from distribution system were fecal coliform positive and 4 samples were E. coli positive. Further epidemiological studies are on-going and more drinking water samples from old urban Peshawar are being evaluated.

Roohul-Amin; Syed Shahid Ali; Zubair Anwar; Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak

2012-01-01

168

EFFECT OF URBANIZATION ON FISH ASSEMBLAGES AND HABITAT QUALITY IN A PIEDMONT RIVER BASIN  

Science.gov (United States)

We quantified the relationships among urbanization, fishes, and habitat quality to determine how assemblags respond to urbanization and if a habitat quality assessment reflects urban effects on stream ecosystems. We sampled 30 wadeable streams along an urban gradient in the Etow...

169

GREENROOF RUNOFF WATER QUALITY  

Science.gov (United States)

This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs was compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation unplanted media roofs was also compared, and the influence of ...

170

An Expert System Applied in Construction Water Quality Monitoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: An untoward environmental impact of urban growth in Malaysia has been deterioration in a number of watercourses due to severe siltation and other pollutants from the construction site. Water quality monitoring is a plan for decision makers to take into account the adverse impacts of construction activities on the receiving water bodies. It is also a process for collecting the construction water quality monitoring, baseline data and standard level. Approach: In recent years, expert systems have been used extensively in different applications areas including environmental studies. In this study, expert system software -CWQM- developed by using Microsoft Visual Basic was introduced. CWQM to be used for water quality monitoring during construction activities was designed based on the legal process in Malaysia. Results: According to the water quality monitoring regulation enacted in Malaysia, construction activities require mandatory water quality monitoring plans duly approved by Department of Environment before staring activities. CWQM primarily aims to provide educational and support system for water quality monitoring engineers and decision-makers during construction activities. It displays water quality monitoring plan in report form, water sampling location in GIS format and water quality monitoring data in graph. Conclusion: When the use of CWQM in construction water quality monitoring becomes widespread, it is highly possible that it will be benefited in terms of having more accurate and objective decisions on construction projects which are mainly focused on reducing the stormwater pollution.

Leila Ooshaksaraie; Noor E.A. Basri

2011-01-01

171

Injection-water quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ideally, injection water should enter the reservoir free of suspended solids or oil. It should also be compatible with the reservoir rock and fluids and would be sterile and nonscaling. This paper discusses how the objective of any water-injection operation is to inject water into the reservoir rock without plugging or permeability reduction from particulates, dispersed oil, scale formation, bacterial growth, or clay swelling. In addition, souring of sweet reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria should be prevented if possible.

Patton, C.C. (C.C. Patton and Associates, Inc. (US))

1990-10-01

172

Managing uncertainties in urban runoff quality models: A benchmarking methodology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we present a benchmarking methodology, which aims at comparing urban runoff quality models, based on the Bayesian theory. After choosing the different configurations of models to be tested, this methodology uses the Metropolis algorithm, a general MCMC sampling method, to estimate the ...

Kanso, Assem; Tassin, Bruno; Chebbo, Ghassan

173

A PHOTOCHEMICAL BOX MODEL FOR URBAN AIR QUALITY SIMULATION  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple 'box-approach' to air quality simulation modeling has been developed in conjunction with a newly formulated photochemical kinetic mechanism to produce an easily applied Photochemical Box Model (PBM). This approach represents an urban area as a single cell 20 km in both l...

174

Consumers’ perceptions on urban water services and connection to sustainable behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a survey on urban consumers of tap water and public waterservices. We discuss seven types of awareness and perceptions an their connexion to sustainablebehavior: consumers’ awareness of water company (1) name, (2) location and (3) services delivered,their evaluation (4) of the the water-sewerage network state and (5) of its importance, their evaluations(6) of the overall tap water quality and (7) of the importance of water quality. Results of the researchshow that: water company name is known by two thirds of the subjects; location by one third; supply ofdrink water is the best known service and raw water treatment is the least known one; the evaluationsgiven to water-sewerage network state and tap water quality are predominantely positive, but there isplace for improvements; almost all customers consider these two aspects important and very important,which will make them sensitive to changes.

Dacinia C. Petrescu

2013-01-01

175

Undernutrition and Household Environmental Quality among Urban and Rural Children in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explored the association between child undernutrition and household environmental quality in urban and rural households. Anthropometric assessments were conducted on 370 preschool children in three urban communities (high, medium and low-density) and one rural community. A structured questionnaire for mothers and an observation checklist were used to collect sociodemographic and environmental data. An Environmental Quality Index (EQI) combining four composite indicators of household environment (water, sanitation, housing, waste disposal/drainage) was developed. Results Overall prevalence was 16.8% for wasting, 29.7% for stunting and 28.4% for underweight. There was a significant association between the EQI and stunting (r = -0.437, p =0.000) and also, underweight (r = -0.491, p = 0.000) but not with wasting (r = -0.152, p =0.201). Dissagregation of data into rural and urban revealed that the significant associations disappeared in the rural but persisted among the urban children. The findings reiterate the significance of environmental inadequacies to childhood undernutrition. However, environmental quality appears to be a more important determinant of undernutrition among urban than rural children.

Folake, O. Samuel; Abiodun H. Cole; Wilna H. Oldewage-Theron

2008-01-01

176

Tsunamis: Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

... practical, you can treat water with chlorine tablets, iodine tablets, or unscented household chlorine bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite): If you use chlorine tablets or iodine tablets, follow the directions that come with the tablets. ...

177

FACILITATING ADVANCED URBAN METEOROLOGY AND AIR QUALITY MODELING CAPABILITIES WITH HIGH RESOLUTION URBAN DATABASE AND ACCESS PORTAL TOOLS  

Science.gov (United States)

Information of urban morphological features at high resolution is needed to properly model and characterize the meteorological and air quality fields in urban areas. We describe a new project called National Urban Database with Access Portal Tool, (NUDAPT) that addresses this nee...

178

EFFECTS OF URBANIZATION ON THE SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL CHEMICAL QUALITY OF THREE TIDAL BAYOUS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO  

Science.gov (United States)

Water and sediment quality in three tidal bayous located near Pensacola, Florida, were assessed during 1993-1995. The primary objective was to determine the environmental condition of the relatively small urban bayous by comparing the chemical quality of the sediments and surface...

179

Scientific research in urban areas air quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presence of consistent amounts of polluting agents in the urban atmosphere is a fact widely confirmed which poses serious problems to the people responsible for the environment management. It is well known that the majority of the polluting agents are produced by the intense traffic or vehicles which introduces in the atmosphere a large quantity of compounds. The toxic effect of some of these (primary polluters) is direct; others (secondary polluters) are the result of chemical reactions occurring within the atmosphere. Consequently, the management of the atmospheric environment requires the knowledge of a great number of processes, which begin with the emission of the polluting agents, and continue with their diffusion in the air, their transformation, the way they move, and how they are deposited or removed

1998-01-01

180

A comparison of water quality indices for coastal water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present article discusses and compares five different water quality indices, viz arithmetic water quality index, multiplicative water quality index, unweighted arithmetic water quality index, unweighted multiplicative water quality index, and Harkin's water quality index, which were considered for characterizing the coastal water quality at the Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, Bombay, India. Dissolved oxygen, pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), temperature, suspended solid, and turbidity were used as the parameters of water quality indices. The value function graphs used for above-mentioned variables were developed using harbour water quality standards and aquatic life. The product moment correlation coefficients for various water quality indices were determined using the SPSS software package to evaluate correlation among various indices. It was found that the unweighted arithmetic water quality index was higher than weighted arithmetic water quality index while the multiplicative water quality index was lower than unweighted multiplicative water quality index. All the indices were well correlated with each other except Harkin's water quality index. The Harkin's water quality index was different from other water quality indices. The comparison of different form of indices showed that the multiplicative water quality index was the most suitable water quality index for coastal waters.

Gupta AK; Gupta SK; Patil RS

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Case study on rehabilitation of a polluted urban water body in Yangtze River Basin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (p?water pollution and rehabilitate the degraded aquatic ecosystem. The case study would be an example for polluted urban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base.

Wu J; Cheng S; Li Z; Guo W; Zhong F; Yin D

2013-10-01

182

Case study on rehabilitation of a polluted urban water body in Yangtze River Basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH(4) (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (p?water pollution and rehabilitate the degraded aquatic ecosystem. The case study would be an example for polluted urban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base. PMID:23247519

Wu, Juan; Cheng, Shuiping; Li, Zhu; Guo, Weijie; Zhong, Fei; Yin, Daqiang

2012-12-18

183

Isophorone: Ambient Water Quality Criteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Section 304(a) of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1314(a)), requires EPA to publish and periodically update water quality criteria. These criteria are to reflect the latest scientific knowledge on the identifiable effects of pollutants on public health and...

1978-01-01

184

GREAT LAKES WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines and evaluates phosphorus loadings in the Great Lakes and suggests a strategy for its control. he municipal industrial and commercial and agricultural contribution use to the Great Lakes waters has led to a concomitant deterioration of the water quality. e must...

185

Underground Water Assessment using Water Quality Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the quality of selected hand dug wells in Maikunkele area of Niger State, Nigeria using Water Quality Index (WQI). ten hand dug wells were randomly selected in Maikunkele area of Bosso Local Government and were tested for nine (9) parameters of National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) using standard analytical procedures. WQI results indicated that the quality of the selected well water samples were medium except for sample 2 that was extremely bad. The findings also revealed that all the samples except samples 2 and 3 had high coliform levels as high as 91 coliform/100cm3. This was an indication of faecal contamination substantiating the proximity of some of the wells to septic systems. The nitrate levels in all the samples exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of WHO, EPA, APHA and the Nigerian Drinking Water Standards. Based on the results obtained, the quality of the well water samples was therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques were highly recommended.

Jonathan YISA; Tijani Oladejo JIMOH; Ohiemi Michael OYIBO

2012-01-01

186

WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF UNDERGROUND WATER IN VARIOUS SECTORS OF KOLHAPUR CITY.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kolhapur is developed city suffering from pollution problems. The water supply to Kolhapur city is mainly from river panchanganga but now a days river panchanganga is severely polluted hence water quality from KMC water supply is deteriorated. Due to short supply and pollution of water most of residents use bore well water as an alternate source. Hence the monitoring and analysis of water quality from bore well is very essential. To evaluate quality of bore well water the samples were collected from selected sites of various sectors as Urban, Industrial, Slum and Agricultural regularly from march 2005 to February 2006. The water samples analyzed for physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters, certain parameters are beyond the permissible limit recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and Indian standard Institute (ISI).From the results present study reveals that most of the bore well water is of poor quality and it is unfit for drinking purpose.

H.V.VYAS; V.A.SAWANT; SMITA KHARADE

2013-01-01

187

Obtaining traffic information by urban air quality inspection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Transportation and its environmental impacts are a major component of urban environmental management. At the same time, transportation and mobility are an important part of urban economics and quality of life. To analyze urban transportation and its environmental impacts, a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach is needed. Unfortunately, theoretical works about traffic flow and pollutant dynamic have independently evolved, rarely meeting contact points. Our works aims to provide a contribution in linking traffic flow and pollutant dynamic by proponing a new traffic model, able to calculate the number of running vehicles, once the ground level of an arbitrary pollutant concentration is know. The validation and simulation of this model is made possible by the training of an adaptive.(Author)

2006-01-01

188

Application of predictive control strategies to the management of complex networks in the urban water cycle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The management of the urban water cycle (UWC) is a subject of increasing interest because of its social, economic, and environmental impact. The most important issues include the sustainable use of limited resources and the reliability of service to consumers with adequate quality and pressure level...

Ocampo-Martínez, Carlos; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Cembrano Gennari, Gabriela; Quevedo Casín, Joseba Jokin

189

Water quality issues in southern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or ?g/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in trace concentrations. Most of the ailments, including mood disturbances and psychological disorders, are reportedly on the increase in most urban and industrialized areas of Nigeria. Perhaps a study should be conducted among the population in order to relate the pattern of water pollution related diseases to health factors in Nigeria

2000-01-01

190

A global perspective on changing sustainable urban water supplies  

Science.gov (United States)

Ensuring the sustainable supply of water for the world's largest cities has been and is a current challenge. Future trends in urban water consumption patterns will be determined by changes in population concentration, per-capita water use, climate, and the proportion of water retained for the production of instream ecosystem services. The objective of our research was to identify patterns of renewable water availability and urban consumption throughout the globe between the years 2000 and 2015. To better understand the interactions between urban consumption and regional availability of renewable water we used a modified ecological footprint (EF) approach. Urban water footprint areas were differentially sensitive to changes in consumption and changes in water availability; our results suggest climate induced reductions in water availability may be more of a concern than population growth or increased per-capita for securing continued supplies of water to large cities. Our results provide a comprehensive description of global urban water demand and highlight the variation between consumption and availability relationships for the 524 largest cities.

Darrel Jenerette, G.; Larsen, Larissa

2006-04-01

191

Assessing equitable access to urban green space: the role of engineered water infrastructure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urban green space and water features provide numerous social, environmental, and economic benefits, yet disparities often exist in their distribution and accessibility. This study examines the link between issues of environmental justice and urban water management to evaluate potential improvements in green space and surface water access through the revitalization of existing engineered water infrastructures, namely stormwater ponds. First, relative access to green space and water features were compared for residents of Tampa, Florida, and an inner-city community of Tampa (East Tampa). Although disparities were not found in overall accessibility between Tampa and East Tampa, inequalities were apparent when quality, diversity, and size of green spaces were considered. East Tampa residents had significantly less access to larger, more desirable spaces and water features. Second, this research explored approaches for improving accessibility to green space and natural water using three integrated stormwater management development scenarios. These scenarios highlighted the ability of enhanced water infrastructures to increase access equality at a variety of spatial scales. Ultimately, the "greening" of gray urban water infrastructures is advocated as a way to address environmental justice issues while also reconnecting residents with issues of urban water management.

Wendel HE; Downs JA; Mihelcic JR

2011-08-01

192

DETERMINING INDICATORS OF URBAN HOUSEHOLD WATER CONSUMPTION THROUGH MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water has a decisive influence on populations’ life quality – specifically in areas like urban supply, drainage, and effluents treatment – due to its sound impact over public health. Water rational use constitutes the greatest challenge faced by water demand management, mainly with regard to urban household water consumption. This makes it important to develop researches to assist water managers and public policy-makers in planning and formulating water demand measures which may allow urban water rational use to be met. This work utilized the multivariate techniques Factor Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis – in order to determine the participation level of socioeconomic and climatic variables in monthly urban household consumption changes – applying them to two districts of Campina Grande city (State of Paraíba, Brazil). The districts were chosen based on socioeconomic criterion (income level) so as to evaluate their water consumer’s behavior. A 9-year monthly data series (from year 2000 up to 2008) was utilized, comprising family income, water tariff, and quantity of household connections (economies) – as socioeconomic variables – and average temperature and precipitation, as climatic variables. For both the selected districts of Campina Grande city, the obtained results point out the variables “water tariff” and “family income” as indicators of these district’s household consumption.

Gledsneli Maria Lima Lins; Walter Santa Cruz; Zédna Mara Castro Lucena Vieira; Francisco de Assis Costa Neto; Érico Alberto Albuquerque Miranda

2010-01-01

193

Impacts of urban solid waste disposal on the quality of surface water in three cities of Minas Gerais - Brazil Impactos da disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos na qualidade da água superficial em três municípios de Minas Gerais - Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The environmental impact of three different urban solid waste facilities (USWF) on the quality of the surface water. The studied areas were the Campo Belo sanitary landfill (Varões River), the controlled landfill of Santo Antônio do Amparo (Fabiano River), and the closed dump of Elói Mendes (Mutuca River), which are cities located in southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil were evaluated. At each sampling point water samples were collected at five occasions in the raining season (October - March) and in the dry season (April - June) at three sampling points: (P1) upstream the solid waste facility, (P2) downstream nearby the point of influx from the sewage treatment plant in the sanitary landfill, or at the drainage point from the surface flow of the dump and controlled landfill, and (P3) downstream the solid waste facility. Physicochemical and bacteriological analyses were performed, and the results were analyzed based on descriptive statistics. The data were also compared with reference values from the National Environmental Council (CONAMA) Resolution 357/2005 and were used to calculate the water quality index (WQI). It was not possible to detect a significant effect of the solid waste facility on the water quality indicators. The water conditions were unsatisfactory due to violations of the concentrations of phosphorus, ammonia, fecal coliform, and the biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand ratio (BOD/COD), probably related to other uses along the drainage area upstream the solid waste facility. These conditions were more critical in the Mutuca river, where the WQI was classified as bad during the entire period at all sampling points.Os impactos ambientais de três diferentes tipologias de áreas de disposição de Resíduos Sólidos Urbanos - ADRSU, sobre a qualidade das águas superficiais situadas nas proximidades do aterro sanitário de Campo Belo (Córrego dos Varões), do aterro controlado de Santo Antônio do Amparo (Córrego do Fabiano) e do lixão encerrado de Elói Mendes (Ribeirão Mutuca), municípios situados no Sul de Minas Gerais - Brasil foram avaliados. Para cada curso d'água foram coletadas 5 amostras de água no período chuvoso e 5 amostras no período seco, em três diferentes pontos para cada um dos três cursos d'água sendo: (P1) a montante das ADRSU, (P2) logo após o local de descarga da Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto - ETE (no aterro sanitário, e nas outras tipologias, após ponto de lançamento do escoamento superficial proveniente das ADSRU, e (P3) à jusante das ADSRU. Realizaram-se análises físico-químicas e bacteriológicas, cujos resultados foram analisados com base na estatística descritiva e comparados com valores de referência da Resolução CONAMA 357/2005, bem como utilizados para cálculo do índice de qualidade de água (IQA). Não foi possível detectar efeito significativo das ADRSU, nos parâmetros indicadores da qualidade da água, a qual se apresentou em condições não satisfatórias em função das violações dos parâmetros fósforo, amônia, coliformes termotolerantes e da relação DQO/DBO mesmo à montante da ADSRU. No Ribeirão Mutuca, essa situação foi ainda mais crítica pois o IQA foi classificado como ruim em todos os pontos durante o período monitorado.

