WorldWideScience

Sample records for urban water quality

  1. Integrated Urban Water Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance i...

  2. Integrated Urban Water Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry weather, while the overflow from the combined sewer system plays a minor role. Oxygen depletion in urban rivers is caused by intermittent discharges from both sewer system and wastewater treatment plant. Neglecting one of them in the evaluation of the environmental impact gives a wrong impression of total system behaviour. Detention basins have limited positive effect for minimizing the acute pollution in rivers, but are useless in terms of accumulative pollution.

  3. Urban water quality evaluation using multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Praus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A data set, obtained for the sake of drinking water quality monitoring, was analysed by multivariate methods. Principal component analysis (PCA reduced the data dimensionality from 18 original physico-chemical and microbiological parameters determined in drinking water samples to 6 principal components explaining about 83 % of the data variability. These 6 components represented inorganic salts, nitrate/pH, iron, chlorine, nitrite/ammonium traces, and heterotrophic bacteria. Using the PCA scatter plot and the Ward's clustering of the samples characterized by the first and second principal components, three clusters were revealed. These clusters sorted drinking water samples according to their origin - ground and surface water. The PCA results were confirmed by the factor analysis and hierarchical clustering of the original data.

  4. ECONOMIC/FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...

  5. Urban Ethnohydrology : Cultural Knowledge of Water Quality and Water Management in a Desert City

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Westerhoff; Amber Wutich; Meredith Gartin; Beatrice Crona

    2010-01-01

    Popular concern over water quality has important implications for public water management because it can both empower water utilities to improve service but also limit their ability to make changes. In the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, obtaining sufficient high-quality water resources for a growing urban population poses a major challenge. Decision makers and urban hydrologists are aware of these challenges to water sustainability but the range of acceptable policy and management options a...

  6. Urban areas impact on surface water quality during rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C. S. S.; Soares, D.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Costa, M. L.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing population and welfare puts water management under stress, especially in what concerns water quality. Surface water properties are strongly linked with hydrological processes and are affected by stream flow variability. Changes in some chemical substances concentrations can be ascribed to different water sources. Runoff generated in urban areas is considered the main responsible for water quality degradation inside catchments. This poster presents the methodology and first results of a study that is being developed to assess the impact of urbanization on surface water quality, during rainfall events. It focuses on the Ribeira dos Covões catchment (620 ha) located in central Portugal. Due to its proximity to the Coimbra city in central region, the urban areas sprawled during the last decades. In 2008, urban areas represented 32% of the area. Recently a highway was constructed crossing the catchment and a technological industrial park is being build-up in the headwaters. Several water samples were collected at four different locations: the catchment outlet and in three sub-catchments with distinct urbanization patterns - Espírito Santo that represents a highly urbanized area (45%) located over sandstone, Porto do Bordalo with 30% of urbanized area located over limestone, and IParque, mainly forest and just downstream the disturbed technological industrial park construction area. The samples were collected at different times during rainfall events to monitor the variability along the hydrograph. Six monitoring campaigns were performed: two in April 2011, at the end of the winter period, and the others between October and November 2011, after the dry summer. The number of samples collected per monitoring campaign is variable according with rainfall pattern. Parameters such as pH, conductivity, turbidity and total suspended sediments were immediately analyzed. The samples were then preserved, after filtered (0.45µm), and later analyzed for dissolved chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorous, nitrogen (Kjeldahl, nitrate and ammonium), some cations and heavy metals, according with standard methods. In each monitored location there is a continuous-recording water-level that provides flow data. The rainfall data is monitored with a raingauge located at the catchment outlet. The results show that surface runoff affects stream water quality according with rainfall pattern. During rainfall events the rising limb flow is associated with an increase in suspended sediment concentration and turbidity, particularly at Iparque. In this sub-catchment, the deforestation and the topsoil removal associated with the technological industrial park construction, promotes suspended sediments growth ranging from 395% to 1645%, corresponding to peak concentrations of 1049mg/L and 3621mg/L, for similar rainfall amounts but with distinct intensities (0.4mm/5minutes and 1.2mm/5minutes, respectively). As regards to the monitored dissolved chemical properties, despite the variability, related with the hydrograph, the increase is much lower comparing with the suspended sediments. Generally, the values are higher at the catchment outlet, which can indicate that the contact time between rainfall and the surfaces before reach the water line affects water quality. This should be considered during urban planning to improve water quality and reduce environmental impacts with low investment.

  7. Studies on urban drinking water quality in a tropical zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Pathak, S P; Gopal, K; Murthy, R C

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities associated with industrialization, agriculture and urbanization have led to the deterioration in water quality due to various contaminants. To assess the status of urban drinking water quality, samples were collected from the piped supplies as well as groundwater sources from different localities of residential, commercial and industrial areas of Lucknow City in a tropical zone of India during pre-monsoon for estimation of coliform and faecal coliform bacteria, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and heavy metals. Bacterial contamination was found to be more in the samples from commercial areas than residential and industrial areas. OCPs like ?,?-hexachlorocyclohexane and 1,1 p,p-DDE {dichloro-2, 2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethene)} were found to be present in most of the samples from study area. The total organochlorine pesticide levels were found to be within the European Union limit (0.5 ?g/L) in most of the samples. Most of the heavy metals estimated in the samples were also found to be within the permissible limits as prescribed by World Health Organization for drinking water. Thus, these observations show that contamination of drinking water in urban areas may be mainly due to municipal, industrial and agricultural activities along with improper disposal of solid waste. This is an alarm to safety of public health and aquatic environment in tropics. PMID:21409358

  8. Urban Ethnohydrology: Cultural Knowledge of Water Quality and Water Management in a Desert City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Westerhoff

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Popular concern over water quality has important implications for public water management because it can both empower water utilities to improve service but also limit their ability to make changes. In the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, obtaining sufficient high-quality water resources for a growing urban population poses a major challenge. Decision makers and urban hydrologists are aware of these challenges to water sustainability but the range of acceptable policy and management options available to them is constrained by public opinion. Therefore, this study examines cultural models of water quality and water management, termed ethnohydrology, among urban residents. The study yields three key findings. First, urban residents appear to have a shared model of ethnohydrology which holds that a there are significant water quality risks associated with low financial investments in city-wide water treatment and the desert location of Phoenix, and b government monitoring and management combined with household-level water treatment can yield water of an acceptable quality. Second, people with high incomes are more likely to engage in expensive water filtration activities and to agree with the cultural ethnohydrology model found. Third, people living in communities that are highly concerned about water quality are less likely to share high agreement around ethnohydrology. The results have implications for water policy making and planning, particularly in disadvantaged and vulnerable communities where water quality is perceived to be low.

  9. Urban Water and Riverine Quality: Participatory Science in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgitt, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Singapore is a highly urbanised environment experiencing tropical monsoon hydrological regimes. A heavily engineered fluvial system has been developed over time to provide efficient drainage and reduce the area subject to flood risk. However, recent interest in ecosystem-based approaches to river management and the enhancement of the aesthetic and ecological 'quality' of riverine landscape, coupled with concerns about climate change, has challenged the prevailing engineering view. This is reflected in the Public Utility Board (PUB) ABC Waters Programme, which also seeks to develop community interest in riverine environments and engagement with water-related concerns. As part of a programme developing participatory GIS (PGIS) with school and university students, we have undertaken applications involving participant observation, reporting and analysis of water quality data and habitat quality based on a simplified version of the UK Environment Agency's River Habitat Survey. From an educational perspective, there is evidence that these PGIS initiatives raise environmental awareness and enhance geospatial thinking, particularly in relation to catchment management concepts. The extent to which participant-derived data can contribute to a citizen science of urban water quality and hence deliver some aspects of the community engagement sought after by the authorities, is a topic of debate.

  10. Quality of Source Water and Drinking Water in Urban Areas of Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Sakai; Yatsuka Kataoka; Kensuke Fukushi

    2013-01-01

    Myanmar is one of the least developed countries in the world, and very little information is available regarding the nation's water quality. This report gives an overview of the current situation in the country, presenting the results of various water-quality assessments in urban areas of Myanmar. River, dam, lake, and well water sources were examined and found to be of generally good quality. Both As and F? were present in relatively high concentrations and must be removed before deep wells ...

  11. Urban Hydrology and Water Quality Modeling - Resolution Modeling Comparison for Water Quantity and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, T. J.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization presents challenging water resource problems for communities worldwide. The hydromodifications associated with urbanization results in increased runoff rates and volumes and increased peak flows. These hydrologic changes can lead to increased erosion and stream destabilization, decreased evapotranspiration, decreased ground water recharge, increases in pollutant loading, and localized anthropogenic climate change or Urban Heat Islands. Stormwater represents a complex and dynamic component of the urban water cycle that requires careful mitigation. With the implementation of Phase II rules under the CWA, stormwater management is shifting from a drainage-efficiency focus to a natural systems focus. The natural system focus, referred to as Low Impact Development (LID), or Green Infrastructure, uses best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the impacts caused by urbanization hydromodification. Large-scale patterns of stormwater runoff from urban environments are complex and it is unclear what the large-scale impacts of green infrastructure are on the water cycle. High resolution physically based hydrologic models can be used to more accurately simulate the urban hydrologic cycle. These types of models tend to be more dynamic and allow for greater flexibility in evaluating and accounting for various hydrologic processes in the urban environment that may be lost with lower resolution conceptual models. We propose to evaluate the effectiveness of high resolution models to accurately represent and determine the urban hydrologic cycle with the overall goal of being able to accurately assess the impacts of LID BMPs in urban environments. We propose to complete a rigorous model intercomparison between ParFlow and FLO-2D. Both of these models can be scaled to higher resolutions, allow for rainfall to be spatially and temporally input, and solve the shallow water equations. Each model is different in the way it accounts for infiltration, initial abstraction losses, and urban structures. The intercomparison of these models will help identify key areas of urban hydrology that can be used by agencies in developing design guidelines used in assessing LIDs in urban environments.

  12. Water quality changes in response to urban expansion: spatially varying relations and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiang; Shu, Yunqiao; Li, Yangfan

    2015-11-01

    Urban expansion is an important stressor to water bodies, and the spatial variations of their relations are increasingly highlighted by recent studies. What remain unclear, however, are the underlying drivers to the spatial variability. The paper was not limited to modeling spatially varying linkages but also drew attention to the local anthropogenic influential factors that shape land-water relations. We employed geographically weighted regression to examine the relationships between urban expansion (measured by land use change intensity) and water quality changes (focusing on six water quality indicators) in a recently fast-growing Chinese city, Lianyungang. Specifically, we analyzed how the local characteristics including urbanization level, environmental management, industrial zone expansion, and land use composition, attributed to the varying responses of water quality changes. Results showed that urbanization level significantly affects land-water linkages. Remarkable water quality improvement was accompanied by urbanization in highly developed watersheds, primarily due to strong influence from extensive water management practices (particularly for COD, BOD, NH3-N, and TP). By contrast, water qualities of less-urbanized watersheds were more sensitive and negatively responsive to land use changes. Clustering industrial activities acted as distinct contributor to Hg contamination, while boosted organic pollution control in highly urbanized areas. The approach proposed in the study can locate and further zoom into the hot-spots of human-water interactions, thereby contributing to better solutions for mitigating undesirable impacts of urbanization on water environment. PMID:26122567

  13. Impact of urbanization on water quality and chemical flux in urban streams: implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushey, J. T.; Aragon-jose, A. T.; Perkins, C.; Lancaster, N.; Ulatowski, G.

    2012-12-01

    Contaminant source and biogeochemical processes are altered in urban ecosystems. Given the high impervious cover and altered hydrologic cycle, contaminant mobilization is particularly important during high discharge events. Many urban systems not only receive contaminant loading from stormwater, but also receive sewage contributions from combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Additionally, biogeochemical processes are altered by the changing chemistry and flashier hydrology. Management of contaminant loading often ignores these temporal shifts in speciation as well as the alteration of fate processes within the receiving water body, further compounding the difficult and challenging problem that many municipalities face of assessing ecological impacts. To assess potential changes in loading and chemical speciation we have collected stream water and sediment samples in the Park River sewershed (Hartford, CT) during base flow and events to assess potential for contaminant loading and mobilization. Six events have been collected to date. Trace metal, TSS and DOC concentrations increased with discharge. However, trace metal concentrations and flux values reflected the degree of urbanization and industry present in the watersheds. All samples contained low DOC with the majority of the flux occurring in the particulate phase. Dissolved transport with DOC, particularly for Hg, decreased with urbanization; however, the dominant phase, dissolved versus particulate, varied by storm. The degree of urbanization also increased TN flux as well as the distribution among N chemical species, with urbanized systems increasing in the NOx fraction. The altered watershed processes was also evident in an analysis of dissolved organic matter binding, with stormwater contributions contributing to higher microbial organic matter fractions as determined by EEMs. This shift in DOM quality has been linked to end member source contributions including forest, stormwater and sewage. Particulate fraction collection and analysis during the events have demonstrated the influence of impervious cover on increasing trace metal and mercury flux. However, the association of these metals with these solids compared with forested binding remains uncertain.

  14. The Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive: Observations on the water quality of Windermere, Grasmere, Derwent Water and Bassenthwaite Lake, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Maberly, S.C.; De Ville, M. M.; Elliott, J.A.; Fletcher, J M; James, J. B.; Thackeray, S. J.; Vincent, C

    2007-01-01

    This report continues a sequence of annual reviews of water quality in Windermere and Bassenthwaite Lake that are subject to the provisions of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive. Grasmere, which feeds into Windermere is also included because of concerns over a deterioration in water quality over the last, approximately 30 years and Derwent Water is included, partly as a comparison with Bassenthwaite Lake and partly because it is the sole refuge of a healthy population of the vendace...

  15. Effects of urban stormwater-management strategies on stream-water quantity and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, J.V.; Hogan, Dianna M.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization results in elevated stormwater runoff, greater and more intense streamflow, and increased delivery of pollutants to local streams and downstream aquatic systems such as the Chesapeake Bay. Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) are used to mitigate these effects of urban land use by retaining large volumes of stormwater runoff (water quantity) and removing pollutants in the runoff (water quality). Current USGS research aims to understand how the spatial pattern and connectivity of stormwater BMPs affect water quantity and water quality in urban areas.

  16. Scale Effects on Spatially Varying Relationships Between Urban Landscape Patterns and Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanwei; Guo, Qinghai; Liu, Jian; Wang, Run

    2014-08-01

    Scientific interpretation of the relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality is important for sustainable urban planning and watershed environmental protection. This study applied the ordinary least squares regression model and the geographically weighted regression model to examine the spatially varying relationships between 12 explanatory variables (including three topographical factors, four land use parameters, and five landscape metrics) and 15 water quality indicators in watersheds of Yundang Lake, Maluan Bay, and Xinglin Bay with varying levels of urbanization in Xiamen City, China. A local and global investigation was carried out at the watershed-level, with 50 and 200 m riparian buffer scales. This study found that topographical features and landscape metrics are the dominant factors of water quality, while land uses are too weak to be considered as a strong influential factor on water quality. Such statistical results may be related with the characteristics of land use compositions in our study area. Water quality variations in the 50 m buffer were dominated by topographical variables. The impact of landscape metrics on water quality gradually strengthen with expanding buffer zones. The strongest relationships are obtained in entire watersheds, rather than in 50 and 200 m buffer zones. Spatially varying relationships and effective buffer zones were verified in this study. Spatially varying relationships between explanatory variables and water quality parameters are more diversified and complex in less urbanized areas than in highly urbanized areas. This study hypothesizes that all these varying relationships may be attributed to the heterogeneity of landscape patterns in different urban regions. Adjustment of landscape patterns in an entire watershed should be the key measure to successfully improving urban lake water quality.

  17. SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA A.K. Mohanty, K. Mahesh Kumar, B. A. Prakash and V.V.S. Gurunadha Rao Ecology and Environment Group National Geophysical Research Institute, (CSIR) Hyderabad - 500 606, India E-mail:atulyakumarmohanty@yahoo.com Abstract: Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority has taken up restoration of urban lakes around Hyderabad city under Green Hyderabad Environment Program. Restoration of Mir Alam Tank, Durgamcheruvu, Patel cheruvu, Pedda Cheruvu and Nallacheruvu lakes have been taken up under the second phase. There are of six lakes viz., RKPuramcheruvu, Nadimicheruvu (Safilguda), Bandacheruvu Patelcheruvu, Peddacheruvu, Nallacheruvu, in North East Musi Basin covering 38 sq km. Bimonthly monitoring of lake water quality for BOD, COD, Total Nitrogen, Total phosphorous has been carried out for two hydrological cycles during October 2002- October 2004 in all the five lakes at inlet channels and outlets. The sediments in the lake have been also assessed for nutrient status. The nutrient parameters have been used to assess eutrophic condition through computation of Trophic Status Index, which has indicated that all the above lakes under study are under hyper-eutrophic condition. The hydrogeological, geophysical, water quality and groundwater data base collected in two watersheds covering 4 lakes has been used to construct groundwater flow and mass transport models. The interaction of lake-water with groundwater has been computed for assessing the lake water budget combining with inflow and outflow measurements on streams entering and leaving the lakes. Individual lake water budget has been used for design of appropriate capacity of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) on the inlet channels of the lakes for maintaining Full Tank Level (FTL) in each lake. STPs are designed for tertiary treatment i.e. removal of nutrient load viz., Phosphates and Nitrates. Phosphates are removed through addition of Alum to the influent stream to the STPs whereas Nitrates reduction is achieved by sending the treated wastewater from the STP through a wetland before entering the lake. STP Capacity ranging from 2-10 MLD have been recommended depending on lake water budget of individual lake and considering surrounding urbanization. Sediment nutrient data has helped for deciding the need for dredging of lake bed for removal of phosphates. Key Words: Lake water budget, Eutrophication, Trophic Status Index, Urban Lakes Restoration

  18. Ground-water quality in alluvial basins that have minimal urban development, south-central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.; Coes, Alissa L.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water quality data (1917-96) from 772 wells in 16 alluvial basins that have minimal urban development were used to determine the effect of nonurban factors on ground-water quality in south- central Arizona. Characterization of the spatial variability of ground-water quality within and among alluvial basins that have minimal urban development will provide a baseline to which water- quality problems associated with urbanization can be compared. Four water-type categories--calcium carbonate, calcium mixed anion, sodium carbonate, and sodium chloride--were used to classify the 13 alluvial basins for which adequate data were available. Ground-water quality was compared to U.S. Environmental Protaection Agency maximum contaminant levels for drinking water, depth of well, and depth to top of perforated interval for five alluvial basins that represented the four water-type categories. Exceedances of maximum contaminant levels for fluoride and nitrate occurred in three and four basins, respectively, of the five selected basins. Specific-conductance values for ground water in the five selected basins tend to increase in a northwesterly direction toward the central part of Arizona as the extent of evaporite deposits increases. The results of this study, which are part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, can be used to determine the effects of urban land-use activities on ground-water quality in similar hydrogeologic conditions and may be the best indicator available for nonurban ground-water quality in the region.

  19. Denver's Urban Ground-Water Quality: Nutrients, Pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Breton W.

    1995-01-01

    A recent study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) under the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program characterized the ground-water quality in a part of the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. The study provides an assessment of water-quality conditions in an alluvial aquifer that drains into the South Platte River. Thirty wells randomly distributed in residential, commercial, and industrial land-use settings were sampled once in 1993 for a broad range of compounds. Nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds (VOC's), all of which are generally associated with human activities, frequently were detected in the urban wells sampled. Nutrients and VOC's occasionally exceeded drinking-water standards.

  20. Urban impacts on the water quality of selected water bodies in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lucas; Holbach, Andreas; Wei, Hu; Wang, Lijing; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Binghui; Norra, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Urban systems belong to the major input sources for pollutants into aquatic systems. In China, the rising urbanisation and industrialisation causes a growing pressure on rivers, lakes and estuaries. With the recent impoundment of the Yangtze River by the Three Gorges Dam, the newly formed Three Gorges Reservoir is additionally experiencing drastic changes in the flow regime [1]. In the frame of the Sino-German "Yangtze-Project" [2] samples were taken from the water bodies in proximity to the Cities of Chongqing, Kaixian and Wushan during a field campaign in April 2011. Water samples were analysed for inorganic contents in suspended solids and the dissolved phase to assess the impact of these cities on the water quality of the reservoir. Results show that input from urban sources, together with the effects from the impoundment of the Yangtze River, deteriorates the quality of water and sediments in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Water in the Wushan Lake is trapped in by the Yangtze River flowing by, which leads to longer retention times of effluent water from the city. The chemical composition of the lake water is also measurable upstream in the Daninghe itself and might be due to the backwater effect. In the Xiaojiang River near Kaixian the low flow velocity from the backwater effect of the Yangtze, together with influences from the city have led to problems with algal blooms. High metal concentrations at Chongqing indicate a strong impact of this megacity on the water quality of the Three Gorges Reservoir and the sediments of the Yangtze River. Acknowledgements: Financial support by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany (BMBF), the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (MOST) and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). References: [1] Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China, 2010: Bulletin on the Ecological and Environmental Monitoring Results of the Three Gorges Project 2010 [2] Bergmann A, et al. (2011) The Yangtze-Hydro Project: a Chinese-German environmental program. ESPR. Doi: 10.1007/s11356-011-0645-7

  1. Applications of geographic information system and expert system for urban runoff and water quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Beum-Hee [Pai Chai University, Taejeon(Korea)

    2001-06-30

    It is very important to select appropriate methods of collecting, predicting, and analyzing information for the development of urban water resources and the prevention of disasters. Thus, in this study an accurate data generation method is developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). The methods of development and application of an expert system are suggested to solve more efficiently the problems of water resources and quality induced by the rapid urbanization. The time-varying data in a large region, the An-Yang Cheon watershed, were reasonably obtained by the application of the GIS using ARC/INFO and RS data. The ESPE (Expert System for Parameter Estimation), an expert system is developed using the CLIPS 6.0. The simulated results showed agreement with the measured data globally. These methods are expected to efficiently simulate the runoff and water quality in the rapidly varying urban area. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  2. Urban water recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, T

    2005-01-01

    Increasing urbanization has resulted in an uneven distribution of population, industries, and water in urban areas; thus, imposing unprecedented pressures on water supplies and water pollution control. These pressures are exacerbated during the periods of drought and climatic uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to summarize emergence of water reclamation, recycling and reuse as a vital component of sustainable water resources in the context of integrated water resources management in urban and rural areas. Water quality requirements and health and public acceptance issues related to water reuse are also discussed. Reclaimed water is a locally controllable water resource that exists right at the doorstep of the urban environment, where water is needed the most and priced the highest. Closing the water cycle loop not only is technically feasible in agriculture, industries, and municipalities but also makes economic sense. Society no longer has the luxury of using water only once. PMID:16007932

  3. Heavy metal assessment and water quality values in urban stream and rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water quality monitoring in developing countries is inadequate, especially in stream water affected by urban effluents and runoff. The purpose of this study was to investigate heavy metal contaminants in the Nakivubo Stream water in Kampala, Uganda. Water samples Nakivubo Channelized Stream, tributaries and industrial effluents that drain into the stream were collected and analysed for the total elemental concentration using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that: 1) the wastewater was highly enriched with lead and manganese above the maximum permissible limit; 2) the levels of dissolved oxygen were below the maximum permissible limit, while the biological oxygen demand was above the maximum permissible limit. All industrial effluents/wastewater were classified as strong (> 220 mg/L). Factor analysis results reveal two sources of pollutants; 1) mixed origin or chemical phenomena of industrial and vehicular emissions and 2) multiple origin of lead (vehicular, commercial establishment and industrial). In conclusion, Nakivubo Channelized Stream water is not enriched with heavy metals. These heavy metals (lead, cadmium and zinc) were rapidly removed by co-precipitation with manganese and iron hydroxides and total dissolved solids into stream sediments. This phenomena is controlled by p H in water.

  4. Study plan for urban stream indicator sites of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, T.J.; Price, C.V.

    1997-01-01

    Urban Indicator Sites are one component of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The objectives of monitoring at the Urban Indicator Sites are to: (1) characterize stream quality from drainage basins with predominantly residential and commercial land use, and (2) determine which selected natural and human factors most strongly affect stream quality. Urban Indicator Sites will be distributed across the United States in settings with statistically different climate and in metropolitan areas that have a population of 250,000 or more. Multiple sites in the same climatic setting will have a range in population density. Ideally, Urban Indicator Sites will monitor drainage basins that have only residential and commercial land use, are 50 square kilometers or larger, are in the same physiographic setting as other Indicator Sites, have sustained flow, and overlap other NAWQA study components. Ideal drainage basins will not have industrial or agricultural land use and will not have point-source-contamination discharges. Stream quality will be characterized by collecting and analyzing samples of streamflow, bed sediment, and tissue of aquatic organisms for selected constituents. Factors affecting stream quality will be determined by statistical analysis of ancillary data associated with Urban Indicator Sites and stream-quality samples.

  5. Temporal water quality response in an urban river: a case study in peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    VishnuRadhan, Renjith; Zainudin, Zaki; Sreekanth, G. B.; Dhiman, Ravinder; Salleh, Mohd. Noor; Vethamony, P.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient water quality is a prerequisite for the health and self-purification capacity of riverine ecosystems. To understand the general water quality situation, the time series data of selected water quality parameters were analyzed in an urban river in Peninsular Malaysia. In this regard, the stations were selected from the main stem of the river as well as from the side channel. The stations located at the main stem of the river are less polluted than that in the side channel. Water Quality Index scores indicated that the side channel station is the most polluted, breaching the Class IV water quality criteria threshold during the monitoring period, followed by stations at the river mouth and the main channel. The effect of immediate anthropogenic waste input is also evident at the side channel station. The Organic Pollution Index of side channel station is (14.99) ~3 times higher than at stations at river mouth (4.11) and ~6 times higher than at the main channel (2.57). The two-way ANOVA showed significant difference among different stations. Further, the factor analysis on water quality parameters yielded two significant factors. They discriminated the stations into two groups. The land-use land cover classification of the study area shows that the region near the sampling sites is dominated by urban settlements (33.23 %) and this can contribute significantly to the deterioration of ambient river water quality. The present study estimated the water quality condition and response in the river and the study can be an immediate yardstick for base lining river water quality, and a basis for future water quality modeling studies in the region.

  6. Effects of urbanization on stream water quality in the city of Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N.E.

    2009-01-01

    A long-term stream water quality monitoring network was established in the city of Atlanta, Georgia during 2003 to assess baseline water quality conditions and the effects of urbanization on stream water quality. Routine hydrologically based manual stream sampling, including several concurrent manual point and equal width increment sampling, was conducted ???12 times annually at 21 stations, with drainage areas ranging from 3.7 to 232 km2. Eleven of the stations are real-time (RT) stations having continuous measures of stream stage/ discharge, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature and turbidity, and automatic samplers for stormwater collection. Samples were analyzed for field parameters, and a broad suite of water quality and sediment-related constituents. Field parameters and concentrations of major ions, metals, nutrient species and coliform bacteria among stations were evaluated and with respect to watershed characteristics and plausible sources from 2003 through September 2007. Most constituent concentrations are much higher than nearby reference streams. Concentrations are statistically different among stations for several constituents, despite high variability both within and among stations. Routine manual sampling, automatic sampling during stormflows and RT water quality monitoring provided sufficient information about urban stream water quality variability to evaluate causes of water quality differences among streams. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations of most samples exceeded Georgia's water quality standard for any water-usage class. High chloride concentrations occur at three stations and are hypothesized to be associated with discharges of chlorinated combined sewer overflows, drainage of swimming pool(s) and dissolution and transport during rainstorms of CaCl2, a deicing salt applied to roads during winter storms. One stream was affected by dissolution and transport of ammonium alum [NH4Al(SO4)2] from an alum-manufacturing plant; streamwater has low pH (<5), low alkalinity and high metals concentrations. Several trace metals exceed acute and chronic water quality standards and high concentrations are attributed to washoff from impervious surfaces.

  7. Landscape characteristics impacts on water quality of urban lowland catchments: monitoring the Amsterdam city area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; van der Vlugt, Corné; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Broers, Hans Peter; van Breukelen, Boris; Ouboter, Maarten; Stuyfzand, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    In Dutch lowland polder systems, groundwater quality significantly contributes to surface water quality. This process is influenced by landscape characteristics such as topography, geology, and land use types. In this study, 23 variables were selected for 144 polder catchments, including groundwater and surface water solute concentrations (TN, TP, NH4+, NO3-, HCO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, Cl-), seepage rate in mm per year, elevation, paved area percentage, surface water area percentage, and soil types (calcite, humus and lutum percentage). The spatial patters in groundwater and surface water quality can largely be explained by groundwater seepage rates in polders and partly by artificial redistribution of water via the regional surface water system. High correlations (R2 up to 0.66) between solutes in groundwater and surface water revealed their probable interaction. This was further supported by results from principal component analysis (PCA) and linear regression. The PCA distinguished four factors that were related to a fresh groundwater factor, seepage rate factor, brackish groundwater factor and clay soil factor. Nutrients (TP, TN, NH4+ and NO3-) and SO42- in surface water bodies are mainly determined by groundwater quality combined with seepage rate, which is negatively related to surface water area percentage and elevation of the catchment. This pattern is more obvious in deep urban lowland catchments. Relatively high NO3- loads more tend to appear in catchments with high humus, but low calcite percentage soil type on top, which was attributed to clay soil type that was expressed by calcite percentage in our regression. Different from nitrogen contained solutes, TP is more closely related to fresh groundwater quality than to seepage rate. Surface water Cl- concentration has a high relation with brackish groundwater. Due to the artificial regulation of flow direction, brackish inlet water from upstream highly influences the chloride load in surface water bodies downstream, especially in infiltrated urban catchments. We conclude that, apart from artificial regulation, groundwater has significant impacts on surface water quality in the polders. Especially in low-lying urban catchments surface water solute concentrations like TP, TN, NH4+, HCO3-, SO42-, and Ca2+ can be predicted by groundwater characteristics. These results suggest that groundwater quality plays a crucial role in understanding and improving surface water quality in regulated lowland catchments.

  8. Estimation of urban runoff and water quality using remote sensing and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, S R; Park, S Y; Park, D H

    2003-01-01

    Water quality and quantity of runoff are strongly dependent on the landuse and landcover (LULC) criteria. In this study, we developed a more improved parameter estimation procedure for the environmental model using remote sensing (RS) and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. Landsat TM multi-band (7bands) and Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite (KOMPSAT) panchromatic data were selected for input data processing. We employed two kinds of artificial intelligence techniques, RBF-NN (radial-basis-function neural network) and ANN (artificial neural network), to classify LULC of the study area. A bootstrap resampling method, a statistical technique, was employed to generate the confidence intervals and distribution of the unit load. SWMM was used to simulate the urban runoff and water quality and applied to the study watershed. The condition of urban flow and non-point contaminations was simulated with rainfall-runoff and measured water quality data. The estimated total runoff, peak time, and pollutant generation varied considerably according to the classification accuracy and percentile unit load applied. The proposed procedure would efficiently be applied to water quality and runoff simulation in a rapidly changing urban area. PMID:12793696

  9. Effects of Urbanization on Stream Water Quality in the City of Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N. E.

    2009-05-01

    A long-term stream water-quality monitoring network was established in the City of Atlanta (COA) during 2003 to assess baseline water-quality conditions and the effects of urbanization on stream water quality. Routine hydrologically-based manual stream sampling, including several concurrent manual point and equal width increment sampling, was conducted approximately 12 times per year at 21 stations, with drainage areas ranging from 3.7 to 232 km2. Eleven of the stations are real-time (RT) water-quality stations having continuous measures of stream stage/discharge, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, and turbidity, and automatic samplers for stormwater collection. Samples were analyzed for field parameters, and a broad suite of water-quality and sediment-related constituents. This paper summarizes an evaluation of field parameters and concentrations of major ions, minor and trace metals, nutrient species (nitrogen and phosphorus), and coliform bacteria among stations and with respect to watershed characteristics and plausible sources from 2003 through September 2007. The concentrations of most constituents in the COA streams are statistically higher than those of two nearby reference streams. Concentrations are statistically different among stations for several constituents, despite high variability both within and among stations. The combination of routine manual sampling, automatic sampling during stormflows, and real-time water-quality monitoring provided sufficient information about the variability of urban stream water quality to develop hypotheses for causes of water-quality differences among COA streams. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations of most individual samples at each station exceeded Georgia's water-quality standard for any water-usage class. High chloride concentrations occur at three stations and are hypothesized to be associated with discharges of chlorinated combined sewer overflows, drainage of swimming pool(s), and dissolution and transport during rainstorms of CaCl2, a deicing salt applied to roads during winter storms. Water quality of one stream was highly affected by the dissolution and transport of ammonium alum [NH4Al(SO4)2] from an alum manufacturing plant in the watershed; streamwater has low pH (<5), low alkalinity and high concentrations of minor and trace metals. Several trace metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) exceed acute and chronic water-quality standards and the high concentrations are attributed to washoff from impervious surfaces.

  10. Microbiological water quality in rivers of the Scheldt drainage network (Belgium): impact of urban wastewater release

    OpenAIRE

    Ouattara, Koffi,; Passerat, Julien; Servais, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The Scheldt watershed is characterized by a high population density, intense industrial activities and intensive agriculture and breeding. Due to these anthropogenic pressures, microbiological water quality of the main rivers of the Scheldt drainage network is low as demonstrated by our recent monitoring survey. An evaluation of the sources of microbiological pollutions at the scale of the watershed showed that the release of treated urban wastewaters was the major cause of faecal contaminati...

  11. Water quality monitoring and assessment of an urban Mediterranean lake facilitated by remote sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markogianni, V; Dimitriou, E; Karaouzas, I

    2014-08-01

    Degradation of water quality is a major problem worldwide and often leads to serious environmental impacts and concerns about public health. In this study, the water quality monitoring and assessment of the Koumoundourou Lake, a brackish urban shallow lake located in the northeastern part of Elefsis Bay (Greece), were evaluated. A number of water quality parameters (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, electrical conductivity, turbidity, nutrients, and chlorophyll-a concentration) were analyzed in water samples collected bimonthly over a 1-year period from five stations throughout the lake. Moreover, biological quality elements were analysed seasonally over the 1-year period (benthic fauna). Statistical analysis was performed in order to evaluate the water quality of the lake and distinguish sources of variation measured in the samples. Furthermore, the chemical and trophic status of the lake was evaluated according to the most widely applicable classification schemes. Satellite images of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper were used in order for algorithms to be developed and calculate the concentration of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The trophic status of the lake was characterized as oligotrophic based on phosphorus and as mesotrophic-eutrophic based on Chl-a concentrations. The results of the remote sensing application indicated a relatively high coefficient of determination (R (2)) among point sampling results and the remotely sensed data, which implies that the selected algorithm is reliable and could be used for the monitoring of Chl-a concentration in the particular water body when no field data are available. PMID:24705815

  12. Mimicking Daphnia magna bioassay performance by an electronic tongue for urban water quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • -Daphnia magna bioassay can be simulated with multisensor system. • Urban water toxicity can be predicted from potentiometric ET data. • Independent test set validation confirms statistical significance of the results. - Abstract: Toxicity is one of the key parameters of water quality in environmental monitoring. However, being evaluated as a response of living beings (as their mobility, fertility, death rate, etc.) to water quality, toxicity can only be assessed with the help of these living beings. This imposes certain restrictions on toxicity bioassay as an analytical method: biotest organisms must be properly bred, fed and kept under strictly regulated conditions and duration of tests can be quite long (up to several days), thus making the whole procedure the prerogative of the limited number of highly specialized laboratories. This report describes an original application of potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue) when the set of electrochemical sensors was calibrated against Daphnia magna death rate in order to perform toxicity assessment of urban waters without immediate involvement of living creatures. PRM (partial robust M) and PLS (projections on latent structures) regression models based on the data from this multisensor system allowed for prediction of toxicity of unknown water samples in terms of biotests but in the fast and simple instrumental way. Typical errors of water toxicity predictions were below 20% in terms of Daphnia death rate which can be considered as a good result taking into account the complexity of the task

  13. Mimicking Daphnia magna bioassay performance by an electronic tongue for urban water quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsanov, Dmitry, E-mail: d.kirsanov@gmail.com [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sensor Systems LLC, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zagrebin, Anatoly; Ignatieva, Natalia; Rybakin, Vladimir [Institute of Limnology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • -Daphnia magna bioassay can be simulated with multisensor system. • Urban water toxicity can be predicted from potentiometric ET data. • Independent test set validation confirms statistical significance of the results. - Abstract: Toxicity is one of the key parameters of water quality in environmental monitoring. However, being evaluated as a response of living beings (as their mobility, fertility, death rate, etc.) to water quality, toxicity can only be assessed with the help of these living beings. This imposes certain restrictions on toxicity bioassay as an analytical method: biotest organisms must be properly bred, fed and kept under strictly regulated conditions and duration of tests can be quite long (up to several days), thus making the whole procedure the prerogative of the limited number of highly specialized laboratories. This report describes an original application of potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue) when the set of electrochemical sensors was calibrated against Daphnia magna death rate in order to perform toxicity assessment of urban waters without immediate involvement of living creatures. PRM (partial robust M) and PLS (projections on latent structures) regression models based on the data from this multisensor system allowed for prediction of toxicity of unknown water samples in terms of biotests but in the fast and simple instrumental way. Typical errors of water toxicity predictions were below 20% in terms of Daphnia death rate which can be considered as a good result taking into account the complexity of the task.

  14. Urban land-use study plan for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillace, P.J.; Price, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    This study plan is for Urban Land-Use Studies initiated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. There are two Urban Land-Use Study objectives: (1) Define the water quality in recharge areas of shallow aquifers underlying areas of new residential and commercial land use in large metropolitan areas, and (2) determine which natural and human factors most strongly affect the occurrence of contaminants in these shallow aquifers. To meet objective 1, each NAWQA Study Unit will install and collect water samples from at least 30 randomly located monitoring wells in a metropolitan area. To meet objective 2, aquifer characteristics and land-use information will be documented. This includes particle-size analysis of each major lithologic unit both in the unsaturated zone and in the aquifer near the water table. The percentage of organic carbon also will be determined for each lithologic unit. Geographic information system coverages will be created that document existing land use around the wells. These data will aid NAWQA personnel in relating natural and human factors to the occurrence of contaminants. Water samples for age dating also will be collected from all monitoring wells, but the samples will be stored until the occurrence of contaminants has been determined. Age-date analysis will be done only on those samples that have no detectable concentrations of anthropogenic contaminants.

  15. Modeling water quality in an urban river using hydrological factors--data driven approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fi-John; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Pin-An; Coynel, Alexandra; Vachaud, Georges

    2015-03-15

    Contrasting seasonal variations occur in river flow and water quality as a result of short duration, severe intensity storms and typhoons in Taiwan. Sudden changes in river flow caused by impending extreme events may impose serious degradation on river water quality and fateful impacts on ecosystems. Water quality is measured in a monthly/quarterly scale, and therefore an estimation of water quality in a daily scale would be of good help for timely river pollution management. This study proposes a systematic analysis scheme (SAS) to assess the spatio-temporal interrelation of water quality in an urban river and construct water quality estimation models using two static and one dynamic artificial neural networks (ANNs) coupled with the Gamma test (GT) based on water quality, hydrological and economic data. The Dahan River basin in Taiwan is the study area. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) is considered as the representative parameter, a correlative indicator in judging the contamination level over the study. Key factors the most closely related to the representative parameter (NH3-N) are extracted by the Gamma test for modeling NH3-N concentration, and as a result, four hydrological factors (discharge, days w/o discharge, water temperature and rainfall) are identified as model inputs. The modeling results demonstrate that the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) network furnished with recurrent connections can accurately estimate NH3-N concentration with a very high coefficient of efficiency value (0.926) and a low RMSE value (0.386 mg/l). Besides, the NARX network can suitably catch peak values that mainly occur in dry periods (September-April in the study area), which is particularly important to water pollution treatment. The proposed SAS suggests a promising approach to reliably modeling the spatio-temporal NH3-N concentration based solely on hydrological data, without using water quality sampling data. It is worth noticing that such estimation can be made in a much shorter time interval of interest (span from a monthly scale to a daily scale) because hydrological data are long-term collected in a daily scale. The proposed SAS favorably makes NH3-N concentration estimation much easier (with only hydrological field sampling) and more efficient (in shorter time intervals), which can substantially help river managers interpret and estimate water quality responses to natural and/or manmade pollution in a more effective and timely way for river pollution management. PMID:25544251

  16. Investigation of urban water quality using simulated rainfall in a medium size city of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo; Cheng, Xiao-Juan; Li, Lei

    2011-12-01

    Road-deposited sediment (RDS) is an important environmental medium for impacting the characteristics of pollutants in stormwater runoff; it is of critical importance to investigate the water quality of urban environments. The paper develops a rainfall simulator as an important research tool to ensure homogeneity and reduce the large number of variables that are usually inherent to urban water quality research. The rainfall simulator was used to experiment runoff samples from typical residential and traffic areas in the Zhenjiang. The data show that land use is one of the major factors contributing to the difference in the pollutants concentration in the RDS. The maximum mean EMC for TN, TDN, TP, and TDP at residential area was 5.52, 3.07, 1.65, and 0.36 mg/L, respectively. The intense traffic area displayed the highest metal concentrations. Concentrations of runoff pollutants varied greatly with land use and storm characteristics. The correlation of pollutant concentrations with runoff times was another predominant phenomenon. Peaks in pollutants concentration occurred at 1 and 10 min during the whole storm event. A concentration peak that correlates with a peak in runoff flowrate correlates with rainfall intensity. The pollutant loadings (kilograms per hectare) in the Zhenjiang were 11.39 and 55.28 for COD, 8.42 and 57.48 for SS, 0.11 and 0.88 for TN, 0.02 and 0.14 for TP, 0.02 and 0.09 for Zn, and 0.01 and 0.04 for Pb. The higher rainfall contribute to the higher pollutant loading at the residential and intense traffic areas, as a result of the pollutant loadings direct dependence on rainfall intensity. The results confirmed that the rainfall simulator is a reliable tool for urban water quality research and can be used to simulate pollutant wash-off. These findings provide invaluable information for the development of appropriate management strategies to decrease nonpoint source contamination loading to the water environment in urban areas. PMID:21359999

  17. The Quality and Health Implications of Urban Irrigation Water Used for Vegetable Production in the Accra Metropolis

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph A. Ampofo; Seth K. A. Danso; Mark O. Akrong

    2012-01-01

    The quality of irrigation water from different sources used by urban farmers in the Accra Metropolis was investigated. These were, tap water stored in dugout, surface water (from stream) and wastewater in drains. The samples were analysed for their bacteriological, physical and chemical qualities using standard methods. Analytical Profile Index (API) identification system was used to characterize and identify the bacterial species isolated in the samples. The results showed that heavy metal c...

  18. Microbiological quality of drinking water of urban and rural communities, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Giovani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples came from urban and rural communities and to examine the relationship between coliforms occurrence and average water temperature, and a comparison of the rainfall levels. METHODS: A sample of 3,073 untreated and treated (chlorinated water from taps (1,594, reservoir used to store treated water (1,033, spring water (96 and private well (350 collected for routine testing between 1996 and 1999 was analyzed by the multiple dilution tube methods used to detect the most probable number of total and fecal coliforms. These samples were obtained in the region of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. RESULTS: The highest numbers water samples contaminated by TC (83% and FC (48% were found in the untreated water. TC and FC in samples taken from reservoirs used to store treated water was higher than that from taps midway along distribution lines. Among the treated water samples examined, coliform bacteria were found in 171 of the 1,033 sampling reservoirs. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient treatment or regrowth is suggested by the observation that more than 17% of these treated potable water contained coliform. TC and FC positive samples appear to be similar and seasonally influenced in treated water. Two different periods must be considered for the occurrence of both TC and FC positive samples: (i a warm-weather period (September-March with high percentage of contaminated samples; and (ii cold-weather period (April-August were they are lower. Both TC and TF positive samples declined with the decreased of water temperature.

  19. Stormwater management impacts on urban stream water quality and quantity during and after development in Clarksburg, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, J. V.; Noe, G. B.; Jarnagin, S.; Mohamoud, Y. M.; Van Ness, K.; Hogan, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization and urban land use leads to degradation of local stream habitat and 'urban stream syndrome.' Best Management Practices (BMPs) are often used in an attempt to mitigate the impact of urban land use on stream water quality and quantity. Traditional development has employed stormwater BMPs that were placed in a centralized manner located either in the stream channel or near the riparian zone to treat stormwater runoff from large drainage areas; however, urban streams have largely remained impaired. Recently, distributed placement of BMPs throughout the landscape has been implemented in an attempt to detain, treat, and infiltrate stormwater runoff from smaller drainage areas near its source. Despite increasing implementation of distributed BMPs, little has been reported on the catchment-scale (1-10 km^2) performance of distributed BMPs and how they compare to centralized BMPs. The Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA), located in the Washington, DC exurbs within the larger Chesapeake Bay watershed, is undergoing rapid urbanization and employs distributed BMPs on the landscape that treat small drainage areas with the goal of preserving high-quality stream resources in the area. In addition, the presence of a nearby traditionally developed (centralized BMPs) catchment and an undeveloped forested catchment makes the CSPA an ideal setting to understand how the best available stormwater management technology implemented during and after development affects stream water quality and quantity through a comparative watershed analysis. The Clarksburg Integrated Monitoring Partnership is a consortium of local and federal agencies and universities that conducts research in the CSPA including: monitoring of stream water quality, geomorphology, and biology; analysis of stream hydrological and water quality data; and GIS mapping and analysis of land cover, elevation change and BMP implementation data. Here, the impacts of urbanization on stream water quantity, geomorphology, and biology during development while implementing advanced sediment and erosion control BMPs are discussed. Also, effects of centralized versus distributed stormwater BMPs and land cover on stream water quantity and quality following suburban development are presented. This includes stream response to precipitation events, baseflow and stormflow export of water, and water chemistry data. Results from this work have informed land use planning at the local level and are being incorporated through adaptive management to maintain the high-quality stream resources in the CSPA. More generally, results from this work could inform urban development stakeholders on effective strategies to curtail urban stream syndrome.

  20. Sidestream Elevated Pool Aeration, a Technology for Improving Water Quality in Urban Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, D.; Garcia, T.; Abad, J. D.; Bombardelli, F. A.; Waratuke, A.; Garcia, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    Dissolved Oxygen (DO) levels are frequently depleted in rivers located in urban areas, as in the case of the Matanza-Riachuelo River in Buenos Aires, Argentina. This stream receives both domestic and industrial loads which have received minor or no treatment before being discharged into the water body. Major sources of pollution include, but are not limited, to leather and meat packing industries. Additionally, deep slow moving water in the river is associated with limited reaeration and facilitates deposition of organic-rich sediment, therefore exacerbating the DO consumption through sediment oxygen demand. In this study we assessed the efficiency of Sidestream Elevated Pool Aeration (SEPA) stations as a technology for alleviating conditions characterized by severely low DO levels. A SEPA station takes water from the stream at low DO concentrations, through a screw pump; then, water is transported to an elevated pool from where it flows over a series of weirs for water reaeration; finally, the aerated water is discharged back into the river sufficiently downstream from the intake point. This system mimics a phenomenon that occurs in mountain streams, where water is purified by bubbling over rocks. The impact of the use of SEPA stations on the DO concentrations in the Matanza-Riachuelo River was evaluated at both local and reach scales: this was done by deploying and monitoring an in situ pilot SEPA station, and by performing numerical modeling for the evaluation of the hydrodynamics in the SEPA station and the water quality in the reach where SEPA stations are planned to be implemented. An efficiency of aeration of 99% was estimated from DO measurements in the pilot SEPA, showing the potential of this technology for DO recovery in urban streams. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling, besides assisting in the design of the pilot SEPA, has allowed for designing a prototype SEPA to be built soon. Finally, one-dimensional water quality modeling has provided the optimum number of SEPA stations required to meet a minimum DO concentration standard of 2 mg/l along the whole reach of interest, for future implementation of other SEPA stations, which would have an additional value in terms of landscape aesthetics as they can be used as recreational waterfall parks.

  1. Sustainable urban environmental quality

    OpenAIRE

    Toškovi? Dobrivoje

    2004-01-01

    MEANING as the essential element of urban quality. The role of the three main factors for the urban quality achievement: PLANNING, DEVELOPMENT and PEOPLE. Next to that, it is important to assume the identity of the local CONTEXT as the essential base for designing and shaping of form development. The problems of the quality achievements in the situation of the permanent changes. In such an environment - the RENEWAL of the towns become the basic strategic orientation requiring - evaluation of ...

  2. Variation in stream diatom communities in relation to water quality and catchment variables in a boreal, urbanized region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teittinen, Anette; Taka, Maija; Ruth, Olli; Soininen, Janne

    2015-10-15

    Intensive anthropogenic land use such as urbanization alters the hydrological cycle, water chemistry and physical habitat characteristics, thus impairing stream physicochemical and biological quality. Diatoms are widely used to assess stream water quality as they integrate water chemistry temporally and reflect the joint influence of multiple stressors on stream biota. However, knowledge of the major community patterns of diatoms in urban streams remains limited especially in boreal regions. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of water chemistry and catchment characteristics on stream diatom communities, and to test the performance of the Index of Pollution Sensitivity (IPS) as a stream water quality indicator across an urban-to-rural gradient in southern Finland. Diatom community structure and species richness were related to local-scale variables such as water temperature, aluminium concentration, and electrical conductivity, which were in turn influenced by patterns in catchment land use and land cover. Diatoms reflected the intensity of human activities as more intensive land use increased the occurrence of pollution-tolerant species. The change in community structure along the land use intensity gradient was accompanied by a distinct decline in species richness. On the contrary, the IPS index failed to indicate differences in water quality along the urban-to-rural gradient as no consistent differences in the IPS values were found. Our results highlight the joint influence of multifaceted factors that underlie diatom patterns, and show that diatom biodiversity can be used as cost-effective metric indicating urban stream conditions. However, the IPS index turned out to be an unsuitable tool for assessing water quality among these streams. PMID:26047862

  3. Spatio-temporal variability of surface water quality of fresh water resources in Ranchi Urban Agglomeration, India using geospatial techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arvind Chandra; Kumar, Amit

    2015-03-01

    Study was conducted in Ranchi Urban Agglomeration (RUA) to assess the surface water quality of major rivers and reservoirs during pre- and post-monsoon periods. Study indicated increase in chemical contaminants and decrease in biological contaminants during monsoon periods and a positive correlation with built-up land within the catchment of surface water sources. The remote sensing-based approach indicated Swarnrekha river and tributaries as more encroached by built-up land (0.73 km2 within 50 m buffer) than Jumar river and its tributaries (0.21 km2). For the proper management of the surface water sources in RUA, government attention and interventions are required to minimize the contamination and safeguard the health of local residents.

  4. Evaluation of water quality of an urban stream in southeastern Brazil using Chironomidae larvae (Insecta: Diptera)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vívian, Oliveira; Renato, Martins; Roberto, Alves.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the water quality of São Pedro stream, through distribution and composition of Chironomidae larvae present in the sediment four sampling sites were selected. In each sampling site, three sediment samples were collected within a period of twelve months using the Petersen (0.0189 [...] m²) and the van Veen (0.0518 m²) dredges. Samples were washed through a sieve with a 0.21 mm mesh and the collected organisms were sorted in transparent trays, with a light shine being reflected into the tray. The sites located in the greatest urban mesh showed high densities of the genus Chironomus and lower values for diversity, uniformity and taxa richness, in relation to sites located in a less urbanized area. A significant difference in density of Chironomidae larvae (p = 0.02; H = 5.89) was observed between the sites without domestic sewage effluents (site I) and those with the input of the effluents (sites II, III and IV). The Chironomidae larvae composition and the physical and chemical parameters were effective as indicators of the environmental alterations in São Pedro stream.

