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Sample records for unconfined compressive strength

  1. Influence of variables on the consolidation and unconfined compressive strength of crushed salt: Technical report

    Eight hydrostatic compression creep tests were performed on crushed salt specimens fabricated from Avery Island dome salt. Following the creep test, each specimen was tested in unconfined compression. The experiments were performed to assess the influence of the following four variables on the consolidation and unconfined strength of crushed salt: grain size distribution, temperature, time, and moisture content. The experiment design comprised a half-fraction factorial matrix at two levels. The levels of each variable investigated were grain size distribution, uniform-graded and well-graded (coefficient of uniformity of 1 and 8); temperature 250C and 1000C; time, 3.5 x 103s and 950 x 103s (approximately 60 minutes and 11 days, respectively); and moisture content, dry and wet (85% relative humidity for 24 hours). The hydrostatic creep stress was 10 MPa. The unconfined compression tests were performed at an axial strain rate of 1 x 10-5s-1. Results show that the variables time and moisture content have the greatest influence on creep consolidation, while grain size distribution and, to a somewhat lesser degree, temperature have the greatest influence on total consolidation. Time and moisture content and the confounded two-factor interactions between either grain size distribution and time or temperature and moisture content have the greatest influence on unconfined strength. 7 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs

  2. Influence of variables on the consolidation and unconfined compressive strength of crushed salt: Technical report

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Senseny, P.E.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    Eight hydrostatic compression creep tests were performed on crushed salt specimens fabricated from Avery Island dome salt. Following the creep test, each specimen was tested in unconfined compression. The experiments were performed to assess the influence of the following four variables on the consolidation and unconfined strength of crushed salt: grain size distribution, temperature, time, and moisture content. The experiment design comprised a half-fraction factorial matrix at two levels. The levels of each variable investigated were grain size distribution, uniform-graded and well-graded (coefficient of uniformity of 1 and 8); temperature 25/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C; time, 3.5 x 10/sup 3/s and 950 x 10/sup 3/s (approximately 60 minutes and 11 days, respectively); and moisture content, dry and wet (85% relative humidity for 24 hours). The hydrostatic creep stress was 10 MPa. The unconfined compression tests were performed at an axial strain rate of 1 x 10/sup -5/s/sup -1/. Results show that the variables time and moisture content have the greatest influence on creep consolidation, while grain size distribution and, to a somewhat lesser degree, temperature have the greatest influence on total consolidation. Time and moisture content and the confounded two-factor interactions between either grain size distribution and time or temperature and moisture content have the greatest influence on unconfined strength. 7 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Unconfined Compressive Strength of Fly Ash Mixed With Lime Precipitated Waste Sludge and Cement

    Dr. Malik Shoeb Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    For an effective disposal of fly ash, avoiding environmental pollution, it is necessary to utilize it on a continuous basis for some beneficial purposes. The present study investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of the fly ash along with lime precipitated waste sludge and cement. The Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) tests were carried out on the specimens comprising of fly ash (FA), (5 to 35%) lime precipitated electroplating waste sludge (S) and (2-20%) cement at 7 and 28 days of...

  4. Effect Of Coir Fibres On The Compaction And Unconfined Compressive Strength Of Bentonite-Lime-Gypsum Mixture

    Tilak B. Vidya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effect of coir fibres on the compaction and unconfined compressive strength of a bentonite-lime-gypsum mixture. The coir fiber content varied from 0.5 to 2 %. The results indicated that the dry unit weight and the optimum moisture content of a bentonite – lime mix increased with the addition of gypsum. The unconfined compressive strength of the bentonite increased with the increase in the lime content up to 8 %. Beyond 8 %, the unconfined compressive strength decreased. The dry unit weight of the reference mix decreased, and the optimum moisture content increased with the addition of coir fibre. The unconfined compressive strength of the bentonite + 8 % lime mix increased up to 4 % with the gypsum. Beyond 4 %, the unconfined compressive strength decreased. The unconfined compressive strength of the reference mix increased with the addition of coir fibre up to a fibre content of 1.5 %. The unconfined compressive strength of the reference mix-coir fibre composite was less in comparison to the reference mix. The unconfined compressive strength of the bentonite increased with the addition of lime and gypsum and with the increase in the curing period. The improvement in the post-peak region was better for the reference mix with reinforced coir fibres as compared to the unreinforced reference mix. The improved post-peak behaviour of the bentonite-lime-gypsum-coir fibre mixture could boost the construction of temporary roads on such problematic soils. Further, its use will also provide an environmental motivation for providing a means of consuming large quantities of coir fibres.

  5. Prediction of zeolite-cement-sand unconfined compressive strength using polynomial neural network

    MolaAbasi, H.; Shooshpasha, I.

    2016-04-01

    The improvement of local soils with cement and zeolite can provide great benefits, including strengthening slopes in slope stability problems, stabilizing problematic soils and preventing soil liquefaction. Recently, dosage methodologies are being developed for improved soils based on a rational criterion as it exists in concrete technology. There are numerous earlier studies showing the possibility of relating Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) and Cemented sand (CS) parameters (voids/cement ratio) as a power function fits. Taking into account the fact that the existing equations are incapable of estimating UCS for zeolite cemented sand mixture (ZCS) well, artificial intelligence methods are used for forecasting them. Polynomial-type neural network is applied to estimate the UCS from more simply determined index properties such as zeolite and cement content, porosity as well as curing time. In order to assess the merits of the proposed approach, a total number of 216 unconfined compressive tests have been done. A comparison is carried out between the experimentally measured UCS with the predictions in order to evaluate the performance of the current method. The results demonstrate that generalized polynomial-type neural network has a great ability for prediction of the UCS. At the end sensitivity analysis of the polynomial model is applied to study the influence of input parameters on model output. The sensitivity analysis reveals that cement and zeolite content have significant influence on predicting UCS.

  6. Unconfined Compressive Strength of Fly Ash Mixed With Lime Precipitated Waste Sludge and Cement

    Dr. Malik Shoeb Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For an effective disposal of fly ash, avoiding environmental pollution, it is necessary to utilize it on a continuous basis for some beneficial purposes. The present study investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of the fly ash along with lime precipitated waste sludge and cement. The Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS tests were carried out on the specimens comprising of fly ash (FA, (5 to 35% lime precipitated electroplating waste sludge (S and (2-20% cement at 7 and 28 days of curing periods. The results of UCS tests indicated that the strength of fly ash increases substantially on addition of lime precipitated sludge and cement. It has been observed that compressive strengths of cement stabilized fly ash were smaller than the cement-sludge stabilized mix. It has also been observed that the strength was increasing upto 20% sludge addition to fly ash-cement mix, however, the strength started decreasing on further addition of sludge beyond 20% to the fly ash-cement combination. The most effective percentage of fly ash-cement-sludge was found as 72%FA+20%S+8%C. The UCS of this mix was found as 18 and 25 MPa at 7 and 28 days of curing respectively. This is substantially higher than the UCS of plain fly ash (1.0 and 2.5 MPa at the same curing periods respectively. The X-ray analyses of some selected samples using EDX technique were also carried to study the elemental analyses of the various mixes. The EDX data showed that the experimental results obtain by UCS tests were in conformity with the chemical findings of EDX

  7. Development of experimental correlations between indentation parameters and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) values in shale samples

    Confined Compressive Strength (UCS) is one of the rock mechanical properties that is important take into account during drilling operations in order to avoid wellbore instability. During drilling operations, UCS variability influences wellbore stability more than other factors such as azimuth, slope, exposure time, and mud weight (Jaramillo, 2004). In last year, the indentation technique has been demonstrated to be an appropriate method for determining rock strength in real time during oil well drilling. This technique implements correlation that allow UCS evaluation from indentation parameters such as Indentation Module (IM) and Critical Transition Force (CTF), that can be measured on small rock fragments obtained during drilling. Shale formations in well drilling have demonstrated to be a hindrance since they represent the most important problem in reservoir stability (Abass, H., A. et al. 2006). Therefore, the main objective of this article is to find experimental correlations that allow the modeling of rock strength by applying the indentation technique to reservoir plug. The importance of this technique is the possibility to get rock strength properties in real time during drilling operations, although, those reservoir sections which do not have neither direct neither UCS records nor indirect measurements. Eight Unconfined Compression Tests (UCS) on rock cylinders (plugs) extracted from the Paja Formation upwelling were conducted in order to develop the corresponding experimental correlations. Two hundred indentation tests were also simultaneously conducted on shale fragments extracted from each plug surroundings in order to simulate the caving obtained from reservoir drilled. Results of both tests were correlated using the Minimum Square technique, seeking the best correlation that shall represent result behavior, thus obtaining two 2nd-degree polynomial correlations. Correlation coefficients of 0.6513 were determined for the (IM) - (UCS) correlation and 0.8111 for the (CTF) - (UCS) correlation. This demonstrates that the highest correlation between indentation parameters and (UCS) is obtained with the Critical Transition Force (CTF)

  8. Development of K-Basin High-Strength Homogeneous Sludge Simulants and Correlations Between Unconfined Compressive Strength and Shear Strength

    Onishi, Yasuo; Baer, Ellen BK; Chun, Jaehun; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sande, Susan; Buchmiller, William C.