Rosângela Francisca de Paula Vitor Marques; Antônio Marciano da Silva; Luciano dos Santos Rodrigues; Gilberto Coelho

2012-01-01

194

Impacts of urban solid waste disposal on the quality of surface water in three cities of Minas Gerais - Brazil/ Impactos da disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos na qualidade da água superficial em três municípios de Minas Gerais - Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os impactos ambientais de três diferentes tipologias de áreas de disposição de Resíduos Sólidos Urbanos - ADRSU, sobre a qualidade das águas superficiais situadas nas proximidades do aterro sanitário de Campo Belo (Córrego dos Varões), do aterro controlado de Santo Antônio do Amparo (Córrego do Fabiano) e do lixão encerrado de Elói Mendes (Ribeirão Mutuca), municípios situados no Sul de Minas Gerais - Brasil foram avaliados. Para cada curso d'água foram c (more) oletadas 5 amostras de água no período chuvoso e 5 amostras no período seco, em três diferentes pontos para cada um dos três cursos d'água sendo: (P1) a montante das ADRSU, (P2) logo após o local de descarga da Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto - ETE (no aterro sanitário, e nas outras tipologias, após ponto de lançamento do escoamento superficial proveniente das ADSRU, e (P3) à jusante das ADSRU. Realizaram-se análises físico-químicas e bacteriológicas, cujos resultados foram analisados com base na estatística descritiva e comparados com valores de referência da Resolução CONAMA 357/2005, bem como utilizados para cálculo do índice de qualidade de água (IQA). Não foi possível detectar efeito significativo das ADRSU, nos parâmetros indicadores da qualidade da água, a qual se apresentou em condições não satisfatórias em função das violações dos parâmetros fósforo, amônia, coliformes termotolerantes e da relação DQO/DBO mesmo à montante da ADSRU. No Ribeirão Mutuca, essa situação foi ainda mais crítica pois o IQA foi classificado como ruim em todos os pontos durante o período monitorado. Abstract in english The environmental impact of three different urban solid waste facilities (USWF) on the quality of the surface water. The studied areas were the Campo Belo sanitary landfill (Varões River), the controlled landfill of Santo Antônio do Amparo (Fabiano River), and the closed dump of Elói Mendes (Mutuca River), which are cities located in southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil were evaluated. At each sampling point water samples were collected at five occasions in the raining (more) season (October - March) and in the dry season (April - June) at three sampling points: (P1) upstream the solid waste facility, (P2) downstream nearby the point of influx from the sewage treatment plant in the sanitary landfill, or at the drainage point from the surface flow of the dump and controlled landfill, and (P3) downstream the solid waste facility. Physicochemical and bacteriological analyses were performed, and the results were analyzed based on descriptive statistics. The data were also compared with reference values from the National Environmental Council (CONAMA) Resolution 357/2005 and were used to calculate the water quality index (WQI). It was not possible to detect a significant effect of the solid waste facility on the water quality indicators. The water conditions were unsatisfactory due to violations of the concentrations of phosphorus, ammonia, fecal coliform, and the biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand ratio (BOD/COD), probably related to other uses along the drainage area upstream the solid waste facility. These conditions were more critical in the Mutuca river, where the WQI was classified as bad during the entire period at all sampling points.

Marques, Rosângela Francisca de Paula Vitor; Silva, Antônio Marciano da; Rodrigues, Luciano dos Santos; Coelho, Gilberto

2012-12-01

195

Construction of the Quality Evaluation System for Healthy Urbanization from the Angle of Economics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In allusion to the problems in the present theoretical study and practice about urbanization, this paper elucidated the connotation of healthy urbanization from the angle of economics, and put forward the economic definition of healthy urbanization; further more, it put forward things that should be attached importance to when evaluating healthy urbanization and the framework of quality evaluation system.

Huiying Wang

2009-01-01

196

Benchmarking urban acute care hospitals: efficiency and quality perspectives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Over the last couple of decades, hospitals in the United States are facing pressures to maximize performance in terms of production efficiency and quality. An increasing emphasis on value-based purchasing on the part of third-party payers as well as the prevalence of pay for performance initiatives create an imperative for more accurate assessments of health care provider performance. PURPOSES: The objectives of this study were to measure hospital performance in terms of both technical efficiency and quality using data envelopment analysis (DEA) models in urban acute care hospitals. METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: In this observational cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of 371 urban acute care hospitals, hospital performance was assessed using slack-based additive DEA models. The technical inputs included in the DEA models were total number of beds setup and staffed, nonphysician full-time equivalent staffing, and nonpayroll operating expenses. The technical outputs were adjusted patient days, total number of outpatient visits, and training full-time equivalent, obtained from the American Hospital Association 2008 database. The quality measures used for the quality of care dimension of performance were survival rates for acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and pneumonia obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2008 data. FINDINGS: Less than 20% of the sample hospitals were optimally performing for both quality and efficiency. Tobit regression analysis of the DEA scores found that public, small, teaching hospitals had higher DEA efficiency and quality scores. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: DEA is a promising tool for benchmarking both aspects of performance: efficiency and quality of hospitals. Because quality is a multidimensional construct, the choice of an appropriate composite quality measure has to be addressed in future research. However, incorporating quality into the DEA models would be a better reflection of the hospital product.

Nayar P; Ozcan YA; Yu F; Nguyen AT

2013-04-01

197

Place-Making through Water Sensitive Urban Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aims to develop a practice and evaluation model for public open spaces in residential areas that considers water sensitive urban design techniques contributing to place-making.

Byron Vernon; Reena Tiwari

2009-01-01

198

Improving urban air quality in China: Beijing case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

China is undergoing rapid urbanization because of unprecedented economic growth. As a result, many cities suffer from air pollution. Two-thirds of China's cities have not attained the ambient air quality standards applicable to urban residential areas (Grade II). Particulate matter (PM), rather than sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), is the major pollutant reflecting the shift from coal burning to mixed source pollution. In 2002, 63.2 and 22.4% of the monitored cities have PM and SO{sub 2} concentrations exceeding the Grade II standard, respectively. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentration kept a relatively stable level near the Grade II standard in the last decade and had an increasing potential in recent years because of the rapid motorization. In general, the air pollutants emission did not increase as quickly as the economic growth and energy consumption, and air quality in Chinese cities has improved to some extent. Beijing, a typical representative of rapidly developing cities, is an example to illustrate the possible options for urban air pollution control. Beijing's case provides hope that the challenges associated with improving air quality can be met during a period of explosive development and motorization. 21 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

Jiming Hao; Litao Wang [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Department of Environmental Science and Engineering

2005-09-01

199

Low-Cost Sensor Units for Measuring Urban Air Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of selected key air quality gases (CO, NO & NO2) have been made with a range of miniature low-cost sensors based on electrochemical gas sensing technology incorporating GPS and GPRS for position and communication respectively. Two types of simple to operate sensors units have been designed to be deployed in relatively large numbers. Mobile handheld sensor units designed for operation by members of the public have been deployed on numerous occasions including in Cambridge, London and Valencia. Static sensor units have also been designed for long-term autonomous deployment on existing street furniture. A study was recently completed in which 45 sensor units were deployed in the Cambridge area for a period of 3 months. Results from these studies indicate that air quality varies widely both spatially and temporally. The widely varying concentrations found suggest that the urban environment cannot be fully understood using limited static site (AURN) networks and that a higher resolution, more dispersed network is required to better define air quality in the urban environment. The results also suggest that higher spatial and temporal resolution measurements could improve knowledge of the levels of individual exposure in the urban environment.

Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M.; Stewart, G.; Hodgson, T.; McLoed, M.; Baldovi, J.; Landshoff, P.; Hayes, M.; Calleja, M.; Jones, R.

2010-12-01

200

Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines for Mississippi  

Science.gov (United States)

Article containing information about the water quality guidelines for irrigation water and the salinity and constituent materials allowed in irrigation water for crops to grow. Included are directions for sending in water samples and interpretations of water testing results.

2008-06-12

 
 
 
 
201

Water Quality in Drinking Water Reservoirs of a Megacity, Istanbul.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Providing clean water at relevant quality and quantity is a challenge that regulatory authorities have to face in metropolitan cities that seem to develop at their limits of sustainability. Istanbul strives to face such a challenge for its population of over 10 million, through six surface water resources. Two approaches of classification for the reservoirs are presented, one based on current regulations and an alternative based on a more detailed classification. The results have shown that nutrient control is the primary issue, and one of the reservoirs has already exceeded the limits of being eutrophic, one is at mesotrophic conditions, and the remaining four are at the limit of being eutrophic, indicating the significance of making the correct decision and taking pertinent measures for management and control. It has been observed that the only mesotrophic resource, which also has the best general quality class, has no industry and a very low population density, whereas the one that is already eutrophic is also the one with the lowest quality class, has the highest population density, and has the greatest percentage of urban land use within its watershed.

BAYKAL BB; TANIK A; GONENC IE

2000-12-01

202

Water quality relationships and evaluation using a new water quality index  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water quality is dependent on a variety of measures, including dissolved oxygen, microbial contamination, turbidity, nutrients, temperature, pH, and other constituents. Determining relationships between water quality parameters can improve water quality assessment, and watershed management. In addition, these relationships can be very valuable in case of evaluating water quality in watersheds that have few water quality data. (author)

2002-01-01

203

Biologically based water quality management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of reporting water quality and assessing compliance with targets, based on the Biological Monitoring Working Party score system, is proposed. The use of the technique enables biologists to present operations managers, and other professionals, with quality data from any freshwater habitat in the form of a simple index. Results obtained can be compared with predefined targets based on river use, National Water Council class, or both. It may also be used to assess the degree of pollution in specific cases. The method is currently being used throughout the Anglian Water Authority region for small stream monitoring and, in some Divisions, for the presentation of all biological results. The technique has the potential to fully integrate biological monitoring into an operational role.

Extence CA; Bates AJ; Forbes WJ; Barham PJ

1987-01-01

204

Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

Sailor, D.J.

1993-08-01

205

Household characteristics affecting drinking water quality and human health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Pakistan's water crisis, especially serious water shortages have had a great impact on the health of the general population. Today majority of Pakistanis have no access to improved water sources which force people to consume polluted drinking water that results in the shape of waterborne diseases. In addition to this, household characteristics, includes mother's education and family income, also have an impact on drinking water quality and ultimately on human health. This study was conducted in three districts of Province Punjab both in urban and rural areas. The sample size of this study was 600 females of age group 20-60 years. From the data, it was concluded that mother's education and family income were affecting drinking water quality and human health. As the mother's years of education increased, the health issues decreased. Similarly, as the level of income increased, people suffered from water related diseases decreased. (author)

2009-01-01

206

Impact of land-use on water pollution in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Many catchments in developing countries are undergoing fast urbanization which is usually characterized by population increase, economic growth as well as drastic changes of land-use from natural/rural to urban area. During the urbanization process, some catchments experience water quality deterioration due to rapid increase of pollution loads. Nonpoint source pollution resulting from storm water runoff has been recognized as one of the major causes of pollutants in many cities in developing countries. The composition of land-use for a rapidly urbanizing catchment is usually heterogeneous, and this may result in significant spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and increase the difficulties of water quality management in the catchment. The Shiyan Reservoir catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing area in China, is chosen as the study area, and temporary monitoring sites were set at the outlets of its 6 sub-catchments to synchronously measured rainfall, runoff and water quality during 4 storm events. Three indicators, event pollutant loads per unit area (EPL), event mean concentration (EMC) and pollutant loads transported by the first 50% of runoff volume (FF50), were used to describe the runoff pollution for different pollutants (such as COD, BOD, NH3-N, TN, TP and SS) in each sub-catchment during the storm events; and the correlations between runoff pollution spatial variations and land-use patterns were tested by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The results indicated that similar spatial variation trends were found for different pollutants (EPL or EMC) in light storm events, which strongly correlate with the proportion of residential land-use; however, they have different trends in heavy storm events, which correlate with the different proportional combination of residential, industrial, agricultural and bare land-use. It is also shown that it is necessary to consider some pervious land-use types in runoff pollution monitoring or management for a rapidly urbanizing area, particularly in heavy storm.

Khu, Soon-Thiam; Qin, Huapeng

2010-05-01

207

Saline waters and soil quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

Carmelo Dazzi

2011-01-01

208

Saline waters and soil quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

Carmelo Dazzi

209

Saline waters and soil quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

Carmelo Dazzi

2006-01-01

210

The anatomy of odour wheels for odours of drinking water, wastewater, compost and the urban environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the drinking water and air pollution fields, odour quality characterisation and intensity of each odour characteristic needs to be developed to evaluate the causes of the odours present. Drinking water quality characterisation has matured to the point where an "odour wheel" is described and the primary chemicals producing the odour are known and therefore a potential treatment can be defined from the odours reported. Sufficient understanding of the types of odorous compounds that can arise from wastewater and compost treatment processes and odours in the urban environment are starting to emerge. This article presents the anatomy of the odour wheels. It is hoped that the foundation of odour wheels will evolve as odour quality data are reported and linked with chemical causation. The compost and urban odour wheels are presented in print for the first time. PMID:17489427

Suffet, I H; Rosenfeld, P

2007-01-01

211

Sustainable urban water and sewage systems; Nachhaltige urbane Wasser- und Abwassersysteme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the population increases (especially in urban areas) and money is getting shorter, it is found that the current urban water and sewage systems cannot be a model for the 21st century. The contribution outlines the state of the national and international discussion and presents preliminary fundamentals for modelling and implementation of a sustainable urban water and sewage management system. A model developed by CSIRO, Australia, is described which acquires detailed data of water and pollutant concentrations in existing water, sewage and rainwater systems and provides a basis for computer-assisted projecting of sustainable urban water and sewage systems. [German] Mit zunehmendem Bevoelkerungswachstum (besonders in urbanen Gebieten) und finanziellen Beschraenkungen wird mehr und mehr deutlich, dass die gegenwaertigen urbanen Wasser- und Abwassersysteme keine geeigneten Modelle fuer das 21. Jahrhundert sein werden. Der vorliegende Beitrag liefert Beispiele zum Stand der nationalen wie internationalen Diskussion und erste Grundsaetze zur Modellierung und Realisierung eines nachhaltigen urbanen Wasser- und Abwassermanagements. Es wird ein in Australien am CSIRO entwickeltes Modell beschrieben, das detailliert die Wasser- und Schadstofffluesse in bestehenden Wasser-, Abwasser- und Regenwassersystemen erfasst und als ein computergestuetztes Werkzeug Planungen nachhaltiger urbaner Wasser- und Abwassersysteme ermoeglicht. (orig.)

Eiswirth, M. [CSIRO, Building, Construction and Engineering, Melbourne (Australia); Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie

2000-12-01

212

[Health-related quality of life among urban and rural to urban migrant populations in Lima, Peru].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To explore if there is a difference in the perception and self reported quality of life between rural-to-urban migrants and urban groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the PERU-MIGRANT study (PEru's Rural to Urban MIGRANTs Study). WHOQOL-Brief survey' s global scores and per specific domains obtained in the survey were compared using Kruskall-Wallis' test and assessing size effect. RESULTS: A total of 307 subjects (62.2% migrants, 57% female, means age 47 years-old) were surveyed. Compared with the urban group, migrants reported lower quality of life both on the global scores as well as in psychological health and the living environment domains. Migrants reported a higher score on the physical health?s domain. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of rural-to-urban migration on quality of life suggests a differential effect within its specific domains.

Márquez-Montero G; Loret de Mola C; Bernabé-Ortiz A; Smeeth L; Gilman RH; Miranda JJ

2011-03-01

213

Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems to Study Urban Quality of Life and Urban Forest Amenities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines urban quality of life by assessing the relationship between observed socioeconomic conditions and urban forest amenities in Terre Haute, Indiana, USA. Using remote-sensing methods and techniques, and ordinary least squares regression, the paper determines the relationship between urban leaf area and a population density parameter with median income and median housing value. Results demonstrate positive correlations between urban leaf area, population density, and their interaction with median income and median housing value. Furthermore, leaf area, density, and their interaction statistically account for observed variance in median income and median housing value, indicating that these variables may be used to study observed quality-of-life metrics. The methods used in this study may be useful to city managers, planners, and foresters who are concerned with urban quality-of-life issues, and who are interested in developing and implementing alternative policy assessment regimes.

Ryan Jensen; Jay Gatrell; Jim Boulton; Bruce Harper

2004-01-01

214

Papers presented at the international conference on water quality modelling in the inland natural environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contains 43 papers on the following topics: Water Quality Management; Integrated Water Quality Modelling; Transport of Pollutants - Unsaturated Zone; Transport of Pollutants -Saturated Zone; Pollution Processes in Lakes and Reservoirs; Pollution Processes in Estuaries; River Modelling; Acidification of Surface and Groundwater; and Urban Drainage.

Stanbury, J. (ed.)

1986-01-01

215

Optical water quality in rivers  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical water quality (OWQ) governs the quantity and quality of light in aquatic ecosystems, and thus spatiotemporal changes in OWQ affect many biotic and abiotic processes. Despite the fundamental role of light in rivers, studies on riverine OWQ have been limited and mostly descriptive. Here we provide a comprehensive, quantitative analysis of the controls and spatiotemporal dynamics of riverine OWQ, focusing on the inherent optical properties (IOPs), which are those that are only affected by water constituents and not by changes in the solar radiation field. First, we briefly review the constituents attenuating light in rivers. Second, we develop a new method for partitioning (light) beam attenuation into its constituent fractions. This method distinguishes between absorption and scattering by dissolved and particulate constituents, and further isolates particulates into mineral and organic components. Third, we compare base flow IOPs between four rivers with vastly different physical characteristics to illustrate intersite variability. Fourth, we analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of IOPs for the four rivers. Fifth, we quantify a longitudinal water clarity budget for one of the rivers. Finally, available data are synthesized to identify general spatial trends robust across broad geographic areas. Temporal trends in IOPs were largely dictated by storm frequency, while spatial trends were largely dictated by channel network configuration. Generally, water clarity decreased with increasing discharge primarily owing to greater scattering by particulates and secondarily to greater absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter. Water clarity also generally decreased longitudinally along the river owing to increased particulate inputs from tributaries; however, for pear-shaped, dendritic basins, water clarity reached a minimum at ˜70% of the channel length and then increased. By illustrating the controls and spatiotemporal variability of riverine OWQ, these findings will be of interest to water resource managers and fluvial ecologists and specifically for remote-sensing of fluvial environments and river plumes in receiving waters.

Julian, J. P.; Doyle, M. W.; Powers, S. M.; Stanley, E. H.; Riggsbee, J. A.

2008-10-01

216

Collaboration essential for an energy neutral urban water cycle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two Dutch water boards prepared a Master Plan with measures to substantially reduce their energy use by 2027. In total, more than 100 measures were identified such as bubble aeration and heat recovery from effluent. Together these measures result in a 90-95% reduction in energy use at the water boards. However, for the whole urban water cycle, thus including the energy required for warm water use in households, the total energy reduction from these measures at the water boards is only 5-6%. To attain the objective to have an energy neutral urban water cycle, collaboration with other sectors such as housing, energy, agriculture and industry will be essential. Active collaboration of the water boards through the incorporation of energy efficient water measures as part of the carbon neutral effort of cities is recognized to be a promising strategy. PMID:23676381

Frijns, Jos; Mulder, Mirabella; Roorda, Jelle; Schepman, Hans; Voskamp, Tom

2013-01-01

217

Collaboration essential for an energy neutral urban water cycle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two Dutch water boards prepared a Master Plan with measures to substantially reduce their energy use by 2027. In total, more than 100 measures were identified such as bubble aeration and heat recovery from effluent. Together these measures result in a 90-95% reduction in energy use at the water boards. However, for the whole urban water cycle, thus including the energy required for warm water use in households, the total energy reduction from these measures at the water boards is only 5-6%. To attain the objective to have an energy neutral urban water cycle, collaboration with other sectors such as housing, energy, agriculture and industry will be essential. Active collaboration of the water boards through the incorporation of energy efficient water measures as part of the carbon neutral effort of cities is recognized to be a promising strategy.

Frijns J; Mulder M; Roorda J; Schepman H; Voskamp T

2013-01-01

218

Determination of Optimal Water Quality Monitoring Points in Sewer Systems using Entropy Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To monitor water quality continuously over the entire sewer network is important for efficient management of the system. However, it is practically impossible to implement continuous water quality monitoring of all junctions of a sewer system due to budget constraints. Therefore, water quality monitoring locations must be selected as those points which are the most representative of the dataset throughout a system. However, the optimal selection of water quality monitoring locations in urban sewer networks has rarely been studied. This study proposes a method for the optimal selection of water quality monitoring points in sewer systems based on entropy theory. The proposed model searches for a quantitative assessment of data collected from monitoring points. The points that maximize the total information among the collected data at multiple locations are selected using genetic algorithm (GA) for water quality monitoring. The proposed model is demonstrated for a small urban sewer system.