  5. Dynamic simulation of water resources in an urban wetland based on coupled water quantity and water quality models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Weibo; Xu, Youpeng; Deng, Xiaojun; Han, Longfei; Zhang, Qianyu

    2015-01-01

    Water quality in wetlands plays a huge role in maintaining the health of the wetland ecosystem. Water quality should be controlled by an appropriate water allocation policy for the protection of the wetlands. In this paper, models of rainfall/runoff, non-point source pollution load, water quantity/quality, and dynamic pollutant-carrying capacity were established to simulate the water quantity/quality of Xixi-wetland river network (in the Taihu basin, China). The simulation results showed a satisfactory agreement with field observations. Furthermore, a 'node-river-node' algorithm that adjusts to the 'Three Steps Method' was adopted to improve the dynamic pollutant-carrying capacity model and simulate the pollutant-carrying capacity in benchmark years. The simulation result shows that the water quality of the river network could reach class III stably all year round if the anthropogenic pollution is reduced to one-third of the current annual amount. Further investigation estimated the minimum amount of water diversion in benchmark years under the reasonable water quantity-regulating rule to keep water quality as class III. With comparison of the designed scale, the water diversion can be reduced by 184 million m3 for a dry year, 191 million m3 for a normal year, and 198 million m3 for a wet year. PMID:26540537

  6. EVALUATING AN URBAN STREAM RESTORATION PROGRAM FOR IMPROVING WATER QUALITY, IN-STREAM HABITAT, AND BANK STABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve water quality in urban and suburban areas, watershed managers often incorporate best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the quantity of runoff, as well as minimize pollutants and other stressors contained in stormwater runoff. It is well known that land use practice...

  7. Integration of Drainage, Water Quality and Flood Management in Rural, Urban and Lowland Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Vlotman, W.F.; WONG, T; Schultz, E

    2007-01-01

    Managing drainage in rural and peri-urban environments has become an essential part of integrated water management. Drainage has become a science of control, storage and (re)use while meeting triple bottom-line requirements (environment, social and economic assessments). Controlled drainage in rural settings aims at maintaining a groundwater table regime that will provide adequate rootzone aeration and soil salinity control but will not remove or use more water than necessary. In urban and pe...

  8. Monitoring Urban River Water Quality Using Macroinvertebrate and Physico-Chemical Parameters: Case study of Penchala River, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Abas Kutty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study have been carried on urban river, Sungai Penchala to assess the river water quality by using benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicator and also standard Department of Environment (DOE water quality measurement for physical-chemical analysis of Water Quality Index (WQI. Sampling for benthic macroinvertebrate and water sample was done on 3 sampling sites, named upstream (S1, middle stream (S2 and downstream (S3. The benthic macroinvertebrate sampling was done in the same day at the same place the water samples were collected in 5 replicates, while the water samples were collected in 3 replicates for each river section. The benthic macroinvertebrates was sampled using Surber’s net and water measurement for dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and conductivity was measured in-situ using HYDROLAB Quanta®, multi-parameter water quality instrument. Collected water sample was transferred to laboratory for measurement of total suspended solid, BOD5, chemical oxygen demand and ammoniacal nitrogen. The result from the assessment show that Sungai Penchala is classified as having good water quality on the upstream section but the water quality distorted in the middle and downstream section based on WQI and BMWP score. Non-parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis test show that most water parameter are significantly differ among river section (p>0.05, ? = 0.05.

  9. Pavement Sealcoat, PAHs, and Water Quality of Urban Water Bodies: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.; Ingersoll, C.; Kunz, J. L.; Kienzler, A.; Devaux, A.; Bony, S.

    2014-12-01

    Coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoat is used to protect and beautify the asphalt pavement of driveways and parking lots primarily in the central, southern, and northeastern U.S. and in Canada. CT sealcoat typically is 20 to 35 percent crude coal tar or coal-tar pitch and contains from 50,000 to 100,000 mg/kg PAHs, about 1,000 times more than asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat or asphalt itself. Tires and snowplows abrade the friable sealcoat surface into fine particles—PAH concentrations in fine particles (dust) from CT-sealcoated pavement are about 1,000 times higher than in dust from AS-sealcoated pavement (median total PAH concentrations 2,200 and 2.1 mg/kg, respectively). Use of CT sealcoat has several implications for urban streams and lakes. Source apportionment modeling has indicated that, in regions where CT sealcoat is prevalent, particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recently deposited lake sediment, with implications for ecological health. Acute 2-d toxicity of runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement to stream biota, demonstrated for a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), continues for samples collected as long as weeks or months following sealcoat application. Using the fish-liver cell line RGL-W1, runoff collected as much as 36 days following CT-sealcoat application has been demonstrated to cause DNA damage and impair DNA repair capacity. These results demonstrate that CT runoff is a potential hazard to aquatic ecosystems for at least several weeks after sealant application, and that exposure to sunlight can enhance toxicity and genetic damage. Recent research has provided direct evidence that restricting use of CT sealcoat in a watershed can lead to a substantial reduction in PAH concentrations in receiving water bodies.

  10. The influence of land use on water quality and diatom community structures in urban and agriculturally stressed rivers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G, Walsh; V, Wepener.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Epilithic diatom communities offer a holistic and integrated approach for assessing water quality as they remain in one place for a number of months and reflect an ecological memory of water quality over a period of time. The objective of this study is to use diatom assemblages to distinguish betwee [...] n particular land types and associated water quality impacts that are linked to these land-use patterns. Water quality and diatom community data were collected from sites in the Crocodile and Magalies Rivers (Gauteng and North West Province, South Africa) associated with agricultural, urban and natural (reference) adjacent land use respectively. The data collected were subjected to multivariate statistical techniques to analyse spatial and temporal patterns in water quality (principal component analysis) and diatom community structures (non-metric multidimensional scaling) to elucidate hypothesised differences in community structure per land-use type. Five diatom response indices (Generic Diatom Index, Specific Pollution Sensitivity Index, Biological Diatom Index, Eutrophication/Pollution Index and Percentage Pollution Tolerant Valves) incorporated in the OMNIDIA software were implemented to assess the integrity of diatom communities per land-use type. Principle component ordination of water quality describes 56.6% of the variation in data observed, and indicates the separation of reference sites from test sites for low and high flow conditions combined. It was, however, not possible to distinguish between the agricultural and urban land-use sites using PCA based on water quality data. One-way ANOSIM showed a significant difference (p 0.05) between groups made up of sites exhibiting the same land-use patterns. Diatom indices showed that agricultural sites were in a slightly more modified ecological state than urban sites overall. Based on the species similarity (SIMPER analyses), reference sites showed strong associations with Achnanthes minutissima, Gomphonema venusta and Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta, whilst urban sites were associated with Diatoma vulgaris, Navicula tripunctata and Amphora pediculus. Agriculture could be separated into high- and low-intensity practices based on species composition. Sites where high-intensity agriculture took place were dominated by motile species of the genus Nitzschia, and low-intensity agriculture was indicated by motile species of the genus Navicula. Urban sites contained a combination of species that were tolerant of spikes in water quality.

  11. WATER QUALITY AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF URBAN RUNOFF ON COYOTE CREEK. PHASE I - PRELIMINARY SURVEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This preliminary report describes the characteristics of urban runoff affecting Coyote Creek, sources of urban runoff pollutants, effects of urban runoff and potential controls for urban runoff. Local urban runoff characterization information is summarized, and sources of urban r...

  12. Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

  13. Microbiological water quality monitoring in a resource-limited urban area: a study in Cameroon, Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew W. Nelson; Leah M. Feazel; Charles E. Robertson; Spear, John R.; Frank, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    In resource-limited developing nations, such as Cameroon, the expense of modern water-quality monitoring techniques is prohibitive to frequent water testing, as is done in the developed world. Inexpensive, shelf-stable 3M™ Petrifilm™ Escherichia coli/Coliform Count Plates potentially can provide significant opportunity for routine water-quality monitoring in the absence of infrastructure for state-of-the-art testing. We used shelf-stable E. coli/coliform culture plates to assess the water qua...

  14. Water Quality of Urban Streams: The Allium cepa Seeds/Seedlings Test as a Tool for Surface Water Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Athanásio, Camila Gonçalves; Prá, Daniel; Rieger, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the genotoxic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of surface waters in urban streams using Allium cepa and analyzes the applicability of this assay for environmental monitoring. Water samples were collected from three streams located in the urban area of a municipality in the south of Brazil. For each stream, two samples were collected, one upstream and one downstream of the pollution discharge site. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that all samples had vari...

  15. Assessment of retention basin volume and outlet capacity in urban stormwater drainage systems with respect to water quality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet A Yurdusev; Ahmet A Kumanlio?lu; Bekir Solmaz

    2005-12-01

    The quality of river water or other surface waters is detrimentally affected by the contaminants carried by the rainfall runoff in urban areas. The control of pollution moved by rainfall runoff is achieved by installing outlets and small retention basins in stormwater collection systems, thereby allowing only a certain amount of rainfall water to over?ow and leading the remaining to treatment plants. This study analyses the effect of concentration time on surface water pollution caused by rainfall runoff. For this purpose, a linear -curve is assumed for the ?ow hydrograph arising from the collection system, based on parameters of rainfall considered and the catchment area. An independent code is developed to analyse such a system and this is applied to an urban area using nine-year single-discrete rainfall records of Izmir Station, Turkey. The system is capable of tackling situations where there is only a basin or a basin with outlet.

  16. Primer on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do human activities affect water quality? Urban and industrial development, farming, mining, combustion of fossil fuels, stream-channel alteration, animal-feeding operations, and other human activities can change ...

  17. Master in Urban Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Development and content of an international Master in Urban Quality development and management. The work has been done in a cooperation between Berlage institut, Holland; Chulalongkorn University, Thailand; Mahidol University, Thailand; University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia; og Aalborg University, Denmark (Asean-EU University Network Program)

  18. Water quality-based assessment of urban drainage impacts in Europe - where do we stand today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumensaat, F; Staufer, P; Heusch, S; Reußner, F; Schütze, M; Seiffert, S; Gruber, G; Zawilski, M; Rieckermann, J

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, design and optimisation of urban drainage systems was mainly driven by cost efficiency, surface flood prevention, and later by emission reduction. More recent procedures explicitly include ecological conditions of the receiving water in the definition of acceptable pollutant discharges via sewer system and treatment plant outlets. An ambient Water Quality based impact Assessment (WQA) principle therefore requires an integrative system optimisation. However, a broad range of mostly national WQA protocols exist across Europe varying in structure and complexity, assessment concept, spatial and temporal scope and handling of uncertainty. This variety inherently implies a considerable risk of subjectivity in the impact assessment with highly variable outcomes. The present review identifies differences and similarities of WQA protocols in use and discusses their strengths and weaknesses through: (i) a systematic comparison of WQA protocols by selected attributes, (ii) a review of real-life cases reported in the literature and expert interviews, and (iii) an illustration of our main findings by applying selected WQA in an instructive example. The review discusses differences in structure and concept, which are mainly identified for simplistic WQA protocols. The application of selected protocols to an example case shows a wide variety of numerical results and conclusive decisions. It is found that existing protocols target different questions within the decision making process, which users should be more aware of. Generally, to make assessments more reliable, further fundamental research is required to fully understand the relationship between stressors and stream ecosystem responses which will make assessments more reliable. Technically, tools suggested in WQA protocols show severe deficiencies and an uncertainty assessment should be mandatory. PMID:22699334

  19. Characterization and modeling of urban environmental quality indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco de Assis Cruz Melo; Mariko Ueno

    2013-01-01

    Environmental problems in the urban area of Belém, Pará, Brazil, deny a large portion of the population critical environmental quality. The present study evaluated the environmental quality of the urban village of União, in a neighborhood called Terra Firme, Belém, Pará. An integrated urban environmental quality index was proposed, based on the modeling of indicators of urban environmental quality, urban livability and quality of treated water. These three indices encompass the variables of w...

  20. Spatial Variations in the Relationships between Land Use and Water Quality across an Urbanization Gradient in the Watersheds of Northern Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A spatial statistical technique, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is applied to study the spatial variations in the relationships between four land use indicators, including percentages of urban land, forest, agricultural land, and wetland, and eight water quality indicators including specific conductance (SC), dissolved oxygen, dissolved nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon, in the watersheds of northern Georgia, USA. The results show that GWR has better model performance than ordinary least squares regression (OLS) to analyze the relationships between land use and water quality. There are great spatial variations in the relationships affected by the urbanization level of watersheds. The relationships between urban land and SC are stronger in less-urbanized watersheds, while those between urban land and dissolved nutrients are stronger in highly-urbanized watersheds. Percentage of forest is an indicator of good water quality. Agricultural land is usually associated with good water quality in highly-urbanized watersheds, but might be related to water pollution in less-urbanized watersheds. This study confirms the results obtained from a similar study in eastern Massachusetts, and so suggest that GWR technique is a very useful tool in water environmental research and also has the potential to be applied to other fields of environmental studies and management in other regions.

  1. Urban Quality Development & Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Fryd, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss the development and the structure of a new international master on the subject of Urban Quality Development & Management, and explore the potential of the process and the outcome in serving as models adoptable by faculty at other universities. Design/methodology/approach: The study has been carried out as action research. Using innovation and user-producer interaction as the framework, the authors present the development process; th...

  2. Microbiological water quality monitoring in a resource-limited urban area: a study in Cameroon, Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Nelson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In resource-limited developing nations, such as Cameroon, the expense of modern water-quality monitoring techniques is prohibitive to frequent water testing, as is done in the developed world. Inexpensive, shelf-stable 3M™ Petrifilm™ Escherichia coli/Coliform Count Plates potentially can provide significant opportunity for routine water-quality monitoring in the absence of infrastructure for state-of-the-art testing. We used shelf-stable E. coli/coliform culture plates to assess the water quality at twenty sampling sites in Kumbo, Cameroon. Culture results from treated and untreated sources were compared to modern bacterial DNA pyrosequencing methods using established bioinformatics and statistical tools. Petrifilms were reproducible between replicates and sampling dates. Additionally, cultivation on Petrifilms suggests that treatment by the Kumbo Water Authority (KWA greatly improves water quality as compared with untreated river and rainwater. The majority of sequences detected were representative of common water and soil microbes, with a minority of sequences (<40% identified as belonging to genera common in fecal matter and/or causes of human disease. Water sources had variable DNA sequence counts that correlated significantly with the culture count data and may therefore be a proxy for bacterial load. Although the KWA does not meet Western standards for water quality (less than one coliform per 100 mL, KWA piped water is safer than locally available alternative water sources such as river and rainwater. The culture-based technology described is easily transferrable to resource-limited areas and provides local water authorities with valuable microbiological safety information with potential to protect public health in developing nations.

  3. WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR REDIU, CACAINA AND CIRIC RIVER IN URBAN AREA OF IASI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana – Maria Oi?te

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Typically, reports on surface water quality include useful information for people, but the language used addresses rather specialists, which leaded to develop an mathematically index, like water quality index (WQI, very useful and efficient for assessing the suitability of water quality as well as for communicating theinformation to the concerned citizens and policy makers. The present study assessed the surface water quality for three rivers from northern part of Iasi city based on WQI. These water courses were not included into monitoring program, the area being highly populated, the citizens wishing to know the real state of the surface water resources in the area they live. For reaching this goal, there have been collected 19 samples, in June 2011, analysed in situ and in the laboratory. For the WQI were used six parameters (pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO, five days biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5,phosphates (PO4, nitrates (NO3. The results have been statistically processed. The result showed that the WQI for each parameter fit into good status for pH, bad status for turbidity and oxygen indicators, excellent for phosphates and bad status for nitrates in Ciric and Cacaina river and good status on Rediu river. General WQI fall in to medium status with variance between 53 for Ciric river and 67 for Rediu, with different values for eachmonitored point, Rediu being the only river that have two monitoring points that suit to good quality status.

  4. Drinking Water Quality Surveillance in a Vulnerable Urban Ward of Ahmedabad

    OpenAIRE

    Veena Iyer; Nandini Choudhury; Gulrez Shah Azhar; Bhushan Somvanshi

    2014-01-01

    The World Bank estimates that 21% of all communicable diseases in India are related to unsafe water with diarrhoea alone causing more than 0.1 million deaths annually. The WHO drinking water surveillance parameters of quality, quantity, accessibility, affordability and continuity were assessed in one vulnerable ward of Ahmedabad—a fast growing city in Western India. Interviews with key informants of the ward office, health centre and water supply department, secondary analysis and mapping of ...

  5. Assessment of hydrochemical quality of ground water under some urban areas within sana'a secreteriat

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wadie S.T, AL- Ariqi; Abduljalil A.D.S, Ghaleb.

    Full Text Available Groundwater from nine wells of three different districts, located at Sana'a secretariat was analyzed for hydrochemical quality assessment. Measurements of water quality parameters including pH, EC, CO3(2-), HCO3-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-), Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+, K+, and Na+ were carried out . Classification of [...] the groundwater samples according to Cl, SO4(2-), CO3(2-) and HCO3-, hardness (H), total dissolved solids (TDS), base-exchange, and meteoric genesis was demonstrated. Suitability of ground water samples for irrigation and industrial uses according to sodium adsorption ration (SAR), ratio of dissolved sodium (RDS), residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and saturation index (SI) was also investigated. The results of this study showed that almost all ground water samples were of good quality that makes them suitable for drinking and domestic uses. Results also indicated that even though some of the ground water samples were suitable for irrigation purposes, almost all of them were found not be good for industrial uses. Despite all drawbacks of the sewerage system built around Sana'a secretariat at the beginning of the first decade of the third millennium, the results of this study indicate that there is scope of significant improvement in Sana'a secretariat ground water quality.

  6. Water quality assessment, by statistical analysis, on rural and urban areas of Chocancharava River (Río Cuarto), Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatica, Eduardo A; Almeida, César A; Mallea, Miguel A; Del Corigliano, Maria C; González, Patricia

    2012-12-01

    Water quality has degraded dramatically in the Chocancharava River (Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina) due to point and non-point sources. This paper aims to assess spatial and temporal variations of physical and chemical parameters of the river. Six sampling sites and six sampling campaigns were developed. During the period 2007-2008, wet and dry seasons were included. A statistical analysis was carried out with 23 physical and chemical variables. Then, a new statistical analysis was carried out including the Riparian Corridors Quality Index and the physical and chemical variables (24 variables). Considering a multivariate system, analysis of variance, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used. From the statistical analysis, the river was divided into two zones with different degrees of contamination. The most polluted zone is due to pollution inputs of urban, industrial and agricultural sources. This area showed a remarkable deterioration in water quality, mainly due to wastewater discharges. According to Riparian Quality, better results were found in sections of poor water quality, due to the fact that the river bank forest was less degraded downstream of the sewage discharge. PMID:22270585

  7. Water Quality Criteria for Water Bodies in Urban Areas and Accompanying Changes in Surrounding and In-Situ Vegetation: Considerations from the Landscape Aspect of Planning Water Recreational Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeki Harada; Risa Wagatsuma; Tatsunari Koseki; Toshiaki Aoki; Taisuke Hashimoto

    2013-01-01

    Water bodies in urban areas are important as recreational areas. Thus, management plans that maintain high water quality are quite important. At the Hatadate Water Park adjacent to Miyagi University, water quality parameters such as visibility, COD, TOC, and TN were monitored at a small pond and the inflowing stream from August to December in 2011, and photographs were taken of these sites. Variations in COD and TOC were highly related to changes in the physical appearance, especially change...

  8. Águas urbanas Urban waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. M. Tucci

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As águas urbanas geralmente incluem abastecimento de água e saneamento. Nessa perspectiva, saneamento envolve a coleta de tratamento de efluentes domésticos e industriais, não inclui drenagem urbana, gestão dos resíduos sólidos, porque ainda perdura uma visão desatualizada da gestão das águas urbanas da cidade. Águas urbanas envolvem componentes que permitem o desenvolvimento ambiental sustentável e utilizam os conceitos da gestão integrada dos recursos hídricos (GIRH, necessários para planejamento, implementação e manutenção da infra-estrutura da cidade. Nesse contexto, ficam denominados Gestão Integrada das Águas Urbanas. Neste artigo, analisam-se o desenvolvimento urbano e suas relações com as águas urbanas no Brasil. A gestão dos recursos hídricos no Brasil é realizada por bacias hidrográficas, e o domínio é federal ou estadual. Examinam-se as possibilidades de gestão da água na cidade e na bacia hidrográfica no contexto institucional brasileiro.Urban Waters systems generally include both water supply & sanitation facilities (WSS. Sanitation refers to domestic and industrial sewage collecting and treatment; it does not include urban stormwater or solid waste management systems. Urban water form components of a sustainable urban environment and the use of the integrated water resource management (IWRM concepts are needed for planning, implementation and maintenance of urban infrastructure. In urban environment, IWRM is referred to specifically as Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM. In this paper urban development and its relations with urban waters in Brazil are assessed. Management of Water Resources in Brazil is developed by basins and the administration is Federal or from the state. This article assess the alternatives of water management in the city and the basin in the Brazilian institutional environment.

  9. Understanding the relationships among phytoplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and water quality variables in peri-urban river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Uthpala; Maheshwari, Basant L; Morris, E Charles

    2014-12-01

    In this article, using the Hawkesbury-Nepean River as a case study, the spatial and temporal trends of water quality variables over three sampling surveys in a peri-urban situation are examined for their effect on benthic macroinvertebrate communities and phytoplankton communities and whether phytoplankton and benthic macroinvertebrate species can be used as indicators for river health assessment. For this, the authors monitored the spatial and temporal difference of 10 water quality parameters: temperature, turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, oxidation reduction potential, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, manganese, and suspended solids. The variability in water quality parameters clearly indicated a complex pattern, depending on the season (interaction p = 0.001), which highlighted how the river condition is stressed at multiple points as a result of anthropogenic effects. In particular, the downstream locations indicated an accumulation of nutrients, the presence of increased sediments, and phytoplankton related variables such as total counts, bio-volumes, chlorophyll-a, and total phosphorus. The patterns of phytoplankton communities varied in a complex way depending on the season (interaction p = 0.001). Abundances of phytoplankton were also found in low concentrations where the water column is not severely disturbed by flow and tide. However, when the water clarity drops resulting from tidal cycles, inflows from tributaries, and intense boating activities, the phytoplankton abundances also increased considerably. On the other hand, benthic macroinvertebrates compositions were significantly different between locations (p = 0.001) with increased abundances associated with upstream sites. Aphanocapsa holsatica and chironomid larvae appeared as the important indicators for upstream and downstream site differences in water quality. Water temperature influenced the phytoplankton community pattern (?(w) = 0.408), whereas pH influenced the benthic macroinvertebrate community pattern (?(w) = 0.437). The findings of this study provide valuable insights into the interactions of water quality parameters on biotic assemblages and to the extent that benthic macroinvertebrates and phytoplankton assemblages are suitable as indicators for monitoring and assessing peri-urban river health. PMID:25654930

  10. Urban water-quality modelling: implementing an extension to Multi-Hydro platform for real case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yi; Giangola-Murzyn, Agathe; Bonhomme, Celine; Chebbo, Ghassan; Schertzer, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    During the last few years, the physically based and fully distributed numerical platform Multi-Hydro (MH) has been developed to simulate hydrological behaviours in urban/peri-urban areas (El-Tabach et al. , 2009 ; Gires et al., 2013 ; Giangola-Murzyn et al., 2014). This hydro-dynamical platform is open-access and has a modular structure, which is designed to be easily scalable and transportable, in order to simulate the dynamics and complex interactions of the water cycle processes in urban or peri-urban environment (surface hydrology, urban groundwater infrastructures and infiltration). Each hydrological module relies on existing and widely validated open source models, such as TREX model (Velleux, 2005) for the surface module, SWMM model (Rossman, 2010) for the drainage module and VS2DT model (Lappala et al., 1987) for the soil module. In our recent studies, an extension of MH has been set up by connecting the already available water-quality computational components among different modules, to introduce a pollutant transport modelling into the hydro-dynamical platform. As for the surface module in two-dimensions, the concentration of particles in flow is expressed by sediment advection equation, the settling of suspended particles is calculated with a simplified settling velocity formula, while the pollutant wash-off from a given land-use is represented as a mass rate of particle removal from the bottom boundary over time, based on transport capacity, which is computed by a modified form of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Considering that the USLE is originally conceived to predict soil losses caused by runoff in agriculture areas, several adaptations were needed to use it for urban areas, such as the alterations of USLE parameters according to different criterions, the definition of the appropriate initial dust thickness corresponding to various land-uses, etc. Concerning the drainage module, water quality routing within pipes assumes that the conduit behaves as a continuously stirred tank reactor. This extension of Multi-Hydro was tested on two peri-urban catchments located near Paris, the Villecresnes (France, 0.7 km²) and the Le Perreux-sur-Marne (France, 0.2 km²). As the Villecresnes had been analyzed within several European projects (FP7 SMARTeST, KIC-Climate BlueGreenDream, Interreg RainGain), the robustness of the new extension of MH was firstly tested on this basin by comparing the water quantity simulation outcomes with the results already obtained in previous works. Benefiting from the large datasets that are collected in the framework of the ANR (French National Agency for Research) Trafipollu project, the water quality modelling performance of the extension was then illustrated on the catchment of Le Perreux-sur-Marne.

  11. Microbiological quality of drinking water of urban and rural communities, Brazil Qualidade microbiológica de água potável de comunidades urbanas e rurais, Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Giovani Nogueira; Celso V Nakamura; Maria CB Tognim; Benício A Abreu Filho; Dias Filho, Benedito P

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples came from urban and rural communities and to examine the relationship between coliforms occurrence and average water temperature, and a comparison of the rainfall levels. METHODS: A sample of 3,073 untreated and treated (chlorinated) water from taps (1,594), reservoir used to store treated water (1,033), spring water (96) and private well (350) collected for routine testing between 1996 and 1999 was anal...

  12. Assessment of water quality in urban streams based on larvae of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Insecta, Trichoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tszydel, Mariusz; Markowski, Marcin; Majecki, Janusz; B?o?ska, Dagmara; Zieli?ski, Mateusz

    2015-10-01

    Hydropsyche angustipennis (Insecta, Trichoptera) larvae were used as indicators of stream contamination in the city of ?ód?, Poland. The larvae of H. angustipennis were present at 9 sampling sites established for this study. Significant differences between the sampling sites were noted for environmental parameters as well as concentration of chemicals in water and biodiversity of aquatic invertebrates. Statistical analyses showed significant correlations between quantity and quality of water pollutants and density of H. angustipennis larvae, concentration of metals in larval bodies, and the appearance of morphological anomalies in tracheal gills and anal papillae. In comparison to literature data, the level of contaminants in water, including heavy metals, for each of the studied streams of ?ód? was surprisingly low while concentration of these metals in the whole bodies of H. angustipennis larvae was very high. Some of the heavy metals present in the water might be identified only after conducting analyses of their concentration in the larval bodies. Therefore, long life cycle of H. angustipennis and heavy metal tolerance with a possibility of their accumulation in the larval bodies may constitute a support to traditional chemical assessment of water quality or traditional biomonitoring. PMID:25982980

  13. Quality assessment of urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsiannikova, T. Y.; Nikolaenko, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the research applicability of quality management problems of construction products. It is offered to expand quality management borders in construction, transferring its principles to urban systems as economic systems of higher level, which qualitative characteristics are substantially defined by quality of construction product. Buildings and structures form spatial-material basis of cities and the most important component of life sphere - urban environment. Authors justify the need for the assessment of urban environment quality as an important factor of social welfare and life quality in urban areas. The authors suggest definition of a term "urban environment". The methodology of quality assessment of urban environment is based on integrated approach which includes the system analysis of all factors and application of both quantitative methods of assessment (calculation of particular and integrated indicators) and qualitative methods (expert estimates and surveys). The authors propose the system of indicators, characterizing quality of the urban environment. This indicators fall into four classes. The authors show the methodology of their definition. The paper presents results of quality assessment of urban environment for several Siberian regions and comparative analysis of these results.

  14. Low impact urban design by closing the urban water cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo Vera, C.M.; Mels, A.R.; Keesman, K.J.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Current fast urbanization and increasing quality of life result in increments on resources’ demand. Increasing resources demand implies as well increments on waste production. However, limited availability of resources such us: oil, fresh water, phosphorus, metals (Boyle et al., 2010, Gordon et al., 2006; Rockström et al., 2009) and limited earth’s productive and carrying capacity (Rees, 1999) are potential restrictions to urban growth and urban sustainability. These pressures, howev...

  15. Effect of Storage Containers on Quality of Household Drinking Water in Urban Communities in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Onigbogi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The method of storage is essential in maintaining water purity and safety for drinking purposes. This study assessed the effect of various storage containers on household drinking water quality in a resource-limited setting. A quasi-experimental design was adopted. Four communities using protected springs as household drinking water sources were purposively selected. Forty-four households were selected and randomly assigned to four treatment groups; namely Covered Buckets with Taps (CBT, Covered Buckets without Tap (CB, Covered Kegs with Taps (CKT and Covered Kegs without Tap (CK.  Physicochemical analysis and bacteriological analysis were carried out on the water samples before and after they were put in the containers. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 12. At baseline, mean pH values of water samples from the springs and RSC were 6.4±0.6 and 7.1±0.7 respectively which were above the recommended. Mean chloride concentration of springs (14.3±7.4mg/l and RSC (19.3±10.0 mg/l samples were below recommended. Mean Total Coliform Count (TCC of the springs in the four communities was 18.0±4.0 and mean TCC of RSC was 12.7±4.9. Five percent of water samples from RSC had mean E.coli count of 100/100ml. The mean TCC after introducing CB, CBT, CK and CKT in all the communities were 10.0±4.0, 8.5±4.2, 6.9±2.8 and 7.3±3.7 respectively (p<0.05. The use of covered kegs without tap was best in reducing contaminants in drinking water. Education on appropriate household drinking water storage and handling practices is recommended.

  16. Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-peng Qin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1 the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2 administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3 the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4 planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development.

  17. Urban Evolution: The Role of Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay S. Kaushal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure, function, and services of urban ecosystems evolve over time scales from seconds to centuries as Earth’s population grows, infrastructure ages, and sociopolitical values alter them. In order to systematically study changes over time, the concept of “urban evolution” was proposed. It allows urban planning, management, and restoration to move beyond reactive management to predictive management based on past observations of consistent patterns. Here, we define and review a glossary of core concepts for studying urban evolution, which includes the mechanisms of urban selective pressure and urban adaptation. Urban selective pressure is an environmental or societal driver contributing to urban adaptation. Urban adaptation is the sequential process by which an urban structure, function, or services becomes more fitted to its changing environment or human choices. The role of water is vital to driving urban evolution as demonstrated by historical changes in drainage, sewage flows, hydrologic pulses, and long-term chemistry. In the current paper, we show how hydrologic traits evolve across successive generations of urban ecosystems via shifts in selective pressures and adaptations over time. We explore multiple empirical examples including evolving: (1 urban drainage from stream burial to stormwater management; (2 sewage flows and water quality in response to wastewater treatment; (3 amplification of hydrologic pulses due to the interaction between urbanization and climate variability; and (4 salinization and alkalinization of fresh water due to human inputs and accelerated weathering. Finally, we propose a new conceptual model for the evolution of urban waters from the Industrial Revolution to the present day based on empirical trends and historical information. Ultimately, we propose that water itself is a critical driver of urban evolution that forces urban adaptation, which transforms the structure, function, and services of urban landscapes, waterways, and civilizations over time.

  18. EPA'S URBAN RESEARCH PROGRAM IN BMPS AND RESTORATION FOR WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Urban Watershed Management Branch is responsible for developing, and demonstrating technologies and methods required to manage the risk to public health, property and the environment from wet weather flows (WWF) in urban watersheds. The activities are primarily aimed at rest...

  19. U.S. EPA'S URBAN WATERSHED RESEARCH PROGRAM IN BMPS AND RESTORATION FOR WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Urban Watershed Management Branch is responsible for developing and demonstrating technologies and methods required managing the risk to public health, property and the environment from wet weather flows (WWF) in urban watersheds. The activities are primarily aimed...

  20. Water quality laboratories in Colombia: a GIS-based study of urban and rural accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jim; Liu, Jing; Bain, Robert; Perez, Andrea; Crocker, Jonny; Bartram, Jamie; Gundry, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify sample transportation times associated with mandated microbiological monitoring of drinking-water in Colombia. World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality recommend that samples spend no more than 6h between collection and analysis in a laboratory. Census data were used to estimate the minimum number of operational and surveillance samples required from piped water supplies under national regulations. Drive-times were then computed from each supply system to the nearest accredited laboratory and translated into sample holding times based on likely daily monitoring patterns. Of 62,502 surveillance samples required annually, 5694 (9.1%) were found to be more than 6 h from the nearest of 278 accredited laboratories. 612 samples (1.0%) were more than 24 hours' drive from the nearest accredited laboratory, the maximum sample holding time recommended by the World Health Organization. An estimated 30% of required rural samples would have to be stored for more than 6 h before reaching a laboratory. The analysis demonstrates the difficulty of undertaking microbiological monitoring in rural areas and small towns from a fixed laboratory network. Our GIS-based approach could be adapted to optimise monitoring strategies and support planning of testing and transportation infra-structure development. It could also be used to estimate sample transport and holding times in other countries. PMID:24747256

  1. Human factors and tidal influences on water quality of an urban river in Can Tho, a major city of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Hirokazu; Co, Thi Kinh; Le, Anh Kha; Pham, Viet Nu; Nguyen, Van Be; Tarao, Mitsunori; Nguyen, Huu Chiem; Le, Viet Dung; Nguyen, Hieu Trung; Sagehashi, Masaki; Ninomiya-Lim, Sachi; Gomi, Takashi; Hosomi, Masaaki; Takada, Hideshige

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we focused on water quality in an urban canal and the Mekong River in the city of Can Tho, a central municipality of the Mekong Delta region, southern Vietnam. Water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, BOD5, CODCr, Na(+), Cl(-), NH4 (+)-N, SO4 (2-)-S, NO3 (-)-N, and NO2 (-)-N for both canal and river, and tide level of the urban canal, were monitored once per month from May 2010 to April 2012. The urban canal is subject to severe anthropogenic contamination, owing to poor sewage treatment. In general, water quality in the canal exhibited strong tidal variation, poorer at lower tides and better at higher tides. Some anomalies were observed, with degraded water quality under some high-tide conditions. These were associated with flow from the upstream residential area. Therefore, it was concluded that water quality in the urban canal changed with a balance between dilution effects and extent of contaminant supply, both driven by tidal fluctuations in the Mekong River. PMID:24114277

  2. Effects of Agriculture and Urbanization on Quality of Shallow Ground Water in the Arid to Semiarid Western United States, 1993-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Seiler, Ralph L.; Rowe, Timothy G.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Within the Western United States, agricultural and rural lands are being developed into commercial and residential areas. With changes in land use and increasing population, greater demands are placed on water resources for agricultural, industrial, and domestic supplies. Many areas in the Western United States rely exclusively on ground water as their source of drinking water. Areas that use surface-water resources often need to supplement this supply with ground water. Generally, shallow ground water is susceptible to fluctuating water quality within relatively short time scales and therefore can be used as an indicator of land-use stresses that may, in time, affect deep aquifer systems. This regional study examines data on shallow ground-water quality collected from 1993 to 2004 from 273 agricultural and 181 urban wells from 7 U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment study units in Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, south-central Colorado, and Utah. This report determines important influences that land-use practices may have on the quality of recently recharged ground water, which may ultimately affect deep water supplies within the region. The results of this investigation show that nitrate, the principal species of nitrogen present in ground water, exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter in water from more than 25 percent of agricultural wells and 10 percent of urban wells. In agricultural areas, the probability of exceeding the USEPA MCL for nitrate is influenced primarily by three factors: fertilizer use, irrigation, and aquifer oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions. At the study-unit level, differences in nutrient concentrations between agricultural and urban land use likely are influenced by ground-water redox conditions within respective aquifer systems. The most commonly detected pesticides belonged to the triazine, urea, amide, and carbamate classes. The triazine herbicides were the predominant pesticides present in both agricultural and urban areas. Simazine and diuron were most frequently detected in shallow ground water within agricultural areas, whereas atrazine, prometon, and tebuthiruon were more commonly detected in urban areas. The carbamate pesticides and the amide, metolachlor, were infrequently detected. Pesticide concentrations in shallow ground water within agricultural or urban land-use settings did not exceed established USEPA MCLs for drinking water. Generally, factors that influenced the detection of pesticides in shallow ground water in the regional area were dissolved oxygen, general soil permeability characteristics, temperature, and depth to screened interval. The most commonly detected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within urban areas were the trihalomethanes (THMs), solvents, and the fuel oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl-ether (MTBE). The most frequently detected THM was chloroform and the primary detected solvents were tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). Soil fumigants were detected almost entirely within an agricultural area in the Central Valley of California. The predominant fumigant detected was dibromochloropropane (DBCP), and its occurrence may be a result of its persistence and past use as a soil fumigant. THM concentrations did not exceed the USEPA MCL of 80 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for total THMs in any sample. Two ground-water samples collected within urban areas in Nevada exceeded the USEPA MCL for TCE (5 ?g/L) and the drinking-water advisory for MTBE (20-40 ?g/L). The PCE concentration in one sample from the urban area in Utah and five samples from urban areas within Nevada exceeded the 5 ?g/L MCL. An important factor affecting the detection frequencies of VOCs was the ground-water redox condition. Chloroform and PCE were detected more frequently in well-oxygenated ground water, whereas MTBE was detected more frequently in less-oxygenated water. Multivar

  3. Water Quantity and Quality Processes in Urban Wetlands and Green Stormwater Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    I have been invited to give a presentation as part of the Environmental Studies Program’s weekly seminar series at the Richard Stockton College in Pomona, NJ. I will present my dissertation research on urban wetlands and the green infrastructure research here, including the park...

  4. Urban sustainability and integrated urban water management

    OpenAIRE

    Vladut-Severian Iacob

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to point out the features of cities and sustainable urban development, integrated management of water resources and the relationship between them, the basic principles and the advantages of their application in future sustainable development of cities. The method is based on the analysis of bibliographical information relating to sustainable urban development.

  5. Sachet Water Quality and Brand Reputation in Two Low-Income Urban Communities in Greater Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Stoler, Justin; Tutu, Raymond A.; Ahmed, Hawa; Frimpong, Lady Asantewa; Bello, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Sachet water has become an important primary source of drinking water in western Africa, but little is known about bacteriologic quality and improvements to quality control given the recent, rapid evolution of this industry. This report examines basic bacteriologic indicators for 60 sachet water samples from two very low-income communities in Accra, Ghana, and explores the relationship between local perceptions of brand quality and bacteriologic quality after controlling for characteristics o...

  6. Accounting for uncertainty in evaluating water quality impacts of urban development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of urban development plans causes land use change, which can have significant environmental impacts. In light of this, environmental concerns should be considered sufficiently at an early stage of the planning process. However, uncertainties existing in urban development plans hamper the application of strategic environmental assessment, which is applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of policies, plans and programs. This study develops an integrated assessment method based on accounting uncertainty of environmental impacts. And the proposed method consists of four main steps: (1) designing scenarios of economic scale and industrial structure, (2) sampling for possible land use layouts, (3) evaluating each sample's environmental impact, and (4) identifying environmentally sensitive industries. In doing so, uncertainties of environmental impacts can be accounted. Then environmental risk, overall environmental pressure and potential extreme environmental impact of urban development plans can be analyzed, and environmentally sensitive factors can be identified, especially under considerations of uncertainties. It can help decision-makers enhance environmental consideration and take measures in the early stage of decision-making.

  7. Impacts of the Urbanization Process on Water Quality of Brazilian Savanna Rivers: The Case of Preto River in Formosa, Goiás State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Luiz Pires

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The release of domestic sewage in water resources is a practical feature of the urbanization process, and this action causes changes that may impair the environmental balance and the water quality for several uses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of urbanization on the surface water quality of the Preto River throughout the town of Formosa, Goiás, Brazil. Samples were collected at five points along the river, spatially distributed from one side to the other of the town of Formosa, from May to October of 2012. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics, as well as variance and cluster analysis. Point P2, the first point after the city, showed the worst water quality indicators, mainly with respect to the total and fecal coliform parameters, as well as nitrate concentrations. These results may be related to the fact that this point is located on the outskirts of the town, an area under urbanization and with problems of sanitation, including absence of sewage collection and treatment. The data observed in this monitoring present a public health concern because the water body is used for bathing, mainly in parts of Feia Lagoon. The excess of nutrients is a strong indicator of water eutrophication and should alert decision-makers to the need for preservation policies.

  8. Impacts of the Urbanization Process on Water Quality of Brazilian Savanna Rivers: The Case of Preto River in Formosa, Goiás State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Nayara Luiz; Muniz, Daphne Heloisa de Freitas; Kisaka, Tiago Borges; Simplicio, Nathan de Castro Soares; Bortoluzzi, Lilian; Lima, Jorge Enoch Furquim Werneck; Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo Cyrino

    2015-01-01

    The release of domestic sewage in water resources is a practical feature of the urbanization process, and this action causes changes that may impair the environmental balance and the water quality for several uses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of urbanization on the surface water quality of the Preto River throughout the town of Formosa, Goiás, Brazil. Samples were collected at five points along the river, spatially distributed from one side to the other of the town of Formosa, from May to October of 2012. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics, as well as variance and cluster analysis. Point P2, the first point after the city, showed the worst water quality indicators, mainly with respect to the total and fecal coliform parameters, as well as nitrate concentrations. These results may be related to the fact that this point is located on the outskirts of the town, an area under urbanization and with problems of sanitation, including absence of sewage collection and treatment. The data observed in this monitoring present a public health concern because the water body is used for bathing, mainly in parts of Feia Lagoon. The excess of nutrients is a strong indicator of water eutrophication and should alert decision-makers to the need for preservation policies. PMID:26334283

  9. Sachet water quality and brand reputation in two low-income urban communities in greater Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, Justin; Tutu, Raymond A; Ahmed, Hawa; Frimpong, Lady Asantewa; Bello, Mohammed

    2014-02-01

    Sachet water has become an important primary source of drinking water in western Africa, but little is known about bacteriologic quality and improvements to quality control given the recent, rapid evolution of this industry. This report examines basic bacteriologic indicators for 60 sachet water samples from two very low-income communities in Accra, Ghana, and explores the relationship between local perceptions of brand quality and bacteriologic quality after controlling for characteristics of the vending environment. No fecal contamination was detected in any sample, and 82% of total heterotrophic bacteria counts were below the recommended limit for packaged water. Sachets from brands with a positive reputation for quality were 90% less likely to present any level of total heterotrophic bacteria after controlling for confounding factors. These results contrast with much of the recent sachet water quality literature and may indicate substantial progress in sachet water regulation and quality control. PMID:24379244

  10. Modelling the impact of Water Sensitive Urban Design technologies on the urban water cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Alternative stormwater management approaches for urban developments, also called Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD), are increasingly being adopted with the aims of providing flood control, flow management, water quality improvements and opportunities to harvest stormwater for non-potable uses. WSUD structures (WSUDs) are typically small, decentralized systems for managing stormwater runoff near the source. These systems interact with the urban hydrological cycle, modifying the evapotranspirati...

  11. Runoff, sediment transport, and water quality in a northern Illinois agricultural watershed before urban development, 1979-81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, H.E., Jr.; Gray, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    A study designed to quantify and evaluate changes in runoff and sediment transport attributable to construction activities during urban development of a watershed required identification of pre-construction hydrologic conditions. Data collected before construction on a 2.81 sq m (7.28 sq km) agricultural watershed (upper Spring Creek) near Rockford, IL, show that during a 2-year period ending June 30, 1981, 2,890 tons (2,620 Mg) of suspended sediment were transported from the watershed. Of the 2 ,890 tons (2,620 Mg), 2,690 tons (2,440 Mg) or 93.1 % were transported during a storm in a 46.6-hour period of June 13-14, 1981. Runoff from a 0.031 sq m (0.080 sq km) subbasin (Spring Creek tributary) transported 33.9 tons (30.9 Mg) of suspended sediment during a 3.2-hour storm period on June 13, 1981. Regression models relating storm suspended-sediment yields and peak-water discharge per square mile for upper Spring Creek and Spring Creek tributary have average standard errors of 57 and 24 %, respectively. Trace amounts of currently banned pesticides, including Aldrin and DDT, were detected in streambed material samples. Documented sediment yields, chemical quality, and relations between runoff and sediment discharge provide baseline information for future evaluation of hydrologic conditions in the watershed. (USGS)

  12. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  13. Potential of simple filters to improve microbial quality of irrigation water used in urban vegetable farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Konradsen, Flemming; Vreugdenhil, Reinout C

    2008-01-01

    Irrigation water used for growing vegetables in urban areas in many low-income countries is contaminated with untreated wastewater. Many wastewater treatment methods are economically prohibitive and continued use of such irrigation water pose health risks for vegetable consumers and farmers. As part of a larger study on possible interventions for health risk reduction, the potential of simple interventions was explored. Column slow sand filters with three levels of sand depths (0.5 m, 0.75 m and...

  14. Using on-farm sedimentation ponds to improve microbial quality of irrigation water in urban vegetable farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, P.; Konradsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the potential of using on-farm ponds to reduce levels of microbial contamination in wastewater--contaminated irrigation water. The study involved observations on the use of ponds in urban agriculture in Kumasi, Ghana, and more than 300 irrigation water samples were taken for physico-chemical and microbial laboratory analysis. The study shows that while on-farm ponds are commonly used, their potential to remove pathogens through sedimentation has not been full...

  15. Water phenomenon: Urban morphology transformation

    OpenAIRE

    ?akari? Jasenka

    2010-01-01

    This research paper deals with the mutual dependence of water phenomenon and urban morphology. Water is a basic subject matter of many analyses, and it is considered a principal existential and vital generator of the formation, sustainability and transformation of different types of cities. The water relevant facts are here presented from the aspect of elementary criteria of generative factors of typification of cities and relationship between urban landscapes and water. By integrating ...

  16. Urban green and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introducing more vegetation ('greenery') in the urban environment will filter pollution from the air and improve air quality. Knowledge of this inherent characteristic of greenery and the volume of filter capacity should be put to much better use in planning than is currently done. At the same time the misconception that greenery is just a cost item should be cleared up. Next to a healthier environment, specific greenery policy will also provide benefits.

  17. Air quality and urban management in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, M. [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

  18. National Water-Quality Assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Well and Water-Quality Data from the Outcrop of the Woodbine Aquifer in Urban Tarrant County, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, David C.

    1996-01-01

    An urban land-use study of the shallow water-bearing zones of the Woodbine aquifer outcrop area began in 1993 as a part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program for the Trinity River Basin. Thirty-eight wells located within predominantly commercial or residential settings were selected for this study. Water samples were collected from each well and analyzed for 186 waterquality constituents. A brief description of the study area and the Woodbine aquifer, a description of the installation and design of the wells used, and the water-quality data obtained from this study are included in this report. The well description includes the locations of the 38 wells used in the study, the well design of the 28 U.S. Geological Survey-installed wells, and the lithological logs. Laboratory analyses of water samples include major inorganic constituents, nutrients, trace elements, tritium, organic carbon, phenols, methyl blue active substance, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Field measurements (specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentration) were measured at each site.

  19. Developing a framework to assess the water quality and quantity impacts of climate change, shifting land use, and urbanization in a Midwestern agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loheide, S. P.; Booth, E. G.; Kucharik, C. J.; Carpenter, S. R.; Gries, C.; Katt-Reinders, E.; Rissman, A. R.; Turner, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    Dynamic hydrological processes play a critical role in the structure and functioning of agricultural watersheds undergoing urbanization. Developing a predictive understanding of the complex interaction between agricultural productivity, ecosystem health, water quality, urban development, and public policy requires an interdisciplinary effort that investigates the important biophysical and social processes of the system. Our research group has initiated such a framework that includes a coordinated program of integrated scenarios, model experiments to assess the effects of changing drivers on a broad set of ecosystem services, evaluations of governance and leverage points, outreach and public engagement, and information management. Our geographic focus is the Yahara River watershed in south-central Wisconsin, which is an exemplar of water-related issues in the Upper Midwest. This research addresses three specific questions. 1) How do different patterns of land use, land cover, land management, and water resources engineering practices affect the resilience and sensitivity of ecosystem services under a changing climate? 2) How can regional governance systems for water and land use be made more resilient and adaptive to meet diverse human needs? 3) In what ways are regional human-environment systems resilient and in what ways are they vulnerable to potential changes in climate and water resources? A comprehensive program of model experiments and biophysical measurements will be utilized to evaluate changes in five freshwater ecosystem services (flood regulation, groundwater recharge, surface water quality, groundwater quality, and lake recreation) and five related ecosystem services (food crop yields, bioenergy crop yields, carbon storage in soil, albedo, and terrestrial recreation). Novel additions to existing biophysical models will allow us to simulate all components of the hydrological cycle as well as agricultural productivity, nitrogen and phosphorus transport, and lake water quality. The integrated model will be validated using a comprehensive observational database that includes soil moisture, evapotranspiration, stomatal conductance, streamflow, stream and lake water quality, and crop yields and productivity. Integrated scenarios will be developed to synthesize decision-maker perspectives, alternative approaches to resource governance, plausible trends in demographic and economic drivers, and model projections under alternate climate and land use regimes to understand future conditions of the watershed and its ecosystem services. The quantitative data and integrated scenarios will then be linked to evaluate governance of water and land use.

  20. Hydrology, water quality, and response to changes in phosphorus loading of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes, Oneida County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on effects of urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Herbert S.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Saad, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes are 1,318- and 690-acre interconnected lakes in the popular recreation area of north-central Wisconsin. The lakes are the lower end of a complex chain of lakes in Oneida and Vilas Counties, Wis. There is concern that increased stormwater runoff from rapidly growing residential/commercial developments and impervious surfaces from the urbanized areas of the Town of Minocqua and Woodruff, as well as increased effluent from septic systems around their heavily developed shoreline has increased nutrient loading to the lakes. Maintaining the quality of the lakes to sustain the tourist-based economy of the towns and the area was a concern raised by the Minocqua/Kawaguesaga Lakes Protection Association. Following several small studies, a detailed study during 2006 and 2007 was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minocqua/Kawaguesaga Lakes Protection Association through the Town of Minocqua to describe the hydrology and water quality of the lakes, quantify the sources of phosphorus including those associated with urban development and to better understand the present and future effects of phosphorus loading on the water quality of the lakes. The water quality of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes appears to have improved since 1963, when a new sewage-treatment plant was constructed and its discharge was bypassed around the lakes, resulting in a decrease in phosphorus loading to the lakes. Since the mid-1980s, the water quality of the lakes has changed little in response to fluctuations in phosphorus loading from the watershed. From 1986 to 2009, summer average concentrations of near-surface total phosphorus in the main East Basin of Minocqua Lake fluctuated from 0.009 mg/L to 0.027 mg/L but generally remained less than 0.022 mg/L, indicating that the lake is mesotrophic. Phosphorus concentrations from 1988 through 1996, however, were lower than the long-term average, possibly the result of an extended drought in the area. Water-quality data for Kawaguesaga Lake had a similar pattern to that of Minocqua Lake. Summer average chlorophyll a concentrations and Secchi depths also indicate that the lakes generally are mesotrophic but occasionally borderline eutrophic, with no long-term trends. During the study, major water and phosphorus sources were measured directly, and minor sources were estimated to construct detailed water and phosphorus budgets for the lakes for monitoring years (MY) 2006 and 2007. During these years, the Minocqua Thoroughfare contributed about 38 percent of the total inflow to the lakes, and Tomahawk Thoroughfare contributed 34 percent; near-lake inflow, precipitation, and groundwater contributed about 1, 16, and 11 percent of the total inflow, respectively. Water leaves the lakes primarily through the Tomahawk River outlet (83 percent) or by evaporation (14 percent), with minor outflow to groundwater. Total input of phosphorus to both lakes was about 3,440 pounds in MY 2006 and 2,200 pounds in MY 2007. The largest sources of phosphorus entering the lakes were the Minocqua and Tomahawk Thoroughfares, which delivered about 39 and 26 percent of the total, respectively. The near-lake drainage area, containing most of the urban and residential developments, disproportionately accounted for about 12 percent of the total phosphorus input but only about 1 percent of the total water input (estimated with WinSLAMM). The next largest contributions were from septic systems and precipitation, each contributing about 10 percent, whereas groundwater delivered about 4 percent of the total phosphorus input. Empirical lake water-quality models within BATHTUB were used to simulate the response of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes to 19 phosphorus-loading scenarios. These scenarios included the current base years (2006?07) for which lake water quality and loading were known, nine general increases or decreases in phosphorus loading from controllable external sources (inputs from the tributa

  1. Final report for the IAEA urban aquifers RCA : determining the effects of storm water infiltration on groundwater quality in an urban fractured rock aquifer, Auckland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of storm water in the Mt Eden-Mt Albert area of Auckland, New Zealand, is via ''soak holes'' drilled directly into the top of the fractured basalt. These soak holes receive storm water and sediment runoff from city streets throughout Mt Eden. Although this method of disposal has been used for at least 60 years, its sustainability with respect to groundwater quality has not been addressed. This study aimed to determine the impact of soakage on the chemical and isotopic composition of the groundwater. In addition, sediments captured by the soak holes were analysed to determine their effectiveness at trapping contaminants. Groundwater samples were collected between August 1998 and August 1999. Three sampling trips were carried out after rainfall events in October 1998, April 1999 and August 1999. Samples were analysed for major and trace components, including nutrients, dissolved and total heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Ni), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and stable and radiogenic isotopes. Cores of sediment collected in the soak holes were analysed for major components, total and leachable heavy metals, and PAHs to determine the ability of the sediments to adsorp contaminants. In summary, the Mt Eden aquifer system shows the effect of storm water infiltration rapidly after a rainfall event in some parts of the aquifer. Water quality has been effected in some areas, but in general the water quality is quite good considering the quantity of storm water discharge that has occurred in the area for the past 60 years. The relatively high quality of the water in the wells monitored may be attributed to the ability of the accumulated sediment in the soak holes and the aquifer fractures to trap contaminants. Further research is needed to determine if continued use of the groundwater system as a conduit for storm water infiltration will lead to clogging of the fractures in the aquifer and/or transport of particulates and colloids into the aquifer and a gradual deterioration in groundwater quality. (author). 41 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs

  2. Urban air quality in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides an overview of air quality in urban environments in Europe, focusing on air pollutant emission sources and formation mechanisms, measurement and modeling strategies, and future perspectives. The emission sources described are biomass burning, vehicular traffic, industry and agriculture, but also African dust and long-range transport of pollutants across the European regions. The impact of these emission sources and processes on atmospheric particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen oxides and volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is discussed and critical areas for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in Europe are identified. Finally, this volume presents future perspectives, mainly regarding upcoming air quality monitoring strategies, metrics of interest, such as submicron and nanoparticles, and indoor and outdoor exposure scenarios.

  3. Urban water transactions: the search of a comprehensive framework for interactions between water and urban systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita, Hector; Domínguez, Efraín

    2013-04-01

    United Nations global demographic prospects show that from 1950 to 2050, the number of people living in cities will increase from 0.7 to 6.3 billion, which represents a 9 times fold in 100 years. In contrast, human population as a whole doesn't show the same trends of the urban subset. For instance, rural population is in some regions almost stalled or reducing at small rates, with an average growth rate 50% less than the urban population. This progressive change in global population structure, with more people living mostly in urban areas, already places urban settlements as the main node driving the interaction of human population and other earth systems, at local, regional and global scales. This population dynamics is a major source of concern, mainly because the need to comprehensively understand the two apparent contradictory faces of the urbanization phenomena: Despite cities tend to perform more efficiently in terms of mass and energy requirements as function of population size, the agglomeration process in cities typically implies an increase of overall throughput of mass and energy over time. Thus, a central question is to understand how the apparent per capita energy and material flows minimization occurring in cities can propagate its effects towards other geosystems in future population scenarios. The magnitude of scaled (temporal and spatial) effects is crucial to determine if limits of supporting systems capacity is or will be exceeded for a system of cities, or if otherwise is within steady limits. The Urban Water Transaction (UWT) framework aims for the study of the above question from the perspective of water. Typically between 50 and 70% of mass throughput in urban areas is water, however, that figure doesn't account for other teleconnected flows, such as energy production (hydropower facilities) and food production (virtual water), etc. Therefore, a comprehensive view of actual dependence of urban areas and water faces - in the view of the authors - faces two main limitations: (1) Most of water urban-water interactions occur at temporal or spatial scales associated with groups of cities - the urban system - rather than at the scale of an individual city, (2) Water, as a renewable resource, imposes some conceptual difficulties to quantify its availability if seen only through the lens of "metabolism" or "budget", because many water related activities use, but don't consume water. Understand this changes requires the integration of complementary metrics, such as variations in flow, energy or quality regime of a water systems. The Urban Water Transaction (UWT) framework is proposed as conceptual tool to set a common ground for the different types of direct and indirect interactions of urban systems and water, and to study the urban system properties associated with water integration. Import and export flows constitute the primary and most common examples of UWT that fundamentally occur at the Watershed level, and are mediated mostly by physical hydroclimatic water cycles and human basic water needs. However, with the advent of more complex systems of cities and their supporting water dependent systems, indirect, wider range and legacy flows such as hydrological regimes redistribution, virtual water flows and quality changes, are integrated through the concept of water transactions. In the view of the authors, the importance of this framework deals three aspects of study of the urbanization phenomena: The coupling characteristics urban systems and hydrological systems, the patterns in urban system as a result of the influence of water related constraints and the identification of urban systems properties that result critical towards the long-term viability of water resources.

  4. Data for and adjusted regional regression models of volume and quality of urban storm-water runoff in Boise and Garden City, Idaho, 1993-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires information on the volume and quality of urban storm-water runoff to apply for a permit to discharge this water into the Boise River under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Program. Concentrations of selected chemical constituents in storm runoff were determined from samples collected at four storm-sewer outfalls in Boise from October 1993 through June 1994 and at one outfall in Garden City from September through October 1994. Samples were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, water temperature, oxygen demand, fecal indicator bacteria, major ions, dissolved and suspended solids, nutrients, trace elements, and numerous organic compounds. The measurement of storm-runoff volume and mean concentrations of constituents were used to estimate storm-runoff loads.

  5. Fecal contamination in irrigation water and microbial quality of vegetable primary production in urban farms of Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Bea Clarise B; Dimasupil, Ma Angela Z; Vital, Pierangeli G; Widmer, Kenneth W; Rivera, Windell L

    2015-10-01

    Microbial contamination of fresh produce can present a severe risk to public health. By conducting a rigorous survey of irrigation waters, the impacts of fecal contamination on the quality of produce could be assessed. In this study, surface waters were observed to be contaminated with Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and somatic coliphages. Culture methods show that out of 373 irrigation water, soil, and vegetable samples collected for a 1-year period, 232 (62.20%) were found positive for E. coli, 213 (57.26%) for somatic coliphages, and 2 (0.53%) for Salmonella spp. Out of 190 water samples, 167 (87.9%) were found to have E.coli, 174 (91.6%) have somatic coliphages, and 1 (0.5%) with Salmonella spp. In soil samples, 36 of 91 (39.6%) have E. coli, 31 (34.0%) have somatic coliphages, and none with Salmonella spp. Lastly, out of 92 vegetable samples, 29 (31.5%), 8 (8.7%), and 1 (1.1%) were found to have E. coli, somatic coliphages, and Salmonella spp., respectively. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of bacterial contaminants. Seasonal weather conditions were noted to have an effect on the presence and number of these fecal indicator organisms. The observed data suggest that contaminated irrigation water may greatly affect the quality of fresh produce from these agricultural operations. PMID:26273758

  6. Wildlife, urban inputs, and landscape configuration are responsible for degraded swimming water quality at an embayed beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Nevers, Meredith; Whitman, Richard L.; Ge, Zhongfu; Shively, Dawn A.; Spoljaric, Ashley; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Jeorse Park Beach, on southern Lake Michigan, experiences frequent closures due to high Escherichia coli (E. coli) levels since regular monitoring was implemented in 2005. During the summer of 2010, contaminant source tracking techniques, such as the conventional microbial and physical surveys and hydrodynamic models, were used to determine the reasons for poor water quality at Jeorse Park. Fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, enterococci) were high throughout the season, with densities ranging from 12–2419 (culturable E. coli) and 1–2550 and < 1–5831 (culturable and qPCR enterococci, respectively). Genetic markers for human (Bacteroides HF183) and gull (Catellicoccus marimammalium) fecal contamination were found in 15% and 37% of the samples indicating multiple sources contributing to poor water quality. Nesting colonies of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) have steadily increased since 2005, coinciding with high E. colilevels. A hydrodynamic model indicated that limited circulation allows bacteria entering the embayed area to be retained in nearshore areas; and bacterial resuspension from sand and stranded beach wrack during storm events compounds the problem. The integration of hydrodynamics, expanded use of chemical and biological markers, as well as more complex statistical multivariate techniques can improve microbial source tracking, informing management actions to improve recreational water quality. Alterations to embayed structures to improve circulation and reduce nuisance algae as well as growing native plants to retain sand to improve beach morphometry are among some of the restoration strategies under consideration in ongoing multi-agency collaborations.

  7. Uso de aguas de segunda calidad en ciclo urbano del agua para las condiciones cubanas / Use of secondary quality water for urban sanitation in Cuban conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos M., López-Vázquez; Damir, Brjanovic; Christine M., Hooijmans; Orestes A., González Díaz.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La escasez de agua se ha convertido en un problema acuciante en muchas ciudades costeras alrededor del mundo. La rápida urbanización, los problemas derivados del cambio climático, las soluciones tradicionales (trasvases, perforación de pozos, captación de la lluvia) y avanzadas (desalación) son insu [...] ficientes, de altos costos y no sustentables desde el punto de vista ambiental para satisfacer la creciente demanda de agua. Tecnologías como el uso de agua de mar para descarga de inodoros y otros usos, se están volviendo a retomar a pesar de los problemas que se han planteado en su contra, como son la corrosión de las instalaciones y la necesidad de un sistema de abasto dual. El uso de estas técnicas está cambiando los paradigmas existentes en el manejo de las aguas en el ambiente urbano. Abstract in english Water shortage is increasingly becoming a problem in many coastal cities in both low and high-income countries (with about 60% of world population). Due to rapid urbanization and climate change, traditional (fresh water transfer, rainwater harvesting) and advanced solutions (sea water desalination) [...] become insufficient, non cost-effective and environmentally unsustainable to match the ever growing water demand. Direct use of seawater for toilet flushing, and other non-potable uses, is often forgotten, easily rejected and traditionally perceived as troublesome due to corrosion issues and the requirement for a dual system. However, the benefits are often overlooked and, in general, not well-studied and documented despite its potential and as a means towards sustainable water cycle management, opening a new paradigm towards the use of saline water as secondary quality water in urban environments.

  8. Rain water harvesting in urban New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Golay, Franklin

    2011-01-01

    Rainwater harvesting is a practice already widely used throughout rural New-Zealand, which makes it well developed on the country’s market as well as in people’s minds. Therefore, it is pertinent to study whether this sustainable practice could be implemented in urban areas so as to provide water for purposes such as toilet flushing, washing machines and garden use. This study concentrates on the health issues posed by roof water collecting with qualitative results for water quality, and on o...

  9. High-frequency water quality monitoring in an urban catchment: hydrochemical dynamics, primary production and implications for the Water Framework Directive

    OpenAIRE

    Halliday, Sarah J.; Skeffington, Richard A; Wade, Andrew J.; Bowes, Michael J.; Gozzard, Emma; Newman, Jonathan R.; Loewenthal, Matthew; Palmer-Felgate, Elizabeth J.; Jarvie, Helen P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the hydrochemistry of a lowland, urbanised river-system, The Cut in England,using in situ sub-daily sampling. The Cut receives effluent discharges from four major sewage treatment works serving around 190,000 people. These discharges consist largely of treated water,originally abstracted from the River Thames and returned via the water supply network,substantially increasing the natural flow. The hourly water quality data were supplemented by weekly manual sampling with l...

  10. Evaluation of Urban Park Service Quality Based on Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban park is an important component of urban public green space which provides leisure, recreation, activity place, etc. Urban park service quality was evaluated by quantitative method in this paper to provide scientific evidence for renewal and development of urban park. 5 urban parks in Xinxiang, Henan province, China were selected as evaluation samples, and 13 indexes were evaluated, including plant landscape, cultural experience, activity place, ecological environment, road design, topographical management, fitness facilities, water landscape, service facility, night landscape, landscape aesthetics, information mark and shelter landscape. Then the data were analyzed by factor analysis. Results: the information contained in the 13 evaluation indexes had considerable repeatability. Therefore, 5 main factors including landscape elements, sports and entertainment, cultural quality, ecology and night scene and traffic facilities were extracted which accounted for 80.881% of total variation. The number of factor variables was far less than the number of index variables, which reduced the complexity of evaluation and indicated that factor analysis had good dimension-reducing effect. Based on the results of factor analysis, not only the contribution rate of each index and each factor in the park service quality evaluation, but also single factor scores and comprehensive scores in different parks could be obtained, which facilitated the analysis and comparison of service quality of different parks. Our work can provide support for urban park renewal, reconstruction and development, thereby promoting the urban park service quality.

  11. Elements that influence living quality in open urban space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Krajner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of people living in cities in Slovenia is increasing. There fore, the city spreads, urban space is created mostly by different buildings with minimum of open space, usually designed for parking spaces. But despite the fact, that urban structure is spreading, and there should be more of public open spaces, or green open spaces, those are in many cases reached by developers as well. Despite global worming, higher temperatures in city centres and what appears to be what citizens want, the urban open spaces are not big enough, and are usually not designed with key elements, to improve quality of lifestyle in the urban space such as trees, water or natural elements. Therefore at all levels of urban planning it is necessary to strive for larger amount of space that could be designed as public open space or green space to improve quality of life in the city.

  12. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  13. Water quality modeling for urban reach of Yamuna river, India (1999-2009), using QUAL2Kw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepshikha; Kansal, Arun; Pelletier, Greg

    2015-08-01

    The study was to characterize and understand the water quality of the river Yamuna in Delhi (India) prior to an efficient restoration plan. A combination of collection of monitored data, mathematical modeling, sensitivity, and uncertainty analysis has been done using the QUAL2Kw, a river quality model. The model was applied to simulate DO, BOD, total coliform, and total nitrogen at four monitoring stations, namely Palla, Old Delhi Railway Bridge, Nizamuddin, and Okhla for 10 years (October 1999-June 2009) excluding the monsoon seasons (July-September). The study period was divided into two parts: monthly average data from October 1999-June 2004 (45 months) were used to calibrate the model and monthly average data from October 2005-June 2009 (45 months) were used to validate the model. The R2 for CBODf and TN lies within the range of 0.53-0.75 and 0.68-0.83, respectively. This shows that the model has given satisfactory results in terms of R2 for CBODf, TN, and TC. Sensitivity analysis showed that DO, CBODf, TN, and TC predictions are highly sensitive toward headwater flow and point source flow and quality. Uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo showed that the input data have been simulated in accordance with the prevalent river conditions.

  14. Ecosystem services in urban water investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandulu, John M; Connor, Jeffery D; MacDonald, Darla Hatton

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, water agencies and utilities have an obligation to consider the broad environmental impacts associated with investments. To aid in understanding water cycle interdependencies when making urban water supply investment decisions, an ecosystem services typology was augmented with the concept of integrated water resources management. This framework is applied to stormwater harvesting in a case study catchment in Adelaide, South Australia. Results show that this methodological framework can effectively facilitate systematic consideration and quantitative assessment of broad environmental impacts of water supply investments. Five ecosystem service impacts were quantified including provision of 1) urban recreational amenity, 2) regulation of coastal water quality, 3) salinity, 4) greenhouse gas emissions, and 5) support of estuarine habitats. This study shows that ignoring broad environmental impacts can underestimate ecosystem service benefits of water supply investments by a value of up to A$1.36/kL, or three times the cost of operating and maintenance of stormwater harvesting. Rigorous assessment of the public welfare impacts of water infrastructure investments is required to guide long-term optimal water supply investment decisions. Numerous challenges remain in the quantification of broad environmental impacts of a water supply investment including a lack of peer-reviewed studies of environmental impacts, aggregation of incommensurable impacts, potential for double-counting errors, uncertainties in available impact estimates, and how to determine the most suitable quantification technique. PMID:24992048

  15. A study on the applicability of the ecosystem model on water quality prediction in urban river outer moats of Yedo Castle, Nihonbashi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinuma, Daiki; Tsushima, Yuki; Ohdaira, Kazunori; Yamada, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the study is to elucidate the waterside environment in the outer moats of Yedo Castle and the downstream of Nihonbashi River in Tokyo. Scince integrated sewage system has been installed in the area around the outer moats of Yedo Castle and the Nihon River basin, when rainfall exceeds more than the sewage treatment capacity, overflowed untreated wastewater is released into the moats and the river. Because the moats is a closed water body, pollutants are deposited to the bottom without outflowing. While reeking offensive odors due to the decomposition, blue-green algae outbreaks affected by the residence time and eluted nutrient causes problems. Scince the Nihonbashi River is a typical tidal river in urban area, the water pollution problems in the river is complicated. This study clarified the characteristics of the water quality in terms of dissolved oxygen saturation through on-site observations. In particular, dissolved oxygen saturation in summer, it is clarified that variations from a supersaturated state due to the variations of horizontal insolation intensity and water temperature up to hypoxic water conditions in the moats. According to previous studies on the water quality of Nihonbashi River, it is clarified that there are three types of variations of dissolved oxygen which desided by rainfall scale. The mean value of dissolved oxygen saturation of all layers has decreased by about 20% at the spring tide after dredging, then it recoveres gradually and become the value before dredging during about a year. Further more, in places where sewage inflows, it is important to developed a ecosystem medel and the applicability of the model. 9 variables including cell quota (intracellular nutrients of phytoplankton) of phosphorus and nitrogen with considerring the nitrification of ammonia nitrogen are used in the model. This model can grasp the sections (such as oxygen production by photosynthesis of phytoplankton, oxygen consumption by respiration of plankton, and bottom mud) of dissolved oxygen concentration.

  16. Multi-event urban runoff quality model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, W.M.; Smith, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model is presented for simulating the quality of surface runoff from urban watersheds. The model can simulate impervious area, pervious area, and precipitation contributions to runoff quality as well as the effects of street sweeping and (or) detention storage. Within-storm variations of runoff quality are simulated for user-specified storm-runoff periods. Between these storms, a daily accounting of the accumulation and washoff of water-quality constituents on effective impervious areas is maintained. The time step of the within-storm simulations can range from 1 to 60 minutes. The model can be operated as a lumped-parameter model or as a distributed-parameter model. As a lumped-parameter model, no spatial variations in model parameters are accounted for, and input to the model requires flow hydrographs only at the outlet of the watershed. The outlet hydrographs can be either observed or simulated. As a distributed-parameter model, the model requires flow hydrographs at many points in the watershed, as defined by basin segmentation. These hydrographs will normally be simulated by the Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model. This report includes a presentation of the theory and limitations of the model, as well as a program listing, instructions for running the program, and example simulations.

  17. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  18. Microbiologic quality water from

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Luís Ferriani Junior

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work has as objective to evaluate the quality of the water of the Ribeirão dos Porcos river, at Espírito Santo do Pinhal-SP, Brazil, through microbiologycal anlyses for fecal and total coliform, fecal enterococci, pH, oxygen dissolved. Twenty four samples of water of 6 different points were collected, being made 4 collections of each point, in copies. The microbiologycal analyses, was accomplished by the method of the Most Probable Number (NMP using by multiple tubes technique. Determination of dissolved oxygen and pH values were made. The results of the microbiologycal analyses showed high levels of fecal and total coliforms (1,1x 105 to 2,4x 105/100 ml from point 1 to 6. In the point 1 (nascent, the fecal total coliforms and fecal enterococci, was inside of the acceptable limits. The results showed largest pollution indexes with fecal coliforms, of the point 2 to 6, mainly in the urban zone, where the river receives domestic and industrial effluents.

  19. Key quality factors at urban interchanges.

    OpenAIRE

    Dell Asin, Giulia; Monzón de Cáceres, Andrés; López Lambas, Maria Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Quality of service should not be overlooked in public transport planning and policy making, as it influences modal shift from car use to more sustainable means. Little research has been conducted on the quality of public transport interchanges from the perspective of current travellers (i.e. perceived quality). This work is thus aimed at identifying key quality factors in urban interchanges, through an exploratory approach (multiple correspondence analysis) that provides novel elements for fu...

  20. Stormwater Priority Pollutants Versus Surface Water Quality Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Ledin, Anna; Baun, Anders; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater in urban areas comprises of a substantial part of the urban water cycle, dominating the flow in many small urban streams, and the pollution levels are sizeable. No stormwater quality criteria were found here and no European or national emission limit values exist. Stormwater pollutants however are present in levels exceeding most of the regulated surface water quality criteria and environmental quality standards. Therefore catchment characterisation is needed to chose suitable treatme...

  1. Monitoring suspended sediments and associated chemical constituents in urban environments. Lessons from the city of Atlanta, Georgia, USA Water Quality Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Arthur J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Atlanta, GA (United States). Georgia Water Science Center

    2009-08-15

    Background, aim, and scope: The City of Atlanta, Georgia (COA) is part of the ninth largest metropolitan area in the USA and one of the fastest growing (e.g., >24% between 2000 and 2007). Since 2003, the US Geological Survey has been operating an extensive long-term water-quantity and water-quality monitoring network for the COA. The experience gained in operating this network has provided insights into the challenges as well as some solutions associated with determining urban effects on water quality, especially in terms of estimating the annual fluxes of suspended sediment, trace/major elements, and nutrients. Discussion and findings: The majority (>90%) of the annual fluxes of suspended sediment and discharge (>60%) from the COA occur in conjunction with stormflow. Typically, stormflow averages {<=}20% of the year. Normally, annual flux calculations employ a daily time-step; however, due to the 'flashy' nature of the COA's streams, this approach can produce substantial underestimates (from 25% to 64%). Greater accuracy requires time-steps as short as every 2 to 3 h. The annual fluxes of {>=}75% of trace elements (e.g., Cu, Pb, Zn), major elements (e.g., Fe, Al), and total P occur in association with suspended sediment; in turn, {>=}90% of the transport of these constituents occurs in conjunction with stormflow. With the possible exception of nitrogen, baseflow sediment-associated and both baseflow and stormflow dissolved contributions represent relatively insignificant portions of the total annual load; hence, nonpoint (diffuse) sources are the dominant contributors to the fluxes of almost all of these constituents. (orig.)

  2. DETERMINING INDICATORS OF URBAN HOUSEHOLD WATER CONSUMPTION THROUGH MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Gledsneli Maria Lima Lins; Walter Santa Cruz; Zédna Mara Castro Lucena Vieira; Francisco de Assis Costa Neto; Érico Alberto Albuquerque Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Water has a decisive influence on populations’ life quality – specifically in areas like urban supply, drainage, and effluents treatment – due to its sound impact over public health. Water rational use constitutes the greatest challenge faced by water demand management, mainly with regard to urban household water consumption. This makes it important to develop researches to assist water managers and public policy-makers in planning and formulating water demand measures which may allow urban w...

  3. Soil invertebrates as bioindicators of urban soil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at relating the abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities of urban soils to chemical and physical soil characteristics and to identify the taxa most sensitive or tolerant to soil stressors. The invertebrate community of five urban soils in Naples, Italy, was sampled. To assess soil quality invertebrate community indices (Shannon, Simpson, Menhinick and Pielou indices), Acarina/Collembola ratios, and the soil biological quality index (QBS) were calculated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils strongly differed. Abundance rather than taxa richness of invertebrates were more affected by soil characteristics. The community was more abundant and diverse in the soils with high organic matter and water content and low metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations. The taxa more resistant to the urban environment included Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. Collembolans appeared particularly sensitive to changing soil properties. Among the investigated indices, QBS seems most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Highlights: ? The abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities was related to properties and metal contents of urban soils. ? Several (biodiversity) indices were calculated and compared to evaluate soil quality. ? Metal contamination affected invertebrate density and diversity. ? The taxa more tolerant to metal contamination were Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. ? The soil biological quality index QBS index was most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Soil metal contamination negatively affected soil invertebrate abundance and diversity.

  4. Assessing the state of environmental quality in cities - A multi-component urban performance (EMCUP) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam

    2015-11-01

    Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities. PMID:26334706

  5. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney Stewart; Stuart White; Candice Moy; Ariane Liu; Pierre Mukheibir; Damien Giurco; Thomas Boyle

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering) has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been ...

  6. Disconnecting the autopilot in urban water projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Øhlenschlæger, Ny; Jensen, Ellen Højgaard; Andersen, Helle Katrine; Dengsøe, Niels

    2011-01-01

    How can we motivate urban planners, water utilities and house owners to collaborate about sustainable urban water projects and to aim for solutions that go beyond the narrow perspective of individual stakeholder interests? A concept for framing a multidisciplinary learning process is developed in the research project: Black blue green: Integrated infrastructure planning as key to sustainable urban water systems, with the acronym 2BG. The concept addresses the need for local authorities to develo...

  7. Water quality: 13. Phosphorus

    OpenAIRE

    van Bochove, E.; Thériault, G.; Denault, F.; Dechmi, Farida; Rousseau, A.N.; Allaire, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important nutrient for plant and animal growth. However, additions of P to the land as livestock manure and inorganic fertilizer may lead to an increased risk of soil P saturation and resulting movement of P to water bodies. Excessive amounts of P in surface water contributes to eutrophication of rivers and lakes and to Cyanobacteria blooms. These result in decreased water quality and limitations on water use. The Risk of Water Contamination by Phosphorus (IROWC-P) Ind...

  8. Urban growth and air quality in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    O. H. L. Ling

    2010-01-01

    Urban developments, land use patterns and activities not only influence the volume of emissions into the ambient air environment but also affect the ability of the urban ecosystem to purify the air. Therefore, urbanisation affects the quality of air in urban areas. However, urban air quality is also affected by global, regional or trans-boundary pollutants. The objectives of this paper are to understand the trend of air quality level and urban growth in Kuala Lumpur city (KL), and examine the...

  9. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  10. Planning urban settlements for quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje Groth, N.; Hansen, K.E.; Björnberg, U.; Carlestam, G.; Erikson, R.

    1976-01-01

    Notatet er et indlæg på den Europæiske Økonomiske Kommissions (ECE) konference om by- og regionforskning, tema II: "Research on the Quality of Life in Urban Settlements, Warszawa, maj 1976. I notatet opstilles en begrebsramme for livskvalitetsbegrebet, og man diskuterer hvorledes livskvalitetsanalyser kan anvendes i den fysiske planlægning.

  11. Microbiological quality of drinking water of urban and rural communities, Brazil / Qualidade microbiológica de água potável de comunidades urbanas e rurais, Paraná

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovani, Nogueira; Celso V, Nakamura; Maria CB, Tognim; Benício A, Abreu Filho; Benedito P, Dias Filho.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade microbiológica de amostras de água tratada e não-tratada proveniente de comunidades urbanas e rurais e examinar a relação entre ocorrência de coliformes e a média de temperatura da água, e uma comparação dos níveis de precipitação de chuva. MÉTODOS: No período de 1996 a [...] 1999, foram analisadas 3.073 amostras de água tratada (clorada) e não-tratada pelo método dos tubos múltiplos para determinar o número mais provável de coliformes totais e fecais. Destas, 1.594 provenientes de água de torneiras, 1.033 de reservatório para estocar água tratada, 96 de água de minas e 350 de poços particulares. Tais amostras foram obtidas na região de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. RESULTADOS: O maior número de amostras contaminadas por TC (coliformes totais) (83%) e FC (coliformes fecais) (48%) foi observado em água não tratada. O índice de TC e FC foi maior nas amostras de reservatórios do que nas torneiras ao longo de sistema de distribuição. Entre as amostras de água tratada, foram encontradas bactérias do grupo coliforme em 171 dos 1.033 reservatórios amostrados. CONCLUSÕES: A observação de que mais de 17% da água potável tratada contêm coliformes sugere tratamento insuficiente ou recrescimento. Em água tratada, amostras positivas para TC e FC parecem ser similares e sazonalmente influenciadas. Dois diferentes períodos podem ser considerados para a ocorrência de amostras positivas para TC e FC: (i) período quente e úmido (Setembro-Março) com alta percentagem de amostras contaminadas; e (ii) período frio e úmido (Abril-Agosto) onde a positividade é baixa. Amostras positivas para TC e FC diminuem com o decréscimo da temperatura da água. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples came from urban and rural communities and to examine the relationship between coliforms occurrence and average water temperature, and a comparison of the rainfall levels. METHODS: A sample of 3,073 untreated an [...] d treated (chlorinated) water from taps (1,594), reservoir used to store treated water (1,033), spring water (96) and private well (350) collected for routine testing between 1996 and 1999 was analyzed by the multiple dilution tube methods used to detect the most probable number of total and fecal coliforms. These samples were obtained in the region of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. RESULTS: The highest numbers water samples contaminated by TC (83%) and FC (48%) were found in the untreated water. TC and FC in samples taken from reservoirs used to store treated water was higher than that from taps midway along distribution lines. Among the treated water samples examined, coliform bacteria were found in 171 of the 1,033 sampling reservoirs. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient treatment or regrowth is suggested by the observation that more than 17% of these treated potable water contained coliform. TC and FC positive samples appear to be similar and seasonally influenced in treated water. Two different periods must be considered for the occurrence of both TC and FC positive samples: (i) a warm-weather period (September-March) with high percentage of contaminated samples; and (ii) cold-weather period (April-August) were they are lower. Both TC and TF positive samples declined with the decreased of water temperature.

  12. Microbiological quality of drinking water of urban and rural communities, Brazil Qualidade microbiológica de água potável de comunidades urbanas e rurais, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Nogueira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples came from urban and rural communities and to examine the relationship between coliforms occurrence and average water temperature, and a comparison of the rainfall levels. METHODS: A sample of 3,073 untreated and treated (chlorinated water from taps (1,594, reservoir used to store treated water (1,033, spring water (96 and private well (350 collected for routine testing between 1996 and 1999 was analyzed by the multiple dilution tube methods used to detect the most probable number of total and fecal coliforms. These samples were obtained in the region of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. RESULTS: The highest numbers water samples contaminated by TC (83% and FC (48% were found in the untreated water. TC and FC in samples taken from reservoirs used to store treated water was higher than that from taps midway along distribution lines. Among the treated water samples examined, coliform bacteria were found in 171 of the 1,033 sampling reservoirs. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient treatment or regrowth is suggested by the observation that more than 17% of these treated potable water contained coliform. TC and FC positive samples appear to be similar and seasonally influenced in treated water. Two different periods must be considered for the occurrence of both TC and FC positive samples: (i a warm-weather period (September-March with high percentage of contaminated samples; and (ii cold-weather period (April-August were they are lower. Both TC and TF positive samples declined with the decreased of water temperature.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade microbiológica de amostras de água tratada e não-tratada proveniente de comunidades urbanas e rurais e examinar a relação entre ocorrência de coliformes e a média de temperatura da água, e uma comparação dos níveis de precipitação de chuva. MÉTODOS: No período de 1996 a 1999, foram analisadas 3.073 amostras de água tratada (clorada e não-tratada pelo método dos tubos múltiplos para determinar o número mais provável de coliformes totais e fecais. Destas, 1.594 provenientes de água de torneiras, 1.033 de reservatório para estocar água tratada, 96 de água de minas e 350 de poços particulares. Tais amostras foram obtidas na região de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. RESULTADOS: O maior número de amostras contaminadas por TC (coliformes totais (83% e FC (coliformes fecais (48% foi observado em água não tratada. O índice de TC e FC foi maior nas amostras de reservatórios do que nas torneiras ao longo de sistema de distribuição. Entre as amostras de água tratada, foram encontradas bactérias do grupo coliforme em 171 dos 1.033 reservatórios amostrados. CONCLUSÕES: A observação de que mais de 17% da água potável tratada contêm coliformes sugere tratamento insuficiente ou recrescimento. Em água tratada, amostras positivas para TC e FC parecem ser similares e sazonalmente influenciadas. Dois diferentes períodos podem ser considerados para a ocorrência de amostras positivas para TC e FC: (i período quente e úmido (Setembro-Março com alta percentagem de amostras contaminadas; e (ii período frio e úmido (Abril-Agosto onde a positividade é baixa. Amostras positivas para TC e FC diminuem com o decréscimo da temperatura da água.

  13. Purified water quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-04-03

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

  14. Water quality monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conio, O. [Azienda Mediterranea Gas e Acqua spa, Genua (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    By involving institutions and rules, and technology as well, water resources management presents remarkable complexity. In institutions such a complexity is due to division of competence into monitoring activities, quality control, water utility supply and water treatment. As far as technology goes, complexity results from a wide range of physical, chemical and biological requisites, which define water quality according to specific water uses (for populations, farms, factories). Thus it`s necessary to have reliable and in-time environmental data, so to fulfil two complementary functions: 1) the control of any state of emergency, such as floods and accidental pollution, in order to take immediate measures by means of timely available information; 2) the mid- and long-term planning of water resources, so to achieve their reclamation, conservation and exploitation. An efficient and reliable way to attain these goals is to develop integrated continuous monitoring systems, which allow to control the quality of surface and underground water, the flow of bodies of water and those weather conditions that directly affect it. Such systems compose an environmental information network, which enables to collect and process data relative to the state of the body of water, its aquifer, and the weather conditions.

  15. Water quality monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By involving institutions and rules, and technology as well, water resources management presents remarkable complexity. In institutions such a complexity is due to division of competence into monitoring activities, quality control, water utility supply and water treatment. As far as technology goes, complexity results from a wide range of physical, chemical and biological requisites, which define water quality according to specific water uses (for populations, farms, factories). Thus it's necessary to have reliable and in-time environmental data, so to fulfil two complementary functions: 1) the control of any state of emergency, such as floods and accidental pollution, in order to take immediate measures by means of timely available information; 2) the mid- and long-term planning of water resources, so to achieve their reclamation, conservation and exploitation. An efficient and reliable way to attain these goals is to develop integrated continuous monitoring systems, which allow to control the quality of surface and underground water, the flow of bodies of water and those weather conditions that directly affect it. Such systems compose an environmental information network, which enables to collect and process data relative to the state of the body of water, its aquifer, and the weather conditions

  16. Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Blanchet, F.

    2010-01-01

    The potential effect of widespread rainwater harvesting practices on mains water demand and quality management are investigated for three different types of urban areas characterized by different roof area to water demand ratios. Two rainfall patterns are considered with similar average annual depths but very different temporal distributions. Supply reliability and the extent of reliance on the public distribution system are identified as suitable performance indicators for mains water infrastru...

  17. Water quality diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a water quality diagnosis system for always monitoring the state of pipeline component materials and equipments in a power plant to previously detect abnormality. That is, it comprises a water quality sensor for measuring conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, metal concentration, metal composition, chemical form and radioactive concentration, and a computer system. The computer system comprises an abnormal event simulation calculation section based on an abnormality prediction model, intelligence data base reflecting experience and knowledge with reference to corrosion and leaching of metals, water quality data base accumulating base data with reference to corrosion of metals and material data with reference to all over the entire systems of the structural components of the plant and a reasoning engine. Then, the condition and the speed of corrosion for all over the system are determined to forecast the normal state by using the water quality data inputted periodically from the water quality sensor. The condition of abnormality is determined based on the intelligence base and the reasoning engine. (I.S.)

  18. Urban growth and the water regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, John; Kammerer, J.C.

    1961-01-01

    The continuing growth and concentration of population and industry in urban and suburban areas in recent decades has caused a complex merging of social, economic, and physical problems, The interrelationships of man and his use and development of the land and water resources is a particularly significant aspect of urbanization, but there has been relatively little study to date of the effect of urban man upon natural hydrologic conditions. As urban man changes an area from one of field and forest to one of buildings and streets, he covers land where water once entered the soil, and thus creates or aggravates problems of drainage, including storm-water runoff. As he requires increasing amounts of water for home and factory, he drills deeper wells, and builds longer aqueducts and larger dams and reservoirs. As he disposes of un- wanted waste materials, he either treats them by using water or pollutes the receiving body of water. As he dredges and deepens coastal streams carrying salt water, and he pumps greater quantities of water from wells in coastal areas, he increases the likelihood of salt-water contamination. These and many other urban effects upon hydrology deserve increasing study if we are to provide for the best use of the water and land resources available to the Nation's urban centers.

  19. Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    With the backing of NASA, researchers at Michigan State University, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Wisconsin have begun using satellite data to measure lake water quality and clarity of the lakes in the Upper Midwest. This false color IKONOS image displays the water clarity of the lakes in Eagan, Minnesota. Scientists measure the lake quality in satellite data by observing the ratio of blue to red light in the satellite data. When the amount of blue light reflecting off of the lake is high and the red light is low, a lake generally had high water quality. Lakes loaded with algae and sediments, on the other hand, reflect less blue light and more red light. In this image, scientists used false coloring to depict the level of clarity of the water. Clear lakes are blue, moderately clear lakes are green and yellow, and murky lakes are orange and red. Using images such as these along with data from the Landsat satellites and NASA's Terra satellite, the scientists plan to create a comprehensive water quality map for the entire Great Lakes region in the next few years. For more information, read: Testing the Waters (Image courtesy Upper Great Lakes Regional Earth Science Applications Center, based on data copyright Space Imaging)

  20. The Urban Food-Water Nexus: Modeling Water Footprints of Urban Agriculture using CityCrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooke, T. R.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Coops, N. C.; Johnson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Urban agriculture provides a potential contribution towards more sustainable food production and mitigating some of the human impacts that accompany volatility in regional and global food supply. When considering the capacity of urban landscapes to produce food products, the impact of urban water demand required for food production in cities is often neglected. Urban agricultural studies also tend to be undertaken at broad spatial scales, overlooking the heterogeneity of urban form that exerts an extreme influence on the urban energy balance. As a result, urban planning and management practitioners require, but often do not have, spatially explicit and detailed information to support informed urban agricultural policy, especially as it relates to potential conflicts with sustainability goals targeting water-use. In this research we introduce a new model, CityCrop, a hybrid evapotranspiration-plant growth model that incorporates detailed digital representations of the urban surface and biophysical impacts of the built environment and urban trees to account for the daily variations in net surface radiation. The model enables very fine-scale (sub-meter) estimates of water footprints of potential urban agricultural production. Results of the model are demonstrated for an area in the City of Vancouver, Canada and compared to aspatial model estimates, demonstrating the unique considerations and sensitivities for current and future water footprints of urban agriculture and the implications for urban water planning and policy.

  1. Spatial evaluation of water quality in an urban reservoir (Billings Complex, southeastern Brazil) Avaliação espacial da qualidade da água em reservatório urbano (Complexo Billings, sudeste do Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Wengrat; Denise de Campos Bicudo

    2011-01-01

    AIM: The study aimed at (a) contributing to a spatial evaluation of the Billings Complex water quality; (b) associating information on the geochemistry of the surface sediments; and (c) providing, based on previous studies, a temporal evaluation of the Complex's water quality since the Pinheiros River pumping restriction; METHODS: sampling was performed at 12 sites: 2 in the Central body (CB), 3 in the Taquacetuba branch (TQ), 3 in the Rio Pequeno branch (RP) and 4 in the Rio Grande Reservoir...

  2. Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    McGarvey, Stephen T; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C.; Rahman, Zarah; ANDRZEJEWSKI, CATHERINE; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana’s Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified...

  3. Integrated water resources management: restoration of water quality in water resources from developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Vila; Alvaro, Martín

    2013-01-01

    Water is most essential but scarce resource in developing countries. Presently the quality & the availability of the fresh water resources is the most pressing of the many environmental challenges on the national horizon. The stress on water resources is from multiple sources and the impacts can take diverse forms. Geometric increase in population coupled with rapid urbanization, industrialization and agricultural development has resulted in high impact on quality and quantity of water in dev...

  4. Stream Water Quality Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — QUAL2K (or Q2K) is a river and stream water quality model that is intended to represent a modernized version of the QUAL2E (or Q2E) model (Brown and Barnwell 1987).

  5. Water quality for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under an umbrella labeled Water Quality 2000, 86 organizations - ranging from the Natural Resources Defense Council to the Chemical Manufacturers Association - have reached a consensus on the major water quality problems currently facing the US. Their broad-based conclusions have been released in a report entitled Challenges for the Future, which represents one step in an ongoing discussion among representatives of these diverse groups on improving water quality. Although the report presents a long-term view, William Matuszeski from EPA described the document as a superb background for the upcoming debate over reauthorization of the Clean Water Act. In general terms, the report cites the major sources of current water problems as agricultural and urban runoff, especially following storms; airborne pollutants; continued dumping of toxic wastes; accidental spills; overharvesting of fish and shellfish; habitat competition from exotic species; and land and water use practices. This article summarizes some of the findings

  6. An integrated approach for urban water modelling, linking a watershed hydrological model and a cyanobacteria dynamics model in urban lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Talita; Vinçon-Leite, Brigitte; Tassin, Bruno; Petrucci, Guido; Seidl, Martin; Lemaire, Bruno; Nascimento, Nilo

    2011-01-01

    In the future, the frequency and the intensity of cyanobacteria blooms in urban lakes are expected to increase in response to climate change and expanding urbanization. In order to study the impacts of watershed changes on cyanobacteria dynamics in urban lakes, a modelling approach, in which an ecological lake model is connected to a hydrological watershed model, is proposed. To validate this approach, the water quality (temperature, transparency, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a) was monit...

  7. Evaluation of Urban Park Service Quality Based on Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yichuan Zhang; Lei Feng

    2012-01-01

    Urban park is an important component of urban public green space which provides leisure, recreation, activity place, etc. Urban park service quality was evaluated by quantitative method in this paper to provide scientific evidence for renewal and development of urban park. 5 urban parks in Xinxiang, Henan province, China were selected as evaluation samples, and 13 indexes were evaluated, including plant landscape, cultural experience, activity place, ecological environment, road design, topog...

  8. Analytical Studies on Water Quality Index of River Landzu

    OpenAIRE

    J. Yisa; T. Jimoh

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: River Landzu is of particular importance in the study of surface water pollution because effluents from cottage industries, municipal sewage, agricultural and urban run-off are discharged into it bringing about considerable change in the water quality. Approach: This study aimed at using the application of Water Quality Index (WQI) in evaluating the quality of River Landzu for public usage. This was done by subjecting the 120 water samples collected to comprehensive physico...

  9. Agricultural drainage water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' Agricultural drainage systems have been identified as potential contributors of non-point source pollution. Two of the major concerns have been with nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 - -N) concentrations and bacteria levels exceeding the Maximum Acceptable Concentration in drainage water. Heightened public awareness of environmental issues has led to greater pressure to maintain the environmental quality of water systems. In an ongoing field study, three experiment sites, each with own soil properties and characteristics, are divided into drainage plots and being monitored for NO3 - -N and fecal coliforms contamination. The first site is being used to determine the impact of the rate of manure application on subsurface drainage water quality. The second site is being used to determine the difference between hog manure and inorganic fertilizer in relation to fecal coliforms and NO3-N leaching losses under a carrot rotation system. The third site examines the effect of timing of manure application on water quality, and is the only site equipped with a surface drainage system, as well as a subsurface drainage system. Each of the drains from these fields lead to heated outflow buildings to allow for year-round measurements of flow rates and water samples. Tipping buckets wired to data-loggers record the outflow from each outlet pipe on an hourly basis. Water samples, collected from the flowing drains, are analyzed for NO3 - -N concentrations using the colorimetric method, and fecal coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Based on this information, we will be able better positioned to assess agricultural impacts on water resources which will help towards the development on industry accepted farming practices. (author)

  10. The role of green spaces on urban environmental quality

    OpenAIRE

    Feliciano, Manuel; Gonçalves, Artur (Ed.); Cardoso, Ana; Nunes, T.; Nunes, Luís; Cortez, José Paulo; RIBEIRO A.C.; Rodrigues, Orlando (Coord.); Castro, João Paulo; Martins, Luís; Cerqueira, Mário; Castro, José; Teixeira, Amílcar; Monteiro, Maria do Loreto

    2006-01-01

    Urban green areas have the potential to attenuate some of the negative effects of urbanisation, making cities a more pleasant place to live in. In addition to aesthetic value, green spaces improve air quality, reduce noise levels and generate more comfortable micro-climatic conditions, among other benefits, contributing to urban quality of life. GreenUrbe (POCI/AMB/59174/2004) – The Impacts of Green Spaces on Urban Environmental Quality – is a three year research project, start...

  11. Corporatization of the water sector: Implications for transitioning to sustainable urban water management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Chiara; Elle, Morten; Brown, Norman R.; Jensen, Morten Bang; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2012-01-01

    In the context of climate change, the Danish water sector is experiencing two major pressures. On one hand, a number of agents are pushing towards more sustainable urban water management (SUWM) approaches with the aim of improving surface water quality and mitigating flood risk. On the other hand, as part of an international trend, the municipal water management departments were transformed to locally created not-for-profit corporatized companies. Main drivers for corporatization are increased e...

  12. Methods for Processing and Summarizing Time-Series Temperature Data Collected as Part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program Studies on the Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Brightbill, Robin A.

    2008-01-01

    Temperature data and summary statistics are presented for 256 sites in 9 metropolitan areas as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems. The computer program (GRAN) that was developed to derive uniform data granularity and calculate temperature statistics (means, standard deviations, rates of change, degree days) is described, as are the methods used to estimate missing daily mean temperatures, degree days (annual and summer periods), and 7-day running averages of daily mean temperatures.

  13. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries

  14. Urban air quality in the Asian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopke, Philip K; Cohen, David D; Begum, Bilkis A; Biswas, Swapan K; Ni, Bangfa; Pandit, Gauri Girish; Santoso, Muhayatun; Chung, Yong-Sam; Rahman, Shamsiah Abd; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas; Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila; Santos, Flora L; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B; Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani; Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree; Vuong, Thu Bac; Duy Hien, Pham; Markowicz, Andrzej

    2008-10-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries. PMID:18667227

  15. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, Philip K. [Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708 (United States)], E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu; Cohen, David D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Physics Division, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD), P.O. Box 164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Ni Bangfa [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC), P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pandit, Gauri Girish [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Santoso, Muhayatun [Center for Nuclear Technology of Material and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Chung, Yong-Sam [Hanaro Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Dukjin-dong, Yusung-ku, P.O. Box 105, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31-312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, PINSTECH, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 1482, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, P.O. Box 213, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani [Atomic Energy Authority, 60/460, Baseline Road, Orugodawatta, Wellampitiya (Sri Lanka); Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT), 16 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Thu Bac Vuong [Centre for Radiation Protection, Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5T-160, Cau Giay (Viet Nam)] (and others)

    2008-10-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries.

  16. Integrated management of water resources in urban water system: Water Sensitive Urban Development as a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Joaquín Suárez López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment has to be concerned with the integrated water resources management, which necessarily includes the concept of basin unity and governance.  The traditional urban water cycle framework, which includes water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment services, is being replaced by a holistic and systemic concept, where water is associated with urbanism and sustainability policies. This global point of view cannot be ignored as new regulations demand systemic and environmental approaches to the administrations, for instance, in the management of urban drainage and sewerage systems. The practical expression of this whole cluster interactions is beginning to take shape in several countries, with the definition of Low Impact Development and Water Sensitivity Urban Design concepts. Intends to integrate this new strategic approach under the name: “Water Sensitive Urban Development” (WSUD. With WSUD approach, the current urban water systems (originally conceived under the traditional concept of urban water cycle can be transformed, conceptual and physically, for an integrated management of the urban water system in new models of sustainable urban development. A WSUD implementing new approach to the management of pollution associated with stormwater in the urban water system is also presented, including advances in environmental regulations and incorporation of several techniques in Spain.

  17. Summarized water quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The available world literature from 27 sources on existing water quality criteria are summarized for the 15 main uses of water. The minimum, median and maximum specified values for 96 different determinands are included. Under each water use the criteria are grouped according to the functional significance of the determinands e.g. aesthetic/physical effects, high toxic potential, low toxic potential etc. A synopsis is included summarizing salient facts for each determinand such as the conditions under which it is toxic and its relationship to other determinands. The significance of the criteria is briefly discussed and the importance of considering functional interactions between determinands emphasized in evaluating the potential for toxic or beneficial effects. From the source literature it appears that the toxic potential, in addition to being determined by concentration, is also affected by the origin of the substance concerned, i.e. whether from natural sources or from anthropogenic pollution

  18. MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Deines

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution systems and sewer networks are both large, highly interconnected, dynamic, subject to time and varying inputs and demands, and difficult to control. Their performance also faces increasing loading due to increasing urbanization and longer-term environmental changes. Therefore, understanding the link between microbial ecology and any potential impacts on short or long-term engineering performance within urban water infrastructure systems is important. By combining the strengths and research expertise of civil-, biochemical engineers and molecular microbial ecologists, we ultimately aim to link microbial community abundance, diversity and function to physical and engineering variables so that novel insights into the performance and management of both water distribution systems and sewer networks can be explored. By presenting the details and principals behind the molecular microbiological techniques that we use, this paper demonstrates the potential of an integrated approach to better understand how urban water system function, and so meet future challenges.

  19. CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes polygons for GA, GAA, GAAs, GB, GC and other related ground water quality classes. Each polygon is assigned a ground water quality class, which is s...

  20. Assessing urban habitat quality using spectral characteristics of Tilia leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring environmental quality in urban areas is an important issue offering possibilities to control and improve urban habitat quality as well as to avoid adverse effects on human health. A tree leaf reflectance-based bio-monitoring method was used to assess the urban habitat quality of two contrasting habitat classes in the city of Gent (Belgium). As test trees, two Tilia species were selected. Custom made Matlab code is applied to process the measurements of leaf reflectance. This enables the discrimination between polluted and less polluted habitats. The results elicit, that leaf reflectance in the PAR range, as well as the NDAI (Normalised Difference Asymmetry index) are species dependent while Dorsiventral Leaf Reflectance Correlation (DLRC) seems to be independent of species. Therefore the assessment of urban habitat quality is perfectly feasible using leaf reflectance, when taking account of the species specificity of tree leaf physiological and structural responses to habitat quality. -- Highlights: ? Leaf structure and physiological changes in urban habitat classes. ? Leaf reflectance of Linden tree species is affected by urban habitat quality. ? Species dependent leaf reflectance changes due to urban habitat pollution. ? Dorsiventral leaf reflectance properties for assessing habitat quality. ? High capability of the leaf reflectance technique for assessing habitat quality. -- Leaf reflectance and dorsiventral properties of Linden tree species can be used to assess urban habitat quality

  1. Water poverty in the peri-urban territories of Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Angueletou, Anastasia

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses water poverty in the peri-urban areas of Mumbai. The term "water poverty" refers to a variety of situations where people lack from sufficient water in terms of quality and quantity or from enough money to buy water from formal and informal providers. The aim of this paper is to identify "water poor peri-urban population" and examine their access to water and how they satisfy their needs. Peri-urban areas are undergoing rapid transformations in the form of economic develop...

  2. Governing urban water flows in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, L.

    2007-01-01

    China has been witnessing an unprecedented period of continuous high economic growth during the past three decades. But this has been paralleled by severe environmental challenges, of which water problems are of key importance. This thesis addresses the urban water challenges of contemporary China, by focusing especially on the institutional traditions and innovations in Chinese water policies and governance, basically for two additional reasons. First, the large majority of studies regarding...

  3. Estimation of Water Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water has a particular ecological function and it is an indicator of the general state of the biosphere. In relation with this summary, the toxicological evaluation of water by biologic testing methods is very actual. The peculiarity of biologic testing information is an integral reflection of all totality properties of examination of the environment in position of its perception by living objects. Rapid integral evaluation of anthropological situation is a base aim of biologic testing. If this evaluation has deviations from normal state, detailed analysis and revelation of dangerous components could be conducted later. The quality of water from the Degelen gallery, where nuclear explosions were conducted, was investigated by bio-testing methods. The micro-organisms (Micrococcus Luteus, Candida crusei, Pseudomonas algaligenes) and water plant elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich) were used as test-objects. It is known that the transporting functions of cell membranes of living organisms are violated the first time in extreme conditions by difference influences. Therefore, ion penetration of elodeas and micro-organisms cells, which contained in the examination water with toxicants, were used as test-function. Alteration of membrane penetration was estimated by measurement of electrolytes electrical conductivity, which gets out from living objects cells to distillate water. Index of water toxic is ratio of electrical conductivity in experience to electrical conductivity in control. Also, observations from common state of plant, which was incubated in toxic water, were made. (Chronic experience conducted for 60 days.) The plants were incubated in water samples, which were picked out from gallery in the years 1996 and 1997. The time of incubation is 1-10 days. The results of investigation showed that ion penetration of elodeas and micro-organisms cells changed very much with influence of radionuclides, which were contained in testing water. Changes are taking place even in cases where the quantity of radionuclides are insignificant. Differences in speed of ions going out began about 30 minutes after start of measurement. Later (1-24 hours) the difference between control and experience samples were more visible. In chronic test, when elodea was incubated in toxic water for 30 days, morphological modification are expressed very well. There were brown and discolored leaves and interruption of sprout growth. After 60 days the plants did not renew formation of new sprouts in most of the test's variants. The plants died in 2 variants and in others its begin was adapted. It has been established that the degree of morphological difference depends on the intensity of ? radiation in test samples of water. By conducting the investigation this way, the possibility of rapid determination of water quality in ecological aspects by biophysics methods with use of living organisms of different taxonomic groups, such as test-objects, is shown. This approach may be used also for inspection aims for sites where nuclear explosions were possibly conducted

  4. A critical review of integrated urban water modelling – Urban drainage and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Peter M.; Rauch, Wolfgang; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; McCarthy, David T.; Deletic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Modelling interactions in urban drainage, water supply and broader integrated urban water systems has been conceptually and logistically challenging as evidenced in a diverse body of literature, found to be confusing and intimidating to new researchers. This review consolidates thirty years of research (initially driven by interest in urban drainage modelling) and critically reflects upon integrated modelling in the scope of urban water systems. We propose a typology to classify integrated urban...