    2011-02-20

    K-Basin sludge will be stored in the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) at an interim storage location on Central Plateau before being treated and packaged for disposal. During the storage period, sludge in the STSCs may consolidate/agglomerate, potentially resulting in high-shear-strength material. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) plans to use water jets to retrieve K-Basin sludge after the interim storage. STP has identified shear strength to be a key parameter that should be bounded to verify the operability and performance of sludge retrieval systems. Determining the range of sludge shear strength is important to gain high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from the STSCs. The shear strength measurements will provide a basis for bounding sludge properties for mobilization and erosion. Thus, it is also important to develop potential simulants to investigate these phenomena. Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) show that high-uranium-content K-Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has 'paste' and 'chunks' with shear strengths of approximately 3-5 kPa and 380-770 kPa, respectively. High-uranium-content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185 C, 10 hours) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. These high values were estimated by measured unconfined compressive strength (UCS) obtained with a pocket penetrometer. Due to its ease of use, it is anticipated that a pocket penetrometer will be used to acquire additional shear strength data from archived K-Basin sludge samples stored at the PNNL Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) hot cells. It is uncertain whether the pocket penetrometer provides accurate shear strength measurements of the material. To assess the bounding material strength and potential for erosion, it is important to compare the measured shear strength to penetrometer measurements and to develop a correlation (or correlations) between UCS measured by a pocket penetrometer and direct shear strength measurements for various homogeneous and heterogeneous simulants. This study developed 11 homogeneous simulants, whose shear strengths vary from 4 to 170 kPa. With these simulants, we developed correlations between UCS measured by a Geotest E-280 pocket penetrometer and shear strength values measured by a Geonor H-60 hand-held vane tester and a more sophisticated bench-top unit, the Haake M5 rheometer. This was achieved with side-by-side measurements of the shear strength and UCS of the homogeneous simulants. The homogeneous simulants developed under this study consist of kaolin clay, plaster of Paris, and amorphous alumina CP-5 with water. The simulants also include modeling clay. The shear strength of most of these simulants is sensitive to various factors, including the simulant size, the intensity of mixing, and the curing time, even with given concentrations of simulant components. Table S.1 summarizes these 11 simulants and their shear strengths.

  9. Effect of Industrial By-Products on Unconfined Compressive Strength of Solidified Organic Marine Clayey Soils

    Chan-Gi Park

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of industrial by-products as admixture to ASTM Type I cement (ordinary Portland cement (OPC was investigated with the objective of improving the solidification of organic marine clayey soils. The industrial by-products considered in this paper were oyster-shell powder (OSP, steelmaking slag dust (SMS and fuel-gas-desulfurized (FGD gypsum. The industrial by-products were added to OPC at a ratio of 5% based on dry weight to produce a mixture used to solidify organic marine clayey soils. The dosage ratios of mixtures to organic marine clayey soils were 5, 10 and 15% on a dry weight basis. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS test after 28 days revealed that the highest strength was obtained with the OPC + SMS 15% mixing ratio. The UCS of specimens treated with this mixture was >500 kPa, compared with 300 kPa for specimens treated with a 15% OPC + OSP mixture and 200 kPa when 15% of OPC was used alone. These results were attributed to the more active hydration and pozzolanic reaction of the OPC + SMS mixture. This hypothesis was verified through X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses, and was confirmed by variations in the calcium carbonate (CaCO3 content of the materials during curing.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL CORRELATIONS BETWEEN INDENTATION PARAMETERS AND UNCONFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (UCS) VALUES IN SHALE SAMPLES DESARROLO DE CORRELACIONES EXPERIMENTALES ENTRE PÁRAMETROS DE IDENTACIÓN Y LA RESISTENCIA COMPRENSIVA UNIAXIAL (UCS) PARA MUESTRAS DE SHALE

    Ricardo-Andrés García; Néstor-Fernando Saavedra; Zuly Calderón-Carrillo; Darwin Mateus

    2008-01-01

    Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) is one of the rock mechanical properties that is important take into account during drilling operations in order to avoid wellbore instability. During drilling operations, UCS variability influences wellbore stability more than other factors such as azimuth, slope, exposure time, and mud weight (Jaramillo, 2004). In last years, the indentation technique has been demonstrated to be an appropriate method for determining rock strength in real time during oil...

  11. Behavior of Stabilized Peat Soils in Unconfined Compression Tests

    Wong L. Sing

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Deep stabilized peat columns were known to be economical at forming foundations to support highway embankments constructed on deep peat land. However, failure in the formation of the columns with adequate strength was often attributed to unsuitable type and insufficient dosage of binder added to the soil. Organic matter in peat was known to impede the cementing process in the soil, thus retarding the early strength gain of stabilized peat. Approach: To evaluate the strength characteristics of stabilized peat, laboratory investigation on early strength gain of the stabilized soil was conducted to formulate a suitable and economical mix design that could be effectively used for the soil stabilization. To achieve such purpose, the study examined the effect of binder, sodium chloride as cement accelerator and siliceous sand as filler on the unconfined compressive strength of stabilized peat soils after 7 days of curing. Binders used to stabilize the peat were Ordinary Portland cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, sodium bentonite, kaolinite, lime and bentonite. All the stabilized peat specimens were tested using unconfined compression apparatus. Results: The test results revealed that the stabilized peat specimen (80% OPC: 10% GGBS: 10% SB with addition of 4% sodium chloride by weight of binder and 50% well graded siliceous sand by volume of wet peat at 300 kg m-3 binder dosage yielded the highest unconfined compressive strength of 196 kPa. Such finding implied that the higher the dosage of siliceous sand in stabilized peat, the more solid particles were available for the binder to unite and form a load sustainable stabilized peat. Conclusions/Recommendations: It could be summarized that as the rate of hydration process of stabilized peat was accelerated by inclusion of sodium chloride, the solid particles contributed to the hardening of stabilized peat by providing the cementation bonds to form between contact points of the particles.

  12. Determination of Friction Coefficient in Unconfined Compression of Brain Tissue

    Rashid, Badar; Gilchrist, Michael; 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2012.05.001

    2013-01-01

    Unconfined compression tests are more convenient to perform on cylindrical samples of brain tissue than tensile tests in order to estimate mechanical properties of the brain tissue because they allow for homogeneous deformations. The reliability of these tests depends significantly on the amount of friction generated at the specimen/platen interface. Thus, there is a crucial need to find an approximate value of the friction coefficient in order to predict a possible overestimation of stresses during unconfined compression tests. In this study, a combined experimental-computational approach was adopted to estimate the dynamic friction coefficient mu of porcine brain matter against metal platens in compressive tests. Cylindrical samples of porcine brain tissue were tested up to 30% strain at variable strain rates, both under bonded and lubricated conditions in the same controlled environment. It was established that mu was equal to 0.09 +/- 0.03, 0.18 +/- 0.04, 0.18 +/- 0.04 and 0.20 +/- 0.02 at strain rates of...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL CORRELATIONS BETWEEN INDENTATION PARAMETERS AND UNCONFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (UCS VALUES IN SHALE SAMPLES DESARROLO DE CORRELACIONES EXPERIMENTALES ENTRE PÁRAMETROS DE IDENTACIÓN Y LA RESISTENCIA COMPRENSIVA UNIAXIAL (UCS PARA MUESTRAS DE SHALE

    Ricardo-Andrés García

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS is one of the rock mechanical properties that is important take into account during drilling operations in order to avoid wellbore instability. During drilling operations, UCS variability influences wellbore stability more than other factors such as azimuth, slope, exposure time, and mud weight (Jaramillo, 2004. In last years, the indentation technique has been demonstrated to be an appropriate method for determining rock strength in real time during oil well drilling. This technique implements correlation that allow UCS evaluation from indentation parameters such as Indentation Module (IM and Critical Transition Force (CTF, that can be measured on small rock fragments obtained during drilling. Shale formations in well drilling have demonstrated to be a hindrance since they represent the most important problem in reservoir stability (Abass, H., A. et al. 2006. Therefore, the main objective of this article is to find experimental correlations that allow the modeling of rock strength by applying the indentation technique to reservoir plug. The importance of this technique is the possibility to get rock strength properties in real time during drilling operations, although, those reservoir sections which do not have neither direct UCS records nor indirect measurements. Eight Unconfined Compression Tests (UCS on rock cylinders (plugs extracted from the Paja formation upwelling were conducted in order to develop the corresponding experimental correlations. Two hundred indentation tests were also simultaneously conducted on shale fragments extracted from each plug surroundings in order to simulate the cavings obtained from reservoir drilled. Results of both tests were correlated using the Minimum Square technique, seeking the best correlation that shall represent result behavior, thus obtaining two 2nd-degree polynomial correlations. Correlation coefficients of 0,6513 were determined for the (IM - (UCS correlation and 0,8111 for the (CTF - (UCS correlation. This demonstrates that the highest correlation between indentation parameters and (UCS is obtained with the Critical Transition Force (CTF.La Resistencia Compresiva Uniaxial (UCS, es una de las propiedades mecánicas de las rocas que se debe tener en cuenta durante las operaciones de perforación para evitar la inestabilidad de pozos (Abass H., A. et al. 2006. Durante las operaciones de perforación el UCS de las formaciones es la variable de más alta influencia por encima de factores como el azimut, la inclinación, el tiempo de exposición e incluso el peso del lodo de perforación (Jaramillo, 2004. La técnica de Indentación ha demostrado en los últimos años ser adecuada para ayudar a determinar la resistencia de las rocas en tiempo real durante la perforación de pozos, mediante la implementación de correlaciones que permitan evaluar el UCS a partir de los parámetros de Indentación conocidos como Módulo de Indentación (IM y Fuerza Crítica de Transición (CTF, medidas en pequeños fragmentos de roca obtenidos de la perforación de pozos. La resistencia de los shales ha demostrado ser muy problemática durante la perforación. Por este motivo el principal objetivo de este trabajo es encontrar correlaciones experimentales que permitan modelar la resistencia de la roca a través de la aplicación de la técnica de indentacion a muestras de roca. Lo interesante de esta técnica es la posibilidad de obtener propiedades de resistencia en tiempo real durante la perforación, incluyendo esas secciones del reservorio en las que no existen registros directos UCS ni mediciones indirectas. Con el fin de desarrollar las correlaciones experimentales se realizaron ocho pruebas de Compresión Uniaxial (no confinada sobre cilindros de roca (plugs extraídos de muestras de afloramiento de la formación Paja. A la vez re realizaron 200 pruebas de Indentación sobre fragmentos de shale extraídos de los alrededores de cada plug simulando los ripios que se obtienen de la perforación de pozos. Los resultados de ambas pruebas f

  14. Behavior of Stabilized Peat Soils in Unconfined Compression Tests

    Wong L. Sing; Roslan Hashim; Faisal H. Ali

    2008-01-01

    Problem statement: Deep stabilized peat columns were known to be economical at forming foundations to support highway embankments constructed on deep peat land. However, failure in the formation of the columns with adequate strength was often attributed to unsuitable type and insufficient dosage of binder added to the soil. Organic matter in peat was known to impede the cementing process in the soil, thus retarding the early strength gain of stabilized peat. Approach: To evaluate the strength...