Jung Ho Lee

2013-01-01

219

Multivariate analysis of drinking water quality parameters in Bhopal, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pollution of water bodies is one of the areas of major concern to environmentalists. Water quality is an index of health and well being of a society. Industrialization, urbanization and modern agriculture practices have direct impact on the water resources. These factors influence the water resources quantitatively and qualitatively. The study area selected were the Upper lake and Kolar reservoir of Bhopal, the state capital of Madhya Pradesh, India. The Upper lake and Kolar reservoir both are the important sources of potable water supply for the Bhopal city. The physico-chemical parameters like temperature, pH, turbidity, total hardness, alkalinity, BOD, COD, Chloride, nitrate and phosphate were studied to ascertain the drinking water quality.

Parashar C; Verma N; Dixit S; Shrivastava R

2008-05-01

220

Towards Adaptive Urban Water Management: Up-Scaling Local Projects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Increasingly, the need for adaptive urban water management approaches is advertised, but the transition towards such approaches in the urban water sector seems to be slow. The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth study of how an innovative approach has been adopted in practice by looking into how contextual knowledge from a local project has been up-scaled to more generic knowledge. Specifically, the paper outlines how two planners from a Danish municipality succeeded in developing a more innovative sewage plan on the basis of a local project with implementation of local handling of rainwater. This insight into the processes of learning aggregation of water practices points towards the important role that the dedicated work performed by local facilitators and intermediaries play in relation to a transition towards more adaptive urban water management.

Zhou, Qianqian; Qutzau, Maj-Britt

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Studies of urban air quality using electrochemical based sensor instruments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Poor air quality has been projected to be the world’s top cause of environmental premature mortality by 2050 surpassing poor sanitation and dirty water (IGBP / IGAC press release, 2012 ). One of the major challenges of air quality management is how to adequately quantify both the spatial and tempora...

Popoola, Olalekan Abdul Muiz

222

The soundscape quality in some urban parks in Milan, Italy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urban parks play an important role in preserving and promoting the health of citizens who are often exposed to noise pollution and the stress of daily life. The present study describes the main results obtained from a survey performed in five urban parks in Milan. Measurements of the acoustic environment were carried out in 29 sites together with interviews with 231 users on certain aspects of the parks not limited to merely sound. Acoustic data show that the surveyed parks mostly do not comply with the noise limit issued by the Italian legislation on protected areas. The unweighted 1/3-octave spectrum centre of gravity G and LA50 perform satisfactorily in discriminating among the acoustic environments. Such clear distinction was not observed in the subjective ratings on the perceived quality of the soundscape, likely due to the influence by non-acoustic factors that act as mediators in the assessment. This hypothesis is supported by the collected data on the perceived quality of quietness, which was rated worse than that of the soundscape. Comparing acoustic data with ratings, the perceived quality of the total environment was found to be less dependent on LAeq than soundscape and quietness.

Brambilla G; Gallo V; Zambon G

2013-01-01

223

The Soundscape Quality in Some Urban Parks in Milan, Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban parks play an important role in preserving and promoting the health of citizens who are often exposed to noise pollution and the stress of daily life. The present study describes the main results obtained from a survey performed in five urban parks in Milan. Measurements of the acoustic environment were carried out in 29 sites together with interviews with 231 users on certain aspects of the parks not limited to merely sound. Acoustic data show that the surveyed parks mostly do not comply with the noise limit issued by the Italian legislation on protected areas. The unweighted 1/3-octave spectrum centre of gravity G and LA50 perform satisfactorily in discriminating among the acoustic environments. Such clear distinction was not observed in the subjective ratings on the perceived quality of the soundscape, likely due to the influence by non-acoustic factors that act as mediators in the assessment. This hypothesis is supported by the collected data on the perceived quality of quietness, which was rated worse than that of the soundscape. Comparing acoustic data with ratings, the perceived quality of the total environment was found to be less dependent on LAeq than soundscape and quietness.

Giovanni Brambilla; Veronica Gallo; Giovanni Zambon

2013-01-01

224

Deterioration of water quality of Surma river.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surma River is polluted day by day by human activities, poor structured sewerage and drainage system, discharging industrial and household wastes. The charas (natural channels) are responsible for surface runoff conveyance from its urban catchments to the receiving Surma River. Water samples have been collected from a part of Surma River along different points and analyzed for various water quality parameters during dry and monsoon periods. Effects of industrial wastes, municipal sewage, and agricultural runoff on river water quality have been investigated. The study was conducted within the Chattak to Sunamganj portion of Surma River, which is significant due to the presence of two major industries--a paper mill and a cement factory. The other significant feature is the conveyors that travel from India to Chattak. The river was found to be highly turbid in the monsoon season. But BOD and fecal coliform concentration was found higher in the dry season. The water was found slightly acidic. The mean values of parameters were Conductivity 84-805 micros; DO: dry-5.52 mg/l, monsoon-5.72 mg/l; BOD: dry-1mg/l, monsoon-0.878 mg/l; Total Solid: dry-149.4 mg/l, monsoon-145.7 mg/l. In this study, an effort has been taken to investigate the status of concentration of phosphate (PO(-4)) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N) at four entrance points of Malnichara to the city, Guali chara, Gaviar khal and Bolramer khal. Data has been collected from March-April and September-October of 2004. Concentrations have been measured using UV Spectrophotometer. Although the phosphate concentration has been found within the limit set by DOE for fishing, irrigation and recreational purposes, however ammonia-nitrogen has been found to exceed the limit.

Alam JB; Hossain A; Khan SK; Banik BK; Islam MR; Muyen Z; Rahman MH

2007-11-01

225

Deterioration of water quality of Surma river.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surma River is polluted day by day by human activities, poor structured sewerage and drainage system, discharging industrial and household wastes. The charas (natural channels) are responsible for surface runoff conveyance from its urban catchments to the receiving Surma River. Water samples have been collected from a part of Surma River along different points and analyzed for various water quality parameters during dry and monsoon periods. Effects of industrial wastes, municipal sewage, and agricultural runoff on river water quality have been investigated. The study was conducted within the Chattak to Sunamganj portion of Surma River, which is significant due to the presence of two major industries--a paper mill and a cement factory. The other significant feature is the conveyors that travel from India to Chattak. The river was found to be highly turbid in the monsoon season. But BOD and fecal coliform concentration was found higher in the dry season. The water was found slightly acidic. The mean values of parameters were Conductivity 84-805 micros; DO: dry-5.52 mg/l, monsoon-5.72 mg/l; BOD: dry-1mg/l, monsoon-0.878 mg/l; Total Solid: dry-149.4 mg/l, monsoon-145.7 mg/l. In this study, an effort has been taken to investigate the status of concentration of phosphate (PO(-4)) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N) at four entrance points of Malnichara to the city, Guali chara, Gaviar khal and Bolramer khal. Data has been collected from March-April and September-October of 2004. Concentrations have been measured using UV Spectrophotometer. Although the phosphate concentration has been found within the limit set by DOE for fishing, irrigation and recreational purposes, however ammonia-nitrogen has been found to exceed the limit. PMID:17294273

Alam, J B; Hossain, A; Khan, S K; Banik, B K; Islam, Molla R; Muyen, Z; Rahman, M Habibur

2007-02-10

226

Happiness on Tap: Piped Water Adoption in Urban Morocco  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the demand for household water connections in urban Morocco, and the effect of such connections on household welfare. In the northern city of Tangiers, among homeowners without a private connection to the city’s water grid, a random subset was offered a simplified procedure to purchase a ho...

Devoto, Florencia; Duflo, Esther; Dupas, Pascaline; Parienté, William; Pons, Vincent

227

Realising sustainable urban water management: can social theory help?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has been acknowledged, in Australia and beyond, that existing urban water systems and management lead to unsustainable outcomes. Therefore, our current socio-technical systems, consisting of institutions, structures and rules, which guide traditional urban water practices, need to change. If a change towards sustainable urban water management (SUWM) practices is to occur, a transformation of our established social-technical configuration that shapes the behaviour and decision making of actors is needed. While some constructive innovations that support this transformation have occurred, most innovations remain of a technical nature. These innovative projects do not manage to achieve the widespread social and institutional change needed for further diffusion and uptake of SUWM practices. Social theory, and its research, is increasingly being recognised as important in responding to the challenges associated with evolving to a more sustainable form of urban water management. This paper integrates three areas of social theories around change in order to provide a conceptual framework that can assist with socio-technical system change. This framework can be utilised by urban water practitioners in the design of interventions to stimulate transitions towards SUWM.

Bos JJ; Brown RR

2013-01-01

228

[Microbial risk assessment of urban water bodies for aesthetical and recreational uses].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the increasing public access to urban water bodies for aesthetical and recreational purposes, it is of critical importance for densely populated urban areas to conduct microbial risk assessment and accordingly implement effective risk management. Based on the methodology of quantitative microbial risk assessment, a case study was conducted on three typical urban water bodies for aesthetical and recreational uses in a southern city in China. Exposure assessment was carried out through water quality monitoring, field survey and literature review, and accordingly human health risk was assessed with different dose-response equations based on fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli (EC) and Enterococci (ENT). Microbial risk estimated by different dose-response equations was found consistent with and comparable to each other. Stream B located in a residential area was not suitable for primary- or secondary-contact recreational uses, and its microbial risk to the public mainly came from water abstraction for household miscellaneous uses. Stream C and Lake E, located in a public open space and a scenic area respectively, could meet the current recreational requirements, and their microbial risk to the public was generally attributed to various recreational activities. It was necessary to address the public health risk associated with the unauthorized or inappropriate water uses (e.g. abstraction for household miscellaneous uses) of urban aesthetical and recreational water bodies.

Sun F; Sha J; Zhang YF; Liu YH

2013-03-01

229

Heavy Metals Analysis and Sediment Quality Values in Urban Lakes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this research was to evaluate the degree of heavy metal contamination in lakes and the extent to which the sediment quality of the lakes of Bangalore city has deteriorated. Approach: In this study, heavy metals such as Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb, Ni and Zn in lake bed sediments were analyzed using comparative sediment quality guidelines from various derived criteria. The selection of sampling points was based upon inflow and outflow regions of the lakes; geographical proximity of industrial units in relation to their effluent discharges; proximity of residential sites located on the banks of the wetland systems; drainage patterns and accessibility towards the lakes. Digestion and analysis of the samples were done by microwave-assisted digestion and atomic absorption spectrophotometry respectively. Results: The extent of sediment quality deterioration was more pronounced in Cu (203.50 ppm) and Ni (97.64 ppm) followed by Pb (206.0 ppm) and Cd (8.38 ppm). Cr (96.70 ppm) failed a single sediment quality guideline while Zn (220.0 ppm), Mn (176.0 ppm) and Co (47.7 ppm) remained within the safety levels of sediment quality guidelines prescribed for the study. The Sediment Geo-accumulation Index showed that Co, Cu and Pb showed moderate levels of pollution while the Pollution Load Index (PLI) between heavy metals in the lakes produced the following outputs: Ni > Pb > Cd > Cu > Cr > Co > Zn > Mn. Conclusion: This study proves that the level of sustained metal contamination of the fragile urban wetlands has not receded even after the recent urban wetlands rejuvenation works were completed. This prolonged presence in excessive levels of the studied heavy metals in the bed sediments casts doubt on the choice and effectiveness of the any mitigation measures in the long run.

Aboud S. Jumbe; N. Nandini

2009-01-01

230

Characterizing Water Quality in Students' Own Community  

Science.gov (United States)

The surface water quality studies are developed to help first year college students who are preparing to become high school teachers. These water quality impact studies allow students to correlate geologic conditions and chemistry.

Lunsford, S. K.; Speelman, Nicole; Yeary, Amber; Slattery, William

2007-01-01

231

Impact of fertilization on vegetation development and water quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The gradual increase in the construction of vegetated roofs has great potential in creating a better urban living environment. Green roofs also have great economic potential for companies focusing on construction and maintenance of vegetation systems. Vegetated roofs are known to have an important impact on the urban water balance. However, it is not fully understood how they influence the storm water quality. Vegetated roofs might act as filters and have a positive effect on storm water quality by the uptake of airborne particulates and nutrients. There is also a possibility that green roofs might leak nutrients to the storm water system since vegetated roofs are usually fertilized at the time of construction. The nutrient dynamics of an extensive green roof are important both for the storm water quality, survivability of the plants and the aesthetic qualities of the roof. Maintenance of vegetated roof depends on the purpose of the garden. This paper explored fundamental concepts regarding green roof maintenance and its influence on the vegetation. Fertilization was shown to be one of the most interesting variables regarding maintenance since fertilizers can be distributed easily and economically, and they seem to have large effect on the vegetation, even on thin substrate systems. 12 refs., 1 fig.

Emilsson, T. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Landscape Management and Horticultural Technology

2004-07-01

232

Everglades restoration and water quality challenges in south Florida.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides background information and a brief overview of water quality issues for the rest of the papers in this volume that are concerned with Everglades restoration. The Everglades of Florida have been diminished over 50% of their former extent. The Everglades are no longer a free-flowing wetland ecosystem, but are now subject to a complicated system of water management that is regulated primarily for flood control and consumptive use. Attempts to restore a more natural hydropattern to the remaining undeveloped Everglades are made more difficult by the natural extremes in rainfall, flat landscape, highly porous geology, and inaccessibility of the remaining natural areas. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) seeks ecosystem restoration by adding water storage capacity, reducing groundwater seepage, improving regulatory delivery and timing of water to avoid environmental damage, and where feasible, improving the quality of water to be used for Everglades restoration. Water quality issues that currently exist for south Florida include eutrophication (especially phosphorus), mercury, and contaminants from agricultural production and the urban environment. Lands once in agricultural production that will be converted back to wetlands or will become reservoirs may contribute to the water quality concerns. Stormwater runoff from managed lands that will be used for restoration purposes will also present water quality challenges. The state continues to seek water quality improvement with a number of pollution reduction programs, and CERP attempts to improve water quality without sacrificing even more natural areas; however providing water quality sufficient for use in recovery of remaining Everglades wetlands and estuaries will remain a daunting challenge. PMID:18679794

Perry, William B

2008-08-05

233

Calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural del municipio de Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia/ Bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas of the municipality of Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Guatavita es un municipio ubicado en el Departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia. Posee recursos hídricos como ríos, quebradas, lagunas y nacimientos, que representan un alto porcentaje del agua con que se abastece. El municipio tiene 16 acueductos en funcionamiento, pero solo el que abastece a la población de la zona urbana cuenta con un sistema de tratamiento de agua. En la zona rural existen 14 acueductos con un sistema básico de pretratamiento. Se analizó la calida (more) d bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural (veredas Corales, Potrero Largo y Carbonera Alta), por medio de los indicadores de contaminación: coliformes totales y Escherichia coli, mediante la técnica de filtración por membrana. El agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana cumplió con los parámetros establecidos en la Resolución 2115 de 2007 del Ministerio de Protección Social, contrario a la zona rural, donde se encontraron recuentos de los indicadores de contaminación fecal, superiores a lo establecido. Por lo tanto, este recurso debe ser considerado como "agua natural", no apta para consumo humano, según el Decreto 1594 de 1984, por lo que debe ser destinada para potabilización bajo un tratamiento convencional. Abstract in english Guatavita is a municipality in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Guatavita has water resources such as rivers, streams, lakes and springs, which provide a large proportion of the water consumed by the population. Sixteen water supply systems are in operation, but only the one supplying the urban area is equipped with water treatment facilities. In the rural area there are 14 aqueducts with a basic pretreatment system. An analysis was made of the bacteriological qu (more) ality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas (districts of Corales, Potrero Largo and Carbonera Alta) based on two contamination indicators: total coliforms and Escherichia coli, using membrane filtration technique. The water for human consumption in the urban area complied with the parameters contained in Resolution 2115/2007 of the Ministry of Social Protection. In the rural area, however, fecal contamination indicators were above the established limits. Therefore, this resource should be viewed as "natural water" not suitable for human consumption, according to Decree 1594/1984, and destined for potabilization by conventional treatment.

Ávila de Navia, Sara Lilia; Estupiñán Torres, Sandra Mónica

2012-08-01

234

Obtaining Traffic Information by Urban Air Quality Inspection  

CERN Document Server

The level of air quality in urban centres is affected by emission of several pollutants, mainly coming from the vehicles flowing in their road networks. This is a well known phenomenon that influences the quality of life of people. Despite the deep concern of researchers and technicians, we are far from a total understanding of this phenomenon. On the contrary, the availability of reliable forecasting models would constitute an important tool for administrators in order of assessing suitable actions concerning the transportation policies, public as well private. Referring to the situation of the running fleet and the measured pollutant concentrations concerning the Italian town of Palermo, a data-deduced traffic model is here derived, its truthfulness being justified by a fuzzyfication of the phenomenon. A first validation of the model is supplied by utilising the emissions characteristics and the pollutant concentrations referring to a two years period of time. This work could represent a first attempt in de...

Ferrante, P; Nicolosi, S; Scaccianoce, G; Traverso, M; Rizzo, G

2011-01-01

235

Evaluating Quality of Life in Urban Areas (Case Study: Noorabad City, Iran)  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality of urban life (QOUL) has become an important field within urban studies. The increased level of attention to this topic is due to the increasing importance of QoL studies in monitoring public policies and in the role they can play as effective tools in urban management and planning. The main objective of this study is to measure the QOUL…

Rezvani, Mohammad Reza; Mansourian, Hossain; Sattari, Mohammad Hossain

2013-01-01

236

Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modeling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOS) and stormwater drainage systems However, some micropollutants tend to appear in more than one environmental medium (air, water, sediment, soil, groundwater, etc) In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is "wrapped around" a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios on the one hand a reference scenario with a combined sewerage system and on the other hand a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in reduced surface water concentrations for the latter scenario However, the model also showed that this was at the expense of increased fluxes to air, groundwater and infiltration pond soil The latter effects are generally not included in IUWS models, whereas MTFMs usually do not consider dynamic surface water concentrations hence the combined model approach provides a better basis for integrated environmental assessment of micropollutants' fate in urban environments.

De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.

2010-01-01

237

Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modeling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and stormwater drainage systems. However, some micropollutants tend to appear in more than one environmental medium (air, water, sediment, soil, groundwater, etc.). In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is "wrapped around" a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment. The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios: on the one hand a reference scenario with a combined sewerage system and on the other hand a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS). A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in reduced surface water concentrations for the latter scenario. However, the model also showed that this was at the expense of increased fluxes to air, groundwater and infiltration pond soil. The latter effects are generally not included in IUWS models, whereas MTFMs usually do not consider dynamic surface water concentrations,; hence the combined model approach provides a better basis for integrated environmental assessment of micropollutants' fate in urban environments.

De Keyser W; Gevaert V; Verdonck F; Nopens I; De Baets B; Vanrolleghem PA; Mikkelsen PS; Benedetti L

2010-01-01

238

Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modeling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and stormwater drainage systems. However, some micropollutants tend to appear in more than one environmental medium (air, water, sediment, soil, groundwater, etc.). In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is "wrapped around" a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment. The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios: on the one hand a reference scenario with a combined sewerage system and on the other hand a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS). A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in reduced surface water concentrations for the latter scenario. However, the model also showed that this was at the expense of increased fluxes to air, groundwater and infiltration pond soil. The latter effects are generally not included in IUWS models, whereas MTFMs usually do not consider dynamic surface water concentrations,; hence the combined model approach provides a better basis for integrated environmental assessment of micropollutants' fate in urban environments. PMID:20935380

De Keyser, W; Gevaert, V; Verdonck, F; Nopens, I; De Baets, B; Vanrolleghem, P A; Mikkelsen, P S; Benedetti, L

2010-01-01

239

Urban Quality vs single travel: the Personal Rapid Transit Urban Quality vs single travel: the Personal Rapid Transit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with the con­sequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, together with short-sighted policies of transport and urban development spread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion and unlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel to people living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to those living in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonable urban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic, conside­red, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of the deterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italian cities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities, although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovative solutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by public administrations. One of the main environmental detractors is car traffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike the previous period. Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reaching the modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managing the demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation., such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developing and increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport, car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollution reduction and vehicular traffic reduction. For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal Rapid Transit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to join two apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuring individual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acoustic and air pol­lution as well as the congestion caused by private vehicular traffic. In Italy this system is still not well known despite the versatility of its fields of application. In the United States and all over the world the most successful applications concern circumscribed mono-functional urban ambits, such as large areas for offices, airports and so on, but the characteristics of this system - such as flexibility, capability of integration with other wide-range systems of public transport, little dimensions of the exchange junctions, quite low cost - can allow to realize it also in different typologies of area.If many people are doubtful about the effectiveness of this system, on the contrary, other people think that its steady implementation and experimentation is necessary to improve urban liveability.These last ones believe, in fact, that the combination of small vehicles similar to private car, the advantage of trips without intermediate stops and changes of car, cost reduction, possibility of a wider accessibility not reachable by traditional means of public transport are the key basic elements to replace car travels with low polluting means of public transport.The great increase in the demand for private mobility with the con­sequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, together with short-sighted policies of transport and urban development spread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion and unlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel to people living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to those living in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonable urban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic, conside­red, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of the deterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italian cities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities, although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovative solutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by public administrations. One of the main environmental detractors is car traffic, which has recently

Carmela Gargiulo

2011-01-01

240

Water-quality-standards handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Handbook contains the guidance prepared by EPA to assist States in implementing the revised Water Quality Standards Regulation (48 F.R. 51400, November 8, 1983). Changes in the Handbook may be made from time to time reflecting State/EPA experience in implementing the revised Regulation. The Handbook is organized to provide a general description of the overall standards setting process followed by information on general program administrative policies and procedures, and then a description of the analyses used in determining appropriate uses and criteria.

1983-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Report on the quality of water 1991  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report on the quality of water in 1991 is the result of an extensive evaluation of assessment of the characteristic water conditions in the area of responsibility of the Environmental Ministry in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, which have to be considered as inventory for the water quality of running waters, standing waters and coastal waters. The political aim of the provincial government with regard to water proctection is to achieve the water quality of grade II. The results show a wide but not discouraging gap between the goal set and the realities. (orig./BBR)

1992-01-01

242

Hydro-Urbanism: Reconfiguring the Urban Water-cycle in the Lower Lea River Basin, London  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis explores how water infrastructures can be reconfigured in the urban environment to the advantage of human society in the future. It found actor-network theory co-evolutionary pathways between current material configurations and social practices for these reconfigurations. Material config...

Teh, T

243

Substance flow analysis as a tool for urban water management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human activity results in the production of a wide range of pollutants that can enter the water cycle through stormwater or wastewater. Among others, heavy metals are still detected in high concentrations around urban areas and their impact on aquatic organisms is of major concern. In this study, we propose to use a substance flow analysis as a tool for heavy metals management in urban areas. We illustrate the approach with the case of copper in Lausanne, Switzerland. The results show that around 1,500 kg of copper enter the aquatic compartment yearly. This amount contributes to sediment enrichment, which may pose a long-term risk for benthic organisms. The major sources of copper in receiving surface water are roofs and catenaries of trolleybuses. They represent 75% of the total input of copper into the urban water system. Actions to reduce copper pollution should therefore focus on these sources. Substance flow analysis also highlights that copper enters surface water mainly during rain events, i.e., without passing through any treatment procedure. A reduction in pollution could also be achieved by improving stormwater management. In conclusion, the study showed that substance flow analysis is a very effective tool for sustainable urban water management.

Chèvre N; Guignard C; Rossi L; Pfeifer HR; Bader HP; Scheidegger R

2011-01-01

244

Urbanization and Quality of Urban Environment Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in East Delhi-India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An explosive increase of urban population, practically in all major cities and towns, has the consequent strain on the existing system manifested in an environmental chaos. The phenomena of accelerated urbanisation is the main culprit, wherein besides bringing higher standard of living, it has also brought problems, as growth of dense and unplanned residential areas, environmental pollution, non-availability of services and amenities, solid waste etc. Remote sensing satellite data is suitable for urban land use mapping to get detail and up- to-date information for environmental management. Where as GIS helps in developing database system for urban information, which supports decision making process. Development of digital database on all aspects of land use and urban planning is the next crucial task for the future in which remote sensing based informa-tion is going to play a major role. In Delhi, rise in population and growth in economic activity has led to en-vironmental degradation. With this view an attempt has been made to study the quality of urban environment in the East district of Delhi, which is experiencing very high urban growth with 98.75% urban population in 2001. For this study Landsat ASTER (MSS) data of year 2001 (15 m Ground resolution), Guide map of the year 1982 and demographic and environmental data has been used. Eight parameters were selected, which affect the urban environmental quality, namely built-up area, open spaces, household density, occupancy ra-tio, population density, accessibility to roads, noise and smell affected area. The study shows that the quality of environment has been degraded when we compare 1982 and 2003 data. Most of the East district was in a better state of environment in 1982, but in 2003 things have been changed and now 50% area is in very good, fair and desirable condition. The public participation and involvement should be encouraged planning and decisions making for the improvement in better urban environmental quality.

Atiqur Rahman; Yogesh Kumar; Shahab Fazal; Sunil Bhaskaran

2011-01-01

245

MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF URBAN WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM CRISIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose – The chaotic growth of cities results in numerous problems related to public health and urban environment. One of these problems is the crisis in urban water supply systems. The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical model for the water supply system crisis in urban environment (WSC) able to tackle with the ambiguity of the real available data.Design/methodology/approach – The applied methodology comprises the following steps: (1) identification of the influencing factors in WSC; (2) proposal of a conceptual model for WSC description; (3) gathering and simulation of the necessary and available data; (4) optimization of the conceptual model parameters; and (5) verification of the proposed model performance.Findings – The results indicated that there is a great amount of influencing factors in WSC (showed in the complete text); the conceptual model that was developed is composed by two others partial models ( ). The first partial model explained the water consumption ( ),and the second partial model explained the water availability ( ), in which functions are related to influencing factors in water consumption (i.e. temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, revenues collected, unemployment indicator), and functions are related to the influencing factors in water availability (i.e. total water-loss, intermittence in water supply system). The proposed conceptual model has showed good agreement to the simulated data.Originality/value – The paper is among the first works to describe a WSC model and to analyze the possibility of applying fuzzy logic to deal with the ambiguity of the real data. The water supply crisis in urban environments was adequately modelled.

Marco Antonio Almeida de Souza; Welitom Ttatom Pereira da Silva

2011-01-01

246

Quantitative Assessment of Water Use Efficiency in Urban and Domestic Buildings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential of water savings at property, household and urban levels, through the application of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs), as well as their quantification using the software Wise Water. Household centered measures are identified that allow for significant reduction of drinking water consumption with comparatively small effort, and without limitation of comfort. Furthermore, a method for the estimation of water recycling, for rainwater harvesting and for the utilization potential as locally available renewable freshwater is presented. Based on this study, the average drinking water consumption in urban households of industrialized countries could be reduced by approximately one third, without significant investment costs, either within the framework of new constructions or by the remodeling of water and sanitation systems in residential buildings. By using a secondary water quality, the drinking water demand could even be reduced by 50%. In the case of an area-wide application, the overall fresh water demand of cities and the exploitation of fresh water resources could be significantly reduced. Due to the comparability of the domestic water use of the investigated households, the findings are internationally transferable, for example to countries in Europe, Asia, and also the USA.

Thorsten Schuetze; Vicente Santiago-Fandiño

2013-01-01

247

The peri-urban water poor: citizens or consumers?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using the results of a comparative three-year research project in five metropolitan areas, this article reviews a range of practices in accessing water and sanitation by peri-urban poor residents and producers. It starts from the observation that neither centralized supply policies nor the market th...

Allen, A; Davila, J; Hofmann, P

248

Uncertainty Assessment in Urban Storm Water Drainage Modelling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

 The object of this paper is to make an overall description of the author's PhD study, concerning uncertainties in numerical urban storm water drainage models. Initially an uncertainty localization and assessment of model inputs and parameters as well as uncertainties caused by different model compl...

Thorndahl, Søren

249

Urbanization and water supplies for northeastern Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing populations in northeastern Colorado have resulted in reductions in irrigated acreage and the proportionate quantities of water available to support that segment of the agricultural industry. The growth has caused increased demands for municipal-domestic and industrial water supplies from the South Platte and Colorado River Basins. These impacts have been determined by comparing hydrologic data in conjunction with water use for agricultural, municipal-domestic, and industrial purposes between the period 1975 to 1979. Pricing and water rights ownership were also compared for the same period, as were land conversion data, population data, and crop production valuation. Proper administration of nonconsumptive return flows coupled with the importation of water from the Colorado River Basin will provide adequate, industrial, and irrigation water supplies for this growth intense area and downstream farm lands. 8 figures.

Smith, R.R.

1981-03-01

250

Urban air-quality impacts of district-heating development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The major factors that influence the city-wide annual average air-quality impacts of district-heating development are evaluated. The analysis is based on previous case studies of the environmental impacts of district heating and on emissions inventories for different energy-conversion sources and for metropolitan areas. The principal factors which affect the air-quality impacts of district-heating development are source stack height and pollution controls, fuel type, location of displaced space heating sources and the extent to which these displaced sources contributed to fuel-combustion emissions in urban areas. It is shown that district heating development may significantly improve city-wide sulfur dioxide pollution concentrations, but will have little effect on total suspended particulates. The degree of impact on nitrogen dioxide concentrations appears to lie between these two extremes. Generally, incremental emissions attributable to district-heating sources will not greatly increase city-wide annual average pollution concentrations because these sources centralize emissions in tall stacks. However, if the district-heating system is powered by numerous small- or medium-sized sources with short-to-medium stack height, a significant degradation in air quality may occur.

Blaney, B.L.; Levine, E.P.

1982-01-01

251

Modeling Water Quality in Rivers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports a PC software, used in a Windows-based environment, which was developed based on the first order reaction of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and a modified Streeter and Phelps equation, in order to simulate and determine the variations of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and of the BOD along with the studied river reaches. The software considers many impacts of environmental factors, such as the different type of discharges (concentrated or punctual source, tributary contribution, distributed source), nitrogenous BOD, BOD sedimentation, photosynthetic production and benthic demand of oxygen, and so on. The software has been used to model the DO profile along one river, with the aim to improve the water quality through suitable engineering measure.

Liren Yu; N. N.B. Salvador

2005-01-01

252

Water quality of world river basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contributing to the scientific investigation of global water resources, this publication summarizes the results of analysis and interpretation for 82 major river basins around the world. It is organized around major themes that have significance for managing the quality of the earth`s surface waters. It demonstrates how natural processes interact with anthropogenic factors to create certain water quality conditions.

NONE

1996-12-31

253

A probabilistic water quality index for river water quality assessment: a case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Available water quality indices have some limitations such as incorporating a limited number of water quality variables and providing deterministic outputs. This paper presents a hybrid probabilistic water quality index by utilizing fuzzy inference systems (FIS), Bayesian networks (BNs), and probabilistic neural networks (PNNs). The outputs of two traditional water quality indices, namely the indices proposed by the National Sanitation Foundation and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, are selected as inputs of the FIS. The FIS is trained based on the opinions of several water quality experts. Then the trained FIS is used in a Monte Carlo analysis to provide the required input-output data for training both the BN and PNN. The trained BN and PNN can be used for probabilistic water quality assessment using water quality monitoring data. The efficiency and applicability of the proposed methodology is evaluated using water quality data obtained from water quality monitoring system of the Jajrood River in Iran. PMID:21188505

Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Kerachian, Reza; Malakpour-Estalaki, Siamak; Bashi-Azghadi, Seyyed Nasser; Azimi-Ghadikolaee, Mohammad Mahdi

2010-12-29

254

A probabilistic water quality index for river water quality assessment: a case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Available water quality indices have some limitations such as incorporating a limited number of water quality variables and providing deterministic outputs. This paper presents a hybrid probabilistic water quality index by utilizing fuzzy inference systems (FIS), Bayesian networks (BNs), and probabilistic neural networks (PNNs). The outputs of two traditional water quality indices, namely the indices proposed by the National Sanitation Foundation and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, are selected as inputs of the FIS. The FIS is trained based on the opinions of several water quality experts. Then the trained FIS is used in a Monte Carlo analysis to provide the required input-output data for training both the BN and PNN. The trained BN and PNN can be used for probabilistic water quality assessment using water quality monitoring data. The efficiency and applicability of the proposed methodology is evaluated using water quality data obtained from water quality monitoring system of the Jajrood River in Iran.

Nikoo MR; Kerachian R; Malakpour-Estalaki S; Bashi-Azghadi SN; Azimi-Ghadikolaee MM

2011-10-01

255

Studies in planning water-quality management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study focuses on three questions relevant to water-quality management: (1) what is the optimum allocation of water within a River Basin and what are the control policies which would ensure that allocation through a set of efficiency standards; (2) what is the proper role of a pricing system as an instrument of water-quality management; and (3) what is the role of water reuse as an alternative to other sources of water. The first question is studied within a regional model. It is assumed that a River Basin Authority acts as the central decision-making institution in distributing water on the basis of cost-benefit analysis. The second question is studied within the framework of a convex programming model. It is assumed that there are various qualities of water to be supplied, each higher quality requiring more treatment and costing more. It is further assumed that the total cost of supplying water or any given quality is a convex increasing function, approximated by a piecewise linear function. The third question is treated within the framework of an optimization model. It is assumed that various qualities of water can satisfy the demand: reuse is considered as an attractive alternative source of water supply, particularly in the water-short regions and cities. It is shown that water reuse combined with a multiple distribution system may be viewed as an important instrument in water-quality management.

Sabbaghi, A.

1981-01-01

256

Environmental Affects on Drinking Water Quality and Drinking Water Quality Differences Depending on the Source  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this report is to give the reader an understanding in how drinking water quality differs from different water sources and how water quality changes during different scenarios (exposure to environment and temperature differences). At first, water quality requirements (standards) and th...

Rayner, Thomas Allan; Mackevica, Aiga; Jiang, Xiang; Panovas, Emilis

257

78 FR 20252 - Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OW-2012-0095; FRL-9795-8] RIN 2040-AF33 Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California...withdraw certain human health and aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to waters of...

2013-04-04

258

Social Aspects of Urban Water Conservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water users in communities which had suffered shortages were surveyed directly, conferences were held with city officials, and literature was reviewed. The study goal was to find socially acceptable and democratic methods to follow to achieve reductions i...

H. E. Abbott K. G. Cook R. B. Sleight

1972-01-01

259

Reclamation of used urban waters for irrigation purposes--a review of treatment technologies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The worldwide fresh water scarcity is increasing the demand for non-conventional water resources. Despite the technology being available for application of treated wastewater in irrigation, the use of effluent in agriculture is not being properly managed in the majority of cases. Industrial countries, where financial resources are available but restricted, face difficulties in some cases related to the lack of a complete definition of irrigation water quality standards, as well as to the lack of monitoring components that determine if the effluent is suitable for such use. The present paper presents a critical review on urban reclamation technologies for irrigation. The technologies are presented by the four most important parameters for irrigation water quality: salinity, pathogens, nutrients and heavy metals. An overview is given of the current, on-going evaluation of different reclamation technologies for irrigation.

Norton-Brandão D; Scherrenberg SM; van Lier JB

2013-06-01

260

Temporal and spatial patterns of micropollutants in urban receiving waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on a monitoring program over the course of a year, we characterize the temporal and spatial distribution of selected micropollutants in an urban watershed within the city of Leipzig, Germany. Micropollutants revealed a ubiquitous presence in untreated and treated wastewater, surface water and groundwater. The loads of 4-nonylphenol in the effluents of the municipal wastewater treatment plant followed a seasonal trend, whereas the loads of all other micropollutants were highly variable and not correlated to seasons. In the surface water, load seasonality of caffeine, galaxolide and tonalide resulted from a rapid removal with increased water temperature. The loads of 4-nonylphenol and of caffeine in the colder months increased when rainfall occurred. In the groundwater, complex spatial and temporal patterns were apparent and were related to varying input, retardation and removal processes. As a consequence, an assessment of micropollutants in urban waters should consider different micropollutants' temporal and spatial variability. - Micropollutants in urban receiving waters are characterized by variable temporal and spatial concentration and load patterns that have to be considered in risk assessments.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Protecting water quality in the watershed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article highlights the water quality component of a watershed management plan being developed for the San Francisco (CA) Water Department. The physical characteristics of the 63,000-acre watersheds were analyzed for source and transport vulnerability for five groups of water quality parameters--particulates, THM precursors, microorganisms (Giardia and cryptosporidium), nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), and synthetic organic chemicals--and vulnerability zones were mapped. Mapping was achieved through the use of an extensive geographic information system (GIS) database. Each water quality vulnerability zone map was developed based on five watershed physical characteristics--soils, slope, vegetation, wildlife concentration, and proximity to water bodies--and their relationships to each of the five groups of water quality parameters. An approach to incorporate the watershed physical characteristics information into the five water quality vulnerability zone maps was defined and verified. The composite approach was based in part on information gathered from existing watershed management plans.

James, C.R.; Johnson, K.E. (Montgomery Watson, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)); Stewart, E.H. (San Francisco Water Dept., Millbrae, CA (United States))

1994-08-01

262

Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water). These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. Results A total of 95 water samples from bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water were collected randomly from the study area using different gathering and analysing techniques. The bacteriological examination of water samples included the most probable number of presumptive coliforms, faecal coliforms, and faecal streptococci (MPN/100 ml). The results showed that the total coliform count (MPN/100 ml) was not detected in any samples taken from bottled water, while it was detected in those taken from desalinated, surface, and well water: percentages were 12.9, 80.0, and 100.0, respectively. Faecal coliforms were detected in desalinated, surface, and well water, with percentages of 3.23, 60.0 and 87.88, respectively. About 6.45% of desalinated water, 53.33% of surface water, and 57.58% of well water was found positive for faecal streptococci. Colonies of coliforms were identified in different micro-organisms with various percentages. Conclusion Water derived from traditional sources (wells) showed increases in most of the investigated bacteriological parameters, followed by surface water as compared to bottled or desalinated water. This may be attributed to the fact that well and surface water are at risk of contamination as indicated by the higher levels of most bacteriological parameters. Moreover, well water is exposed to point sources of pollution such as septic wells and domestic and farming effluents, as well as to soil with a high humus content. The lower bacteriological characteristics in samples from bottled water indicate that it is satisfactory for human drinking purposes. Contamination of desalinated water that is the main urban water source may occur during transportation from the desalination plant or in the house reservoir of the consumer. Improving and expanding the existing water treatment and sanitation systems is more likely to provide safe and sustainable sources of water over the long term. Strict hygienic measures should be applied to improve water quality and to avoid deleterious effects on public health, by using periodical monitoring programmes to detect sewage pollution running over local hydrological networks and valleys.

Sh AlOtaibi Eed L

2009-01-01

263

Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water). These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. RESULTS: A total of 95 water samples from bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water were collected randomly from the study area using different gathering and analysing techniques. The bacteriological examination of water samples included the most probable number of presumptive coliforms, faecal coliforms, and faecal streptococci (MPN/100 ml). The results showed that the total coliform count (MPN/100 ml) was not detected in any samples taken from bottled water, while it was detected in those taken from desalinated, surface, and well water: percentages were 12.9, 80.0, and 100.0, respectively. Faecal coliforms were detected in desalinated, surface, and well water, with percentages of 3.23, 60.0 and 87.88, respectively. About 6.45% of desalinated water, 53.33% of surface water, and 57.58% of well water was found positive for faecal streptococci. Colonies of coliforms were identified in different micro-organisms with various percentages. CONCLUSION: Water derived from traditional sources (wells) showed increases in most of the investigated bacteriological parameters, followed by surface water as compared to bottled or desalinated water. This may be attributed to the fact that well and surface water are at risk of contamination as indicated by the higher levels of most bacteriological parameters. Moreover, well water is exposed to point sources of pollution such as septic wells and domestic and farming effluents, as well as to soil with a high humus content. The lower bacteriological characteristics in samples from bottled water indicate that it is satisfactory for human drinking purposes. Contamination of desalinated water that is the main urban water source may occur during transportation from the desalination plant or in the house reservoir of the consumer. Improving and expanding the existing water treatment and sanitation systems is more likely to provide safe and sustainable sources of water over the long term. Strict hygienic measures should be applied to improve water quality and to avoid deleterious effects on public health, by using periodical monitoring programmes to detect sewage pollution running over local hydrological networks and valleys.

AlOtaibi EL

2009-01-01

264

Water quality assessment of coastal Caloosahatchee River watershed, Florida.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Caloosahatchee River watershed and estuary has experienced a general decline in the water quality over the last several decades due to agriculture practices, development, and other human activities. The objective of this study is to assess the water quality condition in coastal Caloosahatchee River watershed by analyzing the data collected by South Florida Water Management District and Lee County. Results indicated that during 1995 to 2006, averaged annually, Lake Okeechobee released 1124 million m3 of freshwater into the Caloosahatchee River, whereas the average annual freshwater discharge out of the Caloosahatchee River was approximately 2277 million m3. Lake Okeechobee might have more impacts on the water quality condition of Caloosahatchee River in dry season than wet season. The loads ratios of Lake Okeechobee to those out of Caloosahatchee River were much higher in dry season than wet season for flow (72% to 36%), total phosphorus (63% to 20%), total nitrogen (72% to 41%), organic nitrogen (85% to 47%), and NH3 (78% to 39%). In the coastal watershed area where the urban area is concentrated, of the total 5453 water samples, 74% of them have dissolved oxygen concentration less than 5 mg L(-1), the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Florida Department of Environmental Protection water quality standard. Only in January is the average monthly dissolved oxygen concentration higher than 5 mg L(-1).

Liu Z; Choudhury SH; Xia M; Holt J; Wallen CM; Yuk S; Sanborn SC

2009-08-01

265

Applications of artificial neural networks for microbial water quality modeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There has been a significant shift in the recent past towards protecting chemical and microbial quality of source waters rather than developing advanced methods to treat heavily polluted water. The key to successful best management practices in protecting the source waters is to identify sources of non-point pollution and their collective impact on the quality of water at the intake. This article presents a few successful applications where artificial neural networks (ANN) have proven to be the useful mathematical tools in correlating the nonlinear relationships between routinely measured parameters (such as rainfall, turbidity, fecal coliforms etc.) and quality of source waters and/or nature of fecal sources. These applications include, prediction of peak concentrations of Giardia and Cryptosporidium, sorting of fecal sources (e.g. agricultural animals vs. urban animals), predicting relative ages of the runoff sources, identifying the potential for sewage contamination. The ability of ANNs to work with complex, inter-related multiparameter databases, and provide superior predictive power in non-linear relationships has been the key for their successful application to microbial water quality studies. (author)

2002-01-01

266

Applications of artificial neural networks for microbial water quality modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There has been a significant shift in the recent past towards protecting chemical and microbial quality of source waters rather than developing advanced methods to treat heavily polluted water. The key to successful best management practices in protecting the source waters is to identify sources of non-point pollution and their collective impact on the quality of water at the intake. This article presents a few successful applications where artificial neural networks (ANN) have proven to be the useful mathematical tools in correlating the nonlinear relationships between routinely measured parameters (such as rainfall, turbidity, fecal coliforms etc.) and quality of source waters and/or nature of fecal sources. These applications include, prediction of peak concentrations of Giardia and Cryptosporidium, sorting of fecal sources (e.g. agricultural animals vs. urban animals), predicting relative ages of the runoff sources, identifying the potential for sewage contamination. The ability of ANNs to work with complex, inter-related multiparameter databases, and provide superior predictive power in non-linear relationships has been the key for their successful application to microbial water quality studies. (author)

Brion, G.M.; Lingireddy, S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

2002-06-15

267

Numerical Modeling of Coupled Groundwater and Surface Water Interactions in an Urban Setting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Dominguez Channel Watershed (DCW), located in the southern portion of Los Angeles County (Figure A.1), drains about 345 square miles into the Los Angeles Harbor. The cities and jurisdictions in DCW are shown in Figure A.2. The largest of these include the cities of Los Angeles, Carson, and Torrance. This watershed is unique in that 93% of its land area is highly developed (i.e. urbanized). The watershed boundaries are defined by a complex network of storm drains and flood control channels, rather than being defined by natural topography. Table (1) shows a summary of different land uses in the Dominguez Channel Watershed (MEC, 2004). The Dominguez Watershed has the highest impervious area of all watersheds in the Los Angeles region. The more impervious the surface, the more runoff is generated during a storm. Storm water runoff can carry previously accumulated contaminants and transport them into receiving water systems. Point sources such as industrial wastewater and municipal sewage as well as urban runoff from commercial, residential, and industrial areas are all recognized as contributors to water quality degradation at DWC. Section 303(d) of the 1972 Federal Clean Water Act (CWA) requires states to identify and report all waters not meeting water quality standards and to develop action plans to pursue the water quality objectives. These plans specify the maximum amount of a given pollutant that the water body of concern can receive and still meet water quality standards. Such plans are called Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). TMDLs also specify allocations of pollutant loadings to point and non-point sources taking into account natural background pollutant levels. This demonstrates the importance of utilizing scientific tools, such as flow and transport models, to identify contaminant sources, understand integrated flow paths, and assess the effectiveness of water quality management strategies. Since overland flow is a very important component of the water balance and hydrology of DCW, a parallel, distributed watershed model that treats flow in groundwater and surface water in a dynamically coupled manner will be used to build a flow model of the watershed. This coupled model forms the basis for modeling and understanding the transport of contaminants through the Dominguez Channel Watershed, which can be used in designing and implementing TMDLs to manage the water quality in this basin. In this report, the coupled surface water-groundwater flow model of DCW will be presented. This flow model was calibrated against a storm that occurred in February 21st, 2004. The model and approach are explained further in the following sections.

Rihani, J F; Maxwell, R M

2007-09-26

268

Geotechnical Parameters Impact on Artificial Ground Water Recharging Technique for Urban Centers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water scarcity is a serious problem throughout the world for both urban & rural community. Urban centers in India are facing an ironical situation of water scarcity today. This paper includes an Analytical solution, Numerical modeling, Empirical approaches, In-situ test results to predict recharge (rate) mound of the ground-water and capacity of recharge well which is essential for the proper management of suitable artificial ground-water recharge systems to maintain water balance and stop salt water intrusion. Authors have derived analytical equation for predicting growth as well as decline of the ground-water mound depending on the intensity of recharge rate qr with different value of permeability k, depth of pervious strata H and diameter of well d, also studying the effects of variation in the geotechnical parameters on water-table fluctuations. In this paper to study the impact of numerical modeling using quadratic equation for unconfined aquifer base on rainfall intensity P and a change in saturated thickness H with variation in piezometric level. Empirical approaches are for evaluation of correct value of k of an undercharged unconfined aquifer with drawdown s0, influence zone L, recharge rate qr. In-situ test results give actual correlation between value of recharging rate of well and permeability on field. Authors have verified recharging rate of installed well from all approaches. A result obtained from the various field case studies gives the validation of the derived equation. Scientific quality measures of aquifer water are also recorded.

Pratima Patel; Mahesh Desai; Jatin Desai

2011-01-01

269

Effects of land use change and water reuse options on urban water cycle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this article was to study the effects of land use change and water reuse options on an urban water cycle. A water cycle analysis was performed on the Goonja drainage basin, located in metropolitan Seoul, using the Aquacycle model. The chronological effects of urbanization were first assessed for the land uses of the Goonja drainage basin from 1975 to 2005, where the ratio of impervious areas ranged from 43% to 84%. Progressive urbanization was identified as leading to a decrease in evapotranspiration (29%), an increase in surface runoff (41%) and a decrease in groundwater recharge (74%), indicating a serious distortion of the water cycle. From a subsequent analysis of the water reuse options, such as rainwater use and wastewater reuse, it is concluded that wastewater reuse seemed to have an advantage over rainwater use for providing a consistent water supply throughout the year for a country like Korea, where the rainy season is concentrated during the summer monsoon.

Lee J; Pak G; Yoo C; Kim S; Yoon J

2010-01-01

270

Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

Kardel, F.; Wuyts, K. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Babanezhad, M. [Department of statistics, Faculty of Science, Golestan University, Gorgan, Golestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vitharana, U.W.A. [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Wuytack, T.; Potters, G. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Samson, R., E-mail: Roeland.Samson@ua.ac.b [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

2010-03-15

271

Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

2010-01-01

272

DRINKING WATER MICROBIOLOGY - NEW DIRECTIONS TOWARD WATER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Many concerns result from information on new waterborne agents, treatment problems of raw water qualities, biofilm development in some distribution systems, and special quality needs unique to hospitals and industries. Protozoan cyst penetration after some disinfection practices ...

273

The Use of Excitation and Emission Matrix Fluorescence for Monitoring Ecological Health in Urban Waters  

Science.gov (United States)

The fluorescence properties and ecological status of urban waters around the globe are poorly understood. In light of the European Water Framework Directive there is now a need to assess the chemical and ecological status of all surface water bodies, irrespective of how heavily modified these water bodies are, throughout the Community. In particular, ecological monitoring is very slow, labour intensive, technically difficult and requires long-term monitoring strategies if the nature of their change is to be better understood. This work reports the potential of EEM fluorescence for assessing ecological health in urban waters. Water samples were collected from 29 sites in a transect across the West Midlands (United Kingdom). These samples covered a gradient of land use from light suburban through to dense urban. The sampled sites represent still waters up to 2ha in size derived from a variety of sources, including inputs from surface run off, groundwater, wastewater and stormwater. All sampled sites were assessed for the following; 1) Basic water chemistry 2) Fluorescence characterisation 3) Ecological quality More specifically all samples were subjected to a) Assessment of the basic physical and chemical parameters in the field (dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity and temperature) b) EEM fluorescence analysis c) Trace metals analysis d) Dissolved inorganic ions e) Macroinvertebrate sorting f) Microbial enumeration For the microbial enumeration the total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated using the spread plate technique. Plates were incubated at 22°C for 5 days and 30°C for 3 days. Following incubation, aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were counted on plates showing between 30 and 300 colonies and expressed as the mean number of colony forming units per millilitre of sampled water (cfu/mL) ±SD. A summary of this data for all 29 sites is shown in Figure 1. This work discusses the relationship between the basic water chemistry features and ecological status and the observed fluorescence properties. In addition, the impact of land use on the sampled sites and the potential of using EEM fluorescence as a tool for assessing the ecological health of urban waters is discussed. Figure 1. Enumeration of viable heterotrophic bacteria from urban water samples, taken from a transect across the West Midlands.

Baker, A.; Thornhill, I.; Carstea, E.; Robinson, G.; Reynolds, D. M.

2009-12-01

274

A review of surface water quality models.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surface water quality models can be useful tools to simulate and predict the levels, distributions, and risks of chemical pollutants in a given water body. The modeling results from these models under different pollution scenarios are very important components of environmental impact assessment and can provide a basis and technique support for environmental management agencies to make right decisions. Whether the model results are right or not can impact the reasonability and scientificity of the authorized construct projects and the availability of pollution control measures. We reviewed the development of surface water quality models at three stages and analyzed the suitability, precisions, and methods among different models. Standardization of water quality models can help environmental management agencies guarantee the consistency in application of water quality models for regulatory purposes. We concluded the status of standardization of these models in developed countries and put forward available measures for the standardization of these surface water quality models, especially in developing countries.

Wang Q; Li S; Jia P; Qi C; Ding F

2013-01-01

275

Heavy Water Quality Management in HANARO  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heavy water quality management in the reflector tank is a very important element to maintain the good thermal neutron flux and to ensure the performance of reflector cooling system. This report is written to provide a guidance for the future by describing the history of the heavy water quality management during HANARO operation. The heavy water quality in the reflector tank has been managed by measuring the electrical conductivity at the inlet and outlet of the ion exchanger and by measuring pH of the heavy water. In this report, the heavy water quality management activities performed in HANARO from 1996 to 2007 ere described including a basic theory of the heavy water quality management, exchanging history of used resin in the reflector cooling system, measurement data of the pH and the electrical conductivity, and operation history of the reflector cooling system.

Shin, Ho Chul; Lee, Mun; Kim, Hi Gon; Park, Chan Young; Choi, Ho Young; Hur, Soon Ock; Ahn, Guk Hoon

2008-12-15

276

Heavy Water Quality Management in HANARO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heavy water quality management in the reflector tank is a very important element to maintain the good thermal neutron flux and to ensure the performance of reflector cooling system. This report is written to provide a guidance for the future by describing the history of the heavy water quality management during HANARO operation. The heavy water quality in the reflector tank has been managed by measuring the electrical conductivity at the inlet and outlet of the ion exchanger and by measuring pH of the heavy water. In this report, the heavy water quality management activities performed in HANARO from 1996 to 2007 ere described including a basic theory of the heavy water quality management, exchanging history of used resin in the reflector cooling system, measurement data of the pH and the electrical conductivity, and operation history of the reflector cooling system

277

Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

2009-01-01

278

Evaluation of Urban Air Quality By Passive Sampling Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Aveiro is a flat small city in the centre of Portugal, close to the Atlantic coast. In the last two decades an intensive development of demographic, traffic and industry growth in the region was observed which was reflected on the air quality degrada- tion. In order to evaluate the urban air quality in Aveiro, a field-monitoring network by passive sampling with high space resolution was implemented. Twenty-four field places were distributed in a area of 3x3 Km2 and ozone and NO2 concentrations were measured. The site distribution density was higher in the centre, 250x250 m2 than in periphery where a 500x500 m2 grid was used. The selection of field places took into consideration the choice criteria recommendation by United Kingdom environmental authorities, and three tubes and a blank tube for each pollutant were used at each site. The sampling system was mounted at 3m from the ground usually profiting the street lampposts. Concerning NO2 acrylic tubes were used with 85 mm of length and an in- ternal diameter of 12mm, where in one of the extremities three steel grids impregnated with a solution of TEA were placed and fixed with a polyethylene end cup (Heal et al., 1999); PFA Teflon tube with 53 mm of length and 9 mm of internal diameter and three impregnated glass filters impregnated with DPE solution fixed by a teflon end cup was used for ozone sampling (Monn and Hargartner, 1990). The passive sampling method for ozone and nitrogen dioxide was compared with continuous measurements, but the amount of measurements wasnSt enough for an accurate calibration and validation of the method. Although this constraint the field observations (June to August 2001) for these two pollutants assign interesting information about the air quality in the urban area. A krigger method of interpolation (Surfer- Golden Software-2000) was applied to field data to obtain isolines distribution of NO2 and ozone concentration for the studied area. Even the used passive sampling method has many limitations it is possi- ble to say that the NO2 concentrations were strictly related with traffic intensity and in the centre 3 to 10 times higher values were observed than the incoming air to the city; on the contrary the ozone seems to be consumed where we observe the highest NO2 concentrations. Heal, M. R.; O'Donoghue, M. A. and Cape, J. N., Overestimation of Urban Nitrogen Dioxide by Passive Sampling Tubes: a comparative exposure and model study, Atmo- spheric Environment, Vol 33, pp 513-524, 1999 Monn, Ch., Hangartner, M., Passive Sampling for Ozone, J. of Air and Waste Management Association, Vol. 40, Nz 3, 1990

Nunes, T. V.; Miranda, A. I.; Duarte, S.; Lima, M. J.

279

Towards Sustainable Water Quality In Estuarine Impoundments: Sediment Processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several estuarine impoundment schemes have been built or are proposed in the UK and worldwide. The impounding of estuaries is currently a popular approach to urban regeneration in the UK. By creation of an aesthetically pleasing amenity impound- ment, including the drowning of "unsightly" tidal mud flats, it is hoped that prestige development will be encouraged in the estuarine area. Impounding fundamentally alters the dynamics of estuaries, with consequences in terms of sedimentation patterns and rates, and water quality. The SIMBA Project at- tempts to understand the controls on water quality in impoundments, with a view to- wards long term and sustainable high water quality through good barrage design and management practice. The results of process based studies, concentrating on interactions between sediment and water quality in the systems, are presented. A series of sequential extraction exper- iments have been carried out on cores of sediment to model the releases from sediment under different environmental conditions likely to be encountered in the impound- ments. Results are related to similar experiments carried out on suspended particulate material, and to pore-water experiments carried out using gel-probes.

Wright, J.; Worrall, F.

280

Water quality associated public health risk in Bo, Sierra Leone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human health depends on reliable access to safe drinking water, but in many developing countries only a limited number of wells and boreholes are available. Many of these water resources are contaminated with biological or chemical pollutants. The goal of this study was to examine water access and quality in urban Bo, Sierra Leone. A health census and community mapping project in one neighborhood in Bo identified the 36 water sources used by the community. A water sample was taken from each water source and tested for a variety of microbiological and physicochemical substances. Only 38.9% of the water sources met World Health Organization (WHO) microbial safety requirements based on fecal coliform levels. Physiochemical analysis indicated that the majority (91.7%) of the water sources met the requirements set by the WHO. In combination, 25% of these water resources met safe drinking water criteria. No variables associated with wells were statistically significant predictors of contamination. This study indicated that fecal contamination is the greatest health risk associated with drinking water. There is a need to raise hygiene awareness and implement inexpensive methods to reduce fecal contamination and improve drinking water safety in Bo, Sierra Leone.

Jimmy DH; Sundufu AJ; Malanoski AP; Jacobsen KH; Ansumana R; Leski TA; Bangura U; Bockarie AS; Tejan E; Lin B; Stenger DA

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The effects of urbanization on groundwater quantity and quality in the Zahedan aquifer, southeast Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the impacts of urban growth on groundwater quality and quantity in the Zahedan aquifer, which is the sole source of water supply for the city of Zahedan, Iran. The investigation is based on the collection of available historical data, supplemented by field and laboratory investigations. Groundwater levels in 40 wells were measured in December 2000. In addition, 102 water samples were taken in two periods during November and December 2000. Of these, 43 samples were analyzed for major ions, 32 samples were analyzed for nitrogen and phosphorus and the remainder for bacteriological contamination. The water level data show that there has been a general decline since 1977 due to over-abstraction. The magnitude of this decline has reached about 20 m in some places. However, in one area over the same period, a rise of about 3 m has been observed. This occurs as a result of the local hydrogeological conditions of shallow bedrock and relatively low permeability materials down stream of this area that limits the flow of groundwater towards the northeastern part of the aquifer. The general fall in groundwater levels has been accompanied by a change in the direction of the groundwater flow and an overall reduction of the areal extent of the saturated region of the aquifer. The city now has a serious problem such that even if the abstracted groundwater is rationed, water is not available for long periods because the demand far exceeds the supply. The heavy impact of urbanization on the groundwater quality is shown through the observed high nitrate (up to 295 mg/l as nitrate) and high phosphorus values (about 0.1 mg/l as P). Significant changes in the chloride concentration are also observed in two areas: increasing from 100 mg/l to 1,600 mg/l and from 2,000 mg/l to 4,000 mg/l, respectively. Furthermore, the bacteriological investigations show that 33 percent of the 27 collected groundwater samples are positive for total coliform and 11 percent of the samples contained fecal coliforms indicating that local sources are strongly influencing the observed chemical data. Greater depths to groundwater reduce the observation of coliform contamination. In general, the unplanned urban development in Zahedan has significantly degraded the region's water resources and significant actions such as upgrading the sewage waste disposal system, locating other sources of water supply, and strict groundwater management will all be needed to resolve the problems that have arisen.

Khazaei, E.; Mackay, R.; Warner, J. W.

2004-01-01

282

Adaptive Management of the Water Cycle on the Urban Fringe: Three Australian Case Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our group at Macquarie University has run three adaptive management projects in New South Wales, Australia. Their objectives were: (1) to evaluate water cycle management strategies to minimize impacts of urban development on water quality in the Hawkesbury-Nepean basin; (2) to evaluate development planning policies to minimize water quality impacts on a series of coastal lakes; and (3) to carry out a preliminary assessment of the potential impacts of greater recreational use of Sydney water catchments. These projects are examined to evaluate the contribution of the adaptive management approach to water cycle management on the urban fringe in New South Wales. The role of the adaptive management approach in education, as a negotiation process, and in policy formulation and evaluation, is presented. The importance of community participation, the role of an "institutional champion," and the need to manage the lead-up phase and the postworkshop phase with as much attention to detail as the workshop phase is underlined. Proposed prerequisites for a successful adaptive management project are developed along these lines.

Alistair Gilmour; Greg Walkerden; James Scandol

1999-01-01

283

Drinking Water Quality Assessment in Tetova Region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The quality of drinking water is a crucial factor for human health. The objective of this study was the assessment of physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of the drinking water in the city of Tetova and several surrounding villages in the Republic of Macedonia for...

B. H. Durmishi; M. Ismaili; A. Shabani; Sh. Abduli

284

WATER QUALITY OF THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER  

Science.gov (United States)

Clear Spring Foods, Inc., conducted a year-long study in the Middle Snake River to provide a perspective on water quality issues and the impact of aquaculture activities on water quality. The study area extended from Shoshone Falls Park to below Box Canyon. Physical and chemical ...

285

Great Lakes Water Quality - Annual Report 1972.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report is the first annual report of the Great Lakes Water Quality Board to the International Joint Commission pursuant to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the United States and Canada signed on April 15, 1972. The report is intended to...

1973-01-01

286

In search of effective bioassessment of urban stormwater pond sediments: enhancing the 'sediment quality triad' approach with oligochaete metrics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stormwater ponds have been widely used to control increased volumes and rates of surface runoff resulting from urbanization. As receiving waters, they are under the influence of intermittent pollution from urban wet-weather discharges. Meanwhile they offer new aquatic habitats balancing the transformation of initial ecosystems and their associated biodiversity. Bioassessment of stormwater facilities is therefore crucial to insure the preservation and rehabilitation of biodiversity in urban areas. Nonetheless, the application of traditional bioassessment methodologies such as the sediment quality triad (SQT), based on the comparisons with reference sites, is challenged by the artificial and atypical features of urban stormwater ponds. Our concern in finding a more specific and effective bioassessment methodology led us to consider associating the Oligochaete Index Methodology (OIM) with the SQT. This study shows that although some adjustments were needed, the OIM brought new and complementary information to the SQT assessment on the effects of contaminants and on the biological quality status of the sediment in a test urban stormwater pond.

Tixier G; Rochfort Q; Grapentine L; Marsalek J; Lafont M

2011-01-01

287

In search of effective bioassessment of urban stormwater pond sediments: enhancing the 'sediment quality triad' approach with oligochaete metrics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stormwater ponds have been widely used to control increased volumes and rates of surface runoff resulting from urbanization. As receiving waters, they are under the influence of intermittent pollution from urban wet-weather discharges. Meanwhile they offer new aquatic habitats balancing the transformation of initial ecosystems and their associated biodiversity. Bioassessment of stormwater facilities is therefore crucial to insure the preservation and rehabilitation of biodiversity in urban areas. Nonetheless, the application of traditional bioassessment methodologies such as the sediment quality triad (SQT), based on the comparisons with reference sites, is challenged by the artificial and atypical features of urban stormwater ponds. Our concern in finding a more specific and effective bioassessment methodology led us to consider associating the Oligochaete Index Methodology (OIM) with the SQT. This study shows that although some adjustments were needed, the OIM brought new and complementary information to the SQT assessment on the effects of contaminants and on the biological quality status of the sediment in a test urban stormwater pond. PMID:22179649

Tixier, G; Rochfort, Q; Grapentine, L; Marsalek, J; Lafont, M

2011-01-01

288

Drinking water quality assessment in Southern Sindh (Pakistan).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The southern Sindh province of Pakistan adjoins the Arabian Sea coast where drinking water quality is deteriorating due to dumping of industrial and urban waste and use of agrochemicals and yet has limited fresh water resources. The study assessed the drinking water quality of canal, shallow pumps, dug wells, and water supply schemes from the administrative districts of Thatta, Badin, and Thar by measuring physical, chemical, and biological (total coliform) quality parameters. All four water bodies (dug wells, shallow pumps canal water, and water supply schemes) exceeded WHO MPL for turbidity (24%, 28%, 96%, 69%), coliform (96%, 77%, 92%, 81%), and electrical conductivity (100%, 99%, 44%, 63%), respectively. However, the turbidity was lower in underground water, i.e., 24% and 28% in dug wells and shallow pumps as compared to open water, i.e., 96% and 69% in canal and water supply schemes, respectively. In dug wells and shallow pumps, limits for TDS, alkalinity, hardness, and sodium exceeded, respectively, by 63% and 33%; 59% and 70%, 40% and 27%, and 78% and 26%. Sodium was major problem in dug wells and shallow pumps of district Thar and considerable percent in shallow pumps of Badin. Iron was major problem in all water bodies of district Badin ranging from 50% to 69% and to some extent in open waters of Thatta. Other parameters as pH, copper, manganese, zinc, and phosphorus were within standard permissible limits of World Health Organization. Some common diseases found in the study area were gastroenteritis, diarrhea and vomiting, kidney, and skin problems.

Memon M; Soomro MS; Akhtar MS; Memon KS

2011-06-01

289

Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Urban water management requires further clarification about pollutants in storm water. Little is known about the release of organic additives used in construction materials and the impact of these compounds to storm water runoff. We investigated sources and pathways of additives used in construction materials, i.e., biocides in facades’ render as well as root protection products in bitumen membranes for rooftops. Under wet-weather conditions, the concentrations of diuron, terbutryn, carbendazim, irgarol®1051 (all from facades) and mecoprop in storm water and receiving water exceeded the predicted no-effect concentrations values and the Swiss water quality standard of 0.1 ?g/L. Under laboratory conditions maximum concentrations of additives were in the range of a few milligrams and a few hundred micrograms per litre in runoff of facades and bitumen membranes. Runoff from aged materials shows approximately one to two orders of magnitude lower concentrations. Concentrations decreased also during individual runoff events. In storm water and receiving water the occurrence of additives did not follow the typical first flush model. This can be explained by the release lasting over the time of rainfall and the complexity of the drainage network. Beside the amounts used, the impact of construction materials containing hazardous additives on water quality is related clearly to the age of the buildings and the separated sewer network. The development of improved products regarding release of hazardous additives is the most efficient way of reducing the pollutant load from construction materials in storm water runoff.

Burkhardt, Mike; Zuleeg, S.

2011-01-01

290

Water quality and MTBE water pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research project, here presented, was defined with the aim of evaluating the eventual presence of MTBE and the possible relative impact in water destined to human use; the territorial valence of the project was extended to the competence region n. 4 of the Tuscany water authority (AATO n. 4). University of Florence, ARPAT, AATO n. 4 and Nuove Acque SpA, in this role of manager for the integrated water cycle in the country, have productively contributed to the project

2001-01-01

291

Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D. [Little Big Horn Coll., Crow Agency, MT (United States)

1995-10-01

292

Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators. PMID:23438312

Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha

2013-02-26

293

Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators.

Lin J; Ganesh A

2013-02-01

294

Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban WaterConservation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents a project undertaken for theCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council (the Council) to create a newmethod of accounting for the diverse environmental benefits of raw watersavings. The environmental benefits (EB) model was designed to providewater utilities with a practical tool that they can use to assign amonetary value to the benefits that may accrue from implementing any ofthe Council-recommended Best Management Practices. The model treats onlyenvironmental services associated directly with water, and is intended tocover miscellaneous impacts that are not currently accounted for in anyother cost-benefit analysis.

Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

2007-05-01

295

A Complex Adaptive Systems Approach to Simulate Sociotechnical Dynamics in Urban Water Resources Management  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality and availability of water resources depends on the dynamic interactions among natural, infrastructure, and social systems. Decentralized decisions regarding land and water use shape the hydrologic characteristics of a watershed and drive the need for infrastructure to meet water demands. Simultaneously, policy-makers can update zoning regulations and drought management strategies based on the availability of natural resources. Engineering management has conventionally considered these social processes and policy adaptations as static inputs, ignoring feedbacks and interactions among decision-makers and the water system. A new modeling framework that explores the interactions among the components of an urban water system and allows the simulation of dynamic management strategies can provide new insight to the influence of feedbacks on water sustainability. This research develops and demonstrates a new Complex Adaptive Systems approach to model the interactions among population growth, land use change, the hydrologic cycle, residential water use, and inter-basin transfers. Agent-based and cellular automata models, representing consumers and policy-makers who make land and water use decisions, are coupled with hydrologic models (Figure 1). The framework is applied to simulate the complexities of urbanization and water supply for an illustrative case study over a long-term planning horizon. Results indicate that interactions among the decentralized decisions of individual residents can significantly influence system-wide sustainability. In addition, as water management decisions become more tightly constrained due to stresses of population growth, land use change, and drought, adaptive operation rules may be developed to restrict the water use and land use of consumers as the availability of water decreases. These strategies are simulated and assessed based on their abilities to increase the sustainability of the water supply system.

Zechman, E. M.; Giacomoni, M. H.

2011-12-01

296

Assessing the microbiological performance and potential cost of boiling drinking water in urban Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Boiling is the most common method of disinfecting water in the home and the benchmark against which other point-of-use water treatment is measured. In a six-week study in peri-urban Zambia, we assessed the microbiological effectiveness and potential cost of boiling among 49 households without a water connection who reported "always" or "almost always" boiling their water before drinking it. Source and household drinking water samples were compared weekly for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), an indicator of fecal contamination. Demographics, costs, and other information were collected through surveys and structured observations. Drinking water samples taken at the household (geometric mean 7.2 TTC/100 mL, 95% CI, 5.4-9.7) were actually worse in microbiological quality than source water (geometric mean 4.0 TTC/100 mL, 95% CI, 3.1-5.1) (p < 0.001), although both are relatively low levels of contamination. Only 60% of drinking water samples were reported to have actually been boiled at the time of collection from the home, suggesting over-reporting and inconsistent compliance. However, these samples were of no higher microbiological quality. Evidence suggests that water quality deteriorated after boiling due to lack of residual protection and unsafe storage and handling. The potential cost of fuel or electricity for boiling was estimated at 5% and 7% of income, respectively. In this setting where microbiological water quality was relatively good at the source, safe-storage practices that minimize recontamination may be more effective in managing the risk of disease from drinking water at a fraction of the cost of boiling.

Psutka R; Peletz R; Michelo S; Kelly P; Clasen T

2011-07-01

297

???????????????? An International Comparison of China’s Urban Water Resource Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Water is the most fundamental resource that human survival and social development must rely on. At present, the global water resource shortage is increasingly serious along with the rapid development of social economy. Because of the rising water consumption and increasing pollution, the urban water resource is also faced with severe challenges. This paper first introduces the strategies of urban water resource management and utilization home and overseas from the following three aspects: the water resource supply-demand balance, water saving measures, and the relevant laws and policies. After the analysis and comparison of global urban water resource strategies, the paper has then identified the existing issues of urban water resource management in China. They are: 1) weak citizen water saving conscious; 2) the lagged theory research on urban water management; 3) insufficient laws and technical regulations; 4) weak urban underground drainage system. Finally, the paper proposes some policy suggestions for China’s urban water resource strategies: 1) carry out water-saving education and vigorously promote the water-saving appliances to establish a water-saving society; 2) enhance the theory study and technology innovation in water resource management; 3) perfect the laws and the specific technical regulations; 4) encourage the treated wastewater used in agricultural irrigation; 5) reconstruct the urban underground drainage system.

??; ???; ???

2013-01-01

298

Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area  

Science.gov (United States)

Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban-rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3) episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ). Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island) significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural) emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the sea-breeze inflow layer reduces NOx levels, thus contributing to the elevated O3 levels in the urban area.

Ryu, Y.-H.; Baik, J.-J.; Kwak, K.-H.; Kim, S.; Moon, N.

2013-02-01

299

Drinking Water Quality Assessment in Tetova Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The quality of drinking water is a crucial factor for human health. The objective of this study was the assessment of physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of the drinking water in the city of Tetova and several surrounding villages in the Republic of Macedonia for the period May 2007-2008. The sampling and analysis are conducted in accordance with State Regulation No. 57/2004, which is in compliance with EU and WHO standards. A total of 415 samples were taken for chemical, physical and bacteriological analysis. Approach: We had used the Canadian Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) for the quality assessment of drinking water. Results: The results of the samples taken in Tetova point to better hygienic and sanitary conditions than in the rural drinking network, mainly due to improper disinfection practices. The results show that the highest water quality was recorded at the SEEU (DWQI = 92.69), whereas the lowest quality at Shipkovica (DWQI = 63.18). Conclusion: This study strongly recommends the immediate correction of these issues to protect the health of population from water borne diseases as well as regular monitoring of the drinking water quality in the region.

B. H. Durmishi; M. Ismaili; A. Shabani; Sh. Abduli

2012-01-01

300

Spatial and temporal variation in nutrient parameters in stream water in a rural-urban catchment, Shikoku, Japan: effects of land cover and human impact.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seasonal and spatial variations in major ion chemistry and isotope composition in the rural-urban catchment of the Shigenobu River were monitored to determine the influences of agricultural and urban sewage systems on water quality. Temporal patterns of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and suspended sediment (SS) were examined at four sites in the rural-urban catchment. Urban land cover, incorporating the effects of increased population, domestic water use, and industrial wastewater, was positively associated with increases in water pollution and was included as an important explanatory variable for the variations in all water quality parameters. Significant trends were found in each parameter. BOD concentrations ranged widely, and were high in urban regions, due to the presence of a waste water treatment plant. TN and SS showed various trends, but did not vary widely, unlike TP. TP concentrations varied greatly, with high concentrations in cultivated areas, due to fertilizer use. Local water quality management or geology could further explain some of the variations in water quality. Non-point-source pollution exhibited strong positive spatial autocorrelation, indicating that incorporating spatial dimensions into water quality assessment enhances our understanding of spatial patterns of water quality. Data from the Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport (MLIT) and Environment Ministry (EM) were used to investigate trends in land management. Stepwise regression analysis was used to test the correlation between specific management practises and substance concentrations in surface water and sediment. MLIT and EM data for 1981-2003 showed an increase in TN, TP, and SS concentrations in surface water. High levels of fertilizer in dormant sprays and domestic water use were associated with high pesticide concentrations in water and sediment. This paper presents a novel method of studying the environmental impact of various agricultural management practises and recommends a management strategy that combines the use of reduced-risk pesticides with irrigation and non-irrigation periods in paddy fields.

Mouri G; Takizawa S; Oki T

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

National Water-Quality Assessment Program - Source Water-Quality Assessments  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2002, the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) implemented Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) to characterize the quality of selected rivers and aquifers used as a source of supply to community water systems in the United States. These assessments are intended to complement drinking-water monitoring required by Federal, State, and local programs, which focus primarily on post-treatment compliance monitoring.

Delzer, Gregory C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.

2007-01-01

302

Domestic Wastewater Quality and Pollutant Loadings from Urban Housing Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wetlands are important spawning and nursery ground for fish and prawns. However, wetlands have been reported to be polluted in different parts of the world. One of the pollution sources is domestic wastewater. Therefore, in this study, domestic wastewater quality was studied at three major housing areas. Samplings were conducted in three trips. Results showed that pH ranged from 6.64 to 7.31 and temperature ranged from 23.5 to 31.7 oC. DO values were low, that is, below 3.5 mg/L for all trips at all areas studied indicating that it was not suitable for aquatic life. Nutrients such as ammoniacal nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus of the housing areas ranged from 11.1 to 17.2 mg/L and 1.05 to 2.43 mg/L respectively. Biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids concentrations at all the housing areas exceeded the Standard B maximum permitted values of Effluent Discharge Standard of Environmental Quality Act 1974. Loadings of pollutants from housing areas in Kuching were computed. This study shows that domestic wastewater was low in DO, high in oxygen demand, high in solids and nutrients thus loading the rivers with pollutants. Therefore, domestic wastewater must be treated before being channeled to the adjacent water bodies to avoid eutrophication in the receiving water and to recover nutrients.

T.Y Ling; M.J. Dana; S. Bostam; L. Nyanti

2012-01-01

303

Microbiological air quality in an urban solid waste selection plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Exposure to bioaerosols may pose health risks to workers operating in the processing of Urban Solid Waste (USW). The aim of this study is to evaluate microbiological air quality within an USW selection facility.Methods: Nine sampling points in an USW selection plant situated in central-southern Italy were selected. One outdoor sampling point provided the background data. Sampling was performed on a yearly basis (2005 – 2009) upon request by the management of the selection plant. Total Mesophilic Counts (TMC), as well as fungal and Gram-negative concentrations were determined.Results: The highest viable fungal particles concentrations (medians) were found in waste delivery areas (about 20000 CFU/m3), while the lowest were found in the control rooms (485 – 967 CFU/m3). TMC (median) was highest (6116 CFU/m3) at the delivery pit, followed by the machine shop (3147 CFU/m3), where no waste processing takes place. Medians of Gram-negative bacteria are below the suggested Occupational Exposure Limit of 1000 CFU/m3, although this limit was exceeded at several single time-points in the waste delivery areas, and also in a personnel resting room. The lowest Gram-negative contamination was found in the control rooms (medians <1 CFU/m3).Conclusions: Some areas within a USW selection plant act as internal sources of contamination towards those areas where partially processed waste, or no waste at all, is present. Well-designed air flows, or carefullythought positioning of areas that are not directly involved in waste processing are necessary and effective in obtaining

Angela Del Cimmuto; Francesca D’Acunzo; Lucia Marinelli; Maria De Giusti; Antonio Boccia

2010-01-01

304

Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area  

Science.gov (United States)

Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban-rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on air quality during a high ozone (O3) episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ). Under a fair weather condition, the temperature excess (urban heat island) significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deepened urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the less O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection process but also the chemical process under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural) emissions play important roles in forming O3. The intrusion of the air masses, characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length, from surroundings increases ozone production efficiency in the urban area, thus leading to more O3 production. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the sea-breeze inflow layer reduces NOx levels, thus contributing to the elevated O3 levels in the urban area.

Ryu, Y.-H.; Baik, J.-J.; Kwak, K.-H.; Kim, S.; Moon, N.

2012-09-01

305

Multiple sources of boron in urban surface waters and groundwaters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies attribute abnormal boron (B) levels in streams and groundwaters to wastewater and fertilizer inputs. This study shows that municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation contributes substantial non-point loads of B and other chemicals (S-species, Li, and Cu) to surface waters and shallow groundwaters in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. Background levels and potential B sources were characterized by analysis of lawn and street runoff, streams, rivers, springs, local rainfall, wastewater influent and effluent, and fertilizers. Urban surface waters and groundwaters are highly enriched in B (to 250?g/L) compared to background levels found in rain and pristine, carbonate-hosted streams and springs (<25?g/L), but have similar concentrations (150 to 259?g/L) compared to municipal drinking waters derived from the Missouri River. Other data including B/SO4(2-)-S and B/Li ratios confirm major contributions from this source. Moreover, sequential samples of runoff collected during storms show that B concentrations decrease with increased discharge, proving that elevated B levels are not primarily derived from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) during flooding. Instead, non-point source B exhibits complex behavior depending on land use. In urban settings B is rapidly mobilized from lawns during "first flush" events, likely representing surficial salt residues from drinking water used to irrigate lawns, and is also associated with the baseflow fraction, likely derived from the shallow groundwater reservoir that over time accumulates B from drinking water that percolates into the subsurface. The opposite occurs in small rural watersheds, where B is leached from soils by recent rainfall and covaries with the event water fraction.

Hasenmueller EA; Criss RE

2013-03-01

306

Water quality issues and status in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Per capita water availability in Pakistan has dropped drastically during the last fifty years. Recent extended droughts have further aggravated the situation. In order to meet the shortage and crop water requirements, groundwater is being used extensively in the Indus Basin. Groundwater is also the main source of water for drinking and industrial uses. This increased pressure on groundwater has lowered the water table in many cities. It is reported that water table has dropped by more than 3 m in many cities. This excessive use of groundwater has seriously affected the quality of groundwater and has increased the incidences of water-borne diseases many folds. A recent water quality study has shown that out of 560,000 tube wells of Indus Basin, about 70 percent are pumping sodic water. The use of sodic water has in turn affected the soil health and crop yields. This situation is being further aggravated due to changes in climate and rainfall patterns. To monitor changes in surface and groundwater quality and groundwater levels, Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources has undertaken a countrywide programme of water quality monitoring. This programme covers twenty-one cities from the four provinces, five rivers, 10 storage reservoirs and lakes and two main drains of Pakistan. Under this programme a permanent monitoring network is established from where water samples are collected and analyzed once every year. The collected water samples are analyzed for aesthetic, chemical and bacteriological parameters to determine their suitability for agricultural, domestic and industrial uses. The results of the present study indicate serious contamination in many cities. Excessive levels of arsenic, fluoride and sodium have been detected in many cities. This paper highlights the major water quality issues and briefly presents the preliminary results of the groundwater analysis for major cities of Pakistan. (author)

2005-01-01

307

Characterization of water quality for regional planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water quality is often characterized for regional planning and various techniques have been used. A confounding factor for water quality at the regional scale is that three separate systems for classifying watersheds or hydrologic regions exist, and the boundaries for hydrologic regions do not always agree between these systems. This paper uses the USGS hydrologic unit system's division of water accounting and cataloging units. Water quality data aggregated at the county level are useful for some planning purposes; however, this aggregation forces hydrologic data into arbitrary political boundaries and may not result in an accurate characterization of water quality. Because hydrologic units are geographical areas based on river or stream basins, a more realistic way to characterize water quality on a regional scale may be to partition data by the various levels of the hydrologic unit. This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of various methods that can be used to characterize water quality for regional studies and reports the results from some preliminary work using two techniques - cluster analysis and discriminant analysis - to determine the most appropriate method for such characterization. 13 references, 3 figures.

Hunsaker, C.T.; Beauchamp, J.J.

1983-01-01

308

Computaional Complexity Analysis on Water Quality Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The computational algorithms are used to determine the features and applications from large data sets in real time environment. The computational applications are also used in environmental computing to evaluate the degree of air, water and sound pollutions and measures of prevention. The computational process of water quality index (WQI) is determined through analysis of water quality attributes. Though existing methods produced WQI with certain water quality attributes according to the nature and need of the applcations but it is not applicable to all other water quality attributes and the WQI computation procedures. The computing methodology of WQI is to be standardised for the assessment of the water quality which is applicable to all the domains in the same standard assessment process. Therefore, the complexity of computing the WQI value is analysed. In this paper, to evaluate the computational procedure, the WQI was computed by considering two different approaches classified into 9 water quality attributes by assigning standard weights and 6 attributes with different weights as a model. The same computation was carried out with possible combinational attributes analysis. The comparative study was made and the computational complexity is presented as part of this paper.

Anni Prabakaran & Dr. B. Poorna

2012-01-01

309

Water Quality Evaluation: Toxic Cyanobacteria in Surface Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Task of this article is to discuss the risk of blue green algal bloom to public health and to compare water quality assessment standards of surface waters among the EU Member States: France, Germany and Lithuania, drawing attention to the EU Water Framework Directive and its aims. Influence...

Dovile Lileikyte; Olga Belous

310

Water quality in the Knysna estuary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Measurements of water temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, secchi disk depth, turbidity and total suspended solids were taken monthly in the Knysna estuary between 1991 and 1994. Measurements of turbidity and total suspended solids of waters entering the Knysna estuary via rivers and man-made inlets were also taken on an ad hoc basis. These results are described and compared to published data on past water quality conditions. No clear long-term changes in water quality in the estuary were evident. High inputs of sediments from minor catchments indicate the necessity for remedial actions.

I.A. Russell

1996-01-01

311

Environmental Impact Assessment, Water Quality Analysis, Hawaii.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive water quality analysis and environmental impact assessment was undertaken in Hawaii as part of a national assessment of anticipated environmental impacts of theoretically achieving or not achieving the requirements and goals of the Federal...

1976-01-01

312

Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainability Analysis of Urban Infrastructure - abstract  

Science.gov (United States)

Water and transportation infrastructures define spatial distribution of urban population and economic activities. In this context, energy and water consumed per capita are tangible measures of how efficient water and transportation systems are constructed and operated. At a hig...

313

Pollutant transfer through air and water pathways in an urban environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors are attempting to simulate the transport and fate of pollutants through air and water pathways in an urban environment. This cross-disciplinary study involves linking together models of mesoscale meteorology, air pollution chemistry and deposition, urban runoff and stormwater transport, water quality, and wetland chemistry and biology. The authors are focusing on the transport and fate of nitrogen species because (1) they track through both air and water pathways, (2) the physics, chemistry, and biology of the complete cycle is not well understood, and (3) they have important health, local ecosystem, and global climate implications. The authors will apply their linked modeling system to the Los Angeles basin, following the fate of nitrates from their beginning as nitrate-precursors produced by auto emissions and industrial processes, tracking their dispersion and chemistry as they are transported by regional winds and eventually wet or dry deposit on the ground, tracing their path as they are entrained into surface water runoff during rain events and carried into the stormwater system, and then evaluating their impact on receiving water bodies such as wetlands where biologically-mediated chemical reactions take place. In this paper, the authors wish to give an overview of the project and at the conference show preliminary results.

Brown, M.; Burian, S.; McPherson, T.; Streit, G.; Costigan, K.; Greene, B.

1998-12-31

314

EVALUACIÓN PRELIMINAR DE LA CALIDAD DE LA ESCORRENTÍA PLUVIAL SOBRE TEJADOS PARA SU POSIBLE APROVECHAMIENTO EN ZONAS PERIURBANAS DE BOGOTÁ/ PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF ROOF RUNOFF RAIN WATER QUALITY FOR POTENTIAL HARVESTING IN BOGOTA?S PERI-URBAN AREAS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En Colombia, varias comunidades, cuyo acceso al servicio de agua potable es limitado o precario, recolectan aguas lluvias para diferentes usos domésticos. Este artículo presenta los resultados de análisis de calidad de aguas lluvias de escorrentía sobre tejados, en barrios de Kennedy (Bogotá) y del municipio de Soacha (Cundinamarca), con miras a evaluar su adaptabilidad para satisfacer usos domésticos, en dichas comunidades. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, el (more) agua muestreada no es apta para ninguno de los usos de las comunidades estudiadas, debido principalmente a altos valores de turbiedad y altas concentraciones de Sólidos Suspendidos Totales, Demanda Bioquímica de Oxígeno a los cinco días y metales pesados; sin embargo, se detectó una alta variabilidad espacial y temporal de los resultados, así como en función de los materiales de los techos de las casas. En algunos casos y condiciones especiales, el agua lluvia de escorrentía sobre tejados, se podría adaptar para ser utilizada como fuente alternativa para satisfacer algunos usos domésticos. Abstract in english In Colombia, several communities with limited or precarious access to potable water services collect rain water for different domestic uses. This paper presents results of the quality analysis of runoff rainwater on roofs in Kennedy (Bogotá) and Soacha (Cundinamarca) in order to evaluate their adaptability to satisfy domestic uses in these districts. Based on the results obtained, it can be conclude that the sampled water is not suitable for none of the possible domestic (more) uses in these communities. This is due to high values of turbidity and high concentrations of Total Suspended Solids, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and heavy metals. Nevertheless, high spatial and temporal variability was detected, as well as variability in function of the roof material. In some of the analyzed samples, the runoff water of the roofs could be adapted as an alternative for domestic uses.

Torres, Andrés; Méndez-Fajardo, Sandra; López-Kleine, Liliana; Marín, Valentina; González, Jorge Andrés; Suárez, Juan Camilo; Pinzón, Julián David; Ruiz, Alejandra

2011-06-01

315

Water quality in North American river systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is about water quality and other characteristics of selected ecosystems in North America. It is also about changes that have occurred in these ecosystems as a result of recent human activities-changes that result primarily from development and exploitation to sustain the needs of an ever-increasing population and the technical innovations that sustain it. Fish populations, hydrology, and water quality control efforts are discussed.

1992-01-01

316

Analysis of water-quality indices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To facilitate communication on water quality among professionals of this resource, several summarizing tools called water quality indices were developed. Because the general features of these indices are little known, this article provides the reader with basic knowledge regarding their main components and the intrinsic characteristics of their operational process. This is then followed by a list of 20 indices grouped a chart containing five columns headed category, goals, methodology, applicability, and notes. 48 references, 3 tables.

Couillard, D.; Lefebvre, Y.

1985-09-01

317

40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2102 Section...Works § 35.2102 Water quality management planning. Before grant...a) Included in any water quality management plan being implemented...

2010-07-01

318

40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 ...PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM) plans. WQM plans...

2010-07-01

319

New Conception and Decision Support Model for Integrated Urban Water System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditionally, water supply, wastewater disposal, and rainwater elimination systems are three separate systems in cities. It has been realised that urban water systems must be planned, designed, and managed as one integrated urban water system (IUWS). As the emerging direction of development, there ...

Feng, Yucheng

320

Qualidade microbiológica da água em rios de áreas urbanas e periurbanas no baixo Amazonas: o caso do Amapá Microbiologic water quality in urban and periurban rivers on low Amazon river - study of case: Amapá State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo versa sobre a variação espacial-temporal de parâmetros da qualidade da água e foi realizado em quatro rios estuarinos próximos às cidades de Macapá e Santana (AP) - Brasil, e trata especialmente de poluição microbiológica (coliformes fecais - CF), delineada em pesquisa de campo ocorrida entre o período de setembro de 1999 a setembro de 2002. A análise espacial-temporal dos parâmetros bacteriológicos mostrou um significativo grau de comprometimento e degradação ambiental em algumas seções de coleta. A obtenção de faixas de concentração mostrou-se importante para avaliar as freqüências e distribuições estatísticas de parâmetros da qualidade da água, principalmente para indicar riscos à saúde pública e aos ecossistemas aquáticos. Finalmente, devido a quase completa ausência de informações hidrodinâmica e climática sistematizada, a abordagem fundamentou-se na utilização de análise estatística. Contudo, verificou-se uma tendência de aderência dos dados a uma distribuição normal e um grau de deterioração da qualidade da água já presente nas seções estudadas.This study presents the spatial and temporal variability of water quality parameters in rivers of Macapá and Santana region, State of Amapá, Brazil, especially faecal coliforms (FC), being used as indicators. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted in four estuarine rivers. The experiment included five sampling locations and the research was conducted from September 1999 to September 2002. Samples were collected once a monthly. The results of analysis provided us useful information for sanitary and public health planning. In addiction, a socio-economic study of several critical areas in the watershed was carried out. The results showed high faecal coliform concentrations. The complexity of space-temporal variability of the water quality was affected by various factors, such as climatic conditions, tidal variation and human activities. This information can be used in forecasting environmental and public health risks.

Alan Cavalacanti da Cunha; Helenilza Ferreira Albuquerque Cunha; Antônio César Pinho Brasil Júnior; Luis Antonio Daniel; Harry Edmar Schulz

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Describing water quality with aggregate index  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For a long time, water resources engineers have been concerned about the quantity of water available. However, with the increase of pollution in bodies of water, the attention has also focused on the quality of water resources. Alternative efforts to describe water quality by an aggregate index consisting of subindices of the constituent quality variables are examined. Ambiguity problems exist where all the subindices are acceptable and yet the overall index is not. Eclipsing problems exist where the overall index is insensitive to a single variable; such insensitivity is unacceptable. A mathematical formulation is developed that avoids these problems of ambiguity and eclipsing. Furthermore, the recommended index form is open to increasing the number of variables included within the index.

Swamee, P.K.; Tyagi, A.

2000-05-01

322

Water Availability--The Connection Between Water Use and Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Water availability has become a high priority in the United States, in large part because competition for water is becoming more intense across the Nation. Population growth in many areas competes with demands for water to support irrigation and power production. Cities, farms, and power plants compete for water needed by aquatic ecosystems to support their minimum flow requirements. At the same time, naturally occurring and human-related contaminants from chemical use, land use, and wastewater and industrial discharge are introduced into our waters and diminish its quality. The fact that degraded quality limits the availability and suitability of water for critical uses is a well-known reality in many communities. What may be less understood, but equally true, is that our everyday use of water can significantly affect water quality, and thus its availability. Landscape features (such as geology, soils, and vegetation) along with water-use practices (such as ground-water withdrawals and irrigation) govern water availability because, together, they affect the movement of chemical compounds over the land and in the subsurface. Understanding the interactions of human activities with natural sources and the landscape is critical to effectively managing water and sustaining water availability in the future.

Hirsch, Robert M.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Miller, Timothy L.; Myers, Donna N.

2008-01-01

323

Water sensitive urban design retrofits in Copenhagen - 40% to the sewer, 60% to the city  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is emerging in Denmark. This interdisciplinary desk study investigated the options for WSUD retrofitting in a 15 km(2) combined sewer catchment area in Copenhagen. The study was developed in collaboration with the City of Copenhagen and its water utility, and involved researchers representing hydrogeology, sewer hydraulics, environmental chemistry/economics/engineering, landscape architecture and urban planning. The resulting catchment strategy suggests the implementation of five sub-strategies. First, disconnection is focused within sites that are relatively easy to disconnect, due to stormwater quality, soil conditions, stakeholder issues, and the provision of unbuilt sites. Second, stormwater runoff is infiltrated in areas with relatively deep groundwater levels at a ratio that doesn't create a critical rise in the groundwater table to the surface. Third, neighbourhoods located near low-lying streams and public parks are disconnected from the sewer system and the slopingterrain is utilised to convey runoff. Fourth, the promotion of coherent blue and green wedges in the city is linked with WSUD retrofits and urban climate-proofing. Fifth, WSUD is implemented with delayed and regulated overflows to the sewer system. The results are partially adopted by the City of Copenhagen and currently under pilot testing.

Fryd, O.; Backhaus, Antje

2013-01-01

324

Water sensitive urban design retrofits in Copenhagen : 40% to the sewer, 60% to the city  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is emerging in Denmark. This interdisciplinary desk study investigated the options for WSUD retrofitting in a 15 km2 combined sewer catchment area in Copenhagen. The study was developed in collaboration with the City of Copenhagen and its water utility, and involved researchers representing hydrogeology, sewer hydraulics, environmental chemistry/economics/engineering, landscape architecture and urban planning. The resulting catchment strategy suggests the implementation of five sub-strategies. First, disconnection is focused within sites that are relatively easy to disconnect, due to stormwater quality, soil conditions, stakeholder issues, and the provision of unbuilt sites. Second, stormwater runoff is infiltrated in areas with relatively deep groundwater levels at a ratio that doesn't create a critical rise in the groundwater table to the surface. Third, neighbourhoods located near low-lying streams and public parks are disconnected from the sewer system and the sloping terrain is utilised to convey runoff. Fourth, the promotion of coherent blue and green wedges in the city is linked with WSUD retrofits and urban climate-proofing. Fifth, WSUD is implemented with delayed and regulated overflows to the sewer system. The results are partially adopted by the City of Copenhagen and currently under pilot testing.

Fryd, Ole; Backhaus, A.

2013-01-01

325

Water Sensitive Urban Design retrofits in Copenhagen - 40% to the sewer, 60% to the city.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is emerging in Denmark. This interdisciplinary desk study investigated the options for WSUD retrofitting in a 15 km(2) combined sewer catchment area in Copenhagen. The study was developed in collaboration with the City of Copenhagen and its water utility, and involved researchers representing hydrogeology, sewer hydraulics, environmental chemistry/economics/engineering, landscape architecture and urban planning. The resulting catchment strategy suggests the implementation of five sub-strategies. First, disconnection is focused within sites that are relatively easy to disconnect, due to stormwater quality, soil conditions, stakeholder issues, and the provision of unbuilt sites. Second, stormwater runoff is infiltrated in areas with relatively deep groundwater levels at a ratio that doesn't create a critical rise in the groundwater table to the surface. Third, neighbourhoods located near low-lying streams and public parks are disconnected from the sewer system and the sloping terrain is utilised to convey runoff. Fourth, the promotion of coherent blue and green wedges in the city is linked with WSUD retrofits and urban climate-proofing. Fifth, WSUD is implemented with delayed and regulated overflows to the sewer system. The results are partially adopted by the City of Copenhagen and currently under pilot testing.

Fryd O; Backhaus A; Birch H; Fratini CF; Ingvertsen ST; Jeppesen J; Panduro TE; Roldin M; Jensen MB

2013-01-01

326

Avaliação da qualidade higiênico-sanitária da água de poços rasos localizados em uma área urbana: utilização de colifagos em comparação com indicadores bacterianos de poluição fecal The evaluation of the hygienic and sanitary quality of water from private shallow wells situated in an urban area of south-eastern Brazil: a comparison between the use of coliphages and bacterian indicators of fecal pollution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram submetidas às contagens de colifagos, coliformes totais, coliformes fecais e de estreptococos fecais, 104 amostras de água colhidas de 8 poços rasos localizados na área urbana do Município de Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil, com a finalidade de avaliar as condições higiênico-sanitárias e de verificar as correlações existentes entre o número de colifagos e o de bactérias indicadoras de poluição fecal. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram a ocorrência de 96 (92,3%) amostras fora dos padrões bacteriológicos de potabilidade estabelecidos pelo Ministério da Saúde, monstrando ser precárias as condições higiênico-sanitárias das águas analisadas. Os achados evidenciaram a inexistência de correlação entre o número de colifagos e os números de bactérias indicadoras de poluição fecal.One hundred and four water samples from eight private shallow wells situated in the urban area of Jaboticabal city, State of S. Paulo, Brazil, were submitted to coliphage, total coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus counts, for the purpose of discovering their hygienic and sanitary quality and of verifying the correlations between the coliphage numbers and the fecal pollution indicator bacteria. Ninety-six (92.3%) of the samples were not up to the microbiological potability standards. This result demonstrates the unsatisfactory hygienic and sanitary quality of the water samples. The results show also the absence of correlations among coliphages, and the fecal pollution indicatior bacteria.

Luiz Augusto do Amaral; Oswaldo Durival Rossi Júnior; Antonio Nader Filho; Alba Valéria Alexandre

1994-01-01

327

Underground water quality and contamination risk. The case of the basin of Chéria (NE Algeria)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water shortage has become a key problem for all countries and particularly for those in development. In fact, the increase of the populations and the development of urbanism, industries and cultivated land lead to a degradation of the quality of the groundwater and a very significant reduction of th...

Baali, F.; Rouabhia, A.; Kherici, N.; Djabri, L.; Bouchaou, L.; Hani, A.

328

Disconnecting the autopilot in urban water projects : creating an innovation platform for sustainability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

How can we motivate urban planners, water utilities and house owners to collaborate about sustainable urban water projects and to aim for solutions that go beyond the narrow perspective of individual stakeholder interests? A concept for framing a multidisciplinary learning process is developed in the research project: Black blue green: Integrated infrastructure planning as key to sustainable urban water systems, with the acronym 2BG. The concept addresses the need for local authorities to develop competences for adopting an integrated approach including different internal departments. The concept is referred to as ‘the 2BG platform concept’. The 2BG platform concept as been tested three times and proves to a step in the intended directions of developing organisational competences for an integrated approach in sustainable urban water projects. Primarily because it invites urban planners, road and park managers, and sewage managers to a dialogue about sustainable urban water projects while exploring cases of new design solutions; secondly because it facilitates an appreciative communication between “softer” and “harder” disciplines, and thirdly because it promotes multidisciplinary thinking during the early stages of an urban water project. To realise new sustainable urban water designs a project team will need to engage and get acceptance from internal and external stakeholders, and this calls for communication and social skills rather than technical skills. The paper identifies potential stakeholders that can support or potentially stop urban water projects. Competences of network governance represent a need to break out of the conventional urban water design and to develop new designs where storm water is handled visible to citizens. The platform concept is in a Danish context a milestone in capacity building for integrating urban planning with water management and management of parks and roads, and might inspire others to rethink planning processes and to build organisational competences to innovate urban watermanagement for the benefit of present and future citizens.

Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Marina Bergen

2011-01-01

329

Evaluation of surface water quality and pollution in Lepenica river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lepenica river basin is axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija region. However, because of disorderly water regime of Lepenica river and its tributaries, it appears several hydrologic problems on this territory, as example insufficiency of drinking and irrigating water by one cite, and floods and torrents (especially in Kragujevac valley) by other cite. Particular problem is water quality and pollution in river basin. In this paper will be analyzed water quality of Lepenica river and artificial lakes, built in its river basin, according to the data of Republic Hydrometeorologic Institute of Serbia. Also, it will be present polluter cadastre in river basin.

Milanovi? Ana; Kova?evi?-Majki? Jelena

2007-01-01

330

Monitoring the global environment. An assessment of urban air quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) operates worldwide networks to monitor both air and water quality under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). In most cities, there are three GEMS/air monitoring stations: one located in an industrial zone, one in a commercial zone, and one in a residential area. The data obtained in these stations permit a reasonable evaluation of minimum and maximum emission levels and of long-term trends in average concentrations of pollutants. The body of the recent report is based on GEMS/Air data for sulfur dioxide nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead and suspended particulate matter. The effects of these five major pollutants that are emitted in relatively large quantities and are common to virtually all outdoor and indoor environments are summarized.

1989-10-01

331

Water quality trading: Theoretical and practical approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Permit trading as an instrument to control air pollution has already been implemented in several countries, so in Europe since 2005. Could this instrument, however, also be adequately used for water pollution control of river basins in form of a water quality trading? Specific characteristics of riv...

Keudel, Marianne

332

Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Isophorone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Section 304(a) of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1314(a)), requires EPA to publish and periodically update water quality criteria. These criteria are to reflect the latest scientific knowledge on the identifiable effects of pollutants on public health and...

1980-01-01

333

OPTIMIZATION OF STATE WATER QUALITY MONITORING SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The water quality monitoring activities required of the States under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments (PL92-500) will require resources well beyond what is likely to be available, if current systems structures and operating procedures are followed. This paper de...

334

CONTRIBUTIONS OF WATER FILTRATION TO IMPROVING WATER QUALITY  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of water quality improvements can be accomplished by properly operated filtration plants. These include reduction of turbidity, micro-organisms, asbestos fibers, color, trihalomethane precursors, and organics adsorbed to particulate matter. The focus of the paper is on ...

335

The quality of water for human consumption in the Tolima department, Colombia  

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Full Text Available Objective: to describe the quality of drinking water in urban areas of the Tolima department and its relationship to the reported incidence of hepatitis A, acute diarrheal disease and social indicators. Methodology: descriptive observational study using cross-sectional ecological databases (sivicap) and (sivigila) 2010. It was mean, median, standard deviation, proportion of reported incidence of municipalities of Tolima (n = 47), we used one-way anova and correlation analysis. Results:63.83% of the municipalities of Tolima had potable water. In the category of sanitary non-viable municipalities were classified: Ataco, Cajamarca, Planadas, Rovira, Valle de San Juan, and Villarrica. 27.7% of the municipalities showed coliform results. No association was found between the incidence of the diseases and water quality, statistically significant relationship was found between the coverage of water supply, sewerage, education and water quality. Discussion: it is necessary to improve water quality, expanding service coverage, epidemiological reporting and promotion of good hygienic practices.

Karol J. Briñez A; Juliana C. Guarnizo G; Samuel A. Arias V

2012-01-01

336

Multiple sources of boron in urban surface waters and groundwaters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies attribute abnormal boron (B) levels in streams and groundwaters to wastewater and fertilizer inputs. This study shows that municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation contributes substantial non-point loads of B and other chemicals (S-species, Li, and Cu) to surface waters and shallow groundwaters in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. Background levels and potential B sources were characterized by analysis of lawn and street runoff, streams, rivers, springs, local rainfall, wastewater influent and effluent, and fertilizers. Urban surface waters and groundwaters are highly enriched in B (to 250?g/L) compared to background levels found in rain and pristine, carbonate-hosted streams and springs (lawns during "first flush" events, likely representing surficial salt residues from drinking water used to irrigate lawns, and is also associated with the baseflow fraction, likely derived from the shallow groundwater reservoir that over time accumulates B from drinking water that percolates into the subsurface. The opposite occurs in small rural watersheds, where B is leached from soils by recent rainfall and covaries with the event water fraction. PMID:23384647

Hasenmueller, Elizabeth A; Criss, Robert E

2013-02-04

337

Improving Water Supply Systems for Domestic Uses in Urban Togo: The Case of a Suburb in Lomé  

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Full Text Available The rapid urbanization facing developing countries is increasing pressure on public institutions to provide adequate supplies of clean water to populations. In most developing countries, the general public is not involved in strategies and policies regarding enhancement, conservation, and management of water supply systems. To assist governments and decision makers in providing potable water to meet the increasing demand due to the rapid urbanization, this study sought to characterize existing water supply systems and obtain public opinion for identifying a community water supply system model for households in a residential neighborhood in Lomé, Togo. Existing water supply systems in the study area consist of bucket-drawn water wells, mini water tower systems, rainwater harvesting, and public piped water. Daily domestic water consumption in the study area compared well with findings on water uses per capita from Sub-Saharan Africa, but was well below daily water usage in developed nations. Based on the surveys, participants thought highly of a large scale community water tower and expressed interest in maintaining it. Even though people rely on water sources deemed convenient for drinking, they also reported limited confidence in the quality of these sources.

Laurent Ahiablame; Bernard Engel; Taisha Venort

2012-01-01

338

Drinking water quality concerns and water vending machines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Drinking water quality is a vital public health concern to consumers and regulators alike. This article describes some of the current microbiological, chemical, and radiological concerns about drinking water and the evolution of water vending machines. Also addressed are the typical treatment processes used in water vending machines and their effectiveness, as well as a brief examination of a certification program sponsored by the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA), which provides a uniform standard for the design and construction of food and beverage vending machines. For some consumers, the water dispensed from vending machines is an attractive alternative to residential tap water which may be objectionable for aesthetic or other reasons.

1994-01-01

339

Drinking water quality concerns and water vending machines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Drinking water quality is a vital public health concern to consumers and regulators alike. This article describes some of the current microbiological, chemical, and radiological concerns about drinking water and the evolution of water vending machines. Also addressed are the typical treatment processes used in water vending machines and their effectiveness, as well as a brief examination of a certification program sponsored by the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA), which provides a uniform standard for the design and construction of food and beverage vending machines. For some consumers, the water dispensed from vending machines is an attractive alternative to residential tap water which may be objectionable for aesthetic or other reasons.

McSwane, D.Z. (Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs); Oleckno, W.A.; Eils, L.M.

1994-06-01

340

Features of waste water quality in Zongguan water plant  

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Full Text Available This paper takes waste water from Zongguan waterworks as a research object. The waste water was monitored consecutively and found that: the SS of waste water was more than 90 times of which in original water, COD was more than 30 times, and Fe was 58 times. The SS and turbidness showed no linear relation except when they were lower. The SS and Fe accord with linearity relation was better. The difference between waste water that from overhead crane at the beginning and in the end was wide. Although the flux of backwash wastes was small but the impact of it over the quality of water was very high.

Hadi Naba Shakir

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Comparison of different uncertainty techniques in urban stormwater quantity and quality modelling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urban drainage models are important tools used by both practitioners and scientists in the field of stormwater management. These models are often conceptual and usually require calibration using local datasets. The quantification of the uncertainty associated with the models is a must, although it is rarely practiced. The International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, has been working on the development of a framework for defining and assessing uncertainties in the field of urban drainage modelling. A part of that work is the assessment and comparison of different techniques generally used in the uncertainty assessment of the parameters of water models. This paper compares a number of these techniques: the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), the Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis algorithm (SCEM-UA), an approach based on a multi-objective auto-calibration (a multialgorithm, genetically adaptive multi-objective method, AMALGAM) and a Bayesian approach based on a simplified Markov Chain Monte Carlo method (implemented in the software MICA). To allow a meaningful comparison among the different uncertainty techniques, common criteria have been set for the likelihood formulation, defining the number of simulations, and the measure of uncertainty bounds. Moreover, all the uncertainty techniques were implemented for the same case study, in which the same stormwater quantity and quality model was used alongside the same dataset. The comparison results for a well-posed rainfall/runoff model showed that the four methods provide similar probability distributions of model parameters, and model prediction intervals. For ill-posed water quality model the differences between the results were much wider; and the paper provides the specific advantages and disadvantages of each method. In relation to computational efficiency (i.e. number of iterations required to generate the probability distribution of parameters), it was found that SCEM-UA and AMALGAM produce results quicker than GLUE in terms of required number of simulations. However, GLUE requires the lowest modelling skills and is easy to implement. All non-Bayesian methods have problems with the way they accept behavioural parameter sets, e.g. GLUE, SCEM-UA and AMALGAM have subjective acceptance thresholds, while MICA has usually problem with its hypothesis on normality of residuals. It is concluded that modellers should select the method which is most suitable for the system they are modelling (e.g. complexity of the model's structure including the number of parameters), their skill/knowledge level, the available information, and the purpose of their study.

Dotto CB; Mannina G; Kleidorfer M; Vezzaro L; Henrichs M; McCarthy DT; Freni G; Rauch W; Deletic A

2012-05-01

342

Comparison of different uncertainty techniques in urban stormwater quantity and quality modelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban drainage models are important tools used by both practitioners and scientists in the field of stormwater management. These models are often conceptual and usually require calibration using local datasets. The quantification of the uncertainty associated with the models is a must, although it is rarely practiced. The International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, has been working on the development of a framework for defining and assessing uncertainties in the field of urban drainage modelling. A part of that work is the assessment and comparison of different techniques generally used in the uncertainty assessment of the parameters of water models. This paper compares a number of these techniques: the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), the Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis algorithm (SCEM-UA), an approach based on a multi-objective auto-calibration (a multialgorithm, genetically adaptive multi-objective method, AMALGAM) and a Bayesian approach based on a simplified Markov Chain Monte Carlo method (implemented in the software MICA). To allow a meaningful comparison among the different uncertainty techniques, common criteria have been set for the likelihood formulation, defining the number of simulations, and the measure of uncertainty bounds. Moreover, all the uncertainty techniques were implemented for the same case study, in which the same stormwater quantity and quality model was used alongside the same dataset. The comparison results for a well-posed rainfall/runoff model showed that the four methods provide similar probability distributions of model parameters, and model prediction intervals. For ill-posed water quality model the differences between the results were much wider; and the paper provides the specific advantages and disadvantages of each method. In relation to computational efficiency (i.e. number of iterations required to generate the probability distribution of parameters), it was found that SCEM-UA and AMALGAM produce results quicker than GLUE in terms of required number of simulations. However, GLUE requires the lowest modelling skills and is easy to implement. All non-Bayesian methods have problems with the way they accept behavioural parameter sets, e.g. GLUE, SCEM-UA and AMALGAM have subjective acceptance thresholds, while MICA has usually problem with its hypothesis on normality of residuals. It is concluded that modellers should select the method which is most suitable for the system they are modelling (e.g. complexity of the model's structure including the number of parameters), their skill/knowledge level, the available information, and the purpose of their study. PMID:22402270

Dotto, Cintia B S; Mannina, Giorgio; Kleidorfer, Manfred; Vezzaro, Luca; Henrichs, Malte; McCarthy, David T; Freni, Gabriele; Rauch, Wolfgang; Deletic, Ana

2012-02-11

343

Comparison of different uncertainty techniques in urban stormwater quantity and quality modelling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Urban drainage models are important tools used by both practitioners and scientists in the field of stormwater management. These models are often conceptual and usually require calibration using local data sets. The quantification of the uncertainty associated with the models is a must, although it is rarely practiced. The International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, has been working on the development of a framework for defining and assessing uncertainties in the field of urban drainage modelling. A part of that work is the assessment and comparison of different techniques generally used in the uncertainty assessment of the parameters of water models. This paper compares a number of these techniques: the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), the Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis algorithm (SCEM-UA), an approach based on a multi-objective auto-calibration (a multialgorithm, genetically adaptive multiobjective method, AMALGAM) and a Bayesian approach based on a simplified Markov Chain Monte Carlo method (implemented in the software MICA). To allow a meaningful comparison among the different uncertainty techniques, common criteria have been set for the likelihood formulation, defining the number of simulations, and the measure of uncertainty bounds. Moreover, all the uncertainty techniques were implemented for the same case study, in which the same stormwater quantity and quality model was used alongside the same dataset. The comparison results for a well-posed rainfall/runoff model showed that the four methods provide similar probability distributions of model parameters, and model prediction intervals. For ill-posed water quality model the differences between the results were much wider; and the paper the specific advantages and disadvantages of each method. In relation to computational efficiency (i.e. number of iterations required to generate the probability distribution of parameters), it was found that SCEM-UA and AMALGAMproduce results quicker than GLUE in terms of required number of simulations. However, GLUE requires the lowest modelling skills and is easy to implement. All non-Bayesian methods have problems with the way they accept behavioural parameter sets, e.g. GLUE, SCEM-UA and AMALGAM have subjective acceptance thresholds, while MICA has usually problem with its hypothesis on normality of residuals. It is concluded that modellers should select the method which is most suitable for the system they are modelling (e.g. complexity of the model’s structure including the number of parameters), their skill/knowledge level, the available information, and the purpose of their study.

Dotto, C. B.; Mannina, G.

2012-01-01

344

Qualitative And Quantitative Assessment Of Drained Water From Urban Ground-Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the groundwater table in the State of Qatar peninsula is reducing, there is a persistent increasing level of groundwater in some areas in Doha city. This increasing tendency could be attributed to the topography of the area, geological structure, rapid urbanization, increase in water consum...

Al Hajri, Mohd. M.

345

Microbial quality of drinking water from microfiltered water dispensers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A comparison was made between the microbial quality of drinking water obtained from Microfiltered Water Dispensers (MWDs) and that of municipal tap water. A total of 233 water samples were analyzed. Escherichia coli (EC), enterococci (ENT), total coliforms (TC), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) at 22°C and 37°C were enumerated. In addition, information was collected about the principal structural and functional characteristics of each MWD in order to study the various factors that might influence the microbial quality of the water. EC and ENT were not detected in any of the samples. TC were never detected in the tap water but were found in 5 samples taken from 5 different MWDs. S. aureus was found in a single sample of microfiltered water. P. aeruginosa was found more frequently and at higher concentrations in the samples collected from MWDs. The mean HPCs at 22°C and 37°C were significantly higher in microfiltered water samples compared to those of the tap water. In conclusion, the use of MWDs may increase the number of bacteria originally present in tap water. It is therefore important to monitor the quality of the dispensed water over time, especially if it is destined for vulnerable users.

Sacchetti R; De Luca G; Dormi A; Guberti E; Zanetti F

2013-06-01

346

Bacteriological quality of water and water borne diseases in Bangalore  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BackgroundIn developing countries diarrhoeal diseases take a big toll which can be prevented by adequate supply of safe drinking water. Thus a longitudinal study was taken up to determine the morbidity due to water borne diseases and bacteriological quality of waterMethod 150 homes in two areas, one supplied by bore well and other by tap water was selected by modified cluster sampling. Weekly morbidity details collected. Monthly water samples were assessed for bacteriological quality from main supply, household storage and morbidity reported.ResultsThe difference in proportion of potable and non potable water storage was statistically significant. Potable water is water which is fit for consumption by humans and other animals. The overall incidence rate of target diseases was 3.58%, majority were diarrhoeal diseases with increased incidence in children less than five years. The incidence in areas with bore well supply was 3.8% and in area with tap water was 3.43%. ConclusionThere are various ways in which drinking water can be contaminated along the route of distribution to the consumers. The most effective method to prevent infections is surveillance and treatment of drinking water quality at point of consumption.

Jyothi Jadhav; D. Gopinath

2010-01-01

347

Heavy Metals Pollution of Ground Water in Urban and Sub-Urban Areas of Makurdi Metropolis – Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines heavy metals pollution of ground water in the residential sector of Makurdi urban area and Yaikyô settlement– a peri-urban area of Makurdi metropolis. Water samples from fifteen (15) wells in Makurdi urban area and fifteen (15) wells inYaikyô settlement were analysed for chromium (Cr), Cadmium (cd), Iron (Fe), and Copper (Cu). Atomic AbsorptionSpectrometer (AAS) method was used for water sample analysis. This was done in the peak of rainy season, in the month ofSeptember, 2012. The results of the analysis show that 100% of wells in Makurdi urban area had chromium levels above WHOguide limit for drinking water, while Yaikyô, a sub-urban area of Makurdi, had only 35.5% of wells with chromium levels aboveWHO standards. Ten out of fifteen wells representing 67% displayed cadmium levels above WHO limits in Makurdi urban area,while eleven out of fifteen wells (85%) displayed cadmium levels above WHO limits in Yaikyô. Twelve out of fifteen wellsrepresenting 80% displayed iron levels above WHO guide limits in Makurdi, while thirteen out of fifteen wells representing 90%,showed iron levels above WHO guide limit in Yaikyô. All wells representing 100% displayed copper levels below WHO guidelimit in both areas. High concentrations of heavy metals in drinking water are undesirable, toxic, hazardous, and affects portabilityof water. Source of metals in these wells is attributed to soil mineralogy, use of agro- chemicals on farms and other land useactivities. All land use activities capable of polluting water should be properly controlled. Water from these wells may be used forother domestic purposes other than drinking. Boiling of water from these wells should be encouraged to reduce the risk ofcontracting illness.

I. I. Mile; J. I. Amonum; N. L. Sambe

2013-01-01

348