  5. Water quality sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensor of the present invention can directly measure oxygen/hydrogen peroxide concentrations in reactor water under radiation irradiation condition, and it has a long life time. Namely, an oxygen sensor comprises electrodes attached on both sides of high temperature/radiation resistant ion conductive material in which ions are sufficiently diffused within a temperature range of from a room temperature to 300degC. It has a performance for measuring electromotive force caused by the difference of a partial pressure between a reference gas and a gas to be measured contained in the high temperature/radiation resistant material. A hydrogen peroxide sensor has the oxygen sensor described above, to which a filter for causing decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is attached. The sensor of the present invention can directly measure oxygen/hydrogen peroxide concentrations in a reactor water of a BWR type reactor under high temperature/radiation irradiation condition. Accordingly, accurate water quality environment in the reactor water can be recognized. As a result, determination of incore corrosion environment is established thereby enabling to attain reactor integrity, safety and long life. (I.S.)

  6. Carbon sensitive urban water futures

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, David; Cabrera Marcet, Enrique; Jeffrey, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The challenge of supplying water and energy required for food production and development while mitigating climate change and adapting to its consequences has been termed the Energy Water Nexus. Water, energy, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change are interlinked through a series of relationships. The water sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through several routes including embedded emissions in capital equipment, energy consumption during drinking wate...

  7. Yazd Urban Water Governance : Towards water privatization in Yazd, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Soltani ehha, Mahdokht

    2011-01-01

    Reliable clean water supply and treated sewage are fundamental for human health and wellbeing. Water scarcity becomes a discussing concern due to the unfair distribution of resources and different amount of precipitation in some parts of the earth. Although water-related issues are highly influenced by climate changes, there are always various mismanagements of human kind in local scale which totally affects the natural water cycle. Therefore, an urban water system and how this system copes w...

  8. Urban growth and air quality in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. L. Ling

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban developments, land use patterns and activities not only influence the volume of emissions into the ambient air environment but also affect the ability of the urban ecosystem to purify the air. Therefore, urbanisation affects the quality of air in urban areas. However, urban air quality is also affected by global, regional or trans-boundary pollutants. The objectives of this paper are to understand the trend of air quality level and urban growth in Kuala Lumpur city (KL, and examine the relationship between these variables. Results of analysis show a significant and strong relationship between the number of unhealthy/hazardous days and urban land uses. The finding is contrary to the argument that the high concentration of air pollutants (unhealthy level in the Malaysian city is contributed by the forest fire in a neighbouring country (haze.

  9. Toward Quantitative Analysis of Water-Energy-Urban-Climate Nexus for Urban Adaptation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and energy are two interwoven factors affecting environmental management and urban development planning. Meanwhile, rapid urban development and a changing climate exacerbate the magnitude and effects of water-energy interactions in what nexus defines. These factors and th...

  10. Consumers’ perceptions on urban water services and connection to sustainable behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Dacinia C. Petrescu

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a survey on urban consumers of tap water and public waterservices. We discuss seven types of awareness and perceptions an their connexion to sustainablebehavior: consumers’ awareness of water company (1) name, (2) location and (3) services delivered,their evaluation (4) of the the water-sewerage network state and (5) of its importance, their evaluations(6) of the overall tap water quality and (7) of the importance of water quality. Results of the researchshow...

  11. Water quality, selected chemical characteristics, and toxicity of base flow and urban stormwater in the Pearson Creek and Wilsons Creek Basins, Greene County, Missouri, August 1999 to August 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Joseph M.; Johnson, Byron Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The chemistry and toxicity of base flow and urban stormwater were characterized to determine if urban stormwater was degrading the water quality of the Pearson Creek and Wilsons Creek Basins in and near the city of Springfield, Greene County, Missouri. Potentially toxic components of stormwater (nutrients, trace metals, and organic compounds) were identified to help resource managers identify and minimize the sources of toxicants. Nutrient loading to the James River from these two basins (especially the Wilsons Creek Basin) is of some concern because of the potential to degrade downstream water quality. Toxicity related to dissolved trace metal constituents in stormwater does not appear to be a great concern in these two basins. Increased heterotrophic activity, the result of large densities of fecal indicator bacteria introduced into the streams after storm events, could lead to associated dissolved oxygen stress of native biota. Analysis of stormwater samples detected a greater number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than were present in base-flow samples. The number and concentrations of pesticides detected in both the base-flow and stormwater samples were similar.Genotoxicity tests were performed to determine the bioavilability of chemical contaminants and determine the potential harmful effects on aquatic biota of Pearson Creek and Wilsons Creek. Genotoxicity was determined from dialysates from both long-term (approximately 30 days) and storm-event (3 to 5 days) semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) samples that were collected in each basin. Toxicity tests of SPMD samples indicated evidence of genotoxins in all SPMD samples. Hepatic activity assessment of one long-term SPMD sample indicated evidence of contaminant uptake in fish. Chemical analyses of the SPMD samples found that relatively few pesticides and pesticide metabolites had been sequestered in the lipid material of the SPMD; however, numerous PAHs and VOCs were detected in both the long-term and the storm-event exposures. It is suspected, based on the compounds detected in the SPMDs and the water samples, that the observed genotoxicity is largely the result of PAHs and VOCs that were probably derived from petroleum inputs or combustion sources. Therefore the water quality and thus the aquatic environments in the Pearson Creek and Wilsons Creek Basins are being degraded by urban derived contaminants.

  12. Water chemistry and poultry processing water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the influences of water chemistry on the quality of process water used in immersion chillers. During commercial poultry processing the bird carcasses come in direct contact with process water during washing and chilling operations. Contamination of the process water with bacteria...

  13. Surface water flood forecasting for urban communities

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, R. J.; Cole, S. J.; DUNN, S; Ghimire, S; Golding, B.W.; Pierce, C.E.; Roberts, N.M.; Speight, L.

    2015-01-01

    Key findings and recommendations: • This research has addressed the challenge of surface water flood forecasting by producing the UK’s first operational surface water flood risk forecast with a 24-hour lead time. This was successfully used in Glasgow at the Commonwealth Games in 2014. • The methodology of the Glasgow Pilot has been developed to use nationally available datasets and a transferrable approach which will help urban areas in Scotland improve their resilience to and prepare...

  14. Communicating water quality risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology for detecting and understanding water quality problems and the impacts of activities on long-range groundwater quality has advanced considerably. In the past a technical solution was considered adequate but today one must consider a wide range of both technical and social factors in evaluating technical alternatives that are also acceptable social solutions. Policies developed and implemented with limited local participation generally are resisted and become ineffective if public cooperation is necessary for effective implementation. The public, the experts and the policymakers all must understand and appreciate the different perspectives present in risk policymaking. The typical model used to involve the public in policy decisions is a strategy described as the decide-announce-defend-approach. Much more acceptable to the public, but also more difficult to implement, is a strategy that calls for free flow of information within the community about the problem, policies and potential solutions. Communication about complex issues will be more successful if the communication is substantial; if it takes advantage of existing interpersonal networks and mass media; if it pays particular attention to existing audience knowledge, interest and behaviors; and if it clearly targets messages to various segments of the audience

  15. Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin: Land-use and Best-Management-Practices inventory, selected streamwater-quality data, urban-watershed quality assurance and quality control, constituent loads in rural streams, and snowmelt-runoff analysis, water year 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Corsi, S.R.; Owens, D.W.; Wierl, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of best-management practices (BMP) for controlling nonpoint-source contamination in rural and urban watersheds. This report is an annual summary of the data collected for the program by the U.S Geological Survey and a report of the results of several different detailed analyses of the data. A land-use and BMP inventory is ongoing for 12 evaluation monitoring projects to track the sources of nonpoint-source pollution in each watershed and to document implementation of BMP's that may cause changes in the water quality of streams. Updated information is gathered each year, mapped, and stored in a geographic-information-system data base. Summaries of data collected during water years 1989-94 are presented. A water year is the period beginning October 1 and ending September 30; the water year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Suspended-sediment and total-phosphorus data (storm loads and annual loads) are summarized for eight rural sites. For all sites, the annual suspended-sediment or suspended-solids load for water year 1993 exceeded the average for the period of data collection; the minimum annual loads were transported in water year 1991 or 1992. Continuous dissolved-oxygen data were collected at seven rural sites during water year 1994. Data for water years 1990-93 are summarized and plotted in terms of percentage of time that a particular concentration is equaled or exceeded. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in four streams were less than 9 mg/L at least 50 percent of the time, a condition that fails to meet suggested criterion for coldwater streams. The dissolved-oxygen probability curve for one of the coldwater streams is markedly different than the curves for the other streams, perhaps because of differences in aquatic biomass. Blank quality-assurance samples were collected at two of the urban evaluation monitoring sites to isolate contamination in the sample bottle, the automatic sampler and splitter, and the filtration system. Significant contamination caused excessive concentrations of dissolved chloride, alkalinity, and biochemical oxygen demand. The level of contamination may be large enough to affect data for water samples in which these analytes are present at low concentration. Further investigation is being done to determine the source of contamination and take measures to minimize its effect on the sampling. A preliminary regression analysis was done for the rural sites using data collected during water years 1989-93. Loads of suspended solids and total phosphorus in stormflow were regressed against various precipitation-related measures. The results indicate that, for most sites, changes in constituent load on the order of 40 to 50 percent could be detected with a statistical test. For two sites, the change would have to be 60 to 70 percent to be detected. A detailed comparison of snowmelt runoff and rainfall stormflow in urban and rural areas was done using data collected during water years 1985-93. For the rural sites where statistically significant differences were found between constituent loads in snowmelt and storm runoff, the loads of suspended solids and total phosphorus in snowmelt runoff were greater than those in storm runoff. For the urban sites where statistically significant differences were found between snowmelt and storm runoff, the loads of suspended solids and total phosphorus in storm runoff were greater than those in snowmelt runoff. The importance of including snowmelt runoff in designing and analyzing the effects of BMP's on streamwater quality, particularly in rural areas, is emphasized by these results.

  16. URBAN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT BRANCH (WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling Wet Weather Flow (WWF)pollution is one of the top cleanup priority areas for the USEPA. The Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB)of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Water Supply and Water Resources Division is responsible for EPA's WWF research. U...

  17. Underground Water Assessment using Water Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan YISA; Tijani Oladejo JIMOH; Ohiemi Michael OYIBO

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the quality of selected hand dug wells in Maikunkele area of Niger State, Nigeria using Water Quality Index (WQI). ten hand dug wells were randomly selected in Maikunkele area of Bosso Local Government and were tested for nine (9) parameters of National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) using standard analytical procedures. WQI results indicated that the quality of the selected well water samples were medium except for sample 2 that was extremely bad. The findings ...

  18. Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    The potential effect of widespread rainwater harvesting practices on mains water demand and quality management are investigated for three different types of urban areas characterized by different roof area to water demand ratios. Two rainfall patterns are considered with similar average annual depths but very different temporal distributions. Supply reliability and the extent of reliance on the public distribution system are identified as suitable performance indicators for mains water infrastructure. A uniform temporal distribution of rainfall in an oceanic climate like that of Dinard, Northern France, yielded supply reliabilities close to 100% for reasonable tank sizes (0.065 m3/m2 of roof area in Dinard compared with 0.262 m3/m2 in Nice with a RWSO of 30% for a detached house). However, the collection and use of rainfall results in a permanent decrease in mains water demand leading to an increase in water age in the distribution network. Investigations carried on a real network showed that water age is greatly affected when rainwater supplies more than 30% of the overall water demand. In urban water utilities planning, rainwater supply systems may however be profitable for the community if they enable the deferment of requirements for new mains water infrastructure.

  19. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.; Verdonck, F.; Nopens, I.; De Baets, B.; Vanrolleghem, P.A.; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Benedetti, L.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modeling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOS) and stormwater drainage systems However, some micropollutants tend to appear in more than one environmental medium (air, water, sediment, soil, groundwater, etc) In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is "wrapped around" a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrat...

  20. Water and Sanitation Hygiene Knowledge Attitude Practice in Urban Slum Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Joshi; Satish Prasad; Jyoti B Kasav; Mehak Segan; Awnish K. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Access to improved drinking water, sanitation and hygiene is one of the prime concerns around the globe. This study aimed at assessing water and sanitation hygiene-related attitude and practices, and quality of water in urban slums of south Delhi, India. Methodology: This pilot cross sectional study was performed during July 2013 across four urban slums of South Delhi. A convenient sample of 40 participants was enrolled. A modified version of previously validated questionnaire was...

  1. Calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural del municipio de Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia Bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas of the municipality of Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lilia Ávila de Navia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Guatavita es un municipio ubicado en el Departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia. Posee recursos hídricos como ríos, quebradas, lagunas y nacimientos, que representan un alto porcentaje del agua con que se abastece. El municipio tiene 16 acueductos en funcionamiento, pero solo el que abastece a la población de la zona urbana cuenta con un sistema de tratamiento de agua. En la zona rural existen 14 acueductos con un sistema básico de pretratamiento. Se analizó la calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural (veredas Corales, Potrero Largo y Carbonera Alta, por medio de los indicadores de contaminación: coliformes totales y Escherichia coli, mediante la técnica de filtración por membrana. El agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana cumplió con los parámetros establecidos en la Resolución 2115 de 2007 del Ministerio de Protección Social, contrario a la zona rural, donde se encontraron recuentos de los indicadores de contaminación fecal, superiores a lo establecido. Por lo tanto, este recurso debe ser considerado como "agua natural", no apta para consumo humano, según el Decreto 1594 de 1984, por lo que debe ser destinada para potabilización bajo un tratamiento convencional.Guatavita is a municipality in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Guatavita has water resources such as rivers, streams, lakes and springs, which provide a large proportion of the water consumed by the population. Sixteen water supply systems are in operation, but only the one supplying the urban area is equipped with water treatment facilities. In the rural area there are 14 aqueducts with a basic pretreatment system. An analysis was made of the bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas (districts of Corales, Potrero Largo and Carbonera Alta based on two contamination indicators: total coliforms and Escherichia coli, using membrane filtration technique. The water for human consumption in the urban area complied with the parameters contained in Resolution 2115/2007 of the Ministry of Social Protection. In the rural area, however, fecal contamination indicators were above the established limits. Therefore, this resource should be viewed as "natural water" not suitable for human consumption, according to Decree 1594/1984, and destined for potabilization by conventional treatment.

  2. MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Deines

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution systems are large, highly interconnected and dynamic, and difficult to control. Sewer systems are also large and subject to time varying inputs and demands. Their performance also faces increasing loading due to increasing urbanization and longer-term environmental changes. Therefore, understanding the link between microbial ecology and any potential impacts on short or long-term engineering performance is important. By combining the strengths and research expertise of civil-, biochemical engineers and molecular microbial ecologists, we aim to link the abundance and diversity of microorganisms to physical and engineering variables so that novel insights into the ecology of microorganisms within both water distribution systems and sewer networks can be explored. By presenting the details of this multidisciplinary approach, and the principals behind the molecular microbiological methods and techniques that we use, this paper will demonstrate the potential of an integrated approach to better understand urban water system function and so meet future challenges.

  3. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Stewart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been driven by the desire for increased data regarding time of use and end-use (such as use by shower, toilet, garden, etc. as well as by the ability of the technology to reduce labour costs for meter reading. Technology development in the water sector generally lags that seen in the electricity sector. In the coming decade, the deployment of intelligent water metering will transition from being predominantly “pilot or demonstration scale” with the occasional city-wide roll-out, to broader mainstream implementation. This means that issues which have hitherto received little focus must now be addressed, namely: the role of real-time data in customer engagement and demand management; data ownership, sharing and privacy; technical data management and infrastructure security, utility workforce skills; and costs and benefits of implementation.

  4. MEASURES TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    L. SÂMBOTIN; S. MOISA; DANA SÂMBOTIN; ANA MARIANA DINCU; C Ilie

    2010-01-01

    The main measures to prevent pollution of surface water -rivers, streams, lakes - consist of domestic and industrial wastewaterwhich, if untreated reach the emissary, it could degrade water quality, making it even unusable.

  5. An Expert System Applied in Construction Water Quality Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Ooshaksaraie; Noor E.A. Basri

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: An untoward environmental impact of urban growth in Malaysia has been deterioration in a number of watercourses due to severe siltation and other pollutants from the construction site. Water quality monitoring is a plan for decision makers to take into account the adverse impacts of construction activities on the receiving water bodies. It is also a process for collecting the construction water quality monitoring, baseline data and standard level. Approa...

  6. Efficient Assessment of the Environment for Integral Urban Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Grit; Londong, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: Sustainable water supply and sanitation is fundamental, especially in countries that are also particularly vulnerable to water-related problems. The Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach makes sure that water management is organised in a transdisciplinary way taking into account the river basin, the hydrologic system and the appendant organisation like culture, law and economics. The main objective of IWRM is the sustainable organisation of water resources quality and quantity (GWP and INBO 2009). However there are more important targets in sustainable use of water resources. New sanitation systems are focussing on adding value and maintaining essential resources in circular flow. Focussing on material fluxes can contribute on water quality, food security, sustainable use of renewable energy, adaption on water scarcity and also on rising water and sanitation demand because of rapid urban and suburban growth (Price and Vojinovi? 2011; Rost et al 2013; Stäudel et al 2014). Problem: There are several planning tools for IWRM as well as for urban water management. But to complete the IWRM approach for the resource oriented concept a systematic assessment tool is missing. The assessment of crucial indicators obviously requires a lot of data from different subjects/disciplines, in different scales of detail and in different accuracy and in data acquisition (Karthe et al 2014). On the one hand there will be data abundance and on the other hand the data can be unavailable or unfeasible for example because of scale and specification(Rost et al 2013). Such a complex integrated concept requires a clearly worked out structure for the way of managing and priority setting. Purpose: To get systematic in the complex planning process the toolbox model is going to develop. The assessment of the environmental screening (one part of the toolbox) is going to be presented in this paper. The first step of assessment leans on the assertion that each of the required subjects/disciplines implies first sight expert knowledge or provided open access data. In the case of the need for a more detailed screening the next steps consist of scientifically based analysis and legal statutory analysis. Indexes (indicators) or benchmarks for each assessment scale will be summarized and linked to suitable measures. The trans- and interdisciplinary approach makes sure that technical, informative and administrative measures will be involved. A rating between the current situation and the determined target situation will help for effective derivation of measures. Conclusion: The claim of the stepwise assessment is to make the data possible to handle, and to summarize the knowledge of expert's effective environmental assessment methods. The universe, comprehensive assessment will be feasible by using the toolbox. The toolbox will be a planning tool for sustainable urban water management and closed loop recycling water management. GWP, INBO (2009) A Handbook for Integrated Water Resources Management in Basins. 104. Karthe D, Heldt S, Rost G, et al (2014) Modular Concept for Municipal Water Management in the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia. Environ. Sci. Price RK, Vojinovi? Z (2011) Urban Hydroinformatics Data, Models and Decision Support for Integrated Urban Water Management. 520. Rost G, Londong J, Dietze S, Osor G (2013) Integrated urban water management - an adapted management approach for planning and implementing measures: Case study area Darkhan , Kharaa catchment, Mongolia. Submitt to Environ Earth Sci 19. Stäudel J, Schalkwyk B Van, Gibbens M (2014) Methods and strategies for community-based enhancement & up-scaling of sanitation & waste management in peri-urban areas in South Africa. SANO. Rhombos-Verlag, Weimar, pp 1-13

  7. Efeitos dos escoamentos urbanos e rurais na qualidade das águas do córrego verruga em vitória da conquista - Bahia, Brasil Effects of the urban and rural drainages in the quality of waters of verruga stream in vitória da conquista - Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lúcia Pires dos Santos; José Soares dos Santos; Jarbas Rodrigues dos Santos; Leandra Brito de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the spatial and temporal variations of 13 physico-chemical parameters in water and sediment samples collected along the rural and urban section of Verruga Stream. The metal concentrations were determined by FAAS. The conductivity and the concentration of Na+, Cl-, and Ca2+ showed the largest variations in the urban area demonstrating that these parameters are appropriate indicators of urban contamination. The application of cluster and principal component analysis showed t...

  8. Channels for change: private water and the urban poor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Matthew; Matthews, Petter; Ryan-Collins, Lily [Engineers Against Poverty (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    For the rapidly urbanising developing world, safe and affordable water is key to health and livelihoods, as well as meeting the Millennium Development Goals. But providing it demands innovative models. Where the context allows and the approach is appropriate, private sector involvement can generate win-win outcomes. Poor people can gain access to high-quality, affordable services, and companies can gain access to new and profitable business opportunities. Two examples of innovative 'private' water suppliers are the Manila Water Company's Water for the Poor Communities (TPSB) programme, and the Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) partnership. Both have a multisector approach to service expansion and provision, including partnerships with local authorities; strong community involvement in selecting, designing and operating options; appropriate service levels to reduce costs; and a flexible range of services. Many elements of these models are also replicable.

  9. Urban Densification and Recreational Quality of Public Urban Green Spaces—A Viennese Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Arne Arnberger

    2012-01-01

    Public urban green spaces play an important role in urban sustainability. These places should provide high-quality recreation experiences for the urban residents. However, they are often overused. The Wienerberg area in the south of Vienna, Austria, was transformed from a waste disposal site into a natural recreation area. During the past years, intensive settlement densification processes have taken place, resulting in a doubling of the local population living within a few minutes walking di...

  10. Balancing urban and peri-urban exchange: water geography of rural livelihoods in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Caravantes, Rolando E

    2012-01-01

    The peri-urban area is the region where there is a more dynamic interaction between the urban and rural. The peri-urban area supplies natural resources, such as land for urban expansion and agricultural products to feed the urban population. In arid and semi-arid lands, such as northern Mexico, these areas may also be the source of water for the city's domestic demand. In addition, scholars argue that peri-urban residents may have a more advantageous geographical position for selling their labour and agricultural products in cities and, by doing so, sustaining their livelihoods. A considerable number of studies have examined the peri-urban to urban natural resources transfer in terms of land annexation, housing construction, and infrastructure issues; however, the study of the effects of the reallocation of peri-urban water resources to serve urban needs is critical as well because the livelihoods of peri-urban residents, such as those based on agriculture and livestock, depend on water availability. In the case of Hermosillo there is a tremendous pressure on the water resources of peri-urban small farm communities or ejidos because of urban demand. Based on interviews and structured surveys with producers and water managers, this paper examines how peri-urban livelihoods have been reshaped by the reallocation of the city's natural resources in many cases caused some ejido members or ejidatarios to lose livelihoods. PMID:22413172

  11. A landscape based, systems dynamic model for assessing impacts of urban development on water quality for sustainable seagrass growth in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present an integrated assessment model to predict potential unintended consequences of urban development on the sustainability of seagrasses and preservation of ecosystem services, such as catchable fish, in Tampa Bay. Ecosystem services are those ecological functions and pro...

  12. Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado / Avaliação de parâmetros de qualidade de água para monitoramento de áreas naturais, urbanas e agrícolas no Cerrado brasileiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daphne Heloisa de Freitas, Muniz; Aline Silva, Moraes; Ingrid de Souza, Freire; Carlos José Domingos da, Cruz; Jorge Enoch Furquim Werneck, Lima; Eduardo Cyrino, Oliveira-Filho.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Distrito Federal (DF) tem apresentado grande crescimento populacional nos últimos anos, o que vem ocasionando aumento da necessidade por água de qualidade, tanto pelas cidades quanto pela área rural. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água superfici [...] al de dois corpos hídricos no DF em seis pontos de amostragem, três localizados no Ribeirão Sobradinho (corpo receptor de Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto) e três no Alto Rio Jardim (região com forte atividade agrícola). MÉTODOS: Análises de temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido (OD), condutividade, turbidez, dureza total, principais íons, coliformes totais e fecais (E. coli) da água, foram realizadas mensalmente durante doze meses envolvendo períodos seco e chuvoso. Além disso, também foi realizada avaliação ecotoxicológica utilizando o microcrustáceo Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTADOS: Os dados físico-químicos mostraram que OD, condutividade, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-) e Na+ foram importantes para indicar a contaminação por efluentes urbanos. Quanto aos parâmetros biológicos, E. coli e avaliação ecotoxicológica, observou-se que o primeiro foi mais efetivo para avaliar qualidade da água na área urbana, enquanto que na área rural, o ensaio com C. dubia mostrou-se mais sensível, mas não ideal, tendo em vista a alta sensibilidade do organismo à baixa dureza da água. CONCLUSÕES: A presença de coliformes fecais (E. coli) foi o indicador mais efetivo para comparar a qualidade da água entre as duas bacias, principalmente na urbanizada, enquanto que os ensaios de ecotoxicidade com C. dubia foram prejudicados pela composição química natural da água. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Brazil's Federal District (FD) has seen steep population growth in recent years, and this has increased demand for high-quality water. AIM: The present work aims to evaluate the quality of surface water from two water bodies in the FD at six sampling points, three of which are in the S [...] obradinho River (the receiving body of a sewage treatment plant effluent) and three in the Jardim River (located in an agricultural region). METHODS: Analyses were carried out every thirty days, for twelve months, covering rainy and dry seasons. Parameters were analyzed such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, main ions, total and fecal coliforms (E. coli) in water. Ecotoxicological evaluation was also performed, using the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTS: Data of physical and chemical determinations showed DO, conductivity, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-) and Na+ to be important in indicating contamination by urban effluents. On the subject of biological parameters - E. coli and ecotoxicological evaluation - the former was seen to be more effective in the urban area. However, in the countryside, the assay with C. dubia proved to be the most sensitive, although less than ideal, because the organism is very sensitive to low water hardness. CONCLUSIONS: The fecal coliform indicator (E. coli) was the most effective one for comparing water quality in the two basins, mainly for the urbanized one, while ecotoxicity assays with C. dubia were harmed by the natural chemical composition of the water.

  13. Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado Avaliação de parâmetros de qualidade de água para monitoramento de áreas naturais, urbanas e agrícolas no Cerrado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil's Federal District (FD has seen steep population growth in recent years, and this has increased demand for high-quality water. AIM: The present work aims to evaluate the quality of surface water from two water bodies in the FD at six sampling points, three of which are in the Sobradinho River (the receiving body of a sewage treatment plant effluent and three in the Jardim River (located in an agricultural region. METHODS: Analyses were carried out every thirty days, for twelve months, covering rainy and dry seasons. Parameters were analyzed such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, main ions, total and fecal coliforms (E. coli in water. Ecotoxicological evaluation was also performed, using the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTS: Data of physical and chemical determinations showed DO, conductivity, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2- and Na+ to be important in indicating contamination by urban effluents. On the subject of biological parameters - E. coli and ecotoxicological evaluation - the former was seen to be more effective in the urban area. However, in the countryside, the assay with C. dubia proved to be the most sensitive, although less than ideal, because the organism is very sensitive to low water hardness. CONCLUSIONS: The fecal coliform indicator (E. coli was the most effective one for comparing water quality in the two basins, mainly for the urbanized one, while ecotoxicity assays with C. dubia were harmed by the natural chemical composition of the water.INTRODUÇÃO: O Distrito Federal (DF tem apresentado grande crescimento populacional nos últimos anos, o que vem ocasionando aumento da necessidade por água de qualidade, tanto pelas cidades quanto pela área rural. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água superficial de dois corpos h?dricos no DF em seis pontos de amostragem, três localizados no Ribeirão Sobradinho (corpo receptor de Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto e três no Alto Rio Jardim (região com forte atividade agrícola. MÉTODOS: Análises de temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido (OD, condutividade, turbidez, dureza total, principais íons, coliformes totais e fecais (E. coli da água, foram realizadas mensalmente durante doze meses envolvendo períodos seco e chuvoso. Além disso, também foi realizada avaliação ecotoxicológica utilizando o microcrustáceo Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTADOS: Os dados físico-químicos mostraram que OD, condutividade, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2- e Na+ foram importantes para indicar a contaminação por efluentes urbanos. Quanto aos parâmetros biológicos, E. coli e avaliação ecotoxicológica, observou-se que o primeiro foi mais efetivo para avaliar qualidade da água na área urbana, enquanto que na área rural, o ensaio com C. dubia mostrou-se mais sensível, mas não ideal, tendo em vista a alta sensibilidade do organismo à baixa dureza da água. CONCLUSÕES: A presença de coliformes fecais (E. coli foi o indicador mais efetivo para comparar a qualidade da água entre as duas bacias, principalmente na urbanizada, enquanto que os ensaios de ecotoxicidade com C. dubia foram prejudicados pela composição química natural da água.

  14. Development of Gridded Fields of Urban Canopy Parameters for Advanced Urban Meteorological and Air Quality Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban dispersion and air quality simulation models applied at various horizontal scales require different levels of fidelity for specifying the characteristics of the underlying surfaces. As the modeling scales approach the neighborhood level (~1 km horizontal grid spacing), the...

  15. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  16. Water quality and poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A J

    1996-07-01

    Mineral and microbial content of water affects the performance of poultry. Because poultry production can adversely affect water quality, the Environmental Protection Agency monitors and regulates its impact. Management of nonpoint source water contamination is especially important. If properly managed, litter, a valuable secondary commodity associated with poultry production, can be used as fertilizer, food, or energy. PMID:8805201

  17. Calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural del municipio de Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia / Bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas of the municipality of Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sara Lilia, Ávila de Navia; Sandra Mónica, Estupiñán Torres.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Guatavita es un municipio ubicado en el Departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia. Posee recursos hídricos como ríos, quebradas, lagunas y nacimientos, que representan un alto porcentaje del agua con que se abastece. El municipio tiene 16 acueductos en funcionamiento, pero solo el que abastece a la pob [...] lación de la zona urbana cuenta con un sistema de tratamiento de agua. En la zona rural existen 14 acueductos con un sistema básico de pretratamiento. Se analizó la calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural (veredas Corales, Potrero Largo y Carbonera Alta), por medio de los indicadores de contaminación: coliformes totales y Escherichia coli, mediante la técnica de filtración por membrana. El agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana cumplió con los parámetros establecidos en la Resolución 2115 de 2007 del Ministerio de Protección Social, contrario a la zona rural, donde se encontraron recuentos de los indicadores de contaminación fecal, superiores a lo establecido. Por lo tanto, este recurso debe ser considerado como "agua natural", no apta para consumo humano, según el Decreto 1594 de 1984, por lo que debe ser destinada para potabilización bajo un tratamiento convencional. Abstract in english Guatavita is a municipality in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Guatavita has water resources such as rivers, streams, lakes and springs, which provide a large proportion of the water consumed by the population. Sixteen water supply systems are in operation, but only the one supplying the u [...] rban area is equipped with water treatment facilities. In the rural area there are 14 aqueducts with a basic pretreatment system. An analysis was made of the bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas (districts of Corales, Potrero Largo and Carbonera Alta) based on two contamination indicators: total coliforms and Escherichia coli, using membrane filtration technique. The water for human consumption in the urban area complied with the parameters contained in Resolution 2115/2007 of the Ministry of Social Protection. In the rural area, however, fecal contamination indicators were above the established limits. Therefore, this resource should be viewed as "natural water" not suitable for human consumption, according to Decree 1594/1984, and destined for potabilization by conventional treatment.

  18. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality. (a) Water Quality is not guaranteed. The Secretary does not warrant the quality of water released...

  19. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.; Verdonck, F.; Nopens, I.; De Baets, B.; Vanrolleghem, P.A.; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Benedetti, L.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modelling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and stormwater drainage systems. However, some micropollutants have the tendency to occur in more than one environmental medium. In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is “wrapped around” a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment. The...

  20. Water Woes in Zimbabwe’s Urban Areas in the Middist Of Plenty: 2000 -Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enock C.Makwara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe’s urban areas are choking under the weight of over-crowdedness amidstdilapidated infrastructure that is characterised by constant service failure. The water andsewer systems of the country’s major urban centres are on the verge of collapse, thusputting millions of people in danger of consuming contaminated water, including thatfrom underground sources. Waste management and water supply problems manifestthemselves as challenges bedevilling many an urban area in the country. The quality andquantity of water supplied in Zimbabwe’s urban centres has plummeted in recent yearsand has assumed crisis proportions owing to the difficult economic situation and otherchallenges faced by the country. The situation is desperate and dire, as is evidenced by thepoor quality of delivered water, severe water rationing and the outbreak of water-bornediseases in the urban areas dotted across the country. The situation demands and dictatesthat solutions be proffered as a matter of urgency.The recent outbreak of epidemics hasbeen blamed on lack of access to safe water and poor sanitation, two crucial factors incontrolling the spread of diseases. An overly bureaucratic environment, where decisionsand processes take longer, makes life complicated for poor urban residents. Such ascenario motivated the researchers to examine the problem with a view to suggest waysand means of intervening to mitigate and resolve the problem. It emerged from thefindings that the problem is multifaceted in nature, hence a whole range of measures needto be adopted if a long-term solution is to be provided.

  1. CA Water Quality Control Board

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Regional Water Quality Control Boards(9) in California. These district boundaries coincide with the boundaries of some of the hydrologic study areas delineated by...

  2. An Expert System Applied in Construction Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ooshaksaraie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An untoward environmental impact of urban growth in Malaysia has been deterioration in a number of watercourses due to severe siltation and other pollutants from the construction site. Water quality monitoring is a plan for decision makers to take into account the adverse impacts of construction activities on the receiving water bodies. It is also a process for collecting the construction water quality monitoring, baseline data and standard level. Approach: In recent years, expert systems have been used extensively in different applications areas including environmental studies. In this study, expert system software -CWQM- developed by using Microsoft Visual Basic was introduced. CWQM to be used for water quality monitoring during construction activities was designed based on the legal process in Malaysia. Results: According to the water quality monitoring regulation enacted in Malaysia, construction activities require mandatory water quality monitoring plans duly approved by Department of Environment before staring activities. CWQM primarily aims to provide educational and support system for water quality monitoring engineers and decision-makers during construction activities. It displays water quality monitoring plan in report form, water sampling location in GIS format and water quality monitoring data in graph. Conclusion: When the use of CWQM in construction water quality monitoring becomes widespread, it is highly possible that it will be benefited in terms of having more accurate and objective decisions on construction projects which are mainly focused on reducing the stormwater pollution.

  3. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Gu; Jinsong Deng; Ke Wang; Yi Lin; Jun Li; Muye Gan; Ligang Ma; Yang Hong

    2014-01-01

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservo...

  4. CEER 2014 Dedicated Session Proposal: Restoring Water Quality along with Restoring the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session focuses on the importance of restoring water quality as part of the larger Gulf of Mexico restoration efforts. Water quality has been identified as a significant indicator of water body condition, and Gulf waters have been impacted by increased urban development, agr...

  5. GIS applications for mapping and spatial modeling of urban-use water quality: a case study in District of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil Aplicações de SIG para mapeamento e modelagem espacial da qualidade de água para uso urbano: estudo de caso num distrito de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Zeilhofer; Liliana Victorino Alves Corrêa Zeilhofer; Edna Lopes Hardoim; Zoraidy Marques de Lima; Catarina Silva Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional study utilizing spatial analysis techniques was conducted to study water quality problems and risk of waterborne enteric diseases in a lower-middle-class urban district of Cuiabá, the capital of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Field surveys indicate high rates of supply water contamination in domiciles and, conspicuously, in public and private schools. Logistic regression models developed for the variables turbidity, Escherichia coli, total coliforms, and intestinal parasite infe...

  6. Measuring urban quality of life using multivariate geostatistical models

    OpenAIRE

    Michelangeli, Alessandra; Ferrari, Clarissa; MINOZZO, MARCO

    2011-01-01

    Urban quality of life (QOL) is usually measured through an index de ned as the estimated value of a set of urban amenities. However there is an increasing awareness that omitted variables might seriously undermine the method's ability to accurately estimate QOL. Here we extend the hedonic approach using a multivariate geostatistical model to address the omitted variable bias by identifying the latent common factors responsible for the spatial distribution of the amenities. A new QOL index ...

  7. A critical review of integrated urban water modelling – Urban drainage and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Peter M.; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Modelling interactions in urban drainage, water supply and broader integrated urban water systems has been conceptually and logistically challenging as evidenced in a diverse body of literature, found to be confusing and intimidating to new researchers. This review consolidates thirty years of research (initially driven by interest in urban drainage modelling) and critically reflects upon integrated modelling in the scope of urban water systems. We propose a typology to classify integrated urban water system models at one of four ‘degrees of integration’ (followed by its exemplification). Key considerations (e.g. data issues, model structure, computational and integration-related aspects), common methodology for model development (through a systems approach), calibration/optimisation and uncertainty are discussed, placing importance on pragmatism and parsimony. Integrated urban water models should focus more on addressing interplay between social/economical and biophysical/technical issues, while its encompassing software should become more user-friendly. Possible future directions include exploring uncertainties and broader participatory modelling.

  8. Improvement of an urban turbulence parametrization for meteorological operational forecast and air quality modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Clive

    2007-01-01

    During the last century, urban pollution has increased with the growth of cities. Urban air quality has become a high priority as it is directly linked to concerns such as human exposure and health. The present work is dedicated to urban air quality modeling with focus on urban meteorology. The main goal is to improve meteorological and air quality simulations in urban areas. Based on measurements and numerical air quality simulations, Chapter 3 describes the meteorological situation and test...

  9. Soil cover and water quality for irrigation purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Bertossi

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the relationship between land cover and water quality for irrigation in the sub-basin of the stream Horizonte, located in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil, we selected five places in the sub-basin to collect surface water and groundwater, each influenced by different soil cover types: pasture, forest, coffee, upstream and downstream of the urban area. Collecting samples were made during periods of drought and rainfall. The physical-chemical analysis of water was made by det...

  10. Evaluation of water quality index for River Sabarmati, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kosha A.; Joshi, Geeta S.

    2015-07-01

    An attempt has been made to develop water quality index (WQI), using six water quality parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total coliform measured at three different stations along the Sabarmati river basin from the year 2005 to 2008. Rating scale is developed based on the tolerance limits of inland waters and health point of view. Weighted arithmetic water quality index method was used to find WQI along the stretch of the river basin. It was observed from this study that the impact of human activity and sewage disposal in the river was severe on most of the parameters. The station located in highly urban area showed the worst water quality followed by the station located in moderately urban area and lastly station located in a moderately rural area. It was observed that the main cause of deterioration in water quality was due to the high anthropogenic activities, illegal discharge of sewage and industrial effluent, lack of proper sanitation, unprotected river sites and urban runoff.

  11. Incorporating water resources in integrated urban and regional planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Claudia; Jeffrey, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the relationships between water and the landscapes, communities, and jurisdictions through which it flows has become an increasingly urgent task for science over recent years. The vital role played by water in both urban and rural economies, its function in supporting ecosystem services, the consequences of excess or deficit, and our increasing awareness of the aquatic environment's influence on quality of life all evidence the importance of refining our knowledge of the inter-dependencies between hydrological processes and social systems. At this resolution (catchments, regions, etc.), the importance of integrating land and water planning and the need for collaboration of multiple stakeholders are a genuinely holistic and interdisciplinary undertaking; providing opportunities for researchers from the natural and social sciences to generate insights which utilise understandings of fundamental processes and phenomena to inform and shape policy, planning, design and interventions. This is a relatively young but fast-growing area of science with theory and normative prescription in areas such as catchment management and water sensitive urban design driving a burgeoning science agenda. This Special Issue of the Journal of Hydrology showcases a suite of contributions from primarily developed countries around the globe which revel in this agenda. Our authors report work which tackles head-on the complexity and multi-dimensional nature of the problems and witnesses a growing confidence amongst the research community in crossing disciplinary and professional boundaries.

  12. Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Eiko Yoshida

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate the relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP; METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center, ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro; RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P INTRODUÇÃO: Riachos de referência dizem respeito a ambientes íntegros, sendo possível utilizar suas características ambientais como valores patamares de qualidade. Além dos impactos orgânicos medidos pelos programas de biomonitoramento da qualidade da água, se faz necessário avaliar as relações entre as alterações da paisagem dos riachos e de seu entorno com as mudanças na estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados desses ambientes; OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivos correlacionar as mudanças da paisagem com os atributos ecológicos da comunidade e índices de qualidade da água e, recomendar valores de condição referencial de integridade de riachos para a região de Jundiaí/SP; MÉTODOS: Foram amostradas a fauna bentônica de três riachos urbanos, três rurais e três preservados, com amostrador do tipo Surber, em julho de 2010. As características da paisagem foram avaliadas por meio da Diversidade de Habitat (DH; a comunidade, analisada quanto a S, N, J', H' e curvas de rarefação S e de dominância K e; a qualidade da água aferida pelos índices ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC, ASPT e SOMI; RESULTADOS: A estrutura e a composição das comunidades variaram em função dos riachos e refletiram-se nos valores dos índices biológicos e de qualidade ambiental. As melhores condições foram encontradas nos riachos preservados, as intermediárias, nos riachos rurais e, as piores, nos urbanos. As significativas correlações (r > 0.73 e P < 0.05 entre o índice de diversidade de habitat (DH e os atributos ecológicos e de qualidade da água dos riachos de Jundiaí, demonstraram que DH pode ser um bom preditor das características ambientais avaliadas e como tal, recomenda-se como valores de condição de referencia de riachos: DH ? 80; H' ? 2,3 e J ? 0.8 (família como nível taxonômico e; qualidade de água boa (ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC e BI, de levemente poluída a limpa (ASPT e regular (SOMI.

  13. Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Eiko Yoshida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate the relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP; METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center, ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro; RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P INTRODUÇÃO: Riachos de referência dizem respeito a ambientes íntegros, sendo possível utilizar suas características ambientais como valores patamares de qualidade. Além dos impactos orgânicos medidos pelos programas de biomonitoramento da qualidade da água, se faz necessário avaliar as relações entre as alterações da paisagem dos riachos e de seu entorno com as mudanças na estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados desses ambientes; OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivos correlacionar as mudanças da paisagem com os atributos ecológicos da comunidade e índices de qualidade da água e, recomendar valores de condição referencial de integridade de riachos para a região de Jundiaí/SP; MÉTODOS: Foram amostradas a fauna bentônica de três riachos urbanos, três rurais e três preservados, com amostrador do tipo Surber, em julho de 2010. As características da paisagem foram avaliadas por meio da Diversidade de Habitat (DH; a comunidade, analisada quanto a S, N, J', H' e curvas de rarefação S e de dominância K e; a qualidade da água aferida pelos índices ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC, ASPT e SOMI; RESULTADOS: A estrutura e a composição das comunidades variaram em função dos riachos e refletiram-se nos valores dos índices biológicos e de qualidade ambiental. As melhores condições foram encontradas nos riachos preservados, as intermediárias, nos riachos rurais e, as piores, nos urbanos. As significativas correlações (r > 0.73 e P < 0.05 entre o índice de diversidade de habitat (DH e os atributos ecológicos e de qualidade da água dos riachos de Jundiaí, demonstraram que DH pode ser um bom preditor das características ambientais avaliadas e como tal, recomenda-se como valores de condição de referencia de riachos: DH ? 80; H' ? 2,3 e J ? 0.8 (família como nível taxonômico e; qualidade de água boa (ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC e BI, de levemente poluída a limpa (ASPT e regular (SOMI.

  14. Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments / Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia Eiko, Yoshida; Ana Paula Pozzo Rios, Rolla.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Riachos de referência dizem respeito a ambientes íntegros, sendo possível utilizar suas características ambientais como valores patamares de qualidade. Além dos impactos orgânicos medidos pelos programas de biomonitoramento da qualidade da água, se faz necessário avaliar as relações entr [...] e as alterações da paisagem dos riachos e de seu entorno com as mudanças na estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados desses ambientes; OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivos correlacionar as mudanças da paisagem com os atributos ecológicos da comunidade e índices de qualidade da água e, recomendar valores de condição referencial de integridade de riachos para a região de Jundiaí/SP; MÉTODOS: Foram amostradas a fauna bentônica de três riachos urbanos, três rurais e três preservados, com amostrador do tipo Surber, em julho de 2010. As características da paisagem foram avaliadas por meio da Diversidade de Habitat (DH); a comunidade, analisada quanto a S, N, J', H' e curvas de rarefação S e de dominância K e; a qualidade da água aferida pelos índices ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC, ASPT e SOMI; RESULTADOS: A estrutura e a composição das comunidades variaram em função dos riachos e refletiram-se nos valores dos índices biológicos e de qualidade ambiental. As melhores condições foram encontradas nos riachos preservados, as intermediárias, nos riachos rurais e, as piores, nos urbanos. As significativas correlações (r > 0.73 e P Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate th [...] e relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP); METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center), ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro)); RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P

  15. Invertebrados bentónicos como indicadores de calidad del agua en ríos urbanos (Paraná-Entre Ríos, Argentina) / Benthic invertebrates as indicators of water quality in urban rivers (Paraná-Entre Ríos, Argentina)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paola J, Pave; Mercedes, Marchese.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la incidencia de los efluentes industriales y cloacales sobre la estructura del bentos en el río Las Tunas y su afluente Saucesito (Paraná, Provincia de Entre Ríos, Argentina). Se determinaron las especies y asociaciones de especies en gradientes de buena a mala calidad del agua de estos [...] ríos urbanos. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos, entre julio de 2000 y febrero de 2002, en cuatro estaciones a lo largo del curso. Los resultados obtenidos revelaron que, tanto la densidad como la diversidad específica fueron influenciadas por la contaminación orgánica, con una disminución brusca en la estación afectada por el vertido de los efluentes del parque industrial. Se registraron 85 taxa, siendo los oligoquetos y quironómidos los dominantes. Del análisis de componentes principales, se infirió que la demanda biológica de oxígeno fue el factor que más incidió en la distribución y composición de organismos bentónicos. El río Las Tunas presentó altos valores de DBO5, la menor densidad, riqueza y diversidad específica, sin recuperación de la calidad del agua en todo el tramo. Aguas arriba, el río Saucesito presentó una mejor calidad, principalmente en la estación de referencia ubicada antes del parque industrial. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to assess the effects of industrial and sewage discharges on the benthic structure of urban rivers. Also, the species assemblages associated to different water quality conditions were studied. Four sampling sites were analyzed, from July 2000 to February 2002, during high wa [...] ter level in two urban rivers. In order to determine the quality of the water and the species assemblages, ANOVA, principal components analysis, species diversity and distance index among sites were applied. Eighty-five species or morphospecies were identified, dominated by Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. Average density of benthic invertebrates varied between 233 ind/m² and 29265 ind/m², with higher densities registered in the reference sampling site than in the ones affected by industrial discharges. The species richness ranged from four to 43 taxa, and the Shannon-Wiener index, from 1.37 to 3.95, with the highest value registered in Saucesito river. Filtering and gathering collectors were the dominant feeding groups in all the sites because of the high fine particulate organic matter content. The biological oxygen demand was the main factor in determinating the benthic invertebrates distribution and composition. Las Tunas River is hardly polluted, with low benthic density, species richness and diversity, and high DBO5 values. Saucesito River shows a better water quality, mainly upstream of the industrial discharges. The gradient from clean to polluted water quality, was characterized by the species assemblages Ostracods Podocopida, Tanytarsus sp., D. (D.) obtusa, Djalmabatista sp. 2, Rheotanytarsus sp. 1, S. fossularis and Cricotopus sp. 1 ? N. variabilis, C. xanthus and L. hoffmeisteri.

  16. Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera) as water quality indicators along an environmental gradient in a neotropical urban stream / Larvas de Chironomus (Chironomidae: Diptera) como indicador de qualidade da água ao longo de um gradiente ambiental em córrego urbano neotropical

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nadja Gomes, Machado; Danielle Christine Stenner, Nassarden; Francyele dos, Santos; Isabelle Christina Gonçalves, Boaventura; Gregory, Perrier; Fernanda Silveira Carvalho de, Souza; Eucarlos de Lima, Martins; Marcelo Sacardi, Biudes.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A interferência antrópica nos ambientes lóticos em áreas urbanas é um fator que afeta a biota dos corpos d'água. Macroinvertebrados aquáticos são importante fonte alimentar para peixes e são valiosos indicadores de qualidade da água. Nosso objetivo foi estudar a distribuição de larvas de Chironomus [...] ao longo de um gradiente ambiental no Córrego do Barbado, Cuiabá, MT, Brasil. Nenhum indivíduo de Chironomus foi encontrado em suas nascentes, o que pode indicar preservação da área. Durante o período de estudo, nós encontramos 40,3 e 94,4 indivíduos/m2 nos pontos 3 e 4 (baixo curso), respectivamente. Há eutrofização nestes locais devido descargas de esgoto in natura, indicando baixa qualidade da água. O córrego Barbado precisa de projetos de restauração que incluam a conscientização dos moradores dos bairros vizinhos sobre sua importância para o meio ambiente, e os investimentos no setor de saneamento para priorizar a coleta e tratamento de águas residuais e coleta de resíduos sólidos. Abstract in english Anthropogenic interference in urban lotic systems is a factor affecting the biota of waterbodies. Aquatic macro invertebrates are an important food source for fish and are valuable indicators of water quality. The objective of this work was to study Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera) distribu [...] tion along an environmental gradient in Barbado Stream, Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. No individual Chironomus was found in the springs of Barbado Stream, which may indicate preservation of the area. During the study period, we found 40.3 and 94.4 individuals/m2 at points 3 and 4 (low course), respectively. There is eutrophication in these sites due to domestic sewage discharges, indicating low quality water. The Barbado Stream needs restoration projects that include an awareness of the residents of their neighborhood's environmental importance, and investments in the sanitation sector to prioritize the collection and treatment of wastewater and solid waste collection.

  17. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N. K.

    2015-11-01

    Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative efforts have the potential to achieve this goal through more efficient use of common pool resources and access to funding opportunities for supply diversification projects. However, this requires a paradigm shift towards holistic solutions that address the complexity of hydrologic, socio-economic and governance dynamics surrounding water management issues. The objective of this work is to develop a regional integrative framework for the assessment of water resource sustainability under current management practices, as well as to identify opportunities for sustainability improvement in coupled socio-hydrologic systems. We define the sustainability of a water utility as the ability to access reliable supplies to consistently satisfy current needs, make responsible use of supplies, and have the capacity to adapt to future scenarios. To compute a quantitative measure of sustainability, we develop a numerical index comprised of supply, demand, and adaptive capacity indicators, including an innovative way to account for the importance of having diverse supply sources. We demonstrate the application of this framework to the Hetch Hetchy Regional Water System in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Our analyses demonstrate that water agencies that share common water supplies are in a good position to establish integrative regional management partnerships in order to achieve individual and collective short-term and long-term benefits.

  18. Urban Densification and Recreational Quality of Public Urban Green Spaces—A Viennese Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Arnberger

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Public urban green spaces play an important role in urban sustainability. These places should provide high-quality recreation experiences for the urban residents. However, they are often overused. The Wienerberg area in the south of Vienna, Austria, was transformed from a waste disposal site into a natural recreation area. During the past years, intensive settlement densification processes have taken place, resulting in a doubling of the local population living within a few minutes walking distance. An on-site survey among green space visitors (N = 231 revealed that the majority of them considered the area to be overcrowded on Sundays/holidays and reported a perceived increase in visitor numbers during the past years. Visitors with more past experience, as well as those who have perceived an increase in visitor numbers during recent years, reported higher crowding perceptions. A significant proportion of them try to avoid these crowds, relying on behavioral coping strategies, such as inter-area displacement. While urban regeneration has provided an attractive recreation area, urban densification around the green space appears to have reduced its recreational quality. Monitoring recreation quality indicators, such as crowding perceptions, seems to be useful for sustainable urban green space management and city planning.

  19. Multi-objective optimization for combined quality–quantity urban runoff control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oraei Zare

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban development affects the quantity and quality of urban surface runoff. In recent years, the best management practices (BMPs concept has been widely promoted for control of both quality and quantity of urban floods. However, means to optimize the BMPs in a conjunctive quantity/quality framework are still under research. In this paper, three objective functions were considered: (1 minimization of the total flood damages, cost of BMP implementation and cost of land-use development; (2 reducing the amount of TSS (total suspended solid and BOD5 (biological oxygen demand, representing the pollution characteristics, to below the threshold level; and (3 minimizing the total runoff volume. The biological oxygen demand and total suspended solid values were employed as two measures of urban runoff quality. The total surface runoff volume produced by sub-basins was representative of the runoff quantity. The construction and maintenance costs of the BMPs were also estimated based on the local price standards. Urban runoff quantity and quality in the case study watershed were simulated with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM. The NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II optimization technique was applied to derive the optimal trade off curve between various objectives. In the proposed structure for the NSGA-II algorithm, a continuous structure and intermediate crossover were used because they perform better as far as the optimization efficiency is concerned. Finally, urban runoff management scenarios were presented based on the optimal trade-off curve using the k-means method. Subsequently, a specific runoff control scenario was proposed to the urban managers.

  20. Microbial Analysis of Drinking Water and Water Distribution System in New Urban Peshawar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohul-Amin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution due to chemicals and microbes is one of the serious environmental problems, which has greatly impacted human health. Recorded history of contaminated drinking water supply has witnessed various viral, bacterial and protozoan diseases, globally. It is estimated that >250 million cases of waterborne diseases are reported worldwide and over 25 million deaths are blamed due to waterborne-diseases. Pakistan has been facing the same problem due to improper water management, obsolete distribution infrastructure, bad sanitary condition and poor drinking water quality. An estimated 70% Pakistani population living in rural areas have no access to potable water distribution system, whereas in urban areas, between 40-60% urban population has access to safe and clean drinking water. In Pakistan, water filtration before distribution is almost non-existence and furthermore, WHO standards or NEQs are not followed for physiochemical and bacteriological analysis of drinking water. This study was conducted for physiochemical and bacteriological analysis of drinking water of new urban areas of Peshawar and compared the old historical areas of the city. Ten areas for drinking water samples were selected and samples were collected from water supply, distribution system and storage tanks. Physio-chemical (pH, turbidity and Total Suspended Solids (TSS and microbial analyses (Total and fecal coli form and E. coli were conducted (APHA, 2005. According to the results, there was a variation of the analyzed physio-chemical parameter in the water sample between old & new urban areas and was found as: pH (6.65-7.91, turbidity (3-9NTU and TSS (2-6 mg/L. The pH of the all samples was within the permissible limit of WHO guidelines. TSS of the 5 samples was above the permissible limits and turbidity of only 4 samples was within permissible limits. In bacteriological analysis, except one sample collected from the tube well, most samples were Total coliform positive. On the other hand, 6 samples of drinking water from distribution system were fecal coliform positive and 4 samples were E. coli positive. Further epidemiological studies are on-going and more drinking water samples from old urban Peshawar are being evaluated.

  1. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public Lands...APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality. (a) Water Quality is not...

  2. Water quality issues in southern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or ?g/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in trace concentrations. Most of the ailments, including mood disturbances and psychological disorders, are reportedly on the increase in most urban and industrialized areas of Nigeria. Perhaps a study should be conducted among the population in order to relate the pattern of water pollution related diseases to health factors in Nigeria

  3. Managing urban water crises: adaptive policy responses to drought and flood in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Brian W. Head

    2014-01-01

    In this case study, I examine the quality of decision-making under conditions of rapidly evolving urban water crises, and the adaptive policy challenges of building regional resilience in response to both drought and flood. Like other regions of Australia, Southeast Queensland has been subject to substantial cycles of drought and flood. I draw on resilience literature concerning sustainability, together with governance literature on policy change, to explain the changing awareness of urban wa...

  4. Part 2: Surface water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996 the surface water quality measurements were performed, according to the Agreement, at 8 profiles on the Hungarian territory and at 15 profiles on the Slovak territory. Basic physical and chemical parameters (as water temperature, pH values, conductivity, suspended solids, cations and anions (nitrates, ammonium ion, nitrites, total nitrogen, phosphates, total phosphorus, oxygen and organic carbon regime parameters), metals (iron, manganese and heavy metals), biological and microbiological parameters (coliform bacteria, chlorophyll-a, saprobity index and other biological parameters) and quality of sediment were measured

  5. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, F.P.; Fenger, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. T...

  6. Air quality in the vicinity of urban roads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrop, D.O.; Mumby, K.; Ashworth, J.; Nolan, J.; Price, M.; Pepper, B. (Tottenham Coll. of Technology, London (UK))

    1990-04-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are a major source of CO, NO{sub x} and lead particulate concentrations to urban air quality. London urban boroughs with high traffic densities are therefore a particular cause for concern. The air quality was monitored at an urban background site in the London borough of Haringey for 2 years. The results of this study are assessed and their effect on human health is considered in the light of EC directives and WHO guidelines. A desk top modelling technique based on Gaussian diffusion theory was used to predict the CO levels found at the background site. All predicted levels had an accuracy of better than 30%. 1 fig., 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Obtaining Traffic Information by Urban Air Quality Inspection

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrante, P.; Bosco, D. Lo; Nicolosi, S.; Scaccianoce, G.; Traverso, M.; Rizzo, G

    2011-01-01

    The level of air quality in urban centres is affected by emission of several pollutants, mainly coming from the vehicles flowing in their road networks. This is a well known phenomenon that influences the quality of life of people. Despite the deep concern of researchers and technicians, we are far from a total understanding of this phenomenon. On the contrary, the availability of reliable forecasting models would constitute an important tool for administrators in order of a...

  8. The implementation challenge of urban air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lint, R.J.T. van; Buitenkamp, S.; Zebregs, M. [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Air Quality and Acidification Abatement Div.

    1995-12-31

    In recent years, the policy followed has booked some significant successes in the structural reduction of the emissions by a number of air polluting substances (e.g. sulphur dioxide and lead). However, the Third Environmental Outlook 1993-2015 has determined that the policy goals for a number of other air polluting substances will not be achieved, particularly in urban areas. This concerns fine dust (PM-10) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen dioxide, benzene and black smoke. The policy goals for the above priority substances have been set so as to protect the population against the negative effects on health from too high concentrations of these substances. Forty-six per cent of the Dutch population live in cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants, and, hence, many people are exposed to (too) high concentrations. For this reason, the Netherlands` Second National Environmental Policy Plan lays down that government, provinces and municipalities will together develop a plan of action to reduce urban air pollution to acceptable levels. The formulated strategy is presented in the document here. To that end, the problem analysis and current policy related to the issue are considered in more detail below. On the basis of this, the additional policy strategy is formulated. (author)

  9. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin for water quality management and control....

  10. Agent-based Modeling to Simulate the Diffusion of Water-Efficient Innovations and the Emergence of Urban Water Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanta, L.; Giacomoni, M.; Shafiee, M. E.; Berglund, E.

    2014-12-01

    The sustainability of water resources is threatened by urbanization, as increasing demands deplete water availability, and changes to the landscape alter runoff and the flow regime of receiving water bodies. Utility managers typically manage urban water resources through the use of centralized solutions, such as large reservoirs, which may be limited in their ability balance the needs of urbanization and ecological systems. Decentralized technologies, on the other hand, may improve the health of the water resources system and deliver urban water services. For example, low impact development technologies, such as rainwater harvesting, and water-efficient technologies, such as low-flow faucets and toilets, may be adopted by households to retain rainwater and reduce demands, offsetting the need for new centralized infrastructure. Decentralized technologies may create new complexities in infrastructure and water management, as decentralization depends on community behavior and participation beyond traditional water resources planning. Messages about water shortages and water quality from peers and the water utility managers can influence the adoption of new technologies. As a result, feedbacks between consumers and water resources emerge, creating a complex system. This research develops a framework to simulate the diffusion of water-efficient innovations and the sustainability of urban water resources, by coupling models of households in a community, hydrologic models of a water resources system, and a cellular automata model of land use change. Agent-based models are developed to simulate the land use and water demand decisions of individual households, and behavioral rules are encoded to simulate communication with other agents and adoption of decentralized technologies, using a model of the diffusion of innovation. The framework is applied for an illustrative case study to simulate water resources sustainability over a long-term planning horizon.

  11. Role of water in urban planning and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William Joseph; Rickert, David A.; Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1973-01-01

    Concentrations of people in urban areas intensify water problems such as flooding and pollution, but these deleterious effects on water resources can be minimized or corrected by comprehensive planning and management. Such planning of the water resources of an urban area must be based on adequate hydrologic data. Through the use of a matrix, urban water problems can be evaluated and availability of data assessed. The Washington-Baltimore metropolitan area is used as a case study. The completed matrix provides both a means for developing a meaningful dialogue between the hydrologist and the urban planner and a method for developing a work plan to insure consideration of water-resources data in urban planning.

  12. ANALYTICAL EQUATIONS OF STORAGE RESERVOIR WATER QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distribution system water quality protection is an integral aspect of public water supply management. Effective regulatory compliance requires a thorough understanding of the transport and mixing processes in storage reservoirs and their impacts on effluent water quality. This ...

  13. EFFECTS OF URBANIZATION ON THE SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL CHEMICAL QUALITY OF THREE TIDAL BAYOUS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and sediment quality in three tidal bayous located near Pensacola, Florida, were assessed during 1993-1995. The primary objective was to determine the environmental condition of the relatively small urban bayous by comparing the chemical quality of the sediments and surface...

  14. Urban Evolution: the Role of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure, function, and services of urban ecosystems evolve over time scales from seconds to centuries as Earth's population grows, infrastructure ages, and sociopolitical values alter them. In order to systematically study changes over time, the concept of "urban evolution...

  15. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Scientific research in urban areas air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of consistent amounts of polluting agents in the urban atmosphere is a fact widely confirmed which poses serious problems to the people responsible for the environment management. It is well known that the majority of the polluting agents are produced by the intense traffic or vehicles which introduces in the atmosphere a large quantity of compounds. The toxic effect of some of these (primary polluters) is direct; others (secondary polluters) are the result of chemical reactions occurring within the atmosphere. Consequently, the management of the atmospheric environment requires the knowledge of a great number of processes, which begin with the emission of the polluting agents, and continue with their diffusion in the air, their transformation, the way they move, and how they are deposited or removed

  17. Assessment of human impact on water quality along Manyame River

    OpenAIRE

    Tirivashe P. Masere; Adelaide Munodawafa; Tavengwa Chitata

    2012-01-01

    Human activities such as urbanization, agriculture, sewage treatment and industrialization are affecting water resources both quantitatively and qualitatively. The impact of these activities were studied by measuring and determining the concentration and values of eight selected water quality parameters namely nitrates, phosphates, copper, iron, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and turbidity along Manyame River, in the Manyame Catchment. Thirty five sites were sa...

  18. Urban heat island and linkage with air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urban heat island (UHI) effect can be noticed in cities where the temperature is higher than the surrounding countryside, on average 2 deg. C above. In summer during a heat wave, the gap can up to over ten-degree. UHI causes a thermal stress which induces some repercussions on health. The formation of UHI is more and more documented but further studies have to be conducted in order to qualify and quantify the impacts on our health and environment, and the link with atmospheric pollution. Studies have shown air quality deterioration in UHI areas: Both phenomena can be simultaneous because their conditions of appearance are often linked. Henceforth the stake is to manage and if possible reduce UHI to adapt cities to the expected climate change. Dense cities in the future will also have to be naturally cooled down. In order to do so, we will have to act on the most influential UHI formation factors, namely: vegetation and water, buildings (shapes and materials), production and consumption of energy. (authors)

  19. Sustainable sanitation and water in small urban centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemarin, A

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the global trends in urbanization with respect to availability of adequate sanitation and water supply services. Urbanization is unrelenting and rapid increase in the urban population in the less developed countries is of major global concern regarding this topic of sustainable sanitation and water. Most global urban growth is in the smaller cities and in the developing world. Half the urban developing world lacks adequate water and sanitation. Global urban access to waterborne sanitation is not affordable and thus is not a realistic option so alternative approaches are necessary. The treatment of drinking water cannot be a substitute for sanitation. In order to achieve sustainable sanitation, a change in attitude about human excreta and use of water is required. Essential features of a sustainable sanitation system are: containment, sanitisation and recycling. To improve water supply, we need to improve management practices, use full-cost pricing, introduce watershed approaches to protection and provide improved sanitation. Small urban initiatives need to go beyond the traditional sectors and new initiatives are required like on-site urban ecostations, source-separation of urine and faeces, decentralised greywater treatment and integration of sanitation into the cost of housing. PMID:16007935

  20. Impacts of urban solid waste disposal on the quality of surface water in three cities of Minas Gerais - Brazil / Impactos da disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos na qualidade da água superficial em três municípios de Minas Gerais - Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosângela Francisca de Paula Vitor, Marques; Antônio Marciano da, Silva; Luciano dos Santos, Rodrigues; Gilberto, Coelho.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os impactos ambientais de três diferentes tipologias de áreas de disposição de Resíduos Sólidos Urbanos - ADRSU, sobre a qualidade das águas superficiais situadas nas proximidades do aterro sanitário de Campo Belo (Córrego dos Varões), do aterro controlado de Santo Antônio do Amparo (Córrego do Fabi [...] ano) e do lixão encerrado de Elói Mendes (Ribeirão Mutuca), municípios situados no Sul de Minas Gerais - Brasil foram avaliados. Para cada curso d'água foram coletadas 5 amostras de água no período chuvoso e 5 amostras no período seco, em três diferentes pontos para cada um dos três cursos d'água sendo: (P1) a montante das ADRSU, (P2) logo após o local de descarga da Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto - ETE (no aterro sanitário, e nas outras tipologias, após ponto de lançamento do escoamento superficial proveniente das ADSRU, e (P3) à jusante das ADSRU. Realizaram-se análises físico-químicas e bacteriológicas, cujos resultados foram analisados com base na estatística descritiva e comparados com valores de referência da Resolução CONAMA 357/2005, bem como utilizados para cálculo do índice de qualidade de água (IQA). Não foi possível detectar efeito significativo das ADRSU, nos parâmetros indicadores da qualidade da água, a qual se apresentou em condições não satisfatórias em função das violações dos parâmetros fósforo, amônia, coliformes termotolerantes e da relação DQO/DBO mesmo à montante da ADSRU. No Ribeirão Mutuca, essa situação foi ainda mais crítica pois o IQA foi classificado como ruim em todos os pontos durante o período monitorado. Abstract in english The environmental impact of three different urban solid waste facilities (USWF) on the quality of the surface water. The studied areas were the Campo Belo sanitary landfill (Varões River), the controlled landfill of Santo Antônio do Amparo (Fabiano River), and the closed dump of Elói Mendes (Mutuca [...] River), which are cities located in southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil were evaluated. At each sampling point water samples were collected at five occasions in the raining season (October - March) and in the dry season (April - June) at three sampling points: (P1) upstream the solid waste facility, (P2) downstream nearby the point of influx from the sewage treatment plant in the sanitary landfill, or at the drainage point from the surface flow of the dump and controlled landfill, and (P3) downstream the solid waste facility. Physicochemical and bacteriological analyses were performed, and the results were analyzed based on descriptive statistics. The data were also compared with reference values from the National Environmental Council (CONAMA) Resolution 357/2005 and were used to calculate the water quality index (WQI). It was not possible to detect a significant effect of the solid waste facility on the water quality indicators. The water conditions were unsatisfactory due to violations of the concentrations of phosphorus, ammonia, fecal coliform, and the biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand ratio (BOD/COD), probably related to other uses along the drainage area upstream the solid waste facility. These conditions were more critical in the Mutuca river, where the WQI was classified as bad during the entire period at all sampling points.

  1. Impacts of urban solid waste disposal on the quality of surface water in three cities of Minas Gerais - Brazil Impactos da disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos na qualidade da água superficial em três municípios de Minas Gerais - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Francisca de Paula Vitor Marques

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of three different urban solid waste facilities (USWF on the quality of the surface water. The studied areas were the Campo Belo sanitary landfill (Varões River, the controlled landfill of Santo Antônio do Amparo (Fabiano River, and the closed dump of Elói Mendes (Mutuca River, which are cities located in southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil were evaluated. At each sampling point water samples were collected at five occasions in the raining season (October - March and in the dry season (April - June at three sampling points: (P1 upstream the solid waste facility, (P2 downstream nearby the point of influx from the sewage treatment plant in the sanitary landfill, or at the drainage point from the surface flow of the dump and controlled landfill, and (P3 downstream the solid waste facility. Physicochemical and bacteriological analyses were performed, and the results were analyzed based on descriptive statistics. The data were also compared with reference values from the National Environmental Council (CONAMA Resolution 357/2005 and were used to calculate the water quality index (WQI. It was not possible to detect a significant effect of the solid waste facility on the water quality indicators. The water conditions were unsatisfactory due to violations of the concentrations of phosphorus, ammonia, fecal coliform, and the biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand ratio (BOD/COD, probably related to other uses along the drainage area upstream the solid waste facility. These conditions were more critical in the Mutuca river, where the WQI was classified as bad during the entire period at all sampling points.Os impactos ambientais de três diferentes tipologias de áreas de disposição de Resíduos Sólidos Urbanos - ADRSU, sobre a qualidade das águas superficiais situadas nas proximidades do aterro sanitário de Campo Belo (Córrego dos Varões, do aterro controlado de Santo Antônio do Amparo (Córrego do Fabiano e do lixão encerrado de Elói Mendes (Ribeirão Mutuca, municípios situados no Sul de Minas Gerais - Brasil foram avaliados. Para cada curso d'água foram coletadas 5 amostras de água no período chuvoso e 5 amostras no período seco, em três diferentes pontos para cada um dos três cursos d'água sendo: (P1 a montante das ADRSU, (P2 logo após o local de descarga da Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto - ETE (no aterro sanitário, e nas outras tipologias, após ponto de lançamento do escoamento superficial proveniente das ADSRU, e (P3 à jusante das ADSRU. Realizaram-se análises físico-químicas e bacteriológicas, cujos resultados foram analisados com base na estatística descritiva e comparados com valores de referência da Resolução CONAMA 357/2005, bem como utilizados para cálculo do índice de qualidade de água (IQA. Não foi possível detectar efeito significativo das ADRSU, nos parâmetros indicadores da qualidade da água, a qual se apresentou em condições não satisfatórias em função das violações dos parâmetros fósforo, amônia, coliformes termotolerantes e da relação DQO/DBO mesmo à montante da ADSRU. No Ribeirão Mutuca, essa situação foi ainda mais crítica pois o IQA foi classificado como ruim em todos os pontos durante o período monitorado.

  2. Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado Avaliação de parâmetros de qualidade de água para monitoramento de áreas naturais, urbanas e agrícolas no Cerrado brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz; Aline Silva Moraes; Ingrid de Souza Freire; Carlos José Domingos da Cruz; Jorge Enoch Furquim Werneck Lima; Eduardo Cyrino Oliveira-Filho

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Brazil's Federal District (FD) has seen steep population growth in recent years, and this has increased demand for high-quality water. AIM: The present work aims to evaluate the quality of surface water from two water bodies in the FD at six sampling points, three of which are in the Sobradinho River (the receiving body of a sewage treatment plant effluent) and three in the Jardim River (located in an agricultural region). METHODS: Analyses were carried out every thirty days, fo...

  3. 78 FR 20252 - Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ...FRL-9795-8] RIN 2040-AF33 Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California...human health and aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to...

  4. Household characteristics affecting drinking water quality and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan's water crisis, especially serious water shortages have had a great impact on the health of the general population. Today majority of Pakistanis have no access to improved water sources which force people to consume polluted drinking water that results in the shape of waterborne diseases. In addition to this, household characteristics, includes mother's education and family income, also have an impact on drinking water quality and ultimately on human health. This study was conducted in three districts of Province Punjab both in urban and rural areas. The sample size of this study was 600 females of age group 20-60 years. From the data, it was concluded that mother's education and family income were affecting drinking water quality and human health. As the mother's years of education increased, the health issues decreased. Similarly, as the level of income increased, people suffered from water related diseases decreased. (author)

  5. Proposal for an integral quality index for urban and urbanized beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Eduard; Jimenez, Jose A; Sarda, Rafael; Villares, Miriam; Pinto, Josep; Fraguell, Rosa; Roca, Elisabet; Marti, Carolina; Valdemoro, Herminia; Ballester, Ramon; Fluvia, Modest

    2010-05-01

    A composite index, based on function analysis and including thirteen sub-indices, was developed to assess the overall quality of urban and urbanized beaches in the Mediterranean area. The aggregation of components and sub-indices was based on two questionnaires completed by beach users and experts. Applying the new Beach Quality Index (BQI) demonstrated that the quality of beaches could be improved. In general, the strongest aspects of the beaches assessed were those related to short-term user demand, and the weakest were those related to the consequences of human pressure on the area, in particular, erosion problems. The composite index is intended to be used together with Environmental Management Beach Systems (EMBs) as a hierarchical management scorecard and in monitoring programs. This new tool could also make planning more proactive by synthesizing the state of the most important beach processes. PMID:20383636

  6. Obtaining traffic information by urban air quality inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transportation and its environmental impacts are a major component of urban environmental management. At the same time, transportation and mobility are an important part of urban economics and quality of life. To analyze urban transportation and its environmental impacts, a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach is needed. Unfortunately, theoretical works about traffic flow and pollutant dynamic have independently evolved, rarely meeting contact points. Our works aims to provide a contribution in linking traffic flow and pollutant dynamic by proponing a new traffic model, able to calculate the number of running vehicles, once the ground level of an arbitrary pollutant concentration is know. The validation and simulation of this model is made possible by the training of an adaptive.(Author)

  7. DETERMINING INDICATORS OF URBAN HOUSEHOLD WATER CONSUMPTION THROUGH MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gledsneli Maria Lima Lins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Water has a decisive influence on populations’ life quality – specifically in areas like urban supply, drainage, and effluents treatment – due to its sound impact over public health. Water rational use constitutes the greatest challenge faced by water demand management, mainly with regard to urban household water consumption. This makes it important to develop researches to assist water managers and public policy-makers in planning and formulating water demand measures which may allow urban water rational use to be met. This work utilized the multivariate techniques Factor Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis – in order to determine the participation level of socioeconomic and climatic variables in monthly urban household consumption changes – applying them to two districts of Campina Grande city (State of Paraíba, Brazil. The districts were chosen based on socioeconomic criterion (income level so as to evaluate their water consumer’s behavior. A 9-year monthly data series (from year 2000 up to 2008 was utilized, comprising family income, water tariff, and quantity of household connections (economies – as socioeconomic variables – and average temperature and precipitation, as climatic variables. For both the selected districts of Campina Grande city, the obtained results point out the variables “water tariff” and “family income” as indicators of these district’s household consumption.

  8. Assessing equitable access to urban green space: the role of engineered water infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Heather E Wright; Downs, Joni A; Mihelcic, James R

    2011-08-15

    Urban green space and water features provide numerous social, environmental, and economic benefits, yet disparities often exist in their distribution and accessibility. This study examines the link between issues of environmental justice and urban water management to evaluate potential improvements in green space and surface water access through the revitalization of existing engineered water infrastructures, namely stormwater ponds. First, relative access to green space and water features were compared for residents of Tampa, Florida, and an inner-city community of Tampa (East Tampa). Although disparities were not found in overall accessibility between Tampa and East Tampa, inequalities were apparent when quality, diversity, and size of green spaces were considered. East Tampa residents had significantly less access to larger, more desirable spaces and water features. Second, this research explored approaches for improving accessibility to green space and natural water using three integrated stormwater management development scenarios. These scenarios highlighted the ability of enhanced water infrastructures to increase access equality at a variety of spatial scales. Ultimately, the "greening" of gray urban water infrastructures is advocated as a way to address environmental justice issues while also reconnecting residents with issues of urban water management. PMID:21728276

  9. Water Quality Monitoring System based on WSN

    OpenAIRE

    Teng WANG

    2012-01-01

    With the growth of economy in recent years, the water quality monitoring becomes a critical issue about water pollution. Water Quality Monitoring has a big influence on the aquaculture management, waste water treatment, drinking water and some other applications. There is a trend to build a wireless sensor network system for water quality monitoring. This system detects pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, temperature, ORP (Oxidation-Reduction Potential), BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Dem...

  10. Characterizing Water Quality in Students' Own Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, S. K.; Speelman, Nicole; Yeary, Amber; Slattery, William

    2007-01-01

    The surface water quality studies are developed to help first year college students who are preparing to become high school teachers. These water quality impact studies allow students to correlate geologic conditions and chemistry.

  11. National Water Quality Standards Database (NWQSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Water Quality Standards Database (WQSDB) provides access to EPA and state water quality standards (WQS) information in text, tables, and maps. This...

  12. What drives the urban water regime? An analysis of water governance arrangements in Hyderabad, India

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Nastar

    2014-01-01

    Urban water scarcity is increasingly seen as a governance issue, not least in cities like Hyderabad, India, where the demand for urban water exceeds the available supply to the extent that some low priority areas in the city receive water for only a few hours on alternate days. Based on a multi-level perspective in transition studies, this study explores the major interplay between actors in the urban water regime and analyzes how that influences access to water among the urban poor. The find...

  13. Quality assurance of hydrometeorological data in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Pajari, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Urban planning and decision making are widely based on the monitoring results of environmental variables. The measurements contain always missing values, outliers and noise. If these are not detected, erroneous data sequences cannot be corrected or removed. The measurement results are further used in modelling of stormwater quantity and quality and planning of stormwater structures. A need for the method development of an automatic tool which detects anomalies from data series arises from the...

  14. Sustainable green urban planning: the workbench spatial quality method

    OpenAIRE

    Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, Derk Jan; Timmermans, W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Amersfoort Local Municipality implemented the workbench spatial quality method (referred to as workbench method) to enhance participation in green-planning processes. Design/methodology/approach – As part of the Valuing Attractive Landscapes in the Urban Economy project (made possible by INTERREG IVB North West Europe, European Regional Development Fund, European Territorial Cooperation, 2007-2013), the method was evaluated based on its contribution to three core issues: understand...

  15. Urban Design Competition versus Design Interactivity and Quality Judgment

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemian, Reza

    2011-01-01

    The study is targeted to analyze the essence of interactive design process, design methodology and the communicability of quality judgment of urban design competitions. The aim is to provide a political argument which supports organizational and procedural reforms of the entire cycle of competition, from judgment to selection and implementation of a prize-winning architectural design. The study is searching to provide some principle definitions of the concepts of design methodology and design...

  16. Managing uncertainties in urban runoff quality models: A benchmarking methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Kanso, Assem; Tassin, Bruno; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a benchmarking methodology, which aims at comparing urban runoff quality models, based on the Bayesian theory. After choosing the different configurations of models to be tested, this methodology uses the Metropolis algorithm, a general MCMC sampling method, to estimate the posterior distributions of the models' parameters. The analysis of these posterior distributions allows a quantitative assessment of the parameters' uncertainties and their interaction structure, a...

  17. WATER QUALITY INDEX – AN INSTRUMENT FOR WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAIU M?D?LINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Water quality status assessment can be defined as the evaluation of physical, chemical, biological state of the water in relation with the natural state, anthropogenic effects and future uses. Water quality index reduces the number of parameters used in monitoring water quality to a simple expression in order to facilitate interpretation of the data, allowing public access to water quality data. This study is a summary of an interdisciplinary research program on surface water quality monitoring carried out during the years 2011-2012 in the eastern part of Romania. Water quality index provides a single value expressing the average quality of water at a time, based on analytical values of physico-chemical parameters. For the water quality index calculation were used six physico-chemical parameters: pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, nitrate (NO3 and phosphate (PO4.

  18. Soil cover and water quality for irrigation purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bertossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the relationship between land cover and water quality for irrigation in the sub-basin of the stream Horizonte, located in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil, we selected five places in the sub-basin to collect surface water and groundwater, each influenced by different soil cover types: pasture, forest, coffee, upstream and downstream of the urban area. Collecting samples were made during periods of drought and rainfall. The physical-chemical analysis of water was made by determining the pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, sodium and calculated sodium adsorption ratio (SAR. According to the results we can conclude that the soil cover did not change the quality of water for irrigation and water evaluated, both surface and groundwater, showed no risk of soil salinization, but can cause problems sodification, making it difficult to water infiltration.

  19. Air quality measurements in urban green areas - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttler, W.; Strassburger, A.

    The influence of traffic-induced pollutants (e.g. CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3) on the air quality of urban areas was investigated in the city of Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany. Twelve air hygiene profile measuring trips were made to analyse the trace gas distribution in the urban area with high spatial resolution and to compare the air hygiene situation of urban green areas with the overall situation of urban pollution. Seventeen measurements were made to determine the diurnal concentration courses within urban parks (summer conditions: 13 measurements, 530 30 min mean values, winter conditions: 4 measurements, 128 30 min mean values). The measurements were carried out during mainly calm wind and cloudless conditions between February 1995 and March 1996. It was possible to establish highly differentiated spatial concentration patterns within the urban area. These patterns were correlated with five general types of land use (motorway, main road, secondary road, residential area, green area) which were influenced to varying degrees by traffic emissions. Urban parks downwind from the main emission sources show the following typical temporal concentration courses: In summer rush-hour-dependent CO, NO and NO 2 maxima only occurred in the morning. A high NO 2/NO ratio was established during weather conditions with high global radiation intensities ( K>800 W m -2), which may result in a high O 3 formation potential. Some of the values measured found in one of the parks investigated (Gruga Park, Essen, area: 0.7 km 2), which were as high as 275 ?g m -3 O 3 (30-min mean value) were significantly higher than the German air quality standard of 120 ?g m -3 (30-min mean value, VDI Guideline 2310, 1996) which currently applies in Germany and about 20% above the maximum values measured on the same day by the network of the North Rhine-Westphalian State Environment Agency. In winter high CO and NO concentrations occur in the morning and during the afternoon rush-hour. The highest concentrations (CO=4.3 mg m -3, NO=368 ?g m -3, 30-min mean values) coincide with the increase in the evening inversion. The maximum measured values for CO, NO and NO 2 do not, however, exceed the German air quality standards in winter and summer.

  20. Low-Cost Sensor Units for Measuring Urban Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M.; Stewart, G.; Hodgson, T.; McLoed, M.; Baldovi, J.; Landshoff, P.; Hayes, M.; Calleja, M.; Jones, R.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of selected key air quality gases (CO, NO & NO2) have been made with a range of miniature low-cost sensors based on electrochemical gas sensing technology incorporating GPS and GPRS for position and communication respectively. Two types of simple to operate sensors units have been designed to be deployed in relatively large numbers. Mobile handheld sensor units designed for operation by members of the public have been deployed on numerous occasions including in Cambridge, London and Valencia. Static sensor units have also been designed for long-term autonomous deployment on existing street furniture. A study was recently completed in which 45 sensor units were deployed in the Cambridge area for a period of 3 months. Results from these studies indicate that air quality varies widely both spatially and temporally. The widely varying concentrations found suggest that the urban environment cannot be fully understood using limited static site (AURN) networks and that a higher resolution, more dispersed network is required to better define air quality in the urban environment. The results also suggest that higher spatial and temporal resolution measurements could improve knowledge of the levels of individual exposure in the urban environment.

  1. Urban water infrastructure optimization to reduce environmental impacts and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Hung Suck

    2010-01-01

    Urban water planning and policy have been focusing on environmentally benign and economically viable water management. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model to integrate and optimize urban water infrastructures for supply-side planning and policy: freshwater resources and treated wastewater are allocated to various water demand categories in order to reduce contaminants in the influents supplied for drinking water, and to reduce consumption of the water resources imported from the regions beyond a city boundary. A case study is performed to validate the proposed model. An optimal urban water system of a metropolitan city is calculated on the basis of the model and compared to the existing water system. The integration and optimization decrease (i) average concentrations of the influents supplied for drinking water, which can improve human health and hygiene; (ii) total consumption of water resources, as well as electricity, reducing overall environmental impacts; (iii) life cycle cost; and (iv) water resource dependency on other regions, improving regional water security. This model contributes to sustainable urban water planning and policy. PMID:19939551

  2. Albuquerque/Middle Rio Grande Urban Waters Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data have been compiled in support of the Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque Urban Waters Partnership for the region including Albuquerque, New Mexico.The Middle...

  3. Confronting the Water Crisis of Beijing Municipality in a Systems Perspective : Focusing on Water Quantity and Quality Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jin

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, water systems worldwide are under crisis due to excessive human interventions particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions. In many cities, the water quantity situation has become more and more serious, caused either by absolute water shortage or water pollution. Considering population growth and fast urbanization, ensuring adequate water supply with acceptable water quality is crucial to socio-economic development in the coming decades. In this context, one key point is ...

  4. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at "JHH" due to the limit of "COD" as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them. PMID:26516623

  5. Construction of the Quality Evaluation System for Healthy Urbanization from the Angle of Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Huiying Wang

    2009-01-01

    In allusion to the problems in the present theoretical study and practice about urbanization, this paper elucidated the connotation of healthy urbanization from the angle of economics, and put forward the economic definition of healthy urbanization; further more, it put forward things that should be attached importance to when evaluating healthy urbanization and the framework of quality evaluation system.

  6. Scenario study for reservoir water quality management.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejzlar, Josef; Šustrová, Hana; Mikešová, Petra; R?ži?ka, Martin; Kafková, Dagmar

    Praha : ICARIS, 2002. s. 121-124. [International Conference on Reservoir Limnology and Water Quality /4./. 12.08.2002-16.08.2002, ?eské Bud?jovice] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA103/01/0201; GA AV ?R KSK3046108 Keywords : reservoir * water quality * modelling Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality

  7. Robust Control of Urban Industrial Water Mismatching Uncertain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Kebai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban industrial water system parameter fluctuation producing uncertainty may not occur in a control input channel, can be applied mismatching uncertain system to describe. Based on Lyapunov direct method and linear matrix inequality, design the urban industrial water mismatching uncertain system feedback stabilization robust control scheme. Avoid the defects that the feedback stabilization control method based on the matrix Riccati equation need to preset equation parameters, easier to solve and can reduce the conservative.

  8. Urban growth modeling to predict the changes in the urban microclimate and urban water cycle:

    OpenAIRE

    Veerbeek, W.; Denekew, H.; A. Pathirana; Brdjanovic, D.; Zevenbergen, C.; Bacchin, T.K.

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of urban growth on the exposure, sensitivity but also as a driver of flooding are often underexposed. Yet, the rate of current urbanization is unprecedented and might increase future flood risk dramatically. To gain insight in this issue, a study on urban development has been performed using 3 case study areas: the megacities of Beijing, and Mumbai and 1 regular city: Can Tho, Vietnam. Using a physically urban growth model, future growth patterns are obtained that show l...

  9. Conservation Strategies for Kavandi Lake Based on Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Bhutekar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Kavandi Lake (located at 18° 07’ N, 75° 37’ E, 530 m above MSL, in Ambad town, Maharashtra, India was constructed by Devi Ahilyabai Holkar to fulfill the demand of drinking water for Ambad town. The physico-chemical and ecological study of the water body was conducted to assess the present status of water quality and to suggest the conservation strategies based on the findings. In order to determine the water quality, samples were collected monthly during 2012-13 from five different sampling points and analyzed for pH, EC, BOD, DO, COD, phosphates, nitrates etc. Present investigation revealed that, the urban development in the town led adverse changes in the physico-chemical and ecological characteristics of lake water. The discharge of sewage, the agricultural and urban runoff and dumping of solid waste deteriorated the water quality of lake and it is getting enriched with plant nutrients and other pollutants, becoming more and more infested with macrophytes, getting slowly shallower and shallower and shrinking gradually in size. In conclusion, the water is moderately polluted and unfit for drinking purpose without any treatment. The eutrophic condition affected the aesthetic value of lake. The best suggested strategies among conservation of lake on the basis of conducted study includes prevention of pollution, lake cleaning by de-silting, de-weeding, bioremediation, public awareness and public participation.

  10. Appreciating Site-Specific Qualities in Urban Harbours : Urban Culture and the ombrière in Marseille

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    When “site-specificity” becomes a central value in city and harbor transformation, it soon proves necessary to address the ways in which scholars and professionals actually determine site-specific qualities in urban fabrics and social life. This paper delves into the above questions by means of observa-tions from Marseille in southern France. After modernization and dislocation of its harbor territories in the early 20th century already, this city is currently taking important steps from industrial urbanism into cultural planning. This transformation allows for new and unprogrammed experiences of site-specificity, even in the traditional harbor settings. Considered with conceptual care, such situations may teach us what it means to “appreciate site-specific qualities”.

  11. Detection of Emerging and Re-Emerging Pathogens in Surface Waters Close to an Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Marcheggiani, Stefania; D’Ugo, Emilo; Puccinelli, Camilla; Giuseppetti, Roberto; D’Angelo, Anna Maria; Gualerzi, Claudio Orlando; Spurio, Roberto; Medlin, Linda K.; Guillebault, Delphine; Weigel, Wilfried; Helmi, Karim; Mancini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Current knowledge about the spread of pathogens in aquatic environments is scarce probably because bacteria, viruses, algae and their toxins tend to occur at low concentrations in water, making them very difficult to measure directly. The purpose of this study was the development and validation of tools to detect pathogens in freshwater systems close to an urban area. In order to evaluate anthropogenic impacts on water microbiological quality, a phylogenetic microarray was developed in the co...

  12. Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  13. River water quality modelling: II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanahan, P.; Henze, Mogens; Koncsos, L.; Rauch, Wolfgang; Reichert, P.; Somlyódy, L.; Vanrolleghem, P.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. EPA QUAL2E model is currently the standard for river water quality modelling. While QUAL2E is adequate for the regulatory situation for which it was developed (the U.S. wasteload allocation process), there is a need for a more comprehensive framework for research and teaching. Moreover, QUAL2E and similar models do not address a number of practical problems such as stormwater-flow events, nonpoint source pollution, and transient streamflow. Limitations in model formulation affect the ab...

  14. U.S. Midwestern Residents Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Lois Wright Morton; Zhihua Hu

    2011-01-01

    The plurality of conservation and environmental viewpoints often challenge community leaders and government agency staff as they seek to engage citizens and build partnerships around watershed planning and management to solve complex water quality issues. The U.S. Midwest Heartland region (covering the states of Missouri, Kansa, Iowa, and Nebraska) is dominated by row crop production and animal agriculture, where an understanding of perceptions held by residents of different locations (urban,...

  15. Long Term Trend Analysis and Assessment of Water Quality in the Penchala River, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, M. F.; Haris, H. B.; Mohd Sidek, L. B.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid urban expansion produces negative impacts on the natural environment, especially river water quality. Studies assessing long term changes of water quality have been recognized as a key tool for understanding ongoing processes in watersheds and for providing an essential background for evaluation of rapid changes within industrialized and populated urban areas. Unfortunately, only limited studies are available for developing countries such as Malaysia. Thus, a long term study was conducted to evaluate water quality trends at Pencala river basin that has undergone extensive land use changes related to industrial, agricultural and urban activities. Fifteen physical and chemical variables were analysed in river water samples collected every month over a period of 13 years, between 1997 and 2009. The trend study was performed using the Mann-Kendall Seasonal test and the Sen's Slope estimator. Results revealed that most water quality parameters showed a downward trend for yearly average concentration. The water quality index (WQI) for Pencala River was improved from Class V to Class IV, according to National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia. BOD, COD, NH3-N and SS show trends toward decreasing concentrations over time. The improvements seen in water quality appear to be the result of improved wastewater treatment and other water quality improvement efforts achieved through government initiative. Continued long-term and high frequency monitoring is necessary to establish plans and policies for effective water resources management.

  16. Does urban forestry have a quantitative effect on ambient air quality in an urban environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irga, P. J.; Burchett, M. D.; Torpy, F. R.

    2015-11-01

    Increasing urban greenspace has been proposed as a means of reducing airborne pollutant concentrations; however limited studies provide experimental data, as opposed to model estimates, of its ability to do so. The current project examined whether higher concentrations of urban forestry might be associated with quantifiable effects on ambient air pollutant levels, whilst accounting for the predominant source of localized spatial variations in pollutant concentrations, namely vehicular traffic. Monthly air samples for one year were taken from eleven sites in central Sydney, Australia. The sample sites exhibited a range of different traffic density, population usage, and greenspace/urban forest density conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), total suspended particulate matter (TSP), suspended particles <10 ?m in diameter (PM10) and particulate matter <2.5 ?m (PM2.5), were recorded, using portable devices. It was found that air samples taken from sites with less greenspace frequently had high concentrations of all fractions of aerosolized particulates than other sites, whilst sites with high proximal greenspace had lower particulates, even when vehicular traffic was taken into account. No observable trends in concentrations of NO, TVOC and SO2 were observed, as recorded levels were generally very low across all sampled areas. The findings indicate, first, that within the urban areas of a city, localized differences in air pollutant loads occur. Secondly, we conclude that urban areas with proportionally higher concentrations of urban forestry may experience better air quality with regards to reduced ambient particulate matter; however conclusions about other air pollutants are yet to be elucidated.

  17. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the USGS Ohio Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Shaffer, Kimberly H.

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been written for use by the Ohio Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Ohio Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Ohio Water Science Center quality-assurance plans for water-quality monitors, the microbiology laboratory, and surface-water and ground-water activities.

  18. Computaional Complexity Analysis on Water Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Anni Prabakaran & Dr. B. Poorna

    2012-01-01

    The computational algorithms are used to determine the features and applications from large data sets in real time environment. The computational applications are also used in environmental computing to evaluate the degree of air, water and sound pollutions and measures of prevention. The computational process of water quality index (WQI) is determined through analysis of water quality attributes. Though existing methods produced WQI with certain water quality attributes according to the natu...

  19. Geochemistry of urban sediments from small urban areas and potential impact on surface waters: a case study in Northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Anabela; Oliveira, Ana Isabel; Pinto, João; Parker, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Urban sediments are an important source of contaminants in urban catchments with impact on river ecosystems. Surface runoff from impermeable surfaces transfers sediments and associated contaminants to water bodies affecting the quality of both water and sediment compartments. This study aims to evaluate the metal contents in urban sediments (road deposited sediments) in a small sized urban area, located in a rural mountainous region with no significant industrial units, or mining activities in the vicinity, and subsequently have an insight on the potential contribution to the metal loads transported by fluvial sediments in the streams from the surrounding drainage network. The area under investigation locates in the northeast Portugal, in the Trás-os-Montes region (NE Portugal). Vila Real is a rural city, with 52781 inhabitants, and in the urban area there are dispersed parks with forest and gardens; locally and in the surroundings of the city there are agricultural terrains. The industry is concentrated, in general, in the industry park. Major pollutant activities can be considered the agriculture (pollution by sediments, metals and use of fertilizers) and urban activities such as atmospheric deposition, vehicular traffic, residential activities, soil erosion and industrial activities. According to the aim of the study, road deposited sediment samples were collected in urban and periurban areas as well as in public playgrounds and in the industrial area. The samples were decomposed with aqua regia, and the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V were obtained by ICP-AES. The total concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V, in road-deposited sediments, indicate relative enrichments in samples collected in the main streets and roads, showing spatial variability. The association of Cu, Pb and Zn is observed in samples collected in the streets with high traffic density and industrial activity; in general, higher relative contents of Fe and Mn are also found in these samples. Associations between V, Cr, Ni, Fe and Mn are found in samples collected near garden areas and in green parks. Studies performed on river bottom sediments from the fluvial network in the catchment area shows a significant relative enrichment in the contents of metals, in the most mobile geochemical fractions, in samples collected in the reaches downstream the urban area of Vila Real, suggesting an important contribute from urban generated sediments and associated metals through runoff.

  20. Indicating anthropogenic effectson urban water system - indicators and extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, G.; Ufz-Team

    2003-04-01

    Urban water systems are polluted by diffusive and direct contribution of anthropogenic activities. Besides industrial contaminants like aromatic and chlorinated HC and other persistent organic compounds, the urban aquatic environment is increasingly polluted by low concentrated but high eco-toxic compounds as pharmaceuticals, fragrances, plasticizers which most have disrupt endocrine functions, and trace elements carried in by surface and sub-surface waste water and seeping processes. This contamination could have a longtime impact on the urban ecosystem and on the human health. The interdisciplinary project on risk assessment of water pollution was initiated to explore new methodologies for assessing human activities on the urban water system and processes among urban watersheds. In a first assumption we used a flow model concept with in- and output and surface water transport represented by the city of Halle, Germany, and the river Saale. The river Saale acts as surface water system collecting waste water inputs along the city traverse. We investigated the anthropogenic effect on the urban water system using the indicators hydrological parameters, compound specific pattern of complex organic substances and trace elements, isotopic signatures of water (H, O) and dissolved substances (sulfate, DIC, nitrate), pathogens, and microbiota. A first balance modeling showed that main ions are not very sensitive concerning the direct urban input into the river. Depending on the discharge of the river in high and low flood stages the load of dissolved matter has no specific urban effect. However, the concentration pattern of fragrances (tonalid, galaxolid) and endocrine disrupters (t-nonylphenol) point to a different pollution along the city traverse: downstream of the sewage plant a higher load was observed in comparison to the upstream passage. Furthermore, a degradation ability of fungi and bacteria occurred in the bank sediments could be detected in lab experiments concerning the fragrances, and endocrine disrupters (t-nonylphenol, phthalate). The Saale water samples contain components able to eco-toxic and immunomodulated effects as measured on the vitality and cytokine-secretion profile of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Even fragrances caused such effects which are unknown so far. The study of assessing urban effects onto the water system is still under investigation.

  1. Analysis of relation between water quality according to chemical indexes and water catchment area use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivicheva Ksenya Nikolayevna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Catch basins for a number of the rivers of Vologda region were framed using ARCGIS 10, method Hydrobiology , and their usage was assessed. Parts of catchments for 11 small and medium rivers with different anthropogenic stress were analyzed. The area of each catch basin was divided into 3 categories: little-developed, agricultural and urban ones. For 3 city rivers 2 categories were analized. The data on catchment area use were recorded for all sites from satellite image with ScanEx Image Processor. Areas of 3 land-use types (forest, agriculture, and urbanized terrain were calculated. Forest on the parts of catchments composed from 12 to 100%, urbanized terrain composing from 0 to 51,5 %. Areas of differnt categories were compared with hydrochemical indexes of water quality. Indexes of water quality showed strong positive correlation with the areas of urbanized terrains on the parts of catchments (0,81-0,95,but weak correlation with areas of agriculture (0,62-0,8. As for the forest areas, they showed strong negative correlation (-0,75…-0,9. Indexes of water quality were sensitive to negative anthropology influence.

  2. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrous dioxide (NO2) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P 10, SO2, and NO2 in urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. - Highlights: • We investigate the distributions of PM10, SO2 and NO2 in urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. • We explore the associations of air pollution and male semen quality. • The concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 are significantly higher in urban areas. • Median values of some semen quality parameters in rural male were higher than urban male. • PM10, SO2, and NO2 were negatively associated with semen quality parameters. - Air pollution is higher in the urban area while there is better semen quality in rural males. Polluted air may thus account for worse semen quality in urban males

  3. In Brief: European Environment Agency recommends new methods to assess water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2007-08-01

    The European Environment Agency published a report on 23 July that provides tools for effectively monitoring chemical changes in rivers and lakes. The report, ``Assessing water quality in Europe using stratification techniques-Results of a prototype application using French data,'' uses an approach whereby specific water catchments are monitored to determine how agricultural activities, urban pollution, and natural events translate into differences in water quality. With this technique, pollution reduction from specific European Union environmental legislation, such as regulations for nitrate emissions and urban waste water treatment, can be more readily evaluated. To read the report, see http://reports.eea.europa.eu/technical_report_2007_10/en.

  4. Analysis of River Water Quality and its influencing factors for the Effective Management of Water Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, G.; Sadohara, S.; Yoshida, S.; Yuichi, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Japan, remarkable improvements in water quality have been observed over recent years because of regulations imposed on industrial wastewater and development of sewerage system. However, pollution loads from agricultural lands are still high and coverage ratio of sewerage system is still low in small and medium cities. In present context, nonpoint source pollution such as runoff from unsewered developments, urban and agricultural runoffs could be main water quality impacting factors. Further, atmospheric nitrogen (N) is the complex nonpoint source than can seriously affect river water environment. This study was undertaken to spatially investigate the present status of river water quality of Hadano Basin located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Water quality of six rivers was investigated and its relationship with nonpoint pollution sources was analyzed. This study, with inclusion of ground water circulation and atmospheric N, can be effectively employed for water quality management of other watersheds also, both with and without influence of ground water circulation. Hence, as a research area of this study, it is significant in terms of water quality management. Total nitrogen (TN) was found consistently higher in urbanized basins indicating that atmospheric N might be influencing TN of river water. Ground water circulation influenced both water quality and quantity. In downstream basins of Muro and Kuzuha rivers, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) were diluted by ground water inflow. In Mizunashi River and the upstream of Kuzuha River, surface water infiltrated to the subsurface due to higher river bed permeability. Influencing factors considered in the analysis were unsewered population, agricultural land, urban area, forest and atmospheric N. COD and TP showed good correlation with unsewered population and agricultural land. While TN had good correlation with atmospheric N deposition. Multiple regression analysis between water quality pollution loads and influencing factors resulted that unsewered population had higher impact on river water quality. For TN, atmospheric N deposition was taking effect. Continuous development of sewerage system and its expansion along with the pace of urbanization could be the pragmatic option to maintain river water quality in Hadano basin. However, influence of agricultural loads and atmospheric N on water quality cannot be denied for the proper water quality management of Hadano basin. It was found that if the proportion of sewered population could be increased from 72% to 86%, corresponding loads of COD and TP could be decreased by about 41% and 45% respectively. As per the development trend of sewerage system in Hadano basin for last 10 years, unsewered population could be reduced to its half by 2014, provided that the expansion of sewerage system continues at same rate. Regarding TN, its proper control is complicated as atmospheric N is propagated to regional and sometimes to global extent. Further study on the relationship between TN and atmospheric N deposition should be conducted for the proper management of TN in the river water.

  5. The soundscape quality in some urban parks in Milan, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Giovanni; Gallo, Veronica; Zambon, Giovanni

    2013-06-01

    Urban parks play an important role in preserving and promoting the health of citizens who are often exposed to noise pollution and the stress of daily life. The present study describes the main results obtained from a survey performed in five urban parks in Milan. Measurements of the acoustic environment were carried out in 29 sites together with interviews with 231 users on certain aspects of the parks not limited to merely sound. Acoustic data show that the surveyed parks mostly do not comply with the noise limit issued by the Italian legislation on protected areas. The unweighted 1/3-octave spectrum centre of gravity G and LA50 perform satisfactorily in discriminating among the acoustic environments. Such clear distinction was not observed in the subjective ratings on the perceived quality of the soundscape, likely due to the influence by non-acoustic factors that act as mediators in the assessment. This hypothesis is supported by the collected data on the perceived quality of quietness, which was rated worse than that of the soundscape. Comparing acoustic data with ratings, the perceived quality of the total environment was found to be less dependent on LAeq than soundscape and quietness. PMID:23743795

  6. The Soundscape Quality in Some Urban Parks in Milan, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Zambon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban parks play an important role in preserving and promoting the health of citizens who are often exposed to noise pollution and the stress of daily life. The present study describes the main results obtained from a survey performed in five urban parks in Milan. Measurements of the acoustic environment were carried out in 29 sites together with interviews with 231 users on certain aspects of the parks not limited to merely sound. Acoustic data show that the surveyed parks mostly do not comply with the noise limit issued by the Italian legislation on protected areas. The unweighted 1/3-octave spectrum centre of gravity G and LA50 perform satisfactorily in discriminating among the acoustic environments. Such clear distinction was not observed in the subjective ratings on the perceived quality of the soundscape, likely due to the influence by non-acoustic factors that act as mediators in the assessment. This hypothesis is supported by the collected data on the perceived quality of quietness, which was rated worse than that of the soundscape. Comparing acoustic data with ratings, the perceived quality of the total environment was found to be less dependent on LAeq than soundscape and quietness.

  7. Assessment of Ground Water Quality by Using Water Quality Index Method of Berhampur Town in Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejaz Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Berhampur, the silk city of Odisha (India is under the process of rapid urbanization with human population exceeding more than four lacks. Such growth in population of Berhampur Municipal Corporation has increased the requirement of water for human activities. Due to this reason the huge amount of waste water is generated which is discharged to the Bay of Bengal through small sewage system. The present study is carried out the impact of ground water quality status of Berhampur town. The water samples collected from ten different locations have been chosen separately across Berhampur Municipal Corporation depending on pollution load and water logging. The samples were collected in three different seasons i.e monsoon (MN, June-September, post monsoon (PM, November-January and pre monsoon (PRM, March-May and to determine the physical, chemical and biological parameters. The WQI reflects a composite influence of contributing factors on the quality of water for any type of water system. So WQI is an important parameter for assessment and management of ground water. Now a day’s water quality of different water system has been communicated on the basis of calculated WQI. The presents study revels that water quality index is 1 to 10 sampling station (S-1, S-2, S-4, S-5, S-6, S-7, S-8 come under good water quality and station (S-3, S-9, S-10 belongs to poor water. This may be due the sewage water logging in those study area which will definitely put serious impact up on socio-economic development of the people in this area in future.

  8. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4... WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a...necessary to compile and analyze data on the quality of...

  9. Urban quality of life in Istanbul: Priorities and segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ulengin, Burc; Ulengin, Fusun; Guvenc, Umit

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the desires, expectations and priorities of the inhabitants of Istanbul, a city with a population of about 15 milion, from a multidimensional perspective. In this way, effective allocation of the city's resources can be achieved to improve the quality of life for such a large number of people, which is the primary concern of the local authorities as well as the urban planners. A survey is conducted in Istanbul so that the priorities of the inhabitants are...

  10. [Microbial risk assessment of urban water bodies for aesthetical and recreational uses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fu; Sha, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Liu, Yan-Hua

    2013-03-01

    With the increasing public access to urban water bodies for aesthetical and recreational purposes, it is of critical importance for densely populated urban areas to conduct microbial risk assessment and accordingly implement effective risk management. Based on the methodology of quantitative microbial risk assessment, a case study was conducted on three typical urban water bodies for aesthetical and recreational uses in a southern city in China. Exposure assessment was carried out through water quality monitoring, field survey and literature review, and accordingly human health risk was assessed with different dose-response equations based on fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli (EC) and Enterococci (ENT). Microbial risk estimated by different dose-response equations was found consistent with and comparable to each other. Stream B located in a residential area was not suitable for primary- or secondary-contact recreational uses, and its microbial risk to the public mainly came from water abstraction for household miscellaneous uses. Stream C and Lake E, located in a public open space and a scenic area respectively, could meet the current recreational requirements, and their microbial risk to the public was generally attributed to various recreational activities. It was necessary to address the public health risk associated with the unauthorized or inappropriate water uses (e.g. abstraction for household miscellaneous uses) of urban aesthetical and recreational water bodies. PMID:23745397

  11. Partitioning and first flush of metals in urban roadway storm water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansalone, J.J.; Buchberger, S.G. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-02-01

    Storm water runoff from urban roadways often contains significant quantities of metal elements and solids. These anthropogenic constituents are generated mainly from traffic-related activities. Metal elements partition into dissolved and particulate-bound fractions as a function of pH, pavement residence time, and solids concentration. Lateral pavement sheet flow from an experimental field site on a heavily traveled urban highway in Cincinnati was sampled during five rainfall runoff events in 1995. Results indicate that Zn, Cd, and Cu are mainly in dissolved form while Pb, Fe, and Al are mainly particulate-bound. Dissolved fractions of Zn, Cd, and Cu exceed surface water quality discharge standards. Findings from this study will assist in the development of effective control strategies for the immobilization of metal elements and solids in urban runoff.

  12. CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS - WELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications for public supply wells in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes GAA areas for public water supply wells. Each polygon is assigned a GAA ground water quality class, which is stored in the d...

  13. What drives the urban water regime? An analysis of water governance arrangements in Hyderabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nastar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban water scarcity is increasingly seen as a governance issue, not least in cities like Hyderabad, India, where the demand for urban water exceeds the available supply to the extent that some low priority areas in the city receive water for only a few hours on alternate days. Based on a multi-level perspective in transition studies, this study explores the major interplay between actors in the urban water regime and analyzes how that influences access to water among the urban poor. The findings show how the practices of the consolidated regime are environmentally, socially, and economically unsustainable. In investigating the driving forces behind the attributes of the urban water regime, we draw attention to the impact of landscape pressures, i.e., international donors' influence on water policy, and initiatives at the regime and niche levels. Further, and in response to that, we investigate potential niche experiments promoting water access for the urban poor. Accordingly, it is suggested that socio-technical and socio-political "niche" experiments could be combined into a citizen-based challenge against the existing urban regime practices and the dominant discourses at the landscape level. Here water harvesting techniques could be a viable niche innovation with citizen involvement to be scaled-up in an enabling institutional setting. This requires a coalition of social movement and political action, providing an arena for a new vision in the water sector that would replace the one imposed by landscape forces represented by international donors.

  14. Obtaining Traffic Information by Urban Air Quality Inspection

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrante, P; Nicolosi, S; Scaccianoce, G; Traverso, M; Rizzo, G

    2011-01-01

    The level of air quality in urban centres is affected by emission of several pollutants, mainly coming from the vehicles flowing in their road networks. This is a well known phenomenon that influences the quality of life of people. Despite the deep concern of researchers and technicians, we are far from a total understanding of this phenomenon. On the contrary, the availability of reliable forecasting models would constitute an important tool for administrators in order of assessing suitable actions concerning the transportation policies, public as well private. Referring to the situation of the running fleet and the measured pollutant concentrations concerning the Italian town of Palermo, a data-deduced traffic model is here derived, its truthfulness being justified by a fuzzyfication of the phenomenon. A first validation of the model is supplied by utilising the emissions characteristics and the pollutant concentrations referring to a two years period of time. This work could represent a first attempt in de...

  15. Water Quality Monitoring with Ubiquitous Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yo-Ping; Chou, Change-Tse; Jau, Jung-Shian; Sandnes, Frode Eika

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, data collected from water quality monitoring systems are typically stored in closed repositories that are not shared with the public. Due to the cost and environmental limitations traditional water quality monitoring systems cannot collect sufficient samples to reflect the overall status of water quality. In this paper, the monitored data were transmitted in real time by WCDMA to the central server via a 3G network. In such a ubiquitous environment every user can interact with ...

  16. Mobile Water Quality Information Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Water quality remote sensing has grown to allow for operational monitoring of trophic status, assessment of cyanobacteria blooms, and historical and trend analysis...

  17. Studies of urban air quality using electrochemical based sensor instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Popoola, Olalekan Abdul Muiz

    2012-01-01

    Poor air quality has been projected to be the world’s top cause of environmental premature mortality by 2050 surpassing poor sanitation and dirty water (IGBP / IGAC press release, 2012 ). One of the major challenges of air quality management is how to adequately quantify both the spatial and temporal variations of pollutants for the purpose of implementing necessary mitigation measures. The work described in this thesis aims to address this problem using novel electrochemical based air qualit...

  18. APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING FIXED BED BIOFILM AND MEMBRAN BIOREACTOR FOR WATER REUSE IN URBAN HOUSING AREA

    OpenAIRE

    ELIS HASTUTI; IDA MEDAWATY; R. PAMEKAS

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate application of water reuse technologies, with major emphasis of water reuse for non-potable applications in urban housing area. To study the systems performance, secondary treatment development at pilot scale has been studied to achieve desired water reuse quality. There were two systems applied for water reuse scheme using biofilter or fixed bed biofilm system for treating wastewater from Turangga’s flat in Bandung City and membrane bioreactor system for treati...

  19. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modeling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOS) and stormwater drainage systems However, some micropollutants tend to appear in more than one environmental medium (air, water, sediment, soil, groundwater, etc) In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is "wrapped around" a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios on the one hand a reference scenario with a combined sewerage system and on the other hand a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in reduced surface water concentrations for the latter scenario However, the model also showed that this was at the expense of increased fluxes to air, groundwater and infiltration pond soil The latter effects are generally not included in IUWS models, whereas MTFMs usually do not consider dynamic surface water concentrations hence the combined model approach provides a better basis for integrated environmental assessment of micropollutants' fate in urban environments.

  20. National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — National scope of NAWQA water-quality sample- and laboratory-result data and other supporting information obtained from NWIS systems hosted by individual Water...

  1. Enacting a Social Justice Leadership Framework: The 3 C's of Urban Teacher Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Deena; Brown, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conceptualize a social justice leadership framework that identifies essential urban teacher qualities. This framework serves to benefit education leaders seeking teachers best suited for urban schools and urban educators seeking to improve their praxis. The study used a critical approach to analyze data collected…

  2. Quantifying Outdoor Water Consumption of Urban Land Use/Land Cover: Sensitivity to Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Shai; Myint, Soe W.; Fan, Chao; Brazel, Anthony J.

    2014-04-01

    Outdoor water use is a key component in arid city water systems for achieving sustainable water use and ensuring water security. Using evapotranspiration (ET) calculations as a proxy for outdoor water consumption, the objectives of this research are to quantify outdoor water consumption of different land use and land cover types, and compare the spatio-temporal variation in water consumption between drought and wet years. An energy balance model was applied to Landsat 5 TM time series images to estimate daily and seasonal ET for the Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research region (CAP-LTER). Modeled ET estimations were correlated with water use data in 49 parks within CAP-LTER and showed good agreement ( r 2 = 0.77), indicating model effectiveness to capture the variations across park water consumption. Seasonally, active agriculture shows high ET (>500 mm) for both wet and dry conditions, while the desert and urban land cover types experienced lower ET during drought (urban locales of CAP-LTER, xeric neighborhoods show significant differences from year to year, while mesic neighborhoods retain their ET values (400-500 mm) during drought, implying considerable use of irrigation to sustain their greenness. Considering the potentially limiting water availability of this region in the future due to large population increases and the threat of a warming and drying climate, maintaining large water-consuming, irrigated landscapes challenges sustainable practices of water conservation and the need to provide amenities of this desert area for enhancing quality of life.

  3. Value of Landsat in urban water resources planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T. J.; Ragan, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation had the objective to evaluate the utility of satellite multispectral remote sensing in urban water resources planning. The results are presented of a study which was conducted to determine the economic impact of Landsat data. The use of Landsat data to estimate hydrologic model parameters employed in urban water resources planning is discussed. A decision regarding an employment of the Landsat data has to consider the tradeoff between data accuracy and cost. Bayesian decision theory is used in this connection. It is concluded that computer-aided interpretation of Landsat data is a highly cost-effective method of estimating the percentage of impervious area.

  4. Applications of artificial neural networks for microbial water quality modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brion, G.M.; Lingireddy, S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

    2002-06-15

    There has been a significant shift in the recent past towards protecting chemical and microbial quality of source waters rather than developing advanced methods to treat heavily polluted water. The key to successful best management practices in protecting the source waters is to identify sources of non-point pollution and their collective impact on the quality of water at the intake. This article presents a few successful applications where artificial neural networks (ANN) have proven to be the useful mathematical tools in correlating the nonlinear relationships between routinely measured parameters (such as rainfall, turbidity, fecal coliforms etc.) and quality of source waters and/or nature of fecal sources. These applications include, prediction of peak concentrations of Giardia and Cryptosporidium, sorting of fecal sources (e.g. agricultural animals vs. urban animals), predicting relative ages of the runoff sources, identifying the potential for sewage contamination. The ability of ANNs to work with complex, inter-related multiparameter databases, and provide superior predictive power in non-linear relationships has been the key for their successful application to microbial water quality studies. (author)

  5. Applications of artificial neural networks for microbial water quality modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a significant shift in the recent past towards protecting chemical and microbial quality of source waters rather than developing advanced methods to treat heavily polluted water. The key to successful best management practices in protecting the source waters is to identify sources of non-point pollution and their collective impact on the quality of water at the intake. This article presents a few successful applications where artificial neural networks (ANN) have proven to be the useful mathematical tools in correlating the nonlinear relationships between routinely measured parameters (such as rainfall, turbidity, fecal coliforms etc.) and quality of source waters and/or nature of fecal sources. These applications include, prediction of peak concentrations of Giardia and Cryptosporidium, sorting of fecal sources (e.g. agricultural animals vs. urban animals), predicting relative ages of the runoff sources, identifying the potential for sewage contamination. The ability of ANNs to work with complex, inter-related multiparameter databases, and provide superior predictive power in non-linear relationships has been the key for their successful application to microbial water quality studies. (author)

  6. Evaluation of alternative pollutant emission control strategies to urban water systems using substance flow analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundy, L.; Revitt, D. M.; Eriksson, Eva; Viavattene, C.

    2011-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires Member States to protect their inland (and coastal) surface and groundwater bodies. However, the way in which WFD requirements can be met, including the associated stringent environmental quality standards, is less clear. This paper presents selected results from the ScorePP project (an EU Framework Programme 6-funded consortium) which developed and assessed the performance of a series of emission control strategies (ECS) at an urban scale. Data fr...

  7. Corporatization of the water sector: Implications for transitioning to sustainable urban water management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Chiara; Elle, Morten

    2012-01-01

    In the context of climate change, the Danish water sector is experiencing two major pressures. On one hand, a number of agents are pushing towards more sustainable urban water management (SUWM) approaches with the aim of improving surface water quality and mitigating flood risk. On the other hand, as part of an international trend, the municipal water management departments were transformed to locally created not-for-profit corporatized companies. Main drivers for corporatization are increased efficiency and cost recovery by reduced municipal control on utility budgets. Scholars have described the influencing factors for transitioning to SUWM and highlighted the potential governance attributes for enhancing and/or constraining such change. This paper explores the corporatization of the water sector and its implications for transitioning to SUWM. On the base of a preliminary literature review we identify the rationales for and drawbacks of corporatization and compare them with the critical factors to build institutional capacity for SUWM. Preliminary results suggest that corporatization is expected to create a range of challenges that might hinder the transition towards more SUWM approaches. A more direct collaboration of the national regulator of competitive performances with government institutions and other non-governmental actors might be an effective answer to such challenges.

  8. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  9. The Economics of Sustainable Urban Water Management: The Case of Beijing:

    OpenAIRE

    LIANG, X

    2011-01-01

    A rapidly growing urban population leads to the dramatic increase of water consumption in the world. The water resources available to the human being are limited. Meanwhile climate variability and environmental pollution decrease the quantity of water resources available for human use. It is a significant challenge to provide sufficient water to urban residents in a sustainable and effective way. Facing urban water crisis, researchers point out a paradigm shift in urban wate...

  10. Condenser cooling water quality at Kaiga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once-through circulation of river water is envisaged in Kaiga for cooling the condenser and other related equipment. Water drawn from Kali river will be used for this purpose. After cooling the condenser, the water is let into the river through the outfall system. The materials used in the cooling water system consist mainly of SS 316 and carbon steel. Chlorination is the treatment proposed to the cooling water. The cooling water quality is found to be satisfactory. (author). 2 refs

  11. Assessing urban water sustainability in South Africa - not just performance measurement

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K, Carden; NP, Armitage.

    Full Text Available Urban water management - and the impacts that rapid population growth, industrialisation and climate change are having on it - is gaining increasing attention worldwide. In South Africa (SA), cities are under pressure to respond to not only the challenges of water availability and quality, but also [...] to economic transformation and social division. New solutions for improving the sustainability of cities need to be found, including the development of tools to guide decision-makers. Several benchmarking initiatives have been implemented in the SA water sector - mostly in terms of performance measurement of specific water services for regulatory purposes - but none provide an integrated analysis to enable a deeper understanding of sustainability. The research described in this paper was thus focused on using a systems approach to create an understanding of, and measure the potential for, sustainability in a South African urban water context. This has been achieved through the development and evaluation of a composite index, the Sustainability Index for Integrated Urban Water Management (SIUWM). The first step involved compiling a vision of sustainability for the SA water sector, and expanding it into a sustainability framework to help identify suitable indicators for the assessment process, as well as those which link with existing measurement initiatives. Key performance indicator results from the Department of Water Affairs' Regulatory Performance Management System (RPMS) and the Blue Drop / Green Drop schemes were used as partial input to the SIUWM, and scores were computed for the nine member cities of the South African Cities Network (SACN). The SIUWM links the results from the regulatory systems with a broader sustainability assessment process to provide a more detailed analysis which can be used to establish goals and inform strategic processes to leverage support for improved water services. In this way, the connections that link the different aspects of urban water management can be used to generate a greater awareness of the underlying issues by key decision makers and thus guide appropriate action

  12. Long-term stormwater quantity and quality analysis using continuous measurements in a French urban catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Siao; Barraud, Sylvie; Castebrunet, Hélène; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Marmonier, Pierre

    2015-11-15

    The assessment of urban stormwater quantity and quality is important for evaluating and controlling the impact of the stormwater to natural water and environment. This study mainly addresses long-term evolution of stormwater quantity and quality in a French urban catchment using continuous measured data from 2004 to 2011. Storm event-based data series are obtained (716 rainfall events and 521 runoff events are available) from measured continuous time series. The Mann-Kendall test is applied to these event-based data series for trend detection. A lack of trend is found in rainfall and an increasing trend in runoff is detected. As a result, an increasing trend is present in the runoff coefficient, likely due to growing imperviousness of the catchment caused by urbanization. The event mean concentration of the total suspended solid (TSS) in stormwater does not present a trend, whereas the event load of TSS has an increasing tendency, which is attributed to the increasing event runoff volume. Uncertainty analysis suggests that the major uncertainty in trend detection results lies in uncertainty due to available data. A lack of events due to missing data leads to dramatically increased uncertainty in trend detection results. In contrast, measurement uncertainty in time series data plays a trivial role. The intra-event distribution of TSS is studied based on both M(V) curves and pollutant concentrations of absolute runoff volumes. The trend detection test reveals no significant change in intra-event distributions of TSS in the studied catchment. PMID:26370780

  13. West Knox Pond water budget and water quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to analyze the water budget and water quality for West Knox Pond for the May through September period of 2002 and 2003. The...

  14. Evaluation of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF model using measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-H. Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model on the simulation of local meteorological fields is investigated. The Noah land surface model (LSM, a modified LSM, and a single-layer urban canopy model (UCM have been compared, focusing on urban patches. The model simulations were performed for 6 days from 12 August to 17 August during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign. Analysis was focused on the Houston-Galveston metropolitan area. The model simulated temperature, wind, and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL height were compared with observations from surface meteorological stations (Continuous Ambient Monitoring Stations, CAMS, wind profilers, the NOAA Twin Otter aircraft, and the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. The UCM simulation showed better results in the comparison of ABL height and surface temperature than the LSM simulations, whereas the original LSM overestimated both the surface temperature and ABL height significantly in urban areas. The modified LSM, which activates hydrological processes associated with urban vegetation mainly through transpiration, slightly reduced warm and high biases in surface temperature and ABL height. A comparison of surface energy balance fluxes in an urban area indicated the UCM reproduces a realistic partitioning of sensible heat and latent heat fluxes, consequently improving the simulation of urban boundary layer. However, the LSMs have a higher Bowen ratio than the observation due to significant suppression of latent heat flux. The comparison results suggest that the subgrid heterogeneity by urban vegetation and urban morphological characteristics should be taken into account along with the associated physical parameterizations for accurate simulation of urban boundary layer if the region of interest has a large fraction of vegetation within the urban patch. Model showed significant discrepancies in the specific meteorological conditions when nocturnal low-level jets exist and a thermal internal boundary layer over water forms.

  15. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  16. WATER QUALITY OF THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clear Spring Foods, Inc., conducted a year-long study in the Middle Snake River to provide a perspective on water quality issues and the impact of aquaculture activities on water quality. The study area extended from Shoshone Falls Park to below Box Canyon. Physical and chemical ...

  17. Mobility of trace metals associated with urban particles exposed to natural waters of various salinities from the Gironde Estuary, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Joerg; Blanc, Gerard [Bordeaux Univ., Talence (France). UMR 5805 EPOC; Norra, Stefan [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Mineralogy and Geochemistry; Klein, Daniel [Bordeaux Univ., Talence (France). UMR 5805 EPOC; Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Mineralogy and Geochemistry

    2009-08-15

    Background, aim and scope: Urban systems are hot spots of environmental pollution caused by manifold anthropogenic activities generating traffic-related, industrial and domestic emissions. Besides air, soil and groundwater pollution, pollution of surface water systems is of major concern because they are often (ab)used to export waste of various consistence out of urban areas and become contaminated on varying scales. The Gironde Estuary (southwest France) is affected by various anthropogenic contaminations derived from historic polymetallic pollution mainly due to former mining and ore-treatment and, additionally, from agriculture and urban areas. Although detailed knowledge is available on the impact of mining and anthropogenic activities on the water quality of the Gironde Estuary, almost nothing is known on the urban impact, even though the Garonne Branch which is one tributary of the Gironde system crosses the large urban agglomeration of Bordeaux. The present work links urban geochemistry and estuary research and aims at evaluating the mobility of potentially toxic trace elements (Cd, Cu, Zn, V, Co, Mo, Pb) associated with urban particles under estuarine conditions owing to the particles' role as potential vectors transporting urban pollutants into the estuary. For this, environmentally available fractions of trace elements in representative urban particles (urban dust, road sediment, riverbank sediment, construction materials) from the city of Bordeaux were extracted by natural estuarine waters of varying salinities and compared to commonly applied HNO{sub 3} extractions. Materials and methods: For the assessment of the urban particles' contribution to the pollution of the Gironde/Garonne system, various particle types were sampled in Bordeaux: road sediments, urban bulk deposition, construction materials (concrete, asphalt, tile and gravel) and flood sediments. Potentially environmental available fractions of Cd, Cu, Zn, V, Co, Mo and Pb were extracted by means of concentrated HNO{sub 3}, estuarine freshwaters and waters of two different salinities (S=15 and S=31). Analysis of trace elements was carried out by means of quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, single particles from road sediments were characterised with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: SEM analysis clearly showed that some particles contained fairly high concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements. Extractions of materials investigated by varying acidities and salinities documented that the potentially bioavailable fractions extracted by concentrated HNO{sub 3} may cover wide concentration ranges. Natural estuarine waters of various salinities (S=0.5; S=15; S=31) extracted high proportions of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd from urban particles, especially for high-salinity water (S=31). Extractions with freshwater revealed the lowest concentrations of desorbed trace elements. Particulate Mo, Pb and V showed similar or lower mobility in saline water compared with freshwater, depending on the sample type. Discussion: Trace element mobility in estuarine waters varied according to the type of urban particles and depended on salinity for Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd. This is of high importance for towns located directly at the coast or for cities like Bordeaux, where water courses crossing the agglomerations are connected to saline water masses. Since trace elements desorbed from particles in saline waters may become highly bioavailable, they bear a potential risk for organisms. Comprehensive studies on the behaviour of urban particles in estuarine waters and the related potential environmental impact are still missing. Conclusions: Saline waters mobilise relatively high amounts of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd from urban particles suggesting considerable metal fluxes from riverine urban systems into coastal waters. Although estimates of trace metal inputs by urban bulk deposition (urban dust) and other types of urban particles are preliminary for Bordeaux and may bear important uncertainties due to several assumptions

  18. Fuzzy Logic Water Quality Index and Importance of Water Quality Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Bai. V; Reinier Bouwmeester; Mohan. S

    2009-01-01

    Determination of status of water quality of a river or any other water sources is highly indeterminate. It is necessary to have a competent model to predict the status of water quality and to advice for type of water treatment for meeting different demands. One such model (UNIQ2007) is developed as an application software in water quality engineering. The unit operates in a fuzzy logic mode including a fuzzification engine receiving a plurality of input variables on its input and being adapte...

  19. Neighborhood Urban Environmental Quality Conditions Are Likely to Drive Malaria and Diarrhea Mortality in Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Fobil, Julius N.; Alexander Kraemer; Meyer, Christian G; Juergen May

    2011-01-01

    Background. Urbanization is a process which alters the structure and function of urban environments. The alteration in the quality of urban environmental conditions has significant implications for health. This applies both to the ecology of insect vectors that may transmit diseases and the burden of disease. Study Objectives. To investigate the relationship between malaria and infectious diarrhea mortality and spatially varied neighborhood environmental quality conditions in a low-income eco...

  20. Multiple sources of boron in urban surface waters and groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies attribute abnormal boron (B) levels in streams and groundwaters to wastewater and fertilizer inputs. This study shows that municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation contributes substantial non-point loads of B and other chemicals (S-species, Li, and Cu) to surface waters and shallow groundwaters in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. Background levels and potential B sources were characterized by analysis of lawn and street runoff, streams, rivers, springs, local rainfall, wastewater influent and effluent, and fertilizers. Urban surface waters and groundwaters are highly enriched in B (to 250 ?g/L) compared to background levels found in rain and pristine, carbonate-hosted streams and springs (42-?S and B/Li ratios confirm major contributions from this source. Moreover, sequential samples of runoff collected during storms show that B concentrations decrease with increased discharge, proving that elevated B levels are not primarily derived from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) during flooding. Instead, non-point source B exhibits complex behavior depending on land use. In urban settings B is rapidly mobilized from lawns during “first flush” events, likely representing surficial salt residues from drinking water used to irrigate lawns, and is also associated with the baseflow fraction, likely derived from the shallow groundwater reservoir that over time accumulates B from drinking water that percolates into the subsurface. The opposite occurs in small rural watersheds, where B is leached from soils by recent rainfall and covaries with the event water fraction. Highlights: ? Boron sources and loads differ between urban and rural watersheds. ? Wastewaters are not the major boron source in small St. Louis, MO watersheds. ? Municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation can be high in boron. ? Lawn irrigation practices can considerably alter urban water chemistry

  1. Water in Urban Areas in a Climate Change Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Climatic changes will influence the water cycle substantially. This will have an immediate impact on the performance of urban water infrastructure. A case study from Roskilde shows that assuming an increase in design intensities of 40 % over a 100 year horizon will lead to increased cost of individual very extreme events (e.g. more than 100 years) of approximately 70 % and a 900 % increase in the expected annual losses due to floods. Other case studies in Denmark show smaller impacts, but still ...

  2. Quality of life in Canadian communities : growth, the economy and the urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The number of urban dwellers in Canada increased by 50 per cent during the 1971 to 2001 period. This paper discusses challenges facing Canadian municipalities in population management and economic growth. Continuously expanding urban populations, increasing incomes and growing economic activity have resulted in increased pressure on air, water and soil quality. Changes in resource and waste management were reviewed in the context of the built environment. Trends affecting the natural environment in 20 Canadian communities in the context of the population and economic growth between 1991 and 2001 were reviewed. The implications of these trends for municipal governments were discussed, and initiatives undertaken to manage growth and prevent harmful environmental consequences were examined. Higher household growth rates compared to population growth rates were identified, corresponding with lower-density forms of residential development, contributing to urban sprawl, increased infrastructure costs, traffic congestion, limited use of public transit and loss of downtown vitality. Findings also suggested that despite increases in waste recycling and diversion rates, increasing amounts of residential solid waste are reaching municipal landfills, contributing to degraded landscapes and the risk of soil and water contamination. Commuting trends indicated that commuters travelled marginally longer distances between home and work, contributing to increased ground-level ozone and smog advisories. Wastewater treatment systems were generally able to keep pace with economic growth. However, several municipalities reported repeated closures of recreational beaches due to water quality concerns. Challenges in measuring environmental data were discussed, as well as the implications for municipal governments in managing complex issues surrounding economic growth in tandem with sustainable development. tabs., figs.

  3. Socioeconomic factors and water quality in California

    OpenAIRE

    Farzin, Y. Hossein; Grogan, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the relationships between water quality and socioeconomic factors in California at the county level for the years 1993 to 2006 using 24 water quality indicators coming from seven different types of water bodies. We estimate these relationships using three classes of models: the traditional per capita income-pollution level - Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) - specifications, a more inclusive model containing main socioeconomic variables such as agricultural intensity, land use...

  4. Water quality trading: Theoretical and practical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Keudel, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Permit trading as an instrument to control air pollution has already been implemented in several countries, so in Europe since 2005. Could this instrument, however, also be adequately used for water pollution control of river basins in form of a water quality trading? Specific characteristics of rivers, pollutants and pollution sources strongly influence the design of such an instrument. This paper reviews theoretical and practical approaches on water quality trading. It is surprising that th...

  5. Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Russo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management (SWM requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1 How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2 What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3 What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4 What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1 all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2 increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation.

  6. SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN THE RIVER PRUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA DUMITRAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is an increasingly important and why it is important to surfacewater quality, which is given by the analysis of physical - chemical, biological andobserving the investigation of water, biota, environments investigation. Analysis ofthe Prut river in terms of biological and physical elements - chemical. Evaluationof ecological and chemical status of water was done according to order of approvalof the standard classification nr.161/2006 surface water to determine the ecologicalstatus of water bodies

  7. Water supply services for Africa's urban poor: the role of resale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuin, Valentina; Ortolano, Leonard; Alvarinho, Manuel; Russel, Kory; Thebo, Anne; Muximpua, Odete; Davis, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa only 35% of the urban population has access to a piped water connection on their premises. The majority of households obtain water from public standpipes or from neighbors who are connected to the municipal network. Water resale is often prohibited, however, because of concerns about affordability and risks to public health. Using data collected from 1,377 households in Maputo, Mozambique, we compare the microbiological quality, as well as the time and money costs of water supply from individual house connections, public standpipes, and water obtained from neighbors. Households with their own water connections have better service across virtually all indicators measured, and express greater satisfaction with their service, as compared with those using other water sources. Households purchasing water from their neighbors pay lower time and money costs per liter of water, on average, as compared with those using standpipes. Resale competes favorably with standpipes along a number of service quality dimensions; however, after controlling for water supply characteristics, households purchasing water from neighbors are significantly less likely to be satisfied with their water service as compared with those using standpipes. PMID:22048436

  8. Assessment of Drinking Water Quality from Bottled Water Coolers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Farhadkhani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water quality can be deteriorated by microbial and toxic chemicals during transport, storage and handling before using by the consumer. This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial and physicochemical quality of drinking water from bottled water coolers.A total of 64 water samples, over a 5-month period in 2012-2013, were collected from free standing bottled water coolers and water taps in Isfahan. Water samples were analyzed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC, temperature, pH, residual chlorine, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC and total organic carbon (TOC. Identification of predominant bacteria was also performed by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA.The mean HPC of water coolers was determined at 38864 CFU/ml which exceeded the acceptable level for drinking water in 62% of analyzed samples. The HPC from the water coolers was also found to be significantly (P < 0.05 higher than that of the tap waters. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the values of pH, EC, turbidity and TOC in water coolers and tap waters. According to sequence analysis eleven species of bacteria were identified.A high HPC is indicative of microbial water quality deterioration in water coolers. The presence of some opportunistic pathogens in water coolers, furthermore, is a concern from a public health point of view. The results highlight the importance of a periodic disinfection procedure and monitoring system for water coolers in order to keep the level of microbial contamination under control.

  9. Water spectral pattern as holistic marker for water quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Zoltan; Bázár, György; Oshima, Mitsue; Shigeoka, Shogo; Tanaka, Mariko; Furukawa, Akane; Nagai, Airi; Osawa, Manami; Itakura, Yukari; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2016-01-15

    Online water quality monitoring technologies have been improving continuously. At the moment, water quality is defined by the respective range of few chosen parameters. However, this strategy requires sampling and it cannot provide evaluation of the entire water molecular system including various solutes. As it is nearly impossible to monitor every single molecule dissolved in water, the objective of our research is to introduce a complimentary approach, a new concept for water screening by observing the water molecular system changes using aquaphotomics and Quality Control Chart method. This approach can continuously provide quick information about any qualitative change of water molecular arrangement without taking into account the reason of the alteration of quality. Different species and concentrations of solutes in aqueous systems structure the water solvent differently. Aquaphotomics investigates not the characteristic absorption bands of the solute in question, but the solution absorption at vibrational bands of water's covalent and hydrogen bonds that have been altered by the solute. The applicability of the proposed concept is evaluated by monitoring the water structural changes in different aqueous solutions such as acid, sugar, and salt solutions at millimolar concentration level and in ground water. The results show the potential of the proposed approach to use water spectral pattern monitoring as bio marker of water quality. Our successful results open a new venue in water quality monitoring by offering a quick and cost effective method for continuous screening of water molecular arrangement. Instead of the regular analysis of individual physical or chemical parameters, with our method - as a complementary tool - the structural changes of water molecular system used as a mirror reflecting even small disturbances in water can indicate the necessity of further detailed analysis by conventional methods. PMID:26592651

  10. Water Quality, Contamination, and Wetlands in the Croton Watershed, New York, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey M. McKenzie; Donald I. Siegel; Laura K. Lautz; Martin H. Otz; James Hassett; Ines Otz

    2012-01-01

    The Croton Watershed (New York State, USA) is a semi-urban region that provides 10% of the drinking water for the City of New York. Nonpoint source contamination in the watershed is a major concern for managers because the water supply is currently unfiltered water. Results are reported from three synoptic studies of surface water quality from 98 wetland-containing sub-catchments in the Croton Watershed designed to broadly characterize, at a reconnaissance level, the geochemical controls on w...

  11. Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh AlOtaibi Eed L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water. These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. Results A total of 95 water samples from bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water were collected randomly from the study area using different gathering and analysing techniques. The bacteriological examination of water samples included the most probable number of presumptive coliforms, faecal coliforms, and faecal streptococci (MPN/100 ml. The results showed that the total coliform count (MPN/100 ml was not detected in any samples taken from bottled water, while it was detected in those taken from desalinated, surface, and well water: percentages were 12.9, 80.0, and 100.0, respectively. Faecal coliforms were detected in desalinated, surface, and well water, with percentages of 3.23, 60.0 and 87.88, respectively. About 6.45% of desalinated water, 53.33% of surface water, and 57.58% of well water was found positive for faecal streptococci. Colonies of coliforms were identified in different micro-organisms with various percentages. Conclusion Water derived from traditional sources (wells showed increases in most of the investigated bacteriological parameters, followed by surface water as compared to bottled or desalinated water. This may be attributed to the fact that well and surface water are at risk of contamination as indicated by the higher levels of most bacteriological parameters. Moreover, well water is exposed to point sources of pollution such as septic wells and domestic and farming effluents, as well as to soil with a high humus content. The lower bacteriological characteristics in samples from bottled water indicate that it is satisfactory for human drinking purposes. Contamination of desalinated water that is the main urban water source may occur during transportation from the desalination plant or in the house reservoir of the consumer. Improving and expanding the existing water treatment and sanitation systems is more likely to provide safe and sustainable sources of water over the long term. Strict hygienic measures should be applied to improve water quality and to avoid deleterious effects on public health, by using periodical monitoring programmes to detect sewage pollution running over local hydrological networks and valleys.

  12. Microbes and Water Quality in Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe drinking water has been a concern for mankind through out the world for centuries. In the developed world, governments consider access to safe and clean drinking water to be a basic human right. Government regulations generally address the quality of the source water, adequ...

  13. Evaluating Water Supply and Water Quality Management Options for Las Vegas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.

    2007-05-01

    The ever increasing population in Las Vegas is generating huge demand for water supply on one hand and need for infrastructure to collect and treat the wastewater on the other hand. Current plans to address water demand include importing water from Muddy and Virgin Rivers and northern counties, desalination of seawater with trade- payoff in California, water banking in Arizona and California, and more intense water conservation efforts in the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). Water and wastewater in the LVV are intrinsically related because treated wastewater effluent is returned back to Lake Mead, the drinking water source for the Valley, to get a return credit thereby augmenting Nevada's water allocation from the Colorado River. The return of treated wastewater however, is a major contributor of nutrients and other yet unregulated pollutants to Lake Mead. Parameters that influence the quantity of water include growth of permanent and transient population (i.e., tourists), indoor and outdoor water use, wastewater generation, wastewater reuse, water conservation, and return flow credits. The water quality of Lake Mead and the Colorado River is affected by the level of treatment of wastewater, urban runoff, groundwater seepage, and a few industrial inputs. We developed an integrated simulation model, using system dynamics modeling approach, to account for both water quantity and quality in the LVV. The model captures the interrelationships among many variables that influence both, water quantity and water quality. The model provides a valuable tool for understanding past, present and future pathways of water and its constituents in the LVV. The model is calibrated and validated using the available data on water quantity (flows at water and wastewater treatment facilities and return water credit flow rates) and water quality parameters (TDS and phosphorus concentrations). We used the model to explore important questions: a)What would be the effect of the water transported from the northern counties on the water supply and water quality of Lake Mead? b)What would be the impact of increased reuse of wastewater on return credits? c)What would be the effect of treating runoff water on the load of nutrients to Lake Mead?

  14. A multisector analysis of urban irrigation and water savings potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijoor, N.; Kim, H.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Urban irrigation strains limited water supplies in semi-arid areas such as Orange County, CA, yet the quantity and controlling factors of urban irrigation are not well understood. The goals of this research are to (1) quantify and compare landscape irrigation applied by residential and commercial sectors in various retail agencies at a parcel scale (2) determine over- and under-irrigation compared to theoretical need (3) determine the climatic and socioeconomic controls on landscape irrigation. A research partnership was established between six water retail agencies in Orange County, CA representing a wide range of climatic and economic conditions. These agencies contributed between 3 and 13 years of water use data on a monthly/bimonthly basis. Irrigation depth (mm) was estimated using the "minimum month method," and landscape evapotranspiration was calculated using the Hargreaves equation for 122,345 parcels. Multiple regressions of water use were conducted with climatic and socioeconomic variables as possible explanatory variables. Single family residences accounted for the majority of urban water use. Findings from 112,192 single family residences (SFRs) show that total and indoor water use declined, though irrigation did not significantly change. Average irrigation for SFRs was 94 L/day, and a large proportion (42%) of irrigation was applied in excess to landscapes. Air temperature was found to be the primary driver of irrigation. We mapped over-irrigation relative to plant water demand to highlight areas that can be targeted for water conservation efforts. We also show the water savings that would be gained by improving the efficiency of irrigation systems. The information gained in this study would be useful for developing water use efficiency policies and/or educational programs to promote sustainable irrigation practices at the individual parcel scale.

  15. Evaluation of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF model using measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.-H.; Kim, S.-W.; Angevine, W. M.; Bianco, L.; McKeen, S. A.; Senff, C. J.; Trainer, M.; Tucker, S. C.; Zamora, R. J.

    2011-03-01

    The performance of different urban surface parameterizations in the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) in simulating urban boundary layer (UBL) was investigated using extensive measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign. The extensive field measurements collected on surface (meteorological, wind profiler, energy balance flux) sites, a research aircraft, and a research vessel characterized 3-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structures over the Houston-Galveston Bay area, providing a unique opportunity for the evaluation of the physical parameterizations. The model simulations were performed over the Houston metropolitan area for a summertime period (12-17 August) using a bulk urban parameterization in the Noah land surface model (original LSM), a modified LSM, and a single-layer urban canopy model (UCM). The UCM simulation compared quite well with the observations over the Houston urban areas, reducing the systematic model biases in the original LSM simulation by 1-2 °C in near-surface air temperature and by 200-400 m in UBL height, on average. A more realistic turbulent (sensible and latent heat) energy partitioning contributed to the improvements in the UCM simulation. The original LSM significantly overestimated the sensible heat flux (~200 W m-2) over the urban areas, resulting in warmer and higher UBL. The modified LSM slightly reduced warm and high biases in near-surface air temperature (0.5-1 °C) and UBL height (~100 m) as a result of the effects of urban vegetation. The relatively strong thermal contrast between the Houston area and the water bodies (Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico) in the LSM simulations enhanced the sea/bay breezes, but the model performance in predicting local wind fields was similar among the simulations in terms of statistical evaluations. These results suggest that a proper surface representation (e.g. urban vegetation, surface morphology) and explicit parameterizations of urban physical processes are required for accurate urban atmospheric numerical modeling.

  16. The degradation behaviour of nine diverse contaminants in urban surface water and wastewater prior to water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Guillaume; Barbeau, Benoit; Arp, Hans Peter H; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    An increasing diversity of emerging contaminants are entering urban surface water and wastewater, posing unknown risks for the environment. One of the main contemporary challenges in ensuring water quality is to design efficient strategies for minimizing such risks. As a first step in such strategies, it is important to establish the fate and degradation behavior of contaminants prior to any engineered secondary water treatment. Such information is relevant for assessing treatment solutions by simple storage, or to assess the impacts of contaminant spreading in the absence of water treatment, such as during times of flooding or in areas of poor infrastructure. Therefore in this study we examined the degradation behavior of a broad array of water contaminants in actual urban surface water and wastewater, in the presence and absence of naturally occurring bacteria and at two temperatures. The chemicals included caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, atrazine, 17?-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, diclofenac, desethylatrazine and norethindrone. Little information on the degradation behavior of these pollutants in actual influent wastewater exist, nor in general in water for desethylatrazine (a transformation product of atrazine) and the synthetic hormone norethindrone. Investigations were done in aerobic conditions, in the absence of sunlight. The results suggest that all chemicals except estradiol are stable in urban surface water, and in waste water neither abiotic nor biological degradation in the absence of sunlight contribute significantly to the disappearance of desethylatrazine, atrazine, carbamazepine and diclofenac. Biological degradation in wastewater was effective at transforming norethindrone, 17?-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, caffeine and sulfamethoxazole, with measured degradation rate constants k and half-lives ranging respectively from 0.0082-0.52 d(-1) and 1.3-85 days. The obtained degradation data generally followed a pseudo-first-order-kinetic model. This information can be used to model degradation prior to water treatment. PMID:26565064

  17. Temporal and spatial patterns of micropollutants in urban receiving waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musolff, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.musolff@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Leschik, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.leschik@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Moeder, Monika, E-mail: monika.moeder@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Strauch, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard.strauch@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Reinstorf, Frido, E-mail: frido.reinstorf@hs-magdeburg.d [University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, Department of Water and Waste Management, Breitscheidstr. 2, 39114 Magdeburg (Germany); Schirmer, Mario, E-mail: mario.schirmer@eawag.c [Eawag, The Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Ueberlandstr. 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    Based on a monitoring program over the course of a year, we characterize the temporal and spatial distribution of selected micropollutants in an urban watershed within the city of Leipzig, Germany. Micropollutants revealed a ubiquitous presence in untreated and treated wastewater, surface water and groundwater. The loads of 4-nonylphenol in the effluents of the municipal wastewater treatment plant followed a seasonal trend, whereas the loads of all other micropollutants were highly variable and not correlated to seasons. In the surface water, load seasonality of caffeine, galaxolide and tonalide resulted from a rapid removal with increased water temperature. The loads of 4-nonylphenol and of caffeine in the colder months increased when rainfall occurred. In the groundwater, complex spatial and temporal patterns were apparent and were related to varying input, retardation and removal processes. As a consequence, an assessment of micropollutants in urban waters should consider different micropollutants' temporal and spatial variability. - Micropollutants in urban receiving waters are characterized by variable temporal and spatial concentration and load patterns that have to be considered in risk assessments.

  18. Environmental Affects on Drinking Water Quality and Drinking Water Quality Differences Depending on the Source

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, Thomas Allan; Mackevica, Aiga; Jiang, Xiang; Panovas, Emilis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to give the reader an understanding in how drinking water quality differs from different water sources and how water quality changes during different scenarios (exposure to environment and temperature differences). At first, water quality requirements (standards) and theory are explained for assessing which factors are relevant to test, both chemical and microbiological. Several parameters were chosen to be tested in the empirical part, taking into consideration ...

  19. SUSTAINABLE RIVER WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mamun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological status of Malaysia is not as bad as many other developing nations in the world. However, despite the enforcement of the Environmental Quality Act (EQA in 1974, the water quality of Malaysian inland water (especially rivers is following deteriorating trend. The rivers are mainly polluted due to the point and non-point pollution sources. Point sources are monitored and controlled by the Department of Environment (DOE, whereas a significant amount of pollutants is contributed by untreated sullage and storm runoff. Nevertheless, it is not too late to take some bold steps for the effective control of non-point source pollution and untreated sullage discharge, which play significant roles on the status of the rivers. This paper reviews the existing procedures and guidelines related to protection of the river water quality in Malaysia. There is a good possibility that the sewage and effluent discharge limits in the Environmental Quality Act (EQA may pose hindrance against achieving good quality water in the rivers as required by the National Water Quality Standards (NWQS. For instance, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N is identified as one of the main pollutants to render many of the rivers polluted but it was not considered in the EQA as a monitoring parameter until the new regulations published in 2009. Surprisingly, the new regulation for sewage and industrial effluent limits set allowable NH3-N concentration quite high (5 mg/L, which may result in low Water Quality Index (WQI values for the river water. The water environment is a dynamic system. Periodical review of the monitoring requirements, detecting emerging pollutants in sewage, effluent and runoff, and proper revision of water quality standards are necessary for the management of sustainable water resources in the country.

  20. Phosphorus Dynamic and Water Quality Paradigm. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H. K.

    2009-12-01

    Depending on environmental conditions, stored nutrients and contaminants could be released from organic matrix through mineralization, and recycled within or exported from the ecosystems. The rates and duration of organic matter accumulations under changing hydro-climatic conditions are critical determinants of how a freshwater system functions as an ecological unit within a landscape. Aquatic ecosystems such as freshwaters can be very sensitive to changes, e.g., water quality, quantity and temperature, induced by climatic changes. Phosphorus (P) influx in freshwater systems may occur as a byproduct of single or many activities such as urban development and/or loading from within the systems due to gradual or sudden changes in environmental conditions. Any direct or indirect alterations due to anthropogenic influences, including a global rise in temperature, pose a serious threat of accelerated eutrophication of freshwater systems mainly due to P loading, causing their ultimate destructions. Our studies showed that sediments/soils contain both organic P (e.g., sugar phosphates and nucleoside monophosphates) and inorganic P in significant proportions, as well as acquiring data on P sorption phenomena, phosphatase-induced hydrolysis along with relative composition of various P forms will be helpful to derive P Destabilization Index to aid to the freshwater ecosystem management. It is indicative that any mitigating strategies need to take into account the nonlinear behaviors of the ecosystem processes and components, and begin planning to minimize effects of the changes. Also, it is crucial to be ready to integrate if there may need of policy revisions or adoption of new approaches and technologies, as the ecosystem struggles to attain a new equilibrium.

  1. Uncertainty Management in Urban Water Engineering Adaptation to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current water resource planning and engineering assume a stationary climate, in which the observed historical water flow rate and water quality variations are often used to define the technical basis. When the non-stationarity is considered, however, climate change projection co...

  2. Impact of RO-desalted water on distribution water qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J; Dietz, J; Randall, A; Hong, S

    2005-01-01

    A large-scale pilot distribution study was conducted to investigate the impacts of blending different source waters on distribution water qualities, with an emphasis on metal release (i.e. corrosion). The principal source waters investigated were conventionally treated ground water (G1), surface water processed by enhanced treatment (S1), and desalted seawater by reverse osmosis membranes (RO). Due to the nature of raw water quality and associated treatment processes, G1 water had high alkalinity, while S1 and RO sources were characterized as high sulfate and high chloride waters, respectively. The blending ratio of different treated waters determined the quality of finished waters. Iron release from aged cast iron pipes increased significantly when exposed to RO and S1 waters: that is, the greater iron release was experienced with alkalinity reduced below the background of G1 water. Copper release to drinking water, however, increased with increasing alkalinity and decreasing pH. Lead release, on the other hand, increased with increasing chloride and decreasing sulfate. The effect of pH and alkalinity on lead release was not clearly observed from pilot blending study. The flat and compact corrosion scales observed for lead surface exposed to S1 water may be attributable to lead concentration less than that of RO water blends. PMID:16003988

  3. AISUWRS work-package 4 : water quality of the Doncaster aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, M E; Whitehead, E.J.; Morris, B L

    2004-01-01

    This interim report comprises the fourth in the UK series of the project “Assessing and Improving the Sustainability of Urban Water Resources and Systems” (AISUWRS). Doncaster is one of the three European urban areas being studied in this European Community 5th Framework Programme-Shared Cost Research Technological Development and Demonstration project. It comprises part of Deliverable D10 for project Work Package 4. The report assesses groundwater quality in the Triassic Sherw...

  4. SURFACE WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN PRAHOVA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CASEN PANAITESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To achieve an appropriate management strategy was monitored surface water quality in the county of Prahova. In this regard were determinate major physical and chemical indicators: pH, BOD5, COD, nitrates, nitrites, and suspended solids. Depending on the value of the data obtained was identified water quality classes corresponding to each surface water body studied. The correlation values obtained with the best solutions for water service and maintenance of water courses is a management plan for surface water in the county of Prahova. The novelty of the paper consists of study of water resources in the county and not in the Basin as is done at present by the Romanian Waters National Administration

  5. Urban Quality vs single travel: the Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with the con­sequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, together with short-sighted policies of transport and urban development spread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion and unlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel to people living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to those living in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonable urban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic, conside­red, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of the deterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italian cities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities, although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovative solutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by public administrations. One of the main environmental detractors is car traffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike the previous period. Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reaching the modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managing the demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation., such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developing and increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport, car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollution reduction and vehicular traffic reduction. For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal Rapid Transit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to join two apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuring individual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acoustic and air pol­lution as well as the congestion caused by private vehicular traffic. In Italy this system is still not well known despite the versatility of its fields of application. In the United States and all over the world the most successful applications concern circumscribed mono-functional urban ambits, such as large areas for offices, airports and so on, but the characteristics of this system - such as flexibility, capability of integration with other wide-range systems of public transport, little dimensions of the exchange junctions, quite low cost - can allow to realize it also in different typologies of area.If many people are doubtful about the effectiveness of this system, on the contrary, other people think that its steady implementation and experimentation is necessary to improve urban liveability.These last ones believe, in fact, that the combination of small vehicles similar to private car, the advantage of trips without intermediate stops and changes of car, cost reduction, possibility of a wider accessibility not reachable by traditional means of public transport are the key basic elements to replace car travels with low polluting means of public transport.

  6. Optimizing intermittent water supply in urban pipe distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lieb, Anna M; Wilkening, Jon

    2015-01-01

    In many urban areas of the developing world, piped water is supplied only intermittently, as valves direct water to different parts of the water distribution system at different times. The flow is transient, and may transition between free-surface and pressurized, resulting in complex dynamical features with important consequences for water suppliers and users. Here, we develop a computational model of transition, transient pipe flow in a network, accounting for a wide variety of realistic boundary conditions. We validate the model against several published data sets, and demonstrate its use on a real pipe network. The model is extended to consider several optimization problems motivated by realistic scenarios. We demonstrate how to infer water flow in a small pipe network from a single pressure sensor, and show how to control water inflow to minimize damaging pressure gradients.

  7. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The MN Department of Agriculture (MDA) is charged with periodically collecting and analyzing water samples from selected locations throughout the state to determine...

  8. Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in urban receiving waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport pathways of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) discharges within the urban water cycle include both combined and separate sewer systems with only the former receiving treatment. The dry-weather flow dilution patterns for selected PPCPs following discharge from a sewage treatment works (STW) to a North London stream indicate a persistent downstream increase in concentration. The dilution ratio analysis also indicates that the STW's final effluent only contributes a dilution of the endogenous concentrations already present in the river flow which reflects a progressive PPCP load with increasing urbanization; 'worst-case' scenarios being probably related to wet-weather conditions. Maximum PPCP concentrations fall above the reported PEC levels and the analysis highlights the deficiencies of conventional acute toxicity for the evaluation of long-term effects of episodic urban discharges. Groundwater analysis points to sewer exfiltration which is limited in terms of PPCP impact to 25-50 cm depths. - PPCP compounds are ubiquitous and persistent in urban receiving waters reflecting input from both point and non-point sources

  9. Modeling relationships between catchment attributes and river water quality in southern catchments of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani Sangani, Mohammad; Jabbarian Amiri, Bahman; Alizadeh Shabani, Afshin; Sakieh, Yousef; Ashrafi, Sohrab

    2015-04-01

    Increasing land utilization through diverse forms of human activities, such as agriculture, forestry, urban growth, and industrial development, has led to negative impacts on the water quality of rivers. To find out how catchment attributes, such as land use, hydrologic soil groups, and lithology, can affect water quality variables (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), Cl(-), HCO 3 (-) , pH, TDS, EC, SAR), a spatio-statistical approach was applied to 23 catchments in southern basins of the Caspian Sea. All input data layers (digital maps of land use, soil, and lithology) were prepared using geographic information system (GIS) and spatial analysis. Relationships between water quality variables and catchment attributes were then examined by Spearman rank correlation tests and multiple linear regression. Stepwise approach-based multiple linear regressions were developed to examine the relationship between catchment attributes and water quality variables. The areas (%) of marl, tuff, or diorite, as well as those of good-quality rangeland and bare land had negative effects on all water quality variables, while those of basalt, forest land cover were found to contribute to improved river water quality. Moreover, lithological variables showed the greatest most potential for predicting the mean concentration values of water quality variables, and noting that measure of EC and TDS have inversely associated with area (%) of urban land use. PMID:25395322

  10. GKI water quality studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D L

    1980-01-01

    GKI water quality data collected in 1978 and early 1979 was evaluated with the objective of developing preliminary characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen, Uintah County, Utah. Restrictive analytical definitions were developed to describe native groundwater and GKI retort water in an effort to eliminate from the sample population both groundwater samples affected by retorting and retort water samples diluted by groundwater. Native groundwater and retort water sample analyses were subjected to statistical manipulation and testing to summarize the data to determine the statistical validity of characterizations based on the data available, and to identify probable differences between groundwater and retort water based on available data. An evaluation of GKI water quality data related to developing characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen was conducted. GKI retort water and the local native groundwater both appeared to be of very poor quality. Statistical testing indicated that the data available is generally insufficient for conclusive characterizations of native groundwater and retort water. Statistical testing indicated some probable significant differences between native groundwater and retort water that could be determined with available data. Certain parameters should be added to and others deleted from future laboratory analyses suites of water samples.

  11. Evaluation of Urban Air Quality By Passive Sampling Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, T. V.; Miranda, A. I.; Duarte, S.; Lima, M. J.

    Aveiro is a flat small city in the centre of Portugal, close to the Atlantic coast. In the last two decades an intensive development of demographic, traffic and industry growth in the region was observed which was reflected on the air quality degrada- tion. In order to evaluate the urban air quality in Aveiro, a field-monitoring network by passive sampling with high space resolution was implemented. Twenty-four field places were distributed in a area of 3x3 Km2 and ozone and NO2 concentrations were measured. The site distribution density was higher in the centre, 250x250 m2 than in periphery where a 500x500 m2 grid was used. The selection of field places took into consideration the choice criteria recommendation by United Kingdom environmental authorities, and three tubes and a blank tube for each pollutant were used at each site. The sampling system was mounted at 3m from the ground usually profiting the street lampposts. Concerning NO2 acrylic tubes were used with 85 mm of length and an in- ternal diameter of 12mm, where in one of the extremities three steel grids impregnated with a solution of TEA were placed and fixed with a polyethylene end cup (Heal et al., 1999); PFA Teflon tube with 53 mm of length and 9 mm of internal diameter and three impregnated glass filters impregnated with DPE solution fixed by a teflon end cup was used for ozone sampling (Monn and Hargartner, 1990). The passive sampling method for ozone and nitrogen dioxide was compared with continuous measurements, but the amount of measurements wasnSt enough for an accurate calibration and validation of the method. Although this constraint the field observations (June to August 2001) for these two pollutants assign interesting information about the air quality in the urban area. A krigger method of interpolation (Surfer- Golden Software-2000) was applied to field data to obtain isolines distribution of NO2 and ozone concentration for the studied area. Even the used passive sampling method has many limitations it is possi- ble to say that the NO2 concentrations were strictly related with traffic intensity and in the centre 3 to 10 times higher values were observed than the incoming air to the city; on the contrary the ozone seems to be consumed where we observe the highest NO2 concentrations. Heal, M. R.; O'Donoghue, M. A. and Cape, J. N., Overestimation of Urban Nitrogen Dioxide by Passive Sampling Tubes: a comparative exposure and model study, Atmo- spheric Environment, Vol 33, pp 513-524, 1999 Monn, Ch., Hangartner, M., Passive Sampling for Ozone, J. of Air and Waste Management Association, Vol. 40, Nz 3, 1990

  12. Indicators of Coastal Water Quality: Ancillary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Ancillary Data component of the Indicators of Coastal Water Quality Collection includes a 5 arc-minute (approximately 9 x 9 km at the equator) sequence grid,...

  13. Maui Citizen Science Coastal Water Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A network of citizen science volunteers periodically monitors water quality at several beaches across the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. This...

  14. Air Quality and Land Use in Urban Region of Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam and Klang, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Ling Hoon Leh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the global trend of urbanisation, large population are staying in urban areas as compared to rural. However, urban area /region is always related to higher air pollution level as compared to less developed area/region. The major contributors of air pollution are mobile sources (transportation and stationary sources (e.g. industry and power plant. Thus, the issue of air pollution is potentially caused by human choices and activities, and potentially affecting the human health. Therefore, the relationship between the urban activities (land use coverage/distribution and air quality level should be well understood. It helps the urban managers, planners and all parties in constructing healthier urban policies. A study of air quality and the relationship with urban land uses was carried out in Malaysia?s urban growth region of Klang-Shah Alam-Petaling Jaya. Air quality data was analysed in Air Pollution Index (API with the classification of good, moderate, unhealthy, very unhealthy and hazardous levels. The urban land uses were mainly divided into two categories, i.e. pollution-prone land uses (transportation, industrial, and infrastructure, and green land uses. This study found that urban area with higher coverage of transportation, industrial and infrastructure land uses are potentially unhealthier in term of the air quality than the area with less coverage of these land uses. Strategic proposal was discussed in line with the findings.

  15. Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

  16. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...serves as the primary assessment of State water quality. Based upon the water quality data and problems identified in the 305(b) report, States develop water quality management (WQM) plan elements to help direct all...

  17. 78 FR 54517 - Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ...increasing degree of stress from anthropogenic...protection of high quality waters has never...approaches that will improve water quality where the designated...requirements to help improve water quality by allowing states...tribes time to work with...

  18. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2102 Section...Works § 35.2102 Water quality management planning. Before grant...a) Included in any water quality management plan being implemented...

  19. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 ...PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM) plans. WQM plans...

  20. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2023 Section...Works § 35.2023 Water quality management planning. (a) From...the States to carry out water quality management planning including but...

  1. Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkhardt, Mike; Zuleeg, S.

    2011-01-01

    Urban water management requires further clarification about pollutants in storm water. Little is known about the release of organic additives used in construction materials and the impact of these compounds to storm water runoff. We investigated sources and pathways of additives used in construction materials, i.e., biocides in facades’ render as well as root protection products in bitumen membranes for rooftops. Under wet-weather conditions, the concentrations of diuron, terbutryn, carbendazim, irgarol®1051 (all from facades) and mecoprop in storm water and receiving water exceeded the predicted no-effect concentrations values and the Swiss water quality standard of 0.1 ?g/L. Under laboratory conditions maximum concentrations of additives were in the range of a few milligrams and a few hundred micrograms per litre in runoff of facades and bitumen membranes. Runoff from aged materials shows approximately one to two orders of magnitude lower concentrations. Concentrations decreased also during individual runoff events. In storm water and receiving water the occurrence of additives did not follow the typical first flush model. This can be explained by the release lasting over the time of rainfall and the complexity of the drainage network. Beside the amounts used, the impact of construction materials containing hazardous additives on water quality is related clearly to the age of the buildings and the separated sewer network. The development of improved products regarding release of hazardous additives is the most efficient way of reducing the pollutant load from construction materials in storm water runoff.

  2. 78 FR 20252 - Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ...EPA is taking final action to amend the federal regulations to withdraw certain human health and aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to waters of New Jersey, Puerto Rico, and California's San Francisco Bay. In 1992, EPA promulgated the National Toxics Rule or NTR to establish numeric water quality criteria for 12 states and two Territories, including New Jersey, Puerto Rico and......

  3. Autonomous nutrient detection for water quality monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Damien; Cleary, John; Cogan, Deirdre; Diamond, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for real time environmental monitoring is currently being driven by strong legislative and societal drivers. Low cost autonomous environmental monitoring systems are required to meet this demand as current monitoring solutions are insufficient. This poster presents an autonomous nutrient analyser platform for water quality monitoring. Results from a field trial of the nutrient analyser are reported along with current work to expand the range of water quality targ...

  4. Water quality in North American river systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is about water quality and other characteristics of selected ecosystems in North America. It is also about changes that have occurred in these ecosystems as a result of recent human activities-changes that result primarily from development and exploitation to sustain the needs of an ever-increasing population and the technical innovations that sustain it. Fish populations, hydrology, and water quality control efforts are discussed

  5. Adaptive Management of the Water Cycle on the Urban Fringe: Three Australian Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Scandol

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Our group at Macquarie University has run three adaptive management projects in New South Wales, Australia. Their objectives were: (1 to evaluate water cycle management strategies to minimize impacts of urban development on water quality in the Hawkesbury-Nepean basin; (2 to evaluate development planning policies to minimize water quality impacts on a series of coastal lakes; and (3 to carry out a preliminary assessment of the potential impacts of greater recreational use of Sydney water catchments. These projects are examined to evaluate the contribution of the adaptive management approach to water cycle management on the urban fringe in New South Wales. The role of the adaptive management approach in education, as a negotiation process, and in policy formulation and evaluation, is presented. The importance of community participation, the role of an "institutional champion," and the need to manage the lead-up phase and the postworkshop phase with as much attention to detail as the workshop phase is underlined. Proposed prerequisites for a successful adaptive management project are developed along these lines.

  6. Asset management in urban water utilities: Case study in India

    OpenAIRE

    Brighu, Urmila

    2008-01-01

    Access to safe and sufficient drinking water and adequate sanitation are now recognized as basic human rights. One Millennium Development Goal is to reduce by half the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015. However, ensuring sustainability of existing and new services is considered to be one of the major challenges for the water sector in the years to come. In India, in addition to service expansion, existing water service quality has been ...

  7. Water Availability--The Connection Between Water Use and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Miller, Timothy L.; Myers, Donna N.

    2008-01-01

    Water availability has become a high priority in the United States, in large part because competition for water is becoming more intense across the Nation. Population growth in many areas competes with demands for water to support irrigation and power production. Cities, farms, and power plants compete for water needed by aquatic ecosystems to support their minimum flow requirements. At the same time, naturally occurring and human-related contaminants from chemical use, land use, and wastewater and industrial discharge are introduced into our waters and diminish its quality. The fact that degraded quality limits the availability and suitability of water for critical uses is a well-known reality in many communities. What may be less understood, but equally true, is that our everyday use of water can significantly affect water quality, and thus its availability. Landscape features (such as geology, soils, and vegetation) along with water-use practices (such as ground-water withdrawals and irrigation) govern water availability because, together, they affect the movement of chemical compounds over the land and in the subsurface. Understanding the interactions of human activities with natural sources and the landscape is critical to effectively managing water and sustaining water availability in the future.

  8. Comparison of seven water quality assessment methods for the characterization and management of highly impaired river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoliang; Dahlgren, Randy A; Zhang, Minghua

    2016-01-01

    In the context of water resource management and pollution control, the characterization of water quality impairments and identification of dominant pollutants are of critical importance. In this study, water quality impairment was assessed on the basis of 7 hydrochemical variables that were monitored bimonthly at 17 sites in 2010 along the rural-suburban-urban portion of the Wen-Rui Tang River in eastern China. Seven methods were used to assess water quality in the river system. These methods included single-factor assessment, water quality grading, comprehensive pollution index, the Nemerow pollution index, principle component analysis, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, and comprehensive water quality identification index. Our analysis showed that the comprehensive water quality identification index was the best method for assessing water quality in the Wen-Rui Tang River due to its ability to effectively characterize highly polluted waters with multiple impairments. Furthermore, a guideline for the applications of these methods was presented based on their characteristics and efficacy. Results indicated that the dominant pollutant impairing water quality was total nitrogen comprised mainly of ammonium. The temporal variation of water quality was closely related to precipitation as a result of dilution. The spatial variation of water quality was associated with anthropogenic influences (urban, industrial, and agriculture activities) and water flow direction (downstream segments experiencing cumulative effects of upstream inputs). These findings provide valuable information and guidance for water pollution control and water resource management in highly polluted surface waters with multiple water quality impairments in areas with rapid industrial growth and urbanization. PMID:26643812

  9. Changes in the water quality conditions of Kuwait's marine waters: Long term impacts of nutrient enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, M J; Massoud, M S; Hamid, S A; Al-Zaidan, A; Al-Sarawi, H; Al-Enezi, M; Al-Ghofran, L; Smith, A J; Barry, J; Stentiford, G D; Morris, S; da Silva, E T; Lyons, B P

    2015-11-30

    This work analyses a 30year water quality data set collated from chemical analyses of Kuwait's marine waters. Spatial patterns across six sites in Kuwait Bay and seven sites located in the Arabian Gulf are explored and discussed in terms of the changing influences associated with point and diffuse sources. Statistical modelling demonstrated significant increases for dissolved nutrients over the time period. Kuwait marine waters have been subject to inputs from urban development, untreated sewage discharges and decreasing river flow from the Shatt al-Arab River. Chlorophyll biomass showed a small but significant reduction; the high sewage content of the coastal waters from sewage discharges likely favouring the presence of smaller phytoplankton taxa. This detailed assessment of temporal data of the impacts of sewage inputs into Kuwait's coastal waters establishes an important baseline permitting future assessments to be made as sewage is upgraded, and the river continues to be extracted upstream. PMID:26490407

  10. 76 FR 38592 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for...Everglades AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...clarifies the water quality standards concerning...CFR Part 131 Environmental...

  11. Environmental quality of urban parks and open spaces in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kin-Che; Ng, Sai-Leung; Hui, Wing-Chi; Chan, Pak-Kin

    2005-12-01

    It is widely purported that urban parks and open spaces can improve the urban environment by cleansing the air and reducing the noise. However, such environmental functions can be constrained by the size and the location of urban parks in very dense cities. This study examines the air and acoustic environment and heavy metal contamination in Hong Kong urban parks and open spaces. Using a hybrid field measurement and computer simulation approach, the study has found that while the air quality in urban parks is better than that of the roadside, it is not significantly different from that of the ambient conditions. Noise levels in the urban parks are not significantly lower than those at the typical home environment in Hong Kong. Heavy metals in urban park dust are slightly lower than that found at the roadside and are broadly comparable to those found at typical homes and nursery schools. These findings lend support to the postulation that the capability of urban parks and open spaces in dense cities to improve the urban environment is rather limited and call for a re-examination of the role of urban parks in enhancing urban livability. The findings also have implications on how urban parks in dense cities should be designed and managed. PMID:16311822

  12. Assessment of human impact on water quality along Manyame River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirivashe P. Masere

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human activities such as urbanization, agriculture, sewage treatment and industrialization are affecting water resources both quantitatively and qualitatively. The impact of these activities were studied by measuring and determining the concentration and values of eight selected water quality parameters namely nitrates, phosphates, copper, iron, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, dissolved oxygen (DO, pH and turbidity along Manyame River, in the Manyame Catchment. Thirty five sites were sampled from the source of the river which is at Seke Dam, along Manyame River and on the tributaries (Ruwa, Nyatsime, Mukuvisi and Marimba just before they join the river. The 35 sites were categorized into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E with group A and E being the upstream and downstream of Manyame. The analysis of results was undertaken using a simple one-way ANOVA with group as the only source of variation. Turbidity values, nitrate and phosphate concentrations were found to be higher than the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA maximum permissible standards for surface waters. DO saturation in the downstream groups was less than 75% (ZINWA standard. Agricultural and urban runoff and sewage effluent were responsible of the high nutrient levels and turbidity, which in turn, reduced the dissolved oxygen (DO.

  13. Urban water reuse: microbial pathogens control by direct filtration and ultraviolet disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Isaac, Ricardo; Dos Santos, Luciana Urbano; Tosetto, Mariana S; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Guimarães, José Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Physicochemical treatment efficiency for unrestricted urban water reuse was evaluated at a conventional activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Pilot plant set-up consisted of an alum coagulation step, granular media upflow flocculation and direct downflow dual-media filtration followed by ultraviolet disinfection (dose of 95 mJ cm?²). Optimum aluminum sulfate dosage of 10 mg L?¹ and coagulation pH 7.0 were preset based on bench scale tests. Under WWTP stable operation, water quality met United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) suggested guidelines for unrestricted urban reuse regarding turbidity (mean value 1.3 NTU) and suspended solids (mean value 2.1 mg L?¹). When WWTP overall plant performance dropped from 90 to 80% (although BOD value stayed below 6 mg O? L?¹, suggesting unrestricted reuse), solids breakthrough in filtrate was observed. Microorganism removal rates were: total coliforms 60.0%, Escherichia coli 63.0%, Giardia spp. 81.0%, and helminth eggs 62.5%; thus organisms still remained in filtrate. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection efficiency was 4.1- and 3.8-log for total coliforms and E. coli, respectively. Considering low UV efficiency obtained for helminths and the survival of protozoa and helminths in the environment, effluent quality presents risk to public health if destined for unrestricted urban reuse. PMID:25252350

  14. Evaluation of green roof as green technology for urban stormwater quantity and quality controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promoting green design, construction, reconstruction and operation of buildings has never been more critical than now due to the ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions and rapid urbanizations that are fuelling climate change more quickly. Driven by environmental needs, Green Building Index (GBI) was founded in Malaysia to drive initiative to lead the property industry towards becoming more environment-friendly. Green roof system is one of the assessment criteria of this rating system which is under category of sustainable site planning and management. An extensive green roof was constructed in Humid Tropics Center (HTC) Kuala Lumpur as one of the components for Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) in order to obtain scientific data of the system. This paper evaluates the performance of extensive green roof at Humid Tropics Center with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater quantity and quality controls. Findings indicate that there was a reduction of around 1.5°C for indoor temperature of the building after installation of green roof. Simulations showed that the peak discharge was reduced up to 24% relative to impervious brown roof. The results show an increment of pH and high concentration of phosphate for the runoff generated from the green roof and the runoff water quality ranged between class I and II under INWQS.

  15. Evaluation of green roof as green technology for urban stormwater quantity and quality controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, K. H.; Sidek, L. M.; Abidin, M. R. Z.; Basri, H.; Muda, Z. C.; Beddu, S.

    2013-06-01

    Promoting green design, construction, reconstruction and operation of buildings has never been more critical than now due to the ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions and rapid urbanizations that are fuelling climate change more quickly. Driven by environmental needs, Green Building Index (GBI) was founded in Malaysia to drive initiative to lead the property industry towards becoming more environment-friendly. Green roof system is one of the assessment criteria of this rating system which is under category of sustainable site planning and management. An extensive green roof was constructed in Humid Tropics Center (HTC) Kuala Lumpur as one of the components for Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) in order to obtain scientific data of the system. This paper evaluates the performance of extensive green roof at Humid Tropics Center with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater quantity and quality controls. Findings indicate that there was a reduction of around 1.5°C for indoor temperature of the building after installation of green roof. Simulations showed that the peak discharge was reduced up to 24% relative to impervious brown roof. The results show an increment of pH and high concentration of phosphate for the runoff generated from the green roof and the runoff water quality ranged between class I and II under INWQS.

  16. Urban liveability versus economic efficiency : an issue of scale in the governance of sustainability transitions of the urban water sector in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farné Fratini, Chiara; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2013-01-01

    The urban water management regime in Copenhagen is currently influenced by contradictive models of innovation. During the last 20 years the development of the water infrastructure in Copenhagen has been under the influence of an urban political agenda. This agenda has addressed water as a place based infrastructure, i.e. as an infrastructure that has been understood and developed as an integrated component of the urban fabric. An outcome of this agenda has been the establishment of bathing facilities in the inner harbor of Copenhagen, which has linked water to urban livability and urban development. Against this agenda a national strategy is currently being enforced which addresses water as a context-independent functional sector. This agenda operates with a narrow definition of economic efficiency in service provision through a benchmarking system focusing only on technical performances without acknowledging the context specific relations between water infrastructure and urban quality. The national function oriented innovation agenda and the urban place based innovation agenda hence address the question of innovation from very different viewpoints. While the functional innovation agenda addresses the infrastructure as a discrete system - thus pushing for one-way influence of the infrastructure to the cityscape - the place based innovation agenda has traditionally been more inclusive towards the context specific priorities of urban planners. In this paper we apply the arena of development approach advocated by Jørgensen (2012) to understand the emergence of the functional innovation agenda as well as the specific political navigations by which Copenhagen’s traditional place based water managements regime is responding to this new agenda. We thus demonstrate how the functional innovation agenda was formulated and advocated as a response to specific tension and ambiguities within and among the socio-material actor-worlds of the established water management regime, and how the agenda was translated into new institutional arrangements. We then analyse the navigations by which the traditional actor worlds are responding to these institutional arrangements and identifies the tensions and contradictions that are generated in this process.

  17. CONTRIBUTIONS OF WATER FILTRATION TO IMPROVING WATER QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of water quality improvements can be accomplished by properly operated filtration plants. These include reduction of turbidity, micro-organisms, asbestos fibers, color, trihalomethane precursors, and organics adsorbed to particulate matter. The focus of the paper is on ...

  18. Navigating Troubled Waters. An analysis of how urban water regimes in the global South reproduce inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Nastar, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    This research is an attempt to conceptualize the underlying forces behind persistent and ubiquitous problems of inequality in access to water in cities of the global south. Inequality in water access is hypothesized to result from urban water regimes that tend to prioritize the right to water access or to provide preferential terms of access for some groups in society, while marginalizing others. By employing a critical realist approach, different theories in relation to inequality are app...

  19. WQM: A Water Quality Management Simulation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharda, Ramesh; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Description of WQM, a simulation game designed to introduce students to the water quality management function, emphasizes the decision-making process involved in various facets of business. The simulation model is described, computer support is explained, and issues in water resource management are discussed. (13 references) (LRW)

  20. Rural:urban inequalities in post 2015 targets and indicators for drinking-water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, R E S; Wright, J A; Christenson, E; Bartram, J K

    2014-08-15

    Disparities in access to drinking water between rural and urban areas are pronounced. Although use of improved sources has increased more rapidly in rural areas, rising from 62% in 1990 to 81% in 2011, the proportion of the rural population using an improved water source remains substantially lower than in urban areas. Inequalities in coverage are compounded by disparities in other aspects of water service. Not all improved sources are safe and evidence from a systematic review demonstrates that water is more likely to contain detectable fecal indicator bacteria in rural areas. Piped water on premises is a service enjoyed primarily by those living in urban areas so differentiating amongst improved sources would exacerbate rural:urban disparities yet further. We argue that an urban bias may have resulted due to apparent stagnation in urban coverage and the inequity observed between urban and peri-urban areas. The apparent stagnation at around 95% coverage in urban areas stems in part from relative population growth - over the last two decades more people gained access to improved water in urban areas. There are calls for setting higher standards in urban areas which would exacerbate the already extreme rural disadvantage. Instead of setting different targets, health, economic, and human rights perspectives, We suggest that the focus should be kept on achieving universal access to safe water (primarily in rural areas) while monitoring progress towards higher service levels, including greater water safety (both in rural and urban areas and among different economic strata). PMID:24875263

  1. Collection of Condensate Water: Global Potential and Water Quality Impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Loveless, Kolin J.

    2012-12-28

    Water is a valuable resource throughout the world, especially in hot, dry climates and regions experiencing significant population growth. Supplies of fresh water are complicated by the economic and political conditions in many of these regions. Technologies that can supply fresh water at a reduced cost are therefore becoming increasingly important and the impact of such technologies can be substantial. This paper considers the collection of condensate water from large air conditioning units as a possible method to alleviate water scarcity issues. Using the results of a climate model that tested data collected from 2000 to 2010, we have identified areas in the world with the greatest collection potential. We gave special consideration to areas with known water scarcities, including the coastal regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We found that the quality of the collected water is an important criterion in determining the potential uses for this water. Condensate water samples were collected from a few locations in Saudi Arabia and detailed characterizations were conducted to determine the quality of this water. We found that the quality of condensate water collected from various locations and types of air conditioners was very high with conductivities reaching as low as 18 ?S/cm and turbidities of 0. 041 NTU. The quality of the collected condensate was close to that of distilled water and, with low-cost polishing treatments, such as ion exchange resins and electrochemical processes, the condensate quality could easily reach that of potable water. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  2. Drinking water quality concerns and water vending machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drinking water quality is a vital public health concern to consumers and regulators alike. This article describes some of the current microbiological, chemical, and radiological concerns about drinking water and the evolution of water vending machines. Also addressed are the typical treatment processes used in water vending machines and their effectiveness, as well as a brief examination of a certification program sponsored by the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA), which provides a uniform standard for the design and construction of food and beverage vending machines. For some consumers, the water dispensed from vending machines is an attractive alternative to residential tap water which may be objectionable for aesthetic or other reasons

  3. Methods to Determine Preferential Flow in Water Repellent Urban Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Al Hassane

    2011-01-01

    In literature, a wide range of approaches is described to characterize soil water repellency phenomena. The aim of this study is to detect preferential flow paths for two water repellent soils in an urban environment using various methods. The first experimental site is in “Berlin Buch”, a former wastewater disposal field, today’s covered dominantly by couch grass. The second site is in the “Tiergarten” park in the centre of Berlin. This site is covered by a short grass vegetation, which is c...

  4. Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban WaterConservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

    2007-05-01

    This report documents a project undertaken for theCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council (the Council) to create a newmethod of accounting for the diverse environmental benefits of raw watersavings. The environmental benefits (EB) model was designed to providewater utilities with a practical tool that they can use to assign amonetary value to the benefits that may accrue from implementing any ofthe Council-recommended Best Management Practices. The model treats onlyenvironmental services associated directly with water, and is intended tocover miscellaneous impacts that are not currently accounted for in anyother cost-benefit analysis.

  5. Appropriation of space and water in informal urban settlements of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Jaka Repi?

    2011-01-01

    This article examines inter-group relations in Port Moresby’s informal urban settlement (slum) Two Mile, through perspective of appropriation of space and water. Since the 1960s, steady rural-to-urban migration to Papua New Guinea’s capital has resulted in the emergence of urban slums that have become home to numerous small communities or social networks. They are marginal urban spaces of intense social interactions, which redefine traditional identities and construct urban social networks. R...

  6. Protium diffusion in nuclear quality heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of protium isotope transfer study in the nuclear quality light water - heavy water liquid mixture at various conditions of initial placing of protium source. By process modelling of every event and on the basis of experimental results of space-time evolution of protium concentration, the mutual diffusion coefficient in heavy water has been determined. (Author) 7 Figs., 5 Tabs., 11 Refs

  7. River and lake water quality: future trends

    OpenAIRE

    P.G. Whitehead; Battarbee, R.W.; Crossman, J; Elliott, J.A.; Wilby, R.; Monteith, D. T.; Kernan, M.

    2012-01-01

    It is now accepted that some human-induced climate change is unavoidable. Potential impacts on water supply have received much attention, but relatively little is known about the likely impacts on water quality. Projected changes in air temperature and rainfall will affect river flows and, hence, the mobility and dilution of nutrients and contaminants. Increased water temperatures will affect chemical reaction kinetics, lake stratification, in stream process and freshwater ecological status. ...

  8. Water quality deterioration: A study of household drinking water quality in rural Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Trevett, Andrew F.; Carter, Richard C.; Sean F. Tyrrel

    2004-01-01

    There is growing awareness that drinking-water can become contaminated following its collection from communal sources such as wells and tap-stands, as well as during its storage in the home. This study evaluated the post-supply drinking-water quality in three rural Honduran communities using either a protected hand-dug well or borehole supply. Water management practices were documented as a basis for further research to improve household drinking-water quality. Membrane filtration was used to...

  9. Acid deposition: Drinking water quality and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standards set by European Community (EC) legislation for those parameters affected by acidification, in both source and treated waters, along with public health implications of water quality changes are examined. The adverse consequences of acidification or treatment processes and costs for both the Welsh Water Authority (WWA) and owners of private supplies are also considered. The effects of acidification of specific water quality parameters was evaluated. The parameters evaluated included: (1) pH and alkalinity; (2) color; (3) manganese content; (4) iron content; (5) aluminum content; and (6) lead content. The extent to which acidification is involved in such variations is extremely difficult to assess but it is likely that in the acid sensitive areas of Wales it affects process efficiency and leads to increased operating costs. While compliance with the EC Surface Water and Drinking Water directives affords protection of drinking water supplies, there is a need for an immediate policy review regarding alkalinity and aluminum. In the short term, acidification of source waters which are treated by WWA is most unlikely to cause any adverse health effects. If current water quality standards are to be maintained in the longer term, considerable capital and revenue costs may be incurred. The effects of acidification on private supplies are more readily identifiable as many have inadequate treatment or none at all. It is essential that remedial action is implemented in acid sensitive areas to reduce the problems associated with corrosion

  10. Water quality analysis of surface water: a Web approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Poonam; Chaurasia, Meenal; Sohony, R A; Gupta, Indrani; Kumar, R

    2013-07-01

    The chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water with respect to its suitability describe its quality. Concentration of pesticides or fertilisers degrades the water quality and affects marine life. A comprehensive environmental data information system helps to perform and complete common tasks in less time with less effort for data verification, data calculations, graph generation, and proper monitoring, which helps in the further mitigation step. In this paper, focus is given to a web-based system developed to express the quality of water in the imprecise environment of monitoring data. Water samples were analyzed for eight different surface water parameters, in which four parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and fecal coliform were used for the water quality index calculation following MPCB Water Quality Standards of class A-II for best designated use. The analysis showed that river points in a particular year were in very bad category with certainty level of 0-38% which is unsuitable for drinking purposes; samples in bad category had certainty level that ranged from 38 to 50%; samples in medium to good category had certainty levels from 50 to 100%, and the remaining samples were in good to excellent category, suitable for drinking purposes, with certainty levels from 63 to 100%. PMID:23238782

  11. Rare Event Detection Algorithm Of Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungs, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    A novel method is presented describing the development and implementation of an on-line water quality event detection algorithm. An algorithm was developed to distinguish between normal variation in water quality parameters and changes in these parameters triggered by the presence of contaminant spikes. Emphasis is placed on simultaneously limiting the number of false alarms (which are called false positives) that occur and the number of misses (called false negatives). The problem of excessive false alarms is common to existing change detection algorithms. EPA's standard measure of evaluation for event detection algorithms is to have a false alarm rate of less than 0.5 percent and a false positive rate less than 2 percent (EPA 817-R-07-002). A detailed description of the algorithm's development is presented. The algorithm is tested using historical water quality data collected by a public water supply agency at multiple locations and using spiking contaminants developed by the USEPA, Water Security Division. The water quality parameters of specific conductivity, chlorine residual, total organic carbon, pH, and oxidation reduction potential are considered. Abnormal data sets are generated by superimposing water quality changes on the historical or baseline data. Eddies-ET has defined reaction expressions which specify how the peak or spike concentration of a particular contaminant affects each water quality parameter. Nine default contaminants (Eddies-ET) were previously derived from pipe-loop tests performed at EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Test and Evaluation (T&E) Facility. A contaminant strength value of approximately 1.5 is considered to be a significant threat. The proposed algorithm has been able to achieve a combined false alarm rate of less than 0.03 percent for both false positives and for false negatives using contaminant spikes of strength 2 or more.

  12. Urban-rural status affects associations between overall environmental quality and cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between environmental conditions and human health varies by urbanicity. To estimate ambient environmental conditions, an Environmental Quality Index (EQI) for 2000-2005 was constructed by the Environmental Protection Agency using county-level data representing fi...

  13. Instruments for Water Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations and Water, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The old system of licensing within the different sectors of the society in Norway is in the process of being incorporated into a system of total natural resource planning and regulation. This article outlines comprehensive physical and economic water pollution management plans for the municipality, the county, and the state. (Author/MA)

  14. Dorsi-ventral leaf reflectance properties of Carpinus betulus L.: An indicator of urban habitat quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to give an account of the evaluation of the effect of urban habitat quality on dorsi-ventral leaf reflectance asymmetry to bio-monitor urban habitat pollution. Reflectance in the RGB bands of a reflex camera is measured at the adaxial and abaxial sides of Carpinus betulus L. leaves for two contrasting urban habitats, e.g.; suburban green and industrial habitats in the city of Gent (Belgium). Abaxial leaf reflectance is consistently higher than adaxial leaf reflectance. We quantified leaf dorsi-ventral reflectance asymmetry with a newly defined Normalized Dorsi-ventral Asymmetry Index (NDAI). The NDAI is significantly higher in industrial habitats as opposed to suburban green ones. Our optical observations indicate that changes in Carpinus betulus L. leaf morphology are related to urban habitat quality. Hence, we suggest that leaf dorsi-ventral reflectance asymmetry allows the estimation of the magnitude and spatial extent of environmental pollution in urban environments. - Highlights: ? Carpinus betulus L. leaf asymmetry relates with urban habitat quality. ? The Normalized Difference Asymmetry Index estimates leaf dorsi-ventral asymmetry. ? The NDAI allows magnitude and spatial extent estimation of habitat quality. - Optical observations indicate that leaf dorsi-ventral reflectance asymmetry of Carpinus betulus L. leaves is related to urban habitat quality.

  15. Evaluation of surface water quality and pollution in Lepenica river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanovi? Ana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepenica river basin is axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija region. However, because of disorderly water regime of Lepenica river and its tributaries, it appears several hydrologic problems on this territory, as example insufficiency of drinking and irrigating water by one cite, and floods and torrents (especially in Kragujevac valley by other cite. Particular problem is water quality and pollution in river basin. In this paper will be analyzed water quality of Lepenica river and artificial lakes, built in its river basin, according to the data of Republic Hydrometeorologic Institute of Serbia. Also, it will be present polluter cadastre in river basin.

  16. The quality of water for human consumption in the Tolima department, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol J. Briñez A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the quality of drinking water in urban areas of the Tolima department and its relationship to the reported incidence of hepatitis A, acute diarrheal disease and social indicators. Methodology: descriptive observational study using cross-sectional ecological databases (sivicap and (sivigila 2010. It was mean, median, standard deviation, proportion of reported incidence of municipalities of Tolima (n = 47, we used one-way anova and correlation analysis. Results:63.83% of the municipalities of Tolima had potable water. In the category of sanitary non-viable municipalities were classified: Ataco, Cajamarca, Planadas, Rovira, Valle de San Juan, and Villarrica. 27.7% of the municipalities showed coliform results. No association was found between the incidence of the diseases and water quality, statistically significant relationship was found between the coverage of water supply, sewerage, education and water quality. Discussion: it is necessary to improve water quality, expanding service coverage, epidemiological reporting and promotion of good hygienic practices.

  17. Screening-level microbial risk assessment of urban water locations: a tool for prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Ortells, Helena; Medema, Gertjan

    2014-08-19

    People in urban areas are exposed to microbial hazards in urban waters. In this study, various hazards, diseases, and water systems, where different recreation activities take place, are compared in an integrated quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The event and annual probability of gastrointestinal illness (GI) and Legionnaires'disease (LD) were analyzed in QMRA models using selected literature data. Highest mean event probabilities of GI were found for playing in pluvial flood from a combined sewer overflow (34%), swimming (18%), and rowing (13%) in the river, swimming (8.7%) and rowing (4.5%) in the lake, and playing in a water playground (3.7%) and in the pluvial flood from stormwater sewers (4.7%). At these locations, the GI probability was above the EU Bathing Water Directive threshold for excellent water quality (3%). All the annual risk medians were below the national incidence of legionellosis of 0.002%. The illness probability was most sensitive to the pathogens concentration (particularly Campylobacter, Norovirus, and Legionella) and exposure frequency. Therefore, site-specific pathogen data collection is the best next step to strengthen the certainty of the risk estimates. This study created an evidence-base that was used by water authorities to understand the health risks and set priorities for risk management. PMID:25061968

  18. Impacts of Land Use on Surface Water Quality in a Subtropical River Basin: A Case Study of the Dongjiang River Basin, Southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Ding

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between land use and surface water quality is necessary for effective water management. We estimated the impacts of catchment-wide land use on water quality during the dry and rainy seasons in the Dongjiang River basin, using remote sensing, geographic information systems and multivariate statistical techniques. The results showed that the 83 sites can be divided into three groups representing different land use types: forest, agriculture and urban. Water quality parameters exhibited significant variations between the urban-dominated and forest-dominated sites. The proportion of forested land was positively associated with dissolved oxygen concentration but negatively associated with water temperature, electrical conductivity, permanganate index, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and chlorophyll-a. The proportion of urban land was strongly positively associated with total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. Forested and urban land use had stronger impacts on water quality in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, agricultural land use did not have a significant impact on water quality. Our study indicates that urban land use was the key factor affecting water quality change, and limiting point-source waste discharge in urban areas during the dry season would be critical for improving water quality in the study area.

  19. Effects or urbanized modelling in fine resolution eulerian air quality simulations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Resler, Jaroslav; Liczki, Jitka; Belda, Michal; Eben, Kryštof; Juruš, Pavel; Karel, J.; Jareš, R.; Vl?ek, O.; Kazmuková, M.

    Hatfield : University of Hertfordshire, 2014 - (Mitto, T.; Fallmann, J.; Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Singh, V.; Sokhi, R.). s. 263-263 ISBN 978-1-909291-20-1. [International Conference on Air Quality - Science and Application /9./. 24.03.2014-28.03.2014, Garmisch-Partenkirchen] Grant ostatní: Central Europe Project 3CE292P3 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : urban air quality * heat island * urban meteorology Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  20. Service Quality Evaluation of Urban Parks Based on AHP Method and SD Software

    OpenAIRE

    Jiangping Wang; Yichuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Public satisfaction is the main base to measure the service quality of urban parks. In this study, six factors influencing the service quality of urban parks, namely, place environment, landscape environment, culture environment, eco-environment, traffic environment and facilities environment, were screened and been subdivided into 18 impact indexes. Three-hierarchy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model consisting of target layer, factor layer and index layer ...

  1. Urban Air Quality Modelling and Simulation: A Case Study of Kolhapur (M.S.), India

    OpenAIRE

    Yogesh, Sathe; Atul, Ayare; Girish, Kulkarni

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of urbanization a phenomenal surge has been observed in the vehicular population in India, giving rise to elevated levels of traffic related pollutants like carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates in Indian urban centers. These pollutants can have both acute and chronic effects on human health. Thus air quality management needs immediate attention. Air quality models simulate the physical and chemical processes occurring in the atmosphere to estimate ...

  2. The relationship between access and quality of urban green space with population physical activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Hillsdon, M; Panter, J.; FOSTER, C; JONES, A

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between access to quality urban green space and levels of physical activity. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional examination of the relationship between access to quality urban green space and level of recreational physical activity in 4950 middle-aged (40-70 years) respondents from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), who resided in Norwich, UK. METHODS: Using geographic information systems (GIS), three measures ...

  3. Urban Quality vs Single Travel: the Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with theconsequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, togetherwith short-sighted policies of transport and urban developmentspread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion andunlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel topeople living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to thoseliving in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonableurban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic,considered, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of thedeterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italiancities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities,although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovativesolutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by publicadministrations. One of the main environmental detractors is cartraffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike theprevious period.Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reachingthe modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managingthe demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation.,such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developingand increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport,car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollutionreduction and vehicular traffic reduction.For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal RapidTransit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to jointwo apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuringindividual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acousticand air pollution as well as the congestion caused by privatevehicular traffic.In Italy this system is still not well known despite the versatility ofits fields of application. In the United States and all over the worldthe most successful applications concern circumscribed monofunctionalurban ambits, such as large areas for offices, airportsand so on, but the characteristics of this system - such as flexibility,capability of integration with other wide-range systems of publictransport, little dimensions of the exchange junctions, quite lowcost - can allow to realize it also in different typologies of area.If many people are doubtful about the effectiveness of this system,on the contrary, other people think that its steady implementationand experimentation is necessary to improve urban liveability.These last ones believe, in fact, that the combination of small vehiclessimilar to private car, the advantage of trips without intermediatestops and changes of car, cost reduction, possibility of a wideraccessibility not reachable by traditional means of public transportare the key basic elements to replace car travels with low pollutingmeans of public transport.

  4. Nitrogen changes between rural and peri-urban stream subsurface waters (Yzeron stream, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Aucour, A. M.; T. Bariac; BREIL P.; Namour, P.; Schmitt, L.; Sebilo, M.; Zuddas, P.

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization subjects stream and groundwater to increased loads of organic nitrogen, nitrate, and ammonium. Therefore, studying nitrogen species at the urban stream- aquifer interface is important for water resource management. We report here results on water O-18/O-16 ratios and on nitrogen species in stream subsurface waters upstream and downstream of several combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in a rural area and peri-urban area, respectively. Water O-18/O-16 ratios were measured to trace the ...

  5. The role of imported water on urban water budgets in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, K. F.; Hogue, T. S.; Pataki, D. E.; Pincetl, S.

    2013-12-01

    The current study focuses on the development of historical water balances for urban watersheds in the southern California region. We undertake comparison for a range of development levels to provide insight on the role of imported water on spatial and temporal hydrologic cycling and regional change caused by increasing urbanization. Three adjacent watersheds were selected in the Los Angeles area for variability in land cover types (and data availability): Ballona Creek, a highly urbanized watershed (1938-2009), the Los Angeles River, a semi-urban watershed (1930-2009), and Malibu Creek, one of the more undeveloped watersheds in the area (1932-2009). The urban water balance is a modification of the original water balance where additional terms and alternative methods are used to account for anthropogenic inputs and effects such as imported water, irrigation, treated wastewater, and leaky pipes. A combination of USGS National Land Cover Database and population data are used as a proxy for long-term land cover, which is essential in estimating outdoor water use and evapotranspiration. Precipitation and temperature data are estimated from PRISM data and long-term discharge records are obtained from the Los Angeles Department of Public Works. Preliminary results show a trend of increasing evapotranspiration and imported outdoor water use for all three watersheds. Additionally, evapotranspiration and runoff increase with development intensity, where Ballona Creek has the highest rates and Malibu Creek has the lowest. Ballona Creek's runoff ratio shows the largest increase over time, frequently exceeding the theoretical limit during the most recent decade (2000-2009) which included several dry periods and extensive imported water use. Ongoing work includes future climate scenarios and the availability of local water resources in regional watersheds that are heavily dependent on imported water.

  6. THE WATER QUALITY FROM SAINT ANA LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.VIGH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inside the Ciomad Massive appears a unique lake in Romania, with an exclusive precipitations alimentation regime. The lake’s origin and the morphometric elements, together with the touristic activity, determine the water’s quality and characteristics. Water status evaluation was realized using random samples taken between the years 2005 and 2010. Qualitative parameters indicate the existence of a clear water lake, belonging to ultra-oligotrophic faze. This is because the crater is covered with forest and the surface erosion is very poor. Also the aquatic vegetation is rare. From all analyzed indicators, only ammonium and total mineral nitrogen have higher values during last years. In the future, the lake needs a higher protection against water quality degradation.

  7. Managing the water quality of the Kafue River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambole, Michael Sankwe

    Most vital surface water bodies in developing countries are under serious threat of degradation resulting from constant discharge of polluted effluents stemming from industrial, agricultural, mining and domestic/sewage activities. The most affected river systems are those traversing cities and towns in urban areas. The Kafue River in Zambia is one such river system that is threatened with serious degradation and probable loss of biodiversity. Kafue River cuts across the country in a North-South direction, stretches for about 1576 km before draining into the Zambezi River. It covers an area of 152,000 km 2 and generates a mean annual runoff of 350 m 3/s which represents about 12% of the Zambezi’s mean annual runoff at the confluence [Water Resources Development and Vector-borne Diseases in Zambia: Report of a National Seminar held at Kafue Gorge, Zambia, WHO, Geneva, 1995]. The area coverage of the Kafue River Basin (KRB) is approximately 20% of Zambia’s land area (743,000 km 2) and approximately 17% of the Zambezi Basin [Water Resources Use in the Zambezi Basin: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Kasane, Botswana, IUCN, 1993]. More than half of Zambia’s population live in the KRB, of which about 65% are in urban while 35% are in rural areas. Over the years, however, the Kafue River has been receiving all sorts of pollutant and effluents from all sectors of economical development in Zambia that include mining, industrial and agricultural. The continuous discharge of pollutants into the Kafue river has led to the deterioration of the river water quality. The consequences have been heightened eutrophic conditions, increased heavy metal concentration in the river sediments and aquatic life, increased suspended solids, etc. leading to proliferation of Salvinia molesta in some sections of the river, decreased fish catch and fish size and objectionable taste of the Kafue River water. Fishermen along the Chanyanya-Kafue Gorge stretch of the Kafue River have complained about the alleged loss of taste and the decrease in both the fish catch and size in these areas of the Kafue River. The communities along the same stretch have also complained about the objectionable taste of the river water [Report of the Proceedings of the First Multi-sectoral Workshop on the Effects of Environmental Pollution and Degradation on the Kafue River Basin (KRB) on the Community in the Kafue Town Area, AREZ, 2001]. This paper reviews the water quality of the Kafue River resulting from anthropogenic activities and proposes the framework for the sustainable management of river water quality.

  8. The influence of urban indicators in determining the quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Jerak, Alja

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the quality of life. It is a topic that is increasingly used not only in urban planning and cartography, but also in other areas. In the first part of work we define the topic based on existing literature, establish a framework system and describe the indicators of quality of life. In the second part we define the final system for determination of quality of life through the existing spatial data. We focus on indicators that show the quality of life in urban environment...

  9. Microbiological air quality in an urban solid waste selection plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Del Cimmuto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Exposure to bioaerosols may pose health risks to workers operating in the processing of Urban Solid Waste (USW. The aim of this study is to evaluate microbiological air quality within an USW selection facility.

    Methods: Nine sampling points in an USW selection plant situated in central-southern Italy were selected. One outdoor sampling point provided the background data. Sampling was performed on a yearly basis (2005 – 2009 upon request by the management of the selection plant. Total Mesophilic Counts (TMC, as well as fungal and Gram-negative concentrations were determined.

    Results: The highest viable fungal particles concentrations (medians were found in waste delivery areas (about 20000 CFU/m3, while the lowest were found in the control rooms (485 – 967 CFU/m3. TMC (median was highest (6116 CFU/m3 at the delivery pit, followed by the machine shop (3147 CFU/m3, where no waste processing takes place. Medians of Gram-negative bacteria are below the suggested Occupational Exposure Limit of 1000 CFU/m3, although this limit was exceeded at several single time-points in the waste delivery areas, and also in a personnel resting room. The lowest Gram-negative contamination was found in the control rooms (medians <1 CFU/m3.

    Conclusions: Some areas within a USW selection plant act as internal sources of contamination towards those areas where partially processed waste, or no waste at all, is present. Well-designed air flows, or carefullythought positioning of areas that are not directly involved in waste processing are necessary and effective in obtaining

  10. Making water affordable to all: A typology and evaluation of options for urban water pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Paul

    2011-01-01

    An important criterion for the design of urban water prices is the affordability of water supply for poor customers. This paper presents a typology of water pricing options which policy-makers have at their disposal in order to address affordability. A review of theoretical insights and empirical experiences reveals, however, how the real-world performance of these options depends on the characteristics of their technological and socio-economic environment. Moreover, possible trade-offs betwe...

  11. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  12. Influences of Hydrological Regime on Runoff Quality and Pollutant Loadings in Tropical Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, M.; Yusop, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Experience in many developed countries suggests that non point source (NPS) pollution is still the main contributor to pollutant loadings into water bodies in urban areas. However, the mechanism of NPS pollutant transport and the influences of hydrologic regime on the pollutant loading are still unclear. Understanding these interactions will be useful for improving design criteria and strategies for controlling NPS pollution in urban areas. This issue is also extremely relevant in tropical environment because its rainfall and the runoff generation processes are so different from the temperate regions where most of the studies on NPS pollutant have been carried out. In this regard, an intensive study to investigate the extent of this pollution was carried out in Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. Three small catchments, each represents commercial, residential and industrial land use were selected. Stormwater samples and flow rate data were collected at these catchments over 52 storm events from year 2008 to 2009. Samples were analyzed for ten water quality constituents including total suspended solids, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, soluble phosphorus, total phosphorus and zinc. Quality of stormwater runoff is estimated using Event Mean Concentration (EMC) value. The storm characteristics analyzed included rainfall depth, rainfall duration, mean intensity, max 5 minutes intensity, antecedent dry day, runoff volume and peak flow. Correlation coefficients were determined between storm parameters and EMCs for the residential, commercial and industrial catchments. Except for the antecedent storm mean intensity and antecedent dry days, the other rainfall and runoff variables were negatively correlated with EMCs of most pollutants. This study reinforced the earlier findings on the importance of antecedent dry days for causing greater EMC values with exceptions for oil and grease, nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus and zinc. There is no positive correlation between rainfall intensity and EMC of constituents in all the studied catchments. In contrast, the pollutant loadings are influenced primarily by the rainfall and runoff characteristics. Rainfall depth, mean intensity, max 5 minute intensity, runoff volume and peak flow were positively correlated with the loadings of most of the constituents. Antecedent storm mean intensity and antecedent dry days seemed to be less important for estimating the pollutant loadings. Such study should be further conducted for acquiring a long term monitoring data related to storm runoff quality during rainfall, in order to have a better understanding on NPS pollution in urban areas.

  13. Water Residence Times and Runoff Sources Across an Urbanizing Gradient (Croton Water Supply Area, New York)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2002-12-01

    Water residence times and nutrient budgets were measured in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different levels of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on impervious surfaces and slow flow through the subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes). Throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were sampled bi-weekly during a period of up to 2 years and analyzed for major chemical constituents, oxygen-18 content, and nitrogen species. Mean residence times of the stream water of about 30 weeks were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes for all 3 watersheds. There was no significant difference in mean residence times among the three study watersheds, despite their different levels of urbanization. However, residence times from a few weeks up to ca 2 years vary within the watersheds, depending on the local runoff sources and their geographical conditions (riparian and hillslope topography, aquifer type). The runoff sources were quantified for selected streamwater and groundwater sampling sites using the end member mixing analysis technique (EMMA). The mixing analysis shows the impact of the runoff sources on runoff generation in the selected watersheds, i.e. it shows how big is the impact of urbanization on the runoff generation and how big is the natural control. These results may be useful in watershed management and planning of further urbanization in the Croton water supply area.

  14. The influence of taxonomic resolution of Oligochaeta on the evaluation of water quality in an urban stream in Minas Gerais, Brazil A influência da resolução taxonômica de Oligochaeta na avaliação da qualidade da água em um córrego urbano em Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Linhares Frizzera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to verify the identification of specimens of the Oligochaeta in different taxonomic levels (family and species has the same potential for assessing the water quality of an urban stream in Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Oligochaeta specimens were collected from eight sampling stations in July 2007. Four stations were located in rural areas and the other four in urban areas. Were measured concentrations of dissolved oxygen, phosphorus and total nitrogen, pH, electrical conductivity and BOD. To evaluate the influence of taxonomic level, Oligochaeta specimens were identified at the family and species. We performed a principal component analysis (PCA to determine which abiotic variables best explained the distribution of Oligochaeta along the sampling stations. Cluster analysis was performed with the abundance of Oligochaeta in the family and species levels, separately, to assess the degree of similarity between the stations and check the level of identification of organisms could interfere with the associations formed. RESULTS: In general, the sampling stations located in urban areas had high pH, BOD and total nitrogen and phosphorus, while rural stations had a higher concentration of oxygen. Three families of Oligochaeta were found: Tubificidae, Naididae and Enchytraeidae. Tubificidae and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri were the family and the species with the highest density, respectively, especially at those stations located in urban areas. Both the PCA analysis and cluster analysis showed that the sampling stations in urban areas and rural areas have different characteristics that separate CONCLUSIONS: The studied environment presents two distinct regions: the urban region with a high degree of organic pollution and high density Tubificidae and L. hoffmeisteri, and rural, with less human influence and low density of organisms Oligochaeta. These features made the use of the taxonomic level of family allow a good assessment of water quality in the San Pedro creek without any significant loss of community data Oligochaeta.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se a identificação de espécimes de Oligochaeta em diferentes níveis taxonômicos (família e espécie tem o mesmo potencial para a avaliação da qualidade da água de um córrego urbano em Minas Gerais, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Espécimes de Oligochaeta foram coletados em oito estações amostrais em julho de 2007. Quatro estações estavam localizadas em zona rural e as demais em zona urbana. Foram medidas as concentrações de oxigênio dissolvido, fósforo e nitrogênio total, pH, condutividade elétrica e DBO. Para avaliar a influência do nível taxonômico, os espécimes de Oligochaeta foram identificados ao nível de família e espécie. Foi realizada uma análise de componentes principais (PCA para verificar quais variáveis abióticas melhor explicaram a distribuição dos Oligochaeta ao longo das estações amostrais. Análise de agrupamento foi realizada com a abundância Oligochaeta nos níveis de família e espécie, separadamente, para avaliar o grau de similaridade entre as estações e verificar se o nível de identificação dos organismos poderia interferir nas associações formadas. RESULTADOS: Em geral, as estações amostrais situadas na zona urbana apresentaram altos valores de pH, DBO e fósforo e nitrogênio total, enquanto as estações da zona rural apresentaram maior concentração de oxigênio. Três famílias de Oligochaeta foram encontradas: Tubificidae, Naididae e Enchytraeidae. Tubificidae e Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri foram a família e a espécie com maior densidade, respectivamente, particularmente naquelas estações localizadas na zona urbana. Tanto a análise de PCA quanto a análise de agrupamento mostraram que as estações amostrais da zona urbana e zona rural possuem características diferentes que as separam CONCLUSÕES: O ambiente estudado apresenta duas regiões distintas: a região urbana com alto grau de poluição orgânica e alta densidade de Tubificidae e L.

  15. WATER QUALITY AND ECTOPARASITE DISEASES OF CY- PRINIDAE FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tomec

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available On large carp fish farms water from larger surface streams is used, which have been affected by industrial and urban pollution, making the zoohygienic conditions bad for the culturing region. The quality of the culturing region directly affects the growth, condition and health of the fish. The aim of this work was to investigate the components of phytoplankton and the physico-chemical indicators of water quality on the occurrence of ectoparasites on the cyprinidae fish farms. Investigation were carried out from May to September 1992 on the fish farms Narta and Blatnica. The main stock of the farms were there year old carp fry. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phytoplankton, as well as the basic physico-chemical indicators were carried out by methods used in limnology. The health examination of the fish was carried out in view of the general clinical, microscopic and path anatomic examination. In the components of phytoplankton the species which participated in the group s were: Cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta, Euglenophita, Phyrrophyta, Chryso- phita and Chlorophyta. Eventhough there were indicators of greater and lesser water pollution, the betamesosaprobic representative were dominant. The obtained values of physico-chemical indicators ranged in the limitis characteristic of the cyprinidae fish farms. An exception was in the concentration of disolved oxygen in the water, which was relatively lower that the optimal concentration for cyprinidae, amounting to 1.4 mg.l-1 (pond 9. Based on the health examination of the ectoparasite fish, determined were representatives of the families: Trichodina, Argulus, Dactylogorus and Gyrodactylus, ectopara sites which mainly occur when there is low water quality, bad zoohygienic conditions in the ponds and an increase in water temperature. A higher invasion of ectoparasites was determined in the fish from ponds 9 and 10.

  16. In-house contamination of potable water in urban slum of Kolkata, India: a possible transmission route of diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Anup; Batabyal, Prasenjit; Kanungo, Suman; Sur, Dipika

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated and determined the potentiality of different water sources, both for drinking and domestic purposes, in diarrheal disease transmission in diarrhea endemic foci of urban slums in Kolkata, India in a one and half year prospective study. Out of 517 water samples, collected from different sources, stored water (washing) showed higher prevalence of fecal coliforms (58%) (p sanitation practices such as hand washing etc. are highlighted as contributory factors for sustained diarrheal episodes. Vulnerability of stored water for domestic usage, a hitherto unexplored source, at domiciliary level in an urban slum where enteric infections are endemic, is reported for the first time. This attempt highlights the impact of quality of stored water at domiciliary level for fecal-oral contamination vis-à-vis disease transmission. PMID:22699333

  17. Pollutant transfer through air and water pathways in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.; Burian, S.; McPherson, T.; Streit, G.; Costigan, K.; Greene, B.

    1998-12-31

    The authors are attempting to simulate the transport and fate of pollutants through air and water pathways in an urban environment. This cross-disciplinary study involves linking together models of mesoscale meteorology, air pollution chemistry and deposition, urban runoff and stormwater transport, water quality, and wetland chemistry and biology. The authors are focusing on the transport and fate of nitrogen species because (1) they track through both air and water pathways, (2) the physics, chemistry, and biology of the complete cycle is not well understood, and (3) they have important health, local ecosystem, and global climate implications. The authors will apply their linked modeling system to the Los Angeles basin, following the fate of nitrates from their beginning as nitrate-precursors produced by auto emissions and industrial processes, tracking their dispersion and chemistry as they are transported by regional winds and eventually wet or dry deposit on the ground, tracing their path as they are entrained into surface water runoff during rain events and carried into the stormwater system, and then evaluating their impact on receiving water bodies such as wetlands where biologically-mediated chemical reactions take place. In this paper, the authors wish to give an overview of the project and at the conference show preliminary results.

  18. Benthic macroinvertebrate as biological indicator for water quality in Sungai Penchala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahazar, Akmal; Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Kutty, Ahmad Abas

    2013-11-01

    Sungai Penchala is one of the main tributaries for Sungai Klang which flows through the urban area of Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur before merging with Sungai Klang in the Petaling Jaya district. As urban river, Sungai Penchala is polluted because of anthropogenic activities and this include direct garbage load, untreated drainage system from nearby residential area and also runoff from frequent heavy rain as the country located in tropical area. Currently, there are efforts from government and educational sectors to monitor and rehabilitate the river with vision to return it into its former natural function and not as a sink for urban population. Unlike pristine or recreational river, the water quality of urban river changes drastically over day even hours. Thus there is need for a procedure that can be used for water quality inspection in time of sampling but also provides reliable information that can resemble past event. Therefore, to do that the river monitoring was carried out by employing the traditional physical-chemical parameter by using Hydrolab Quanta® multi parameter reader. The benthic macroinvertebrate was collected using Surber's sampler and preserved in 95% ethanol for identification purposes. The data collected was analyzed for Water Quality Index (WQI) and Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) to determine the river condition. The system used has its own strength and weakness but when employed together, it is expected to give better knowledge in evaluating river condition. Thus, increase the accuracy of evaluation process. In this study, the biological monitoring shows that changes in water quality influence the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate. This study prove that biological monitoring by utilizing benthic macroinvertebrate can also be used in determining water quality of urban type river. It is also produced result that more readily interprets as it reveal past event disturbance which sometimes missed by physical-chemical parameters.

  19. Detection of Emerging and Re-Emerging Pathogens in Surface Waters Close to an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Marcheggiani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge about the spread of pathogens in aquatic environments is scarce probably because bacteria, viruses, algae and their toxins tend to occur at low concentrations in water, making them very difficult to measure directly. The purpose of this study was the development and validation of tools to detect pathogens in freshwater systems close to an urban area. In order to evaluate anthropogenic impacts on water microbiological quality, a phylogenetic microarray was developed in the context of the EU project µAQUA to detect simultaneously numerous pathogens and applied to samples from two different locations close to an urban area located upstream and downstream of Rome in the Tiber River. Furthermore, human enteric viruses were also detected. Fifty liters of water were collected and concentrated using a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration approach. The resultant concentrate was further size-fractionated through a series of decreasing pore size filters. RNA was extracted from pooled filters and hybridized to the newly designed microarray to detect pathogenic bacteria, protozoa and toxic cyanobacteria. Diatoms as indicators of the water quality status, were also included in the microarray to evaluate water quality. The microarray results gave positive signals for bacteria, diatoms, cyanobacteria and protozoa. Cross validation of the microarray was performed using standard microbiological methods for the bacteria. The presence of oral-fecal transmitted human enteric-viruses were detected using q-PCR. Significant concentrations of Salmonella, Clostridium, Campylobacter and Staphylococcus as well as Hepatitis E Virus (HEV, noroviruses GI (NoGGI and GII (NoGII and human adenovirus 41 (ADV 41 were found in the Mezzocammino site, whereas lower concentrations of other bacteria and only the ADV41 virus was recovered at the Castel Giubileo site. This study revealed that the pollution level in the Tiber River was considerably higher downstream rather than upstream of Rome and the downstream location was contaminated by emerging and re-emerging pathogens.

  20. Detection of emerging and re-emerging pathogens in surface waters close to an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcheggiani, Stefania; D'Ugo, Emilo; Puccinelli, Camilla; Giuseppetti, Roberto; D'Angelo, Anna Maria; Gualerzi, Claudio Orlando; Spurio, Roberto; Medlin, Linda K; Guillebault, Delphine; Baudart-Lenfant, Julia; Weigel, Wilfried; Helmi, Karim; Mancini, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Current knowledge about the spread of pathogens in aquatic environments is scarce probably because bacteria, viruses, algae and their toxins tend to occur at low concentrations in water, making them very difficult to measure directly. The purpose of this study was the development and validation of tools to detect pathogens in freshwater systems close to an urban area. In order to evaluate anthropogenic impacts on water microbiological quality, a phylogenetic microarray was developed in the context of the EU project µAQUA to detect simultaneously numerous pathogens and applied to samples from two different locations close to an urban area located upstream and downstream of Rome in the Tiber River. Furthermore, human enteric viruses were also detected. Fifty liters of water were collected and concentrated using a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration approach. The resultant concentrate was further size-fractionated through a series of decreasing pore size filters. RNA was extracted from pooled filters and hybridized to the newly designed microarray to detect pathogenic bacteria, protozoa and toxic cyanobacteria. Diatoms as indicators of the water quality status, were also included in the microarray to evaluate water quality. The microarray results gave positive signals for bacteria, diatoms, cyanobacteria and protozoa. Cross validation of the microarray was performed using standard microbiological methods for the bacteria. The presence of oral-fecal transmitted human enteric-viruses were detected using q-PCR. Significant concentrations of Salmonella, Clostridium, Campylobacter and Staphylococcus as well as Hepatitis E Virus (HEV), noroviruses GI (NoGGI) and GII (NoGII) and human adenovirus 41 (ADV 41) were found in the Mezzocammino site, whereas lower concentrations of other bacteria and only the ADV41 virus was recovered at the Castel Giubileo site. This study revealed that the pollution level in the Tiber River was considerably higher downstream rather than upstream of Rome and the downstream location was contaminated by emerging and re-emerging pathogens. PMID:26006125

  1. Water Quality Improvement Performance of Geotextiles Within Permeable Pavement Systems: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Miklas Scholz

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable drainage systems (SuDS; or best management practices) are increasingly being used as ecological engineering techniques to prevent the contamination of receiving watercourses and groundwater. Permeable paving is a SuDS technique, which is commonplace in car parks, driveways and minor roads where one of their functions is to improve the quality of urban runoff. However, little is known about the water quality benefits of incorporating an upper geotextile within the paving structure....

  2. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  3. Evaluation of water and sediment quality of urban streams in Santa Cruz do Sul County, RS, Brasil, using ecotoxicological assays / Avaliação da qualidade da água e sedimento de arroios urbanos no município de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil, utilizando ensaios ecotoxicológicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luã de, Vargas; Camila, Athanásio; Adriana, Düpont; Adilson Ben da, Costa; Eduardo Aléxis, Lobo.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água e do sedimento de córregos urbanos (Lajeado, Preto, Pedras e Lewis-Pedroso) localizados no município de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil, utilizando o microcrustáceo Ceriodaphnia dubia como organismo-teste. MÉTODOS: Excursões ci [...] entíficas trimestrais foram realizadas nesses arroios, em agosto e novembro de 2011; fevereiro e maio de 2012, para coletar amostras de água e sedimento nos trechos superiores (P2, P4, P6 e P8) e nos trechos inferiores (P1, P3, P5 e P7), totalizando 8 pontos. Para avaliar a toxicidade (aguda e crônica), utilizou-se o microcrustáceo C. dubia. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicaram alta toxicidade nos pontos P2, P6 e P8 (trechos inferiores), uma vez que causaram 100% de mortalidade dos organismos nas amostras de água (P6 e P8) e amostras de sedimento (P2 e P8), denotando efeito agudo. Ainda, todos os trechos superiores mostraram efeito crônico em amostras de sedimento, em pelo menos uma época de amostragem, com os maiores níveis de toxicidade significativa entre todas as amostras (55.2%), o que indica a presença de contaminação mesmos em trechos superiores. Estes resultados indicaram uma forte degradação da qualidade da água e do sedimento dos arroios urbanos proveniente das descargas de águas residuais e industriais da área urbana, que podem causar danos à biota, bem como a saúde pública, devido aos múltiplos usos de água que a população local faz, destacando muitos deles como inadequados para a qualidade da água detectada, como a recreação de contato primário (balneabilididade). Abstract in english AIM: This study aimed to assess the quality of water and sediment of urban streams (Lajeado, Preto, Pedras and Lewis-Pedroso) located in Santa Cruz do Sul County, RS, Brazil, using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia as test-organism. METHODS: Quarterly scientific excursions to the streams were h [...] eld on August and November 2011, February and May of 2012 in order to collect water and sediment samples, in the upper reaches (P1, P3, P5, P7) and lower reaches (P2, P4, P6, P8), totalizing 8 points. To evaluate the toxicity (acute and chronic), the microcrustacean C. dubia was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results indicated high toxicity levels detected in samples P2, P6 and P8 (lower reaches), as they caused the mortality of 100% of organisms in the water samples (P6 and P8) and sediment samples (P2 and P8), denoting acute effect. Yet, all upstream sites showed chronic effects in sediment samples, at least for one collection period, with the highest significant toxicity level among all samples (55.2%), which indicates the presence of contamination even in upper areas. These results indicated a strong degradation of the water and sediment quality of urban streams coming from the wastewater and industrial discharges of the urban area, which can cause damage to the biota as well as the public health, due to the multiples uses of water that the local population does, highlighting many of them as inappropriate to the water quality detected, such as the primary contact recreation (balneability).

  4. Water quality protection in the coastal artificial water areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Kantardgi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The method based on the numerical modeling of the processes, forecasting and sea water quality assurance at the design stage of the coastal hydraulic constructions like ports, recreational and bank protection structures is presented. The half-closed coastal water areas are the object of the intensive pollution and in the same time have the limited water exchange with the main basin. The research objective was the development of forecasting method of the water quality in the harborage and the guidelines on the required water quality supply. The study was carried out for the conditions of the yacht port “Grand-Marina Sochi”, which is being designed for placing in the area of seaport Sochi. The oil spill and the failures at the wastewater treatment facilities are considered like the sources of the pollution. The numerical modeling of flow fields has been applied to forecast the spreading of the pollution under the determined hydro-meteorological scenarios. On the basis of the study there were made recommendations on the program of the environmental monitoring of the sea water quality in the harborage.

  5. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column

  6. A Review of Surface Water Quality Models

    OpenAIRE

    Qinggai Wang; Shibei Li; Peng Jia; Changjun Qi; Feng Ding

    2013-01-01

    Surface water quality models can be useful tools to simulate and predict the levels, distributions, and risks of chemical pollutants in a given water body. The modeling results from these models under different pollution scenarios are very important components of environmental impact assessment and can provide a basis and technique support for environmental management agencies to make right decisions. Whether the model results are right or not can impact the reasonability and scientificity of...

  7. BARC's efforts towards maintenance of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the studies pursued at the Environmental Survey Laboratories (ESLs) established at the site of nuclear installations in India are discussed. Each site has its special features and these ESLs monitor radioactive pollution in the environment including Man. The major objective of the surveillance programme at nuclear sites is the maintenance of water quality. Environmental investigations carried out to collect data on individual organisms, recipient water characteristics, thermal pollution and its effect on fish are described. (K.M.)

  8. Elements that influence living quality in open urban space

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Krajner

    2007-01-01

    The number of people living in cities in Slovenia is increasing. There fore, the city spreads, urban space is created mostly by different buildings with minimum of open space, usually designed for parking spaces. But despite the fact, that urban structure is spreading, and there should be more of public open spaces, or green open spaces, those are in many cases reached by developers as well. Despite global worming, higher temperatures in city centres and what appears to be what citizens want,...

  9. Specific Water Quality Sites for Cache County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  10. Specific Water Quality Sites for Wasatch County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  11. Specific Water Quality Sites for Sevier County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  12. Specific Water Quality Sites for Uintah County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  13. Specific Water Quality Sites for Sanjuan County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  14. Specific Water Quality Sites for Davis County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  15. Specific Water Quality Sites for Wayne County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  16. Specific Water Quality Sites for Beaver County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  17. Specific Water Quality Sites for Millard County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  18. Specific Water Quality Sites for Summit County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  19. Specific Water Quality Sites for Daggett County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  20. Specific Water Quality Sites for Carbon County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  1. Specific Water Quality Sites for Washington County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  2. Specific Water Quality Sites for Kane County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  3. Specific Water Quality Sites for Juab County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  4. Specific Water Quality Sites for Weber County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  5. Specific Water Quality Sites for Saltlake County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  6. Specific Water Quality Sites for Morgan County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  7. Specific Water Quality Sites for Piute County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  8. Specific Water Quality Sites for Duchesne County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  9. Specific Water Quality Sites for Emery County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  10. Specific Water Quality Sites for Iron County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  11. Specific Water Quality Sites for Boxelder County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  12. Specific Water Quality Sites for Sanpete County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  13. Specific Water Quality Sites for Grand County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  14. Specific Water Quality Sites for Rich County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  15. Specific Water Quality Sites for Garfield County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  16. Specific Water Quality Sites for Tooele County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  17. Water Sensitive Urban Design retrofits in Copenhagen - 40% to the sewer, 60% to the city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryd, O; Backhaus, A; Birch, H; Fratini, C F; Ingvertsen, S T; Jeppesen, J; Panduro, T E; Roldin, M; Jensen, M B

    2013-01-01

    Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is emerging in Denmark. This interdisciplinary desk study investigated the options for WSUD retrofitting in a 15 km(2) combined sewer catchment area in Copenhagen. The study was developed in collaboration with the City of Copenhagen and its water utility, and involved researchers representing hydrogeology, sewer hydraulics, environmental chemistry/economics/engineering, landscape architecture and urban planning. The resulting catchment strategy suggests the implementation of five sub-strategies. First, disconnection is focused within sites that are relatively easy to disconnect, due to stormwater quality, soil conditions, stakeholder issues, and the provision of unbuilt sites. Second, stormwater runoff is infiltrated in areas with relatively deep groundwater levels at a ratio that doesn't create a critical rise in the groundwater table to the surface. Third, neighbourhoods located near low-lying streams and public parks are disconnected from the sewer system and the sloping terrain is utilised to convey runoff. Fourth, the promotion of coherent blue and green wedges in the city is linked with WSUD retrofits and urban climate-proofing. Fifth, WSUD is implemented with delayed and regulated overflows to the sewer system. The results are partially adopted by the City of Copenhagen and currently under pilot testing. PMID:23656936

  18. Water sensitive urban design retrofits in Copenhagen - 40% to the sewer, 60% to the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fryd, O.; Backhaus, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is emerging in Denmark. This interdisciplinary desk study investigated the options for WSUD retrofitting in a 15 km(2) combined sewer catchment area in Copenhagen. The study was developed in collaboration with the City of Copenhagen and its water utility, and involved researchers representing hydrogeology, sewer hydraulics, environmental chemistry/economics/engineering, landscape architecture and urban planning. The resulting catchment strategy suggests the implementation of five sub-strategies. First, disconnection is focused within sites that are relatively easy to disconnect, due to stormwater quality, soil conditions, stakeholder issues, and the provision of unbuilt sites. Second, stormwater runoff is infiltrated in areas with relatively deep groundwater levels at a ratio that doesn't create a critical rise in the groundwater table to the surface. Third, neighbourhoods located near low-lying streams and public parks are disconnected from the sewer system and the sloping terrain is utilised to convey runoff. Fourth, the promotion of coherent blue and green wedges in the city is linked with WSUD retrofits and urban climate-proofing. Fifth, WSUD is implemented with delayed and regulated overflows to the sewer system. The results are partially adopted by the City of Copenhagen and currently under pilot testing.

  19. Water sensitive urban design retrofits in Copenhagen : 40% to the sewer, 60% to the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fryd, Ole; Backhaus, A.

    2013-01-01

    Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is emerging in Denmark. This interdisciplinary desk study investigated the options for WSUD retrofitting in a 15 km2 combined sewer catchment area in Copenhagen. The study was developed in collaboration with the City of Copenhagen and its water utility, and involved researchers representing hydrogeology, sewer hydraulics, environmental chemistry/economics/engineering, landscape architecture and urban planning. The resulting catchment strategy suggests the implementation of five sub-strategies. First, disconnection is focused within sites that are relatively easy to disconnect, due to stormwater quality, soil conditions, stakeholder issues, and the provision of unbuilt sites. Second, stormwater runoff is infiltrated in areas with relatively deep groundwater levels at a ratio that doesn't create a critical rise in the groundwater table to the surface. Third, neighbourhoods located near low-lying streams and public parks are disconnected from the sewer system and the sloping terrain is utilised to convey runoff. Fourth, the promotion of coherent blue and green wedges in the city is linked with WSUD retrofits and urban climate-proofing. Fifth, WSUD is implemented with delayed and regulated overflows to the sewer system. The results are partially adopted by the City of Copenhagen and currently under pilot testing.

  20. Disconnecting the autopilot in urban water projects : creating an innovation platform for sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Øhlenschlæger, Ny; Jensen, Ellen Højgaard; Andersen, Helle Katrine; Dengsøe, Niels

    2011-01-01

    How can we motivate urban planners, water utilities and house owners to collaborate about sustainable urban water projects and to aim for solutions that go beyond the narrow perspective of individual stakeholder interests? A concept for framing a multidisciplinary learning process is developed in the research project: Black blue green: Integrated infrastructure planning as key to sustainable urban water systems, with the acronym 2BG. The concept addresses the need for local authorities to dev...

  1. Innovations in urban water management to reduce the vulnerability of cities: Feasibility, case studies and governance :

    OpenAIRE

    De Graaf , R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change, urbanisation and land subsidence increase the vulnerability of urban areas to flooding and droughts. Despite the availability of reliable and cost effective technologies, the actual implementation remains limited to small scale demonstration projects. Part 1 of this thesis describes how innovations in urban water management can contribute to reduce the vulnerability of cities. Examples are the use of local water resources, the urban surface water as energy source and floating...

  2. Improving Water Supply Systems for Domestic Uses in Urban Togo: The Case of a Suburb in Lomé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisha Venort

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urbanization facing developing countries is increasing pressure on public institutions to provide adequate supplies of clean water to populations. In most developing countries, the general public is not involved in strategies and policies regarding enhancement, conservation, and management of water supply systems. To assist governments and decision makers in providing potable water to meet the increasing demand due to the rapid urbanization, this study sought to characterize existing water supply systems and obtain public opinion for identifying a community water supply system model for households in a residential neighborhood in Lomé, Togo. Existing water supply systems in the study area consist of bucket-drawn water wells, mini water tower systems, rainwater harvesting, and public piped water. Daily domestic water consumption in the study area compared well with findings on water uses per capita from Sub-Saharan Africa, but was well below daily water usage in developed nations. Based on the surveys, participants thought highly of a large scale community water tower and expressed interest in maintaining it. Even though people rely on water sources deemed convenient for drinking, they also reported limited confidence in the quality of these sources.

  3. Evolution of the Water Balance of an Urban Catchment (Extended Abst)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 20th century marked the emergence of the modem American City and its complex extensive infrastructure for supplying drinking water, treating wastewater and managing storm water. During this period of intense urban development, unintentional mismanagement of the urban water ba...

  4. Sustainable River Water Quality Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mamun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological status of Malaysia is not as bad as many other developing nations in the world. However, despite the enforcement of the Environmental Quality Act (EQA in 1974, the water quality of Malaysian inland water (especially rivers is following deteriorating trend. The rivers are mainly polluted due to the point and non-point pollution sources. Point sources are monitored and controlled by the Department of Environment (DOE, whereas a significant amount of pollutants is contributed by untreated sullage and storm runoff. Nevertheless, it is not too late to take some bold steps for the effective control of non-point source pollution and untreated sullage discharge, which play significant roles on the status of the rivers. This paper reviews the existing procedures and guidelines related to protection of the river water quality in Malaysia.  There is a good possibility that the sewage and effluent discharge limits in the Environmental Quality Act (EQA may pose hindrance against achieving good quality water in the rivers as required by the National Water Quality Standards (NWQS. For instance, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N is identified as one of the main pollutants to render many of the rivers polluted but it was not considered in the EQA as a monitoring parameter until the new regulations published in 2009.  Surprisingly, the new regulation for sewage and industrial effluent limits set allowable NH3-N concentration quite high (5 mg/L, which may result in low Water Quality Index (WQI values for the river water. The water environment is a dynamic system. Periodical review of the monitoring requirements, detecting emerging pollutants in sewage, effluent and runoff, and proper revision of water quality standards are necessary for the management of sustainable water resources in the country. ABSTRAK: Satus ekologi Malaysia tidak seburuk kebanyakan negara membangun lain di dunia. Walaupun Akta Kualiti Alam Sekitar (EQA dikuatkuasakan pada tahun 1974, kualiti air di pedalaman Malaysia (terutama sungai semakin merosot. Kebanyakan sungai tercemar akibat pencemaran di punca sumber air dan pencemaran di bukan punca sumber air. Punca sumber air dipantau dan dikawal oleh Jabatan Alam Sekitar (JAS, tetapi sejumlah besar pencemaran adalah sisa yang tidak dirawat dan air larian ribut. Walau bagaimanapun, ia tidak terlambat untuk mengambil beberapa langkah berani untuk mengawal pencemaran di punca sumber air dan sisa tidak dirawat kerana langkah ini memainkan peranan penting bagi kebersihan sungai. Kertas kerja ini mengkaji prosedur dan garis panduan sedia ada berkaitan perlindungan kualiti air sungai di Malaysia. Ada kemungkinan bahawa had kumbahan dan pelepasan efluen dalam Akta Kualiti Alam Sekitar (EQA boleh menimbulkan halangan terhadap mencapai kualiti air yang baik di dalam sungai seperti yang dikehendaki oleh Piawaian Kualiti Kebangsaan Air (NWQS. Sebagai contoh, Ammoniakal Nitrogen (NH3-N dikenal pasti sebagai salah satu bahan pencemar utama yang menyebabkan banyak sungai tercemar tetapi ia tidak dianggap sebagai parameter pemantauan dalam EQA hingga peraturan baru diterbitkan pada tahun 2009. Yang menghairankan, peraturan baru menetapkan had efluen perindustrian dan kumbahan dibenarkan pada kepekatan NH3-N yang agak tinggi (5 mg / l, dan ini mungkin menyebabkan nilai Indeks Kualiti Air (WQI sungai rendah. Persekitaran air adalah sistem dinamik. Menjalankan semakan berkala mengenai syarat pemantauan, mengesan bahan pencemaran di dalam kumbahan, efluen dan aliran, dan semakan piawaian kualiti air yang wajar adalah perlu bagi pengurusan sumber air lestari di negara ini. KEYWORDS:Environmental Quality Act (EQA; point source (PS; non-point source (NPS; sustainable uses; Water Quality Index (WQI

  5. Quality assurance and quality control in water reactor fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear reactor technology has come to stay in our country. We are poised for a quantum leap in the generation of electricity through nuclear technology in the coming years. This stage has been reached not only by the confidence with the design and construction of reactors but also the confidence of the continuous operation of the reactors with high operational efficiency. Quality in all phases on nuclear power plant from concept to operation has always been recognised as a requirement. The part played by the fuel in the successful operation of water reactors need not be over emphasised. During the manufacture of nuclear fuel, a comprehensive system of quality control at all stages of manufacture has been established. In addition, quality assurance system involving a continuous evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of the overall quality control programme and with a view of having corrective measures initiated wherever necessary. Efforts have been concentrated on the manufacture of quality nuclear fuel with near zero failure rate. This paper describes in detail the quality control measures and reactions being taken during all the stages of manufacture from the production of UO2 powder to the packing and despatch of fuel bundles to the reactor sites. The additional control measures taken on the basis of experience have also been highlighted. The salient features in the control of quality of both PHWR fuel and BWR fuel have been covered. Improvements/ modifications that are envisaged in the existing procedure to increase the confidence level in the quality of fuel have been highlighted. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Water and water quality management in the cholistan desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water scarcity is the main problem in Cholistan desert. Rainfall is scanty and sporadic and groundwater is saline in most of the area. Rainwater is collected in man made small storages, locally called tobas during rainy season for human and livestock consumption. These tobas usually retain rainwater for three to four months at the maximum, due to small storage capacity and unfavorable location. After the tobas become dry, people use saline groundwater for human and livestock consumption where marginal quality groundwater is available. In complete absence of water they migrate towards canal irrigated areas till the next rains. During migration humans and livestock suffer from hunger, thirst and diseases. In order to overcome this problem Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) has introduced improved designs of tobas. The PCRWR is collecting more than 13.0 million cubic meter rainwater annually from only ninety hectare catchment area. As a result, water is available for drinking of human and livestock population as well as to wild life through out the year for the village of Dingarh in Cholistan desert. However, water collected in these tobas is usually muddy and full of impurities. To provide good quality drinking water to the residents of Cholistan, PCRWR has launched a Project under which required quantity of drinkable water will be provided at more than seventy locations by rainwater harvesting, pumping of good and marginal quality groundwater and desalination of moderately saline water through Reverse Osmosis Plants. After the completion of project, more then 380 million gallons of fresh rainwater and more than 1300 million gallons of good and marginal quality groundwater will be available annually. Intervention to collect the silt before reaching to the tobas are also introduced, low cost filter plants are designed and constructed on the tobas for purification of water. (author)

  7. Extrinsic Tooth Enamel Color Changes and Their Relationship with the Quality of Water Consumed

    OpenAIRE

    Maria da Luz Rosário de Sousa; Juliana Rocha Gonçalves; Kathleen Rebelo de Sousa; Marília Jesus Batista

    2012-01-01

    The quality of the consumed drinking water may affect oral health. For example, the presence of iron in drinking water can cause aesthetic problems related to changes in dental enamel color. This study assessed the prevalence of extrinsic enamel color changes and their relationship with the quality of the water in the town of Caapiranga/AM-Brazil. Three hundred and forty six residents of the urban area were examined, and they also answered a questionnaire on eating habits and self-perceived o...

  8. Quality assurance plan, Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Quality Assurance Program used by Westinghouse Nuclear Energy Systems Water Reactor Divisions is described. The purpose of the program is to assure that the design, materials, and workmanship on Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) equipment meet applicable safety requirements, fulfill the requirements of the contracts with the applicants, and satisfy the applicable codes, standards, and regulatory requirements

  9. Water quality modelling in river Hron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation authors deals with the water quality modelling in river Hron (Slovakia). There are presented the following schemes: Dissolved oxygen model scheme; Nitrogen transfer and transport model scheme; Phosphorus model scheme. Mathematical model MIKE 11, ver. 2000a was used

  10. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Animal Health and...

  11. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-one participants from Europe, North America and China convened in Chongqing, China, October 12-14, 2005, for the Eighth International Symposium in Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was "Hypoxia in vertebrates: Comparisons of terrestr...

  12. Evaluating Water Quality in a Suburban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S. M.; Garza, N.

    2008-12-01

    A water quality analysis and modeling study is currently being conducted on the Martinez Creek, a small catchment within Cibolo watershed, a sub-basin of the San Antonio River, Texas. Several other major creeks, such as Salatrillo, Escondido, and Woman Hollering merge with Martinez Creek. Land use and land cover analysis shows that the major portion of the watershed is dominated by residential development with average impervious cover percentage of approximately 40% along with a some of agricultural areas and brushlands. This catchment is characterized by the presence of three small wastewater treatment plants. Previous site visits and sampling of water quality indicate the presence of algae and fecal coliform bacteria at levels well above state standards at several locations in the catchment throughout the year. Due to the presence of livestock, residential development and wastewater treatment plants, a comprehensive understanding of water quality is important to evaluate the sources and find means to control pollution. As part of the study, a spatial and temporal water quality analyses of conventional parameters as well as emerging contaminants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals and microbial pathogens is being conducted to identify critical locations and sources. Additionally, the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) will be used to identify best management practices that can be incorporated given the projected growth and development and feasibility.

  13. AFRRI TRIGA Reactor water quality monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AFRRI has started a water quality monitoring program to provide base line data for early detection of tank leaks. This program revealed problems with growth of algae and bacteria in the pool as a result of contamination with nitrogenous matter. Steps have been taken to reduce the nitrogen levels and to kill and remove algae and bacteria from the reactor pool. (author)

  14. Book Recommendation: Advances in Water Quality Control

    OpenAIRE

    Gail Krantzberg; Aysegul Tanik

    2010-01-01

    Book Recommendation: Advances in Water Quality Control Gail Krantzberg, Aysegul Tanik et al. Scientific Research Publishing, 2010 316 pages ISBN: 978-1-935068-08-2 Paperback (US$89.00) E-book (US$89.00) Order online: www.scirp.org/book Order by email: bookorder@scirp.org

  15. ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER QUALITY STATUS BY USING WATER QUALITY INDEX (WQI METHOD IN TURENI VILLAGE, CLUJ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA RO?U

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The rural population from Romania is dealing even today with the absence of access to a sure drinking water source. Therefore in 2002 only 65% of the Romanian population had access to drinking water, distributed in 90% from the urban environment and 33% from the rural one (www.recensamant2002.ro. This work presents a case study referring to a 3 month (April-May-June 2011 monitoring of weekly samples of the quality of well water (10 samples from Tureni village, Cluj County. A portable multiparameter model WTW 720 Germany was used to measure the pH, total dissolved solids (TDS, electrical conductivity (EC, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential and salinity of the collected water samples (these tests were done on site. In laboratory, using the photometric method (RQ Flex instrument, Merck we determined : Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, Cl- and NO3- (C. Nertan et C. Rosu, 2008. The analyzed well water samples have values over the legally admitted limits by the Romanian legislation for the drinking waters (L 458/2002 in the calcium cation, the nitrate and sulfate anion, but also in the global parameters: salinity and TDS.

  16. Evaluation of the quality of urban soils in Sopron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Adrienn; Kámán, Orsolya; Németh, Eszter; Sz?cs, Péter; Bidló, András

    2013-04-01

    The location and evolution of the cities were fundamentally influenced by the environmental factors and the characteristics of the landscape. In order to investigate the soil we have collected samples from various sampling sites in a west hungarian city, called Sopron. The soil samples were taken from 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth within a standard network in the city and its industrial territories. The values we gained through our examinations were placed on a digital map with GIS (Geospatial Information system) methods. After entering the pH values, the acidity of the parental material can be observed in both layers on the southwest forest territories of the city, moreover the - so far insignificant - alkalizing of the city territories compared to the surroundings due to the land-shaping activities of mankind. We cannot find any carbonated lime in one fourth of the samples, these samples came mostly from the mountainous surrounding of the city. In the samples from the internal areas of the city, however, carbonated lime could be found particularly due to the disposal of construction scrap. The upper layer of the examined soil is rich on humus, in spite of the increasing landscape usage and alteration of the structure. The highest humus and nitrogen values could be found in the soil of the forests near to the television tower, in the lower layers the amount of organic material was less. The lowest AL-solvent potassium values could be found in these areas, as well. We have found significant values of AL-solvent phosphorus, KCI-solvent potassium and magnesium in vehicular zones or near agricultural land. Higher iron content could be found in the samples of acid forest territories, the manganese values follow these tendencies. The highest zinc values can be shown in both layers near the bus station and the roads with the highest traffic. The copper tests gave us steadily high values at several sampling points throughout the Virágvölgy-site and the separate house zone of the city. In the course of our examination we were trying to find a connection between land usage and land status which would allow the evaluation of the future status and the processing of the necessary improvement methods. Based on our experiments the unique character of the city is fading away, the qualification of the peripheral areas is changing, the land use is condensing which lead to a declining quality of urban soil. In this year we will start to analyse the heavy metal content and chemical compositions of the collected soil samples with infrared spectrometry to get a whole picture about the industrial and the anthropogenic effects.

  17. Prediction on Water Quality of Point-Source Pollution for Lunchoo River, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rafidah Shahperi; Mohd Fadhil Md. Din; Zulhilmi Ismail; Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan

    2011-01-01

    The growth in urbanization, industrialization and irrigated agriculture are imposing growing demands and pressure on water resources. As a case in point, Lunchoo River, Malaysia was considered on of the contributing factor to water quality deterioration with regional consequences on the aquatic ecosystem. Moreover, it also deemed to affect the health of the downstream sub-basin user group. Influenced by tidal, restricted exchange between estuaries and the open sea allows rapid change in salin...

  18. Using integrated multivariate statistics to assess the hydrochemistry of surface water quality, Lake Taihu basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangyu Mu; James Brower; Donald I. Siegel; Anthony J. Fiorentino II; Shuqing An; Ying Cai; Delin Xu; Hao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Natural factors and anthropogenic activities both contribute dissolved chemical loads to  lakes and streams.  Mineral solubility,  geomorphology of the drainage basin, source strengths and climate all contribute to concentrations and their variability. Urbanization and agriculture waste-water particularly lead to aquatic environmental degradation. Major contaminant sources and controls on water quality can be asssessed by analyzing the variability in proportions of major and minor solutes in ...

  19. Does No Child Left Behind Really Capture School Quality? Evidence from an Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Heather E.

    2010-01-01

    Before revising the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation under the new administration, policy makers need to be informed as to whether or not the NCLB labeling formula adequately distinguishes good-quality schools from poor-quality schools. This study tests this question, using rich descriptive data for Milwaukee's urban school district (MPS).…

  20. Disconnecting the autopilot in urban water projects : creating an innovation platform for sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2011-01-01

    How can we motivate urban planners, water utilities and house owners to collaborate about sustainable urban water projects and to aim for solutions that go beyond the narrow perspective of individual stakeholder interests? A concept for framing a multidisciplinary learning process is developed in the research project: Black blue green: Integrated infrastructure planning as key to sustainable urban water systems, with the acronym 2BG. The concept addresses the need for local authorities to develop competences for adopting an integrated approach including different internal departments. The concept is referred to as ‘the 2BG platform concept’. The 2BG platform concept as been tested three times and proves to a step in the intended directions of developing organisational competences for an integrated approach in sustainable urban water projects. Primarily because it invites urban planners, road and park managers, and sewage managers to a dialogue about sustainable urban water projects while exploring cases of new design solutions; secondly because it facilitates an appreciative communication between “softer” and “harder” disciplines, and thirdly because it promotes multidisciplinary thinking during the early stages of an urban water project. To realise new sustainable urban water designs a project team will need to engage and get acceptance from internal and external stakeholders, and this calls for communication and social skills rather than technical skills. The paper identifies potential stakeholders that can support or potentially stop urban water projects. Competences of network governance represent a need to break out of the conventional urban water design and to develop new designs where storm water is handled visible to citizens. The platform concept is in a Danish context a milestone in capacity building for integrating urban planning with water management and management of parks and roads, and might inspire others to rethink planning processes and to build organisational competences to innovate urban watermanagement for the benefit of present and future citizens.

  1. Water quality in the Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi, and Tennessee, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, J. Brian; Zappia, Humbert; Robinson, James L.; McPherson, Ann K.; Moreland, Richard S.; Harned, Douglas A.; Johnston, Brett F.; Harvill, John S.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999?2001 assessment of water quality in the Mobile River Basin. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that water quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Mobile River Basin summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed from the Mobile River Basin Web site (http://al.water.usgs.gov/pubs/mobl/mobl.html). Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa).

  2. Ground-Water Quality and its Relation to Land Use on Oahu, Hawaii, 2000-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Water quality in the main drinking-water source aquifers of Oahu was assessed by a one-time sampling of untreated ground water from 30 public-supply wells and 15 monitoring wells. The 384 square-mile study area, which includes urban Honolulu and large tracts of forested, agricultural, and suburban residential lands in central Oahu, accounts for 93 percent of the island's ground-water withdrawals. Organic compounds were detected in 73 percent of public-supply wells, but mostly at low concentrations below minimum reporting levels. Concentrations exceeded drinking-water standards in just a few cases: the solvent trichloroethene and the radionuclide radon-222 exceeded Federal standards in one public-supply well each, and the fumigants 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) exceeded State standards in three public-supply wells each. Solvents, fumigants, trihalomethanes, and herbicides were prevalent (detected in more than 30 percent of samples) but gasoline components and insecticides were detected in few wells. Most water samples contained complex mixtures of organic compounds: multiple solvents, fumigants, or herbicides, and in some cases compounds from two or all three of these classes. Characteristic suites of chemicals were associated with particular land uses and geographic locales. Solvents were associated with central Oahu urban-military lands whereas fumigants, herbicides, and fertilizer nutrients were associated with central Oahu agricultural lands. Somewhat unexpectedly, little contamination was detected in Honolulu where urban density is highest, most likely as a consequence of sound land-use planning, favorable aquifer structure, and less intensive application of chemicals (or of less mobile chemicals) over recharge zones in comparison to agricultural areas. For the most part, organic and nutrient contamination appear to reflect decades-old releases and former land use. Most ground-water ages were decades old, with recharge dates ranging from pre-1940 to the present, and with most dates falling within the 1950s to 1980s time span. Several widely detected compounds were discontinued as long ago as the 1970s but have yet to be flushed from the ground-water system. Although large tracts of land in central Oahu have been converted from agriculture to residential urban use since the 1950s, water quality in the converted areas still more closely reflects the former agricultural land. It appears to be too early to detect a distinct water-quality signature characteristic of the newer urban use, although several urban turfgrass herbicides in use for just 10 years or so were detected in monitoring wells and may represent early arrivals of urban contaminants at the water table.

  3. Water Quality Data Analysis for Kanhan River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal K. Kamble

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Kanhan River originates from the high lands of Chindawara District and flows in south east direction for about 160 kms before it enters the state of Maharashtra near Raiwari village in Saoner Taluka of Nagpur District. Nagpur city is presently getting water for from two major sources namely Kanhan River (Head work located near village Juni Kamptee &Pench Dam (through Right Bank Canal with Lifting Point at Mahadula at 48.5 Km of canal. Samples were collected from seven major locations along the stretch of river. The samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis and performed during summer, rainy and winter seasons. The physicochemical parameters of the water samples includes pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity (EC, suspended solids (SS, total dissolved solids (TDS, total solids (TS, dissolved oxygen (DO and biological oxygen demand (BOD. The water quality index (WQI is used to evaluate the quality of the river water for drinking in rainy, winter and summer season.The study was carried out to examine the change in the quality of the river water due to addition of human waste discharge, industrial waste discharge into river body and the seasonal variation in the physicochemical properties of the river.

  4. Comparison of different uncertainty techniques in urban stormwater quantity and quality modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotto, C. B.; Mannina, G.

    2012-01-01

    Urban drainage models are important tools used by both practitioners and scientists in the field of stormwater management. These models are often conceptual and usually require calibration using local data sets. The quantification of the uncertainty associated with the models is a must, although it is rarely practiced. The International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, has been working on the development of a framework for defining and assessing uncertainties in the field of urban drainage modelling. A part of that work is the assessment and comparison of different techniques generally used in the uncertainty assessment of the parameters of water models. This paper compares a number of these techniques: the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), the Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis algorithm (SCEM-UA), an approach based on a multi-objective auto-calibration (a multialgorithm, genetically adaptive multiobjective method, AMALGAM) and a Bayesian approach based on a simplified Markov Chain Monte Carlo method (implemented in the software MICA). To allow a meaningful comparison among the different uncertainty techniques, common criteria have been set for the likelihood formulation, defining the number of simulations, and the measure of uncertainty bounds. Moreover, all the uncertainty techniques were implemented for the same case study, in which the same stormwater quantity and quality model was used alongside the same dataset. The comparison results for a well-posed rainfall/runoff model showed that the four methods provide similar probability distributions of model parameters, and model prediction intervals. For ill-posed water quality model the differences between the results were much wider; and the paper the specific advantages and disadvantages of each method. In relation to computational efficiency (i.e. number of iterations required to generate the probability distribution of parameters), it was found that SCEM-UA and AMALGAMproduce results quicker than GLUE in terms of required number of simulations. However, GLUE requires the lowest modelling skills and is easy to implement. All non-Bayesian methods have problems with the way they accept behavioural parameter sets, e.g. GLUE, SCEM-UA and AMALGAM have subjective acceptance thresholds, while MICA has usually problem with its hypothesis on normality of residuals. It is concluded that modellers should select the method which is most suitable for the system they are modelling (e.g. complexity of the model’s structure including the number of parameters), their skill/knowledge level, the available information, and the purpose of their study.

  5. Littered cigarette butts as a source of nicotine in urban waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder Green, Amy L.; Putschew, Anke; Nehls, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The effect of nicotine from littered cigarette butts on the quality of urban water resources has yet to be investigated. This two-part study addresses the spatial variation, seasonal dynamics and average residence time of littered cigarette butts in public space, as well as the release of nicotine from cigarette butts to run-off in urban areas during its residence time. Thereby, we tested two typical situations: release to standing water in a puddle and release during alternating rainfall and drying. The study took place in Berlin, Germany, a city which completely relies on its own water resources to meet its drinking water demand. Nine typical sites located in a central district, each divided into 20 plots were studied during five sampling periods between May 2012 and February 2013. The nicotine release from standardized cigarette butts prepared with a smoking machine was examined in batch and rainfall experiments. Littered cigarette butts are unevenly distributed among both sites and plots. The average butt concentration was 2.7 m-2 (SD = 0.6 m-2, N = 862); the maximum plot concentration was 48.8 butts m-2. This heterogeneity is caused by preferential littering (gastronomy, entrances, bus stops), redistribution processes such as litter removal (gastronomy, shop owners), and the increased accumulation in plots protected from mechanized street sweeping (tree pits, bicycle stands). No significant seasonal variation of cigarette butt accumulation was observed. On average, cigarette butt accumulation is characterized by a 6 days cadence due to the rhythm and effectiveness of street sweeping (mean weekly butt accumulation rate = 0.18 m-2 d-1; SD = 0.15 m-1). Once the butt is exposed to standing water, elution of nicotine occurs rapidly. Standardized butts released 7.3 mg g-1 nicotine in a batch experiment (equivalent to 2.5 mg L-1), 50% of which occurred within the first 27 min. In the rainfall experiment, the cumulative nicotine release from fifteen consecutive precipitation events (each 1.4 mm) was 3.8 mg g-1, with 47% during the first event. According to these results, one cigarette butt may contaminate an amount of 1000 L water to concentrations above the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) of only 2.4 × 10-3 mg L-1 (Valcárcel et al., 2011). Given the continuous littering of cigarette butts, and the rapid release of nicotine, cigarette butts are assessed to be a relevant threat to the quality of urban waters and consequently to drinking water.

  6. Fecal Contamination in the Surface Waters of a Rural- and an Urban-Source Watershed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Emma C.; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup

    2015-01-01

    Surface waters are commonly used as source water for drinking water and irrigation. Knowledge of sources of fecal pollution in source watersheds benefits the design of effective source water protection plans. This study analyzed the relationships between enteric pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Campylobacter spp. [C. jejuni, C. lari and C. coli]), water quality (turbidity, temperature, E. coli), and human and ruminant/cow Bacteroidales and mitochondrial DNA-based fecal source tracking (FST) markers in two source watersheds. Water samples (n=329) were collected at 10 sites (5 in each watershed) over 18 months. The human Bacteroidales marker (HF183) occurred in 9-10% of the water samples at nine sampling sites; while a forested site in the urban watershed tested negative. Ruminant/cow Bacteroidales markers (BacR and CowM2) only appeared in the rural watershed (6%). The mtDNA markers (HcytB and AcytB) showed the same pattern but were less sensitive due to lower fecal concentrations. Higher prevalences (P<0.05) of Campylobacter spp. (41 vs. 16% for the rural and urban watershed, respectively) and E. coli O157:H7 (12 vs. 3%) were observed in the rural watershed, while Salmonella spp. levels were comparable (23-28%). Densities of E. coli ? 100 colony-forming units (CFU) 100 mL-1 increased the odds (P<0.05) of detecting the enteric bacterial pathogens. The water turbidity levels (NTU ? 1.0) similarly predicted (P<0.05) pathogen presence. Storm events increased (P<0.01) pathogen and fecal marker concentrations in the waterways. The employment of multiple FST methods suggested failing onsite wastewater systems contribute to human fecal pollution in both watersheds.

  7. Sanitation in unsewered urban poor areas: technology selection, quantitative microbial risk assessment and grey water treatment:

    OpenAIRE

    Katukiza, A.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The sanitation crisis in unsewered urban slums of cities in developing countries is one of the challenges that need to be addressed. It is caused by the high rate of urbanisation in developing countries and the increasing urban population with limited urban infrastructure. The major issues of concern are the collection, treatment and safe disposal of excreta, grey water and solid waste. The goal of this study was to contribute to the sanitation improvement in urban slums with focus on sanitat...

  8. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and submit biennially to the Regional Administrator a water quality report in accordance with section 305(b) of the...

  9. Water for a few : a history of urban water and sanitation in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, David

    2006-01-01

    This licentiate thesis describes and analyses the modern history of the socio-technical systems for urban water supply and sanitation in East Africa with focus on Uganda and Kenya. The key objective of the thesis is to evaluate to what extent the historic processes frame and influence the water and sanitation services sectors in these countries today. The theoretical approach combines the Large Technical Systems approach from the discipline of History of Technology with New Institutional Econ...

  10. Qualitative And Quantitative Assessment Of Drained Water From Urban Ground-Water

    OpenAIRE

    Al Hajri, Mohd. M.

    1992-01-01

    Although the groundwater table in the State of Qatar peninsula is reducing, there is a persistent increasing level of groundwater in some areas in Doha city. This increasing tendency could be attributed to the topography of the area, geological structure, rapid urbanization, increase in water consumption, uncontrolled irrigation of farms and green areas as well as the absence of storm-water drainage system. To lower the groundwater table, a drainage system has been laid through Rayan and Wadi...

  11. Artificial neural network modeling of the water quality index using land use areas as predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaz, Nabeel M; Yusoff, Mohd Kamil; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Juahir, Hafizan; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the design of an artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict the water quality index (WQI) using land use areas as predictors. Ten-year records of land use statistics and water quality data for Kinta River (Malaysia) were employed in the modeling process. The most accurate WQI predictions were obtained with the network architecture 7-23-1; the back propagation training algorithm; and a learning rate of 0.02. The WQI forecasts of this model had significant (p rubber > forest > logging > urban areas > agriculture > oil palm. These findings show that the ANNs are highly reliable means of relating water quality to land use, thus integrating land use development with river water quality management. PMID:25790513

  12. The Soundscape Quality in Some Urban Parks in Milan, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Zambon; Giovanni Brambilla; Veronica Gallo

    2013-01-01

    Urban parks play an important role in preserving and promoting the health of citizens who are often exposed to noise pollution and the stress of daily life. The present study describes the main results obtained from a survey performed in five urban parks in Milan. Measurements of the acoustic environment were carried out in 29 sites together with interviews with 231 users on certain aspects of the parks not limited to merely sound. Acoustic data show that the surveyed parks mostly do not comp...

  13. Heavy Metals Pollution of Ground Water in Urban and Sub-Urban Areas of Makurdi Metropolis – Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Mile

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines heavy metals pollution of ground water in the residential sector of Makurdi urban area and Yaikyô settlement – a peri-urban area of Makurdi metropolis. Water samples from fifteen (15 wells in Makurdi urban area and fifteen (15 wells in Yaikyô settlement were analysed for chromium (Cr, Cadmium (cd, Iron (Fe, and Copper (Cu. Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS method was used for water sample analysis. This was done in the peak of rainy season, in the month of September, 2012. The results of the analysis show that 100% of wells in Makurdi urban area had chromium levels above WHO guide limit for drinking water, while Yaikyô, a sub-urban area of Makurdi, had only 35.5% of wells with chromium levels above WHO standards. Ten out of fifteen wells representing 67% displayed cadmium levels above WHO limits in Makurdi urban area, while eleven out of fifteen wells (85% displayed cadmium levels above WHO limits in Yaikyô. Twelve out of fifteen wells representing 80% displayed iron levels above WHO guide limits in Makurdi, while thirteen out of fifteen wells representing 90%, showed iron levels above WHO guide limit in Yaikyô. All wells representing 100% displayed copper levels below WHO guide limit in both areas. High concentrations of heavy metals in drinking water are undesirable, toxic, hazardous, and affects portability of water. Source of metals in these wells is attributed to soil mineralogy, use of agro- chemicals on farms and other land use activities. All land use activities capable of polluting water s