  15. Sinusoidally-driven unconfined compression test for a biphasic tissue

    Argatov, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, a number of experimental studies have been conducted to investigate the mechanical behavior of water-saturated biological tissues like articular cartilage under dynamic loading. For in vivo measurements of tissue viability, the indentation tests with the half-sinusoidal loading history were proposed. In the present paper, the sinusoidally-driven compression test utilizing either the load-controlled or displacement-controlled loading protocol are considered in the framework of...

  16. Unconfined compression experiments on Topopah Spring Member tuff at 22 degrees C and a strain rate of 10-9 s-1: Data report

    Experiment results are presented for unconfined compressive strength and elastic moduli of tuffaceous rocks from Busted Butte near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data have been compiled for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Site and Engineering Properties Data Base. Experiments were conducted on water-saturated specimens of the potential nuclear waste repository horizon Topopah Spring Member tuff (thermal/mechanical unit TSw2). The influence of strain rate on mechanical properties of the tuff was examined by loading six specimens in uniaxial compression at a strain rate of 10-9 s-1. The experiments performed under ambient pressure and temperature conditions and conformed to Technical Procedure 91, titled ''Unconfined Compression Experiments at 22 degrees C and a Strain Rate of 10-9 s-1.'' The mean and standard deviation values of ultimate strength, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio determined from these experiments are 85.4±21.7 MPa, 33.9±4.6 GPa, and 0.09±0.07, respectively

  17. Thermo-mechanical cementation effects in bentonite investigated by unconfined compression tests

    Results from the project LOT showed that specimens exposed to warm conditions had a significantly reduced strain at failure compared to reference material. The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of parameters such as temperature, density, water content and degree of saturation on the occurrence of brittleness at failure of bentonite specimens. To quantify the influence of the different parameters the unconfined compression test was used on specimens with a height and diameter of 20 mm. In this test the relation between stress and strain is determined from axial compression of a cylindrical specimen. Brittle failure is in this investigation mainly seen on specimens having a density of ? ? 2,060 kg/m3 or on specimens exposed to high temperature T ? 150 deg C in the laboratory. Brittle failure behaviour was also seen on unsaturated specimens with a degree of saturation less than Sr i = 0% before saturation, on specimens with a final degree of saturation of Sr ? 97% and also on one specimen subjected to consolidation during preparation. Brittle failure and reduced strain were noticed in the heated field exposed material in the LOT project. Similar behaviour was also observed in the present short term laboratory tests. However, the specimens in the present study showing this behaviour had higher density, lower degree of saturation or were exposed to higher temperatures than the field exposed specimens

  18. Thermo-mechanical cementation effects in bentonite investigated by unconfined compression tests

    Dueck, Ann (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    Results from the project LOT showed that specimens exposed to warm conditions had a significantly reduced strain at failure compared to reference material. The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of parameters such as temperature, density, water content and degree of saturation on the occurrence of brittleness at failure of bentonite specimens. To quantify the influence of the different parameters the unconfined compression test was used on specimens with a height and diameter of 20 mm. In this test the relation between stress and strain is determined from axial compression of a cylindrical specimen. Brittle failure is in this investigation mainly seen on specimens having a density of rho >= 2,060 kg/m3 or on specimens exposed to high temperature T >= 150 deg C in the laboratory. Brittle failure behaviour was also seen on unsaturated specimens with a degree of saturation less than Sr < 90%. Failure at reduced strain was seen in this investigation on specimens exposed to T = 150 deg C, on specimens having a water content of w{sub i} = 0% before saturation, on specimens with a final degree of saturation of S{sub r} <= 97% and also on one specimen subjected to consolidation during preparation. Brittle failure and reduced strain were noticed in the heated field exposed material in the LOT project. Similar behaviour was also observed in the present short term laboratory tests. However, the specimens in the present study showing this behaviour had higher density, lower degree of saturation or were exposed to higher temperatures than the field exposed specimens

  19. Saturated-Unsaturated flow in a Compressible Leaky-unconfined Aquifer

    Mishra, Phoolendra K; Kuhlman, Kristopher L

    2011-01-01

    An analytical solution is developed for three-dimensional flow towards a partially penetrating large-diameter well in an unconfined aquifer bounded below by an aquitard of finite or semi-infinite extent. The analytical solution is derived using Laplace and Hankel transforms, then inverted numerically. Existing solutions for flow in leaky unconfined aquifers neglect the unsaturated zone following an assumption of instantaneous drainage assumption due to Neuman [1972]. We extend the theory of leakage in unconfined aquifers by (1) including water flow and storage in the unsaturated zone above the water table, and (2) allowing the finite-diameter pumping well to partially penetrate the aquifer. The investigation of model-predicted results shows that leakage from an underlying aquitard leads to significant departure from the unconfined solution without leakage. The investigation of dimensionless time-drawdown relationships shows that the aquitard drawdown also depends on unsaturated zone properties and the pumping...

  20. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TESTING OF EARTH MORTARS

    Givanildo Alves Azeredo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the compressive strength of earth mortars. The goal is to use these mortars for masonry construction. Although it is necessary to study the whole masonry behaviour, the scope of this paper refers to the mortar only, without taking into account the blocks. As with other masonry units, compressive strength is a basic measure of quality for masonry mortars. However, there is a great variety of methodology for determining their parameters and properties, such as different samples geometry, the way strains are measured and also the platen restraint effect adopted. The present paper outlines certain experimental devices used to determine compressive strength of earth mortars and tries to show their influence on the properties determined. Proposals for the future development of testing earth mortars are outlined.

  1. Compressive Strength of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Blockwork

    Y.A. Daou

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic problems in the design of masonry structures is the calculation of the compressive strength of masonry walls. This paper discusses the various parameters which affect the compressive strength of Autoclaved Aerated concrete blockwork with particular reference to the British Standard BS 5628: Part 1 and the Draft Eurocode EC6. Thirty six blockwork wallettes made of Autoclaved Aerated concrete blockwork were built and tested together with the corresponding properties of the units. The parameters examined were unit strength, mortar strength and size of the units. For the range of the block width (i.e. 100mm and 200mm, The strength of the wallettes were not significantly affected by the height/width ratio of the unit. Higher block strength yielded higher wallette stergnth, but only a slight difference in the strength of wallettes built with mortar designation (iii and (iv (i.e. 1:1:6 and 1: 2:9 by volume, cement: lime: sand respectively was obtained. The methods used in the British Standard BS 5628 and the Eurocode EC6 for the determination of the compressive strenght of masonry are reviewd and compared with the test results.

  2. Compressive Strength of Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    Jelušič, Matjaž

    2009-01-01

    The thesis features an analysis of the time development of compressive strength of fibre reinforced normal and high strength concrete. Concrete mixtures, taken from the doctoral dissertation of assistant Dr Drago Saje, were used as comparable mixtures to fibre reinforced concrete mixtures with different volume shares of fibres. Two types of steel fibres were used, both featuring the same characteristics but having different lengths (16 and 30 mm), as well as polypropylene fibres. The percenta...

  3. Compressive strength of continuous fiber unidirectional composites

    Thompson, Ronald H.

    Dow and Rosen's work in 1965 formed an intellectual framework for compressive strength of unidirectional composites. Compressive strength was explained in terms of micro-buckling, in which filaments are beams on an elastic foundation. They made simplifying assumptions, with a two dimensional idealization and linearized material properties. This study builds on their model, recognizing that the shear mode of instability drives unidirectional compressive strength. As a necessary corollary, the predictive methods developed in this study emphasize correct representation of composite shear stiffness. Non-linear effects related to matrix material properties, fiber misalignment, three dimensional representation, and thermal prestrains are taken into account. Four work streams comprise this study: first, development of a closed form analytical model; second, empirical methods development and model validation; third, creation and validation of a unit cell finite element model; and fourth, a patent application that leverages knowledge gained from the first three work streams. The analytical model characterizes the non-linearity of the matrix both with respect to shear and compressive loading. This improvement on existing analyses clearly shows why fiber modulus affects composite shear instability. Accounting for fiber misalignment in the model and experimental characterization of the fiber misalignment continuum are important contributions of this study. A simple method of compressive strength measurement of a small diameter monofilament glass-resin composite is developed. Sample definition and preparation are original, and necessary technologies are easily assessable to other researchers in this field. This study shows that glass fiber composites have the potential for high compressive strength. This potential is reached with excellent fiber alignment and suitable matrix characteristics, and results are consistent with model predictions. The unit cell three dimensional finite element model introduces a boundary condition that only allows compressive and shear deformation, thus recognizing the actual deformation mechanism of a compressed unidirectional composite. A new approach for representing the resin matrix is employed, giving improved correlation to empirical measurements noted in the literature. A method of accounting for realistic composite imperfections is introduced. The patent application work was fed by results from the first three areas. A new engineering structure is created in which buckling is beneficial. Post buckled behavior favorably affects other structural components in an overload situation. The first three work streams form a coherent unit and are mutually supportive. The analytical model predictions are corroborated by the experimental measurements. Finite element model predictions are consistent with the analytical model predictions.

  4. Optimization of compressive strength in admixture-reinforced cement-based grouts

    Sahin Zaimoglu, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Taguchi method was used in this study to optimize the unconfined (7-, 14- and 28-day compressive strength of cement-based grouts with bentonite, fly ash and silica fume admixtures. The experiments were designed using an L16 orthogonal array in which the three factors considered were bentonite (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 3%, fly ash (10%, 20%, 30% and 40% and silica fume (0%, 5%, 10% and 20% content. The experimental results, which were analyzed by ANOVA and the Taguchi method, showed that fly ash and silica fume content play a significant role in unconfined compressive strength. The optimum conditions were found to be: 0% bentonite, 10% fly ash, 20% silica fume and 28 days of curing time. The maximum unconfined compressive strength reached under the above optimum conditions was 17.1 MPa.En el presente trabajo se ha intentado optimizar, mediante el mtodo de Taguchi, las resistencias a compresin (a las edades de 7, 14 y 28 das de lechadas de cemento reforzadas con bentonita, cenizas volantes y humo de slice. Se disearon los experimentos de acuerdo con un arreglo ortogonal tipo L16 en el que se contemplaban tres factores: la bentonita (0, 0,5, 1 y 3%, las cenizas volantes (10, 20, 30 y 40% y el humo de slice (0, 5, 10 y 20% (porcentajes en peso del slido. Los datos obtenidos se analizaron con mediante ANOVA y el mtodo de Taguchi. De acuerdo con los resultados experimentales, el contenido tanto de cenizas volantes como de humo de slice desempea un papel significativo en la resistencia a compresin. Por otra parte, las condiciones ptimas que se han identificado son: 0% bentonita, 10% cenizas volantes, 20% humo de slice y 28 das de tiempo de curado. La resistencia a compresin mxima conseguida en las anteriores condiciones era de 17,1 MPa.

  5. Compressive strength of delaminated aerospace composites.

    Butler, Richard; Rhead, Andrew T; Liu, Wenli; Kontis, Nikolaos

    2012-04-28

    An efficient analytical model is described which predicts the value of compressive strain below which buckle-driven propagation of delaminations in aerospace composites will not occur. An extension of this efficient strip model which accounts for propagation transverse to the direction of applied compression is derived. In order to provide validation for the strip model a number of laminates were artificially delaminated producing a range of thin anisotropic sub-laminates made up of 0, 45 and 90 plies that displayed varied buckling and delamination propagation phenomena. These laminates were subsequently subject to experimental compression testing and nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) using cohesive elements. Comparison of strip model results with those from experiments indicates that the model can conservatively predict the strain at which propagation occurs to within 10 per cent of experimental values provided (i) the thin-film assumption made in the modelling methodology holds and (ii) full elastic coupling effects do not play a significant role in the post-buckling of the sub-laminate. With such provision, the model was more accurate and produced fewer non-conservative results than FEA. The accuracy and efficiency of the model make it well suited to application in optimum ply-stacking algorithms to maximize laminate strength. PMID:22431756

  6. Predicting mechanical properties of enhanced performance concrete using compressive strength

    Camões, Aires; Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de, ed. lit.; Jalali, Said

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical properties of concrete are usually evaluated from compressive strength test results. Extensive literature, codes and regulations recommend the prediction of mechanical properties such as splitting and flexural tensile strength using the compressive strength of cylindrical specimens. These expressions are not related with the type of concrete and, generally, are only a function of the cylindrical compressive strength. It is the objective of this research work to in...

  7. Axial Compressive Strength of Foamcrete with Different Profiles and Dimensions

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight foamcrete is a versatile material; primarily consist of a cement based mortar mixed with at least 20% volume of air. High flow ability, lower self-weight, minimal requirement of aggregate, controlled low strength and good thermal insulation properties are a few characteristics of foamcrete. Its dry densities, typically, is below 1600kg/m3 with compressive strengths maximum of 15MPa. The ASTM standard provision specifies a correction factor for concrete strengths of between 14 and 42MPa to compensate for the reduced strength when the aspect height-to-diameter ratio of specimen is less than 2.0, while the CEB-FIP provision specifically mentions the ratio of 150 x 300mm cylinder strength to 150 mm cube strength. However, both provisions requirements do not specifically clarify the applicability and/or modification of the correction factors for the compressive strength of foamcrete. This proposed laboratory work is intended to study the effect of different dimensions and profiles on the axial compressive strength of concrete. Specimens of various dimensions and profiles are cast with square and circular cross-sections i.e., cubes, prisms and cylinders, and to investigate their behavior in compression strength at 7 and 28 days. Hypothetically, compressive strength will decrease with the increase of concrete specimen dimension and concrete specimen with cube profile would yield comparable compressive strength to cylinder (100 x 100 x 100mm cube to 100dia x 200mm cylinder.

  8. Application of size effect to compressive strength of concrete members

    Jin-Keun Kim; Seong-Tae Yi

    2002-08-01

    It is important to consider the effect of size when estimating the ultimate strength of a concrete member under various loading conditions. Well known as the size effect, the strength of a member tends to decrease when its size increases. Therefore, in view of recent increased interest in the size effect of concrete this research focuses on the size effect of two main classes of compressive strength of concrete: pure axial compressive strength and flexural compressive strength. First, fracture mechanics type size effect on the compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens was studied, with the diameter, and the height/diameter ratio considered as the main parameters. Theoretical and statistical analyses were conducted, and a size effect equation was proposed to predict the compressive strength specimens. The proposed equation showed good agreement with the existing test results for concrete cylinders. Second, the size, length, and depth variations of a flexural compressive member have been studied experimentally. A series of -shaped specimens subjected to axial compressive load and bending moment were tested. The shape of specimens and the test procedures used were similar to those by Hognestad and others. The test results are curve-fitted using Levenberg-Marquardt’s least squares method (LSM) to obtain parameters for the modified size effect law (MSEL) by Kim and co workers. The results of the analysis show that the effect of specimen size, length, and depth on ultimate strength is significant. Finally, more general parameters for MSEL are suggested.

  9. TRIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

    Radoslav Sovják; Filip Vogel; Birgit Beckmann

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the strength of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) under triaxial compression. The main goal is to find a trend in the triaxial compressive strength development under various values of confinement pressure. The importance of triaxial tests lies in the spatial loading of the sample, which simulates the real loading of the material in the structure better than conventional uniaxial strength tests. In addition, the authors describe a formulation process fo...

  10. Ultimate Strength Analysis of Stiffened Plate Under Longitudinal Compression, Transverse Compression and Lateral Pressure

    Ta Hong Phong1a,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ship hull can be considered as a thin – walled box gider constituted by stiffened panels. In order to research the ship ultimate strength, the ultimate strength of stiffened panel must be considered. Stiffened plates are typical structure of ship. Ultimate strength analysis of stiffened plate for the analysis of ships' structures. In present paper, the nonlinear finite element method is employed to predict the ultimate strength of stiffened plate model under longitudinal compression, transverse compression, lateral pressure.

  11. Prediction of Splitting Tensile Strength from Cylinder Compressive Strength of Concrete by Support Vector Machine

    Kezhen Yan; Hongbing Xu; Guanghui Shen; Pei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Compressive strength and splitting tensile strength are both important parameters that are utilized for characterization concrete mechanical properties. This paper aims to show a possible applicability of support vector machine (SVM) to predict the splitting tensile strength of concrete from compressive strength of concrete, a SVM model was built, trained, and tested using the available experimental data gathered from the literature. All of the results predicted by the SVM model are compared ...

  12. Compressive strength of brick masonry made with weak mortars

    Pedersen, Erik Steen; Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    2013-01-01

    strength of masonry depends only on the strength of the bricks. A compression failure in masonry made with weak mortars occurs as a tension failure in the bricks, as they seek to prevent the mortar from being pressed out of the joints. The expression is derived by assuming hydrostatic pressure in the...... mortar joints, which is the most unfavourable stress distribution with respect to tensile stresses in bricks. The expression is compared with the results of compression tests of masonry made with weak mortars. It can take into account bricks with arbitrary dimensions as well as perforated bricks. For a...... stronger mortar (fm≈6 N/mm2) compression tests of masonry with perforated bricks show that the EC6 expression is not always safe for Danish masonry. This is probably because the tensile strength of the bricks also has an effect on the compressive strength of masonry when the mortar is stronger than weak...

  13. Compressive strength and rheology of environmentally-friendly binders

    Juan Manuel Lizarazo Marriaga

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ordinary Portland cement production accounts for 9% of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. This paper summarises the results of research aimed at developing environmentally-friendly binders which can be used as an alternative in civil construction, aimed at generating alternatives and sustainable materials. Mixes of the combination of granulated ground blast furnace slag, basic oxygen slag, cement kiln dust and plasterboard gypsum were used for optimising the binders, according to their compressive strength, to obtain 5 concrete mixtures made partially or completely with industrial waste. The results showed that the compressive strength of mixtures of Portland cement and industrial waste were suitable for different civil construction applications and, although mixtures formed entirely from industrial waste had a significant decrease in their compressive strength, the results sho- wed great potential for specific industrial applications. In addition to compressive strength, the rheological properties of these mixtures were determined for defining flow and workability characteristics.

  14. Compressive strength of fiber-reinforced composite materials

    Davis, J. G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Results of an experimental and analytical investigation of the compressive strength of unidirectional boron-epoxy composite material are presented. Observation of fiber coordinates in a boron-epoxy composite indicates that the fibers contain initial curvature. Combined axial compression and torsion tests were conducted on boron-epoxy tubes and it was shown that the shear modulus is a function of axial compressive stress. An analytical model which includes initial curvature in the fibers and permits an estimate of the effect of curvature on compressive strength is proposed. Two modes of failure which may result from the application of axial compressive stress are analyzed - delamination and shear instability. Based on tests and analysis, failure of boron-epoxy under axial compressive load is due to shear instability.

  15. Compressive Strength of Ready Mix Concrete Using Soft Computing Techniques

    Mr. Vipin V. Munot; Prof. Ashish P.Waghmare

    2014-01-01

    Ready mixed concrete (RMC) is an essential material in contemporary construction and engineering projects. Compressive strength of concrete is a major and perhaps the most important mechanical property, which is usually measured after a standard curing of 28 days. In this research work, 28-day compressive strength of Ready Mix Concrete has been estimated by using feed forward back propagation neural network, Fuzzy Logic and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) modeling. T...

  16. On the ultimate compressive strength of transversely cracked plates

    Bayatfar, Abbas; Pire, Timothe; Rigo, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to numerically analyse the ultimate strength of transversely cracked steel plates under longitudinal compressive loading, considering the effect of initial distortion as well. The main objective of this study is to investigate the ultimate compressive strength characteristics of an unstiffened steel plate due to transverse cracking damages located in the middle (i.e. centre cracks and edge cracks). To achieve that, a series of non-linear finite element (FE) analyses are carrie...

  17. Prediction of 28-day Compressive Strength of Concrete from Early Strength and Accelerated Curing Parameters

    Neelakantan, T. R.; S. Ramasundaram; R. Shanmugavel; R Vinoth

    2013-01-01

    Predicting 28-day compressive strength of concrete is an important research task for many years. In this study, concrete specimens were cured in two phases, initially at room temperature for a maximum of 30 h and later at a higher temperature for accelerated curing for a maximum of 3 h. Using the early strength obtained after the two-phase curing and the curing parameters, regression equations were developed to predict the 28-day compressive strength. For the accelerated curing (higher temper...

  18. Compressive Strength of Longitudinally Stiffened GRP Panels

    Böhme, J.; Noury, P.; Riber, Hans Jørgen; Verdier, Guillaume Henry C.

    1996-01-01

    A structural analysis of a cross stiffened orthotropic GRP panel subjected to uniaxial compressive loads is carried out. Analytical solutions to the buckling of such structures are proposed and validated by a finite element analysis. Both analytical and finite element approaches confirm an identi...... identical failure scenario. In the present case, the load carring capacity of the stiffened panel is limited by the plate buckling capability....

  19. Comparison Of Compressive Strength Of Medium Strength Self Compacted Concrete By Different Curing Techniques

    Prof. Nanak J Pamnani1, Dr. A.K. Verma2, Dr. D.R. Bhatt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available : In this paper variation in compressive strength of medium strength, self-compacted concrete with 3 different curing techniques is discussed. Initially several trials were carried out for mix design of medium strength selfcompacting concrete. Once the mix design was achieved, three batches of concrete cubes were cast as per ASTM standard. Water cement ratio and admixture dose were kept constant as required by selected Mix Design. Slump Test was carried out on each batch in order to ascertain concrete flow for self-compacting concrete. First batch was cured in a temperature controlled curing tank in the laboratory. The second batch was cured by the application of an external curing compound under prevailing site conditions. The 3rd batch was cured with internal curing agent. From each batch, 3 cubes were tested for compressive strength at 3-days age, at 7 days age and 28 days age of concrete and average values were taken. Results were analyzed and graphs were drawn.It was noted that 28-days compressive strength of cubes cured by applying curing compound was 91 % of the compressive strength of cubes cured in water tank in the laboratory (i.e., 09 % less.Similarly compressive strength of cubes cured by Internal curing compound was 95 % of the compressive strength of cubes cured in the laboratory (i.e., 05% less. So it was concluded that in areas with shortage of water, curing compounds can be effectively used with improved strength and sustainability of selfcompacted concrete

  20. Comparison of Open-Hole Compression Strength and Compression After Impact Strength on Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminates for the Ares I Composite Interstage

    Hodge, Andrew J.; Nettles, Alan T.; Jackson, Justin R.

    2011-01-01

    Notched (open hole) composite laminates were tested in compression. The effect on strength of various sizes of through holes was examined. Results were compared to the average stress criterion model. Additionally, laminated sandwich structures were damaged from low-velocity impact with various impact energy levels and different impactor geometries. The compression strength relative to damage size was compared to the notched compression result strength. Open-hole compression strength was found to provide a reasonable bound on compression after impact.

  1. TRIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

    Radoslav Sovják

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to describe the strength of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC under triaxial compression. The main goal is to find a trend in the triaxial compressive strength development under various values of confinement pressure. The importance of triaxial tests lies in the spatial loading of the sample, which simulates the real loading of the material in the structure better than conventional uniaxial strength tests. In addition, the authors describe a formulation process for UHPC that has been developed without using heat treatment, pressure or a special mixer. Only ordinary materials available commercially in the Czech Republic were utilized throughout the material design process.

  2. Strength and texture of Pt compressed to 63?GPa

    Angle- and energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction experiments in a radial geometry were performed in the diamond anvil cell on polycrystalline platinum samples at pressures up to 63?GPa. Observed yield strength and texture depend on grain size. For samples with 70300-nm particle size, the yield strength is 56?GPa at ?60?GPa. Coarse-grained (?2-?m particles) Pt has a much lower yield strength of 11.5?GPa at ?60?GPa. Face-centered cubic metals Pt and Au have lower strength to shear modulus ratio than body-centered cubic or hexagonal close-packed metals. While a 300-nm particle sample exhibits the ?110? texture expected of face-centered-cubic metals under compression, smaller and larger particles show a weak mixed ?110? and ?100? texture under compression. Differences in texture development may also occur due to deviations from uniaxial stress under compression in the diamond anvil cell

  3. ESTIMATION OF UNIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH BASED ON REGRESSION TREE MODELS

    Zlatko Briševac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the estimation of the uniaxial compressive strength for mudstone and wackestone carbonates. The need for the estimation has occurred due to inability to fulfill the high quality requirements of sample treatment during direct determination of this physical and mechanical property on certain types of rocks. For the needs of modelling intact rock materials, extracted from six locations in Croatia, were tested. The following properties were examined: density, effective porosity, point load strength index, Schmidt rebound hardness, P-wave velocity and uniaxial compressive strength which was the target value of the used statistical models. The statistical models based on multiple linear regression and regression trees were considered and compared using cross validation, which showed that the most efficient estimation of the uniaxial compressive strength is obtained using random forests.

  4. Compressive Strength of Compacted Clay-Sand Mixes

    Khan, Faseel Suleman; Azam, Shahid; Raghunandan, Mavinakere Eshwaraiah; Clark, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The use of sand to improve the strength of natural clays provides a viable alternative for civil infrastructure construction involving earthwork. The main objective of this note was to investigate the compressive strength of compacted clay-sand mixes. A natural clay of high plasticity was mixed with 20% and 40% sand (SP) and their compaction and strength properties were determined. Results indicated that the investigated materials exhibited a brittle behaviour on the dry side of optimum and a...

  5. Axial Compressive Strength of Foamcrete with Different Profiles and Dimensions

    Othuman Mydin M.A.; Sudin M.A.S.; Sani N. Md.

    2014-01-01

    Lightweight foamcrete is a versatile material; primarily consist of a cement based mortar mixed with at least 20% volume of air. High flow ability, lower self-weight, minimal requirement of aggregate, controlled low strength and good thermal insulation properties are a few characteristics of foamcrete. Its dry densities, typically, is below 1600kg/m3 with compressive strengths maximum of 15MPa. The ASTM standard provision specifies a correction factor for concrete strengths of between 14 and ...

  6. Effect of Hand Mixing on the Compressive Strength of Concrete

    James Isiwu AGUWA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effect of hand mixing on the compressive strength of concrete. Before designing the concrete mix, sieve analysis of sharp sand and chippings was carried out and their fineness moduli were determined. Also the dry weight of chippings and the specific gravities of both sand and chippings were determined. A designed concrete mix of 1:2:4 was used and the number of turnings of the mixture over from one end to another by hand mixing was varying from one time up to and including seven times. The strengths were measured at the curing ages of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days respectively using 150mm concrete cubes cast, cured and crushed. The results revealed that the compressive strengths of concrete cubes appreciably increased with increase in number of turnings from one to four times but remained almost constant beyond four times of turning for all the ages tested. For example, at 1, 2, and 3 times turning; the compressive strengths at 28 days were 4.67, 13.37 and 20.28N/mm2 respectively while at 4, 5 and 6 times turning; the compressive strengths at 28 days were 21.15, 21.34 and 21.69N/mm2. From the data, adequate strengths were not developed at turnings below three times of hand mixing, concluding that a minimum of three times turning is required to produce concrete with satisfactory strength.

  7. Correlation between compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity of high strength concrete incorporating chopped basalt fibre

    Shafiq, Nasir; Fadhilnuruddin, Muhd; Elshekh, Ali Elheber Ahmed; Fathi, Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), is considered as the most important test for non-destructive techniques that are used to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of high strength concrete (HSC). The relationship between the compressive strength of HSC containing chopped basalt fibre stands (CBSF) and UPV was investigated. The concrete specimens were prepared using a different ratio of CBSF as internal strengthening materials. The compressive strength measurements were conducted at the sample ages of 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days; whilst, the ultrasonic pulse velocity was measured at 28 days. The result of HSC's compressive strength with the chopped basalt fibre did not show any improvement; instead, it was decreased. The UPV of the chopped basalt fibre reinforced concrete has been found to be less than that of the control mix for each addition ratio of the basalt fibre. A relationship plot is gained between the cube compressive strength for HSC and UPV with various amounts of chopped basalt fibres.

  8. Compressive strength of fibre composites with random fibre waviness

    Liu, D.; Fleck, N. A.; Sutcliffe, M. P. F.

    2004-07-01

    The compressive strength of unidirectional long fibre composites is predicted for plastic microbuckling from a random two-dimensional distribution of fibre waviness. The effect of the physical size of waviness is addressed by using couple stress theory, with the fibre bending resistance scaling with the fibre diameter d. The predicted statistical distribution of compressive strength is found using a Monte Carlo method. An ensemble of fibre waviness profiles is generated from an assumed spectral density of waviness and the compressive strength for each such realisation is calculated directly by the finite element method. The average predicted strength agrees reasonably with practical values, confirming the hypothesis that microbuckles can be initiated by fibre misalignment. It is found that the probability distribution of strength is well matched by a Weibull fit, and the dependence of the Weibull parameters upon the spectral density of waviness is determined. For the practical range of fibre distributions considered, it is concluded that the strength depends mainly upon the root mean square amplitude of fibre misalignment, with the shape of the power spectral density function playing only a minor role. An engineering model for predicting the compressive strength is proposed, akin to weakest link theory for materials containing flaws. A specimen containing randomly distributed waviness is examined to locate regions of high-fibre misalignment. The strength of each of these weak regions is estimated from a look-up table derived from calculations with idealised circular or elliptical patches of waviness. The strength of the composite is given by the failure stress associated with the weakest such patch. For random distributions of waviness, the predictions using this engineering approach are in good agreement with the direct calculations of strength using the finite element method.

  9. PREPARATION OF BIOACTIVE NANOSTRUCTURE SCAFFOLD WITH IMPROVED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

    R. EMADI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly porous scaffolds with open structure are today the best candidates for bone substitution to ensure bone oxygenation and angiogenesis. In this study, we developed a new route to enhance the compressive strength of porous hydroxyapatite scaffold made of natural bone. Briefly, the spongy bone of an adult bovine was extracted, annealed, and coated by a nanostructure bioactive glass layer to be subsequently sintered at different temperatures. The apatite formation ability on the surfaces of the coated scaffolds was investigated by standard procedures. Our results showed that the scaffold and coating microstructure consisted of the grains smaller than 100 nm. These nanostructures improved the compressive strength and bioactivity of highly porous scaffold. The results showed that with increasing the sintering temperature, the compressive strength of scaffolds increased while their in vitro bioactivity decreased.

  10. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  11. Compressive Strength of Ready Mix Concrete Using Soft Computing Techniques

    Mr. Vipin V. Munot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ready mixed concrete (RMC is an essential material in contemporary construction and engineering projects. Compressive strength of concrete is a major and perhaps the most important mechanical property, which is usually measured after a standard curing of 28 days. In this research work, 28-day compressive strength of Ready Mix Concrete has been estimated by using feed forward back propagation neural network, Fuzzy Logic and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS modeling. The data for the ready mixed concretes (RMC were collected from RMC batching plant. Various models has been has been developed for different input scenarios. The compressive strength was modeled as a function of five variables, the effects of each parameter on networks were studied for Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Fuzzy Logic and ANFIS models.

  12. Effect Of Salt Water On Compressive Strength Of Concrete

    Preeti Tiwari; Rajiv Chandak

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, the effect of salt water on the compressive strength of concrete was investigated. This paper therefore presents the result and findings of an experimental research on the effect of salt water on compressive strength of concrete. For this concrete cubes were cast using fresh wi and salt water for a design mix of M-30 1:1.8:3.31 by weight of concrete, and 0.45 water- cement ratio. Half of concrete cubes were cast and cured with fresh water and remaining ha...

  13. Fracture Energy of High-Strength Concrete in Compression

    Dahl, Henrik; Brincker, Rune

    is essential for understanding the fracture mechanism of concrete in compression. In this paper a series of tests is reported, carried out for the purpose of studying the fracture mechanical properties of concrete in compression. Including the measurement and study of the descending branch, a new...... experimental method has been used to investigate the influence of boundary conditions, loading rate, size effects and the influence of the strength on the fracture energy of high-strength concrete over the range 70 MPa to 150 MPa, expressed in nominal values....

  14. Goose`s eggshell strength at compressive loading

    Šárka Nedomová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of the goose eggs behaviour under compressive loading between two plates using testing device TIRATEST. The influences of the loading orientation as well as the effect of compressive velocity are studied. 226 eggs from Landes geese were chosen for the experiment. Eggs have been loaded between their poles and in the equator plane. Five different compressive velocities (0.0167, 0.167, 0.334, 1.67 and 5 mm.s-1 were used. The increase in rupture force with loading rate was observed for loading in all direction (along main axes. Dependence of the rupture force on loading rate was quantifies and described. The highest rupture force was obtained when the eggs were loaded along their axes of symmetry (X-axis. Compression in the equator plane (along the Z-axis required the least compressive force to break the eggshells. The eggshell strength was described by the rupture force, specific rupture deformation and by the absorbed energy. The rupture force is highly dependent on compression speeds. The dependence of the rupture force on the compression velocity can be described by a power function. The same is valid for the rate dependence of the energy absorbed by the egg up to the fracture. The rate sensitivity of the Goose's eggshells strength is significantly higher than that reported for the hen's eggs

  15. Relationship between the Compressive and Tensile Strength of Recycled Concrete

    Concrete recycling consists of crushing the concrete provided by demolishing the old constructions, and of using the resulted small pieces as aggregates in the new concrete compositions. The resulted aggregates are called recycled aggregates and the new mix of concrete containing a percentage of recycled aggregates is called recycled concrete. Our previous researches have indicated the optimal percentages of recycled aggregates to be used for different cases of recycled concrete related to the original aggregates nature. All results have shown that the concrete compressive strength is significantly reduced when using recycled aggregates. In order to obtain realistic values of compressive strength, some tests have been carried out by adding water-reducer plasticizer and a specified additional quantity of cement. The results have shown that for a limited range of plasticizer percentage, and a fixed value of additional cement, the compressive strength has reached reasonable value. This paper treats of the effect of using recycled aggregates on the tensile strength of concrete, where concrete results from the special composition defined by our previous work. The aim is to determine the relationship between the compressive and tensile strength of recycled concrete. (author)

  16. Compression strength perpendicular to grain of structural timber and glulam

    Damkilde, Lars; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Pedersen, Torben N.

    1998-01-01

    The characteristic strength values for compression perpendicular to grain as they appear in EN 338 (structural timber) and EN 1194 (glulam) are currently up for discussion. The present paper provides experimental results based on EN 1193 that may assist in the correct assignment of such strength ...... analysis to prove the significant role of tension perpendicular to grain stresses in the failure mode of the glulam specimens....

  17. Effect of Metakaolin on Compressive Strength of Concrete

    Satyendra Dubey; Rajiv Chandak

    2015-01-01

    Metakaolin is a cementitious materials used as an admixture to produce high strength concrete and is used for maintaining the consistency of concrete. In the case where insufficient or poor curing concrete structure like the underground structure which undergo serve loss of compressive strength, use of metakaolin proves to be very useful to modify the properties of concrete. This paper deals with the properties of concrete with varying percentage replacement of metakaolin in M-25 ...

  18. The compressive modulus and strength of saturated calcium sulphate dihydrate cements: implications for testing standards.

    Koh, Ilsoo; López, Alejandro; Helgason, Benedikt; Ferguson, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    Calcium sulphate-based bone cement is a bone filler with proven biological advantages including biodegradability, biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Mechanical properties of such brittle ceramic cements are frequently determined using the testing standard designed for ductile acrylic cements. The aims of the study were (1) to validate the suitability of this common testing protocol using saturated calcium sulphate dihydrate (CSD), and (2) to compare the strength and effective modulus of non-saturated and saturated CSD, in order to determine the changes in the mechanical behavior of CSD upon saturation. Unconfined compression tests to failure were performed on 190 cylindrical CSD samples. The samples were divided into four groups having different saturation levels (saturated, non-saturated) and end conditions (capped and non-capped). Two effective moduli were calculated per sample, based on the deformations measured using the machine platens and a sample-mounted extensometer. The effective moduli of non-saturated groups were found to be independent of the end conditions. The saturated and capped group showed no difference in the effective moduli derived from different measurement methods, while the saturated and non-capped group showed a significant difference between the machine platen- and extensometer-derived moduli. Strength and modulus values were significantly lower for saturated samples. It was assumed that the existence of water in saturated CSD alters the mechanical response of the material due to the changes in chemical and physical behaviors. These factors are considered to play important roles to decrease the shear strength of CSD. It was proposed that the reduction in CSD shear strength evokes local deformation at the platen-sample boundary, affecting the strength and effective moduli derived from the experiments. The results of this study highlighted the importance of appropriate and consistent testing methods when determining the mechanical properties of saturated ceramic cements. PMID:24603215

  19. Neutron irradiation of sapphire for compressive strengthening. I. Processing conditions and compressive strength

    Sapphire suffers a dramatic loss of c-axis compression strength at elevated temperatures. Irradiation of sapphire with fission-spectrum neutrons to an exposure of ?1022 neutrons/m2 in the core of a 1 MW fission reactor increased the c-axis compression strength by a factor of ?3 at 600 deg. C. Strength was similarly improved when 99% of slow neutrons (?0.1 eV) were removed by 10B and Cd shields during irradiation. Annealing at 600 deg. C for 10 min changed the yellow-brown color of irradiated sapphire to pale yellow, but had no effect on compressive strength. Annealing irradiated sapphire at 1200 deg. C for 24 h reduced the compressive strength to its baseline value. Transmission electron microscopy suggests that fast-neutron-induced displacement damage inhibits the propagation of r-plane twins which are responsible for the low compressive strength. When irradiated with 10B and Cd shielding, sapphire that was not grown in iridium crucibles is safe for unrestricted handling after 1 month

  20. Compressive strength and hydration processes of concrete with recycled aggregates

    This paper deals with the correlation between the time evolution of the degree of hydration and the compressive strength of Recycled Aggregate Concrete (RAC) for different water to cement ratios and initial moisture conditions of the Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCAs). Particularly, the influence of such moisture conditions is investigated by monitoring the hydration process and determining the compressive strength development of fully dry or fully saturated recycled aggregates in four RAC mixtures. Hydration processes are monitored via temperature measurements in hardening concrete samples and the time evolution of the degree of hydration is determined through a 1D hydration and heat flow model. The effect of the initial moisture condition of RCAs employed in the considered concrete mixtures clearly emerges from this study. In fact, a novel conceptual method is proposed to predict the compressive strength of RAC-systems, from the initial mixture parameters and the hardening conditions. -- Highlights: •The concrete industry is more and more concerned with sustainability issues. •The use of recycled aggregates is a promising solution to enhance sustainability. •Recycled aggregates affect both hydration processes and compressive strength. •A fundamental approach is proposed to unveil the influence of recycled aggregates. •Some experimental comparisons are presented to validate the proposed approach

  1. Strength Tests on Paper Cylinder in Compression, Bending and Shear

    Rhodes, Richard V; Lundquist, Eugene E

    1931-01-01

    Static tests on paper cylinders were conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory at Langley Field, Virginia, to obtain qualitative information in connection with a study of the strength of stressed-skin fuselages. The effects of radius-thickness ratio and bulkhead spacing were investigated with the cylinders in compression, bending, combined bending and shear, and torsion.

  2. Comparison Of Compressive Strength Of Medium Strength Self Compacted Concrete By Different Curing Techniques

    Prof. Nanak J Pamnani1, Dr. A.K. Verma2, Dr. D.R. Bhatt

    2013-01-01

    : In this paper variation in compressive strength of medium strength, self-compacted concrete with 3 different curing techniques is discussed. Initially several trials were carried out for mix design of medium strength selfcompacting concrete. Once the mix design was achieved, three batches of concrete cubes were cast as per ASTM standard. Water cement ratio and admixture dose were kept constant as required by selected Mix Design. Slump Test was carried out on each batch in order to ascertain...

  3. Influence of Different Drying Conditions on High Strength Concrete Compressive Strength

    M. Safan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different drying conditions on the compressive strength and strength development rates of high strength concrete up to an age of 28 days was evaluated. Two HSC mixes with and without silica fume addition were used to cast cubes of 10 cm size. The cubes were stored in different drying conditions until the age of testing at 3, 7, 28 days.

  4. The effect of shear strength on isentropic compression experiments

    Thomson, Stuart; Howell, Peter; Ockendon, John; Ockendon, Hilary

    2015-06-01

    Isentropic compression experiments (ICE) are a novel way of obtaining equation of state information for metals undergoing violent plastic deformation. In a typical experiment, millimetre thick metal samples are subjected to pressures on the order of 10 -102 GPa, while the yield strength of the material can be as low as 10-1GPa. The analysis of such experiments has so far neglected the effect of shear strength, instead treating the highly plasticised metal as an inviscid compressible fluid. However making this approximation belies the basic elastic nature of a solid object. A more accurate method should strive to incorporate the small but measurable effects of shear strength. Here we present a one-dimensional mathematical model for elastoplasticity at high stress which allows for both compressibility and the shear strength of the material. In the limit of zero yield stress this model reproduces the hydrodynamic models currently used to analyse ICEs. We will also show using a systematic asymptotic analysis that entropy changes are universally negligible in the absence of shocks. Numerical solutions of the governing equations will then be presented for problems relevant to ICEs in order to investigate the effects of shear strength over a model based purely on hydrodynamics.

  5. Insulation interlaminar shear strength testing with compression and irradiation

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) project identified the need for research and development for the insulation to be used in the toroidal field coils. The requirements included tolerance to a combination of high compression and shear and a high radiation dose. Samples of laminate-type sheet material were obtained from commercial vendors. The materials included various combinations of epoxy, polyimide, E-glass, S-glass, and T-glass. The T-glass was in the form of a three-dimensional weave. The first tests were with 50 x 25 x 1 mm samples. These materials were loaded in compression and then to failure in shear. At 345-MPa compression, the interlaminar shear strength was generally in the range of 110 to 140 MPa for the different materials. A smaller sample configuration was developed for irradiation testing. The data before irradiation were similar to those for the larger samples but approximately 10% lower. Limited fatigue testing was also performed by cycling the shear load. No reduction in shear strength was found after 50,000 cycles at 90% of the failure stress. Because of space limitations, only three materials were chosen for irradiation: two polyimide systems and one epoxy system. All used boron-free glass. The small shear/compression samples and some flexure specimens were irradiated to 4 x 109 and 2 x 1010 rad in the Advanced Technology Reactor at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. A lead shield was used to ensure that the majority of the dose was from neutrons. The shear strength with compression before and after irradiation at the lower dose was determined. Flexure strength and the results from irradiation at the higher dose level will be available in the near future. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Compressive Strength of Cometary Surfaces Derived from Radar Observations

    ElShafie, A.; Heggy, E.

    2014-12-01

    Landing on a comet nucleus and probing it, mechanically using harpoons, penetrometers and drills, and electromagnetically using low frequency radar waves is a complex task that will be tackled by the Rosetta mission for Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The mechanical properties (i.e. density, porosity and compressive strength) and the electrical properties (i.e. the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant) of the comet nucleus, constrain both the mechanical and electromagnetic probing capabilities of Rosetta, as well as the choice of landing site, the safety of the landing, and subsurface data interpretation. During landing, the sounding radar data that will be collected by Rosetta's CONSERT experiment can be used to probe the comet's upper regolith layer by assessing its dielectric properties, which are then inverted to retrieve the surface mechanical properties. These observations can help characterize the mechanical properties of the landing site, which will optimize the operation of the anchor system. In this effort, we correlate the mechanical and electrical properties of cometary analogs to each other, and derive an empirical model that can be used to retrieve density, porosity and compressive strength from the dielectric properties of the upper regolith inverted from CONSERT observations during the landing phase. In our approach we consider snow as a viable cometary material analog due to its low density and its porous nature. Therefore, we used the compressive strength and dielectric constant measurements conducted on snow at a temperature of 250 K and a density range of 0.4-0.9 g/cm3 in order to investigate the relation between compressive strength and dielectric constant under cometary-relevant density range. Our results suggest that compressive strength increases linearly as function of the dielectric constant over the observed density range mentioned above. The minimum and maximum compressive strength of 0.5 and 4.5 MPa corresponded to a dielectric constant of 2.2 and 3.4 over the density range of 0.4-0.9 g/cm3. This preliminary correlation will be applied to the case of porous and dust contaminated snow under different temperatures to assess the surface mechanical properties for Comet 67P.

  7. Prediction of Compressive Strength of Concrete using Artificial Neural Network

    Wankhade M W

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Concrete cube strength determination tests are usually performed at three days to one year afterpouring the concrete. The waiting period required to perform such test may delay the construction progress,decision making and neglecting such test would limit the quality control checks in large constructionprojects. Therefore it becomes necessary that the rapid and reliable prediction of concrete strength isessential for pre-design or quality control of construction. It is possible to facilitate the modification of themix proportion if the concrete does not meet the required design stage, which may save time andconstruction costs. The early prediction of concrete strength is essential for estimating the desirable time forconcrete form removal, project scheduling, quality control and estimating delay if any. Artificial NeuralNetwork (ANN is used to predict the compressive strength of concrete. Standard back propagation andJordan–Elman algorithms are used to train the networks. Networks are trained and tested at various learningrate and momentum factor and after many trials these were kept constant for this study. Performance ofnetworks were checked with statistical error criteria of correlation coefficient, root mean squared error andmean absolute error. It is observed that artificial neural networks can predict compressive strength ofconcrete with 91 to 98 % accuracy.

  8. Fracture Energy of High-Strength Concrete in Compression

    Dahl, H.; Brincker, Rune

    Compression tests are usually carried out in load control. This implies the termination of the test at the peak point of the load-displacement curve, while the fracture under these conditions becomes unstable at the descending branch of the load displacement relation. However, the descending bran...... experimental method has been used to investigate the influence of boundary conditions, loading rate, size effects and the influence of the strength on the fracture energy of high-strength concrete over the range 70 MPa to 150 MPa, expressed in nominal values....

  9. Compressive strength of human openwedges: a selection method

    Follet, H.; Gotteland, M.; Bardonnet, R.; Sfarghiu, A. M.; Peyrot, J.; Rumelhart, C.

    2004-02-01

    A series of 44 samples of bone wedges of human origin, intended for allograft openwedge osteotomy and obtained without particular precautions during hip arthroplasty were re-examined. After viral inactivity chemical treatment, lyophilisation and radio-sterilisation (intended to produce optimal health safety), the compressive strength, independent of age, sex and the height of the sample (or angle of cut), proved to be too widely dispersed [ 10{-}158 MPa] in the first study. We propose a method for selecting samples which takes into account their geometry (width, length, thicknesses, cortical surface area). Statistical methods (Principal Components Analysis PCA, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, Multilinear regression) allowed final selection of 29 samples having a mean compressive strength σ_{max} =103 MPa ± 26 and with variation [ 61{-}158 MPa] . These results are equivalent or greater than average materials currently used in openwedge osteotomy.

  10. Optimization of compressive strength of zirconia based dental composites

    U V Hambire; V K Tripathi

    2014-10-01

    Dental composites are tooth-coloured restorative material used by dentists for various applications. Restoration of a lost tooth structure requires a material having mechanical as well as aesthetic properties similar to that of tooth. This poses challenges to engineers and the dentist alike. Dental composites consist of a matrix and a dispersed phase called filler, which are mainly responsible for its mechanical properties. Most commonly used matrix is bisphenol glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGMA). Silica and glass are conventional fillers used in the past. Recently, zirconia is being used due to its improved mechanical properties. A study was conducted to evaluate the contribution of zirconia to the mechanical properties in general and compressive strength in particular. We have attempted to make an experimental dental composite with a conglomerate of nanofillers, namely, zirconia, glass and silica, and optimize this filler volume percentage and obtain an optimum compressive strength for the experimental dental composite.

  11. Strength Tests of Thin-Walled Duralumin Cylinders in Compression

    Lundquist, Eugene E

    1934-01-01

    This report is the second of a series presenting the results of strength tests of thin-walled duralumin cylinders and truncated cones of circular and elliptic section. It contains the results obtained from compression tests on 45 thin-walled duralumin cylinders of circular section with ends clamped to rigid bulkheads. In addition to the tests on duralumin cylinders, there are included the results of numerous tests on rubber, celluloid, steel, and brass cylinders obtained from various sources.

  12. Compressive strength and durability properties of ceramic wastes based concrete

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Jalali, Said

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the properties and on the durability of concrete containing ceramic wastes. Several concrete mixes possessing a target mean compressive strength of 30 MPa were prepared with 20% cement replacement by ceramic powder (W/B = 0.6). A concrete mix with ceramic sand and granite aggregates were also prepared as well as a concrete mix with natural sand and coarse ceramic aggregates (W/B = 0.5). The mechanical and durability performance of ceramic ...

  13. Compressive Strength and Microstructure of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash Concrete

    Asma Abd Elhameed Hussein; Nasir Shafiq; Muhd Fadhil Nuruddin; Fareed Ahmed Memon

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the results of an experimental research study on the effectiveness of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) as a cement replacement material in concrete production. The ordinary Portland cement was replaced with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%, respectively bagasse ash, the effect of Sugar cane Bagasse Ash on workability, compressive strength and microstructure of Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ) of concrete was examined. The results showed that inclusion of Sugar cane Bagasse Ash i...

  14. Estimating compressive strength of concrete by mortar testing

    Camões, Aires; Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de, ed. lit.; Jalali, Said

    2005-01-01

    Concrete mix design laboratory tests which time consuming and entails considerable effort. This study presents a method of reducing mix design testing costs by testing mortar instead of concrete specimens. The experimental programme consisted of defining mortar mixes equivalent to concrete mixes, moulding specimens of both mortar and concrete mixes studied and finally evaluating the compressive strength of specimens cured at different curing time. Results obtained indicate that a goo...

  15. Compressive Strength and Microstructure of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash Concrete

    Asma Abd Elhameed Hussein

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of an experimental research study on the effectiveness of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA as a cement replacement material in concrete production. The ordinary Portland cement was replaced with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%, respectively bagasse ash, the effect of Sugar cane Bagasse Ash on workability, compressive strength and microstructure of Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ of concrete was examined. The results showed that inclusion of Sugar cane Bagasse Ash in concrete up to 20% level significantly enhanced the compressive strength of concrete at all ages; the highest compressive strength was obtained at 5% SCBA replacement level. The ITZ thickness was greatly reduced with increasing the bagasse ash replacement level up to 15%, beyond that the ITZ thickness was slightly increased, however the thickness was still narrower than the normal concrete, it was observed that at 15% bagasse ash replacement level, the interfacial transition zone was homogeneous and there was no gap between the coarse aggregate and the paste matrix.

  16. Effect of Metakaolin on Compressive Strength of Concrete

    Satyendra Dubey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metakaolin is a cementitious materials used as an admixture to produce high strength concrete and is used for maintaining the consistency of concrete. In the case where insufficient or poor curing concrete structure like the underground structure which undergo serve loss of compressive strength, use of metakaolin proves to be very useful to modify the properties of concrete. This paper deals with the properties of concrete with varying percentage replacement of metakaolin in M-25 greade of concrete. The mix M1,M2,M3 and M4 were obtained by replacing 0,5,10 and 15 percent mass of cement by Metakaolin. The test results indicated that admixture metakaolin when used at optimum quantity tend to increase the strength of the concrete mix when compared with conventional concrete.

  17. Scaling of compression strength in disordered solids: metallic foams

    J. Kováčik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The scaling of compression strength with porosity for aluminium foams was investigated. The Al 99.96, AlMg1Si0.6 and AlSi11Mg0.6 foams of various porosity, sample size with and without surface skin were tested in compression. It was observed that the compression strength of aluminium foams scales near the percolation threshold with Tf ≈ 1.9 - 2.0 almost independently on the matrix alloy, sample size and presence of surface skin. The difference of the obtained values of Tf to the theoretical estimate of Tf = 2.64 ± 0.3 by Arbabi and Sahimi and to Ashby estimate of 1.5 was explained using an analogy with the Daoud and Coniglio approach to the scaling of the free energy of sol-gel transition. It leads to the finding that, there are two different universality classes for the critical exponent Tf: when the stretching forces dominate Tf = f = 2.1, respectively when bending forces prevail Tf = .d = 2.64 seems to be valid. Another possibility is the validity of relation Tf ≤ f which varies only according to the universality class of modulus of elasticity in foam.

  18. Compressive strength test for cemented waste forms: validation process

    In the Cementation Laboratory (LABCIM), of the Development Centre of the Nuclear Technology (CNEN/CDTN-MG), hazardous/radioactive wastes are incorporated in cement, to transform them into monolithic products, preventing or minimizing the contaminant release to the environment. The compressive strength test is important to evaluate the cemented product quality, in which it is determined the compression load necessary to rupture the cemented waste form. In LABCIM a specific procedure was developed to determine the compressive strength of cement waste forms based on the Brazilian Standard NBR 7215. The accreditation of this procedure is essential to assure reproductive and accurate results in the evaluation of these products. To achieve this goal the Laboratory personal implemented technical and administrative improvements in accordance with the NBR ISO/IEC 17025 standard 'General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories'. As the developed procedure was not a standard one the norm ISO/IEC 17025 requests its validation. There are some methodologies to do that. In this paper it is described the current status of the accreditation project, especially the validation process of the referred procedure and its results. (author)

  19. Compressive strength and microstructural properties of lightweight high-strength cement mortar reinforced with eloxal

    An investigation was carried out to evaluate the results of the compressive strength of high-strength lightweight eloxal reinforced cement mortar subject to short term loads. An experimental method similar to the one proposed by the author on chilled aluminum-quartz reinforced metal matrix composite was used. Eloxal (in the solid slag form) is a waste obtained during the production of aluminum in the plant. It is mainly of aluminum oxide, SiO2, CaO, MgO and other substances. It is a hard substance, having sufficient strength with additive properties and bonds very rapidly. Eloxal reinforced cement mortar in the present investigation are tested for its compressive and microstructural behavior. Data were obtained pertaining to compressive strength, role of moisture and drying effects. Deformation under compressive load were studied to provide insight into the internal behavior and failure mechanism of lightweight eloxal reinforced cement mortar. To analyze the mode of failure under compression, distribution of eloxal particles in cement mortar and the deformation behavior, several optical and scanning electron microscope photographs were taken to study the mechanism. Results of the tests of eloxal reinforced cement mortar are compared with unreinforced cement mortar and information obtained else where in earlier tests of normal weight cement mortar. Structural composite materials offer an excellent opportunity to produce components that achieve weight savings and improved properties. The eloxal particles (dispersoid) added to cement mortar in the present investigation is varied from 20 to 40 wt% in steps of 10 wt%. The resulting composite blocks cast were tested for their properties

  20. Natural minerals mixture for enhancing concrete compressive strength

    Abdoullah Namdar,

    2012-01-01

    The construction material quality is required to be improved in order to enhancing structure stability, optimizing construction cost and quality. The kaolin and bentonite have been mixed in equal quantity and treated by heat for 1 hour under 600 ºC, 800 ºC and 1000 ºC to create new minerals under high temperature condition to introduce an acceptable concrete additive for achieving concrete compressive strength in early age. To study micro properties of additive-cement mixture, X-ray and FESEM...

  1. Prediction of concrete compression strength using ultrasonic pulse velocity

    Azreen, M. N.; Pauzi, I. M.; Nasharuddin, I.; Haniza, M. M.; Akasyah, J.; Karsono, A. D.; Lei, V. Yen

    2016-01-01

    The relationship of ultrasonic stress waves transmitted along direct and indirect paths in concrete samples was investigated. Tests were conducted on plain concrete slabs from different grades of 15, 25, 30, 40 and Ultrahigh Performance Concrete that have dimensions of 750mm x 150mm x 150 mm. Direct ultrasonic pulse velocity tests were conducted between the top and the bottom surfaces of the concrete samples and indirect tests were conducted along the surface. A test procedure to determine indirect wave velocities was refined by defining the spacing of the transducers which are 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450 mm. The correlation was established between direct and indirect UPV measurements via statistical analysis. From the analysis, it can be concluded that direct UPV has higher value than indirect UPV value by 16.5 % due to position of transducers. The compression strength of the concretes was studied to be compared with the direct and indirect transmission, with direct transmission method showed a good correlation with compression strength.

  2. Compressive strength and hydrolytic stability of fly ash based geopolymers

    Nikolić Irena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of geopolymerization involves the reaction of solid aluminosilicate materials with highly alkaline silicate solution yielding an aluminosilicate inorganic polymer named geopolymer, which may be successfully applied in civil engineering as a replacement for cement. In this paper we have investigated the influence of synthesis parameters: solid to liquid ratio, NaOH concentration and the ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH, on the mechanical properties and hydrolytic stability of fly ash based geopolymers in distilled water, sea water and simulated acid rain. The highest value of compressive strength was obtained using 10 mol dm-3 NaOH and at the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 1.5. Moreover, the results have shown that mechanical properties of fly ash based geopolymers are in correlation with their hydrolytic stability. Factors that increase the compressive strength also increase the hydrolytic stability of fly ash based geopolymers. The best hydrolytic stability of fly ash based geopolymers was shown in sea water while the lowest stability was recorded in simulated acid rain. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172054 i Nanotechnology and Functional Materials Center, funded by the European FP7 project No. 245916

  3. Permeability, porosity and compressive strength of self-compacting concrete

    Valcuende, M.O.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Most deterioration affecting the durability of self-compacting concrete structures is mediated by water penetration in the concrete, a condition related to its porous structure. The present study analyzes these two factors. To this end, two types of concrete were prepared, a self-compacting and a traditional vibrated concrete, with different W/C ratios and different types of cement. The results of low-pressure water testing to evaluate permeability and analyses to determine compressive strength and pore size distribution showed that self-compacting concrete has lower capillary porosity than traditional concrete, which would explain its greater resistance to water penetration. Such concrete likewise reached higher strength values, except where large proportions of lime powder with low sand equivalents were used in its manufacture, when lower strength was recorded. