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Integrated Urban Water Quality Management  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry weather, while the overflow from the combined sewer system plays a minor role. Oxygen depletion in urban rivers is caused by intermittent discharges from both sewer system and wastewater treatment plant. Neglecting one of them in the evaluation of the environmental impact gives a wrong impression of total system behaviour. Detention basins have limited positive effect for minimizing the acute pollution in rivers, but are useless in terms of accumulative pollution.

Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul

1995-01-01

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Effects of Urbanization on Water Quality: Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

... A Teachers Contact Back to previous page The effects of urbanization on water quality: Pesticides Pesticides are chemical and ... in the United States home page. Related topics: Effects of urbanization Ground-water quality Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and ...

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Water Quality Studies of Bellandur Lake, Urban Bangalore, Karnataka, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pace of urbanization is increasing globally, putting more pressure on local water quality. In addition to discharges of urban and industrial wastewater, urban areas add to poor water quality in a number of ways. The study was conducted to assess the water quality values of Bellandur Lake which is a major tank in Varthur of Bangalore SouthTaluk.Samples were collected in clean and sterilized plastic bottles of 2 litercapacity. The samples were collected to examine the water quality in the m...

Nandini, N.; Bheemappa, K.; Vijay Kumar, M.; V. Pattusamy,

2013-01-01

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Urban water quality evaluation using multivariate analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A data set, obtained for the sake of drinking water quality monitoring, was analysed by multivariate methods. Principal component analysis (PCA) reduced the data dimensionality from 18 original physico-chemical and microbiological parameters determined in drinking water samples to 6 principal components explaining about 83 % of the data variability. These 6 components represented inorganic salts, nitrate/pH, iron, chlorine, nitrite/ammonium traces, and heterotrophic bacteria. Using the PCA sc...

Petr Praus

2007-01-01

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URBAN GROWTH AND WATER QUALITY IN THIMPHU, BHUTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Detailed study was undertaken in 2008 and 2009 on assessment of water quality of River Wang Chhu which flows through Thimphu urban area, the capital city of Bhutan. The water samples were examined at upstream of urban area, within the urban area and its downstream. The water samples were analyzed by studying the physico-chemical, biological and benthic macro-invertebrates. The water quality data obtained during present study are discussed in relation to land use/land cover changes(LULC and various ongoing human activities at upstream, within the each activity areas and it’s downstream. Analyses of satellite imagery of 1990 and 2008 using GIS revealed that over a period of eighteen years the forest, scrub and agricultural areas have decreased whereas urban area and road network have increased considerably. The forest cover, agriculture area and scrub decreased from 43.3% to 42.57%, 6.88% to 5.33% and 42.55% to 29.42%, respectively. The LULC changes effect water quality in many ways. The water temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, total coliform, and biological oxygen demand were lower at upstream and higher in urban area. On the other hand dissolved oxygen was found higher at upstream and lower in urban area. The pollution sensitive benthic macro-invertebrates population were dominant at upstream sampling sites whereas pollution tolerant benthic macro-invertebrates were found abundant in urban area and its immediate downstream. The rapid development of urban infrastructure in Thimphu city may be posing serious threats to water regime in terms of its quality. Though the deterioration of water quality is restricted to a few localized areas, the trend is serious and needs proper attention of policy planners and decision makers. Proper treatment of effluents from urban areas is urgently needed to reduce water pollution in such affected areas to check further deterioration of water quality. This present study which is based on upstream, within urban area and downstream of Thimphu city can be considered as an eye opener.

Nandu Giri

2013-06-01

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Urban water quality evaluation using multivariate analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A data set, obtained for the sake of drinking water quality monitoring, was analysed by multivariate methods. Principal component analysis (PCA reduced the data dimensionality from 18 original physico-chemical and microbiological parameters determined in drinking water samples to 6 principal components explaining about 83 % of the data variability. These 6 components represented inorganic salts, nitrate/pH, iron, chlorine, nitrite/ammonium traces, and heterotrophic bacteria. Using the PCA scatter plot and the Ward's clustering of the samples characterized by the first and second principal components, three clusters were revealed. These clusters sorted drinking water samples according to their origin - ground and surface water. The PCA results were confirmed by the factor analysis and hierarchical clustering of the original data.

Petr Praus

2007-06-01

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Water Quality Studies of Bellandur Lake, Urban Bangalore, Karnataka, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pace of urbanization is increasing globally, putting more pressure on local water quality. In addition to discharges of urban and industrial wastewater, urban areas add to poor water quality in a number of ways. The study was conducted to assess the water quality values of Bellandur Lake which is a major tank in Varthur of Bangalore SouthTaluk.Samples were collected in clean and sterilized plastic bottles of 2 litercapacity. The samples were collected to examine the water quality in the month of February 2013 of Bellandur Lake, 30 cm below the surface of water and brought to the laboratory for Physico-chemical parameters analysis.Selected parameters were analyzed by following standard methods APHA, (2005.The obtained results were subjected to Statistical Analysisusing Microsoft offices excel 2010.The water quality of Bellandurlakehas exaggerated due by the consequent changes and urbanization, which indicated the physico-chemical concentrations of lakes found in high levels. Despite of some conservation efforts made by the authorities this lake is threatening immeasurably. Continuous monitoring of lakes should be enacted properly as from the origin point at the end to overcome these situations.

N.Nandini

2013-06-01

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ECONOMIC/FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...

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Urban and peri-urban agricultural production in Beijing Municipality and its impact on water quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews water use and water resource issues in Beijing Municipality, the main trends in the agricultural production systems in and around the city with respect to land use, input use, production and economic role, and the impacts of agricultural activities on water quality. Rapid urbanization and strong intensification of agricultural production have meant that the quantity and quality of available water resources have become matters of concern. The agricultural sector still has a ...

Diepen, C. A.; Wijk, M. S.; Xu Cheng; Roetter, R. P.; Jongbloed, A. W.; Yanxia Hu; Changhe Lu; Keulen, H.; Wolf, J.

2003-01-01

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Urban Ethnohydrology: Cultural Knowledge of Water Quality and Water Management in a Desert City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Popular concern over water quality has important implications for public water management because it can both empower water utilities to improve service but also limit their ability to make changes. In the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, obtaining sufficient high-quality water resources for a growing urban population poses a major challenge. Decision makers and urban hydrologists are aware of these challenges to water sustainability but the range of acceptable policy and management options available to them is constrained by public opinion. Therefore, this study examines cultural models of water quality and water management, termed ethnohydrology, among urban residents. The study yields three key findings. First, urban residents appear to have a shared model of ethnohydrology which holds that a there are significant water quality risks associated with low financial investments in city-wide water treatment and the desert location of Phoenix, and b government monitoring and management combined with household-level water treatment can yield water of an acceptable quality. Second, people with high incomes are more likely to engage in expensive water filtration activities and to agree with the cultural ethnohydrology model found. Third, people living in communities that are highly concerned about water quality are less likely to share high agreement around ethnohydrology. The results have implications for water policy making and planning, particularly in disadvantaged and vulnerable communities where water quality is perceived to be low.

Paul Westerhoff

2010-12-01

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Temporal and spatial variations in the relationship between urbanization and water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the development of economy, most of Chinese cities are at the stage of rapid urbanization in recent years, which has caused many environmental problems, especially the serious deterioration of water quality. Therefore, the research of the relationship between urbanization and water quality has important theoretical and practical significance, and it is also the main restriction factor in the urbanization advancement. In this work, we investigated the impact of urbanization on the water quality of the nearby river. We established a comprehensive environmental assessment framework by combining urbanization and water quality, and one model was designed to examine the impact of urbanization on the water quality in Jinan from 2001 to 2010 with factor component analysis. The assessment of urbanization level was accomplished using a comprehensive index system, which was based on four aspects: demographic urbanization, economic urbanization, land urbanization, and social urbanization. In addition, synthetic pollution index method was utilized to assess the water pollution of Xiaoqing River in the study area. Through the analysis of regression curves, we conclude that (1) when the urbanization level is below 25 %, the relationship is low and irregular; (2) if the urbanization level varies between 25 and 40 %, there will be an irreversible degradation of stream water quality; (3) there is a positive correlation between urbanization and pollution levels of urban river after the adjustment period; and (4) land and demographic aspects have the highest independent contribution. This study is a useful reference for policymakers in terms of economic and environmental management. PMID:24974792

Ren, Lijun; Cui, Erqian; Sun, Haoyu

2014-12-01

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Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversit...

Graves, Alexandria K.; Murinda, Shelton E.; Mark Ibekwe, A.

2011-01-01

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Assessing impact of urbanization on river water quality in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone is one of the most developed regions in China. It has been undergoing a rapid urbanization since the reformation and opening of China in 1978. This process plays a significant impact on the urban environment, particularly river water quality. The main goal of this present study is to assess the impact of urban activities especially urbanization on river water quality for the study area. Some Landsat TM images from 2000 were used to map the areas for different pollution levels of urban river sections for the study area. In addition, an improved equalized synthetic pollution index method was utilized to assess the field analytical results. The results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the rapidity of urbanization and the pollution levels of urban river water. Compared to the rural river water, urban river water was polluted more seriously. During the urban development process, urbanization and urban activities had a significant negative impact on the river water quality. PMID:16738781

Ouyang, Tingping; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Kuang, Yaoqiu

2006-09-01

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Impact of anthropogenic activities on urban stream water quality: a case study in Guangzhou, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic activities are increasingly impacting the quality of urban surface water, particularly in regions undergoing intensive urbanization, such as Guangzhou of South China with a large urban stream network. To examine such impacts, we conducted field sampling on December 24, 2010, May 24, 2011, and August 28, 2011, representative of the low-, normal-, and high-flow periods, respectively. The first sampling was timed immediately after the closing of the 16th Asian Games (November 12-27, 2010) and the 10th Asian Para Games (December 12-19, 2010) held in Guangzhou. Assessments based on a pollution index method showed that the urban streams under investigation were extremely polluted, with direct discharge of untreated domestic sewage identified as the main pollution contributor. In addition, stream water quality around urban villages with high population densities was worse than that within business districts away from the urban villages. Pollution control measures implemented in preparation for the Asian Games were effective for urban streams within the business districts, but less effective for those adjacent to the urban villages. However, short-term efforts may not be able to achieve sustainable urban water quality improvements. In the case of Guangzhou, minimizing or even eliminating direct point-source inputs to the urban streams is perhaps the best option. PMID:25009093

Liu, Jin-Song; Guo, Ling-Chuan; Luo, Xian-Lin; Chen, Fan-Rong; Zeng, Eddy Y

2014-12-01

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Scale Effects on Spatially Varying Relationships Between Urban Landscape Patterns and Water Quality  

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Scientific interpretation of the relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality is important for sustainable urban planning and watershed environmental protection. This study applied the ordinary least squares regression model and the geographically weighted regression model to examine the spatially varying relationships between 12 explanatory variables (including three topographical factors, four land use parameters, and five landscape metrics) and 15 water quality indicators in watersheds of Yundang Lake, Maluan Bay, and Xinglin Bay with varying levels of urbanization in Xiamen City, China. A local and global investigation was carried out at the watershed-level, with 50 and 200 m riparian buffer scales. This study found that topographical features and landscape metrics are the dominant factors of water quality, while land uses are too weak to be considered as a strong influential factor on water quality. Such statistical results may be related with the characteristics of land use compositions in our study area. Water quality variations in the 50 m buffer were dominated by topographical variables. The impact of landscape metrics on water quality gradually strengthen with expanding buffer zones. The strongest relationships are obtained in entire watersheds, rather than in 50 and 200 m buffer zones. Spatially varying relationships and effective buffer zones were verified in this study. Spatially varying relationships between explanatory variables and water quality parameters are more diversified and complex in less urbanized areas than in highly urbanized areas. This study hypothesizes that all these varying relationships may be attributed to the heterogeneity of landscape patterns in different urban regions. Adjustment of landscape patterns in an entire watershed should be the key measure to successfully improving urban lake water quality.

Sun, Yanwei; Guo, Qinghai; Liu, Jian; Wang, Run

2014-08-01

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Scale effects on spatially varying relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific interpretation of the relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality is important for sustainable urban planning and watershed environmental protection. This study applied the ordinary least squares regression model and the geographically weighted regression model to examine the spatially varying relationships between 12 explanatory variables (including three topographical factors, four land use parameters, and five landscape metrics) and 15 water quality indicators in watersheds of Yundang Lake, Maluan Bay, and Xinglin Bay with varying levels of urbanization in Xiamen City, China. A local and global investigation was carried out at the watershed-level, with 50 and 200 m riparian buffer scales. This study found that topographical features and landscape metrics are the dominant factors of water quality, while land uses are too weak to be considered as a strong influential factor on water quality. Such statistical results may be related with the characteristics of land use compositions in our study area. Water quality variations in the 50 m buffer were dominated by topographical variables. The impact of landscape metrics on water quality gradually strengthen with expanding buffer zones. The strongest relationships are obtained in entire watersheds, rather than in 50 and 200 m buffer zones. Spatially varying relationships and effective buffer zones were verified in this study. Spatially varying relationships between explanatory variables and water quality parameters are more diversified and complex in less urbanized areas than in highly urbanized areas. This study hypothesizes that all these varying relationships may be attributed to the heterogeneity of landscape patterns in different urban regions. Adjustment of landscape patterns in an entire watershed should be the key measure to successfully improving urban lake water quality. PMID:24838413

Sun, Yanwei; Guo, Qinghai; Liu, Jian; Wang, Run

2014-08-01

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Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai has experienced an extensive urban expansion since the early 1980s, with an attendant cost in environmental degradation. We use an integrated pollution index to study the temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas between 1982 and 2005. Data on monitored cross-sections were collected from the Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of surface water quality was determined by the level of urbanization. Surface water qualities in urban and suburban areas were improved by strengthening the environmental policies and management, but were worsening in rural areas. The relationship between economic growth and surface water quality in Shanghai showed an inversed-U-shaped curve, which reflected a similar pattern in most developed countries. This research suggests that decision makers and city officials should be more aware of the recent pollution increases in Shanghai. - An integrated pollution index documents the deterioration of water quality in greater Shanghai, recently most serious in rural sections

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Shallow ground-water quality beneath a major urban center: Denver, Colorado, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of the chemical quality of ground water in the unconsolidated alluvial aquifer beneath a major urban center (Denver, Colorado, USA) was performed in 1993 with the objective of characterizing the quality of shallow ground-water in the urban area and relating water quality to land use. Thirty randomly selected alluvial wells were each sampled once for a broad range of dissolved constituents. The urban land use at each well site was sub-classified into one of three land-use settings: residential, commercial, and industrial. Shallow ground-water quality was highly variable in the urban area and the variability could be related to these land-use setting classifications. Sulfate (SO 4) was the predominant anion in most samples from the residential and commercial land-use settings, whereas bicarbonate (HCO 3) was the predominant anion in samples from the industrial land-use setting, indicating a possible shift in redox conditions associated with land use. Only three of 30 samples had nitrate concentrations that exceeded the US national drinking-water standard of 10 mg l -1 as nitrogen, indicating that nitrate contamination of shallow ground water may not be a serious problem in this urban area. However, the highest median nitrate concentration (4.2 mg l -1) was in samples from the residential setting, where fertilizer application is assumed to be most intense. Twenty-seven of 30 samples had detectable pesticides and nine of 82 analyzed pesticide compounds were detected at low concentrations, indicating that pesticides are widely distributed in shallow ground water in this urban area. Although the highest median total pesticide concentration (0.17 ?g l -) was in the commercial setting, the herbicides prometon and atrazine were found in each land-use setting. Similarly, 25 of 29 samples analyzed had detectable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indicating these compounds are also widely distributed in this urban area. The total VOC concentrations in sampled wells ranged from nondetectable to 23 442 ?g l -. Widespread detections and occasionally high concentrations point to VOCs as the major anthropogenic ground-water impact in this urban environment. Generally, the highest VOC concentrations occurred in samples from the industrial setting. The most frequently detected VOC was the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, in 23 of 29 wells). Results from this study indicate that the quality of shallow ground water in major urban areas can be related to land-use settings. Moreover, some VOCs and pesitides may be widely distributed at low concentrations in shallow ground water throughout major urban areas. As a result, the differentiation between point and non-point sources for these compounds in urban areas may be difficult.

Bruce, Breton W.; McMahon, Peter B.

1996-11-01

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Urban water interfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental understanding of aquatic interface processes in urban environments, advance understanding of current and future system behaviour, and promote an integrated urban water management.

Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

2014-06-01

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Constraining nitrogen inputs to urban streams from leaking sewer infrastructure using inverse modeling: Implications for urban water quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Excess fixed nitrogen contributes to stream degradation in densely populated regions, compounding problems of surface water contamination in urban landscapes. In particular, leaking sewer infrastructure is an acknowledged source of non-point source (NPS) nitrogen pollution to ground- and surface water in urban areas; however quantification of such contributions is exceedingly limited. This lack of knowledge inhibits efforts to understand urban nitrogen retention and export, despite the potential for this source to impact downstream water quality. Nine Mile Run (NMR), a restored urban stream in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA), drains a 1600 hectare urban watershed characterized by a high degree of impervious surface cover (38%). For years known locally as "stink creek," NMR remains significantly impacted by combined sewer overflows, leaky sewers, and degraded water quality. In order to assess sources of impairment, water samples were collected from four locations bi-weekly over two years, intensive sampling was conducted during one summer storm and DIN concentrations in water samples were analyzed (where DIN = nitrate + nitrite + ammonium). Using DIN concentrations, discharge records, published estimates of urban watershed nitrogen retention, and known inputs of atmospherically deposited nitrogen, a watershed nitrogen budget was constructed for NMR and subsequently inverted to constrain potential sewage inputs. Retention estimates ranging from 65 to 85% were applied and resulting calculations indicate that DIN contributions from sewage ranged from 5.5 to 25 kg ha-1yr-1. This research documents the potential contribution of sewage to DIN loads in urban streams and highlights the challenges of reducing nutrient pollution to receiving waters in cities with aging, degraded sewer lines.

Sikora, M. T.; Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC, but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistant genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains that may result in increased duration and severity of morbidity.

Alexandria K. Graves

2011-11-01

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Urban impacts on the water quality of selected water bodies in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban systems belong to the major input sources for pollutants into aquatic systems. In China, the rising urbanisation and industrialisation causes a growing pressure on rivers, lakes and estuaries. With the recent impoundment of the Yangtze River by the Three Gorges Dam, the newly formed Three Gorges Reservoir is additionally experiencing drastic changes in the flow regime [1]. In the frame of the Sino-German "Yangtze-Project" [2] samples were taken from the water bodies in proximity to the Cities of Chongqing, Kaixian and Wushan during a field campaign in April 2011. Water samples were analysed for inorganic contents in suspended solids and the dissolved phase to assess the impact of these cities on the water quality of the reservoir. Results show that input from urban sources, together with the effects from the impoundment of the Yangtze River, deteriorates the quality of water and sediments in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Water in the Wushan Lake is trapped in by the Yangtze River flowing by, which leads to longer retention times of effluent water from the city. The chemical composition of the lake water is also measurable upstream in the Daninghe itself and might be due to the backwater effect. In the Xiaojiang River near Kaixian the low flow velocity from the backwater effect of the Yangtze, together with influences from the city have led to problems with algal blooms. High metal concentrations at Chongqing indicate a strong impact of this megacity on the water quality of the Three Gorges Reservoir and the sediments of the Yangtze River. Acknowledgements: Financial support by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany (BMBF), the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (MOST) and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). References: [1] Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China, 2010: Bulletin on the Ecological and Environmental Monitoring Results of the Three Gorges Project 2010 [2] Bergmann A, et al. (2011) The Yangtze-Hydro Project: a Chinese-German environmental program. ESPR. Doi: 10.1007/s11356-011-0645-7

Reid, Lucas; Holbach, Andreas; Wei, Hu; Wang, Lijing; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Binghui; Norra, Stefan

2013-04-01

23

Study plan for urban stream indicator sites of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban Indicator Sites are one component of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The objectives of monitoring at the Urban Indicator Sites are to: (1) characterize stream quality from drainage basins with predominantly residential and commercial land use, and (2) determine which selected natural and human factors most strongly affect stream quality. Urban Indicator Sites will be distributed across the United States in settings with statistically different climate and in metropolitan areas that have a population of 250,000 or more. Multiple sites in the same climatic setting will have a range in population density. Ideally, Urban Indicator Sites will monitor drainage basins that have only residential and commercial land use, are 50 square kilometers or larger, are in the same physiographic setting as other Indicator Sites, have sustained flow, and overlap other NAWQA study components. Ideal drainage basins will not have industrial or agricultural land use and will not have point-source-contamination discharges. Stream quality will be characterized by collecting and analyzing samples of streamflow, bed sediment, and tissue of aquatic organisms for selected constituents. Factors affecting stream quality will be determined by statistical analysis of ancillary data associated with Urban Indicator Sites and stream-quality samples.

Lopes, T.J.; Price, C.V.

1997-01-01

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Effects of urbanization on stream water quality in the city of Atlanta, Georgia, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

A long-term stream water quality monitoring network was established in the city of Atlanta, Georgia during 2003 to assess baseline water quality conditions and the effects of urbanization on stream water quality. Routine hydrologically based manual stream sampling, including several concurrent manual point and equal width increment sampling, was conducted ???12 times annually at 21 stations, with drainage areas ranging from 3.7 to 232 km2. Eleven of the stations are real-time (RT) stations having continuous measures of stream stage/ discharge, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature and turbidity, and automatic samplers for stormwater collection. Samples were analyzed for field parameters, and a broad suite of water quality and sediment-related constituents. Field parameters and concentrations of major ions, metals, nutrient species and coliform bacteria among stations were evaluated and with respect to watershed characteristics and plausible sources from 2003 through September 2007. Most constituent concentrations are much higher than nearby reference streams. Concentrations are statistically different among stations for several constituents, despite high variability both within and among stations. Routine manual sampling, automatic sampling during stormflows and RT water quality monitoring provided sufficient information about urban stream water quality variability to evaluate causes of water quality differences among streams. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations of most samples exceeded Georgia's water quality standard for any water-usage class. High chloride concentrations occur at three stations and are hypothesized to be associated with discharges of chlorinated combined sewer overflows, drainage of swimming pool(s) and dissolution and transport during rainstorms of CaCl2, a deicing salt applied to roads during winter storms. One stream was affected by dissolution and transport of ammonium alum [NH4Al(SO4)2] from an alum-manufacturing plant; streamwater has low pH (<5), low alkalinity and high metals concentrations. Several trace metals exceed acute and chronic water quality standards and high concentrations are attributed to washoff from impervious surfaces.

Peters, N.E.

2009-01-01

25

Effect of urban aquifer exploitation on subsurface temperature and water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater pumping induces changes in the hydrodynamics of aquifer systems. Rapid urbanization and pumping-induced changes in local groundwater flow can change the natural heat and chemical balances of an aquifer. In the Nagaoka Plain, Japan, groundwater is being extracted at 145 × 10(6) m3 /year from a highly permeable aquifer consisting of coarse-grained sediments of Late Pleistocene to Holocene age. We used land-cover and groundwater analyses to investigate the processes that change subsurface temperature and water quality induced by urbanization and intensive groundwater extraction. Comparison of temperature and water quality measurements in 2009 with measurements made between 1977 and 2000 revealed an increase in subsurface temperature (at 18 m depth) of 0.050 °C/year in the main urban area of the Nagaoka Plain, which is equivalent to the rate of increase of mean air temperature during that period. The effects of surface warming are apparent as a warm zone under the urban area. An area with low saturation index of calcite (-3.0 to -2.0) was centered around urban areas in 2009, whereas in 2000 the index there was higher (-1.5 to -0.5). The decrease in this index in the center of Nagaoka City over the last decade is consistent with continuous dissolution of carbonates induced there by changes in recharge water sources due to groundwater pumping. These findings suggest that urbanization, intensive groundwater extraction, and recharge with chemically modified surface water are responsible for changes in thermal and chemical properties under the urban area of the Nagaoka Plain. PMID:24393085

Abe, Hiroaki; Tang, Changyuan; Kondoh, Akihiko

2014-09-01

26

Water quality index to determine the surface water quality of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake, Bangalore urban district, Karnataka, India  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work aims at assessing the water quality index (WQI) in the surface water of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake situated in Bangalore Urban district by monitoring three sampling locations within Sankey tank (viz., A, B and C) and Mallathahalli lake (viz., Inlet, Centre and outlet) for a period of 3 months from March to May 2012. The surface water samples were subjected to comprehensive physico-chemical analysis involving major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fe2+), anions (HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, F-, PO4 3-) besides general parameters (pH, EC, TDS, alkalinity, total hardness, DO, BOD, COD, CO2, SiO2, colour, turbidity). For calculating the WQI, 14 parameters namely, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluorides and iron were considered. SAR values indicated that both Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake waters are excellent (S1) for irrigation, while electrical conductivity values classified these lake water, respectively under medium salinity (C2) and high (C3) salinity category. Correlation between SAR and electrical conductivity revealed that Sankey tank water is C2S1 (medium salinity-low sodium) type while Mallathahalli lake water is C3S1 (high salinity-low sodium) type. Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake water were, respectively hard and very hard in nature. Further, it is apparent from WQI values that Sankey tank water belongs to good water class with WQI values ranging from 50.34 to 63.38. The Mallathahalli lake water with WQI value ranging from 111.69 to 137.09, fall under poor water category.

Ravikumar, P.; Aneesul Mehmood, Mohammad; Somashekar, R. K.

2013-03-01

27

Conjunctively optimizing flash flood control and water quality in urban water reservoirs by model predictive control and dynamic emulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban water reservoirs are a viable adaptation option to account for increasing drinking water demand of urbanized areas as they allow storage and re-use of water that is normally lost. In addition, the direct availability of freshwater reduces pumping costs and diversifies the portfolios of drinking water supply. Yet, these benefits have an associated twofold cost. Firstly, the presence of large, impervious areas increases the hydraulic efficiency of urban catchments, with short time of concentration, increased runoff rates, losses of infiltration and baseflow, and higher risk of flash floods. Secondly, the high concentration of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges is likely to cause water quality problems. In this study we propose a new control scheme combining Model Predictive Control (MPC), hydro-meteorological forecasts and dynamic model emulation to design real-time operating policies that conjunctively optimize water quantity and quality targets. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its capability of exploiting real-time hydro-meteorological forecasts, which are crucial in such fast-varying systems. In addition, the reduced computational requests of the MPC scheme allows coupling it with dynamic emulators of water quality processes. The approach is demonstrated on Marina Reservoir, a multi-purpose reservoir located in the heart of Singapore and characterized by a large, highly urbanized catchment with a short (i.e. approximately one hour) time of concentration. Results show that the MPC scheme, coupled with a water quality emulator, provides a good compromise between different operating objectives, namely flood risk reduction, drinking water supply and salinity control. Finally, the scheme is used to assess the effect of source control measures (e.g. green roofs) aimed at restoring the natural hydrological regime of Marina Reservoir catchment.

Galelli, Stefano; Goedbloed, Albert; Schmitter, Petra; Castelletti, Andrea

2014-05-01

28

Assessment of river water quality under urban influence: a case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the water quality status of river Solani in India was assessed under the influence of urbanization. Physico-chemical and biological analysis of water reflected maximum adverse impact during summer low flow season. Variation in river flows during monsoon, post monsoon and low flow seasons was found to substantially affect the river water quality regime. Whereas the monsoon season displayed addition of suspended impurities and provided dilution in the dissolved components, the summer low flow season revealed an anaerobic condition in the river as the entire river flow comprised of only drain effluents. All the drains were observed to carry contaminated water with impurities from various point and non-point sources emanating from diverse human activities. The present study indicated that the drain waste water deserves a prior treatment in order to protect the Solani river water from pollution. PMID:23741861

Ram, Shobharam; Joshi, Himanshu

2012-01-01

29

Perceptual assessment of quality of urban soundscapes with combined noise sources and water sounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, urban soundscapes containing combined noise sources were evaluated through field surveys and laboratory experiments. The effect of water sounds on masking urban noises was then examined in order to enhance the soundscape perception. Field surveys in 16 urban spaces were conducted through soundwalking to evaluate the annoyance of combined noise sources. Synthesis curves were derived for the relationships between noise levels and the percentage of highly annoyed (%HA) and the percentage of annoyed (%A) for the combined noise sources. Qualitative analysis was also made using semantic scales for evaluating the quality of the soundscape, and it was shown that the perception of acoustic comfort and loudness was strongly related to the annoyance. A laboratory auditory experiment was then conducted in order to quantify the total annoyance caused by road traffic noise and four types of construction noise. It was shown that the annoyance ratings were related to the types of construction noise in combination with road traffic noise and the level of the road traffic noise. Finally, water sounds were determined to be the best sounds to use for enhancing the urban soundscape. The level of the water sounds should be similar to or not less than 3 dB below the level of the urban noises. PMID:20329835

Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; You, Jin; Kang, Jian

2010-03-01

30

Water quality monitoring and assessment of an urban Mediterranean lake facilitated by remote sensing applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Degradation of water quality is a major problem worldwide and often leads to serious environmental impacts and concerns about public health. In this study, the water quality monitoring and assessment of the Koumoundourou Lake, a brackish urban shallow lake located in the northeastern part of Elefsis Bay (Greece), were evaluated. A number of water quality parameters (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, electrical conductivity, turbidity, nutrients, and chlorophyll-a concentration) were analyzed in water samples collected bimonthly over a 1-year period from five stations throughout the lake. Moreover, biological quality elements were analysed seasonally over the 1-year period (benthic fauna). Statistical analysis was performed in order to evaluate the water quality of the lake and distinguish sources of variation measured in the samples. Furthermore, the chemical and trophic status of the lake was evaluated according to the most widely applicable classification schemes. Satellite images of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper were used in order for algorithms to be developed and calculate the concentration of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The trophic status of the lake was characterized as oligotrophic based on phosphorus and as mesotrophic-eutrophic based on Chl-a concentrations. The results of the remote sensing application indicated a relatively high coefficient of determination (R (2)) among point sampling results and the remotely sensed data, which implies that the selected algorithm is reliable and could be used for the monitoring of Chl-a concentration in the particular water body when no field data are available. PMID:24705815

Markogianni, V; Dimitriou, E; Karaouzas, I

2014-08-01

31

Urban land-use study plan for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This study plan is for Urban Land-Use Studies initiated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. There are two Urban Land-Use Study objectives: (1) Define the water quality in recharge areas of shallow aquifers underlying areas of new residential and commercial land use in large metropolitan areas, and (2) determine which natural and human factors most strongly affect the occurrence of contaminants in these shallow aquifers. To meet objective 1, each NAWQA Study Unit will install and collect water samples from at least 30 randomly located monitoring wells in a metropolitan area. To meet objective 2, aquifer characteristics and land-use information will be documented. This includes particle-size analysis of each major lithologic unit both in the unsaturated zone and in the aquifer near the water table. The percentage of organic carbon also will be determined for each lithologic unit. Geographic information system coverages will be created that document existing land use around the wells. These data will aid NAWQA personnel in relating natural and human factors to the occurrence of contaminants. Water samples for age dating also will be collected from all monitoring wells, but the samples will be stored until the occurrence of contaminants has been determined. Age-date analysis will be done only on those samples that have no detectable concentrations of anthropogenic contaminants.

Squillace, P.J.; Price, C.V.

1996-01-01

32

Modeling water quality in an urban river using hydrological factors - Data driven approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contrasting seasonal variations occur in river flow and water quality as a result of short duration, severe intensity storms and typhoons in Taiwan. Sudden changes in river flow caused by impending extreme events may impose serious degradation on river water quality and fateful impacts on ecosystems. Water quality is measured in a monthly/quarterly scale, and therefore an estimation of water quality in a daily scale would be of good help for timely river pollution management. This study proposes a systematic analysis scheme (SAS) to assess the spatio-temporal interrelation of water quality in an urban river and construct water quality estimation models using two static and one dynamic artificial neural networks (ANNs) coupled with the Gamma test (GT) based on water quality, hydrological and economic data. The Dahan River basin in Taiwan is the study area. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) is considered as the representative parameter, a correlative indicator in judging the contamination level over the study. Key factors the most closely related to the representative parameter (NH3-N) are extracted by the Gamma test for modeling NH3-N concentration, and as a result, four hydrological factors (discharge, days w/o discharge, water temperature and rainfall) are identified as model inputs. The modeling results demonstrate that the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) network furnished with recurrent connections can accurately estimate NH3-N concentration with a very high coefficient of efficiency value (0.926) and a low RMSE value (0.386 mg/l). Besides, the NARX network can suitably catch peak values that mainly occur in dry periods (September-April in the study area), which is particularly important to water pollution treatment. The proposed SAS suggests a promising approach to reliably modeling the spatio-temporal NH3-N concentration based solely on hydrological data, without using water quality sampling data. It is worth noticing that such estimation can be made in a much shorter time interval of interest (span from a monthly scale to a daily scale) because hydrological data are long-term collected in a daily scale. The proposed SAS favorably makes NH3-N concentration estimation much easier (with only hydrological field sampling) and more efficient (in shorter time intervals), which can substantially help river managers interpret and estimate water quality responses to natural and/or manmade pollution in a more effective and timely way for river pollution management. PMID:25544251

Chang, Fi-John; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Pin-An; Coynel, Alexandra; Vachaud, Georges

2015-03-15

33

Evaluation of spatial-temporal variations and trends in surface water quality across a rural-suburban-urban interface.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water quality degradation is often a severe consequence of rapid economic expansion in developing countries. Methods to assess spatial-temporal patterns and trends in water quality are essential for guiding adaptive management efforts aimed at water quality remediation. Temporal and spatial patterns of surface water quality were investigated for 54 monitoring sites in the Wen-Rui Tang River watershed of eastern China to identify such patterns in water quality occurring across a rural-suburban-urban interface. Twenty physical and chemical water quality parameters were analyzed in surface waters collected once every 4-8 weeks from 2000 to 2010. Temporal and spatial variations among water quality parameters were assessed between seasons (wet/dry) and among major land use zones (urban/suburban/rural). Factor analysis was used to identify parameters that were important in assessing seasonal and spatial variations in water quality. Results revealed that parameters related to organic pollutants (dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (manganese) (COD(Mn)), and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD?)), nutrients (ammonia nitrogen (NH? ?-N), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP)), and salt concentration (electrical conductivity (EC)) were the most important parameters contributing to water quality variation. Collectively, they explained 70.9 % of the total variance. A trend study using the seasonal Kendall test revealed reductions in COD(Mn), BOD?, NH? ?-N, petrol, V-phen, and EC concentrations over the 11-year study period. Cluster analysis was employed to evaluate variation among 14 sampling sites representative of dominant land use categories and indicated three, three, and four clusters based on organic, nutrient, and salt water quality characteristics, respectively. Factors that are typically responsible for water quality degradation (including population, topography, and land use) showed no strong correlation with water quality trends implying considerable point source inputs in the watershed. The results of this study help inform ongoing water quality remediation efforts by documenting trends in water quality across various land use zones. PMID:24659457

Mei, Kun; Liao, Lingling; Zhu, Yuanli; Lu, Ping; Wang, Zhenfeng; Dahlgren, Randy A; Zhang, Minghua

2014-07-01

34

Emerging contaminants of public health significance as water quality indicator compounds in the urban water cycle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contamination of the urban water cycle (UWC) with a wide array of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) increases with urbanization and population density. To produce drinking water from the UWC requires close examination of their sources, occurrence, pathways, and health effects and the efficacy of wastewater treatment and natural attenuation processes that may occur in surface water bodies and groundwater. This paper researches in details the structure of the UWC and investigates the routes by which the water cycle is increasingly contaminated with compounds generated from various anthropogenic activities. Along with a thorough survey of chemicals representing compound classes such as hormones, antibiotics, surfactants, endocrine disruptors, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, pesticides and metabolites, disinfection-by-products, algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds, this paper provides a comprehensive and holistic review of the occurrence, fate, transport and potential health impact of the emerging organic contaminants of the UWC. This study also illustrates the widespread distribution of the emerging organic contaminants in the different aortas of the ecosystem and focuses on future research needs. PMID:24972248

Pal, Amrita; He, Yiliang; Jekel, Martin; Reinhard, Martin; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

2014-10-01

35

[Influence of green roof application on water quantity and quality in urban region].  

Science.gov (United States)

Green roof is widely used in advanced stormwater management as a major measure now. Taking Huxi catchment in Chongqing University as the study area, the relationships between green roof installation with runoff volume and water quality in urban region were investigated. The results showed that roof greening in the urban region contributed to reducing the runoff volume and pollution load. In addition, the spatial distribution and area of green roof also had effects on the runoff water quality. With the conditions that the roof area was 25% of the total watershed area, rainfall duration was 15 min and rainfall intensity was 14.8 mm x h(-1), the peak runoff and total runoff volume were reduced by 5.3% and 31%, the pollution loads of total suspended solid (TSS), total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) decreased by 40.0%, 31.6% and 29.8%, their peak concentrations decreased by 21.0%, 16.0% and -12.2%, and the EMCs (event mean concentrations) were cut down by 13.1%, 0.9% and -1.7%, respectively, when all impervious roofs were greened in the research area. With the increase of roof greening rate, the reduction rates of TSS and TP concentrations increased, while the reduction rate of TN concentration decreased on the whole. Much more improvement could be obtained with the use of green roofs near the outlet of the watershed. PMID:25345054

Wang, Shu-Min; Li, Xing-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Yu, Hui; Hao, You-Zhi; Yang, Wan-Yi

2014-07-01

36

Assessment of Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Methods: A Case Study of an Urban Landscape Water, Beijing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multivariate statistical methods, such as cluster analysis (CA, discriminant analysis (DA, and factor analysis (FA were applied to the data on water quality of Lake Taoranting (Beijing, generated during two years (2011-2012, with monitoring at five different sites. The CA grouped the eight months (March to November into three periods?and classified five sites into two clusters based on water quality characteristics. The DA showed the best results for data reduction and temporal analysis. It calculated six parameters (TEMP?pH?SD?CODMn?TSS and Chl-a were the major sources of temporal variations in water quality. The FA applied to datasets of two special clusters of the lake calculated three factors for each region, capturing 72.89% and 78.88% of the total variance, respectively. Factors obtained from FA indicate that some parameters such as Chl-a, TSS, TP and NH4 +-N are mainly key factors responsible for water quality. Thus, this study results suggested that multivariate statistical methods is a effective tool for analysis of urban landscape water quality.

Qu Jiang-Qi

2013-05-01

37

Mimicking Daphnia magna bioassay performance by an electronic tongue for urban water quality control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxicity is one of the key parameters of water quality in environmental monitoring. However, being evaluated as a response of living beings (as their mobility, fertility, death rate, etc.) to water quality, toxicity can only be assessed with the help of these living beings. This imposes certain restrictions on toxicity bioassay as an analytical method: biotest organisms must be properly bred, fed and kept under strictly regulated conditions and duration of tests can be quite long (up to several days), thus making the whole procedure the prerogative of the limited number of highly specialized laboratories. This report describes an original application of potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue) when the set of electrochemical sensors was calibrated against Daphnia magna death rate in order to perform toxicity assessment of urban waters without immediate involvement of living creatures. PRM (partial robust M) and PLS (projections on latent structures) regression models based on the data from this multisensor system allowed for prediction of toxicity of unknown water samples in terms of biotests but in the fast and simple instrumental way. Typical errors of water toxicity predictions were below 20% in terms of Daphnia death rate which can be considered as a good result taking into account the complexity of the task. PMID:24759749

Kirsanov, Dmitry; Legin, Evgeny; Zagrebin, Anatoly; Ignatieva, Natalia; Rybakin, Vladimir; Legin, Andrey

2014-05-01

38

Hydrogeology and water quality of a surficial aquifer underlying an urban area, Manchester, Connecticut  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality of water along flowpaths in a surficial aquifer system in Manchester, Connecticut, was studied during 1993-95 as part of the National Water Quality Assessment program. The flowpath study examined the relations among hydrogeology, land-use patterns, and the presence of contaminants in a surficial aquifer in an urban area, and evaluated ground water as a source of contamination to surface water. A two-dimensional, finite-difference groundwater- flow model was used to estimate travel distance, which ranged from about 50 to 11,000 feet, from the source areas to the sampled observation wells. Land use, land cover, and population density were determined in the source areas delineated by the ground-water-flow simulation. Source areas to the wells contained either high- or medium-density residential areas, and population density ranged from 629 to 8,895 people per square mile. Concentrations of selected inorganic constituents, including sodium, chloride, and nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, were higher in the flowpath study wells than in wells in undeveloped areas with similar aquifer materials. One or more of 9 volatile organic compounds were detected at 12 of 14 wells. The three most commonly detected volatile organic compounds were chloroform, methyl-tert-butyl ether, and trichloroethene. Trichloroethene was detected at concentrations greater than the maximum contaminant level for drinking water (5 micrograms per liter) in samples from one well. Four pesticides, including dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylene, dieldrin, dichloroprop, and simazine were detected at low concentrations. Concentrations of sodium and chloride were higher in samples collected from wells screened in the top of the saturated zone than in samples collected from deeper zones. Volatile organic compounds and elevated concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen were detected at depths of as much as 60 feet below the water table, indicating that the effects of human activities on the ground-water quality extends to the bottom of the surficial aquifer. The age of ground water, as determined by tritium and 3helium concentrations, was 0.9 to 22.6 years. pH, alkalinity, and calcium were higher and concentrations of dissolved oxygen were lower in ground-water samples with ages of 10 years or more than in samples younger than 10 years. In addition, concentrations of sodium, chloride, and nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen were low in ground-water samples with ages of 10 years or more, indicating that concentrations of these compounds may be increasing with time or that the recharge areas to these wells may have had less intensive urban land use. Methyl-tert-butyl ether was detected only in wells with ground water ages of less than 11 years, which is consistent with the date of introduction of this compound as a gasoline additive in Connecticut. Analysis of additional samples collected for analysis of stable nitrogen isotopes indicated that the most likely source of elevated concentrations of nitrate nitrogen was lawn and garden fertilizers, but other sources, including wastewater effluents, soil organic nitrogen, and atmospheric deposition, may contribute to the total. Population density was positively correlated (at the 97 percent confidence level) to concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen. Water quality in the Hockanum River aquifer has been degraded by human activities, and, after discharge to surface water, affects the water quality in the Hockanum River. On an annual basis, ground-water discharge from the study area to the river (as measured at a downstream continuous-record gaging station) contributes about 5 percent of the annual load of nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, but, during low flow, contributes 11 percent of the nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, 32 percent of the calcium, and 16 percent of the chloride to the river.

Mullaney, John R.; Grady, Stephen J.

1997-01-01

39

Monitoring Urban Water Quality Variability Using Continuous In-Situ Sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Water quality monitoring using continuous in-situ sensors can improve our understanding of biogeochemical variability in urban watersheds. In New Hampshire, the Lamprey River drains an urbanizing watershed and discharges to the nitrogen (N)-impaired Great Bay estuary. Multiple instruments (Satlantic Submersible Ultraviolet Nitrate Analyzer, Turner Designs C6 Multi-Sensor Platform, Hydrolab MS5, and WET Labs Cycle) were deployed continuously for three seasons (April-November, 2011) in the Lamprey River to evaluate water quality relationships under hydrologically variable conditions and across seasons. Parameters monitored at sub-hourly intervals included nitrate-N (NO3-N), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), chlorophyll, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), specific conductivity, and pH; dissolved phosphate (PO4-P) was monitored hourly. Grab samples were also collected to assess instrument performance. Preliminary results from deployment through early August 2011 indicate that baseflow was associated with both elevated NO3-N concentrations and specific conductivity, but daily NO3-N fluxes were greater during storms. Greater discharges corresponded to increased values for CDOM, chlorophyll, and DO concentrations. In addition to diurnal cycles for several parameters (i.e., CDOM, chlorophyll, DO, and pH), NO3-N and PO4-P concentrations peaked during the night and day, respectively, suggesting biotic uptake became important at lower flows. Stormwater generally diluted NO3-N concentrations and specific conductivity, indicating groundwater contamination from the predominance of septic waste management and winter road salt application in suburban communities in the watershed. However, greater NO3-N export during storms revealed the importance of stormwater discharges despite the dilution effect. Studies using high-resolution data to evaluate the effects of stormwater discharge and increasing urbanization are crucial to understanding the significance of varying land use patterns and developing protective watershed management plans.

Carey, R. O.; Wollheim, W. M.; Mulukutla, G. K.

2011-12-01

40

Sustainable urban environmental quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

MEANING as the essential element of urban quality. The role of the three main factors for the urban quality achievement: PLANNING, DEVELOPMENT and PEOPLE. Next to that, it is important to assume the identity of the local CONTEXT as the essential base for designing and shaping of form development. The problems of the quality achievements in the situation of the permanent changes. In such an environment - the RENEWAL of the towns become the basic strategic orientation requiring - evaluation of ...

Toškovi? Dobrivoje

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

The Impact of Urban Development on the Water Quality in the Las Vegas Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

Las Vegas, one of the fastest growing cities in the nation, must have its water strictly monitored for quality as well as degree of pollution. Samples at various sites were collected to analyze the current pollution status of our water bodies (in both residential and urban settings) in the Las Vegas watershed. These gathered samples (sediment and water) were collected and analyzed for measuring total phosphorus, total organic carbon, trace metal contents, i.e., selenium, arsenic, mercury and lead, as well as pathogens, i.e., E-coli and total coliform counts. The concentrations of various pollutions will be compared among different sites as well as natural local sites (due to the natural occurrence of a few trace metals and normal levels of other measurements) and analyzed for spatial distribution for source identification and for elucidating the cause and consequence. Preliminary analyses of the results indicate that nonpoint source pollutions (golf courses, construction sites, etc.) have larger impacts than point source pollutions such as wastewater treatment effluents. This study will help understand and evaluate the degradation of the water quality caused by the increase of human actions in recent years in Las Vegas.

Yu, A.; Simmons, C.; Acharya, K.

2009-12-01

42

Water quality and public health in northern Sudan: a study of rural and peri-urban communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to adequate supplies of good quality drinking water continues to be limited among many rural and peri-urban communities in Africa, despite several decades of water improvement programmes. The present study investigated water quality at the source and point of consumption among rural and peri-urban communities in northern Sudan. Faecal coliform counts were determined by the membrane filtration technique and geometric mean counts compared in different seasons and among the different communities. Among nomadic pastoralists and riverine villages, both water sources and water stored for consumption had faecal coliform counts grossly in excess of WHO standards, with higher counts at the end of the rainy season. In the peri-urban community on the outskirts of Omdurman, while water quality from the distribution system had faecal coliform counts generally below 10 dl - 1, after storage, water was of considerably lower quality, with faecal coliform counts up to 1000 d1 - 1. The highest counts again occurred in the rainy season. Rates of diarrhoeal disease for Khartoum province were also greatest towards the end of the rainy season. The study has shown that poor quality water continues to be a major risk factor for public health in these communities. PMID:10594707

Musa, H A; Shears, P; Kafi, S; Elsabag, S K

1999-11-01

43

Effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek, Indianapolis, Indiana  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the effects of combined-sewer overflows (CSO's) and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek during summer 1987 by comparing the water quality of base flow with that of storm runoff and by comparing water quality in the urbanized area with that in the less urbanized area upstream from the CSO's. Data were collected at three streamflow-gaging stations located upstream from, downstream from, and in the middle of 27 CSO's on Fall Creek. The most downstream station also was immediately downstream from the discharge of filter backwash from a water-treatment plant for public supply. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen measured at the station in the middle of the CSO's were less than the Indiana minimum ambient water-quality standard of 4.0 mg/L during all storms. Concentra- tions of ammonia, oxygen demand, copper, lead, zinc, and fecal coliform bacteria at the stations down- stream from the CSO's were much larger during runoff than during base flow. Increased concentrations of oxygen demand in storm runoff probably were caused by combined-sewer overflows, urban runoff, and the resuspension of organic material deposited on the streambed. Some of the increased concentrations of lead, zinc, and probably copper can be attributed to the discharge and resuspension of material back- washed from filters at the water-treatment plant.

Martin, J.D.

1995-01-01

44

Effects of Urban Development on Water-Quality in the Piedmont of North Carolina-- The NAWQA Urban Land-Use Gradient Study  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of urban basins located in the Piedmont of North Carolina is underway as part of the U. S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) to determine the relation between level of urban development and water quality. Data were collected from 30 basins on water chemistry (nutrient, pesticide, and ion concentrations), geomorphic and habitat characteristics, hydrologic stage, discharge, water temperature, pH, dissolved-oxygen concentration, specific conductance, benthic algae, invertebrate communities, and fish communities. Collection frequency for water chemistry ranged from 2 samples (at 20 sites) to 6 samples (at 10 sites). Biological data were collected in each basin twice. Investigation of the effects of urbanization on water quality must control for the effects of natural factors, while varying the degree of urbanization between study basins. A regional framework was used to control variability in natural factors that influence water-quality. The urban intensity in each basin was measured by using an index to integrate information on human influences. The Urban Index includes information about land cover, infrastructure, population, and socioeconomic characteristics. Sites were selected to represent the full gradient of undeveloped to fully urbanized basins. A preliminary review of the stream water-chemistry data indicates distinct relations between ionic composition and the Urban Index. Mean specific conductance was positively correlated with the Urban Index (Spearman correlation coefficient (r) = 0.77; 95-percent confidence limits (95CL) 0.61 - 0.93; probability (pr) pr pr pr= 0.0005) with a range from 6.5 at the least urban site to 7.5 at the most urban site. The increase in pH may be due in part to conversion of organic forest soils to less acidic soils of urban lawns. The overall trend of increasing total dissolved nitrogen (r=0.46; 95CL 0.12 - 0.80; pr=0.0103) and nitrite plus nitrate (r=0.46; 95CL 0.09 - 0.83; pr=0.0109) concentrations, with increasing Urban Index may reflect sources such as sewage and lawn fertilizer use in the more urban basins. However, some of the least urban basins also had elevated nitrogen concentrations reflecting possible agricultural influences such as fertilizer use and animal waste. Total nitrogen concentration ranged from 0.31 to 14 mg/L. Unit-area stream discharge during low-flow periods was negatively correlated with the Urban Index (r= -0.56; 95CL -0.74 - -0.37; pr=0.0014). Reduced discharge with greater urban development may be a result of reduced infiltration caused by impervious surfaces. Unit discharge ranged from 0.47 to 2.27 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area.

Harned, D. A.; Cuffney, T. F.; Giddings, E. M.; McMahon, G.

2004-12-01

45

Evaluation of water quality in the Rimac River Basin of Peru: Huaycoloro urban subbasin  

Science.gov (United States)

In Peru, the increasing water scarcity and quality deterioration caused public health problems and deterioration of ecosystems that are exacerbated during periods of drought. The most populated basin is the Rimac River which rises in the Andes, between 4000 and 6000 meters and flow into the Pacific Ocean. This basin has pollution problems and a clear example is the Huaycoloro urban subbasin that originated in 2005, the creation of multi-sectoral technical committee for the recovery of health and environmental quality of the Huaycoloro subbasin (DIGESA, 2006a). The objective of this work is the need to generate and evaluate information on water quality in the Huaycoloro subbasin, quantifying physicochemical and microbiological parameters in four monitoring stations for a period from October 1, 2006 to April 24, 2010. The monitoring was conducted in the dry season because the Huaycoloro subbasin is a dry riverbed and therefore this is the critical period for evaluation. Initially samples were taken every two weeks during the months of October and November 2006. In 2007 were sampled monthly in April, June and September. In the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 surveys were conducted once a year, in the months of October, May and April respectively. Wide variations in the results of the various parameters analyzed in each of the stations mainly be explained by differences in the frequency of discharge of domestic and industrial effluent without prior treatment, effluent turn change in quantity and quality according to the various processes associated with each activity. Domestic effluents from populations that do not have sewer, industrial effluents from tannery correspond to activities, laundry, dairy, brewing and other. During field trips, we could be determined, in some instances, significant changes in water quality in a short period of time (one hour or less), manifested by changes in color fluctuations of water and the solids content in suspension. We obtained total chromium present in concentrations which in some cases exceeds the regulated value (0.043, 0.25, 0.067 and 0.080 mg/l for ES-1, ES-2, ES-3 and ES-4, respectively). This behavior is explained especially by effluent discharges tannery activities carried out in the study area. The relationship BOD5/COD in all cases where it has been determined is less than 0.2 or exceeds narrowly except values 0.51 and 0.74 corresponding to the second sampling 2007 to IS -1 and the sampling of 2008 for ES-3. The relationship between the COD and BOD5 gives an idea of the nature of the organic pollutants contained in the water (Orozco et al, 2003). Thus, these results are located generally below or slightly above 0.2, indicates that the compounds organics in the different sampling stations are predominantly non-biodegradable organic in nature. This study indicates that the Huaycoloro urban subbasin is being highly impacted by domestic and industrial discharges so it is necessary to strengthen environmental management mechanisms to improve its environmental quality with the participation of all actors involved in this water resources.

Baldeón Quispe, W.; Vela Cardich, R.; Huamán Paredes, F.

2013-05-01

46

WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR REDIU, CACAINA AND CIRIC RIVER IN URBAN AREA OF IASI CITY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Typically, reports on surface water quality include useful information for people, but the language used addresses rather specialists, which leaded to develop an mathematically index, like water quality index (WQI), very useful and efficient for assessing the suitability of water quality as well as for communicating theinformation to the concerned citizens and policy makers. The present study assessed the surface water quality for three rivers from northern part of Iasi city based on WQI. The...

Maria Ois?te, Ana –.; Iuliana Gabriela Breab?n

2012-01-01

47

Usage of biotic indices in evaluating the impact of the urban centres on the quality of the water in rivers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The quality of the river waters of the Cri?ul Repede River and the influence of the powerful urban and industrial centre Oradeaupon these have been studied by means of collecting quantitative samples of benthos, for three consecutive years, in a seasonal manner. Thecalculation of the biotic indices that consider the abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates indicating the presence of high qualitative waters(Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera and of those indicating strong loading of the waters and of the under layer of the water ecosystemwith organic matter (Diptera – Chironomidae Family, highlighted an advanced degradation of the water quality, from the upstream towardsthe downstream. Equally, the intensity of the process of degradation of the water quality has been established, which, in the case of this river,is very strong and visible by the increasing prevalence of groups that do not require special ecological conditions, proving to be resistive andeven proliferating in the presence of intense pollution of the water.

Adrian Sinitean

2012-06-01

48

Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise) due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastruc...

Hua-peng Qin; Qiong Su; Soon-Thiam Khu; Nv Tang

2014-01-01

49

Real time monitoring of urban surface water quality using a submersible, tryptophan-like fluorescence sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the recent development of field-deployable optical sensor technology, continuous quantification and characterization of surface water dissolved organic matter (DOM) is possible now. Tryptophan-like (T1) fluorescence has the potential to be a particularly useful indicator of human influence on water quality as T1 peaks are associated with the input of labial organic carbon (e.g. sewage or farm waste) and its microbial breakdown. Hence, real-time recording of T1 fluorescence could be particular useful for monitoring waste water infrastructure, treatment efficiency and the identification of contamination events at higher temporal resolution than available hitherto. However, an understanding of sensor measurement repeatability/transferability and interaction with environmental parameters (e.g. turbidity) is required. Here, to address this practical knowledge gap, we present results from a rigorous test of a commercially available submersible tryptophan fluorometer (?ex 285, ?em 350). Sensor performance was first examined in the laboratory by incrementally increasing turbidity under controlled conditions. Further to this the sensor was integrated into a multi-parameter sonde and field tests were undertaken involving: (i) a spatial sampling campaign across a range of surface water sites in the West Midlands, UK; and (ii) collection of high resolution (sub-hourly) samples from an urban stream (Bournbrook, Birmingham, U.K). To determine the ability of the sensor to capture spatiotemporal dynamics of urban waters DOM was characterized for each site or discrete time step using Excitation Emission Matrix spectroscopy and PARAFAC. In both field and laboratory settings fluorescence intensity was attenuated at high turbidity due to suspended particles increasing absorption and light scattering. For the spatial survey, instrument readings were compared to those obtained by a laboratory grade fluorometer (Varian Cary Eclipse) and a strong, linear relationship was apparent (R2 > 0.7). Parallel water sampling and laboratory analysis identified the potential for correction of T1 fluorescence intensity based on turbidity readings. These findings highlight the potential utility of real time monitoring of T1 fluorescence for a range of environmental applications (e.g. monitoring sewage treatment processes and tracing polluting DOM sources). However, if high/variable suspended sediment loads are anticipated concurrent monitoring of turbidity is required for accurate readings.

Khamis, Kieran; Bradley, Chris; Hannah, David; Stevens, Rob

2014-05-01

50

The influence of land use on water quality and diatom community structures in urban and agriculturally stressed rivers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Epilithic diatom communities offer a holistic and integrated approach for assessing water quality as they remain in one place for a number of months and reflect an ecological memory of water quality over a period of time. The objective of this study is to use diatom assemblages to distinguish betwee [...] n particular land types and associated water quality impacts that are linked to these land-use patterns. Water quality and diatom community data were collected from sites in the Crocodile and Magalies Rivers (Gauteng and North West Province, South Africa) associated with agricultural, urban and natural (reference) adjacent land use respectively. The data collected were subjected to multivariate statistical techniques to analyse spatial and temporal patterns in water quality (principal component analysis) and diatom community structures (non-metric multidimensional scaling) to elucidate hypothesised differences in community structure per land-use type. Five diatom response indices (Generic Diatom Index, Specific Pollution Sensitivity Index, Biological Diatom Index, Eutrophication/Pollution Index and Percentage Pollution Tolerant Valves) incorporated in the OMNIDIA software were implemented to assess the integrity of diatom communities per land-use type. Principle component ordination of water quality describes 56.6% of the variation in data observed, and indicates the separation of reference sites from test sites for low and high flow conditions combined. It was, however, not possible to distinguish between the agricultural and urban land-use sites using PCA based on water quality data. One-way ANOSIM showed a significant difference (p 0.05) between groups made up of sites exhibiting the same land-use patterns. Diatom indices showed that agricultural sites were in a slightly more modified ecological state than urban sites overall. Based on the species similarity (SIMPER analyses), reference sites showed strong associations with Achnanthes minutissima, Gomphonema venusta and Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta, whilst urban sites were associated with Diatoma vulgaris, Navicula tripunctata and Amphora pediculus. Agriculture could be separated into high- and low-intensity practices based on species composition. Sites where high-intensity agriculture took place were dominated by motile species of the genus Nitzschia, and low-intensity agriculture was indicated by motile species of the genus Navicula. Urban sites contained a combination of species that were tolerant of spikes in water quality.

G, Walsh; V, Wepener.

2009-10-01

51

Spatial and temporal patterns of surface water quality and ichthyotoxicity in urban and rural river basins in Texas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Double Mountain Fork Brazos River (Texas, USA) consists of North (NF) and South Forks (SF). The NF receives urban runoff and twice-reclaimed wastewater effluent, whereas the SF flows through primarily rural areas. The objective of this study was to determine and compare associations between standard water quality variables and ichthyotoxicity at a landscape scale that included urban (NF) and rural (SF) sites. Five NF and three SF sites were sampled quarterly from March 2008 to March 2009 for specific conductance, salinity, hardness, pH, temperature, and turbidity; and a zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo bioassay was used to determine ichthyotoxicity. Metal and nutrient concentrations at all sites were also measured in addition to standard water quality variables in spring 2009. Principal component analyses identified hardness, specific conductance, and salinity as the water variables that best differentiate the urban NF (higher levels) from rural SF habitat. Nutrient levels were also higher in the NF, but no landscape scale patterns in metal concentrations were observed. Ichthyotoxicity was generally higher in NF water especially in winter, and multiple regression analyses suggested a positive association between water hardness and ichthyotoxicity. To test for the potential influence of the toxic golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) on overall ichthyotoxicity, a cofactor known to enhance golden alga toxin activity was used in the bioassays. Golden alga ichthyotoxicity was detected in the NF but not the SF, suggesting golden alga may have contributed to overall ichthyotoxicity in the urban but not in the rural system. In conclusion, the physicochemistry of the urban-influenced NF water was conducive to the expression of ichthyotoxicity and also point to water hardness as a novel factor influencing golden alga ichthyotoxicity in surface waters. PMID:22682267

Vanlandeghem, Matthew M; Meyer, Matthew D; Cox, Stephen B; Sharma, Bibek; Patiño, Reynaldo

2012-12-15

52

Characterization and modeling of urban environmental quality indicators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Environmental problems in the urban area of Belém, Pará, Brazil, deny a large portion of the population critical environmental quality. The present study evaluated the environmental quality of the urban village of União, in a neighborhood called Terra Firme, Belém, Pará. An integrated urban environmental quality index was proposed, based on the modeling of indicators of urban environmental quality, urban livability and quality of treated water. These three indices encompass the variables...

Francisco de Assis Cruz Melo; Mariko Ueno

2013-01-01

53

Water quality-based real time control of integrated urban drainage: a preliminary study from Copenhagen, Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Global Real Time Control (RTC) of urban drainage systems is increasingly seen as cost-effective solution for responding to increasing performance demands. This study investigated the potential for including water-quality based RTC into the global control strategy which is under implementation in the Lynetten catchment (Copenhagen, Denmark). Two different strategies were simulated, considering: (i) water quality at the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) inlet and (ii) pollution discharge to the bathing areas. These strategies were included in the Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) RTC strategy, which allows for prioritization of the discharge points in the systems according to their sensitivity. A conceptual hydrological model was used to assess the performance of the integrated control strategy over an entire year. The simulation results showed the benefits of the proposed approaches in reducing Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) loads at the WWTP inlet and in an upstream location discharging to sensitive bathing waters for medium CSO events (i.e. those with greater potential for control). Furthermore, when looking at the overall performance across the entire catchment during the simulation period, no significant changes were observed. These preliminary results require further analysis by including detailed water quality measurements and simulations. Nevertheless, the potential for including water-quality RTC in global RTC schemes was unveiled, providing a further option to urban water managers to improve the performance of their systems.

Vezzaro, Luca; Lund Christensen, Margit

2013-01-01

54

Water Quality of Urban Streams: The Allium cepa Seeds/Seedlings Test as a Tool for Surface Water Monitoring  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study investigates the genotoxic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of surface waters in urban streams using Allium cepa and analyzes the applicability of this assay for environmental monitoring. Water samples were collected from three streams located in the urban area of a municipality in the south of Brazil. For each stream, two samples were collected, one upstream and one downstream of the pollution discharge site. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that all samples had vari...

Athana?sio, Camila Gonc?alves; Pra?, Daniel; Rieger, Alexandre

2014-01-01

55

Characterization and modeling of urban environmental quality indicators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental problems in the urban area of Belém, Pará, Brazil, deny a large portion of the population critical environmental quality. The present study evaluated the environmental quality of the urban village of União, in a neighborhood called Terra Firme, Belém, Pará. An integrated urban environmental quality index was proposed, based on the modeling of indicators of urban environmental quality, urban livability and quality of treated water. These three indices encompass the variables of water supply, garbage collection, vegetation, sewage, road paving, infrastructure condition of households, the existence of urban equipment for common use, public transport, accessibility, family income, employment conditions, education and quality of treated water. The results of the indicators are: urban environmental quality index, 50.0 points (indicating a regular level of environmental quality; urban livability index, 48.6 points (representing moderate level of livability; and quality index of the treated water, 98.1 points (which is an optimal level of water quality. The arithmetic average of the three indices generated an integrated urban environmental quality of 65.6 points, a good environmental quality level of the urban village housing in União. The interpretation of this integrated index reflects the indicators measured in each index. We conclude that the modeling of urban environmental quality indicators was an important tool for the analysis of urban environmental quality in micro or macro scales, and this allowed us to propose more efficient management and restructuring of the urban environment.

Francisco de Assis Cruz Melo

2013-12-01

56

Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

What is in that water that you just drank? Is it just hydrogen and oxygen atoms? Is it safe for drinking? All water is of a certain "quality" (and you can't tell by just looking), but what does "water quality" really mean? Water full of dirt and ...

57

WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR REDIU, CACAINA AND CIRIC RIVER IN URBAN AREA OF IASI CITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Typically, reports on surface water quality include useful information for people, but the language used addresses rather specialists, which leaded to develop an mathematically index, like water quality index (WQI, very useful and efficient for assessing the suitability of water quality as well as for communicating theinformation to the concerned citizens and policy makers. The present study assessed the surface water quality for three rivers from northern part of Iasi city based on WQI. These water courses were not included into monitoring program, the area being highly populated, the citizens wishing to know the real state of the surface water resources in the area they live. For reaching this goal, there have been collected 19 samples, in June 2011, analysed in situ and in the laboratory. For the WQI were used six parameters (pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO, five days biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5,phosphates (PO4, nitrates (NO3. The results have been statistically processed. The result showed that the WQI for each parameter fit into good status for pH, bad status for turbidity and oxygen indicators, excellent for phosphates and bad status for nitrates in Ciric and Cacaina river and good status on Rediu river. General WQI fall in to medium status with variance between 53 for Ciric river and 67 for Rediu, with different values for eachmonitored point, Rediu being the only river that have two monitoring points that suit to good quality status.

Ana – Maria Oi?te

2012-10-01

58

Drinking Water Quality Surveillance in a Vulnerable Urban Ward of Ahmedabad  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The World Bank estimates that 21% of all communicable diseases in India are related to unsafe water with diarrhoea alone causing more than 0.1 million deaths annually. The WHO drinking water surveillance parameters of quality, quantity, accessibility, affordability and continuity were assessed in one vulnerable ward of Ahmedabad—a fast growing city in Western India. Interviews with key informants of the ward office, health centre and water supply department, secondary analysis and mapping o...

Veena Iyer; Nandini Choudhury; Gulrez Shah Azhar; Bhushan Somvanshi

2014-01-01

59

Drinking Water Quality Surveillance in a Vulnerable Urban Ward of Ahmedabad.  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Bank estimates that 21% of all communicable diseases in India are related to unsafe water with diarrhoea alone causing more than 0.1 million deaths annually. The WHO drinking water surveillance parameters of quality, quantity, accessibility, affordability and continuity were assessed in one vulnerable ward of Ahmedabad-a fast growing city in Western India. Interviews with key informants of the ward office, health centre and water supply department, secondary analysis and mapping of field test reports and a questionnaire-based survey of different household types were conducted. We found that Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) supplies water to the ward intermittently for two hours during the day. Housing society clusters supplement their AMC water supply with untested bore-well water. The water quality surveillance system is designed for a twenty-four-hour piped distribution of treated surface water. However, in order to maintain surveillance over an intermittent supply that includes ground water, the sampling process should include periodic surveys of water actually consumed by the citizens. The laboratory capacity of the Central Water Testing Laboratory should expand to include more refined tests for microbial and chemical contamination. PMID:25254083

Iyer, Veena; Choudhury, Nandini; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Somvanshi, Bhushan

2014-05-01

60

Water quality of urban streams: the Allium cepa seeds/seedlings test as a tool for surface water monitoring.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigates the genotoxic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of surface waters in urban streams using Allium cepa and analyzes the applicability of this assay for environmental monitoring. Water samples were collected from three streams located in the urban area of a municipality in the south of Brazil. For each stream, two samples were collected, one upstream and one downstream of the pollution discharge site. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that all samples had various degrees of environmental impact, but substantial impact was seen for the downstream samples of the Preto and Pedras streams. All samples increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (P Allium cepa seeds/seedlings were shown to be extremely sensitive in detecting the genotoxicity of environmental water samples and can be applied as the first tool for environmental health hazard identification and prediction. PMID:25574484

Athanásio, Camila Gonçalves; Prá, Daniel; Rieger, Alexandre

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Urgency for sustainable development in coastal urban areas with reference to weather pattern, land use, and water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water pollution is one of the most critical problems affecting mankind. Weather pattern and land use of catchment area have significant role in quality of water bodies. Due to climate change, there is frequent variation in weather pattern all over the world. There is also rapid change in land use due to increase in population and urbanization. The study was carried out to analyze the effect of change in weather pattern during the monsoon periods of 2008 and 2012 on water quality of a tropical coastal lake system. The nature and extent of variation in different water quality parameters namely electrical conductivity (EC), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), sulphate (SO4), turbidity, Secchi disk depth, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), phosphate (PO4), calcium (Ca), and water temperature as well as the effect of various land use activities in the lake basin on water quality have also been studied. There is significant reduction in precipitation, EC, Mg, Na, Cl, SO4, turbidity, and Secchi disk depths whereas a significant rise in the BOD, PO4, Ca, and water temperature were observed in 2012. This significant reduction in electrical conductivity during 2012 revealed that because of less precipitation, the lake was separated from the sea by the sandbar during most of the monsoon period and thereby interrupted the natural flushing process. This caused the accumulation of organic matter including phosphate and thereby resulting reduction in clarity and chlorophyll-a (algae) in the lake. The unsustainable development activities of Thiruvanathapuram city are mainly responsible for the degradation of water bodies. The lack of maintenance and augmentation activities namely replacement of old pipes and periodical cleaning of pipe lines of the old sewer system in the city results in the bypass of sewage into water bodies. Because of the existence of the old sewerage system, no effort has been taken by the individual establishment/house of the city to provide their own treatment system for sewage and sullage and the untreated wastes are discharged into these old sewer pipes and ultimately the wastes reach the water bodies. In this context, decentralized treatment of sewage, sullage, and garbage by individual houses/establishments/hotels/hospitals is a better option for the developing countries. With the rapid developmental activities, and due to the variation of precipitation due to climate change, it is highly essential to provide proper waste treatment/augmentation facilities in urban lake system because a slight variation in the weather pattern can result in serious implications in the already polluted water bodies. PMID:24415134

Sheela, A M; Letha, J; Swarnalatha, K; Baiju, K V; Sankar, Divya

2014-05-01

62

Assessment of hydrochemical quality of ground water under some urban areas within sana'a secreteriat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Groundwater from nine wells of three different districts, located at Sana'a secretariat was analyzed for hydrochemical quality assessment. Measurements of water quality parameters including pH, EC, CO3(2-), HCO3-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-), Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+, K+, and Na+ were carried out . Classification of [...] the groundwater samples according to Cl, SO4(2-), CO3(2-) and HCO3-, hardness (H), total dissolved solids (TDS), base-exchange, and meteoric genesis was demonstrated. Suitability of ground water samples for irrigation and industrial uses according to sodium adsorption ration (SAR), ratio of dissolved sodium (RDS), residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and saturation index (SI) was also investigated. The results of this study showed that almost all ground water samples were of good quality that makes them suitable for drinking and domestic uses. Results also indicated that even though some of the ground water samples were suitable for irrigation purposes, almost all of them were found not be good for industrial uses. Despite all drawbacks of the sewerage system built around Sana'a secretariat at the beginning of the first decade of the third millennium, the results of this study indicate that there is scope of significant improvement in Sana'a secretariat ground water quality.

Wadie S.T, AL- Ariqi; Abduljalil A.D.S, Ghaleb.

63

Águas urbanas Urban waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As águas urbanas geralmente incluem abastecimento de água e saneamento. Nessa perspectiva, saneamento envolve a coleta de tratamento de efluentes domésticos e industriais, não inclui drenagem urbana, gestão dos resíduos sólidos, porque ainda perdura uma visão desatualizada da gestão das águas urbanas da cidade. Águas urbanas envolvem componentes que permitem o desenvolvimento ambiental sustentável e utilizam os conceitos da gestão integrada dos recursos hídricos (GIRH, necessários para planejamento, implementação e manutenção da infra-estrutura da cidade. Nesse contexto, ficam denominados Gestão Integrada das Águas Urbanas. Neste artigo, analisam-se o desenvolvimento urbano e suas relações com as águas urbanas no Brasil. A gestão dos recursos hídricos no Brasil é realizada por bacias hidrográficas, e o domínio é federal ou estadual. Examinam-se as possibilidades de gestão da água na cidade e na bacia hidrográfica no contexto institucional brasileiro.Urban Waters systems generally include both water supply & sanitation facilities (WSS. Sanitation refers to domestic and industrial sewage collecting and treatment; it does not include urban stormwater or solid waste management systems. Urban water form components of a sustainable urban environment and the use of the integrated water resource management (IWRM concepts are needed for planning, implementation and maintenance of urban infrastructure. In urban environment, IWRM is referred to specifically as Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM. In this paper urban development and its relations with urban waters in Brazil are assessed. Management of Water Resources in Brazil is developed by basins and the administration is Federal or from the state. This article assess the alternatives of water management in the city and the basin in the Brazilian institutional environment.

Carlos E. M. Tucci

2008-01-01

64

Águas urbanas / Urban waters  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As águas urbanas geralmente incluem abastecimento de água e saneamento. Nessa perspectiva, saneamento envolve a coleta de tratamento de efluentes domésticos e industriais, não inclui drenagem urbana, gestão dos resíduos sólidos, porque ainda perdura uma visão desatualizada da gestão das águas urbana [...] s da cidade. Águas urbanas envolvem componentes que permitem o desenvolvimento ambiental sustentável e utilizam os conceitos da gestão integrada dos recursos hídricos (GIRH), necessários para planejamento, implementação e manutenção da infra-estrutura da cidade. Nesse contexto, ficam denominados Gestão Integrada das Águas Urbanas. Neste artigo, analisam-se o desenvolvimento urbano e suas relações com as águas urbanas no Brasil. A gestão dos recursos hídricos no Brasil é realizada por bacias hidrográficas, e o domínio é federal ou estadual. Examinam-se as possibilidades de gestão da água na cidade e na bacia hidrográfica no contexto institucional brasileiro. Abstract in english Urban Waters systems generally include both water supply & sanitation facilities (WSS). Sanitation refers to domestic and industrial sewage collecting and treatment; it does not include urban stormwater or solid waste management systems. Urban water form components of a sustainable urban environment [...] and the use of the integrated water resource management (IWRM) concepts are needed for planning, implementation and maintenance of urban infrastructure. In urban environment, IWRM is referred to specifically as Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM). In this paper urban development and its relations with urban waters in Brazil are assessed. Management of Water Resources in Brazil is developed by basins and the administration is Federal or from the state. This article assess the alternatives of water management in the city and the basin in the Brazilian institutional environment.

Carlos E. M., Tucci.

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Understanding the relationships among phytoplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and water quality variables in peri-urban river systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, using the Hawkesbury-Nepean River as a case study, the spatial and temporal trends of water quality variables over three sampling surveys in a peri-urban situation are examined for their effect on benthic macroinvertebrate communities and phytoplankton communities and whether phytoplankton and benthic macroinvertebrate species can be used as indicators for river health assessment. For this, the authors monitored the spatial and temporal difference of 10 water quality parameters: temperature, turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, oxidation reduction potential, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, manganese, and suspended solids. The variability in water quality parameters clearly indicated a complex pattern, depending on the season (interaction p = 0.001), which highlighted how the river condition is stressed at multiple points as a result of anthropogenic effects. In particular, the downstream locations indicated an accumulation of nutrients, the presence of increased sediments, and phytoplankton related variables such as total counts, bio-volumes, chlorophyll-a, and total phosphorus. The patterns of phytoplankton communities varied in a complex way depending on the season (interaction p = 0.001). Abundances of phytoplankton were also found in low concentrations where the water column is not severely disturbed by flow and tide. However, when the water clarity drops resulting from tidal cycles, inflows from tributaries, and intense boating activities, the phytoplankton abundances also increased considerably. On the other hand, benthic macroinvertebrates compositions were significantly different between locations (p = 0.001) with increased abundances associated with upstream sites. Aphanocapsa holsatica and chironomid larvae appeared as the important indicators for upstream and downstream site differences in water quality. Water temperature influenced the phytoplankton community pattern (?(w) = 0.408), whereas pH influenced the benthic macroinvertebrate community pattern (?(w) = 0.437). The findings of this study provide valuable insights into the interactions of water quality parameters on biotic assemblages and to the extent that benthic macroinvertebrates and phytoplankton assemblages are suitable as indicators for monitoring and assessing peri-urban river health. PMID:25654930

Pinto, Uthpala; Maheshwari, Basant L; Morris, E Charles

2014-12-01

66

Quality assessment of urban environment  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is dedicated to the research applicability of quality management problems of construction products. It is offered to expand quality management borders in construction, transferring its principles to urban systems as economic systems of higher level, which qualitative characteristics are substantially defined by quality of construction product. Buildings and structures form spatial-material basis of cities and the most important component of life sphere – urban environment. Authors justify the need for the assessment of urban environment quality as an important factor of social welfare and life quality in urban areas. The authors suggest definition of a term "urban environment". The methodology of quality assessment of urban environment is based on integrated approach which includes the system analysis of all factors and application of both quantitative methods of assessment (calculation of particular and integrated indicators) and qualitative methods (expert estimates and surveys). The authors propose the system of indicators, characterizing quality of the urban environment. This indicators fall into four classes. The authors show the methodology of their definition. The paper presents results of quality assessment of urban environment for several Siberian regions and comparative analysis of these results.

Ovsiannikova, T. Y.; Nikolaenko, M. N.

2015-01-01

67

The Quality and Health Implications of Urban Irrigation Water Used for Vegetable Production in the Accra Metropolis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The quality of irrigation water from different sources used by urban farmers in the Accra Metropolis was investigated. These were, tap water stored in dugout, surface water (from stream and wastewater in drains. The samples were analysed for their bacteriological, physical and chemical qualities using standard methods. Analytical Profile Index (API identification system was used to characterize and identify the bacterial species isolated in the samples. The results showed that heavy metal concentrations in the samples were within the FAO/WHO recommended limits for irrigation. The concentrations of highly toxic Lead and Cadmium were even below detection limit. Total and faecal coliform bacteria loads in all three potential irrigation water sources were above the WHO recommended limit for irrigation. Different bacteria species belonging to seven genera were identified in the three irrigation water sources. These included Citrobacter, Chryseomonas, Enterobacter, Klebseila, Proteus, Providencia, Pseudomonas. Generally, the most dominant bacterial species were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chryseomonas luteola. Some of these bacteria spp. can pose a health threat to farmers especially those who have challenges with their health and immune system. For example, infection with some of the bacteria species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with cystic fibrosis is known to be deadly over periods of time.

Joseph A. Ampofo

2012-11-01

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Monitoring marine recreational water quality using multiple microbial indicators in an urban tropical environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The microbial water quality at two beaches, Hobie Beach and Crandon Beach, in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA was measured using multiple microbial indicators for the purpose of evaluating correlations between microbes and for identifying possible sources of contamination. The indicator microbes chosen for this study (enterococci, Escherichia coli, fecal coliform, total coliform and C. perfringens) were evaluated through three different sampling efforts. These efforts included daily measureme...

Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-gabriele, Helena M.; Fleming, Lora E.; Elmir, Samir

2004-01-01

69

Impact of rainfall on the hygienic quality of blue mussels and water in urban areas in the Inner Oslofjord, Norway.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of precipitation on the hygienic quality of water and blue mussels collected from five different localities in the urban areas in the Inner Oslofjord were investigated, with samples analysed for Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., pathogenic Vibrio spp., Norovirus, Sapovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis. The sampling sites were located at varying distances from the outlet of combined sewer overflows (CSO)-impacted rivers/streams. In general, 1-3 log?? increases in fecal indicator bacteria and human pathogens were observed after heavy rainfalls. Blue mussels appeared to be a useful indicator of the impact of sewage at these sites, and generally a good correlation was identified between concentrations of E. coli and other human pathogens in the mussels. Provision of general advice to the public of avoiding areas near the outlets of CSO-impacted rivers after heavy rainfall may reduce the risk of gastroenteritis by bathers and others that may swallow water during recreational activities. PMID:24998797

Tryland, Ingun; Myrmel, Mette; Østensvik, Øyvin; Wennberg, Aina C; Robertson, Lucy J

2014-08-15

70

Water- and sediment-quality effects on Pimephales promelas spawning vary along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient  

Science.gov (United States)

Many streams in the U.S. are "impaired" due to anthropogenic influence. For watershed managers to achieve practical understanding of these impairments, a multitude of factors must be considered, including point and nonpoint-source influence on water quality. A spawning assay was developed in this study to evaluate water- and sediment-quality effects that influenced Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) egg production over a gradient of urban and agricultural land use in 27 small watersheds in Eastern Wisconsin. Six pairs of reproducing fathead minnows were contained in separate mesh cartridges within one larger flow-through chamber. Water- and sediment quality were sampled for an array of parameters. Egg production was monitored for each pair providing an assessment of spawning success throughout the 21-day test periods. Incidences of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in many of these streams negatively impacted spawning success. Nine of 27 streams experienced DO less than 3.1. mg/L and 15 streams experienced DO less than 4.8. mg/L. Low DO was observed in urban and agricultural watersheds, but the upper threshold of minimum DO decreased with increasing urban development. An increase in specific conductance was related to a decrease in spawning success. In previous studies for streams in this region, specific conductance had a linear relation with chloride, suggesting the possibility that chloride could be a factor in egg production. Egg production was lower at sites with substantial urban development, but sites with low egg production were not limited to urban sites. Degradation of water- and sediment-quality parameters with increasing urban development is indicated for multiple parameters while patterns were not detected for others. Results from this study indicate that DO must be a high priority watershed management consideration for this region, specific conductance should be investigated further to determine the mechanism of the relation with egg production, and water- and sediment-quality degrade in relation to urban influence. ?? 2011.

Corsi, S.R.; Klaper, R.D.; Weber, D.N.; Bannerman, R.T.

2011-01-01

71

Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development  

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Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1 the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2 administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3 the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4 planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development.

Hua-peng Qin

2014-10-01

72

Spatial changes in water quality of urban lakes in Chennai (India)--a case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manifold increase in population of Chennai city (India) has resulted in a rapid decrease in the groundwater level due to its over exploitation. The Government of Tamil Nadu has been exploring various ways and means to combat this problem. The present study was undertaken to assess the quality of water in three important major lakes of Chennai and its suburbs such as Porur lake, Puzhal lake and Chembarambakkam lake which recharge the groundwater as well as these lakes are harnessed by the Tamil Nadu Government to supply potable water to the residents of Chennai. The parameters studied were colour, odour, taste, turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, alkalinity, acidity, chlorides, Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solids and total hardness. Results indicate that the quality of water from these lakes is within the acceptable values. However, the TDS values were on the higher side in all the three lakes even though within the permissible limit prescribed by BIS. All the three lakes appear to be vulnerable to pollution as they are situated within or in close proximity to heavily populated areas. PMID:21391401

Raveen, R; Daniel, M

2010-07-01

73

Valuing water quality in urban watersheds: A comparative analysis of Johnson Creek, Oregon, and Burnt Bridge Creek, Washington  

Science.gov (United States)

study uses the hedonic price method to investigate the effect of five water quality parameters on the sale price of single-family residential properties in two urbanized watersheds in the Portland, Oregon-Vancouver, Washington metropolitan area. Water quality parameters include E. coli or fecal coliform, which can affect human health, decrease water clarity and generate foul odors; pH, dissolved oxygen, and stream temperature, which can impact fish and wildlife populations; and total suspended solids, which can affect water clarity, aquatic life, and aesthetics. Properties within ¼ mile, ½, mile, one mile, or more than one mile from Johnson Creek are estimated to experience an increase in sale price of 13.71%, 7.05%, 8.18%, and 3.12%, respectively, from a one mg/L increase in dissolved oxygen levels during the dry season (May-October). Estimates for a 100 count per 100 mL increase in E. coli during the dry season are -2.81% for properties within ¼ mile of Johnson Creek, -0.86% (½ mile), -1.19% (one mile), and -0.71% (greater than one mile). Results for properties in Burnt Bridge Creek include a significantly positive effect for a one mg/L increase in dissolved oxygen levels during the dry season for properties within ½ mile (4.49%), one mile (2.95%), or greater than one mile from the creek (3.17%). Results for other water quality parameters in Burnt Bridge Creek are generally consistent with a priori expectations. Restoration efforts underway in both study areas might be cost justified based on their estimated effect on property sale prices.

Netusil, Noelwah R.; Kincaid, Michael; Chang, Heejun

2014-05-01

74

Impact of Urbanization on Water Quantity and Quality: The Need for an Integrative Watershed Modeling Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Economic development through natural resource extraction is the primary driver of land use change. Land use change generally occurs as a result of urban development (residential, commercial, and industrial), agriculture (pasture and crop production), forestry (wood for constructi...

75

Improvement of Urban Lake Water Quality by Removal of Escherichia coli through the Action of the Bivalve Anodonta californiensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

High levels of fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, can be indicative of poor water quality. The use of shellfish to reduce eutrophication has been proposed, but application of bivalves to reduce bacterial levels has not been extensively reported. Removal of E. coli by the native freshwater mussel Anodonta californiensis was studied using laboratory batch systems and field-based flow-through systems. Batch systems were utilized to determine the fate and inactivation of E. coli after uptake by the mussel. Batch experiments demonstrated that uptake patterns followed first order kinetics and E. coli was inactivated with less than 5% of the initial colonies recoverable in fecal matter or tissue. Flow-through systems located at an urban impaired lake in San Francisco, CA were utilized to determine uptake kinetics under environmentally relevant conditions. The bivalves maintained a 1-log removal of E. coli for the duration of exposure. The calculated uptake rates can be used in conjunction with hydrologic models to determine the number of bivalves needed to maintain removal of E. coli in different freshwater systems. The outcomes of this study support the use of native freshwater bivalves to achieve the co-benefits of rehabilitating a freshwater ecosystem and improving water quality via reduction of E. coli in contaminated freshwater systems. PMID:25587628

Ismail, Niveen S; Dodd, Hanna; Sassoubre, Lauren M; Horne, Alexander J; Boehm, Alexandria B; Luthy, Richard G

2015-02-01

76

Effects of Agriculture and Urbanization on Quality of Shallow Ground Water in the Arid to Semiarid Western United States, 1993-2004  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the Western United States, agricultural and rural lands are being developed into commercial and residential areas. With changes in land use and increasing population, greater demands are placed on water resources for agricultural, industrial, and domestic supplies. Many areas in the Western United States rely exclusively on ground water as their source of drinking water. Areas that use surface-water resources often need to supplement this supply with ground water. Generally, shallow ground water is susceptible to fluctuating water quality within relatively short time scales and therefore can be used as an indicator of land-use stresses that may, in time, affect deep aquifer systems. This regional study examines data on shallow ground-water quality collected from 1993 to 2004 from 273 agricultural and 181 urban wells from 7 U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment study units in Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, south-central Colorado, and Utah. This report determines important influences that land-use practices may have on the quality of recently recharged ground water, which may ultimately affect deep water supplies within the region. The results of this investigation show that nitrate, the principal species of nitrogen present in ground water, exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter in water from more than 25 percent of agricultural wells and 10 percent of urban wells. In agricultural areas, the probability of exceeding the USEPA MCL for nitrate is influenced primarily by three factors: fertilizer use, irrigation, and aquifer oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions. At the study-unit level, differences in nutrient concentrations between agricultural and urban land use likely are influenced by ground-water redox conditions within respective aquifer systems. The most commonly detected pesticides belonged to the triazine, urea, amide, and carbamate classes. The triazine herbicides were the predominant pesticides present in both agricultural and urban areas. Simazine and diuron were most frequently detected in shallow ground water within agricultural areas, whereas atrazine, prometon, and tebuthiruon were more commonly detected in urban areas. The carbamate pesticides and the amide, metolachlor, were infrequently detected. Pesticide concentrations in shallow ground water within agricultural or urban land-use settings did not exceed established USEPA MCLs for drinking water. Generally, factors that influenced the detection of pesticides in shallow ground water in the regional area were dissolved oxygen, general soil permeability characteristics, temperature, and depth to screened interval. The most commonly detected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within urban areas were the trihalomethanes (THMs), solvents, and the fuel oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl-ether (MTBE). The most frequently detected THM was chloroform and the primary detected solvents were tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). Soil fumigants were detected almost entirely within an agricultural area in the Central Valley of California. The predominant fumigant detected was dibromochloropropane (DBCP), and its occurrence may be a result of its persistence and past use as a soil fumigant. THM concentrations did not exceed the USEPA MCL of 80 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for total THMs in any sample. Two ground-water samples collected within urban areas in Nevada exceeded the USEPA MCL for TCE (5 ?g/L) and the drinking-water advisory for MTBE (20-40 ?g/L). The PCE concentration in one sample from the urban area in Utah and five samples from urban areas within Nevada exceeded the 5 ?g/L MCL. An important factor affecting the detection frequencies of VOCs was the ground-water redox condition. Chloroform and PCE were detected more frequently in well-oxygenated ground water, whereas MTBE was detected more frequently in less-oxygenated water. Multivar

Paul, Angela P.; Seiler, Ralph L.; Rowe, Timothy G.; Rosen, Michael R.

2007-01-01

77

Water Quality Criteria for Water Bodies in Urban Areas and Accompanying Changes in Surrounding and In-Situ Vegetation: Considerations from the Landscape Aspect of Planning Water Recreational Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water bodies in urban areas are important as recreational areas. Thus, management plans that maintain high water quality are quite important. At the Hatadate Water Park adjacent to Miyagi University, water quality parameters such as visibility, COD, TOC, and TN were monitored at a small pond and the inflowing stream from August to December in 2011, and photographs were taken of these sites. Variations in COD and TOC were highly related to changes in the physical appearance, especially changes in vegetation. These findings suggest: 1 the importance of management of vegetation for water quality control; and 2 the importance of collecting photographic records of sites for research purposes of interpreting data and even as a data point of water quality. Together with the water quality goals for water bodies in urban areas proposed by Sudo et al. [1], these water quality criteria were assessed, and it was notable that COD often exceeded the set goal. These results suggest that the maintenance of vegetation is more important than controlling incoming TN for primary production in the pond. Seasonal variations in COD and TOC were plotted for surface water of Kamafusa and Okura dams, both are important lakes in Miyagi area and the catchments of both lakes are mainly hilly area, using published water quality reports. Similar annual-cycle changing patterns were shown both for the dams, implying that some kinds of ecological factors in the catchments are affecting the water qualities of the dam, even at those larger scale water bodies. Finally, by shifting the focus from only water to upstream features such as small park, or pocket park, with a parking lot for the water body, the importance of landscape including vegetation and tree cover was highlighted.

Shigeki Harada

2013-02-01

78

Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Urban Growth Using Land Use/Land Cover, Water Quality and Health Indicators: A Case Study of Arequipa, Peru  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: This research assesses the direct effects of urban expansion on land cover/use, river flow, water quality and the indirect effects of these variables in the rate of gastrointestinal disease in people in Arequipa, Peru through the combined use of satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems. Approach: It also uses information about demographic changes, hydrologic data and land cover change in the Arequipa region for the last 17 years. The goal is to understand the relationship between urbanization, water quality in the Chili River and incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. Results: Landsat imagery was used to determine this relationship and to extrapolate business as usual trends into the future ten years from now. Results indicate that there has been notable urban growth and a loss in volcanic material land and cropland between 1990 and 2007, as new urban developments have appeared in these areas. The population expansion over volcanically active area is particularly troubling since it poses a potential human health risk. We also model a business as usual scenario out to the year 2020, which shows continued loss of these land use types and serves as a warning for land managers to consider alternate policies. Conclusion/Recommendations: The analysis also shows a direct correlation between urbanization with the decrease of water quality and the increase in the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases.

O. V. Carpio

2011-01-01

79

Water and sediment quality, nutrient biochemistry and pollution loads in an urban freshwater lake: balancing human and ecological services.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimizing the utility of constructed waterways as residential development with water-frontage, along with a productive and functional habitat for wildlife is of considerable interest to managers. This study examines Lake Hugh Muntz, a large (17 ha) freshwater lake built in Gold Coast City, Australia. A ten year water quality monitoring programme shows that the lake has increasing nutrient concentrations, and together with summer algal blooms, the lake amenity as a popular recreational swimming and triathlon training location is at risk. A survey of fish and aquatic plant communities showed that the lake supports a sub-set of species found in adjacent natural wetlands. Sediment contaminants were below the lower Australian trigger values, except As, Hg, Pb and Zn, probably a function of untreated and uncontrolled stormwater runoff from nearby urban roads. Sediment biogeochemistry showed early signs of oxygen depletion, and an increase in benthic organic matter decomposition and oxygen consumption will result in more nitrogen recycled to the water column as NH4(+) (increasing the intensity of summer algal blooms) and less nitrogen lost to the atmosphere as N2 gas via denitrification. A series of catchment restoration initiatives were modeled and the optimal stormwater runoff restoration effort needed for lake protection will be costly, particularly retrospective, as is the case here. Overall, balancing the lifestyles and livelihoods of residents along with ecosystem protection are possible, but require considerable trade-offs between ecosystem services and human use. PMID:25384753

Waltham, Nathan J; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda; McCann, Damian; Eyre, Bradley D

2014-12-01

80

Urban air quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate more traffic and may thus have the opposite effect.

Fenger, Jes

 
 
 
 
81

Urban sustainability and integrated urban water management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aims to point out the features of cities and sustainable urban development, integrated management of water resources and the relationship between them, the basic principles and the advantages of their application in future sustainable development of cities. The method is based on the analysis of bibliographical information relating to sustainable urban development.

Vladut-Severian Iacob

2013-12-01

82

Urban air quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. led growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate more traffic and may thus have the opposite effect. (author)

83

Accounting for uncertainty in evaluating water quality impacts of urban development plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implementation of urban development plans causes land use change, which can have significant environmental impacts. In light of this, environmental concerns should be considered sufficiently at an early stage of the planning process. However, uncertainties existing in urban development plans hamper the application of strategic environmental assessment, which is applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of policies, plans and programs. This study develops an integrated assessment method based on accounting uncertainty of environmental impacts. And the proposed method consists of four main steps: (1) designing scenarios of economic scale and industrial structure, (2) sampling for possible land use layouts, (3) evaluating each sample's environmental impact, and (4) identifying environmentally sensitive industries. In doing so, uncertainties of environmental impacts can be accounted. Then environmental risk, overall environmental pressure and potential extreme environmental impact of urban development plans can be analyzed, and environmentally sensitive factors can be identified, especially under considerations of uncertainties. It can help decision-makers enhance environmental consideration and take measures in the early stage of decision-making.

84

Urban green and air quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introducing more vegetation ('greenery') in the urban environment will filter pollution from the air and improve air quality. Knowledge of this inherent characteristic of greenery and the volume of filter capacity should be put to much better use in planning than is currently done. At the same time the misconception that greenery is just a cost item should be cleared up. Next to a healthier environment, specific greenery policy will also provide benefits.

85

Air quality and urban management in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

Alberti, M. [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

1995-12-31

86

DSM in Urban Water Governance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Meeting public water supply needs efficiently and sustainably in a rapidly urbanizing world is becoming an immense challenge to governments and utilities. Experience has shown that the supply side management approach to water governance has proven to be inadequate in meeting water demands of urban areas in a sustainable manner and protecting the environment. New water sources are not readily available as before for development. Moreover, environmental constraints, political as well as socio-e...

Berhe Giday, Kahsay

2006-01-01

87

An assessment of water quality, physical habitat, and biological integrity of an urban stream in Wichita, Kansas, prior to restoration improvements (phase I).  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban development alters the natural hydrological conditions of many streams and rivers often resulting in the degradation of water quality, physical habitat, and biotic integrity of lotic systems. Restoration projects attempt to improve and maintain the ecological integrity of urban streams; however, few projects have quantified improvements to stream ecology following implementation of restoration measures. This paper summarizes pre-restoration data collected as part of an urban stream restoration project on Gypsum Creek in Wichita, Kansas. Water quality monitoring revealed eutrophic conditions in the stream and the presence of pesticides. Channelization has led to changes in physical habitat including bank erosion, sedimentation, loss of substrate and channel diversity, elimination of in-stream aquatic habitat, removal of riparian vegetation, and decreased base flows. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities appear degraded with more than 90% of individuals collected described as tolerant to anthropogenic stressors. Fish communities were assessed with an Index of Biotic Integrity and were rated as poor to fair, with trophic structure dominated by generalists, no sensitive species present, and one-third of the species collected considered non-native. Overall, the data collected strongly suggest that site-specific restoration measures need to be implemented in order to improve and maintain the ecological condition of Gypsum Creek. Recommendations for improvements have been made to city managers, with implementation beginning in spring 2003 (dependent upon funding availability). PMID:12712295

Davis, N M; Weaver, V; Parks, K; Lydy, M J

2003-04-01

88

Effects of urbanization on water quality in the Kansas River, Shunganunga Creek Basin, and Soldier Creek, Topeka, Kansas, October 1993 through September 1995  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of urban-related water-qulity effects in the Kansas River, Shunganunga Creek Basin, and Soldier Creek in Topeka, Kansas, was conducted from October 1993 through September 1995. The purpose of this report is to assess the effects of urbanization on instream concentrations of selected physical and chemical constituents within the city of Topeka. A network of seven sampling sites was established in the study area. Samples principally were collected at monthly intervals from the Kansas River and from the Shunganunga Creek Basin, and at quarterly intervals from Soldier Creek. The effects of urbanization werestatistically evaluated from differences in constituent concentrations between sites on the same stream. No significant differences in median concentrations of dissolved solids, nutrients, or metals and trace elements, or median densities offecal bacteria were documented between sampling sites upstream and downstream from the major urbanized length of the Kansas River in Topeka.Discharge from the city's primary wastewater- treatment plant is the largest potential source of contamination to the Kansas River. This discharge increased concentrations of dissolved ammonia, totalphosphorus, and densities of fecal bacteria.Calculated dissolved ammonia as nitrogen concentrations in water from the Kansas River ranged from 0.03 to 1.1 milligrams per liter after receiving treatment-plant discharge. However, most of the calculated concentrations wereconsiderably less than 50 percent of Kansas Department of Health and Environment water- quality criteria, with a median value of 20 percent.Generally, treatment-plant discharge increased calculated total phosphorus concentrations in water from the Kansas River by 0.01 to 0.04 milligrams per liter, with a median percentage increase of 7.6 percent. The calculated median densities of fecal coliform and fecal Streptococci bacteria in water from the Kansas River increased from 120 and 150colonies per 100 milliliters of water, respectively, before treatment-plant discharge to a calculated 4,900 and 4,700 colonies per 100 milliliters of water, respectively, after discharge. Median concentrations of dissolved solids were not significantly different between three sampling sites in the Shunganunga Creek Basin. Median concentrations of dissolved nitrate as nitrogen, total phosphorus, and dissolved orthophosphate were significantly larger in water from the upstream- most Shunganunga Creek sampling site than in water from either of the other sampling sites in the Shunganunga Creek Basin probably because of the site's proximity to a wastewater-treatment plant.Median concentrations of dissolved nitrate as nitrogen and total phosphorus during 1993-95 at upstream sampling sites were either significantlylarger than during 1979-81 in response to increase of wastewater-treatment plant discharge or smaller because of the elimination of wastewater-treatment plant discharge. Median concentrations of dissolved ammonia as nitrogen were significantly less during 1993-95 than during 1979-81. Median concentrations of total aluminum, iron, maganese, and molybdenum were significantly larger in water from the downstream-mostShunganunga Creek sampling site than in water from the upstream-most sampling site. This probably reflects their widespread use in the urbanenvironment between the upstream and downstream Shunganunga Creek sampling sites. Little water-quality effect from the urbanization was indicated by results from the Soldier Creek sampling site. Median concentrations of most water-quality constituents in water from this sampling site were the smallest in water from any sampling site in the study area. Herbicides were detected in water from all sampling sites. Some of the more frequently detected herbicides included acetochlor, alachlor,atrazine, cyanazine, EPTC, metolachlor, prometon, simazine, and tebuthiuron. Detected insecticides including chlordane,

Pope, L.M.; Putnam, J.E.

1997-01-01

89

Urban water transactions: the search of a comprehensive framework for interactions between water and urban systems  

Science.gov (United States)

United Nations global demographic prospects show that from 1950 to 2050, the number of people living in cities will increase from 0.7 to 6.3 billion, which represents a 9 times fold in 100 years. In contrast, human population as a whole doesn't show the same trends of the urban subset. For instance, rural population is in some regions almost stalled or reducing at small rates, with an average growth rate 50% less than the urban population. This progressive change in global population structure, with more people living mostly in urban areas, already places urban settlements as the main node driving the interaction of human population and other earth systems, at local, regional and global scales. This population dynamics is a major source of concern, mainly because the need to comprehensively understand the two apparent contradictory faces of the urbanization phenomena: Despite cities tend to perform more efficiently in terms of mass and energy requirements as function of population size, the agglomeration process in cities typically implies an increase of overall throughput of mass and energy over time. Thus, a central question is to understand how the apparent per capita energy and material flows minimization occurring in cities can propagate its effects towards other geosystems in future population scenarios. The magnitude of scaled (temporal and spatial) effects is crucial to determine if limits of supporting systems capacity is or will be exceeded for a system of cities, or if otherwise is within steady limits. The Urban Water Transaction (UWT) framework aims for the study of the above question from the perspective of water. Typically between 50 and 70% of mass throughput in urban areas is water, however, that figure doesn't account for other teleconnected flows, such as energy production (hydropower facilities) and food production (virtual water), etc. Therefore, a comprehensive view of actual dependence of urban areas and water faces - in the view of the authors - faces two main limitations: (1) Most of water urban-water interactions occur at temporal or spatial scales associated with groups of cities - the urban system - rather than at the scale of an individual city, (2) Water, as a renewable resource, imposes some conceptual difficulties to quantify its availability if seen only through the lens of "metabolism" or "budget", because many water related activities use, but don't consume water. Understand this changes requires the integration of complementary metrics, such as variations in flow, energy or quality regime of a water systems. The Urban Water Transaction (UWT) framework is proposed as conceptual tool to set a common ground for the different types of direct and indirect interactions of urban systems and water, and to study the urban system properties associated with water integration. Import and export flows constitute the primary and most common examples of UWT that fundamentally occur at the Watershed level, and are mediated mostly by physical hydroclimatic water cycles and human basic water needs. However, with the advent of more complex systems of cities and their supporting water dependent systems, indirect, wider range and legacy flows such as hydrological regimes redistribution, virtual water flows and quality changes, are integrated through the concept of water transactions. In the view of the authors, the importance of this framework deals three aspects of study of the urbanization phenomena: The coupling characteristics urban systems and hydrological systems, the patterns in urban system as a result of the influence of water related constraints and the identification of urban systems properties that result critical towards the long-term viability of water resources.

Angarita, Hector; Domínguez, Efraín

2013-04-01

90

Developing a framework to assess the water quality and quantity impacts of climate change, shifting land use, and urbanization in a Midwestern agricultural landscape  

Science.gov (United States)

Dynamic hydrological processes play a critical role in the structure and functioning of agricultural watersheds undergoing urbanization. Developing a predictive understanding of the complex interaction between agricultural productivity, ecosystem health, water quality, urban development, and public policy requires an interdisciplinary effort that investigates the important biophysical and social processes of the system. Our research group has initiated such a framework that includes a coordinated program of integrated scenarios, model experiments to assess the effects of changing drivers on a broad set of ecosystem services, evaluations of governance and leverage points, outreach and public engagement, and information management. Our geographic focus is the Yahara River watershed in south-central Wisconsin, which is an exemplar of water-related issues in the Upper Midwest. This research addresses three specific questions. 1) How do different patterns of land use, land cover, land management, and water resources engineering practices affect the resilience and sensitivity of ecosystem services under a changing climate? 2) How can regional governance systems for water and land use be made more resilient and adaptive to meet diverse human needs? 3) In what ways are regional human-environment systems resilient and in what ways are they vulnerable to potential changes in climate and water resources? A comprehensive program of model experiments and biophysical measurements will be utilized to evaluate changes in five freshwater ecosystem services (flood regulation, groundwater recharge, surface water quality, groundwater quality, and lake recreation) and five related ecosystem services (food crop yields, bioenergy crop yields, carbon storage in soil, albedo, and terrestrial recreation). Novel additions to existing biophysical models will allow us to simulate all components of the hydrological cycle as well as agricultural productivity, nitrogen and phosphorus transport, and lake water quality. The integrated model will be validated using a comprehensive observational database that includes soil moisture, evapotranspiration, stomatal conductance, streamflow, stream and lake water quality, and crop yields and productivity. Integrated scenarios will be developed to synthesize decision-maker perspectives, alternative approaches to resource governance, plausible trends in demographic and economic drivers, and model projections under alternate climate and land use regimes to understand future conditions of the watershed and its ecosystem services. The quantitative data and integrated scenarios will then be linked to evaluate governance of water and land use.

Loheide, S. P.; Booth, E. G.; Kucharik, C. J.; Carpenter, S. R.; Gries, C.; Katt-Reinders, E.; Rissman, A. R.; Turner, M. G.

2011-12-01

91

Hydrology, water quality, and response to changes in phosphorus loading of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes, Oneida County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on effects of urbanization  

Science.gov (United States)

Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes are 1,318- and 690-acre interconnected lakes in the popular recreation area of north-central Wisconsin. The lakes are the lower end of a complex chain of lakes in Oneida and Vilas Counties, Wis. There is concern that increased stormwater runoff from rapidly growing residential/commercial developments and impervious surfaces from the urbanized areas of the Town of Minocqua and Woodruff, as well as increased effluent from septic systems around their heavily developed shoreline has increased nutrient loading to the lakes. Maintaining the quality of the lakes to sustain the tourist-based economy of the towns and the area was a concern raised by the Minocqua/Kawaguesaga Lakes Protection Association. Following several small studies, a detailed study during 2006 and 2007 was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minocqua/Kawaguesaga Lakes Protection Association through the Town of Minocqua to describe the hydrology and water quality of the lakes, quantify the sources of phosphorus including those associated with urban development and to better understand the present and future effects of phosphorus loading on the water quality of the lakes. The water quality of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes appears to have improved since 1963, when a new sewage-treatment plant was constructed and its discharge was bypassed around the lakes, resulting in a decrease in phosphorus loading to the lakes. Since the mid-1980s, the water quality of the lakes has changed little in response to fluctuations in phosphorus loading from the watershed. From 1986 to 2009, summer average concentrations of near-surface total phosphorus in the main East Basin of Minocqua Lake fluctuated from 0.009 mg/L to 0.027 mg/L but generally remained less than 0.022 mg/L, indicating that the lake is mesotrophic. Phosphorus concentrations from 1988 through 1996, however, were lower than the long-term average, possibly the result of an extended drought in the area. Water-quality data for Kawaguesaga Lake had a similar pattern to that of Minocqua Lake. Summer average chlorophyll a concentrations and Secchi depths also indicate that the lakes generally are mesotrophic but occasionally borderline eutrophic, with no long-term trends. During the study, major water and phosphorus sources were measured directly, and minor sources were estimated to construct detailed water and phosphorus budgets for the lakes for monitoring years (MY) 2006 and 2007. During these years, the Minocqua Thoroughfare contributed about 38 percent of the total inflow to the lakes, and Tomahawk Thoroughfare contributed 34 percent; near-lake inflow, precipitation, and groundwater contributed about 1, 16, and 11 percent of the total inflow, respectively. Water leaves the lakes primarily through the Tomahawk River outlet (83 percent) or by evaporation (14 percent), with minor outflow to groundwater. Total input of phosphorus to both lakes was about 3,440 pounds in MY 2006 and 2,200 pounds in MY 2007. The largest sources of phosphorus entering the lakes were the Minocqua and Tomahawk Thoroughfares, which delivered about 39 and 26 percent of the total, respectively. The near-lake drainage area, containing most of the urban and residential developments, disproportionately accounted for about 12 percent of the total phosphorus input but only about 1 percent of the total water input (estimated with WinSLAMM). The next largest contributions were from septic systems and precipitation, each contributing about 10 percent, whereas groundwater delivered about 4 percent of the total phosphorus input. Empirical lake water-quality models within BATHTUB were used to simulate the response of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes to 19 phosphorus-loading scenarios. These scenarios included the current base years (2006?07) for which lake water quality and loading were known, nine general increases or decreases in phosphorus loading from controllable external sources (inputs from the tributa

Garn, Herbert S.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Saad, David A.

2010-01-01

92

Primer on Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

... fs-027-01.pdf--665KB A Primer on Water Quality What is in the water? Is it safe for drinking? Can fish and ... affect water quality. What do we mean by "water quality"? Water quality can be thought of as ...

93

Comparison between the efficiency of two bioindicators for determining surface water quality in an urban environment - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.7725 Comparison between the efficiency of two bioindicators for determining surface water quality in an urban environment - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.7725  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficiency of two bioindicators, fecal coliforms and ecotoxicity tests, set out in CONAMA Resolution 274/00 and CONAMA Resolution 357/05, in assessment of water quality. For this study, Lake Paranoá, Federal District of Brazil, was chosen, since it is a water body directly contaminated by effluents from a sewage treatment plant. Four sampling points were chosen in accordance with the map of recreational water quality published weekly by CAESB/DF, after analysis of fecal coliforms. Samples from these points were collected for 6 months and tested on Danio rerio fish (acute toxicity and on the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (acute and chronic toxicity, besides measuring chemical and physico-chemical parameters. The data obtained show great consistency between the observed biological parameters, suggesting that in this urban aquatic environment, under great anthropogenic pressure, the fecal coliform bioindicator seems to be more restrictive and enough to evaluate the safety of surface water.This study evaluated the efficiency of two bioindicators, fecal coliforms and ecotoxicity tests, set out in CONAMA Resolution 274/00 and CONAMA Resolution 357/05, in assessment of water quality. For this study, Lake Paranoá, Federal District of Brazil, was chosen, since it is a water body directly contaminated by effluents from a sewage treatment plant. Four sampling points were chosen in accordance with the map of recreational water quality published weekly by CAESB/DF, after analysis of fecal coliforms. Samples from these points were collected for 6 months and tested on Danio rerio fish (acute toxicity and on the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (acute and chronic toxicity, besides measuring chemical and physico-chemical parameters. The data obtained show great consistency between the observed biological parameters, suggesting that in this urban aquatic environment, under great anthropogenic pressure, the fecal coliform bioindicator seems to be more restrictive and enough to evaluate the safety of surface water.

Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz

2011-07-01

94

Uso de aguas de segunda calidad en ciclo urbano del agua para las condiciones cubanas / Use of secondary quality water for urban sanitation in Cuban conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La escasez de agua se ha convertido en un problema acuciante en muchas ciudades costeras alrededor del mundo. La rápida urbanización, los problemas derivados del cambio climático, las soluciones tradicionales (trasvases, perforación de pozos, captación de la lluvia) y avanzadas (desalación) son insu [...] ficientes, de altos costos y no sustentables desde el punto de vista ambiental para satisfacer la creciente demanda de agua. Tecnologías como el uso de agua de mar para descarga de inodoros y otros usos, se están volviendo a retomar a pesar de los problemas que se han planteado en su contra, como son la corrosión de las instalaciones y la necesidad de un sistema de abasto dual. El uso de estas técnicas está cambiando los paradigmas existentes en el manejo de las aguas en el ambiente urbano. Abstract in english Water shortage is increasingly becoming a problem in many coastal cities in both low and high-income countries (with about 60% of world population). Due to rapid urbanization and climate change, traditional (fresh water transfer, rainwater harvesting) and advanced solutions (sea water desalination) [...] become insufficient, non cost-effective and environmentally unsustainable to match the ever growing water demand. Direct use of seawater for toilet flushing, and other non-potable uses, is often forgotten, easily rejected and traditionally perceived as troublesome due to corrosion issues and the requirement for a dual system. However, the benefits are often overlooked and, in general, not well-studied and documented despite its potential and as a means towards sustainable water cycle management, opening a new paradigm towards the use of saline water as secondary quality water in urban environments.

Carlos M., López-Vázquez; Damir, Brjanovic; Christine M., Hooijmans; Orestes A., González Díaz.

2013-12-01

95

Evaluation of Urban Park Service Quality Based on Factor Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban park is an important component of urban public green space which provides leisure, recreation, activity place, etc. Urban park service quality was evaluated by quantitative method in this paper to provide scientific evidence for renewal and development of urban park. 5 urban parks in Xinxiang, Henan province, China were selected as evaluation samples, and 13 indexes were evaluated, including plant landscape, cultural experience, activity place, ecological environment, road design, topographical management, fitness facilities, water landscape, service facility, night landscape, landscape aesthetics, information mark and shelter landscape. Then the data were analyzed by factor analysis. Results: the information contained in the 13 evaluation indexes had considerable repeatability. Therefore, 5 main factors including landscape elements, sports and entertainment, cultural quality, ecology and night scene and traffic facilities were extracted which accounted for 80.881% of total variation. The number of factor variables was far less than the number of index variables, which reduced the complexity of evaluation and indicated that factor analysis had good dimension-reducing effect. Based on the results of factor analysis, not only the contribution rate of each index and each factor in the park service quality evaluation, but also single factor scores and comprehensive scores in different parks could be obtained, which facilitated the analysis and comparison of service quality of different parks. Our work can provide support for urban park renewal, reconstruction and development, thereby promoting the urban park service quality.

Yichuan Zhang

2012-11-01

96

Quantifying baseflow and water-quality impacts from a gravel-dominated alluvial aquifer in an urban reach of a large Canadian river  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater discharge and non-point source (NPS) loading were evaluated along an urban reach of an eastern-slopes Rocky Mountains river (Bow River, Canada) to understand sources of water-quality impacts and baseflow. The discharge did not increase measurably over a 16-km reach. Groundwater in the river-connected alluvial aquifer was a mixture of river and prairie groundwater, with elevated chloride concentrations (average 379 mg L-1) from road salt. Alluvial groundwater was the major NPS of chloride discharging to the river. Although the mass-flux based estimates of groundwater discharge were small (mean 0.02 m3 s-1 km-1, SD = 0.04 m3 s-1 km-1, n = 30), the associated chloride mass flux over 16 km was significant (equivalent to that discharged from the city's largest wastewater-treatment-plant effluent). Although local groundwater baseflow was previously thought to contribute significantly to overwinter baseflow in this reach, little contribution was measured in this study. Low baseflow generation is consistent with long-term river discharge data that show almost all of the baseflow generation occurs in the Rocky Mountain reach. Thus, local watershed areas are important for water-quality protection, but climate change in the headwaters is most salient to long-term flow.

Cantafio, L. J.; Ryan, M. C.

2014-06-01

97

Microbiologic quality water from  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work has as objective to evaluate the quality of the water of the Ribeirão dos Porcos river, at Espírito Santo do Pinhal-SP, Brazil, through microbiologycal anlyses for fecal and total coliform, fecal enterococci, pH, oxygen dissolved. Twenty four samples of water of 6 different points were collected, being made 4 collections of each point, in copies. The microbiologycal analyses, was accomplished by the method of the Most Probable Number (NMP using by multiple tubes technique. Determination of dissolved oxygen and pH values were made. The results of the microbiologycal analyses showed high levels of fecal and total coliforms (1,1x 105 to 2,4x 105/100 ml from point 1 to 6. In the point 1 (nascent, the fecal total coliforms and fecal enterococci, was inside of the acceptable limits. The results showed largest pollution indexes with fecal coliforms, of the point 2 to 6, mainly in the urban zone, where the river receives domestic and industrial effluents.

Adriano Luís Ferriani Junior

2004-06-01

98

Tsunamis: Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir A ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

99

SEWER COLLECTION EFFECTIVENESS ON WATER QUALITY: A CONTRIBUTION TO THE URBAN PLANNING APPLIED TO JABOTICABAL CITY – SP = EFICIÊNCIA DE INTERCEPTORES DE ESGOTO SOBRE A QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA: UMA CONTRIBUIÇÃO AO PLANEJAMENTO URBANO APLICADO À CIDADE DE JABOTICABAL-SP  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sewer is one of the most relevant environmental factors whichcontributes to loss of life quality in the urban areas. Usually, the sewer final destiny is in the watercourse-bound, since it´s production is inevitable. It demands studies and techniques to be developed and duly applied so that its harmful influence on water quality is avoid, making it as close as possible of its natural conditions. The construction of sewer collection throughout watercourses and its further forwarding to the...

José Marques Júnior; Mário Benincasa; João Antonio Galbiatti; Maurício José Borges; Antonio Sergio Ferraudo

2002-01-01

100

Impacts of urban solid waste disposal on the quality of surface water in three cities of Minas Gerais - Brazil Impactos da disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos na qualidade da água superficial em três municípios de Minas Gerais - Brasil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The environmental impact of three different urban solid waste facilities (USWF) on the quality of the surface water. The studied areas were the Campo Belo sanitary landfill (Varões River), the controlled landfill of Santo Antônio do Amparo (Fabiano River), and the closed dump of Elói Mendes (Mutuca River), which are cities located in southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil were evaluated. At each sampling point water samples were collected at five occasions in the raining season (October - Mar...

Rosângela Francisca de Paula Vitor Marques; Antônio Marciano da Silva; Luciano dos Santos. Rodrigues; Gilberto Coelho

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Soil invertebrates as bioindicators of urban soil quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aimed at relating the abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities of urban soils to chemical and physical soil characteristics and to identify the taxa most sensitive or tolerant to soil stressors. The invertebrate community of five urban soils in Naples, Italy, was sampled. To assess soil quality invertebrate community indices (Shannon, Simpson, Menhinick and Pielou indices), Acarina/Collembola ratios, and the soil biological quality index (QBS) were calculated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils strongly differed. Abundance rather than taxa richness of invertebrates were more affected by soil characteristics. The community was more abundant and diverse in the soils with high organic matter and water content and low metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations. The taxa more resistant to the urban environment included Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. Collembolans appeared particularly sensitive to changing soil properties. Among the investigated indices, QBS seems most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Highlights: ? The abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities was related to properties and metal contents of urban soils. ? Several (biodiversity) indices were calculated and compared to evaluate soil quality. ? Metal contamination affected invertebrate density and diversity. ? The taxa more tolerant to metal contamination were Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. ? The soil biological qumatoda. ? The soil biological quality index QBS index was most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Soil metal contamination negatively affected soil invertebrate abundance and diversity.

102

Corporatization of the water sector: implications for transitioning to sustainable urban water management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the context of climate change, the Danish urban water sector is experiencing two major pressures. On one hand, a number of agents are pushing towards more sustainable urban water management (SUWM) approaches with the aim of improving surface water quality and mitigating flood risk. On the other hand, as part of an international trend, the municipal water management departments were transformed in locally created not-for-profit corporatized companies. Among the drivers are: increase efficie...

Farne? Fratini, Chiara; Brown, Rebekah Ruth; Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

2012-01-01

103

Índice de qualidade de água em microbacia sob uso agrícola e urbano Water quality index for agricultural and urban watershed use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A avaliação da qualidade da água em microbacias sob diferentes usos pode ser feita pelo uso de técnicas estatísticas multivariadas. Em Guaíra (SP, foi realizado o monitoramento da qualidade da água em uma microbacia de uso agrícola e urbano com 9600 ha, no período de jun/95 a jun/96. Coletaram-se amostras de água a cada 21 dias em 5 pontos, sendo determinadas 10 variáveis (fósforo total e dissolvido, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, amônia, nitrato, condutividade elétrica, turbidez, sólidos totais em suspensão e clorofila. Calculou-se um índice de qualidade de água (IQA através do uso da técnica de análise fatorial e do método de Bartlett. Os resultados obtidos indicaram uma diferença entre os valores de IQA para as três estações a montante da cidade de Guaira e as duas estações a jusante, com valores médios de --1,757 e 2,35, respectivamente. Pela análise fatorial, oxigênio dissolvido, fósforo total, amônia e condutividade elétrica foram as variáveis que mais contribuíram na determinação do IQA. Os três primeiros fatores explicaram 71% da variância dos dados. O primeiro fator explicou 47% da variância dos dados e foi utilizado na construção do IQA. A influência climática foi pouco significativa no IQA, apresentando uma pequena deterioração na qualidade da água durante o período chuvoso. Discute-se a aplicação da técnica de análise fatorial como forma de avaliar as alterações na qualidade da água e na seleção de melhores indicadores de impacto ambiental em microbacias.An assessment of water quality in a watershed of 9600 ha in Guaíra, SP - Brazil, submitted to different occupations (rural and urban, was carried out during the period Jun/95 to Jun/96, using multivariate statistical techniques. Water samples were collected every 21 days at five sampling sites to evaluate ten water quality parameters (total and dissolved P, pH, dissolved O2, NH4, nitrate, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total suspended solids, and chlorophyll. A water quality index (WQI was determined by the factorial analysis and the Bartlett method. The results point out a significant difference of WQI between the three upstream and the two downstream (in relation to Guaíra sampling sites (mean values of - 1.76 and 2.35 respectively. The factorial analysis indicated that dissolved O2, total P, NH4, and electric conductivity were the most important parameters in determining the value of the WQI. The first three factors explained 71% of the variance of the data, whereas the first factor alone explained 47%. The influence of climate parameters was of little significance for the WQI, causing a minor water quality deterioration during the rainy season. The paper discusses the applicability of the factorial analysis as a means of assessing water quality alterations, as well as for the selection of appropriate indicators for the assessment of environmental impact in watersheds.

Luís Gonzaga de Toledo

2002-03-01

104

Índice de qualidade de água em microbacia sob uso agrícola e urbano / Water quality index for agricultural and urban watershed use  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A avaliação da qualidade da água em microbacias sob diferentes usos pode ser feita pelo uso de técnicas estatísticas multivariadas. Em Guaíra (SP), foi realizado o monitoramento da qualidade da água em uma microbacia de uso agrícola e urbano com 9600 ha, no período de jun/95 a jun/96. Coletaram-se a [...] mostras de água a cada 21 dias em 5 pontos, sendo determinadas 10 variáveis (fósforo total e dissolvido, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, amônia, nitrato, condutividade elétrica, turbidez, sólidos totais em suspensão e clorofila). Calculou-se um índice de qualidade de água (IQA) através do uso da técnica de análise fatorial e do método de Bartlett. Os resultados obtidos indicaram uma diferença entre os valores de IQA para as três estações a montante da cidade de Guaira e as duas estações a jusante, com valores médios de --1,757 e 2,35, respectivamente. Pela análise fatorial, oxigênio dissolvido, fósforo total, amônia e condutividade elétrica foram as variáveis que mais contribuíram na determinação do IQA. Os três primeiros fatores explicaram 71% da variância dos dados. O primeiro fator explicou 47% da variância dos dados e foi utilizado na construção do IQA. A influência climática foi pouco significativa no IQA, apresentando uma pequena deterioração na qualidade da água durante o período chuvoso. Discute-se a aplicação da técnica de análise fatorial como forma de avaliar as alterações na qualidade da água e na seleção de melhores indicadores de impacto ambiental em microbacias. Abstract in english An assessment of water quality in a watershed of 9600 ha in Guaíra, SP - Brazil, submitted to different occupations (rural and urban), was carried out during the period Jun/95 to Jun/96, using multivariate statistical techniques. Water samples were collected every 21 days at five sampling sites to e [...] valuate ten water quality parameters (total and dissolved P, pH, dissolved O2, NH4, nitrate, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total suspended solids, and chlorophyll). A water quality index (WQI) was determined by the factorial analysis and the Bartlett method. The results point out a significant difference of WQI between the three upstream and the two downstream (in relation to Guaíra) sampling sites (mean values of - 1.76 and 2.35 respectively). The factorial analysis indicated that dissolved O2, total P, NH4, and electric conductivity were the most important parameters in determining the value of the WQI. The first three factors explained 71% of the variance of the data, whereas the first factor alone explained 47%. The influence of climate parameters was of little significance for the WQI, causing a minor water quality deterioration during the rainy season. The paper discusses the applicability of the factorial analysis as a means of assessing water quality alterations, as well as for the selection of appropriate indicators for the assessment of environmental impact in watersheds.

Luís Gonzaga de, Toledo; Gilberto, Nicolella.

2002-03-01

105

Ecological assessment of water quality in relation to hydrogeology in a shallow urban aquifer: Somesul Mic River aquifer (North-Western, Romania)  

Science.gov (United States)

The River Basin Management Plan is the main instrument for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE), one of its main requirements being the evaluation and quantification of human impacts on aquatic environments including the groundwater or groundwater dependent ecosystems. The Some?-Tisa basin is the largest hydrographical basin in NW Romania (22,380 km2), containing 15 Quaternary detrital groundwater bodies prone to intensive agricultural and urban industrial use. So far, no studies have addressed the groundwater fauna assemblages and their ecological response to human disturbances and aquifer contamination. Here we investigate a Quaternary shallow detrital aquifer (0.60; p>0.05). Conversely, the stygobites species Parastenocaris sp. (Harpacticoida), Bathynella sp. (Syncarida), Niphargus sp. (Amphipoda) and Ostracoda were rare and limited to boreholes were no significant trace metals contamination was detected, whereas nitrates reach a maximum level of 47.5 ?g/l. Crustaceans abundance was linked to high content of total dissolved solids and elements such are Li, Na and Sr; whereas Cs and nitrites were detected to be harmful for crustacean development. The ecological attributes and sensitivity of styfogauna to contaminants makes them significant bioindicators for evaluating the ecological status of groundwater ecosystems and susceptible to get loss when aquifers quality is affected on long term.

Iepure, Sanda; Marin, Constantin; Fekete, Alexandru; Rajka, Geza; Brad, Traian; Samsudean, Cristian

2014-05-01

106

Quality of Drinking Water  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

Roman, Harry T.

2009-01-01

107

Evaluation of urban stormwater quality models: a bayesian approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis aims at analyzing and evaluating the urban stormwater quality models. For this reason, a benchmark based on the utilization of a methodology founded on the Bayesian theory was established. This benchmark was utilized in different space scales all along the water course from street surfaces to the sewage outlet at the "Le Marais" watershed in Paris. This benchmark methodology uses a Metropolis Algorithm, from the Monte Carlo Markov Chain family of techniques, to estimate the poster...

Kanso, Assem

2004-01-01

108

Research of Reconstruction of Village in the Urban Fringe Based on Urbanization Quality Improving  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the process of urban-rural integration, it is an acute and urgent challenge for the destiny of farmers and the development of village in the urban fringe in the developed area. Based on the “urbanization quality improving” this new perspective and through the analysis of experience and practice of Village renovation of Xi’nan Village of Zengcheng county, this article summarizes the meaning of urbanization quality in developed areas and finds the villages in the urban fringe’s recon...

Junjie Zhang; Yonglong Sun; Kuangjie Shan

2014-01-01

109

Monitoring and Assessing Our Nation's Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a fact sheet on the water quality programs directly administered by the USGS. USGS provides information on issues such as the suitability of water for public supply and irrigation, aquatic ecosystem health, effects of agriculture and urbanization on water resources, acid rain, and disposal of radioactive waste. There are hot links to several studies and to data available from USGS and other agencies.

Mallard, Gail; Hamilton, Pixie

2002-08-21

110

EPANET water quality model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EPANET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. EPANET performs extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality behavior within water distribution systems. In addition to substance concentration, water age and source tracing can also be simulated. EPANET includes a full featured hydraulic simulation model that can handle various types of pumps, valves, and their control rules. The water quality module is equipped to handle constituent reactions within the bulk pipe flow and at the pipe wall. It also features an efficient computational scheme that automatically determines optimal time steps and pipe segmentation for accurate tracking of material transport over time. EPANET is currently being used in the US to study such issues as loss of chlorine residual, source blending and trihalomethane (THM) formation, how altered tank operation affects water age, and total dissolved solids (TDS) control for an irrigation network.

Rossman, L.A.

1993-01-01

111

Stormwater Priority Pollutants Versus Surface Water Quality Criteria  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stormwater in urban areas comprises of a substantial part of the urban water cycle, dominating the flow in many small urban streams, and the pollution levels are sizeable. No stormwater quality criteria were found here and no European or national emission limit values exist. Stormwater pollutants however are present in levels exceeding most of the regulated surface water quality criteria and environmental quality standards. Therefore catchment characterisation is needed to chose suitable treatment prior to discharge into receiving surface waters, as the mixing may be insufficient in small streams.

Eriksson, Eva; Ledin, Anna

2011-01-01

112

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana’s Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantifi...

Mcgarvey, Stephen T.; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C.; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-asare, Kofi; White, Michael J.

2008-01-01

113

Purified water quality study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

2000-04-03

114

Purified water quality study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals

115

Evaluation of Urban Park Service Quality Based on Factor Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban park is an important component of urban public green space which provides leisure, recreation, activity place, etc. Urban park service quality was evaluated by quantitative method in this paper to provide scientific evidence for renewal and development of urban park. 5 urban parks in Xinxiang, Henan province, China were selected as evaluation samples, and 13 indexes were evaluated, including plant landscape, cultural experience, activity place, ecological environment, road design, topog...

Yichuan Zhang; Lei Feng

2012-01-01

116

Water quality diagnosis system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention provides a water quality diagnosis system for always monitoring the state of pipeline component materials and equipments in a power plant to previously detect abnormality. That is, it comprises a water quality sensor for measuring conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, metal concentration, metal composition, chemical form and radioactive concentration, and a computer system. The computer system comprises an abnormal event simulation calculation section based on an abnormality prediction model, intelligence data base reflecting experience and knowledge with reference to corrosion and leaching of metals, water quality data base accumulating base data with reference to corrosion of metals and material data with reference to all over the entire systems of the structural components of the plant and a reasoning engine. Then, the condition and the speed of corrosion for all over the system are determined to forecast the normal state by using the water quality data inputted periodically from the water quality sensor. The condition of abnormality is determined based on the intelligence base and the reasoning engine. (I.S.)

117

Urbanization eases water crisis in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Socioeconomic development in China has resulted in rapid urbanization, which includes a large amount of people making the transition from rural areas to cities. Many have speculated that this mass migration may have worsened the water crisis in many parts of the country. However, this study shows that the water crisis would be more severe if the rural-to-urban migration did not occur.

Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Ji, Chen

2012-01-01

118

Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance  

Science.gov (United States)

In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

2011-12-01

119

Quality of life in the economic and urban economic literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quality of life is increasingly becoming a concept researched empirically and theoretically in the field of economics. In urban economics in particular, this increasing interest stems mainly from the fact that quality of life affects urban competitiveness and urban growth: research shows that when households and businesses decide where to locate, quality of life considerations can play a very important role. The purpose of the present paper is to examine the way economic litera...

Lambiri, Dionysia; Biagi, Bianca; Royuela, Vicente

2007-01-01

120

The role of green spaces on urban environmental quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban green areas have the potential to attenuate some of the negative effects of urbanisation, making cities a more pleasant place to live in. In addition to aesthetic value, green spaces improve air quality, reduce noise levels and generate more comfortable micro-climatic conditions, among other benefits, contributing to urban quality of life. GreenUrbe (POCI/AMB/59174/2004) – The Impacts of Green Spaces on Urban Environmental Quality – is a three year research project, s...

Feliciano, Manuel; Gonc?alves, Artur; Cardoso, Ana; Nunes, T.; Nunes, Lui?s; Cortez, Jose? Paulo; Ribeiro, A. C.; Rodrigues, Orlando; Castro, Joa?o Paulo; Martins, Lui?s; Cerqueira, Ma?rio; Castro, Jose?; Teixeira, Ami?lcar; Monteiro, Maria Do Loreto

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Water quality for the year 2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under an umbrella labeled Water Quality 2000, 86 organizations - ranging from the Natural Resources Defense Council to the Chemical Manufacturers Association - have reached a consensus on the major water quality problems currently facing the US. Their broad-based conclusions have been released in a report entitled Challenges for the Future, which represents one step in an ongoing discussion among representatives of these diverse groups on improving water quality. Although the report presents a long-term view, William Matuszeski from EPA described the document as a superb background for the upcoming debate over reauthorization of the Clean Water Act. In general terms, the report cites the major sources of current water problems as agricultural and urban runoff, especially following storms; airborne pollutants; continued dumping of toxic wastes; accidental spills; overharvesting of fish and shellfish; habitat competition from exotic species; and land and water use practices. This article summarizes some of the findings

122

Effects of urbanization on stream quality at selected sites in the seacoast region in New Hampshire, 2001-03  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of selected water-quality and macroinvertebrate community data was conducted at 10 stream sites in the Seacoast region of New Hampshire to determine if a relation is present between stream quality and the extent of urbanization in a watershed. Watersheds with similar characteristics, but varying in their degree of urban development, were studied. The percent of impervious surface, the percent of urban land use in a watershed, and the percent of urban land use in two types of stream buffers were compared and correlated with stream-quality variables. Specific conductance, turbidity, nitrite plus nitrate yields, and selected macroinvertebrate community data were significantly correlated with most measures of urbanization used in this study; however, concentrations and total phosphorus yields were not statistically correlated with most measures of urbanization in this study. The measures of urbanization that had the highest correlations with stream-quality variables were those measures that were associated with the percent of urban land in buffer zones near and upstream of a sampling site. A water-quality and habitat conditions score was negatively correlated with the percent of urban land in a 1-kilometer radial buffer of the sampling site (rho (r) = -0.86; p urban land in the watershed (r = -0.67; p urban land in a 1-kilometer radial buffer of the sampling site (r = -0.95; p urban land in the watershed (r = -0.79; p urban land in a 25-meter stream buffer along the stream corridor also had negative correlations with a water-quality and habitat conditions score (r = -0.80; p urbanization in a watershed, indicating that EPT taxa richness may be an appropriate metric to evaluate the effects of urban land use on small streams in this region. Results from this study indicate that the percent of urban land use in buffer zones and the percent of impervious surface in a watershed can be used as indicators of stream quality.

Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Soule, Sally A.; Smith, Thor E.

2005-01-01

123

WATER QUALITY STANDARDS DOCKET  

Science.gov (United States)

Resource Purpose: EPA revised its federal regulation. As a result of this revision, State water quality standards are not effective under the CWA until approved by EPA. Previously, they were effective as soon as adopted by the State. Because NPDES permits, 303(d) listing...

124

Urban air quality in the Asian region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries.

Hopke, Philip K. [Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708 (United States)], E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu; Cohen, David D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Physics Division, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD), P.O. Box 164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Ni Bangfa [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC), P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pandit, Gauri Girish [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Santoso, Muhayatun [Center for Nuclear Technology of Material and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Chung, Yong-Sam [Hanaro Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Dukjin-dong, Yusung-ku, P.O. Box 105, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31-312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, PINSTECH, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 1482, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, P.O. Box 213, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani [Atomic Energy Authority, 60/460, Baseline Road, Orugodawatta, Wellampitiya (Sri Lanka); Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT), 16 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Thu Bac Vuong [Centre for Radiation Protection, Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5T-160, Cau Giay (Viet Nam)] (and others)

2008-10-01

125

Urban air quality in the Asian region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries

126

Urban air quality in the Asian region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries. PMID:18667227

Hopke, Philip K; Cohen, David D; Begum, Bilkis A; Biswas, Swapan K; Ni, Bangfa; Pandit, Gauri Girish; Santoso, Muhayatun; Chung, Yong-Sam; Rahman, Shamsiah Abd; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas; Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila; Santos, Flora L; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B; Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani; Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree; Vuong, Thu Bac; Duy Hien, Pham; Markowicz, Andrzej

2008-10-01

127

Methods for Processing and Summarizing Time-Series Temperature Data Collected as Part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program Studies on the Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperature data and summary statistics are presented for 256 sites in 9 metropolitan areas as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems. The computer program (GRAN) that was developed to derive uniform data granularity and calculate temperature statistics (means, standard deviations, rates of change, degree days) is described, as are the methods used to estimate missing daily mean temperatures, degree days (annual and summer periods), and 7-day running averages of daily mean temperatures.

Cuffney, Thomas F.; Brightbill, Robin A.

2008-01-01

128

Assessing urban habitat quality using spectral characteristics of Tilia leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring environmental quality in urban areas is an important issue offering possibilities to control and improve urban habitat quality as well as to avoid adverse effects on human health. A tree leaf reflectance-based bio-monitoring method was used to assess the urban habitat quality of two contrasting habitat classes in the city of Gent (Belgium). As test trees, two Tilia species were selected. Custom made Matlab code is applied to process the measurements of leaf reflectance. This enables the discrimination between polluted and less polluted habitats. The results elicit, that leaf reflectance in the PAR range, as well as the NDAI (Normalised Difference Asymmetry index) are species dependent while Dorsiventral Leaf Reflectance Correlation (DLRC) seems to be independent of species. Therefore the assessment of urban habitat quality is perfectly feasible using leaf reflectance, when taking account of the species specificity of tree leaf physiological and structural responses to habitat quality. -- Highlights: ? Leaf structure and physiological changes in urban habitat classes. ? Leaf reflectance of Linden tree species is affected by urban habitat quality. ? Species dependent leaf reflectance changes due to urban habitat pollution. ? Dorsiventral leaf reflectance properties for assessing habitat quality. ? High capability of the leaf reflectance technique for assessing habitat quality. -- Leaf reflectance and dorsiventral properties of Linden tree species can be used to assess urban habitat quality

129

Integrated management of water resources in urban water system: Water Sensitive Urban Development as a strategic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The urban environment has to be concerned with the integrated water resources management, which necessarily includes the concept of basin unity and governance.  The traditional urban water cycle framework, which includes water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment services, is being replaced by a holistic and systemic concept, where water is associated with urbanism and sustainability policies. This global point of view cannot be ignored as new regulations demand systemic and environmental approaches to the administrations, for instance, in the management of urban drainage and sewerage systems. The practical expression of this whole cluster interactions is beginning to take shape in several countries, with the definition of Low Impact Development and Water Sensitivity Urban Design concepts. Intends to integrate this new strategic approach under the name: “Water Sensitive Urban Development” (WSUD. With WSUD approach, the current urban water systems (originally conceived under the traditional concept of urban water cycle can be transformed, conceptual and physically, for an integrated management of the urban water system in new models of sustainable urban development. A WSUD implementing new approach to the management of pollution associated with stormwater in the urban water system is also presented, including advances in environmental regulations and incorporation of several techniques in Spain.

Juan Joaquín Suárez López

2014-08-01

130

MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution systems and sewer networks are both large, highly interconnected, dynamic, subject to time and varying inputs and demands, and difficult to control. Their performance also faces increasing loading due to increasing urbanization and longer-term environmental changes. Therefore, understanding the link between microbial ecology and any potential impacts on short or long-term engineering performance within urban water infrastructure systems is important. By combining the strengths and research expertise of civil-, biochemical engineers and molecular microbial ecologists, we ultimately aim to link microbial community abundance, diversity and function to physical and engineering variables so that novel insights into the performance and management of both water distribution systems and sewer networks can be explored. By presenting the details and principals behind the molecular microbiological techniques that we use, this paper demonstrates the potential of an integrated approach to better understand how urban water system function, and so meet future challenges.

P. Deines

2010-07-01

131

Connecting Water Quality With Air Quality Through Microbial Aerosols  

Science.gov (United States)

Aerosol production from surface waters results in the transfer of aquatic materials (including nutrients and bacteria) to air. These materials can then be transported by onshore winds to land, representing a biogeochemical connection between aquatic and terrestrial systems not normally considered. In urban waterfront environments, this transfer could result in emissions of pathogenic bacteria from contaminated waters. Despite the potential importance of this link, sources, near-shore deposition, identity and viability of microbial aerosols are largely uncharacterized. This dissertation focuses on the environmental and biological mechanisms that define this water-air connection, as a means to build our understanding of the biogeochemical, biogeographical, and public health implications of the transfer of surface water materials to the near-shore environment in both urban and non-urban environments. The effects of tidal height, wind speed and fog on coastal aerosols and microbial content were first quantified on a non-urban coast of Maine, USA. Culture-based, culture-independent, and molecular methods were used to simultaneously sample microbial aerosols while monitoring meteorological parameters. Aerosols at this site displayed clear marine influence and high concentrations of ecologically-relevant nutrients. Coarse aerosol concentrations significantly increased with tidal height, onshore wind speed, and fog presence. Tidal height and fog presence did not significantly influence total microbial aerosol concentrations, but did have a significant effect on culturable microbial aerosol fallout. Molecular analyses of the microbes settling out of near-shore aerosols provided further evidence of local ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes. Aerosol and surface ocean bacterial communities shared species and in general were dominated by organisms previously sampled in marine environments. Fog presence strengthened the microbial connection between water and land through air by increasing microbial aerosol settling rates and enhancing viability of aerosolized marine microbes. Using methods developed for the non-urban site, the role of local environment and winds in mediating water-air connections was further investigated in the urban environment. The local environment, including water surfaces, was an important source of microbial aerosols at urban sites. Large portions of the urban waterfront microbial aerosol communities were aquatic and, at a highly polluted Superfund waterfront, were closely related to bacteria previously described in environments contaminated with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sewage and other industrial waste. Culturable urban aerosols and surface waters contained bacterial genera known to include human pathogens and asthma agents. High onshore winds strengthened this water-air connection by playing both a transport and production role. The microbial connection between water and air quality outlined by this dissertation highlights the need for information on the mechanisms that deliver surface water materials to terrestrial systems on a much larger scale. Moving from point measurements to landscape-level analyses will allow for the quantitative assessment of implications for this microbial water-air-land transfer in both urban and non-urban arenas.

Dueker, M. Elias

132

drinking water quality report 2012  

...2004, as a result of chemical treatment and communication pipe replacement...consumers’ taps, remains high with full compliance being achieved for many...31 • Drinking Water Quality 32 • Chemical/Physical Quality 32 • Microbiological Quality...

133

Governing urban water flows in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

China has been witnessing an unprecedented period of continuous high economic growth during the past three decades. But this has been paralleled by severe environmental challenges, of which water problems are of key importance. This thesis addresses the urban water challenges of contemporary China, by focusing especially on the institutional traditions and innovations in Chinese water policies and governance, basically for two additional reasons. First, the large majority of studies rega...

Zhong, L.

2007-01-01

134

SOURCE TO TAP URBAN WATER CYCLE MODELLING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The continuous expansion of urban areas is associated with increased water demand, both for domestic and non-domestic uses. To cover this additional demand, centralised infrastructure, such as water supply and distribution networks tend to become more and more complicated and are eventually over-extended with adverse effects on their reliability. To address this, there exist two main strategies: (a) Tools and algorithms are employed to optimise the operation of the external water supply syste...

Rozos, Evangelos; Makropoulos, Christos

2013-01-01

135

SMART MANAGEMENT OF THE WATER URBAN CYCLE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aguas Municipalizadas de Alicante, AMAEM, is the company in charge of managing the urban water cycle in Alicante and several neighbour towns: San Vicente, Sant Joan, Petrer, Monforte and El Campello. More specifically, AMAEM provides the water distribution service in all of them, and is responsible for the sewage service in Alicante, Sant Joan and Monforte. The population served amounts to 750,000 inhabitants, supplied by a 2,000 km water distribution network and 700 km of sewage drains. A...

Sa?nchez Zaplana, Antonio

2014-01-01

136

SEWER COLLECTION EFFECTIVENESS ON WATER QUALITY: A CONTRIBUTION TO THE URBAN PLANNING APPLIED TO JABOTICABAL CITY – SP = EFICIÊNCIA DE INTERCEPTORES DE ESGOTO SOBRE A QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA: UMA CONTRIBUIÇÃO AO PLANEJAMENTO URBANO APLICADO À CIDADE DE JABOTICABAL-SP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sewer is one of the most relevant environmental factors whichcontributes to loss of life quality in the urban areas. Usually, the sewer final destiny is in the watercourse-bound, since it´s production is inevitable. It demands studies and techniques to be developed and duly applied so that its harmful influence on water quality is avoid, making it as close as possible of its natural conditions. The construction of sewer collection throughout watercourses and its further forwarding to the sewer treatment stations have been considered the most recommended technique. In this study we tried to analise the effectiveness of the application of this technique to reestablish the water quality in two watercourses which drain the river basin where Jaboticabal city is placed. The study was based in Cerradinho and Jaboticabal streams and in water quality characterization. The samples of the water were collected monthly during a year, throughout the watercourses, both in the urban and in the rural areas - near the headwater, in the urban area upstream and after the confluence of both, at the urban area downstream. The main aspects, which were analyzed, were the following: temperature, pH, DO, COD, nitrite, nitrate, total-N, total-P, BOD, total coliforms and fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli. Analyses of cluster and main components were used to evaluate theeffect of hidrical parameters in the collect stations. The results of the research showed that there was increase of hidrical pollution from the riverhead to the outfall of Cerradinho and Jaboticabal streams and that the isolated practices of sanitation (collection of the urban sewer improved the water quality but it was not enough to return these streams to the non polluted condition. = Em áreas urbanas, um dos fatores ambientais de maior relevância em contribuir para a perda de qualidade de vida é o esgoto. Sendo inevitável a sua produção, comumente seu destino final são os cursos d’água. Isso determina que estudos e técnicas sejam desenvolvidos e devidamente aplicados, de modo a evitar sua influência nociva sobre a qualidade da água, tornando-a o mais próximo possível das condições naturais. Aconstrução de interceptores de esgoto, ao longo de cursos d’água e seu posterior encaminhamento à estações de despoluição, constitui uma das técnicas mais recomendadas. Neste trabalho, procurou-se estudar a eficiência da aplicação desta técnica em restabelecer a qualidade da água em dois cursos que drenam a bacia hidrográfica na qual se insere a cidade de Jaboticabal-SP, Brasil. O estudo baseou-se na caracterização da bacia hidrográfica do Córrego Jaboticabal e do seu afluente, Córrego Cerradinho, e da qualidade da água, a partir de amostras coletadas mensalmente durante um ano, ao longo de seus cursos, tanto na área urbana, quanto na área rural – próximo às nascentes, à montante da área urbana e após a confluência dos dois córregos, à jusante da área urbana. Os principais aspectos analisados foram: temperatura, pH, OD, DQO, nitrito, nitrato, NTotal, PTotal, DBO, coliformes totais e coliformes fecais (Escherichia coli. Para avaliar o efeito desses parâmetros nas estações de amostragem, foram utilizadas as análises de agrupamento e de componentes principais. Os resultados da pesquisa permitiram concluir que em ambos os córregos houve aumento da poluição hídrica da nascente à foz e que a prática isolada de saneamento (coleta de esgoto urbano com aplicação de interceptores melhorou a qualidade da água mas não foi suficiente para despoluir estes córregos.

José Marques Júnior

2002-01-01

137

Managerial ownership and urban water utilities efficiency in Uganda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper assesses the impact of the early 1980s neoliberalistic reform strategies in urban water distribution in developing countries. It examines in particular, the technical efficiency of two heterogeneous urban water utility-groups in Uganda. Performance is considered in light of the key urban water sector objectives that are to universally increase qualitative water coverage and enhance utility revenue

Mbuvi, Dorcas; Tarsim, Achraf

2011-01-01

138

Hemodialysis and water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed. PMID:23859187

Coulliette, Angela D; Arduino, Matthew J

2013-01-01

139

Development of a modified drinking water quality index (MDWQI) and its application for assessing water quality in groundwater resources of Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT Background and objectives: In this research, an innovative drinking water quality index for assessing water resources as “modified drinking water quality index (MDWQI)” was developed and applied for evaluating all of the groundwater resources utilized for community water supply in urban areas of Iran during 2011. Materials and methods: Twenty-three water quality parameters and relevant Iranian standards for drinking water quality were selected as input parameters and benchm...

Mohaad-Reza Mohebbi; Koshyar Azam vaghefi; Ahmad Montazeri; Mehrnoosh Abtahi; Sogol Oktahi; Reza Gholamnia; Fatemeh Aliasgari; Reza Saeedi

2013-01-01

140

Quality of surface waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this chapter is evaluation of long-time development of quality of water in Hron River and Vah River on the basis of existing data as well as prediction of development of selected chemical indicators in Hron River and Vah River on one year forward and designation reference conditions for selected chemical indices in Hron River. The second sub-chapter is aimed on deduction of reference conditions on the example of saprobic index of benthic invertebrates. An example of problems connected with modelling of extension of pollution in flow of Hron River at extremely low overflows in the last sub-chapter is presented.

 
 
 
 
141

Estimation of Water Quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water has a particular ecological function and it is an indicator of the general state of the biosphere. In relation with this summary, the toxicological evaluation of water by biologic testing methods is very actual. The peculiarity of biologic testing information is an integral reflection of all totality properties of examination of the environment in position of its perception by living objects. Rapid integral evaluation of anthropological situation is a base aim of biologic testing. If this evaluation has deviations from normal state, detailed analysis and revelation of dangerous components could be conducted later. The quality of water from the Degelen gallery, where nuclear explosions were conducted, was investigated by bio-testing methods. The micro-organisms (Micrococcus Luteus, Candida crusei, Pseudomonas algaligenes) and water plant elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich) were used as test-objects. It is known that the transporting functions of cell membranes of living organisms are violated the first time in extreme conditions by difference influences. Therefore, ion penetration of elodeas and micro-organisms cells, which contained in the examination water with toxicants, were used as test-function. Alteration of membrane penetration was estimated by measurement of electrolytes electrical conductivity, which gets out from living objects cells to distillate water. Index of water toxic is ratio of electrical conductivity in experience to electrical conductivity in control. Also, observations from common state of plant, which was incubated in toxic water, were made. (Chronic experience conducted for 60 days.) The plants were incubated in water samples, which were picked out from gallery in the years 1996 and 1997. The time of incubation is 1-10 days. The results of investigation showed that ion penetration of elodeas and micro-organisms cells changed very much with influence of radionuclides, which were contained in testing water. Changes are taking place even in cases where the quantity of radionuclides are insignificant. Differences in speed of ions going out began about 30 minutes after start of measurement. Later (1-24 hours) the difference between control and experience samples were more visible. In chronic test, when elodea was incubated in toxic water for 30 days, morphological modification are expressed very well. There were brown and discolored leaves and interruption of sprout growth. After 60 days the plants did not renew formation of new sprouts in most of the test's variants. The plants died in 2 variants and in others its begin was adapted. It has been established that the degree of morphological difference depends on the intensity of ? radiation in test samples of water. By conducting the investigation this way, the possibility of rapid determination of water quality in ecological aspects by biophysics methods with use of living organisms of different taxonomic groups, such as test-objects, is shown. This approach may be used also for inspection aims for sites where nuclear explosions were possibly conducted

142

Carbon sensitive urban water futures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The challenge of supplying water and energy required for food production and development while mitigating climate change and adapting to its consequences has been termed the Energy Water Nexus. Water, energy, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change are interlinked through a series of relationships. The water sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through several routes including embedded emissions in capital equipment, energy consumption during drinking wate...

Parsons, David; Cabrera Marcet, Enrique; Jeffrey, Paul

2014-01-01

143

Assessing urban habitat quality using spectral characteristics of Tilia leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring environmental quality in urban areas is an important issue offering possibilities to control and improve urban habitat quality as well as to avoid adverse effects on human health. A tree leaf reflectance-based bio-monitoring method was used to assess the urban habitat quality of two contrasting habitat classes in the city of Gent (Belgium). As test trees, two Tilia species were selected. Custom made Matlab code is applied to process the measurements of leaf reflectance. This enables the discrimination between polluted and less polluted habitats. The results elicit, that leaf reflectance in the PAR range, as well as the NDAI (Normalised Difference Asymmetry index) are species dependent while Dorsiventral Leaf Reflectance Correlation (DLRC) seems to be independent of species. Therefore the assessment of urban habitat quality is perfectly feasible using leaf reflectance, when taking account of the species specificity of tree leaf physiological and structural responses to habitat quality. PMID:23517817

Khavanin Zadeh, A R; Veroustraete, F; Buytaert, J A N; Dirckx, J; Samson, R

2013-07-01

144

The indicator quality of dippers (Cinclus c. aquaticus) for detecting residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) - a contribution to the monitoring of the water quality of river systems in urban-industrial regions and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1977, the dipper population of the river system of the Wupper in the Remscheid/Wuppertal urban region has been investigated with regard to breeding biology and population dynamics. Inexplicable irregularities in breeding behavior and success first appeared in a sub-population. They caused suspicion of a pollutant load in one of the tributaries. The further investigations provided impressive proof of the indicator quality of the dipper for identification of pollution phenomena. It can indicate environmental hazards without great technical expenditure, and it can complete the biochemical and saprobia-systematic results in the phase of intensive post-research. (orig.)

145

MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution systems are large, highly interconnected and dynamic, and difficult to control. Sewer systems are also large and subject to time varying inputs and demands. Their performance also faces increasing loading due to increasing urbanization and longer-term environmental changes. Therefore, understanding the link between microbial ecology and any potential impacts on short or long-term engineering performance is important. By combining the strengths and research expertise of civil-, biochemical engineers and molecular microbial ecologists, we aim to link the abundance and diversity of microorganisms to physical and engineering variables so that novel insights into the ecology of microorganisms within both water distribution systems and sewer networks can be explored. By presenting the details of this multidisciplinary approach, and the principals behind the molecular microbiological methods and techniques that we use, this paper will demonstrate the potential of an integrated approach to better understand urban water system function and so meet future challenges.

P. Deines

2010-01-01

146

A Primer On Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

This USGS Fact sheet provides an overview of water quality considerations. Each brief section contains definitions and descriptions. The topics include how to measure water quality, why there are standards and guidelines, the effect of natural processes, the effect of human activities, pathogens found in water, and links to sites in USGS with additional information.

Cordy, Gail

2001-08-10

147

Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been driven by the desire for increased data regarding time of use and end-use (such as use by shower, toilet, garden, etc. as well as by the ability of the technology to reduce labour costs for meter reading. Technology development in the water sector generally lags that seen in the electricity sector. In the coming decade, the deployment of intelligent water metering will transition from being predominantly “pilot or demonstration scale” with the occasional city-wide roll-out, to broader mainstream implementation. This means that issues which have hitherto received little focus must now be addressed, namely: the role of real-time data in customer engagement and demand management; data ownership, sharing and privacy; technical data management and infrastructure security, utility workforce skills; and costs and benefits of implementation.

Rodney Stewart

2013-07-01

148

Water chemistry and poultry processing water quality  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the influences of water chemistry on the quality of process water used in immersion chillers. During commercial poultry processing the bird carcasses come in direct contact with process water during washing and chilling operations. Contamination of the process water with bacteria...

149

Spatial evaluation of water quality in an urban reservoir (Billings Complex, southeastern Brazil) / Avaliação espacial da qualidade da água em reservatório urbano (Complexo Billings, sudeste do Brasil)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Este estudo visa a (a) contribuir com a avaliação espacial da qualidade da água do Complexo Billings; (b) associar informações sobre a geoquímica dos sedimentos superficiais e (c) com base em literatura, fornecer uma avaliação temporal da qualidade da água no Complexo desde a restrição do [...] bombeamento do Rio Pinheiros; Métodos: As amostragens foram realizadas em 12 locais: 2 no Corpo Central (CB), 3 no Braço Taquacetuba (TQ); 3 no Braço Rio Pequeno (RP) e 4 na Represa Rio Grande (RG). A coleta da água foi realizada ao longo do perfil vertical no período de inverno (agosto/2009) e verão (fevereiro/2010) e a dos sedimentos superficiais (2 cm), no inverno. Foram avaliadas características físicas e químicas da água e dos sedimentos, e foi calculado o índice de estado trófico (IET) de Lamparelli; RESULTADOS: As condições limnológicas foram primordialmente influenciadas pelos períodos climáticos. No inverno, a heterogeneidade no Complexo foi mais definida com separação de seus compartimentos espaciais. Maior disponibilidade das formas nitrogenadas ocorreu no inverno, enquanto que, no verão, estas diminuíram e o fósforo apresentou aumento substancial. Os compartimentos mais degradados e associados aos maiores valores de nutrientes foram CB e TQ. De forma inversa, destaca-se o RP, cuja região a montante foi considerada de referência (menos impactada) no Complexo; CONCLUSÃO: Complexo Billings variou de mesotrófico (RP), eutrófico (RG) a supereutrófico (CB e TQ). Variação marcada do IET também ocorreu dentro dos compartimentos e dependendo do período climático, principalmente, associada ao manejo antrópico do Complexo. Os sedimentos salientaram os extremos de qualidade da água e forneceram informações adicionais sobre impactos antrópicos não detectados pela análise da água. Houve leve melhora da qualidade da água do CB e TQ a partir de 2009, possivelmente associada ao projeto de flotação do Rio Pinheiros. Abstract in english AIM: The study aimed at (a) contributing to a spatial evaluation of the Billings Complex water quality; (b) associating information on the geochemistry of the surface sediments; and (c) providing, based on previous studies, a temporal evaluation of the Complex's water quality since the Pinheiros Riv [...] er pumping restriction; METHODS: sampling was performed at 12 sites: 2 in the Central body (CB), 3 in the Taquacetuba branch (TQ), 3 in the Rio Pequeno branch (RP) and 4 in the Rio Grande Reservoir (RG). Water samples were taken along a vertical profile during the winter (August 2009) and summer (February 2010) and in the surface sediments (2 cm) during the winter. Physical and chemical characteristics of water and sediments were evaluated. Lamparelli's Trophic State Index (TSI) was calculated; RESULTS: limnological variability was mostly affected by the season. The spatial heterogeneity of the Complex was more pronounced during winter, with greater differences among its compartments. Nitrogen was higher in the winter, whereas in the summer there was a substantial phosphorus increase along with a nitrogen decrease. The most degraded compartments, associated with the highest nutrient levels, were CB and TQ. In contrast, the upstream region of the RP branch was considered a reference site (the least impacted) for the Complex; CONCLUSION: The Billings Complex ranged from mesotrophic (RP) or eutrophic (RG) to super-eutrophic (CC, TQ). High TSI variation also occurred within compartments and/or depending on the season, mainly associated with the human management of the Complex. The surface sediments underlined the differences observed between the extremes in the Billings Complex water quality, as well as providing additional information on other impacts that was not observed from the water analysis. A slight improvement in the water quality of the Central body and the Taquacetuba branch has been observed since 2009, possibly associated with the Pinheiros River flotatio

Simone, Wengrat; Denise de Campos, Bicudo.

2011-06-01

150

Spatial evaluation of water quality in an urban reservoir (Billings Complex, southeastern Brazil Avaliação espacial da qualidade da água em reservatório urbano (Complexo Billings, sudeste do Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: The study aimed at (a contributing to a spatial evaluation of the Billings Complex water quality; (b associating information on the geochemistry of the surface sediments; and (c providing, based on previous studies, a temporal evaluation of the Complex's water quality since the Pinheiros River pumping restriction; METHODS: sampling was performed at 12 sites: 2 in the Central body (CB, 3 in the Taquacetuba branch (TQ, 3 in the Rio Pequeno branch (RP and 4 in the Rio Grande Reservoir (RG. Water samples were taken along a vertical profile during the winter (August 2009 and summer (February 2010 and in the surface sediments (2 cm during the winter. Physical and chemical characteristics of water and sediments were evaluated. Lamparelli's Trophic State Index (TSI was calculated; RESULTS: limnological variability was mostly affected by the season. The spatial heterogeneity of the Complex was more pronounced during winter, with greater differences among its compartments. Nitrogen was higher in the winter, whereas in the summer there was a substantial phosphorus increase along with a nitrogen decrease. The most degraded compartments, associated with the highest nutrient levels, were CB and TQ. In contrast, the upstream region of the RP branch was considered a reference site (the least impacted for the Complex; CONCLUSION: The Billings Complex ranged from mesotrophic (RP or eutrophic (RG to super-eutrophic (CC, TQ. High TSI variation also occurred within compartments and/or depending on the season, mainly associated with the human management of the Complex. The surface sediments underlined the differences observed between the extremes in the Billings Complex water quality, as well as providing additional information on other impacts that was not observed from the water analysis. A slight improvement in the water quality of the Central body and the Taquacetuba branch has been observed since 2009, possibly associated with the Pinheiros River flotation project.OBJETIVOS: Este estudo visa a (a contribuir com a avaliação espacial da qualidade da água do Complexo Billings; (b associar informações sobre a geoquímica dos sedimentos superficiais e (c com base em literatura, fornecer uma avaliação temporal da qualidade da água no Complexo desde a restrição do bombeamento do Rio Pinheiros; Métodos: As amostragens foram realizadas em 12 locais: 2 no Corpo Central (CB, 3 no Braço Taquacetuba (TQ; 3 no Braço Rio Pequeno (RP e 4 na Represa Rio Grande (RG. A coleta da água foi realizada ao longo do perfil vertical no período de inverno (agosto/2009 e verão (fevereiro/2010 e a dos sedimentos superficiais (2 cm, no inverno. Foram avaliadas características físicas e químicas da água e dos sedimentos, e foi calculado o índice de estado trófico (IET de Lamparelli; RESULTADOS: As condições limnológicas foram primordialmente influenciadas pelos períodos climáticos. No inverno, a heterogeneidade no Complexo foi mais definida com separação de seus compartimentos espaciais. Maior disponibilidade das formas nitrogenadas ocorreu no inverno, enquanto que, no verão, estas diminuíram e o fósforo apresentou aumento substancial. Os compartimentos mais degradados e associados aos maiores valores de nutrientes foram CB e TQ. De forma inversa, destaca-se o RP, cuja região a montante foi considerada de referência (menos impactada no Complexo; CONCLUSÃO: Complexo Billings variou de mesotrófico (RP, eutrófico (RG a supereutrófico (CB e TQ. Variação marcada do IET também ocorreu dentro dos compartimentos e dependendo do período climático, principalmente, associada ao manejo antrópico do Complexo. Os sedimentos salientaram os extremos de qualidade da água e forneceram informações adicionais sobre impactos antrópicos não detectados pela análise da água. Houve leve melhora da qualidade da água do CB e TQ a partir de 2009, possivelmente associada ao projeto de flotação do Rio Pinheiros.

Simone Wengrat

2011-06-01

151

Balancing urban and peri-urban exchange: water geography of rural livelihoods in Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

The peri-urban area is the region where there is a more dynamic interaction between the urban and rural. The peri-urban area supplies natural resources, such as land for urban expansion and agricultural products to feed the urban population. In arid and semi-arid lands, such as northern Mexico, these areas may also be the source of water for the city's domestic demand. In addition, scholars argue that peri-urban residents may have a more advantageous geographical position for selling their labour and agricultural products in cities and, by doing so, sustaining their livelihoods. A considerable number of studies have examined the peri-urban to urban natural resources transfer in terms of land annexation, housing construction, and infrastructure issues; however, the study of the effects of the reallocation of peri-urban water resources to serve urban needs is critical as well because the livelihoods of peri-urban residents, such as those based on agriculture and livestock, depend on water availability. In the case of Hermosillo there is a tremendous pressure on the water resources of peri-urban small farm communities or ejidos because of urban demand. Based on interviews and structured surveys with producers and water managers, this paper examines how peri-urban livelihoods have been reshaped by the reallocation of the city's natural resources in many cases caused some ejido members or ejidatarios to lose livelihoods. PMID:22413172

Díaz-Caravantes, Rolando E

2012-01-01

152

Adaptive Management of the Water Cycle on the Urban Fringe: Three Australian Case Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our group at Macquarie University has run three adaptive management projects in New South Wales, Australia. Their objectives were: (1) to evaluate water cycle management strategies to minimize impacts of urban development on water quality in the Hawkesbury-Nepean basin; (2) to evaluate development planning policies to minimize water quality impacts on a series of coastal lakes; and (3) to carry out a preliminary assessment of the potential impacts of greater recreational use of Sydney water c...

James Scandol; Greg Walkerden; Alistair Gilmour

1999-01-01

153

Underground Water Assessment using Water Quality Index  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was designed to assess the quality of selected hand dug wells in Maikunkele area of Niger State, Nigeria using Water Quality Index (WQI). ten hand dug wells were randomly selected in Maikunkele area of Bosso Local Government and were tested for nine (9) parameters of National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) using standard analytical procedures. WQI results indicated that the quality of the selected well water samples were medium except for sample 2 that was extremely bad. The findings ...

Yisa, Jonathan; Jimoh, Tijani Oladejo; Oyibo, Ohiemi Michael

2012-01-01

154

MEASURES TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main measures to prevent pollution of surface water -rivers, streams, lakes - consist of domestic and industrial wastewaterwhich, if untreated reach the emissary, it could degrade water quality, making it even unusable.

Sa?mbotin, L.; Moisa, S.; DANA SÂMBOTIN; ANA MARIANA DINCU; Ilie, C.

2010-01-01

155

MEASURES TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main measures to prevent pollution of surface water -rivers, streams, lakes - consist of domestic and industrial wastewaterwhich, if untreated reach the emissary, it could degrade water quality, making it even unusable.

L. SÂMBOTIN

2010-05-01

156

Channels for change: private water and the urban poor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the rapidly urbanising developing world, safe and affordable water is key to health and livelihoods, as well as meeting the Millennium Development Goals. But providing it demands innovative models. Where the context allows and the approach is appropriate, private sector involvement can generate win-win outcomes. Poor people can gain access to high-quality, affordable services, and companies can gain access to new and profitable business opportunities. Two examples of innovative 'private' water suppliers are the Manila Water Company's Water for the Poor Communities (TPSB) programme, and the Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) partnership. Both have a multisector approach to service expansion and provision, including partnerships with local authorities; strong community involvement in selecting, designing and operating options; appropriate service levels to reduce costs; and a flexible range of services. Many elements of these models are also replicable.

Lynch, Matthew; Matthews, Petter; Ryan-Collins, Lily [Engineers Against Poverty (United Kingdom)

2010-05-15

157

Fuzzy pricing for urban water resources: model construction and application.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rational water price system plays a crucial role in the optimal allocation of water resources. In this paper, a fuzzy pricing model for urban water resources is presented, which consists of a multi-criteria fuzzy evaluation model and a water resources price (WRP) computation model. Various factors affecting WRP are comprehensively evaluated with multiple levels and objectives in the multi-criteria fuzzy evaluation model, while the price vectors of water resources are constructed in the WRP computation model according to the definition of the bearing water price index, and then WRP is calculated. With the incorporation of an operator's knowledge, it considers iterative weights and subjective preference of operators for weight-assessment. The weights determined are more rational and the evaluation results are more realistic. Particularly, dual water supply is considered in the study. Different prices being fixed for water resources with different qualities conforms to the law of water resources value (WRV) itself. A high-quality groundwater price computation model is also proposed to provide optimal water allocation and to meet higher living standards. The developed model is applied in Jinan for evaluating its validity. The method presented in this paper offers some new directions in the research of WRP. PMID:17499421

Zhao, Ranhang; Chen, Shouyu

2008-08-01

158

A landscape based, systems dynamic model for assessing impacts of urban development on water quality for sustainable seagrass growth in Tampa Bay, Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an integrated assessment model to predict potential unintended consequences of urban development on the sustainability of seagrasses and preservation of ecosystem services, such as catchable fish, in Tampa Bay. Ecosystem services are those ecological functions and pro...

159

Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado / Avaliação de parâmetros de qualidade de água para monitoramento de áreas naturais, urbanas e agrícolas no Cerrado brasileiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O Distrito Federal (DF) tem apresentado grande crescimento populacional nos últimos anos, o que vem ocasionando aumento da necessidade por água de qualidade, tanto pelas cidades quanto pela área rural. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água superfici [...] al de dois corpos hídricos no DF em seis pontos de amostragem, três localizados no Ribeirão Sobradinho (corpo receptor de Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto) e três no Alto Rio Jardim (região com forte atividade agrícola). MÉTODOS: Análises de temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido (OD), condutividade, turbidez, dureza total, principais íons, coliformes totais e fecais (E. coli) da água, foram realizadas mensalmente durante doze meses envolvendo períodos seco e chuvoso. Além disso, também foi realizada avaliação ecotoxicológica utilizando o microcrustáceo Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTADOS: Os dados físico-químicos mostraram que OD, condutividade, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-) e Na+ foram importantes para indicar a contaminação por efluentes urbanos. Quanto aos parâmetros biológicos, E. coli e avaliação ecotoxicológica, observou-se que o primeiro foi mais efetivo para avaliar qualidade da água na área urbana, enquanto que na área rural, o ensaio com C. dubia mostrou-se mais sensível, mas não ideal, tendo em vista a alta sensibilidade do organismo à baixa dureza da água. CONCLUSÕES: A presença de coliformes fecais (E. coli) foi o indicador mais efetivo para comparar a qualidade da água entre as duas bacias, principalmente na urbanizada, enquanto que os ensaios de ecotoxicidade com C. dubia foram prejudicados pela composição química natural da água. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Brazil's Federal District (FD) has seen steep population growth in recent years, and this has increased demand for high-quality water. AIM: The present work aims to evaluate the quality of surface water from two water bodies in the FD at six sampling points, three of which are in the S [...] obradinho River (the receiving body of a sewage treatment plant effluent) and three in the Jardim River (located in an agricultural region). METHODS: Analyses were carried out every thirty days, for twelve months, covering rainy and dry seasons. Parameters were analyzed such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, main ions, total and fecal coliforms (E. coli) in water. Ecotoxicological evaluation was also performed, using the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTS: Data of physical and chemical determinations showed DO, conductivity, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-) and Na+ to be important in indicating contamination by urban effluents. On the subject of biological parameters - E. coli and ecotoxicological evaluation - the former was seen to be more effective in the urban area. However, in the countryside, the assay with C. dubia proved to be the most sensitive, although less than ideal, because the organism is very sensitive to low water hardness. CONCLUSIONS: The fecal coliform indicator (E. coli) was the most effective one for comparing water quality in the two basins, mainly for the urbanized one, while ecotoxicity assays with C. dubia were harmed by the natural chemical composition of the water.

Daphne Heloisa de Freitas, Muniz; Aline Silva, Moraes; Ingrid de Souza, Freire; Carlos José Domingos da, Cruz; Jorge Enoch Furquim Werneck, Lima; Eduardo Cyrino, Oliveira-Filho.

2011-09-01

160

Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado Avaliação de parâmetros de qualidade de água para monitoramento de áreas naturais, urbanas e agrícolas no Cerrado brasileiro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil's Federal District (FD has seen steep population growth in recent years, and this has increased demand for high-quality water. AIM: The present work aims to evaluate the quality of surface water from two water bodies in the FD at six sampling points, three of which are in the Sobradinho River (the receiving body of a sewage treatment plant effluent and three in the Jardim River (located in an agricultural region. METHODS: Analyses were carried out every thirty days, for twelve months, covering rainy and dry seasons. Parameters were analyzed such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, main ions, total and fecal coliforms (E. coli in water. Ecotoxicological evaluation was also performed, using the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTS: Data of physical and chemical determinations showed DO, conductivity, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2- and Na+ to be important in indicating contamination by urban effluents. On the subject of biological parameters - E. coli and ecotoxicological evaluation - the former was seen to be more effective in the urban area. However, in the countryside, the assay with C. dubia proved to be the most sensitive, although less than ideal, because the organism is very sensitive to low water hardness. CONCLUSIONS: The fecal coliform indicator (E. coli was the most effective one for comparing water quality in the two basins, mainly for the urbanized one, while ecotoxicity assays with C. dubia were harmed by the natural chemical composition of the water.INTRODUÇÃO: O Distrito Federal (DF tem apresentado grande crescimento populacional nos últimos anos, o que vem ocasionando aumento da necessidade por água de qualidade, tanto pelas cidades quanto pela área rural. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água superficial de dois corpos hídricos no DF em seis pontos de amostragem, três localizados no Ribeirão Sobradinho (corpo receptor de Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto e três no Alto Rio Jardim (região com forte atividade agrícola. MÉTODOS: Análises de temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido (OD, condutividade, turbidez, dureza total, principais íons, coliformes totais e fecais (E. coli da água, foram realizadas mensalmente durante doze meses envolvendo períodos seco e chuvoso. Além disso, também foi realizada avaliação ecotoxicológica utilizando o microcrustáceo Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTADOS: Os dados físico-químicos mostraram que OD, condutividade, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2- e Na+ foram importantes para indicar a contaminação por efluentes urbanos. Quanto aos parâmetros biológicos, E. coli e avaliação ecotoxicológica, observou-se que o primeiro foi mais efetivo para avaliar qualidade da água na área urbana, enquanto que na área rural, o ensaio com C. dubia mostrou-se mais sensível, mas não ideal, tendo em vista a alta sensibilidade do organismo à baixa dureza da água. CONCLUSÕES: A presença de coliformes fecais (E. coli foi o indicador mais efetivo para comparar a qualidade da água entre as duas bacias, principalmente na urbanizada, enquanto que os ensaios de ecotoxicidade com C. dubia foram prejudicados pela composição química natural da água.

Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

An ANN application for water quality forecasting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid urban and coastal developments often witness deterioration of regional seawater quality. As part of the management process, it is important to assess the baseline characteristics of the marine environment so that sustainable development can be pursued. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to predict and forecast quantitative characteristics of water bodies. The true power and advantage of this method lie in its ability to (1) represent both linear and non-linear relationships and (2) learn these relationships directly from the data being modeled. The study focuses on Singapore coastal waters. The ANN model is built for quick assessment and forecasting of selected water quality variables at any location in the domain of interest. Respective variables measured at other locations serve as the input parameters. The variables of interest are salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll-alpha. A time lag up to 2Delta(t) appeared to suffice to yield good simulation results. To validate the performance of the trained ANN, it was applied to an unseen data set from a station in the region. The results show the ANN's great potential to simulate water quality variables. Simulation accuracy, measured in the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (R(2)), ranged from 0.8 to 0.9 for the training and overfitting test data. Thus, a trained ANN model may potentially provide simulated values for desired locations at which measured data are unavailable yet required for water quality models. PMID:18635240

Palani, Sundarambal; Liong, Shie-Yui; Tkalich, Pavel

2008-09-01

162

Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

Reneau, Fred; And Others

163

Runoff quality and pollution loadings from a tropical urban catchment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Runoff quality draining from 17.14 km2 urban catchment in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, was analysed. The land-use consists of residential (30.3%), agricultural (27.3%), open space (27.9%), industrial (8.1%) and commercial (6.4%) areas. Three storm events were sampled in detail. These storms produced stormflow between 0.84 mm and 27.82 mm, and peakflow from 2.19 m3/s to 42.36 m3/s. Water quality showed marked variation during storms especially for TSS, BOD and COD with maximum concentrations of 778 mg/l, 135 mg/l and 358 mg/l, respectively. Concentrations of TOC, DOC, NH3-N, Fe and level of colour were also high. In general, the river quality is badly polluted and falls in Class V based on the Malaysian Interim National Water Quality Standards. Event Mean Concentrations (EMC) for various parameters varied considerably between storms. The largest storm produced higher EMC for TSS, NO3-N and SS whereas the smaller storms tend to register higher EMC for BOD, COD, NH3-N, TOC, Ca, K, Mg, Fe and Zn. Such variations could be explained in terms of pollutant availability and the effects of flushing and dilution. Based on a three-month average recurrence interval (ARI) of rainfall, the estimated event loadings (ton/ha) of TSS, BOD, COD, TOC, NH3-N and NO3-N were 0.055, 0.016, 0.012, 0.039, 0.010, 0.0007 and 0.0002, respectively. Heavy metals present in trace quantities. Storms with 3 months ARI could capture about 70% of the total annual loads of major pollutants. PMID:16445181

Yusop, Z; Tan, L W; Ujang, Z; Mohamed, M; Nasir, K A

2005-01-01

164

Calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural del municipio de Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia / Bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas of the municipality of Guatavita, Cundinamarca, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Guatavita es un municipio ubicado en el Departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia. Posee recursos hídricos como ríos, quebradas, lagunas y nacimientos, que representan un alto porcentaje del agua con que se abastece. El municipio tiene 16 acueductos en funcionamiento, pero solo el que abastece a la pob [...] lación de la zona urbana cuenta con un sistema de tratamiento de agua. En la zona rural existen 14 acueductos con un sistema básico de pretratamiento. Se analizó la calidad bacteriológica del agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana y rural (veredas Corales, Potrero Largo y Carbonera Alta), por medio de los indicadores de contaminación: coliformes totales y Escherichia coli, mediante la técnica de filtración por membrana. El agua de consumo humano de la zona urbana cumplió con los parámetros establecidos en la Resolución 2115 de 2007 del Ministerio de Protección Social, contrario a la zona rural, donde se encontraron recuentos de los indicadores de contaminación fecal, superiores a lo establecido. Por lo tanto, este recurso debe ser considerado como "agua natural", no apta para consumo humano, según el Decreto 1594 de 1984, por lo que debe ser destinada para potabilización bajo un tratamiento convencional. Abstract in english Guatavita is a municipality in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Guatavita has water resources such as rivers, streams, lakes and springs, which provide a large proportion of the water consumed by the population. Sixteen water supply systems are in operation, but only the one supplying the u [...] rban area is equipped with water treatment facilities. In the rural area there are 14 aqueducts with a basic pretreatment system. An analysis was made of the bacteriological quality of the water for human consumption in urban and rural areas (districts of Corales, Potrero Largo and Carbonera Alta) based on two contamination indicators: total coliforms and Escherichia coli, using membrane filtration technique. The water for human consumption in the urban area complied with the parameters contained in Resolution 2115/2007 of the Ministry of Social Protection. In the rural area, however, fecal contamination indicators were above the established limits. Therefore, this resource should be viewed as "natural water" not suitable for human consumption, according to Decree 1594/1984, and destined for potabilization by conventional treatment.

Sara Lilia, Ávila de Navia; Sandra Mónica, Estupiñán Torres.

2012-08-01

165

Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling  

Science.gov (United States)

Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across regions, and across sectors demand for an integrated approach to assess main causes of water quality degradation.

Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

2014-05-01

166

Water Woes in Zimbabwe’s Urban Areas in the Middist Of Plenty: 2000 -Present  

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Full Text Available Zimbabwe’s urban areas are choking under the weight of over-crowdedness amidstdilapidated infrastructure that is characterised by constant service failure. The water andsewer systems of the country’s major urban centres are on the verge of collapse, thusputting millions of people in danger of consuming contaminated water, including thatfrom underground sources. Waste management and water supply problems manifestthemselves as challenges bedevilling many an urban area in the country. The quality andquantity of water supplied in Zimbabwe’s urban centres has plummeted in recent yearsand has assumed crisis proportions owing to the difficult economic situation and otherchallenges faced by the country. The situation is desperate and dire, as is evidenced by thepoor quality of delivered water, severe water rationing and the outbreak of water-bornediseases in the urban areas dotted across the country. The situation demands and dictatesthat solutions be proffered as a matter of urgency.The recent outbreak of epidemics hasbeen blamed on lack of access to safe water and poor sanitation, two crucial factors incontrolling the spread of diseases. An overly bureaucratic environment, where decisionsand processes take longer, makes life complicated for poor urban residents. Such ascenario motivated the researchers to examine the problem with a view to suggest waysand means of intervening to mitigate and resolve the problem. It emerged from thefindings that the problem is multifaceted in nature, hence a whole range of measures needto be adopted if a long-term solution is to be provided.

Enock C. Makwara

2012-06-01

167

Research of Reconstruction of Village in the Urban Fringe Based on Urbanization Quality Improving  

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Full Text Available In the process of urban-rural integration, it is an acute and urgent challenge for the destiny of farmers and the development of village in the urban fringe in the developed area. Based on the “urbanization quality improving” this new perspective and through the analysis of experience and practice of Village renovation of Xi’nan Village of Zengcheng county, this article summarizes the meaning of urbanization quality in developed areas and finds the villages in the urban fringe’s reconstruction strategy. The study shows that as to the distinction of the urbanization of the old and the new areas, the special feature of the re-construction of the villages on the edge of the cities, the government needs to make far-sighted lay-out design and carry out strictly with a high standard in mind. The government must set up social security system, push forward the welfare of the residents, construct a new model of urban-rural relations, attaches great importance to sustainable development, promote the quality of the villagers, maintain regional cultural characters, and form a strong management team. All in all, in the designing and building the regions, great importance must be attached to verified ways and new creative cooperative development mechanism with a powerful leadership and sustainable village construction.

Junjie Zhang

2014-04-01

168

Impacts of anthropogenic pressures on the water quality of the Gironde Estuary (SW France) from the Urban Agglomeration of Bordeaux: spatial characterization and inputs of trace metal elements (Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn)  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent European legislation (2000/60/CE) has listed eight trace metal elements as priority toxic substances for water quality. Urban metal inputs into hydrosystems are of increasing interest to both scientists and managers facing restrictive environmental protection policies, population increase and changing metal applications. The Gironde Estuary (SW France; 625 km2) is known for its metal/metalloid pollution originating from industrial (e.g. Cd, Zn, Cu, As, Ag, Hg) or agricultural sources (e.g. Cu) in the main fluvial tributaries (Garonne and Dordogne Rivers). However, little peer-reviewed scientific work has addressed the impact of urban sources on the Gironde Estuary, especially the Urban Agglomeration of Bordeaux (~1 million inhabitants) located on the downstream branch of the Garonne River. In this study, a snapshot sampling campaign was performed in 2011 for characterizing the spatial distribution of dissolved and particulate metal/metalloid (As, Ag, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu) concentrations in three suburban watersheds: the Jalle of Blanquefort (330 km2), Eau Bourde (140 km2), and Peugue (112 km2). Furthermore, particulate metal Enrichment Factors (EF) were calculated using local geochemical background measured at the bottom of a sediment core (492 cm). Results indicated that metal concentrations displayed a high spatial variability depending on the suburban watershed and the studied element. Local concentrations anomalies were observed for: (i) As in the Eau Bourde River in dissolved (4.2 ?g/l) and particulate phases (246 mg/kg; EF= 20) and attributed to a nearby industrial incinerator; (ii) Zn in the Peugue River with maximum dissolved and particulate concentrations of 87 ?g/l and 1580 mg/kg (EF=17), respectively, probably due to urban habitation runoff; (iii) Ag in the Jalle of Blanquefort River with high dissolved (74 ng/l) and particulate concentrations (33.7 mg/kg; EF=117) due to industrial activities in the downstream part. Based on hydro-geochemical monitoring of both suburban rivers and local wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), we present a first estimate of metal/metalloid fluxes and compare them to the respective loads in the Garonne River. Our results suggest that suburban metal inputs may significantly increase metal concentrations and fluxes in the fluvial Gironde Estuary, especially for Ag due to inputs exported by WWTPS and the Jalle of Blanquefort River.

Kessaci, Kahina; Coynel, Alexandra; Blanc, Gérard; Deycard, Victoria N.; Derriennic, Hervé; Schäfer, Jörg

2014-05-01

169

Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainability Analysis of Urban Infrastructure  

Science.gov (United States)

Water and transportation infrastructures define spatial distribution of urban population and economic activities. In this context, energy and water consumed per capita are tangible measures of how efficient water and transportation systems are constructed and operated. At a hig...

170

A critical review of integrated urban water modelling – Urban drainage and beyond  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modelling interactions in urban drainage, water supply and broader integrated urban water systems has been conceptually and logistically challenging as evidenced in a diverse body of literature, found to be confusing and intimidating to new researchers. This review consolidates thirty years of research (initially driven by interest in urban drainage modelling) and critically reflects upon integrated modelling in the scope of urban water systems. We propose a typology to classify integrated urban water system models at one of four ‘degrees of integration’ (followed by its exemplification). Key considerations (e.g. data issues, model structure, computational and integration-related aspects), common methodology for model development (through a systems approach), calibration/optimisation and uncertainty are discussed, placing importance on pragmatism and parsimony. Integrated urban water models should focus more on addressing interplay between social/economical and biophysical/technical issues, while its encompassing software should become more user-friendly. Possible future directions include exploring uncertainties and broader participatory modelling.

Bach, Peter M.; Rauch, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

171

CEER 2014 Dedicated Session Proposal: Restoring Water Quality along with Restoring the Gulf of Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

This session focuses on the importance of restoring water quality as part of the larger Gulf of Mexico restoration efforts. Water quality has been identified as a significant indicator of water body condition, and Gulf waters have been impacted by increased urban development, agr...

172

An Expert System Applied in Construction Water Quality Monitoring  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: An untoward environmental impact of urban growth in Malaysia has been deterioration in a number of watercourses due to severe siltation and other pollutants from the construction site. Water quality monitoring is a plan for decision makers to take into account the adverse impacts of construction activities on the receiving water bodies. It is also a process for collecting the construction water quality monitoring, baseline data and standard level. Approach: In recent years, expert systems have been used extensively in different applications areas including environmental studies. In this study, expert system software -CWQM- developed by using Microsoft Visual Basic was introduced. CWQM to be used for water quality monitoring during construction activities was designed based on the legal process in Malaysia. Results: According to the water quality monitoring regulation enacted in Malaysia, construction activities require mandatory water quality monitoring plans duly approved by Department of Environment before staring activities. CWQM primarily aims to provide educational and support system for water quality monitoring engineers and decision-makers during construction activities. It displays water quality monitoring plan in report form, water sampling location in GIS format and water quality monitoring data in graph. Conclusion: When the use of CWQM in construction water quality monitoring becomes widespread, it is highly possible that it will be benefited in terms of having more accurate and objective decisions on construction projects which are mainly focused on reducing the stormwater pollution.

Leila Ooshaksaraie

2011-01-01

173

Columbia River water quality monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste water from Hanford activities is discharged at eight points along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River. These discharges consist of backwash water from water intake screens, cooling water, river bank springs, water storage tank overflow, and fish laboratory waste water. Each discharge point is identified in an existing National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued by the EPA. Effluents from each of these outfalls are routinely monitored and reported by the operating contractors as required by their NPDES permits. Measurements of several Columbia River water quality parameters were conducted routinely during 1982 both upstream and downstream of the Hanford Site to monitor any effects on the river that may be attributable to Hanford discharges and to determine compliance with the Class A designation requirements. The measurements indicated that Hanford operations had a minimal, if any, impact on the quality of the Columbia River water

174

Corporatization of the water sector: implications for transitioning to sustainable urban water management  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the context of climate change, the Danish urban water sector is experiencing two major pressures. On one hand, a number of agents are pushing towards more sustainable urban water management (SUWM) approaches with the aim of improving surface water quality and mitigating flood risk. On the other hand, as part of an international trend, the municipal water management departments were transformed in locally created not-for-profit corporatized companies. Among the drivers are: increase efficiency and cost recovering by reducing political control on utility budgets. Scholars have described the influencing factors for transitioning to SUWM and highlighted the potential governance attributes for enhancing and/or constraining such change. This paper explores the corporatization of the water sector and its implications for transitioning to sustainable urban water management. Corporatization is described and compared to other water governance models. The principles and the challenges of SUWM are introduced on the base of the existing literature. The aim is to develop a conceptual framework to analyse and discuss the implications of this governance shift for transitioning to SUWM. Corporatization is a hybrid between hierarchical and market based governance models, whose attributes demonstrated to represent potential barriers for transitioning to SUWM if not counterbalanced by parallel network-based governance approaches where the involvement of a large range of stakeholders allow cumulative insights from local-scale experiments. If such mechanisms are not created and sustained with proper intuitional reforms to build capacity for change, the transition towards SUWM might be at risk of failure.

Farné Fratini, Chiara; Brown, Rebekah Ruth

2012-01-01

175

Urban Densification and Recreational Quality of Public Urban Green Spaces—A Viennese Case Study  

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Full Text Available Public urban green spaces play an important role in urban sustainability. These places should provide high-quality recreation experiences for the urban residents. However, they are often overused. The Wienerberg area in the south of Vienna, Austria, was transformed from a waste disposal site into a natural recreation area. During the past years, intensive settlement densification processes have taken place, resulting in a doubling of the local population living within a few minutes walking distance. An on-site survey among green space visitors (N = 231 revealed that the majority of them considered the area to be overcrowded on Sundays/holidays and reported a perceived increase in visitor numbers during the past years. Visitors with more past experience, as well as those who have perceived an increase in visitor numbers during recent years, reported higher crowding perceptions. A significant proportion of them try to avoid these crowds, relying on behavioral coping strategies, such as inter-area displacement. While urban regeneration has provided an attractive recreation area, urban densification around the green space appears to have reduced its recreational quality. Monitoring recreation quality indicators, such as crowding perceptions, seems to be useful for sustainable urban green space management and city planning.

Arne Arnberger

2012-04-01

176

Multi-objective optimization for combined quality–quantity urban runoff control  

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Full Text Available Urban development affects the quantity and quality of urban surface runoff. In recent years, the best management practices (BMPs concept has been widely promoted for control of both quality and quantity of urban floods. However, means to optimize the BMPs in a conjunctive quantity/quality framework are still under research. In this paper, three objective functions were considered: (1 minimization of the total flood damages, cost of BMP implementation and cost of land-use development; (2 reducing the amount of TSS (total suspended solid and BOD5 (biological oxygen demand, representing the pollution characteristics, to below the threshold level; and (3 minimizing the total runoff volume. The biological oxygen demand and total suspended solid values were employed as two measures of urban runoff quality. The total surface runoff volume produced by sub-basins was representative of the runoff quantity. The construction and maintenance costs of the BMPs were also estimated based on the local price standards. Urban runoff quantity and quality in the case study watershed were simulated with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM. The NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II optimization technique was applied to derive the optimal trade off curve between various objectives. In the proposed structure for the NSGA-II algorithm, a continuous structure and intermediate crossover were used because they perform better as far as the optimization efficiency is concerned. Finally, urban runoff management scenarios were presented based on the optimal trade-off curve using the k-means method. Subsequently, a specific runoff control scenario was proposed to the urban managers.

S. Oraei Zare

2012-12-01

177

NEUSE RIVER WATER QUALITY DATABASE  

Science.gov (United States)

The Neuse River water quality database is a Microsoft Access application that includes multiple data tables and some associated queries. The database was developed by Prof. Jim Bowen's research group....

178

AMBIENT WATER QUALITY MONITORING SITES  

Science.gov (United States)

The North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Management, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, developed the digital Ambient Water Quality Monitoring Sites data to enhance planning, sit...

179

Soil cover and water quality for irrigation purposes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to assess the relationship between land cover and water quality for irrigation in the sub-basin of the stream Horizonte, located in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil, we selected five places in the sub-basin to collect surface water and groundwater, each influenced by different soil cover types: pasture, forest, coffee, upstream and downstream of the urban area. Collecting samples were made during periods of drought and rainfall. The physical-chemical analysis of water was made by de...

Ana Paula Bertossi

2014-01-01

180

Incorporating water resources in integrated urban and regional planning  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the relationships between water and the landscapes, communities, and jurisdictions through which it flows has become an increasingly urgent task for science over recent years. The vital role played by water in both urban and rural economies, its function in supporting ecosystem services, the consequences of excess or deficit, and our increasing awareness of the aquatic environment's influence on quality of life all evidence the importance of refining our knowledge of the inter-dependencies between hydrological processes and social systems. At this resolution (catchments, regions, etc.), the importance of integrating land and water planning and the need for collaboration of multiple stakeholders are a genuinely holistic and interdisciplinary undertaking; providing opportunities for researchers from the natural and social sciences to generate insights which utilise understandings of fundamental processes and phenomena to inform and shape policy, planning, design and interventions. This is a relatively young but fast-growing area of science with theory and normative prescription in areas such as catchment management and water sensitive urban design driving a burgeoning science agenda. This Special Issue of the Journal of Hydrology showcases a suite of contributions from primarily developed countries around the globe which revel in this agenda. Our authors report work which tackles head-on the complexity and multi-dimensional nature of the problems and witnesses a growing confidence amongst the research community in crossing disciplinary and professional boundaries.

Baldwin, Claudia; Jeffrey, Paul

2014-11-01

 
 
 
 
181

Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments / Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Riachos de referência dizem respeito a ambientes íntegros, sendo possível utilizar suas características ambientais como valores patamares de qualidade. Além dos impactos orgânicos medidos pelos programas de biomonitoramento da qualidade da água, se faz necessário avaliar as relações entr [...] e as alterações da paisagem dos riachos e de seu entorno com as mudanças na estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados desses ambientes; OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivos correlacionar as mudanças da paisagem com os atributos ecológicos da comunidade e índices de qualidade da água e, recomendar valores de condição referencial de integridade de riachos para a região de Jundiaí/SP; MÉTODOS: Foram amostradas a fauna bentônica de três riachos urbanos, três rurais e três preservados, com amostrador do tipo Surber, em julho de 2010. As características da paisagem foram avaliadas por meio da Diversidade de Habitat (DH); a comunidade, analisada quanto a S, N, J', H' e curvas de rarefação S e de dominância K e; a qualidade da água aferida pelos índices ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC, ASPT e SOMI; RESULTADOS: A estrutura e a composição das comunidades variaram em função dos riachos e refletiram-se nos valores dos índices biológicos e de qualidade ambiental. As melhores condições foram encontradas nos riachos preservados, as intermediárias, nos riachos rurais e, as piores, nos urbanos. As significativas correlações (r > 0.73 e P Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate th [...] e relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP); METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center), ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro)); RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P

Claudia Eiko, Yoshida; Ana Paula Pozzo Rios, Rolla.

2012-09-01

182

Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate the relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP; METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center, ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro; RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P INTRODUÇÃO: Riachos de referência dizem respeito a ambientes íntegros, sendo possível utilizar suas características ambientais como valores patamares de qualidade. Além dos impactos orgânicos medidos pelos programas de biomonitoramento da qualidade da água, se faz necessário avaliar as relações entre as alterações da paisagem dos riachos e de seu entorno com as mudanças na estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados desses ambientes; OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivos correlacionar as mudanças da paisagem com os atributos ecológicos da comunidade e índices de qualidade da água e, recomendar valores de condição referencial de integridade de riachos para a região de Jundiaí/SP; MÉTODOS: Foram amostradas a fauna bentônica de três riachos urbanos, três rurais e três preservados, com amostrador do tipo Surber, em julho de 2010. As características da paisagem foram avaliadas por meio da Diversidade de Habitat (DH; a comunidade, analisada quanto a S, N, J', H' e curvas de rarefação S e de dominância K e; a qualidade da água aferida pelos índices ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC, ASPT e SOMI; RESULTADOS: A estrutura e a composição das comunidades variaram em função dos riachos e refletiram-se nos valores dos índices biológicos e de qualidade ambiental. As melhores condições foram encontradas nos riachos preservados, as intermediárias, nos riachos rurais e, as piores, nos urbanos. As significativas correlações (r > 0.73 e P < 0.05 entre o índice de diversidade de habitat (DH e os atributos ecológicos e de qualidade da água dos riachos de Jundiaí, demonstraram que DH pode ser um bom preditor das características ambientais avaliadas e como tal, recomenda-se como valores de condição de referencia de riachos: DH ? 80; H' ? 2,3 e J ? 0.8 (família como nível taxonômico e; qualidade de água boa (ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC e BI, de levemente poluída a limpa (ASPT e regular (SOMI.

Claudia Eiko Yoshida

2012-09-01

183

Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate the relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP; METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center, ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro; RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P INTRODUÇÃO: Riachos de referência dizem respeito a ambientes íntegros, sendo possível utilizar suas características ambientais como valores patamares de qualidade. Além dos impactos orgânicos medidos pelos programas de biomonitoramento da qualidade da água, se faz necessário avaliar as relações entre as alterações da paisagem dos riachos e de seu entorno com as mudanças na estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados desses ambientes; OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivos correlacionar as mudanças da paisagem com os atributos ecológicos da comunidade e índices de qualidade da água e, recomendar valores de condição referencial de integridade de riachos para a região de Jundiaí/SP; MÉTODOS: Foram amostradas a fauna bentônica de três riachos urbanos, três rurais e três preservados, com amostrador do tipo Surber, em julho de 2010. As características da paisagem foram avaliadas por meio da Diversidade de Habitat (DH; a comunidade, analisada quanto a S, N, J', H' e curvas de rarefação S e de dominância K e; a qualidade da água aferida pelos índices ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC, ASPT e SOMI; RESULTADOS: A estrutura e a composição das comunidades variaram em função dos riachos e refletiram-se nos valores dos índices biológicos e de qualidade ambiental. As melhores condições foram encontradas nos riachos preservados, as intermediárias, nos riachos rurais e, as piores, nos urbanos. As significativas correlações (r > 0.73 e P < 0.05 entre o índice de diversidade de habitat (DH e os atributos ecológicos e de qualidade da água dos riachos de Jundiaí, demonstraram que DH pode ser um bom preditor das características ambientais avaliadas e como tal, recomenda-se como valores de condição de referencia de riachos: DH ? 80; H' ? 2,3 e J ? 0.8 (família como nível taxonômico e; qualidade de água boa (ICB Rio, BMWP-CETEC e BI, de levemente poluída a limpa (ASPT e regular (SOMI.

Claudia Eiko Yoshida

2012-01-01

184

Invertebrados bentónicos como indicadores de calidad del agua en ríos urbanos (Paraná-Entre Ríos, Argentina) / Benthic invertebrates as indicators of water quality in urban rivers (Paraná-Entre Ríos, Argentina)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudió la incidencia de los efluentes industriales y cloacales sobre la estructura del bentos en el río Las Tunas y su afluente Saucesito (Paraná, Provincia de Entre Ríos, Argentina). Se determinaron las especies y asociaciones de especies en gradientes de buena a mala calidad del agua de estos [...] ríos urbanos. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos, entre julio de 2000 y febrero de 2002, en cuatro estaciones a lo largo del curso. Los resultados obtenidos revelaron que, tanto la densidad como la diversidad específica fueron influenciadas por la contaminación orgánica, con una disminución brusca en la estación afectada por el vertido de los efluentes del parque industrial. Se registraron 85 taxa, siendo los oligoquetos y quironómidos los dominantes. Del análisis de componentes principales, se infirió que la demanda biológica de oxígeno fue el factor que más incidió en la distribución y composición de organismos bentónicos. El río Las Tunas presentó altos valores de DBO5, la menor densidad, riqueza y diversidad específica, sin recuperación de la calidad del agua en todo el tramo. Aguas arriba, el río Saucesito presentó una mejor calidad, principalmente en la estación de referencia ubicada antes del parque industrial. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to assess the effects of industrial and sewage discharges on the benthic structure of urban rivers. Also, the species assemblages associated to different water quality conditions were studied. Four sampling sites were analyzed, from July 2000 to February 2002, during high wa [...] ter level in two urban rivers. In order to determine the quality of the water and the species assemblages, ANOVA, principal components analysis, species diversity and distance index among sites were applied. Eighty-five species or morphospecies were identified, dominated by Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. Average density of benthic invertebrates varied between 233 ind/m² and 29265 ind/m², with higher densities registered in the reference sampling site than in the ones affected by industrial discharges. The species richness ranged from four to 43 taxa, and the Shannon-Wiener index, from 1.37 to 3.95, with the highest value registered in Saucesito river. Filtering and gathering collectors were the dominant feeding groups in all the sites because of the high fine particulate organic matter content. The biological oxygen demand was the main factor in determinating the benthic invertebrates distribution and composition. Las Tunas River is hardly polluted, with low benthic density, species richness and diversity, and high DBO5 values. Saucesito River shows a better water quality, mainly upstream of the industrial discharges. The gradient from clean to polluted water quality, was characterized by the species assemblages Ostracods Podocopida, Tanytarsus sp., D. (D.) obtusa, Djalmabatista sp. 2, Rheotanytarsus sp. 1, S. fossularis and Cricotopus sp. 1 ? N. variabilis, C. xanthus and L. hoffmeisteri.

Paola J, Pave; Mercedes, Marchese.

2005-12-01

185

EFFECT OF URBANIZATION ON FISH ASSEMBLAGES AND HABITAT QUALITY IN A PIEDMONT RIVER BASIN  

Science.gov (United States)

We quantified the relationships among urbanization, fishes, and habitat quality to determine how assemblags respond to urbanization and if a habitat quality assessment reflects urban effects on stream ecosystems. We sampled 30 wadeable streams along an urban gradient in the Etow...

186

Determination of Optimal Water Quality Monitoring Points in Sewer Systems using Entropy Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To monitor water quality continuously over the entire sewer network is important for efficient management of the system. However, it is practically impossible to implement continuous water quality monitoring of all junctions of a sewer system due to budget constraints. Therefore, water quality monitoring locations must be selected as those points which are the most representative of the dataset throughout a system. However, the optimal selection of water quality monitoring locations in urban ...

Jung Ho Lee

2013-01-01

187

ESTIMATION OF WATER QUALITY CRITERIA VIOLATION FREQUENCIES USING PEARSON PERCENTILES  

Science.gov (United States)

A numerical technique is developed for estimating water quality violation frequencies due to pollutant discharges from urban areas during combined sewer overflow events. The first four moments of in-stream pollutant concentration are found by integrating a pollutant loading - wat...

188

Air quality in the vicinity of urban roads  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Motor vehicle emissions are a major source of CO, NO{sub x} and lead particulate concentrations to urban air quality. London urban boroughs with high traffic densities are therefore a particular cause for concern. The air quality was monitored at an urban background site in the London borough of Haringey for 2 years. The results of this study are assessed and their effect on human health is considered in the light of EC directives and WHO guidelines. A desk top modelling technique based on Gaussian diffusion theory was used to predict the CO levels found at the background site. All predicted levels had an accuracy of better than 30%. 1 fig., 19 refs., 2 tabs.

Harrop, D.O.; Mumby, K.; Ashworth, J.; Nolan, J.; Price, M.; Pepper, B. (Tottenham Coll. of Technology, London (UK))

1990-04-01

189

Microbial Analysis of Drinking Water and Water Distribution System in New Urban Peshawar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water pollution due to chemicals and microbes is one of the serious environmental problems, which has greatly impacted human health. Recorded history of contaminated drinking water supply has witnessed various viral, bacterial and protozoan diseases, globally. It is estimated that >250 million cases of waterborne diseases are reported worldwide and over 25 million deaths are blamed due to waterborne-diseases. Pakistan has been facing the same problem due to improper water management, obsolete distribution infrastructure, bad sanitary condition and poor drinking water quality. An estimated 70% Pakistani population living in rural areas have no access to potable water distribution system, whereas in urban areas, between 40-60% urban population has access to safe and clean drinking water. In Pakistan, water filtration before distribution is almost non-existence and furthermore, WHO standards or NEQs are not followed for physiochemical and bacteriological analysis of drinking water. This study was conducted for physiochemical and bacteriological analysis of drinking water of new urban areas of Peshawar and compared the old historical areas of the city. Ten areas for drinking water samples were selected and samples were collected from water supply, distribution system and storage tanks. Physio-chemical (pH, turbidity and Total Suspended Solids (TSS and microbial analyses (Total and fecal coli form and E. coli were conducted (APHA, 2005. According to the results, there was a variation of the analyzed physio-chemical parameter in the water sample between old & new urban areas and was found as: pH (6.65-7.91, turbidity (3-9NTU and TSS (2-6 mg/L. The pH of the all samples was within the permissible limit of WHO guidelines. TSS of the 5 samples was above the permissible limits and turbidity of only 4 samples was within permissible limits. In bacteriological analysis, except one sample collected from the tube well, most samples were Total coliform positive. On the other hand, 6 samples of drinking water from distribution system were fecal coliform positive and 4 samples were E. coli positive. Further epidemiological studies are on-going and more drinking water samples from old urban Peshawar are being evaluated.

Roohul-Amin

2012-11-01

190

The air quality in Danish urban areas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. T...

Jensen, F. P.; Fenger, J.

1994-01-01

191

Use of multiple indicators to assess the environmental quality of urbanized aquatic surroundings in San Luis, Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urbanization can cause significant changes in the integrity of fluvial ecosystems, which makes it necessary to assess environmental conditions of areas where population growth rates are high. A study of the environmental quality of Chorrillos River (San Luis-Argentina) and its tributaries was carried out in order to evaluate the potential effect of an urbanization gradient. Six sites were sampled along the main course and tributaries of the river. Urbanization variables were measured and included to calculate an Urbanization Index. Physical–chemical analyses were performed in water samples to evaluate water quality through the use of a simplified index of water quality (SIWQ). Plants, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians metrics were used to assess the biological state of the studied sites. The Urbanization Index varied significantly between sites and was significantly correlated to the SIWQ. However, no significant correlations were found between SIWQ and macroinvertebrates and amphibians variables. Water quality of Chorrillos River and its tributaries is good, but it is affected by anthropic influences as reflected by the declining of SIWQ values. Although biological sampling constitutes an important tool in the assessment of water quality of rivers, in this report biological results were not conclusive. PMID:24659439

Calderon, Mirian R; González, Patricia; Moglia, Marta; Gonzáles, Soledad Oliva; Jofré, Mariana

2014-07-01

192

Underground Water Assessment using Water Quality Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the quality of selected hand dug wells in Maikunkele area of Niger State, Nigeria using Water Quality Index (WQI. ten hand dug wells were randomly selected in Maikunkele area of Bosso Local Government and were tested for nine (9 parameters of National Sanitation Foundation (NSF using standard analytical procedures. WQI results indicated that the quality of the selected well water samples were medium except for sample 2 that was extremely bad. The findings also revealed that all the samples except samples 2 and 3 had high coliform levels as high as 91 coliform/100cm3. This was an indication of faecal contamination substantiating the proximity of some of the wells to septic systems. The nitrate levels in all the samples exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL of WHO, EPA, APHA and the Nigerian Drinking Water Standards. Based on the results obtained, the quality of the well water samples was therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques were highly recommended.

Jonathan YISA

2012-12-01

193

Urban Quality of Life: A Case Study of Guwahati  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper studies quality of life (QOL) in urban environment. The term environment has been used in broader sense, which includes physical, social and economic environment. A framework has been proposed which posits that QOL comprises objective condition of living and satisfaction from such living condition constitutes QOL. Such objective…

Das, Daisy

2008-01-01

194

Application of GDAHP on Quality Evaluation of Urban Lake Landscape  

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Full Text Available The quality evaluation of urban lake landscape (QEULL is extremely important for the healthy development of lake landscape. In this research, the evaluation model was established with the group decision analytic hierarchy process (GDAHP method, which consisted of four layers including the target layer, the factor layer, the index layer and the criterion layer, thus forming a model tree based on their subordinate relation-ships. The GDAHP method was employed to determine the weights of constituting factors of each layer in the evaluation model, and the fuzzy method was used to establish the factors remark sets of the criterion layer, thus the single-layer evaluation and comprehensive evaluation of urban lake landscape quality was carried out. Quality evaluation model of urban lake landscape established based on the GDAHP method can provide grounds for planning, design, and renewal of urban lake landscape. This model has been used to evaluate and analyze the artificial lake in People’s Park of Xinxiang City, Henan Province. The results proved that the overall landscape quality of the artificial lake of Peoples Park in Xinxiang city was good.

Yichuan ZHANG

2009-12-01

195

A PHOTOCHEMICAL BOX MODEL FOR URBAN AIR QUALITY SIMULATION  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple 'box-approach' to air quality simulation modeling has been developed in conjunction with a newly formulated photochemical kinetic mechanism to produce an easily applied Photochemical Box Model (PBM). This approach represents an urban area as a single cell 20 km in both l...

196

The EPANET water quality model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EPANET is a software package developed by US EPA`s Drinking Water Research Division for modeling hydraulic and water quality behavior within water distribution systems. Starting with a geometric description of the pipe network, a set of initial conditions, estimates of water usage, and a set of rules for how the system is operated, EPANET predicts all flows, pressures, and water quality levels throughout the network during an extended period of operation. In addition to substance concentration, water age and source tracing can also be simulated. EPANET offers a number of advanced features including: modular, highly portable C language code with no pre-set limits on network size; a simple data input format based on a problem oriented language; a full-featured hydraulic simulator; improved water quality algorithms; analysis of water quality reactions both within the bulk flow and at the pipe wall; an optional graphical user interface running under Microsoft{reg_sign} Windows{trademark}. The Windows user interface allows one to edit EPANET input files, run a simulation, and view the results all within a single program. Simulation output can be visualized through: color-coded maps of the distribution system with full zooming, panning and labeling capabilities and a slider control to move forward or backward through time; spreadsheet-like tables that can be searched for entries meeting a specified criterion; and time series graphs of both predicted and observed values for any variable at any location in the network. EPANET is currently being used to analyze a number of water quality issues in different distribution systems across the country. These include: chlorine decay dynamics, raw water source blending, altered tank operation, and integration with real-time monitoring and control systems.

Rossman, L.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-10-01

197

The implementation challenge of urban air quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, the policy followed has booked some significant successes in the structural reduction of the emissions by a number of air polluting substances (e.g. sulphur dioxide and lead). However, the Third Environmental Outlook 1993-2015 has determined that the policy goals for a number of other air polluting substances will not be achieved, particularly in urban areas. This concerns fine dust (PM-10) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen dioxide, benzene and black smoke. The policy goals for the above priority substances have been set so as to protect the population against the negative effects on health from too high concentrations of these substances. Forty-six per cent of the Dutch population live in cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants, and, hence, many people are exposed to (too) high concentrations. For this reason, the Netherlands` Second National Environmental Policy Plan lays down that government, provinces and municipalities will together develop a plan of action to reduce urban air pollution to acceptable levels. The formulated strategy is presented in the document here. To that end, the problem analysis and current policy related to the issue are considered in more detail below. On the basis of this, the additional policy strategy is formulated. (author)

Lint, R.J.T. van; Buitenkamp, S.; Zebregs, M. [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Air Quality and Acidification Abatement Div.

1995-12-31

198

Assessment of Physico-chemical Water Quality Parameters of Surajkund Pondin Gorakhpur City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water bodies in urban areas have been facing the adverse effects of anthropogenic pollution for so many years. The water quality in lakes and ponds being used for religious bathing and cultural gathering is of paramount importance from the view point of public health and safety. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the physico-chemical water quality parameters of Surajkund pond, which is an ancient water body located in Gorakhpur city. Water quality parameters like...

Sushil Kumar Gupta1; Govind Pandey2

2014-01-01

199

Consumers’ perceptions on urban water services and connection to sustainable behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a survey on urban consumers of tap water and public waterservices. We discuss seven types of awareness and perceptions an their connexion to sustainablebehavior: consumers’ awareness of water company (1 name, (2 location and (3 services delivered,their evaluation (4 of the the water-sewerage network state and (5 of its importance, their evaluations(6 of the overall tap water quality and (7 of the importance of water quality. Results of the researchshow that: water company name is known by two thirds of the subjects; location by one third; supply ofdrink water is the best known service and raw water treatment is the least known one; the evaluationsgiven to water-sewerage network state and tap water quality are predominantely positive, but there isplace for improvements; almost all customers consider these two aspects important and very important,which will make them sensitive to changes.

Dacinia C. Petrescu

2013-03-01

200

A DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Cities have to seek sustainable development to meet the needs of the growing human populations while managing and minimizing their impact on the natural environment. The water system is an important component in any urban area. Urban water management involves the interaction be...

 
 
 
 
201

Agroecosystem Impacts on Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Agroecosystems can have large scale impacts on soil water and groundwater quality by mobilizing salts into underlying aquifers through enhanced recharge and increasing chemical loading to systems through fertilizer applications and irrigation water. Crop evapotranspiration is similar to desalinization in that root-water uptake excludes most salts, and soil-water salinity levels may build up when water drainage or percolation through the root zone is insufficient to flush accumulated salts. The objective of this study was to evaluate impacts of agroecosystems on soil water and groundwater quality using data from the US High Plains and California Central Valley. Natural ecosystems accumulated large reservoirs of salts in unsaturated soils in the southern High Plains and southern part of the Central Valley. Increased recharge under rainfed and irrigated agriculture mobilized these salt reservoirs into the underlying aquifer in the southern High Plains, increasing groundwater salinity, particularly chloride and sulfate. Deficit irrigation in the southern High Plains has created large salt bulges in the unsaturated zone because of insufficient irrigation to flush these salts into the underlying aquifer. Irrigation in both the High Plains and Central Valley regions has markedly increased groundwater nitrate levels, particularly in irrigated areas because of higher fertilizer applications. Agroecosystem impacts on water quality reflect a delicate balance between water and salt cycles and crop production should be managed to minimize negative environmental impacts.

Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.

2010-12-01

202

Water quality issues in southern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or ?g/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in trace concentrations. Most of the ailments, including mood disturbances and psychological disorders, are reportedly on the increase in most urban and industrialized areas of Nigeria. Perhaps a study should be conducted among the population in order to relate the pattern of water pollution related diseases to health factors in Nigeria

203

43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public Lands...APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality. (a) Water Quality is not...

2010-10-01

204

Part 2: Surface water quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1996 the surface water quality measurements were performed, according to the Agreement, at 8 profiles on the Hungarian territory and at 15 profiles on the Slovak territory. Basic physical and chemical parameters (as water temperature, pH values, conductivity, suspended solids, cations and anions (nitrates, ammonium ion, nitrites, total nitrogen, phosphates, total phosphorus, oxygen and organic carbon regime parameters), metals (iron, manganese and heavy metals), biological and microbiological parameters (coliform bacteria, chlorophyll-a, saprobity index and other biological parameters) and quality of sediment were measured

205

Assessment of human impact on water quality along Manyame River  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human activities such as urbanization, agriculture, sewage treatment and industrialization are affecting water resources both quantitatively and qualitatively. The impact of these activities were studied by measuring and determining the concentration and values of eight selected water quality parameters namely nitrates, phosphates, copper, iron, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and turbidity along Manyame River, in the Manyame Catchment. Thirty five sites were sa...

Masere, Tirivashe P.; Adelaide Munodawafa; Tavengwa Chitata

2012-01-01

206

Water quality for freshwater fish  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This timely and up-to-date volume brings together recent critical reviews on water quality requirements for freshwater fish commissioned by the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission, an agency of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. It provides a unique and authoritative source of critically evaluated water quality data concerning the effects of chromium, nickel, aluminum and nitrite on freshwater fish and includes an assessment of the toxicity of mixtures. The reports presented in this volume cover all stages of the life cycle and relevant trophic levels, including aquatic invertebrates and plants and potential bioaccumulation through the food chain. An extensive bibliography is provided for each chapter as well as a glossary of terms and a list of fish species mentioned in the text. This compilation of papers is the definitive reference volume for chemists, biologists, ecologists and toxicologists as well as for water resource managers concerned with management and control of pollution in fresh waters.

Howells, G. (ed.) (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

1994-01-01

207

Obtaining traffic information by urban air quality inspection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transportation and its environmental impacts are a major component of urban environmental management. At the same time, transportation and mobility are an important part of urban economics and quality of life. To analyze urban transportation and its environmental impacts, a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach is needed. Unfortunately, theoretical works about traffic flow and pollutant dynamic have independently evolved, rarely meeting contact points. Our works aims to provide a contribution in linking traffic flow and pollutant dynamic by proponing a new traffic model, able to calculate the number of running vehicles, once the ground level of an arbitrary pollutant concentration is know. The validation and simulation of this model is made possible by the training of an adaptive.(Author)

208

Proposal for an integral quality index for urban and urbanized beaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

A composite index, based on function analysis and including thirteen sub-indices, was developed to assess the overall quality of urban and urbanized beaches in the Mediterranean area. The aggregation of components and sub-indices was based on two questionnaires completed by beach users and experts. Applying the new Beach Quality Index (BQI) demonstrated that the quality of beaches could be improved. In general, the strongest aspects of the beaches assessed were those related to short-term user demand, and the weakest were those related to the consequences of human pressure on the area, in particular, erosion problems. The composite index is intended to be used together with Environmental Management Beach Systems (EMBs) as a hierarchical management scorecard and in monitoring programs. This new tool could also make planning more proactive by synthesizing the state of the most important beach processes. PMID:20383636

Ariza, Eduard; Jimenez, Jose A; Sarda, Rafael; Villares, Miriam; Pinto, Josep; Fraguell, Rosa; Roca, Elisabet; Marti, Carolina; Valdemoro, Herminia; Ballester, Ramon; Fluvia, Modest

2010-05-01

209

A real-time control framework for urban water reservoirs operation  

Science.gov (United States)

Drinking water demand in urban areas is growing parallel to the worldwide urban population, and it is acquiring an increasing part of the total water consumption. Since the delivery of sufficient water volumes in urban areas represents a difficult logistic and economical problem, different metropolitan areas are evaluating the opportunity of constructing relatively small reservoirs within urban areas. Singapore, for example, is developing the so-called 'Four National Taps Strategies', which detects the maximization of water yields from local, urban catchments as one of the most important water sources. However, the peculiar location of these reservoirs can provide a certain advantage from the logistical point of view, but it can pose serious difficulties in their daily management. Urban catchments are indeed characterized by large impervious areas: this results in a change of the hydrological cycle, with decreased infiltration and groundwater recharge, and increased patterns of surface and river discharges, with higher peak flows, volumes and concentration time. Moreover, the high concentrations of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges can cause further water quality problems. In this critical hydrological context, the effective operation of urban water reservoirs must rely on real-time control techniques, which can exploit hydro-meteorological information available in real-time from hydrological and nowcasting models. This work proposes a novel framework for the real-time control of combined water quality and quantity objectives in urban reservoirs. The core of this framework is a non-linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme, which employs the current state of the system, the future discharges furnished by a predictive model and a further model describing the internal dynamics of the controlled sub-system to determine an optimal control sequence over a finite prediction horizon. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its reduced computational requests and the capability of exploiting real-time hydro-meteorological information, which are crucial for an effective operation of these fast-varying hydrological systems. The framework is here demonstrated on the operation of Marina Reservoir (Singapore), whose recent construction in late 2008 increased the effective catchment area to about 50% of the total available. Its operation, which accounts for drinking water supply, flash floods control and water quality standards, is here designed by combining the MPC scheme with the process-based hydrological model SOBEK. Extensive simulation experiments show the validity of the proposed framework.

Galelli, S.; Goedbloed, A.; Schwanenberg, D.

2012-04-01

210

Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines for Mississippi  

Science.gov (United States)

Article containing information about the water quality guidelines for irrigation water and the salinity and constituent materials allowed in irrigation water for crops to grow. Included are directions for sending in water samples and interpretations of water testing results.

2008-06-12

211

Impacts of urban solid waste disposal on the quality of surface water in three cities of Minas Gerais - Brazil Impactos da disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos na qualidade da água superficial em três municípios de Minas Gerais - Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The environmental impact of three different urban solid waste facilities (USWF on the quality of the surface water. The studied areas were the Campo Belo sanitary landfill (Varões River, the controlled landfill of Santo Antônio do Amparo (Fabiano River, and the closed dump of Elói Mendes (Mutuca River, which are cities located in southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil were evaluated. At each sampling point water samples were collected at five occasions in the raining season (October - March and in the dry season (April - June at three sampling points: (P1 upstream the solid waste facility, (P2 downstream nearby the point of influx from the sewage treatment plant in the sanitary landfill, or at the drainage point from the surface flow of the dump and controlled landfill, and (P3 downstream the solid waste facility. Physicochemical and bacteriological analyses were performed, and the results were analyzed based on descriptive statistics. The data were also compared with reference values from the National Environmental Council (CONAMA Resolution 357/2005 and were used to calculate the water quality index (WQI. It was not possible to detect a significant effect of the solid waste facility on the water quality indicators. The water conditions were unsatisfactory due to violations of the concentrations of phosphorus, ammonia, fecal coliform, and the biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand ratio (BOD/COD, probably related to other uses along the drainage area upstream the solid waste facility. These conditions were more critical in the Mutuca river, where the WQI was classified as bad during the entire period at all sampling points.Os impactos ambientais de três diferentes tipologias de áreas de disposição de Resíduos Sólidos Urbanos - ADRSU, sobre a qualidade das águas superficiais situadas nas proximidades do aterro sanitário de Campo Belo (Córrego dos Varões, do aterro controlado de Santo Antônio do Amparo (Córrego do Fabiano e do lixão encerrado de Elói Mendes (Ribeirão Mutuca, municípios situados no Sul de Minas Gerais - Brasil foram avaliados. Para cada curso d'água foram coletadas 5 amostras de água no período chuvoso e 5 amostras no período seco, em três diferentes pontos para cada um dos três cursos d'água sendo: (P1 a montante das ADRSU, (P2 logo após o local de descarga da Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto - ETE (no aterro sanitário, e nas outras tipologias, após ponto de lançamento do escoamento superficial proveniente das ADSRU, e (P3 à jusante das ADSRU. Realizaram-se análises físico-químicas e bacteriológicas, cujos resultados foram analisados com base na estatística descritiva e comparados com valores de referência da Resolução CONAMA 357/2005, bem como utilizados para cálculo do índice de qualidade de água (IQA. Não foi possível detectar efeito significativo das ADRSU, nos parâmetros indicadores da qualidade da água, a qual se apresentou em condições não satisfatórias em função das violações dos parâmetros fósforo, amônia, coliformes termotolerantes e da relação DQO/DBO mesmo à montante da ADSRU. No Ribeirão Mutuca, essa situação foi ainda mais crítica pois o IQA foi classificado como ruim em todos os pontos durante o período monitorado.

Rosângela Francisca de Paula Vitor Marques

2012-12-01

212

Impacts of urban solid waste disposal on the quality of surface water in three cities of Minas Gerais - Brazil / Impactos da disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos na qualidade da água superficial em três municípios de Minas Gerais - Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os impactos ambientais de três diferentes tipologias de áreas de disposição de Resíduos Sólidos Urbanos - ADRSU, sobre a qualidade das águas superficiais situadas nas proximidades do aterro sanitário de Campo Belo (Córrego dos Varões), do aterro controlado de Santo Antônio do Amparo (Córrego do Fabi [...] ano) e do lixão encerrado de Elói Mendes (Ribeirão Mutuca), municípios situados no Sul de Minas Gerais - Brasil foram avaliados. Para cada curso d'água foram coletadas 5 amostras de água no período chuvoso e 5 amostras no período seco, em três diferentes pontos para cada um dos três cursos d'água sendo: (P1) a montante das ADRSU, (P2) logo após o local de descarga da Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto - ETE (no aterro sanitário, e nas outras tipologias, após ponto de lançamento do escoamento superficial proveniente das ADSRU, e (P3) à jusante das ADSRU. Realizaram-se análises físico-químicas e bacteriológicas, cujos resultados foram analisados com base na estatística descritiva e comparados com valores de referência da Resolução CONAMA 357/2005, bem como utilizados para cálculo do índice de qualidade de água (IQA). Não foi possível detectar efeito significativo das ADRSU, nos parâmetros indicadores da qualidade da água, a qual se apresentou em condições não satisfatórias em função das violações dos parâmetros fósforo, amônia, coliformes termotolerantes e da relação DQO/DBO mesmo à montante da ADSRU. No Ribeirão Mutuca, essa situação foi ainda mais crítica pois o IQA foi classificado como ruim em todos os pontos durante o período monitorado. Abstract in english The environmental impact of three different urban solid waste facilities (USWF) on the quality of the surface water. The studied areas were the Campo Belo sanitary landfill (Varões River), the controlled landfill of Santo Antônio do Amparo (Fabiano River), and the closed dump of Elói Mendes (Mutuca [...] River), which are cities located in southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil were evaluated. At each sampling point water samples were collected at five occasions in the raining season (October - March) and in the dry season (April - June) at three sampling points: (P1) upstream the solid waste facility, (P2) downstream nearby the point of influx from the sewage treatment plant in the sanitary landfill, or at the drainage point from the surface flow of the dump and controlled landfill, and (P3) downstream the solid waste facility. Physicochemical and bacteriological analyses were performed, and the results were analyzed based on descriptive statistics. The data were also compared with reference values from the National Environmental Council (CONAMA) Resolution 357/2005 and were used to calculate the water quality index (WQI). It was not possible to detect a significant effect of the solid waste facility on the water quality indicators. The water conditions were unsatisfactory due to violations of the concentrations of phosphorus, ammonia, fecal coliform, and the biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand ratio (BOD/COD), probably related to other uses along the drainage area upstream the solid waste facility. These conditions were more critical in the Mutuca river, where the WQI was classified as bad during the entire period at all sampling points.

Rosângela Francisca de Paula Vitor, Marques; Antônio Marciano da, Silva; Luciano dos Santos, Rodrigues; Gilberto, Coelho.

2012-12-01

213

Port of Entry: Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Port of Entry is a bilingual (Spanish and English) business network for the environmental sector. Its objective is to promote innovation in environmental policies and technologies through professional exchange. The water quality section of the site contains technical articles, news releases, regulatory information, case studies, and industry developments.

Inc., Port O.

214

Application of GDAHP on Quality Evaluation of Urban Lake Landscape  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quality evaluation of urban lake landscape (QEULL) is extremely important for the healthy development of lake landscape. In this research, the evaluation model was established with the group decision analytic hierarchy process (GDAHP) method, which consisted of four layers including the target layer, the factor layer, the index layer and the criterion layer, thus forming a model tree based on their subordinate relation-ships. The GDAHP method was employed to determine the weights of const...

Zhang, Yichuan; Qiao, Lifang

2009-01-01

215

Urban Design Competition versus Design Interactivity and Quality Judgment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study is targeted to analyze the essence of interactive design process, design methodology and the communicability of quality judgment of urban design competitions. The aim is to provide a political argument which supports organizational and procedural reforms of the entire cycle of competition, from judgment to selection and implementation of a prize-winning architectural design. The study is searching to provide some principle definitions of the concepts of design methodology and design...

Kazemian, Reza

2011-01-01

216

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana's Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems. PMID:19108554

McGarvey, Stephen T; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J

2008-09-01

217

Storm water pollution in the urban environment of Genoa, Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonpoint pollution resulting from urban surface runoff is recognized as one of the major causes of quality deterioration in the receiving water bodies. In order to investigate the first flush phenomenon connected to different types of urban surfaces, two monitoring systems have been installed in the experimental catchment of Villa Cambiaso, University of Genoa (Italy), to sample separately roof and road runoff. In the monitoring campaign, which has been held since January 2002 in the town of Genoa, the following parameters have been investigated: total suspended solids, COD, NH 4+, pH and heavy metals in dissolved form (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni). As for road runoff, TSS and COD concentration values exceed water quality standards, while the concentration of zinc is relevant in roof runoff. A strong correlation is observed between COD and TSS concentrations. The Event Mean Concentration (EMC) of various pollutants in road runoff is comparable to the typical values observed in residential areas, according to the American and European studies reported in the literature. Two dimensionless representations of the wash-off process are provided for TSS and zinc based on the cumulative pollutant mass and the Partial Event Mean Concentration (PEMC). First flush of suspended solids is observed in more than 70% of the monitored rainfall events. Regarding roof runoff, the magnitude of first flush for heavy metals in dissolved form is affected by both rainfall characteristics (intensity and total depth) and the antecedent environmental conditions. Simple correlations between rainfall characteristics (average and maximum rainfall intensity, total rainfall depth, total runoff volume, maximum runoff discharge, antecedent dry weather period) and the EMC of TSS have been investigated: good correlation is only observed with the maximum rainfall intensity.

Gnecco, I.; Berretta, C.; Lanza, L. G.; La Barbera, P.

2005-09-01

218

A novel integrated assessment methodology of urban water reuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wastewater is no longer considered a waste product and water reuse needs to play a stronger part in securing urban water supply. Although treatment technologies for water reclamation have significantly improved the question that deserves further analysis is, how selection of a particular wastewater treatment technology relates to performance and sustainability? The proposed assessment model integrates; (i) technology, characterised by selected quantity and quality performance parameters; (ii) productivity, efficiency and reliability criteria; (iii) quantitative performance indicators; (iv) development of evaluation model. The challenges related to hierarchy and selections of performance indicators have been resolved through the case study analysis. The goal of this study is to validate a new assessment methodology in relation to performance of the microfiltration (MF) technology, a key element of the treatment process. Specific performance data and measurements were obtained at specific Control and Data Acquisition Points (CP) to satisfy the input-output inventory in relation to water resources, products, material flows, energy requirements, chemicals use, etc. Performance assessment process contains analysis and necessary linking across important parametric functions leading to reliable outcomes and results. PMID:22335107

Listowski, A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Vigneswaran, S

2011-01-01

219

MODELING THE IMPACTS OF LAND USE CHANGE ON HYDROLOGY AND WATER QUALITY OF A PACIFIC NORTHWEST WATERSHED  

Science.gov (United States)

In many parts of the world, aquatic ecosystems are threatened by hydrological and water quality alterations due to extraction and conversion of natural resources for agriculture, urban development, forestry, mining, transportation, and water resources development. To evaluate the...

220

Relevance and Benefits of Urban Water Reuse in Tourist Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban water reuse is one of the most rapidly growing water reuse applications worldwide and one of the major elements of the sustainable management of urban water cycle. Because of the high probability of direct contact between consumers and recycled water, many technical and regulatory challenges have to be overcome in order to minimize health risks at affordable cost. This paper illustrates the keys to success of one of the first urban water reuse projects in the island Bora Bora, French Polynesia. Special emphasis is given on the reliability of operation of the membrane tertiary treatment, economic viability in terms of pricing of recycled water and operating costs, as well as on the benefits of water reuse for the sustainable development of tourist areas.

Gaston Tong Sang

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Determination of Optimal Water Quality Monitoring Points in Sewer Systems using Entropy Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To monitor water quality continuously over the entire sewer network is important for efficient management of the system. However, it is practically impossible to implement continuous water quality monitoring of all junctions of a sewer system due to budget constraints. Therefore, water quality monitoring locations must be selected as those points which are the most representative of the dataset throughout a system. However, the optimal selection of water quality monitoring locations in urban sewer networks has rarely been studied. This study proposes a method for the optimal selection of water quality monitoring points in sewer systems based on entropy theory. The proposed model searches for a quantitative assessment of data collected from monitoring points. The points that maximize the total information among the collected data at multiple locations are selected using genetic algorithm (GA for water quality monitoring. The proposed model is demonstrated for a small urban sewer system.

Jung Ho Lee

2013-08-01

222

Hurricane Isabel Water Quality Impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

Hurricane Isabel swept through the east coast of the United States on September 18 and 19 of 2003. This site, created by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, discusses how this strong hurricane with winds in some areas up to 60 miles per hour affected the Chesapeake and Coastal Bays region. Students and educators can see how the hurricane affected water quality by viewing the assorted graphs demonstrating the varying wind speeds, water levels, salinity, turbidity, and chlorophyll amounts from September 16th to the 22nd.

223

Analytical Studies on Water Quality Index of River Landzu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: River Landzu is of particular importance in the study of surface water pollution because effluents from cottage industries, municipal sewage, agricultural and urban run-off are discharged into it bringing about considerable change in the water quality. Approach: This study aimed at using the application of Water Quality Index (WQI in evaluating the quality of River Landzu for public usage. This was done by subjecting the 120 water samples collected to comprehensive physicochemical analysis using APHA standard methods of analysis. Results: The WQI for the samples was 171.85. The high value of WQI had been found mainly from the higher values of iron, chromium and manganese, COD and turbidity. The results of the analysis when compared with World Health Organization (WHO and Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS permissible limit indicated that the river was polluted and so the water is not safe for domestic use and would need further treatment. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated application of water quality index in estimating/understanding the quality of river water and appeared to be promising in the field of water quality management.

J. Yisa

2010-01-01

224

Urban water infrastructure optimization to reduce environmental impacts and costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban water planning and policy have been focusing on environmentally benign and economically viable water management. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model to integrate and optimize urban water infrastructures for supply-side planning and policy: freshwater resources and treated wastewater are allocated to various water demand categories in order to reduce contaminants in the influents supplied for drinking water, and to reduce consumption of the water resources imported from the regions beyond a city boundary. A case study is performed to validate the proposed model. An optimal urban water system of a metropolitan city is calculated on the basis of the model and compared to the existing water system. The integration and optimization decrease (i) average concentrations of the influents supplied for drinking water, which can improve human health and hygiene; (ii) total consumption of water resources, as well as electricity, reducing overall environmental impacts; (iii) life cycle cost; and (iv) water resource dependency on other regions, improving regional water security. This model contributes to sustainable urban water planning and policy. PMID:19939551

Lim, Seong-Rin; Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Hung Suck

2010-01-01

225

Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy  

Science.gov (United States)

This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by KB Science and Engineering and is currently patented by KB Science. The buoy's purpose was to collected hyperspectral optical signatures for analysis and resulting estimation of water quality parameters such as chlorophyll-a, seston and dissolved organic matter (DOC). The ultimate goal of the project was to develop a buoy that would integrate a probe to measure upwelling light from a source and thus relate this backscattered light to water quality parameters.

Bostater, Charles

1998-01-01

226

Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

Sailor, D.J.

1993-08-01

227

Public-private partnerships in China's urban water sector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shor...

Zhong, L.; Mol, A. P. J.; Fu, T.

2008-01-01

228

Water Quality Monitoring System based on WSN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the growth of economy in recent years, the water quality monitoring becomes a critical issue about water pollution. Water Quality Monitoring has a big influence on the aquaculture management, waste water treatment, drinking water and some other applications. There is a trend to build a wireless sensor network system for water quality monitoring. This system detects pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, temperature, ORP (Oxidation-Reduction Potential), BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Dem...

Wang, Teng

2012-01-01

229

Multivariate analysis of drinking water quality parameters in Bhopal, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollution of water bodies is one of the areas of major concern to environmentalists. Water quality is an index of health and well being of a society. Industrialization, urbanization and modern agriculture practices have direct impact on the water resources. These factors influence the water resources quantitatively and qualitatively. The study area selected were the Upper lake and Kolar reservoir of Bhopal, the state capital of Madhya Pradesh, India. The Upper lake and Kolar reservoir both are the important sources of potable water supply for the Bhopal city. The physico-chemical parameters like temperature, pH, turbidity, total hardness, alkalinity, BOD, COD, Chloride, nitrate and phosphate were studied to ascertain the drinking water quality. PMID:17632768

Parashar, Charu; Verma, Neelam; Dixit, Savita; Shrivastava, Rajneesh

2008-05-01

230

Soil cover and water quality for irrigation purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to assess the relationship between land cover and water quality for irrigation in the sub-basin of the stream Horizonte, located in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil, we selected five places in the sub-basin to collect surface water and groundwater, each influenced by different soil cover types: pasture, forest, coffee, upstream and downstream of the urban area. Collecting samples were made during periods of drought and rainfall. The physical-chemical analysis of water was made by determining the pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, sodium and calculated sodium adsorption ratio (SAR. According to the results we can conclude that the soil cover did not change the quality of water for irrigation and water evaluated, both surface and groundwater, showed no risk of soil salinization, but can cause problems sodification, making it difficult to water infiltration.

Ana Paula Bertossi

2014-02-01

231

Confronting the Water Crisis of Beijing Municipality in a Systems Perspective : Focusing on Water Quantity and Quality Changes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent decades, water systems worldwide are under crisis due to excessive human interventions particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions. In many cities, the water quantity situation has become more and more serious, caused either by absolute water shortage or water pollution. Considering population growth and fast urbanization, ensuring adequate water supply with acceptable water quality is crucial to socio-economic development in the coming decades. In this context, one key point is ...

Ma, Jin

2011-01-01

232

U.S. Midwestern Residents Perceptions of Water Quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The plurality of conservation and environmental viewpoints often challenge community leaders and government agency staff as they seek to engage citizens and build partnerships around watershed planning and management to solve complex water quality issues. The U.S. Midwest Heartland region (covering the states of Missouri, Kansa, Iowa, and Nebraska is dominated by row crop production and animal agriculture, where an understanding of perceptions held by residents of different locations (urban, rural non-farm, and rural farm towards water quality and the environment can provide a foundation for public deliberation and decision making. A stratified random sample mail survey of 1,042 Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska residents (54% response rate reveals many areas of agreement among farm, rural non-farm, and those who live in towns on the importance of water issues including the importance and use of water resources; beliefs about water quality and perceptions of impaired water quality causality; beliefs about protecting local waters; and environmental attitudes. With two ordinal logistic models, we also found that respondents with strong environmental attitudes have the least confidence in ground and surface water quality. The findings about differences and areas of agreement among the residents of different sectors can provide a communication bridge among divergent viewpoints and assist local leaders and agency staff as they seek to engage the public in discussions which lead to negotiating solutions to difficult water issues.

Lois Wright Morton

2011-02-01

233

MOST CURRENT WATER QUALITY STANDARDS - WATERBODY SHAPEFILES  

Science.gov (United States)

State Water Quality Standards' Designated Uses for river segments, lakes, and estuaries. 2000 Water Quality Standards coded onto the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) Waterbody Reaches (region.rch) to create Waterbody Shapefiles....

234

MOST CURRENT WATER QUALITY STANDARDS - LINEAR EVENTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Designated uses (from State Water Quality Standards) for river segments, lakes, and estuaries. Most current Water Quality Standards Waterbodies coded onto route.rch (Transport and Coastline Reach) feature of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) to create Linear Events....

235

Water quality control system and water quality control method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the water quality control system of the present invention, portions in contact with water comprise a metal material having a controlled content of iron or chromium, and the chromium content on the surface is increased than that of mother material in a state where compression stresses remain on the surface by mechanical polishing to form an uniform corrosion resistant coating film. In addition, equipments and/or pipelines to which a material controlling corrosion potential stably is applied on the surface are used. There are disposed a cleaning device made of a material less forming impurities, and detecting intrusion of impurities and removing them selectively depending on chemical species and/or a cleaning device for recovering drain from various kinds of equipment to feedwater, connecting a feedwater pipeline and a condensate pipeline and removing impurities and corrosion products. Then, water can be kept to neutral purified water, and the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen in water are controlled within an optimum range to suppress occurrence of corrosion products. (N.H.)

236

Neighborhood Quality and Housing Value: Evidence from Urban Micro Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using urban residential micro data from CHNS, this paper employs Hedonic Pricing Model to investigate the impact of Neighborhood Quality on housing value and its mechanism. We find that, Human Capitals measured by average schooling years and occupational diversity have significant positive effect while cultural capitals such as Ethnic Diversity have significant negative effect on housing value. Compared with the empirical results from developed counties, Social Capitals measured by length of tenure and own room rate have insignificant effect on housing value. In addition, having Kindergarten and Hospitals near the communities are positively correlated with the housing value while Internet cafe or transportation services are negative. We believe that these facts are closely related to the stage of economy transition and rapid urbanization in current China. The conclusions have important implications for the effective construction of harmonious commodities.

Yi Wang

2012-02-01

237

Case study on rehabilitation of a polluted urban water body in Yangtze River Basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (purban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base. PMID:23247519

Wu, Juan; Cheng, Shuiping; Li, Zhu; Guo, Weijie; Zhong, Fei; Yin, Daqiang

2013-10-01

238

Everglades restoration and water quality challenges in south Florida.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides background information and a brief overview of water quality issues for the rest of the papers in this volume that are concerned with Everglades restoration. The Everglades of Florida have been diminished over 50% of their former extent. The Everglades are no longer a free-flowing wetland ecosystem, but are now subject to a complicated system of water management that is regulated primarily for flood control and consumptive use. Attempts to restore a more natural hydropattern to the remaining undeveloped Everglades are made more difficult by the natural extremes in rainfall, flat landscape, highly porous geology, and inaccessibility of the remaining natural areas. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) seeks ecosystem restoration by adding water storage capacity, reducing groundwater seepage, improving regulatory delivery and timing of water to avoid environmental damage, and where feasible, improving the quality of water to be used for Everglades restoration. Water quality issues that currently exist for south Florida include eutrophication (especially phosphorus), mercury, and contaminants from agricultural production and the urban environment. Lands once in agricultural production that will be converted back to wetlands or will become reservoirs may contribute to the water quality concerns. Stormwater runoff from managed lands that will be used for restoration purposes will also present water quality challenges. The state continues to seek water quality improvement with a number of pollution reduction programs, and CERP attempts to improve water quality without sacrificing even more natural areas; however providing water quality sufficient for use in recovery of remaining Everglades wetlands and estuaries will remain a daunting challenge. PMID:18679794

Perry, William B

2008-10-01

239

An urban drainage stormwater quality model: Model development and uncertainty quantification  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryThe evaluation of urban stormwater quality is of relevant importance for urban drainage, and mathematical models may be of great interest in this respect. To date, several detailed mathematical models are available to predict stormwater quantity-quality characteristics in urban drainage systems. However, only a few models take sewer sediments into account, considering their cohesive-like properties that influence the build-up process of the pollutant load. Furthermore, the model data requirements, especially for the quality aspects, are extensive, which limit their applicability and affect model results with large uncertainty. Uncertainty analysis provides a measure or index regarding the significance and the accuracy of the results obtained by mathematical modelling and is therefore of high interest. Nevertheless, only few studies have been carried out in the urban drainage field, and very few deal with water quality issues. One of the main reasons for this lack of research is the computational burden required by detailed models that preserve this analysis and generally require several Monte Carlo simulation runs. A possible to this problem may be the adoption of simplified parsimonious models that generally require shorter computational times. In this context, this paper presents a parsimonious conceptual model for the evaluation of the pollutant load in-sewers. The model contains two modules: a hydrological and hydraulic module that calculates the hydrographs at the inlet and at the outlet of the sewer system, and a solid transfer module that calculates the pollutographs. The cohesive properties of sewer sediments were carefully considered. Further, the effectiveness of the innovative sewer sediment modelling approach has been verified by taking into account the uncertainty assessed according to the GLUE methodology. The model has been tested using experimental quantity-quality data gathered in two Italian catchments, Fossolo (Bologna) and Parco d'Orlèans (Palermo).

Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

2010-02-01

240

Impact of land-use on water pollution in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Many catchments in developing countries are undergoing fast urbanization which is usually characterized by population increase, economic growth as well as drastic changes of land-use from natural/rural to urban area. During the urbanization process, some catchments experience water quality deterioration due to rapid increase of pollution loads. Nonpoint source pollution resulting from storm water runoff has been recognized as one of the major causes of pollutants in many cities in developing countries. The composition of land-use for a rapidly urbanizing catchment is usually heterogeneous, and this may result in significant spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and increase the difficulties of water quality management in the catchment. The Shiyan Reservoir catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing area in China, is chosen as the study area, and temporary monitoring sites were set at the outlets of its 6 sub-catchments to synchronously measured rainfall, runoff and water quality during 4 storm events. Three indicators, event pollutant loads per unit area (EPL), event mean concentration (EMC) and pollutant loads transported by the first 50% of runoff volume (FF50), were used to describe the runoff pollution for different pollutants (such as COD, BOD, NH3-N, TN, TP and SS) in each sub-catchment during the storm events; and the correlations between runoff pollution spatial variations and land-use patterns were tested by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The results indicated that similar spatial variation trends were found for different pollutants (EPL or EMC) in light storm events, which strongly correlate with the proportion of residential land-use; however, they have different trends in heavy storm events, which correlate with the different proportional combination of residential, industrial, agricultural and bare land-use. It is also shown that it is necessary to consider some pervious land-use types in runoff pollution monitoring or management for a rapidly urbanizing area, particularly in heavy storm.

Khu, Soon-Thiam; Qin, Huapeng

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

WATER QUALITY INDEX – AN INSTRUMENT FOR WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water quality status assessment can be defined as the evaluation of physical, chemical, biological state of the water in relation with the natural state, anthropogenic effects and future uses. Water quality index reduces the number of parameters used in monitoring water quality to a simple expression in order to facilitate interpretation of the data, allowing public access to water quality data. This study is a summary of an interdisciplinary research program on surface water quality monitoring carried out during the years 2011-2012 in the eastern part of Romania. Water quality index provides a single value expressing the average quality of water at a time, based on analytical values of physico-chemical parameters. For the water quality index calculation were used six physico-chemical parameters: pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, nitrate (NO3 and phosphate (PO4.

PAIU M?D?LINA

2014-03-01

242

Protecting Water Quality from Urban Runoff  

Science.gov (United States)

... traps rainwater and snowmelt and allows them to filter slowly into the ground. In contrast, impervious (nonporous) surfaces like roads, parking lots, and rooftops prevent rain and snowmelt from infiltrating, or soaking, into the ...

243

Impact of urbanization level on urban air quality: a case of fine particles (PM(2.5)) in Chinese cities.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined and compared PM2.5 concentrations in urban and the surrounding regions, and further investigated the impact of urbanization on urban PM2.5 concentrations at the Chinese prefectures. Annual PM2.5 concentrations in most prefectures were greater than 10 ?g/m(3), the air quality guideline of the World Health Organization. Those prefectures were mainly distributed along the east coast and southeast of Sichuan province; The urban PM2.5 concentrations ( [Formula: see text] ) in 85 cities were greater than (>10 ?g/m(3)) those in the surrounding area. Those cities were mainly located in the Beijing-Sichuan and Shanghai-Guangxi belts. In addition, [Formula: see text] was less than (urban population (R(2) = 0.99, P urban second industry fraction (R(2) = 0.71, P urbanization had considerable impact on PM2.5 concentrations. PMID:25113968

Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng; Li, Li

2014-11-01

244

Global analysis of urban surface water supply vulnerability  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents a global analysis of urban water supply vulnerability in 71 surface-water supplied cities, with populations exceeding 750 000 and lacking source water diversity. Vulnerability represents the failure of an urban supply-basin to simultaneously meet demands from human, environmental and agricultural users. We assess a baseline (2010) condition and a future scenario (2040) that considers increased demand from urban population growth and projected agricultural demand. We do not account for climate change, which can potentially exacerbate or reduce urban supply vulnerability. In 2010, 35% of large cities are vulnerable as they compete with agricultural users. By 2040, without additional measures 45% of cities are vulnerable due to increased agricultural and urban demands. Of the vulnerable cities in 2040, the majority are river-supplied with mean flows so low (1200 liters per person per day, l/p/d) that the cities experience ‘chronic water scarcity’ (1370 l/p/d). Reservoirs supply the majority of cities facing individual future threats, revealing that constructed storage potentially provides tenuous water security. In 2040, of the 32 vulnerable cities, 14 would reduce their vulnerability via reallocating water by reducing environmental flows, and 16 would similarly benefit by transferring water from irrigated agriculture. Approximately half remain vulnerable under either potential remedy.

Padowski, Julie C.; Gorelick, Steven M.

2014-10-01

245

The Soundscape Quality in Some Urban Parks in Milan, Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban parks play an important role in preserving and promoting the health of citizens who are often exposed to noise pollution and the stress of daily life. The present study describes the main results obtained from a survey performed in five urban parks in Milan. Measurements of the acoustic environment were carried out in 29 sites together with interviews with 231 users on certain aspects of the parks not limited to merely sound. Acoustic data show that the surveyed parks mostly do not comply with the noise limit issued by the Italian legislation on protected areas. The unweighted 1/3-octave spectrum centre of gravity G and LA50 perform satisfactorily in discriminating among the acoustic environments. Such clear distinction was not observed in the subjective ratings on the perceived quality of the soundscape, likely due to the influence by non-acoustic factors that act as mediators in the assessment. This hypothesis is supported by the collected data on the perceived quality of quietness, which was rated worse than that of the soundscape. Comparing acoustic data with ratings, the perceived quality of the total environment was found to be less dependent on LAeq than soundscape and quietness.

Giovanni Zambon

2013-06-01

246

The soundscape quality in some urban parks in Milan, Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban parks play an important role in preserving and promoting the health of citizens who are often exposed to noise pollution and the stress of daily life. The present study describes the main results obtained from a survey performed in five urban parks in Milan. Measurements of the acoustic environment were carried out in 29 sites together with interviews with 231 users on certain aspects of the parks not limited to merely sound. Acoustic data show that the surveyed parks mostly do not comply with the noise limit issued by the Italian legislation on protected areas. The unweighted 1/3-octave spectrum centre of gravity G and LA50 perform satisfactorily in discriminating among the acoustic environments. Such clear distinction was not observed in the subjective ratings on the perceived quality of the soundscape, likely due to the influence by non-acoustic factors that act as mediators in the assessment. This hypothesis is supported by the collected data on the perceived quality of quietness, which was rated worse than that of the soundscape. Comparing acoustic data with ratings, the perceived quality of the total environment was found to be less dependent on LAeq than soundscape and quietness. PMID:23743795

Brambilla, Giovanni; Gallo, Veronica; Zambon, Giovanni

2013-06-01

247

Observations on sea water quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The water quality was observed periodically by measuring dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in the inshore environment of Fukushima Nuclear Power Station during three years since 1971. Besides, some procedures for the measurement of COD and BOD were briefly examined. 1. Remarkable tendency was not observed between DO content and water temperature, but the seasonable change of DO content was shown at zero meter layer. 2. At the outlet, the DO content was less than the other study sites where oversaturated oxygen content was observed. Besides, oversaturated oxygen content was obtained at the outlet when unsaturated oxygen content was shown in surroundings. 3. The DO content had no definite relation among such study sites, which were situated radially about 25 km distant from the outlet. 4. Remarkable tendency was not observed between the quantities of water soluble organic substances and water temperature or DO content at zero meter layer. 5. The reproducibility of COD measurement was increased by retaining temperature exactly in heating procedure. 6. The method of BOD measurement was established by the pure culture of F-11-9 strain, which was isolated as the dominant species of bacteria in the sea area. 7. The quantity of organic substances soluble in sea water was reduced by the filtration of the sample before measurement. (J.P.N.)

248

18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

...control, and eliminate water pollution and to maintain water quality in accordance with established...utilization and treatment technology. (3) Promote and encourage...to plan for regional waste water treatment and...

2010-04-01

249

18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES §...

2010-04-01

250

Sustainable Urban Infrastructure Development and the Role of Water Technologies in the U.S.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased climate variability and rapid urbanization are fundamentally changing the urban watershed hydrology and consequently sustainability of water systems. However, our urban planning and engineering practices are based on decades-old hydrological theory and guidance based o...

251

Towards Adaptive Urban Water Management: Up-Scaling Local Projects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Increasingly, the need for adaptive urban water management approaches is advertised, but the transition towards such approaches in the urban water sector seems to be slow. The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth study of how an innovative approach has been adopted in practice by looking into how contextual knowledge from a local project has been up-scaled to more generic knowledge. Specifically, the paper outlines how two planners from a Danish municipality succeeded in developing a more innovative sewage plan on the basis of a local project with implementation of local handling of rainwater. This insight into the processes of learning aggregation of water practices points towards the important role that the dedicated work performed by local facilitators and intermediaries play in relation to a transition towards more adaptive urban water management.

Zhou, Qianqian; Quitzau, Maj-Britt

2013-01-01

252

Sustainable Urban Water and Wastewater Services: The TRUST Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The TRUST (Transitions to the Urban Water Services of Tomorrow) Project is a research program funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme. The overall objective of TRUST is to help water and wastewater authorities and utilities across Europe to formulate and impleme...

253

Urban water metabolism efficiency assessment: integrated analysis of available and virtual water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resolving the complex environmental problems of water pollution and shortage which occur during urbanization requires the systematic assessment of urban water metabolism efficiency (WME). While previous research has tended to focus on either available or virtual water metabolism, here we argue that the systematic problems arising during urbanization require an integrated assessment of available and virtual WME, using an indicator system based on material flow analysis (MFA) results. Future research should focus on the following areas: 1) analysis of available and virtual water flow patterns and processes through urban districts in different urbanization phases in years with varying amounts of rainfall, and their environmental effects; 2) based on the optimization of social, economic and environmental benefits, establishment of an indicator system for urban WME assessment using MFA results; 3) integrated assessment of available and virtual WME in districts with different urbanization levels, to facilitate study of the interactions between the natural and social water cycles; 4) analysis of mechanisms driving differences in WME between districts with different urbanization levels, and the selection of dominant social and economic driving indicators, especially those impacting water resource consumption. Combinations of these driving indicators could then be used to design efficient water resource metabolism solutions, and integrated management policies for reduced water consumption. PMID:23500395

Huang, Chu-Long; Vause, Jonathan; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Yu, Chang-Ping

2013-05-01

254

Obtaining Traffic Information by Urban Air Quality Inspection  

CERN Document Server

The level of air quality in urban centres is affected by emission of several pollutants, mainly coming from the vehicles flowing in their road networks. This is a well known phenomenon that influences the quality of life of people. Despite the deep concern of researchers and technicians, we are far from a total understanding of this phenomenon. On the contrary, the availability of reliable forecasting models would constitute an important tool for administrators in order of assessing suitable actions concerning the transportation policies, public as well private. Referring to the situation of the running fleet and the measured pollutant concentrations concerning the Italian town of Palermo, a data-deduced traffic model is here derived, its truthfulness being justified by a fuzzyfication of the phenomenon. A first validation of the model is supplied by utilising the emissions characteristics and the pollutant concentrations referring to a two years period of time. This work could represent a first attempt in de...

Ferrante, P; Nicolosi, S; Scaccianoce, G; Traverso, M; Rizzo, G

2011-01-01

255

Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources. PMID:24919129

Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

2014-06-01

256

Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate, were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

Qing Gu

2014-06-01

257

Realising sustainable urban water management: can social theory help?  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been acknowledged, in Australia and beyond, that existing urban water systems and management lead to unsustainable outcomes. Therefore, our current socio-technical systems, consisting of institutions, structures and rules, which guide traditional urban water practices, need to change. If a change towards sustainable urban water management (SUWM) practices is to occur, a transformation of our established social-technical configuration that shapes the behaviour and decision making of actors is needed. While some constructive innovations that support this transformation have occurred, most innovations remain of a technical nature. These innovative projects do not manage to achieve the widespread social and institutional change needed for further diffusion and uptake of SUWM practices. Social theory, and its research, is increasingly being recognised as important in responding to the challenges associated with evolving to a more sustainable form of urban water management. This paper integrates three areas of social theories around change in order to provide a conceptual framework that can assist with socio-technical system change. This framework can be utilised by urban water practitioners in the design of interventions to stimulate transitions towards SUWM. PMID:23128627

Bos, J J; Brown, R R

2013-01-01

258

Evaluating Quality of Life in Urban Areas (Case Study: Noorabad City, Iran)  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality of urban life (QOUL) has become an important field within urban studies. The increased level of attention to this topic is due to the increasing importance of QoL studies in monitoring public policies and in the role they can play as effective tools in urban management and planning. The main objective of this study is to measure the QOUL…

Rezvani, Mohammad Reza; Mansourian, Hossain; Sattari, Mohammad Hossain

2013-01-01

259

Recent Advances in Point-of-Access Water Quality Monitoring  

Science.gov (United States)

Clean water is one of our most valuable natural resources. In addition to providing safe drinking water it assures functional ecosystems that support fisheries and recreation. Human population growth and its associated increased demands on water pose risks to maintaining acceptable water quality. It is vital to assess source waters and the aquatic systems that receive inputs from industrial waste and sewage treatment plants, storm water systems, and runoff from urban and agricultural lands. Rapid and confident assessments of aquatic resources form the basis for sound environmental management. Current methods engaged in tracing the presence of various bacteria in water employ bulky laboratory equipment and are time consuming. Thus, real-time water quality monitoring is essential for National and International Health and Safety. Environmental water monitoring includes measurements of physical characteristics (e.g. pH, temperature, conductivity), chemical parameters (e.g. oxygen, alkalinity, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds), and abundance of certain biological taxa. Monitoring could also include assays of biological activity such as alkaline phosphatase, tests for toxins such as microcystins and direct measurements of pollutants such as heavy metals or hydrocarbons. Real time detection can significantly reduce the level of damage and also the cost to remedy the problem. This paper presents overview of state-of-the-art methods and devices used for point-of-access water quality monitoring and suggest further developments in this area.

Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Velusamy, V.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

260

Water quality evaluation method for reactor water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention concerns a selection of materials suitable to prevent corrosions and failures of equipments in a pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor and a method of controlling reactor cooling water. Electrochemical calculation is conducted while having oxygen, hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide concentrations at each point of reactor structures obtained by radiolysis calculation as inputs. The density of current caused by electrochemical reaction on the surface of metals is calculated depending on the concentration of chemical species at each of the points. In addition, the density of current caused by melting reaction of metals when the electrochemical reaction of chemical species take place is also taken into consideration. The circumstance of stress corrosion crackings at a specific position of the reactor structures is evaluated by using a relationship formula between the crack propagating speed and the density of current previously obtained based on the density of current while having a crack propagating speed as an index. Countermeasures for decreasing the crack propagating speed are carried out based on the predetermined standard values. The crack propagating speed can be analyzed and evaluated by simulation, so that effective control for water quality relative to stress corrosion crackings is enabled. (N.H.)

 
 
 
 
261

Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate the relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to ...

Claudia Eiko Yoshida; Ana Paula Pozzo Rios Rolla

2012-01-01

262

Urban Quality vs single travel: the Personal Rapid Transit Urban Quality vs single travel: the Personal Rapid Transit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with the con­sequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, together with short-sighted policies of transport and urban development spread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion and unlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel to people living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to those living in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonable urban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic, conside­red, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of the deterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italian cities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities, although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovative solutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by public administrations. One of the main environmental detractors is car traffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike the previous period. Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reaching the modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managing the demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation., such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developing and increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport, car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollution reduction and vehicular traffic reduction. For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal Rapid Transit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to join two apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuring individual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acoustic and air pol­lution as well as the congestion caused by private vehicular traffic. In Italy this system is still not well known despite the versatility of its fields of application. In the United States and all over the world the most successful applications concern circumscribed mono-functional urban ambits, such as large areas for offices, airports and so on, but the characteristics of this system - such as flexibility, capability of integration with other wide-range systems of public transport, little dimensions of the exchange junctions, quite low cost - can allow to realize it also in different typologies of area.If many people are doubtful about the effectiveness of this system, on the contrary, other people think that its steady implementation and experimentation is necessary to improve urban liveability.These last ones believe, in fact, that the combination of small vehicles similar to private car, the advantage of trips without intermediate stops and changes of car, cost reduction, possibility of a wider accessibility not reachable by traditional means of public transport are the key basic elements to replace car travels with low polluting means of public transport.The great increase in the demand for private mobility with the con­sequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, together with short-sighted policies of transport and urban development spread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion and unlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel to people living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to those living in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonable urban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic, conside­red, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of the deterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italian cities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities, although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovative solutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by public administrations. One of the main environmental detractors is car traffic, which has recently

Carmela Gargiulo

2011-08-01

263

Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modeling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOS) and stormwater drainage systems However, some micropollutants tend to appear in more than one environmental medium (air, water, sediment, soil, groundwater, etc) In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is "wrapped around" a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios on the one hand a reference scenario with a combined sewerage system and on the other hand a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in reduced surface water concentrations for the latter scenario However, the model also showed that this was at the expense of increased fluxes to air, groundwater and infiltration pond soil The latter effects are generally not included in IUWS models, whereas MTFMs usually do not consider dynamic surface water concentrations hence the combined model approach provides a better basis for integrated environmental assessment of micropollutants' fate in urban environments.

De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.

2010-01-01

264

Evaluation of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF model using measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model on the simulation of local meteorological fields is investigated. The Noah land surface model (LSM, a modified LSM, and a single-layer urban canopy model (UCM have been compared, focusing on urban patches. The model simulations were performed for 6 days from 12 August to 17 August during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign. Analysis was focused on the Houston-Galveston metropolitan area. The model simulated temperature, wind, and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL height were compared with observations from surface meteorological stations (Continuous Ambient Monitoring Stations, CAMS, wind profilers, the NOAA Twin Otter aircraft, and the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. The UCM simulation showed better results in the comparison of ABL height and surface temperature than the LSM simulations, whereas the original LSM overestimated both the surface temperature and ABL height significantly in urban areas. The modified LSM, which activates hydrological processes associated with urban vegetation mainly through transpiration, slightly reduced warm and high biases in surface temperature and ABL height. A comparison of surface energy balance fluxes in an urban area indicated the UCM reproduces a realistic partitioning of sensible heat and latent heat fluxes, consequently improving the simulation of urban boundary layer. However, the LSMs have a higher Bowen ratio than the observation due to significant suppression of latent heat flux. The comparison results suggest that the subgrid heterogeneity by urban vegetation and urban morphological characteristics should be taken into account along with the associated physical parameterizations for accurate simulation of urban boundary layer if the region of interest has a large fraction of vegetation within the urban patch. Model showed significant discrepancies in the specific meteorological conditions when nocturnal low-level jets exist and a thermal internal boundary layer over water forms.

S.-H. Lee

2010-10-01

265

An Assessment of Peri-Urban Groundwater Quality from Shallow Dug Wells, Mzuzu, Malawi  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout Malawi, governmental, non-governmental, religious and civic organizations are targeting the human need for water. Diarrheal diseases, often associated with unsafe drinking water, are a leading cause of mortality in children under five in Malawi with over 6,000 deaths per year (World Health Organization, 2010). From January to March 2012, a field study was undertaken in Malawi to study water quality and develop a public health risk communication strategy. The region studied, Area 1B, represents a comparatively new peri-urban area on the edge of Mzuzu city. Area 1B is serviced by a piped municipal water supply, but many shallow dug wells are also used for household water. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 shallow dug well sites and analyzed for nitrate, total coliform, Escherichia coli, total hardness, total alkalinity and pH. In addition to water quality analyses, a structured household questionnaire was administered to address water use, sanitation, health, consumption patterns, and socioeconomics. Results showed that more than half of the groundwater samples would be considered of unacceptable quality based on World Health Organization (WHO) standards for E. coli contamination. Low levels of nitrate were found in groundwater, but only one well exceeded WHO standards. The structured questionnaire revealed that some residents were still consuming groundwater despite the access to safer municipal water. In general, the widespread E. coli contamination was not statistically correlated with well depth, latrine proximity, or surface features. Similarly, nitrate concentrations were not significantly correlated with proximity to latrines. On the other hand, nitrate was correlated with well depth, which is expected given the high potential for leaching of anionic highly water soluble compounds. E. coli was significantly correlated with nitrate concentration. Projects targeting the need for clean water need to recognize that households with access to a safe piped municipal water service may still be consuming unsafe groundwater.

Holm, R.; Felsot, A.

2012-12-01

266

Improving Inland Water Quality Monitoring through Remote Sensing Techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chlorophyll-a (chl-a) levels in lake water could indicate the presence of cyanobacteria, which can be a concern for public health due to their potential to produce toxins. Monitoring of chl-a has been an important practice in aquatic systems, especially in those used for human services, as they imply an increased risk of exposure. Remote sensing technology is being increasingly used to monitor water quality, although its application in cases of small urban lakes is limited by the spatial reso...

Igor Ogashawara; Moreno-madrin?a?n, Max J.

2014-01-01

267

43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5...INTERIOR OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY...APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance...

2010-10-01

268

Evidence for the effectiveness of progressive urban water demand management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on panel data from the City of Davis, California, comprising more than 15,000 urban water consumption units and 81 billing periods over 13 years, this study investigates residential water demand and the effectiveness of three structural water conservation measures. The city switched from a uniform to an increasing block pricing scheme, introduced a second tariff block for single-family residential households, and changed the calculation logic for the household sewer rate. An instrumenta...

Zietlow, Kim J.; Witzke, Harald Von

2014-01-01

269

Valuing flexibilities in the design of urban water management systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change and rapid urbanization requires decision-makers to develop a long-term forward assessment on sustainable urban water management projects. This is further complicated by the difficulties of assessing sustainable designs and various design scenarios from an economic standpoint. A conventional valuation approach for urban water management projects, like Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) analysis, fails to incorporate uncertainties, such as amount of rainfall, unit cost of water, and other uncertainties associated with future changes in technological domains. Such approach also fails to include the value of flexibility, which enables managers to adapt and reconfigure systems over time as uncertainty unfolds. This work describes an integrated framework to value investments in urban water management systems under uncertainty. It also extends the conventional DCF analysis through explicit considerations of flexibility in systems design and management. The approach incorporates flexibility as intelligent decision-making mechanisms that enable systems to avoid future downside risks and increase opportunities for upside gains over a range of possible futures. A water catchment area in Singapore was chosen to assess the value of a flexible extension of standard drainage canals and a flexible deployment of a novel water catchment technology based on green roofs and porous pavements. Results show that integrating uncertainty and flexibility explicitly into the decision-making process can reduce initial capital expenditure, improve value for investment, and enable decision-makers to learn more about system requirements during the lifetime of the project. PMID:24268059

Deng, Yinghan; Cardin, Michel-Alexandre; Babovic, Vladan; Santhanakrishnan, Deepak; Schmitter, Petra; Meshgi, Ali

2013-12-15

270

Anthropogenic land uses elevate metal levels in stream water in an urbanizing watershed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Land use/cover change is a dominant factor affecting surface water quality in rapidly developing areas of Asia. In this study we examined relationships between land use and instream metal loadings in a rapidly developing mixed land use watershed in southeastern China. Five developing subwatersheds and one forested reference site (head water) were instrumented with timing- and rainfall-triggered autosampler and instream loadings of anthropogenic metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Mn) were monitored from March 2012 to December 2013. Farm land and urban land were positively, and forest and green land were negatively associated with metal loadings (except Cr) in stream water. All developing sites had higher loadings than the reference head water site. Assessed by Chinese surface water quality standard (GB3830-2002), instream loadings of Cu and Zn occasionally exceeded the Class I thresholds at monitoring points within farmland dominated subwatersheds while Mn loadings were greater than the limit for drinking water sources at all monitoring points. Farm land use highly and positively contributed to statistical models of instream loadings of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Mn while urban land use was the dominant contributor to models of Pb and Cd loadings. Rainfall played a crucial role in metal loadings in stream water as a direct source (there were significant levels of Cu and Zn in rain water) and as a driver of watershed processes (loadings were higher in wet years and seasons). Urbanization effects on metal loadings in this watershed are likely to change rapidly with development in future years. Further monitoring to characterize these changes is clearly warranted and should help to develop plans to avoid conflicts between economic development and water quality degradation in this watershed and in watersheds throughout rapidly developing areas of Asia. PMID:24815555

Yu, Shen; Wu, Qian; Li, Qingliang; Gao, Jinbo; Lin, Qiaoying; Ma, Jun; Xu, Qiufang; Wu, Shengchun

2014-08-01

271

Neural network for water quality classification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water is essential resource for human life, the preservation of water resources is very important issue. The water reserves are subject to deterioration due to many factors. It's necessary to define the water quality index and to develop methods to recover the non-drinking water. This requires a reliable monitoring and remedial actions

272

Fluxes and sources of priority pollutants in urban water associated with different land use pattern  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To meet the objectives of the Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC) set by European legislation, most studies have focused on assessing the quality of industrial and treated wastewater discharges... Limited information is available regarding priority substances in stormwater. Stormwater may be discharged untreated into rivers and thus have an impact on the aquatic ecosystem. So, this work focused on the pollution of stormwater in urbanized watersheds with different gradient of urbanizati...

Zgheib, Sally

2009-01-01

273

Urbanization affects water and nitrogen use in the food chain in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT Urbanization and agriculture are highly coupled. However, the impacts of urbanization(e.g. transformation in urban and rural population and change in diet) on water and nitrogen (N) use remain poorly understood. The objectives of this study are to quantify water flows in the food chain of China, to analyze the complex relationship between urbanization and water and N use efficiency, and to project water and N demand in China via various scenarios, using a combination of water foo...

Qin, W.; Ma, L.; Zhang, F. S.; Oenema, O.

2012-01-01

274

Towards Sustainable Water Quality In Estuarine Impoundments: The Current State.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several estuarine impoundment schemes have been built or are proposed in the UK and worldwide. The impounding of estuaries is currently a popular approach to urban regeneration in the UK. By creation of an aesthetically pleasing amenity impound- ment, including the drowning of "unsightly" tidal mud flats, it is hoped that prestige development will be encouraged in the estuarine area. Impounding fundamentally alters the dynamics of estuaries, with consequences in terms of sedimentation patterns and rates, and water quality. The SIMBA Project at- tempts to understand the controls on water quality in impoundments, with a view to- wards long term and sustainable high water quality through good barrage design and management practice. Detailed water quality surveys have been carried out on a total of 79 dates on the Tees, Tawe, Wansbeck and Blyth estuaries. Water quality parameters which have been determined are pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), conductivity, transparency, suspended solids, alkalinity, temperature, nutri- ents (nitrate+nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate), and a large range of dissolved metals. Statistical analyses are used to demonstrate the major controls on water qual- ity in impoundments. A distinction is made between total tidal exclusion (freshwater) systems, in which water quality is primarily influenced by external/catchment factors, and partial tidal exclusion systems, in which water quality is processed internally. This internal processing is due to density stratification creating compartments of saline wa- ter in contact with oxygen demanding sediments and isolated from the atmosphere, which leads to conditions of low DO and changes in redox conditions which may lead to release of metals and phosphate from the sediment.

Wright, J.; Worrall, F.

275

Quantifying Outdoor Water Consumption of Urban Land Use/Land Cover: Sensitivity to Drought  

Science.gov (United States)

Outdoor water use is a key component in arid city water systems for achieving sustainable water use and ensuring water security. Using evapotranspiration (ET) calculations as a proxy for outdoor water consumption, the objectives of this research are to quantify outdoor water consumption of different land use and land cover types, and compare the spatio-temporal variation in water consumption between drought and wet years. An energy balance model was applied to Landsat 5 TM time series images to estimate daily and seasonal ET for the Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research region (CAP-LTER). Modeled ET estimations were correlated with water use data in 49 parks within CAP-LTER and showed good agreement ( r 2 = 0.77), indicating model effectiveness to capture the variations across park water consumption. Seasonally, active agriculture shows high ET (>500 mm) for both wet and dry conditions, while the desert and urban land cover types experienced lower ET during drought (urban locales of CAP-LTER, xeric neighborhoods show significant differences from year to year, while mesic neighborhoods retain their ET values (400-500 mm) during drought, implying considerable use of irrigation to sustain their greenness. Considering the potentially limiting water availability of this region in the future due to large population increases and the threat of a warming and drying climate, maintaining large water-consuming, irrigated landscapes challenges sustainable practices of water conservation and the need to provide amenities of this desert area for enhancing quality of life.

Kaplan, Shai; Myint, Soe W.; Fan, Chao; Brazel, Anthony J.

2014-04-01

276

78 FR 20252 - Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OW-2012-0095; FRL-9795-8] RIN 2040-AF33 Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California...withdraw certain human health and aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to waters of...

2013-04-04

277

Urbanization and Quality of Urban Environment Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in East Delhi-India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An explosive increase of urban population, practically in all major cities and towns, has the consequent strain on the existing system manifested in an environmental chaos. The phenomena of accelerated urbanisation is the main culprit, wherein besides bringing higher standard of living, it has also brought problems, as growth of dense and unplanned residential areas, environmental pollution, non-availability of services and amenities, solid waste etc. Remote sensing satellite data is suitable for urban land use mapping to get detail and up- to-date information for environmental management. Where as GIS helps in developing database system for urban information, which supports decision making process. Development of digital database on all aspects of land use and urban planning is the next crucial task for the future in which remote sensing based informa-tion is going to play a major role. In Delhi, rise in population and growth in economic activity has led to en-vironmental degradation. With this view an attempt has been made to study the quality of urban environment in the East district of Delhi, which is experiencing very high urban growth with 98.75% urban population in 2001. For this study Landsat ASTER (MSS data of year 2001 (15 m Ground resolution, Guide map of the year 1982 and demographic and environmental data has been used. Eight parameters were selected, which affect the urban environmental quality, namely built-up area, open spaces, household density, occupancy ra-tio, population density, accessibility to roads, noise and smell affected area. The study shows that the quality of environment has been degraded when we compare 1982 and 2003 data. Most of the East district was in a better state of environment in 1982, but in 2003 things have been changed and now 50% area is in very good, fair and desirable condition. The public participation and involvement should be encouraged planning and decisions making for the improvement in better urban environmental quality.

Atiqur Rahman

2011-01-01

278

Groundwater Quality Index for Water Supply Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Groundwater quality index for water supply production, GWQI, was employed as a simple mathematical tool to integrate the complex groundwater quality data into a numerical score. It would guide to select an appropriate water supply treatment process. It was thus necessary to develop such GWQI, which was the main objective of this study. We started searching for significant indicators by requesting 35 Thai experts to consider the importance of 32 water quality parameters through questionnaire b...

Warangkana Sungsitthisawad; Somsak Pitaksanurat

2013-01-01

279

Land subsidence caused by ground water withdrawal in urban areas  

Science.gov (United States)

At least eight urban areas in the world have encountered significant economic impact from land subsidence caused by pumping of ground water from unconsolidated sediment. The areas, most of which are coastal, include Bangkok, Houston, Mexico City, Osaka, San Jose, Shanghai, Tokyo, and Venice. Flooding related to decreased ground elevation is the principal adverse effect of the subsidence. Lesser effects include regional tilting, well-casing failures, "rising" buildings, and ground failure or rupture. Subsidence of most of these urban areas began before the phenomenon was discovered and understood. Thus, the subsidence problems were unanticipated. Methods to arrest subsidence typically have included control of ground water pumping and development of surface water to offset the reductions of ground water pumping. Ground water recharge has also been practiced. Areas threatened by flooding have been protected by extensive networks of dikes and sea walls, locks, and pumping stations to remove storm runoff. ?? 1985 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

Holzer, T.L.; Johnson, A.I.

1985-01-01

280

Substance flow analysis as a tool for urban water management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human activity results in the production of a wide range of pollutants that can enter the water cycle through stormwater or wastewater. Among others, heavy metals are still detected in high concentrations around urban areas and their impact on aquatic organisms is of major concern. In this study, we propose to use a substance flow analysis as a tool for heavy metals management in urban areas. We illustrate the approach with the case of copper in Lausanne, Switzerland. The results show that around 1,500 kg of copper enter the aquatic compartment yearly. This amount contributes to sediment enrichment, which may pose a long-term risk for benthic organisms. The major sources of copper in receiving surface water are roofs and catenaries of trolleybuses. They represent 75% of the total input of copper into the urban water system. Actions to reduce copper pollution should therefore focus on these sources. Substance flow analysis also highlights that copper enters surface water mainly during rain events, i.e., without passing through any treatment procedure. A reduction in pollution could also be achieved by improving stormwater management. In conclusion, the study showed that substance flow analysis is a very effective tool for sustainable urban water management. PMID:21508535

Chèvre, N; Guignard, C; Rossi, L; Pfeifer, H-R; Bader, H-P; Scheidegger, R

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Utah water quality: Utah ground water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ground water is important to the economic and physical well-being of the people of Utah. About 95% of Utah's fresh water is ground water. It provides more than 70% of the state's drinking water and is a major source of water for agriculture and irrigation (see table below). Like lakes and streams, ground water can be polluted by human activities. The many possible sources of contaminants include mining activities, landfills, septic systems, fertilizers, pesticides and municipal, agricultural ...

Deer, Howard; Peralta, Richard C.; Hill, Robert W.

1993-01-01

282

Corporatization of the water sector: Implications for transitioning to sustainable urban water management  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the context of climate change, the Danish water sector is experiencing two major pressures. On one hand, a number of agents are pushing towards more sustainable urban water management (SUWM) approaches with the aim of improving surface water quality and mitigating flood risk. On the other hand, as part of an international trend, the municipal water management departments were transformed to locally created not-for-profit corporatized companies. Main drivers for corporatization are increased efficiency and cost recovery by reduced municipal control on utility budgets. Scholars have described the influencing factors for transitioning to SUWM and highlighted the potential governance attributes for enhancing and/or constraining such change. This paper explores the corporatization of the water sector and its implications for transitioning to SUWM. On the base of a preliminary literature review we identify the rationales for and drawbacks of corporatization and compare them with the critical factors to build institutional capacity for SUWM. Preliminary results suggest that corporatization is expected to create a range of challenges that might hinder the transition towards more SUWM approaches. A more direct collaboration of the national regulator of competitive performances with government institutions and other non-governmental actors might be an effective answer to such challenges.

Fratini, Chiara; Elle, Morten

2012-01-01

283

Air quality control monitoring at an urban and industrialized area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air particulate matter analysis has been performed since 1999, within a contract for air quality monitoring of an urban waste incinerator. Air collection was made with Gent samplers, which collect size-fractionated aerosol samples in three sampling sites. Samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Some INAA results are discussed. PM10 mass concentrations are compared with the limit values for human health protection regulated by the European Council Directive 1999/30/CE. Weekend day and weekday samples are compared concerning As, Co, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn mean concentrations collected at Bobadela for 1999. Enrichment factors are also presented. Enrichments were found for As, Sb, Se and Zn for both fractions in the three sampling sites. In order to quantify the evolution for the 1999-2001 period, basic statistics was performed for the enriched elements. (author)

284

Urban green and air quality; Stedelijk groen en luchtkwaliteit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Introducing more vegetation ('greenery') in the urban environment will filter pollution from the air and improve air quality. Knowledge of this inherent characteristic of greenery and the volume of filter capacity should be put to much better use in planning than is currently done. At the same time the misconception that greenery is just a cost item should be cleared up. Next to a healthier environment, specific greenery policy will also provide benefits. [Dutch] Het aanbrengen van vegetatie ('groen') in de stedelijke omgeving filtert verontreiniging uit de lucht en verbetert de luchtkwaliteit. Kennis over deze inherente eigenschap van groen en over de omvang van de filtercapaciteit moet veel beter worden toegepast in de planvorming dan tot nu toe het geval is. Tegelijkertijd dient de misvatting dat groen enkel een kostenpost is uit de wereld te worden geholpen. Gericht groenbeleid levert, naast een gezondere leefomgeving, ook baten op.

Tonneijck, F. [Kenniscentrum Triple E, Arnhem (Netherlands)

2009-07-01

285

Quantitative Assessment of Water Use Efficiency in Urban and Domestic Buildings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential of water savings at property, household and urban levels, through the application of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs, as well as their quantification using the software Wise Water. Household centered measures are identified that allow for significant reduction of drinking water consumption with comparatively small effort, and without limitation of comfort. Furthermore, a method for the estimation of water recycling, for rainwater harvesting and for the utilization potential as locally available renewable freshwater is presented. Based on this study, the average drinking water consumption in urban households of industrialized countries could be reduced by approximately one third, without significant investment costs, either within the framework of new constructions or by the remodeling of water and sanitation systems in residential buildings. By using a secondary water quality, the drinking water demand could even be reduced by 50%. In the case of an area-wide application, the overall fresh water demand of cities and the exploitation of fresh water resources could be significantly reduced. Due to the comparability of the domestic water use of the investigated households, the findings are internationally transferable, for example to countries in Europe, Asia, and also the USA.

Vicente Santiago-Fandiño

2013-08-01

286

Impact of residential wood combustion on urban air quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood combustion is mainly used in cold regions as a primary or supplemental space heating source in residential areas. In several industrialized countries, there is a renewed interest in residential wood combustion (RWC) as an alternative to fossil fuel and nuclear power consumption. The main objective of this thesis was to investigate the impact of RWC on the air quality in urban areas. To this end, a field campaign was conducted in Northern Sweden during wintertime to characterize atmospheric aerosol particles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and to determine their source apportionment. A large day-to-day and hour-to-hour variability in aerosol concentrations was observed during the intensive field campaign. On average, total carbon contributed a substantial fraction of PM10 mass concentrations (46%) and aerosol particles were mostly in the fine fraction (PM1 accounted for 76% of PM10). Evening aerosol concentrations were significantly higher on weekends than on weekdays which could be associated to the use of wood burning for recreational purposes or higher space heat demand when inhabitants spend longer time at home. It has been shown that continuous aerosol particle number size distribution measurements successfully provided source apportionment of atmospheric aerosol with high temporal resolution. The first compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) of atmospheric PAH demonstrated its potential to provide quantitative information on the RWC contribution to individual PAH. RWC accounted for a large fraction of particle number concentrations in the size range 25-606 nm (44-57%), PM10 (36-82%), PM1 (31-83%), light-absorbing carbon (40-76%) and individual PAH (71-87%) mass concentrations. These studies have demonstrated that the impact of RWC on air quality in an urban location can be very important and largely exceed the contribution of vehicle emissions during winter, particularly under very stable atmospheric conditions

Krecl, Patricia

2008-05-15

287

Review of Multi-Criteria Decision Aid for Integrated Sustainability Assessment of Urban Water Systems - MCEARD  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated sustainability assessment is part of a new paradigm for urban water decision making. Multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) is an integrative framework used in urban water sustainability assessment, which has a particular focus on utilising stakeholder participation. Here ...

288

DRINKING WATER MICROBIOLOGY - NEW DIRECTIONS TOWARD WATER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Many concerns result from information on new waterborne agents, treatment problems of raw water qualities, biofilm development in some distribution systems, and special quality needs unique to hospitals and industries. Protozoan cyst penetration after some disinfection practices ...

289

Comparison of Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss) water and leachate dynamics between urban and pristine barrier island maritime oak forests  

Science.gov (United States)

Epiphyte coverage on forest canopies can drastically alter the volume and chemical composition of rainwater reaching soils. Along subtropical and tropical coastlines Tillandisa usneoides L. (Spanish moss), in particular, can envelop urban and natural tree crowns. Several cities actively manage their 'moss' covered forest to enhance aesthetics in the most active tourist areas (e.g., Savannah GA, St. Augustine FL, Charleston SC). Since T. usneoides survives through atmospheric water and solute exchange from specialized trichomes (scales), we hypothesized that T. usneoides water storage dynamics and leachate chemistry may be altered by exposure to this active urban atmosphere. 30 samples of T. usneoides from managed forests around the tourist center of Savannah, Georgia, USA were collected to compare with 30 samples from the pristine maritime live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) forests of a nearby undeveloped barrier island (St. Catherines Island, Georgia, USA). Maximum water storage capacities were determined via submersion (for all 60 samples) along with dissolved ion (DI) and organic matter (DOM) concentrations (for 15 samples each) after simulated throughfall generation using milliQ ultrapurified water. Further, DOM quality was evaluated (for 15 samples each) using absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMS). Results show significant alterations to water storage dynamics, DI, DOM, and DOM quality metrics under urban atmospheric conditions, suggesting modified C and water cycling in urban forest canopies that may, in turn, influence intrasystem nutrient cycles in urban catchment soils or streams via runoff.

Van Stan, J. T.; Stubbins, A.; Reichard, J. S.; Wright, K.; Jenkins, R. B.

2013-12-01

290

Urbanization effects on fishes and habitat quality in a southern Piedmont river basin  

Science.gov (United States)

We quantified the relationships among urban land cover, fishes, and habitat quality to determine how fish assemblages respond to urbanization and if a habitat index can be used as an indirect measure of urban effects on stream ecosystems. We sampled 30 wadeable streams along an urban gradient (5?37% urban land cover) in the Etowah River basin, Georgia. Fish assemblages, sampled by electrofishing standardized stream reaches, were assessed using species richness, density, and species composition metrics. Habitat quality was scored using the Rapid Habitat Assessment Protocol (RHAP) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Urban land cover (including total, high-, and low-density urban) was estimated for the drainage basin above each reach. A previous study of these sites indicated that stream slope and basin area were strongly related to local variation in assemblage structure. We used multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis to account for this variation and isolate the urban effect on fishes. The MLR models indicated that urbanization lowered species richness and density and led to predictable changes in species composition. Darters and sculpin, cyprinids, and endemics declined along the urban gradient whereas centrarchids persisted and became the dominant group. The RHAP was not a suitable indicator of urban effects because RHAP-urban relationships were confounded by an overriding influence of stream slope on RHAP scores, and urban-related changes in fish assemblage structure preceded gross changes in stream habitat quality. Regression analysis indicated that urban effects on fishes accrue rapidly (urbanization). We predict that the decline of endemics and other species will continue and centrarchid-dominated streams will become more common as development proceeds within the Etowah basin.

Walters, D.M.; Freeman, M.C.; Leigh, D.S.; Freeman, B.J.; Pringle, C.P.

2005-01-01

291

Water quality in gravel pits in the Bratislava area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gravel pits around Bratislava have an esthetic, urban and recreational function. Open water table areas are in a direct contact with the air and acquire some characteristics of the surface water. The quality of open water table is much more susceptible to pollution than that of groundwater. Wet and dry deposition, water inflow from the surrounding surface, unmanageable sewerage effluents, solid and liquid wastes, but also the water birds contribute to the pollution. The Department of Hydrogeology has monitored the water quality in six gravel pits (Cunovo, Drazdiak, Strkovec, Pasienky, Zlate Piesky, Vajnory) since 1976 with an an interruption between 1988 - 1993. Two sampling per year have been made since 1994 and after 1998 the analyses have been supplemented by Na, K, Fe, Mn, by oxygen regime parameters, by trace elements (As, Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) and by organic pollutants. As regards the oxygen regime, the water quality pits is very good. The anthropogenic influence is expressed mainly by the increased contents of sulfates and chlorides. Most problematic trace elements are the mercury and vanadium (Drazdiak, Zlate Piesky and Vajnory). (authors)

292

Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

2009-01-01

293

Towards Sustainable Water Quality In Estuarine Impoundments: Sediment Processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several estuarine impoundment schemes have been built or are proposed in the UK and worldwide. The impounding of estuaries is currently a popular approach to urban regeneration in the UK. By creation of an aesthetically pleasing amenity impound- ment, including the drowning of "unsightly" tidal mud flats, it is hoped that prestige development will be encouraged in the estuarine area. Impounding fundamentally alters the dynamics of estuaries, with consequences in terms of sedimentation patterns and rates, and water quality. The SIMBA Project at- tempts to understand the controls on water quality in impoundments, with a view to- wards long term and sustainable high water quality through good barrage design and management practice. The results of process based studies, concentrating on interactions between sediment and water quality in the systems, are presented. A series of sequential extraction exper- iments have been carried out on cores of sediment to model the releases from sediment under different environmental conditions likely to be encountered in the impound- ments. Results are related to similar experiments carried out on suspended particulate material, and to pore-water experiments carried out using gel-probes.

Wright, J.; Worrall, F.

294

MOST CURRENT WATER QUALITY STANDARDS - POINT EVENTS  

Science.gov (United States)

State Water Quality Standards' Designated Uses for river segments, lakes, and estuaries. Most current Water Quality Standards coded onto route.rch (Transport and Coastline Reach) feature of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) to create NHD - Point Events. Point events are...

295

Results on Tiber river water quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main results obtained by IRSA on Tiber river water quality are reported. Such results concern the concentration of major ions, organic pollution and the consequential influence on the oxygen balance, heavy metals contamination the variation of the trophic level and microbial pollution. Organic pollution, oxygen deficit and microbial contamination are the most evident aspects of the water quality deterioration.

La Noce, T.; Pagnotta, R.; Pettine, M.; Puddu, A.; Sebastiani, L.

1987-05-01

296

Parents' perceptions of water safety and quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Every day parents make choices about the source of water their families consume. There are many contributing factors which could affect decisions about water consumption including taste, smell, color, safety, cost, and convenience. However, few studies have investigated what parents with young children think about water quality and safety in the US and how this affects the choices they are making. This study aimed to describe the perceptions of parents with regard to water quality and safety and to compare bottled water and tap water use, as well as to examine motivation for water choices. We conducted an online questionnaire to survey parents living in Pennsylvania about water quality and safety, and preference for bottled versus tap water. Parents were recruited through child care centers, and 143 surveys were returned. The survey results showed high overall scores for perception of tap water quality and safety, and a preference for tap water over bottled water. We found that parents were concerned for the environmental impact that buying bottled water may have but were also concerned about potential contamination of tap water by natural gas drilling processes and nuclear power plants. These findings regarding parental concerns are critical to inform pediatric health care providers, water sellers, and suppliers in order that they may provide parents with the necessary information to make educated choices for their families. PMID:21717208

Merkel, Lori; Bicking, Cara; Sekhar, Deepa

2012-02-01

297

Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sustainable water management (SWM requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1 How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2 What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3 What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4 What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1 all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2 increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation.

Tess Russo

2014-12-01

298

Fuzzy Logic Water Quality Index and Importance of Water Quality Parameters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Determination of status of water quality of a river or any other water sources is highly indeterminate. It is necessary to have a competent model to predict the status of water quality and to advice for type of water treatment for meeting different demands. One such model (UNIQ2007) is developed as an application software in water quality engineering. The unit operates in a fuzzy logic mode including a fuzzification engine receiving a plurality of input variables on its input and being adapte...

Raman Bai. V; Reinier Bouwmeester; Mohan S

2009-01-01

299

Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

300

Air Quality and Land Use in Urban Region of Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam and Klang, Malaysia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In line with the global trend of urbanisation, large population are staying in urban areas as compared to rural. However, urban area /region is always related to higher air pollution level as compared to less developed area/region. The major contributors of air pollution are mobile sources (transportation and stationary sources (e.g. industry and power plant. Thus, the issue of air pollution is potentially caused by human choices and activities, and potentially affecting the human health. Therefore, the relationship between the urban activities (land use coverage/distribution and air quality level should be well understood. It helps the urban managers, planners and all parties in constructing healthier urban policies. A study of air quality and the relationship with urban land uses was carried out in Malaysia?s urban growth region of Klang-Shah Alam-Petaling Jaya. Air quality data was analysed in Air Pollution Index (API with the classification of good, moderate, unhealthy, very unhealthy and hazardous levels. The urban land uses were mainly divided into two categories, i.e. pollution-prone land uses (transportation, industrial, and infrastructure, and green land uses. This study found that urban area with higher coverage of transportation, industrial and infrastructure land uses are potentially unhealthier in term of the air quality than the area with less coverage of these land uses. Strategic proposal was discussed in line with the findings.

Oliver Ling Hoon Leh

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

Kardel, F.; Wuyts, K. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Babanezhad, M. [Department of statistics, Faculty of Science, Golestan University, Gorgan, Golestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vitharana, U.W.A. [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Wuytack, T.; Potters, G. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Samson, R., E-mail: Roeland.Samson@ua.ac.b [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

2010-03-15

302

Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water. These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. Results A total of 95 water samples from bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water were collected randomly from the study area using different gathering and analysing techniques. The bacteriological examination of water samples included the most probable number of presumptive coliforms, faecal coliforms, and faecal streptococci (MPN/100 ml. The results showed that the total coliform count (MPN/100 ml was not detected in any samples taken from bottled water, while it was detected in those taken from desalinated, surface, and well water: percentages were 12.9, 80.0, and 100.0, respectively. Faecal coliforms were detected in desalinated, surface, and well water, with percentages of 3.23, 60.0 and 87.88, respectively. About 6.45% of desalinated water, 53.33% of surface water, and 57.58% of well water was found positive for faecal streptococci. Colonies of coliforms were identified in different micro-organisms with various percentages. Conclusion Water derived from traditional sources (wells showed increases in most of the investigated bacteriological parameters, followed by surface water as compared to bottled or desalinated water. This may be attributed to the fact that well and surface water are at risk of contamination as indicated by the higher levels of most bacteriological parameters. Moreover, well water is exposed to point sources of pollution such as septic wells and domestic and farming effluents, as well as to soil with a high humus content. The lower bacteriological characteristics in samples from bottled water indicate that it is satisfactory for human drinking purposes. Contamination of desalinated water that is the main urban water source may occur during transportation from the desalination plant or in the house reservoir of the consumer. Improving and expanding the existing water treatment and sanitation systems is more likely to provide safe and sustainable sources of water over the long term. Strict hygienic measures should be applied to improve water quality and to avoid deleterious effects on public health, by using periodical monitoring programmes to detect sewage pollution running over local hydrological networks and valleys.

Sh AlOtaibi Eed L

2009-03-01

303

Geotechnical Parameters Impact on Artificial Ground Water Recharging Technique for Urban Centers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water scarcity is a serious problem throughout the world for both urban & rural community. Urban centers in India are facing an ironical situation of water scarcity today. This paper includes an Analytical solution, Numerical modeling, Empirical approaches, In-situ test results to predict recharge (rate mound of the ground-water and capacity of recharge well which is essential for the proper management of suitable artificial ground-water recharge systems to maintain water balance and stop salt water intrusion. Authors have derived analytical equation for predicting growth as well as decline of the ground-water mound depending on the intensity of recharge rate qr with different value of permeability k, depth of pervious strata H and diameter of well d, also studying the effects of variation in the geotechnical parameters on water-table fluctuations. In this paper to study the impact of numerical modeling using quadratic equation for unconfined aquifer base on rainfall intensity P and a change in saturated thickness H with variation in piezometric level. Empirical approaches are for evaluation of correct value of k of an undercharged unconfined aquifer with drawdown s0, influence zone L, recharge rate qr. In-situ test results give actual correlation between value of recharging rate of well and permeability on field. Authors have verified recharging rate of installed well from all approaches. A result obtained from the various field case studies gives the validation of the derived equation. Scientific quality measures of aquifer water are also recorded.

Pratima Patel

2011-05-01

304

Analytical optimization of demand management strategies across all urban water use sectors  

Science.gov (United States)

effective urban water demand management program can greatly influence both peak and average demand and therefore long-term water supply and infrastructure planning. Although a theoretical framework for evaluating residential indoor demand management has been well established, little has been done to evaluate other water use sectors such as residential irrigation in a compatible manner for integrating these results into an overall solution. This paper presents a systematic procedure to evaluate the optimal blend of single family residential irrigation demand management strategies to achieve a specified goal based on performance functions derived from parcel level tax assessor's data linked to customer level monthly water billing data. This framework is then generalized to apply to any urban water sector, as exponential functions can be fit to all resulting cumulative water savings functions. Two alternative formulations are presented: maximize net benefits, or minimize total costs subject to satisfying a target water savings. Explicit analytical solutions are presented for both formulations based on appropriate exponential best fits of performance functions. A direct result of this solution is the dual variable which represents the marginal cost of water saved at a specified target water savings goal. A case study of 16,303 single family irrigators in Gainesville Regional Utilities utilizing high quality tax assessor and monthly billing data along with parcel level GIS data provide an illustrative example of these techniques. Spatial clustering of targeted homes can be easily performed in GIS to identify priority demand management areas.

Friedman, Kenneth; Heaney, James P.; Morales, Miguel; Palenchar, John

2014-07-01

305

Landscaping practices, land use patterns and stormwater quantity and quality in urban watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing quantity and decreasing quality of urban stormwater threatens biodiversity in local streams and reservoirs, jeopardizes water supplies, and ultimately contributes to estuarine eutrophication. To estimate the effects that present and alternative landscaping practices and land use patterns may have on urban stormwater quantity and quality, simulations of existing land use/land cover using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys), a process-based surface hydrology and biogeochemistry model, were developed for watersheds in Baltimore, MD (as part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) NSF Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site) and Durham, NC (as part of the NSF Urban Long-Term Research Area (ULTRA) program). The influence of land use patterns and landscaping practices on nutrient export in urban watersheds has been explored as part of the BES; this work has focused on improving our understanding of how residential landscaping practices (i.e. lawn fertilization rates) vary across land use and socioeconomic gradients. Elsewhere, others have explored the political ecology of residential landscaping practices - seeking to understand the economic, political, and cultural influences on the practice of high-input residential turf-grass management. Going forward, my research will synthesize and extend this prior work. Rather than pre-supposing predominant residential land use patterns and landscaping practices (i.e. lower-density periphery development incorporating high-input turf landscapes) alternate land use and landscaping scenarios (e.g. higher-density/transit-oriented development, rain gardens, vegetable gardens, native plant/xeriscaping) will be developed through interviews/focus groups with stakeholders (citizens, public officials, developers, non-profits). These scenarios will then be applied to the RHESSys models already developed for catchments in Baltimore and Durham. The modeled scenario results will be used to identify alternate land use patterns and landscaping practices that would: (1) help to reduce non-point sources of nutrient pollution in urban watersheds; and (2) be likely to gain public support. This research will inform sustainable development policy while furthering interdisciplinary research in the fields of planning and water resource management.

Miles, B.; Band, L. E.

2011-12-01

306

Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D. [Little Big Horn Coll., Crow Agency, MT (United States)

1995-10-01

307

Utilising integrated urban water management to assess the viability of decentralised water solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cities worldwide are challenged by a number of urban water issues associated with climate change, population growth and the associated water scarcity, wastewater flows and stormwater run-off. To address these problems decentralised solutions are increasingly being considered by water authorities, and integrated urban water management (IUWM) has emerged as a potential solution to most of these urban water challenges, and as the key to providing solutions incorporating decentralised concepts at a city wide scale. To incorporate decentralised options, there is a need to understand their performance and their impact on a city's total water cycle under alternative water and land management options. This includes changes to flow, nutrient and sediment regimes, energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and the impacts on rivers, aquifers and estuaries. Application of the IUWM approach to large cities demands revisiting the fundamental role of water system design in sustainable city development. This paper uses the extended urban metabolism model (EUMM) to expand a logical definition for the aims of IUWM, and discusses the role of decentralised systems in IUWM and how IUWM principles can be incorporated into urban water planning. PMID:22678207

Burn, Stewart; Maheepala, Shiroma; Sharma, Ashok

2012-01-01

308

Temporal and spatial patterns of micropollutants in urban receiving waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on a monitoring program over the course of a year, we characterize the temporal and spatial distribution of selected micropollutants in an urban watershed within the city of Leipzig, Germany. Micropollutants revealed a ubiquitous presence in untreated and treated wastewater, surface water and groundwater. The loads of 4-nonylphenol in the effluents of the municipal wastewater treatment plant followed a seasonal trend, whereas the loads of all other micropollutants were highly variable and not correlated to seasons. In the surface water, load seasonality of caffeine, galaxolide and tonalide resulted from a rapid removal with increased water temperature. The loads of 4-nonylphenol and of caffeine in the colder months increased when rainfall occurred. In the groundwater, complex spatial and temporal patterns were apparent and were related to varying input, retardation and removal processes. As a consequence, an assessment of micropollutants in urban waters should consider different micropollutants' temporal and spatial variability. - Micropollutants in urban receiving waters are characterized by variable temporal and spatial concentration and load patterns that have to be considered in risk assessments.

309

The Impact of Urbanization on the Precipitation Component of the Water Cycle: A New Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in cities (UNFP, 1999). As cities continue to grow, urban sprawl (e.g., the expansion of urban surfaces outward into rural surroundings) creates unique problems related to land use, transportation, agriculture, housing, pollution, and development. Urban expansion also has measurable impacts on environmental processes. Urban areas modify boundary layer processes through the creation of an urban heat island (UHI). The literature indicates that the signature of the urban heat island effect may be resolvable in rainfall patterns over and downwind of metropolitan areas. However, a recent U.S. Weather Research Program panel concluded that more observational and modeling research is needed in this area (Dabberdt et al. 2000). NASA and other agencies initiated programs such as the Atlanta Land-use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality Project (ATLANTA) (Quattrochi et al. 1998) which aimed to identify and understand how urban heat islands impact the environment. However, a comprehensive assessment of the role of urban-induced rainfall in the global water and energy cycle (GWEC) and cycling of freshwater was not a primary focus of these efforts. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) seeks to develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural or human-induced changes to enable improved prediction capability for climate, weather, and natural hazards (NASA, 2000). Within this mission, the ESE has three basic thrusts: science research to increase Earth system knowledge; an applications program to transfer science knowledge to practical use in society; and a technology program to enable new, better, and cheaper capabilities for observing the earth. Within this framework, a research program is underway to further address the co-relationship between land cover use and change (e.g. urban development) and its impact on key components of the GWEC (e.g., precipitation). This presentation discusses the feasibility of using the TRMM or GPM satellite to identify precipitation anomalies likely caused by urbanization (Shepherd et al. 2002). Recent results from analyses of TRMM data around several major U.S. cities (e.g. Dallas, Atlanta, Houston) will be discussed. The presentation also summarizes a NASA-funded research effort to investigate the phenomenon of urban-induced precipitation anomalies using TRMM (future GPM) satellite-based remote sensing, an intensive ground observation/validation effort near Atlanta, and coupled atmosphere-land numerical modeling techniques.

Shephard, J. Marshal

2002-01-01

310

Evaluation of microbiological quality of drinking water  

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Aim of study: to evaluate microbiological quality of drinking water according Lithuanian drinking water standard HN 24:2003. Material and methods. The data of microbiological tests of drinking water were collected from laboratories responsible of drinking water control in Kaunas region. Part of the study was carried out at Helsinki University (dep. of Food and Environmental Hygiene). Different microbiological criteria of drinking water samples from small community supply were examined. ...

Kasnauskyte?, Neringa

2006-01-01

311

The effects of urbanization on groundwater quantity and quality in the Zahedan aquifer, southeast Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the impacts of urban growth on groundwater quality and quantity in the Zahedan aquifer, which is the sole source of water supply for the city of Zahedan, Iran. The investigation is based on the collection of available historical data, supplemented by field and laboratory investigations. Groundwater levels in 40 wells were measured in December 2000. In addition, 102 water samples were taken in two periods during November and December 2000. Of these, 43 samples were analyzed for major ions, 32 samples were analyzed for nitrogen and phosphorus and the remainder for bacteriological contamination. The water level data show that there has been a general decline since 1977 due to over-abstraction. The magnitude of this decline has reached about 20 m in some places. However, in one area over the same period, a rise of about 3 m has been observed. This occurs as a result of the local hydrogeological conditions of shallow bedrock and relatively low permeability materials down stream of this area that limits the flow of groundwater towards the northeastern part of the aquifer. The general fall in groundwater levels has been accompanied by a change in the direction of the groundwater flow and an overall reduction of the areal extent of the saturated region of the aquifer. The city now has a serious problem such that even if the abstracted groundwater is rationed, water is not available for long periods because the demand far exceeds the supply. The heavy impact of urbanization on the groundwater quality is shown through the observed high nitrate (up to 295 mg/l as nitrate) and high phosphorus values (about 0.1 mg/l as P). Significant changes in the chloride concentration are also observed in two areas: increasing from 100 mg/l to 1,600 mg/l and from 2,000 mg/l to 4,000 mg/l, respectively. Furthermore, the bacteriological investigations show that 33 percent of the 27 collected groundwater samples are positive for total coliform and 11 percent of the samples contained fecal coliforms indicating that local sources are strongly influencing the observed chemical data. Greater depths to groundwater reduce the observation of coliform contamination. In general, the unplanned urban development in Zahedan has significantly degraded the region's water resources and significant actions such as upgrading the sewage waste disposal system, locating other sources of water supply, and strict groundwater management will all be needed to resolve the problems that have arisen.

Khazaei, E.; Mackay, R.; Warner, J.W.

2004-01-01

312

Happiness on Tap: Piped Water Adoption in Urban Morocco  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the demand for household water connections in urban Morocco, and the effect of such connections on household welfare. In the northern city of Tangiers, among homeowners without a private connection to the city’s water grid, a random subset was offered a simplified procedure to purchase a household connection on credit (at a zero percent interest rate). Take-up was high, at 69%. Because all households in our sample had access to the water grid through free public taps (often located...

Devoto, Florencia; Duflo, Esther; Dupas, Pascaline; Pariente?, William; Pons, Vincent

2012-01-01

313

Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in urban receiving waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transport pathways of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) discharges within the urban water cycle include both combined and separate sewer systems with only the former receiving treatment. The dry-weather flow dilution patterns for selected PPCPs following discharge from a sewage treatment works (STW) to a North London stream indicate a persistent downstream increase in concentration. The dilution ratio analysis also indicates that the STW's final effluent only contributes a dilution of the endogenous concentrations already present in the river flow which reflects a progressive PPCP load with increasing urbanization; 'worst-case' scenarios being probably related to wet-weather conditions. Maximum PPCP concentrations fall above the reported PEC levels and the analysis highlights the deficiencies of conventional acute toxicity for the evaluation of long-term effects of episodic urban discharges. Groundwater analysis points to sewer exfiltration which is limited in terms of PPCP impact to 25-50 cm depths. - PPCP compounds are ubiquitous and persistent in urban receiving waters reflecting input from both point and non-point sources

314

Sediment toxicity test results for the Urban Waters Study 2010, Bellingham Bay, Washington  

Science.gov (United States)

The Washington Department of Ecology annually determines the quality of recently deposited sediments in Puget Sound as a part of Ecology's Urban Waters Initiative. The annual sediment quality studies use the Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) approach, thus relying on measures of chemical contamination, toxicity, and benthic in-faunal effects (Chapman, 1990). Since 2002, the studies followed a rotating sampling scheme, each year sampling a different region of the greater Puget Sound Basin. During the annual studies, samples are collected in locations selected with a stratified-random design, patterned after the designs previously used in baseline surveys completed during 1997-1999 (Long and others, 2003; Wilson and Partridge, 2007). Sediment samples were collected by personnel from the Washington Department of Ecology, in June of 2010 and shipped to the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) laboratory in Corpus Christi, Texas (not shown), where the tests were performed. Sediment pore water was extracted with a pneumatic apparatus and was stored frozen. Just before testing, water-quality measurements were made and salinity adjusted, if necessary. Tests were performed on a dilution series of each sample consisting of 100-, 50-, and 25-percent pore-water concentrations. The specific objectives of this study were to: * Extract sediment pore water from a total of 30 sediment samples from the Bellingham Bay, Washington area within a day of receipt of the samples. * Measure water-quality parameters (salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, sulfide, and ammonia) of thawed pore-water samples before testing and adjust salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen, if necessary, to obtain optimal ranges for the test species. * Conduct the fertilization toxicity test with pore water using sea urchin (Stronylocentrotus purpuratus) (S. purpuratus) gametes. * Perform quality control assays with reference pore water, dilution blanks and a positive control dilution series with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in conjunction with each test. * Determine which samples caused a significant decrease in percent fertilization success relative to the negative control.

Biedenbach, James M.

2011-01-01

315

Water quality in Lis river, Portugal.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past 30 years, the Lis river basin has been subjected to constant ecological disasters mainly due to piggery untreated wastewater discharges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of existing domestic, agricultural, and industrial activities on the water quality, and to propose a watershed plan to protect and manage surface water resources within the Lis river basin. For this purpose, 16 monitoring stations have been strategically selected along the Lis river stretch and its main tributaries to evaluate the water quality in six different sampling periods (2003–2006). All samples were characterized in terms of organic material, nutrients, chlorophyll, and pathogenic bacteria. Generally, the Lis river presents poor water quality, according to environmental quality standards for surface water, principally in terms of dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and fecal coliform, which can be associated mainly with the contamination source from pig-breeding farms. PMID:22286837

Vieira, Judite; Fonseca, André; Vilar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R; Botelho, Cidália M S

2012-12-01

316

Adaptive Management of the Water Cycle on the Urban Fringe: Three Australian Case Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our group at Macquarie University has run three adaptive management projects in New South Wales, Australia. Their objectives were: (1 to evaluate water cycle management strategies to minimize impacts of urban development on water quality in the Hawkesbury-Nepean basin; (2 to evaluate development planning policies to minimize water quality impacts on a series of coastal lakes; and (3 to carry out a preliminary assessment of the potential impacts of greater recreational use of Sydney water catchments. These projects are examined to evaluate the contribution of the adaptive management approach to water cycle management on the urban fringe in New South Wales. The role of the adaptive management approach in education, as a negotiation process, and in policy formulation and evaluation, is presented. The importance of community participation, the role of an "institutional champion," and the need to manage the lead-up phase and the postworkshop phase with as much attention to detail as the workshop phase is underlined. Proposed prerequisites for a successful adaptive management project are developed along these lines.

James Scandol

1999-06-01

317

Evaluation of green roof as green technology for urban stormwater quantity and quality controls  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Promoting green design, construction, reconstruction and operation of buildings has never been more critical than now due to the ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions and rapid urbanizations that are fuelling climate change more quickly. Driven by environmental needs, Green Building Index (GBI) was founded in Malaysia to drive initiative to lead the property industry towards becoming more environment-friendly. Green roof system is one of the assessment criteria of this rating system which is under category of sustainable site planning and management. An extensive green roof was constructed in Humid Tropics Center (HTC) Kuala Lumpur as one of the components for Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) in order to obtain scientific data of the system. This paper evaluates the performance of extensive green roof at Humid Tropics Center with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater quantity and quality controls. Findings indicate that there was a reduction of around 1.5°C for indoor temperature of the building after installation of green roof. Simulations showed that the peak discharge was reduced up to 24% relative to impervious brown roof. The results show an increment of pH and high concentration of phosphate for the runoff generated from the green roof and the runoff water quality ranged between class I and II under INWQS.

318

Evaluation of green roof as green technology for urban stormwater quantity and quality controls  

Science.gov (United States)

Promoting green design, construction, reconstruction and operation of buildings has never been more critical than now due to the ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions and rapid urbanizations that are fuelling climate change more quickly. Driven by environmental needs, Green Building Index (GBI) was founded in Malaysia to drive initiative to lead the property industry towards becoming more environment-friendly. Green roof system is one of the assessment criteria of this rating system which is under category of sustainable site planning and management. An extensive green roof was constructed in Humid Tropics Center (HTC) Kuala Lumpur as one of the components for Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) in order to obtain scientific data of the system. This paper evaluates the performance of extensive green roof at Humid Tropics Center with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater quantity and quality controls. Findings indicate that there was a reduction of around 1.5°C for indoor temperature of the building after installation of green roof. Simulations showed that the peak discharge was reduced up to 24% relative to impervious brown roof. The results show an increment of pH and high concentration of phosphate for the runoff generated from the green roof and the runoff water quality ranged between class I and II under INWQS.

Kok, K. H.; Sidek, L. M.; Abidin, M. R. Z.; Basri, H.; Muda, Z. C.; Beddu, S.

2013-06-01

319

Modeling relationships between catchment attributes and river water quality in southern catchments of the Caspian Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing land utilization through diverse forms of human activities, such as agriculture, forestry, urban growth, and industrial development, has led to negative impacts on the water quality of rivers. To find out how catchment attributes, such as land use, hydrologic soil groups, and lithology, can affect water quality variables (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), Cl(-), HCO 3 (-) , pH, TDS, EC, SAR), a spatio-statistical approach was applied to 23 catchments in southern basins of the Caspian Sea. All input data layers (digital maps of land use, soil, and lithology) were prepared using geographic information system (GIS) and spatial analysis. Relationships between water quality variables and catchment attributes were then examined by Spearman rank correlation tests and multiple linear regression. Stepwise approach-based multiple linear regressions were developed to examine the relationship between catchment attributes and water quality variables. The areas (%) of marl, tuff, or diorite, as well as those of good-quality rangeland and bare land had negative effects on all water quality variables, while those of basalt, forest land cover were found to contribute to improved river water quality. Moreover, lithological variables showed the greatest most potential for predicting the mean concentration values of water quality variables, and noting that measure of EC and TDS have inversely associated with area (%) of urban land use. PMID:25395322

Hasani Sangani, Mohammad; Jabbarian Amiri, Bahman; Alizadeh Shabani, Afshin; Sakieh, Yousef; Ashrafi, Sohrab

2014-11-15

320

Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Urban water management requires further clarification about pollutants in storm water. Little is known about the release of organic additives used in construction materials and the impact of these compounds to storm water runoff. We investigated sources and pathways of additives used in construction materials, i.e., biocides in facades’ render as well as root protection products in bitumen membranes for rooftops. Under wet-weather conditions, the concentrations of diuron, terbutryn, carbendazim, irgarol®1051 (all from facades) and mecoprop in storm water and receiving water exceeded the predicted no-effect concentrations values and the Swiss water quality standard of 0.1 ?g/L. Under laboratory conditions maximum concentrations of additives were in the range of a few milligrams and a few hundred micrograms per litre in runoff of facades and bitumen membranes. Runoff from aged materials shows approximately one to two orders of magnitude lower concentrations. Concentrations decreased also during individual runoff events. In storm water and receiving water the occurrence of additives did not follow the typical first flush model. This can be explained by the release lasting over the time of rainfall and the complexity of the drainage network. Beside the amounts used, the impact of construction materials containing hazardous additives on water quality is related clearly to the age of the buildings and the separated sewer network. The development of improved products regarding release of hazardous additives is the most efficient way of reducing the pollutant load from construction materials in storm water runoff.

Burkhardt, Mike; Zuleeg, S.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Water quality in sustainable water management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water pollution is a serious problem as almost 70% of India’s surface water resources and a growing number of its groundwater reserves have been contaminated by biological, organic and inorganic pollutants. Pollution of surface and groundwater resources occurs through point and diffuse sources. Examples of point source pollution are effluents from industries and fromsewage-treatment plants. Typical examples of diffuse pollution sources are agricultural runoffs due to inorganic fertilizers a...

Rao, Sudhakar M.; Mamatha, P.

2004-01-01

322

Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment in Northern New Jersey Watershed, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Over a century of rapid urbanization and industrialization in New Jersey brought visible ever-increasing stress on the resource and environmental capacities of the watershed. Environmental quality is a major concern in this region with the urbanization and economic development. As a 8-week long National Science Foundation (NSF)-supported Research Experience for Undergraduate Students (REU) program, this study compares the stream water quality in four Northern New Jersey watersheds with different land use types (i.e., urban, agricultural, and forested). A total of eight sites were chosen for this study with two sites for each watershed to investigate if the land use type has an effect on the water quality, and if so, what that effect is. Physical and chemical parameters, such as temperature, pH, conductivity, solids content, nitrate, and phosphate, were measured during this study as indicators of the water quality. A number of correlations between these parameters were found during the data analysis. Our preliminary results indicate that the land use change has a significant impact on the water quality, causing impaired rivers, streams, lakes and reservoirs in New Jersey watershed. The results from this study are important and useful for developing future environmental management strategies for environmental restoration and urban coastal development. Acknowledgement: The research was supported in part by the US National Science Foundation (Award EAR-1004829).

Feng, H.; Mirrer, L. K.; Pelak, N. F.; Wu, M. S.

2012-12-01

323

Urban liveability versus economic efficiency : an issue of scale in the governance of sustainability transitions of the urban water sector in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The urban water management regime in Copenhagen is currently influenced by contradictive models of innovation. During the last 20 years the development of the water infrastructure in Copenhagen has been under the influence of an urban political agenda. This agenda has addressed water as a place based infrastructure, i.e. as an infrastructure that has been understood and developed as an integrated component of the urban fabric. An outcome of this agenda has been the establishment of bathing facilities in the inner harbor of Copenhagen, which has linked water to urban livability and urban development. Against this agenda a national strategy is currently being enforced which addresses water as a context-independent functional sector. This agenda operates with a narrow definition of economic efficiency in service provision through a benchmarking system focusing only on technical performances without acknowledging the context specific relations between water infrastructure and urban quality. The national function oriented innovation agenda and the urban place based innovation agenda hence address the question of innovation from very different viewpoints. While the functional innovation agenda addresses the infrastructure as a discrete system - thus pushing for one-way influence of the infrastructure to the cityscape - the place based innovation agenda has traditionally been more inclusive towards the context specific priorities of urban planners. In this paper we apply the arena of development approach advocated by Jørgensen (2012) to understand the emergence of the functional innovation agenda as well as the specific political navigations by which Copenhagen’s traditional place based water managements regime is responding to this new agenda. We thus demonstrate how the functional innovation agenda was formulated and advocated as a response to specific tension and ambiguities within and among the socio-material actor-worlds of the established water management regime, and how the agenda was translated into new institutional arrangements. We then analyse the navigations by which the traditional actor worlds are responding to these institutional arrangements and identifies the tensions and contradictions that are generated in this process.

Farné Fratini, Chiara; Jensen, Jens Stissing

2013-01-01

324

Epidemiology of urban water distribution systems  

Science.gov (United States)

water distribution systems worldwide contain numerous old and fragile pipes that inevitably break, flood streets and damage property, and disrupt economic and social activities. Such breaks often present dramatically in temporal clusters as occurred in Los Angeles during 2009. These clustered pipe breaks share many characteristics with human mortality observed during extreme climatological events such as heat waves or air pollution. Drawing from research and empirical studies in human epidemiology, a framework is introduced to analyze the time variations of disruptive pipe breaks that can help water agencies better understand clustered pipe failures and institute measures to minimize the disruptions caused by them. It is posited that at any time, a cohort of the pipes comprising the water distribution system will be in a weakened state due to fatigue and corrosion. This frail cohort becomes vulnerable during normal operations and ultimately breaks due to rapid increase in crack lengths induced by abnormal stressors. The epidemiological harvesting model developed in this paper simulates an observed time series of monthly pipe breaks and has both explanatory and predictive power. It also demonstrates that models from nonengineering disciplines such as medicine can provide improved insights into the performance of infrastructure systems.

Bardet, Jean-Pierre; Little, Richard

2014-08-01

325

Surface water quality I; 1 : 1 500 000; Surface water quality II; 1 : 1 500 000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface water quality in the Slovak Republic is monitored since 1963 at 179 stations. The number of indicators observed moves between 24 and 80. They are classified into the following groups: oxygen regime, basic physical and chemical indicators, nutrients, biological indicators, microbiological indicators, micro-pollutants, specific organic substances, and radioactivity, while the two latter ones are not included in the map. The surface water quality is evaluated pursuing the STN 75 7221 Water Quality Standard; Classification of Surface Water Quality, which discerns five quality classes. (author)

326

A water quality monitoring system for HAWC  

Science.gov (United States)

HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov), is a gamma ray (?) large aperture observatory with high sensitivity that will be able to continuously monitor the sky for transient sources of photons with energies between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. HAWC is under construction in Sierra Negra, Puebla, Mexico, which is located at a high altitude of 4100m. HAWC will be an array of 300 Cherenkov detectors each one with 200,000 liters of highly pure water. The sensitivity of the instrument depends strongly on the water quality. We present the design and construction of the HAWC water quality monitoring system. We seek monitor the transparency in violet-blue range to achieve and maintain the required water transparency quality in each detector. The system is robust and user friendly. The measurements are reproducible. Also we present some results from the monitoring the water from the VAMOS detector tanks and of the filtering system.

Garfias, F.; Bernal, A.; Tinoco, S.; Iriarte, A.

2012-09-01

327

Landscape Quality and the Identity Anchoring of Urban Activity Areas: A Trump Card for the Development of the Urban Economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of new economic estates regularly provokes strong reactions among local communities. These protests, usually considered as nymbist, question the design of urban economic estates: might a better quality design more concerned with local landscape features be more welcome by the communities on the short and longer terms?

Ruelle, Christine

2009-01-01

328

Urban water reuse: microbial pathogens control by direct filtration and ultraviolet disinfection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physicochemical treatment efficiency for unrestricted urban water reuse was evaluated at a conventional activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Pilot plant set-up consisted of an alum coagulation step, granular media upflow flocculation and direct downflow dual-media filtration followed by ultraviolet disinfection (dose of 95 mJ cm?²). Optimum aluminum sulfate dosage of 10 mg L?¹ and coagulation pH 7.0 were preset based on bench scale tests. Under WWTP stable operation, water quality met United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) suggested guidelines for unrestricted urban reuse regarding turbidity (mean value 1.3 NTU) and suspended solids (mean value 2.1 mg L?¹). When WWTP overall plant performance dropped from 90 to 80% (although BOD value stayed below 6 mg O? L?¹, suggesting unrestricted reuse), solids breakthrough in filtrate was observed. Microorganism removal rates were: total coliforms 60.0%, Escherichia coli 63.0%, Giardia spp. 81.0%, and helminth eggs 62.5%; thus organisms still remained in filtrate. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection efficiency was 4.1- and 3.8-log for total coliforms and E. coli, respectively. Considering low UV efficiency obtained for helminths and the survival of protozoa and helminths in the environment, effluent quality presents risk to public health if destined for unrestricted urban reuse. PMID:25252350

de Lima Isaac, Ricardo; Dos Santos, Luciana Urbano; Tosetto, Mariana S; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Guimarães, José Roberto

2014-09-01

329

Appropriation of space and water in informal urban settlements of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article examines inter-group relations in Port Moresby’s informal urban settlement (slum) Two Mile, through perspective of appropriation of space and water. Since the 1960s, steady rural-to-urban migration to Papua New Guinea’s capital has resulted in the emergence of urban slums that have become home to numerous small communities or social networks. They are marginal urban spaces of intense social interactions, which redefine traditional identities and construct urban social network...

Jaka Repi?

2011-01-01

330

Dorsi-ventral leaf reflectance properties of Carpinus betulus L.: An indicator of urban habitat quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to give an account of the evaluation of the effect of urban habitat quality on dorsi-ventral leaf reflectance asymmetry to bio-monitor urban habitat pollution. Reflectance in the RGB bands of a reflex camera is measured at the adaxial and abaxial sides of Carpinus betulus L. leaves for two contrasting urban habitats, e.g.; suburban green and industrial habitats in the city of Gent (Belgium). Abaxial leaf reflectance is consistently higher than adaxial leaf reflectance. We quantified leaf dorsi-ventral reflectance asymmetry with a newly defined Normalized Dorsi-ventral Asymmetry Index (NDAI). The NDAI is significantly higher in industrial habitats as opposed to suburban green ones. Our optical observations indicate that changes in Carpinus betulus L. leaf morphology are related to urban habitat quality. Hence, we suggest that leaf dorsi-ventral reflectance asymmetry allows the estimation of the magnitude and spatial extent of environmental pollution in urban environments. - Highlights: ? Carpinus betulus L. leaf asymmetry relates with urban habitat quality. ? The Normalized Difference Asymmetry Index estimates leaf dorsi-ventral asymmetry. ? The NDAI allows magnitude and spatial extent estimation of habitat quality. - Optical observations indicate that leaf dorsi-ventral reflectance asymmetry of Carpinus betulus L. leaves is related to urban habitat quality.

331

WATER RESOURCES AND URBAN PLANNING: THE CASE OF A COASTAL AREA IN BRAZIL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban planning requires the integration of several disciplines, among them ones related to water resources. The impacts of urban development on those resources, and viceversa, are well known, but some aspects have not been well characterized in literature. This research analyzes a case that shows interesting relationships between urban planning, its legislation, the evolution of urban occupation and several aspects of water resources: groundwater, surface water, drainage and saltwater intrusion. The research argues for integrated and dynamic planning, monitoring and directive enforcement of the urban processes, including environmental dimension and water resources. Advanced decision support techniques are suggested as tools for supporting this integrated approach.

Iana Alexandra Alves Rufino

2009-06-01

332

Comparison between the efficiency of two bioindicators for determining surface water quality in an urban environment = Comparação entre a eficiência de dois bioindicadores para a determinação da qualidade de águas superficiais em um ambiente urbano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficiency of two bioindicators, fecal coliforms and ecotoxicity tests, set out in CONAMA Resolution 274/00 and CONAMA Resolution 357/05, in assessment of water quality. For this study, Lake Paranoá, Federal District of Brazil, was chosen, since it is a water body directly contaminated by effluents from a sewage treatment plant. Four sampling points were chosen in accordance with the map of recreational water quality published weekly by CAESB/DF, after analysis of fecal coliforms. Samples from these points were collected for 6 months and tested on Danio rerio fish (acute toxicity and on the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (acute and chronic toxicity, besides measuring chemical and physico-chemical parameters. The data obtained show great consistency between the observed biological parameters, suggesting that in this urbanaquatic environment, under great anthropogenic pressure, the fecal coliform bioindicator seems to be more restrictive and enough to evaluate the safety of surface water. Este trabalho comparou a eficiência dos bioindicadores coliformes fecais ou termotolerantes e ensaios de ecotoxicidade, propostos pelas Resoluções Conama 274/00 e Conama 357/05, na avaliação da qualidade de água. Para a realização desse estudo foi escolhido o Lago Paranoá,Brasília, Distrito Federal, por ser um corpo hídrico impactado diretamente pelo lançamento de efluentes de uma estação de tratamento de esgotos. Foram definidos quatro pontos de acordo com o mapa de balneabilidade, publicado semanalmente pela Caesb/DF, em função do teor de coliformes termotolerantes. Amostras desses pontos colhidas durante seis meses foram testadas com o peixe Danio rerio (toxicidade aguda e o com o microcrustáceo Ceriodaphnia dubia (toxicidade aguda e crônica, além da determinação de parâmetros químicos e físico-químicos. Os resultados obtidos mostraram grande equivalência entre osparâmetros biológicos observados, sugerindo que nesse ambiente sob grande influência antrópica, o bioindicador coliformes termotolerantes foi mais restritivo e suficiente para avaliar a segurança das águas superficiais.

Eduardo Cyrino Oliveira-Filho

2011-07-01

333

Expanding Water Service Delivery through Partnership between Water Utility and Small Scale Water Providers in Lusaka, Zambia : A Case of Lusaka’s Peri-Urban Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zambia is a highly urbanized country with 60% of its urban population residing in low cost areas also called peri-urban, slum or informal settlements. The increase in urban population attributed to rapid migration and urbanization due to political and economic changes has taken a toll on service provision as the infrastructure development and service provision has failed to meet the demand. For the 33 peri-urban areas in Lusaka, the water supply and sanitation has been poor, inadequate and un...

Mwandu Siyeni, Yvonne

2008-01-01

334

Sustainable urban water management: understanding and fostering champions of change.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper highlights and discusses ten characteristic attributes of emergent leaders (also known as 'champions') who worked as influential change agents within publicly managed, Australian water agencies to encourage more sustainable forms of urban water management. These attributes relate to: the 'openness to experience' personality characteristic; career mobility and work history demographics; personal and position power; strategic social networks; the culture of their organisations; and five distinguishing leadership behaviours (e.g. persisting under adversity). Guided by the findings of an international literature review, the author conducted a multiple case study involving six water agencies. This research identified attributes of these leaders that were typically strong and/or distinguishing compared to relevant control groups, as well as influential contextual factors. While it is widely acknowledged that these leaders play a critical role in the delivery of sustainable urban water management, there has been a paucity of context-sensitive research involving them. The research project highlighted in this paper is a response to this situation and has led to the development of a suite of 39 practical, evidence-based strategies to build leadership capacity throughout water agencies. Such capacity is one of the elements needed to drive the transition to more 'water sensitive cities'. PMID:19273887

Taylor, A C

2009-01-01

335

Service Quality Evaluation of Urban Parks Based on AHP Method and SD Software  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public satisfaction is the main base to measure the service quality of urban parks. In this study, six factors influencing the service quality of urban parks, namely, place environment, landscape environment, culture environment, eco-environment, traffic environment and facilities environment, were screened and been subdivided into 18 impact indexes. Three-hierarchy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model consisting of target layer, factor layer and index layer ...

Jiangping Wang; Yichuan Zhang

2014-01-01

336

Ground Water Quality of Selected Wells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to characterize ground water quality in Zaweta district / Dohuk governorate, eight wells are selected to represent their water quality. Monthly samples are collected from the wells for the period from October 2005 to April 2006. The samples are tested for conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity and nitrate according to the standard methods. The results of statistical analysis showed significant difference among the wells water quality in the measured parameters. Ground water quality of Zaweta district has high dissolved ions due to the nature of studied area rocks. Total dissolved solids of more than 1000 mg/l made the wells Gre-Qassroka, Kora and Swaratoka need to be treated to make taste palatable. Additionally high electrical conductivity and TDS made Zaweta ground water have a slight to moderate restriction to crop growth. The high alkalinity of Zaweta ground water indicated stabilized pH. The water quality of all the wells is found excessively hard. The nitrate concentration of Zaweta ground water ranged between 0.19-42.4 mg/l below the guidelines for WHO and the maximum nitrate concentration is recorded in Kora well .

Mosher R. Ahmed

2013-05-01

337

Assessment of human impact on water quality along Manyame River  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human activities such as urbanization, agriculture, sewage treatment and industrialization are affecting water resources both quantitatively and qualitatively. The impact of these activities were studied by measuring and determining the concentration and values of eight selected water quality parameters namely nitrates, phosphates, copper, iron, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, dissolved oxygen (DO, pH and turbidity along Manyame River, in the Manyame Catchment. Thirty five sites were sampled from the source of the river which is at Seke Dam, along Manyame River and on the tributaries (Ruwa, Nyatsime, Mukuvisi and Marimba just before they join the river. The 35 sites were categorized into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E with group A and E being the upstream and downstream of Manyame. The analysis of results was undertaken using a simple one-way ANOVA with group as the only source of variation. Turbidity values, nitrate and phosphate concentrations were found to be higher than the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA maximum permissible standards for surface waters. DO saturation in the downstream groups was less than 75% (ZINWA standard. Agricultural and urban runoff and sewage effluent were responsible of the high nutrient levels and turbidity, which in turn, reduced the dissolved oxygen (DO.

Tirivashe P. Masere

2012-12-01

338

40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.  

Science.gov (United States)

...when they are needed to address water quality problems. (1) Total...Effluent limitations including water quality based effluent limitations...stormwater-induced combined sewer overflows; programs to provide...opportunities from improved water quality in accordance with...

2010-07-01

339

40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water...establishment of water quality-based treatment controls and strategies beyond the technology-based level of treatment...their Water Quality Management (WQM) plans to...

2010-07-01

340

Water quality in North American river systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is about water quality and other characteristics of selected ecosystems in North America. It is also about changes that have occurred in these ecosystems as a result of recent human activities-changes that result primarily from development and exploitation to sustain the needs of an ever-increasing population and the technical innovations that sustain it. Fish populations, hydrology, and water quality control efforts are discussed

 
 
 
 
341

Monitoring of distribution water qualities under various source water blending.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main goal of this large-scale pilot distribution study was to systematically investigate the impacts of blending different source waters on distribution water qualities. The principal source waters investigated were conventionally treated ground water (G1), surface water processed by enhanced treatment (S1), and desalted seawater by reverse osmosis membranes (RO). Due to the nature of raw water quality and associated treatment processes, G1 water had high alkalinity, while S1 and RO sources were characterized as high sulfate and high chloride waters, respectively. One year of pilot pipe study demonstrated that water quality was significantly deteriorated by increased color when source water blends with characteristics different from historic groundwater were introduced to pipe distribution systems. Elevated color was associated with release of iron corrosion products, mainly from aged unlined cast iron pipes. Iron release increased significantly when exposed to RO and S1 waters: that is, the greater iron release was experienced with alkalinity reduced below the background of G1 water. Lead and copper release to water, on the other hand, enhanced with the application of RO and G1 waters, respectively. PMID:16917698

Taylor, James; Tang, Zhijian; Xiao, Weizhong; Hong, Seungkwan

2006-06-01

342

Relating mineral magnetic measurements to sediment quality in a remediated, contaminated catchment: The significance of heavy metal delivery mode and water-sediment exchange dynamics in a small urban lake  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased attention has focussed on using mineral magnetic measurements as a proxy for heavy metal related sediment quality since magnetic concentration often correlates with total heavy metal concentrations, thus providing rapid and non-destructive screening of contaminated samples. Mineral magnetic measurements are being used in the assessment of sediment quality in the Lower Swansea Valley (South Wales, UK) a uniquely contaminated environment with a legacy of 250 years of non-ferrous smelting. Fendrod Lake is an in-line flood detention lake (created in the mid-1980s) on the polluted Nant-y-Fendrod stream, which drains an area contaminated by atmospherically deposited heavy metals and metalrich smelter waste buried within the reclaimed and remediated valley floor. Heavy metals are accumulating in the lake sediment column. Positive correlations found between heavy metal (Zn and Pb) concentrations and magnetic susceptibility (?) in contaminated soils (mineral waste and aerial fallout) are not clearly observed in the lake sediment column (where the use of proxy measures of sediment quality is of greatest interest). Downcore profiles of ? and major and minor elements, and information on metal speciation, indicate two controlling factors: (1) sediment source and contaminant delivery mode and (2) water column sediment/contaminant interaction dynamics linked to lake productivity.

Blake, W. H.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Barnsley, M. J.

2003-05-01

343

Water efficient urban landscapes-Integrating different water use categorizations and plant types  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Little research has examined water requirements of entire irrigated urban landscapes integrating different types of plants. Three landscape treatments integrating different types of plants—woody, herbaceous perennial, turf—and putative water use classifications—mesic, mixed, xeric—were grown in large drainage lysimeters. Each landscape plot was divided into woody plant, turf, and perennial hydrozones and irrigated for optimum water status over 2 years and water use measured using a wa...

Sun, Hongyan; Kopp, Kelly L.; Kielgren, Roger

2012-01-01

344

Water efficient urban landscapes - integrating different water use categorizations and plant types  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Little research has examined water requirements of entire irrigated urban landscapes integrating different types of plants. Three landscape treatments integrating different types of plants—woody, herbaceous perennial, turf—and putative water use classifications—mesic, mixed, xeric—were grown in large drainage lysimeters. Each landscape plot was divided into woody plant, turf, and perennial hydrozones and irrigated for optimum water status over 2 years and water use measured using a wa...

Sun, Hongyan; Kopp, Kelly; Kjelgren, Roger

2012-01-01

345

Spatial and temporal variation in nutrient parameters in stream water in a rural-urban catchment, Shikoku, Japan: effects of land cover and human impact.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seasonal and spatial variations in major ion chemistry and isotope composition in the rural-urban catchment of the Shigenobu River were monitored to determine the influences of agricultural and urban sewage systems on water quality. Temporal patterns of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and suspended sediment (SS) were examined at four sites in the rural-urban catchment. Urban land cover, incorporating the effects of increased population, domestic water use, and industrial wastewater, was positively associated with increases in water pollution and was included as an important explanatory variable for the variations in all water quality parameters. Significant trends were found in each parameter. BOD concentrations ranged widely, and were high in urban regions, due to the presence of a waste water treatment plant. TN and SS showed various trends, but did not vary widely, unlike TP. TP concentrations varied greatly, with high concentrations in cultivated areas, due to fertilizer use. Local water quality management or geology could further explain some of the variations in water quality. Non-point-source pollution exhibited strong positive spatial autocorrelation, indicating that incorporating spatial dimensions into water quality assessment enhances our understanding of spatial patterns of water quality. Data from the Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport (MLIT) and Environment Ministry (EM) were used to investigate trends in land management. Stepwise regression analysis was used to test the correlation between specific management practises and substance concentrations in surface water and sediment. MLIT and EM data for 1981-2003 showed an increase in TN, TP, and SS concentrations in surface water. High levels of fertilizer in dormant sprays and domestic water use were associated with high pesticide concentrations in water and sediment. This paper presents a novel method of studying the environmental impact of various agricultural management practises and recommends a management strategy that combines the use of reduced-risk pesticides with irrigation and non-irrigation periods in paddy fields. PMID:21450393

Mouri, Goro; Takizawa, Satoshi; Oki, Taikan

2011-07-01

346

Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban WaterConservation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents a project undertaken for theCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council (the Council) to create a newmethod of accounting for the diverse environmental benefits of raw watersavings. The environmental benefits (EB) model was designed to providewater utilities with a practical tool that they can use to assign amonetary value to the benefits that may accrue from implementing any ofthe Council-recommended Best Management Practices. The model treats onlyenvironmental services associated directly with water, and is intended tocover miscellaneous impacts that are not currently accounted for in anyother cost-benefit analysis.

Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

2007-05-01

347

Wastewater re-use for peri-urban agriculture: a viable option for adaptive water management?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urbanization is known to spur land modification in the form of conversion of common land to human settlements. This factor, combined with climate variability, can alter the duration, frequency and intensity of storm drain overflows in urban areas and lead to public health risks. In peri-urban regions where these risks are especially high it has been argued that, when domestic wastewater is managed, better prospects for freshwater water savings through swaps between urban water supply and irri...

Kurian, M; Ratna Reddy, V.; Dietz, A. J.

2013-01-01

348

The water balance of urban impermeable surfaces: catchment and process studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An examination of research and information needs in urban hydrology suggested the investigation of urban water balances and micro- hydrological processes. This should facilitate more accurate modelling of the rainfall-runoff process from urban impermeable surfaces. Greater London data produced annual water balances for 5 heavily urbanized Thames tributaries and estimates of the annual yield ranging from 12-72%. Mean annual runoff for largely rural basins in South East Eng...

Davies, H. A.

1981-01-01

349

Dorsi-ventral leaf reflectance properties of Carpinus betulus L.: an indicator of urban habitat quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this paper is to give an account of the evaluation of the effect of urban habitat quality on dorsi-ventral leaf reflectance asymmetry to bio-monitor urban habitat pollution. Reflectance in the RGB bands of a reflex camera is measured at the adaxial and abaxial sides of Carpinus betulus L. leaves for two contrasting urban habitats, e.g.; suburban green and industrial habitats in the city of Gent (Belgium). Abaxial leaf reflectance is consistently higher than adaxial leaf reflectance. We quantified leaf dorsi-ventral reflectance asymmetry with a newly defined Normalized Dorsi-ventral Asymmetry Index (NDAI). The NDAI is significantly higher in industrial habitats as opposed to suburban green ones. Our optical observations indicate that changes in Carpinus betulus L. leaf morphology are related to urban habitat quality. Hence, we suggest that leaf dorsi-ventral reflectance asymmetry allows the estimation of the magnitude and spatial extent of environmental pollution in urban environments. PMID:22243882

Khavanin Zadeh, A R; Veroustraete, F; Wuyts, K; Kardel, F; Samson, R

2012-03-01

350

Regulation of formal and informal water service providers in peri-urban areas of Maputo, Mozambique  

Science.gov (United States)

Service delivery to large areas of peri-urban Maputo depends largely on alternative informal service providers. These providers are located within the limits of Maputo, in a water supply area that is formally leased to a private operator. Informal service providers therefore operate within the main regulatory body, but their activity is presently unregulated. This paper discusses activities of informal alternative providers in peri-urban areas of Maputo, Mozambique, and opportunities to expand the reach and influence of the main regulatory body to this segment of service providers. The study was commissioned to assist the main regulatory body to setup a strategy to improve the pro-poor focus of the existing regulatory environment and so improve access to potable water for the majority of the under-serviced urban poor. Results of field surveys conducted in selected areas of peri-urban Maputo are presented. The surveys focused on the quality of services, the legal status of independent providers and the organization of water supply services at neighbourhood level. The results indicate that household water resellers and small-scale independent provides are presently an important and indispensable source of access to water for the majority of unconnected residents in peri-urban Maputo and that they are reported to cater for as many as 21% of unconnected households of such neighbourhoods. In the near future, alternative providers will continue to have a dominant role in service delivery in peri-urban Maputo, therefore their legalization and decentralization of certain regulatory functions to the neighbourhood level is required. A neighbourhood based management model is proposed for that purpose. The model is based on a standpipe management model that is broadened to include alternative service providers. The model addresses issues such as water pricing, bidding and compliance strategies, channels for consumer’s representation and possibilities of creating neighbourhood-based regulation bodies, which will act as extension branches of the main regulatory body. Sustainability issues around the proposed model are also discussed.

Matsinhe, Nelson P.; Juízo, Dinis; Macheve, Berta; Santos, Clara dos

351

Domestic Wastewater Quality and Pollutant Loadings from Urban Housing Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wetlands are important spawning and nursery ground for fish and prawns. However, wetlands have been reported to be polluted in different parts of the world. One of the pollution sources is domestic wastewater. Therefore, in this study, domestic wastewater quality was studied at three major housing areas. Samplings were conducted in three trips. Results showed that pH ranged from 6.64 to 7.31 and temperature ranged from 23.5 to 31.7 oC. DO values were low, that is, below 3.5 mg/L for all trips at all areas studied indicating that it was not suitable for aquatic life. Nutrients such as ammoniacal nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus of the housing areas ranged from 11.1 to 17.2 mg/L and 1.05 to 2.43 mg/L respectively. Biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids concentrations at all the housing areas exceeded the Standard B maximum permitted values of Effluent Discharge Standard of Environmental Quality Act 1974. Loadings of pollutants from housing areas in Kuching were computed. This study shows that domestic wastewater was low in DO, high in oxygen demand, high in solids and nutrients thus loading the rivers with pollutants. Therefore, domestic wastewater must be treated before being channeled to the adjacent water bodies to avoid eutrophication in the receiving water and to recover nutrients.

T.Y Ling

2012-01-01

352

Bacterial communities associated with an occurrence of colored water in an urban drinking water distribution system.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate bacterial community in an urban drinking water distribution system (DWDS) during an occurrence of colored water. Variation in the bacterial community diversity and structure was observed among the different waters, with the predominance of Proteobacteria. While Verrucomicrobia was also a major phylum group in colored water. Limnobacter was the major genus group in colored water, but Undibacterium predominated in normal tap water. The coexistence of Limnobacter as well as Sediminibacterium and Aquabacterium might contribute to the formation of colored water. PMID:25189613

Wu, Hui Ting; Mi, Zi Long; Zhang, Jing Xu; Chen, Chao; Xie, Shu Guang

2014-08-01

353

Quantifying outdoor water consumption of urban land use/land cover: sensitivity to drought.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outdoor water use is a key component in arid city water systems for achieving sustainable water use and ensuring water security. Using evapotranspiration (ET) calculations as a proxy for outdoor water consumption, the objectives of this research are to quantify outdoor water consumption of different land use and land cover types, and compare the spatio-temporal variation in water consumption between drought and wet years. An energy balance model was applied to Landsat 5 TM time series images to estimate daily and seasonal ET for the Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research region (CAP-LTER). Modeled ET estimations were correlated with water use data in 49 parks within CAP-LTER and showed good agreement (r² = 0.77), indicating model effectiveness to capture the variations across park water consumption. Seasonally, active agriculture shows high ET (>500 mm) for both wet and dry conditions, while the desert and urban land cover types experienced lower ET during drought (<300 mm). Within urban locales of CAP-LTER, xeric neighborhoods show significant differences from year to year, while mesic neighborhoods retain their ET values (400-500 mm) during drought, implying considerable use of irrigation to sustain their greenness. Considering the potentially limiting water availability of this region in the future due to large population increases and the threat of a warming and drying climate, maintaining large water-consuming, irrigated landscapes challenges sustainable practices of water conservation and the need to provide amenities of this desert area for enhancing quality of life. PMID:24499870

Kaplan, Shai; Myint, Soe W; Fan, Chao; Brazel, Anthony J

2014-04-01

354

Screening-level microbial risk assessment of urban water locations: a tool for prioritization.  

Science.gov (United States)

People in urban areas are exposed to microbial hazards in urban waters. In this study, various hazards, diseases, and water systems, where different recreation activities take place, are compared in an integrated quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The event and annual probability of gastrointestinal illness (GI) and Legionnaires'disease (LD) were analyzed in QMRA models using selected literature data. Highest mean event probabilities of GI were found for playing in pluvial flood from a combined sewer overflow (34%), swimming (18%), and rowing (13%) in the river, swimming (8.7%) and rowing (4.5%) in the lake, and playing in a water playground (3.7%) and in the pluvial flood from stormwater sewers (4.7%). At these locations, the GI probability was above the EU Bathing Water Directive threshold for excellent water quality (3%). All the annual risk medians were below the national incidence of legionellosis of 0.002%. The illness probability was most sensitive to the pathogens concentration (particularly Campylobacter, Norovirus, and Legionella) and exposure frequency. Therefore, site-specific pathogen data collection is the best next step to strengthen the certainty of the risk estimates. This study created an evidence-base that was used by water authorities to understand the health risks and set priorities for risk management. PMID:25061968

Sales-Ortells, Helena; Medema, Gertjan

2014-08-19

355

Microbiological air quality in an urban solid waste selection plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background: Exposure to bioaerosols may pose health risks to workers operating in the processing of Urban Solid Waste (USW. The aim of this study is to evaluate microbiological air quality within an USW selection facility.

Methods: Nine sampling points in an USW selection plant situated in central-southern Italy were selected. One outdoor sampling point provided the background data. Sampling was performed on a yearly basis (2005 – 2009 upon request by the management of the selection plant. Total Mesophilic Counts (TMC, as well as fungal and Gram-negative concentrations were determined.

Results: The highest viable fungal particles concentrations (medians were found in waste delivery areas (about 20000 CFU/m3, while the lowest were found in the control rooms (485 – 967 CFU/m3. TMC (median was highest (6116 CFU/m3 at the delivery pit, followed by the machine shop (3147 CFU/m3, where no waste processing takes place. Medians of Gram-negative bacteria are below the suggested Occupational Exposure Limit of 1000 CFU/m3, although this limit was exceeded at several single time-points in the waste delivery areas, and also in a personnel resting room. The lowest Gram-negative contamination was found in the control rooms (medians <1 CFU/m3.

Conclusions: Some areas within a USW selection plant act as internal sources of contamination towards those areas where partially processed waste, or no waste at all, is present. Well-designed air flows, or carefullythought positioning of areas that are not directly involved in waste processing are necessary and effective in obtaining

Angela Del Cimmuto

2010-03-01

356

Water Quality Evaluation: Toxic Cyanobacteria in Surface Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Task of this article is to discuss the risk of blue green algal bloom to public health and to compare water quality assessment standards of surface waters among the EU Member States: France, Germany and Lithuania, drawing attention to the EU Water Framework Directive and its aims. Influence of toxic cyanobacteria on human health and the need of more detailed measures of concentration of cyanobacteria in surface waters are pointed out. This article was prepared with a contribution from ...

Dovile Lileikyte; Olga Belous

2011-01-01

357

CONTRIBUTIONS OF WATER FILTRATION TO IMPROVING WATER QUALITY  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of water quality improvements can be accomplished by properly operated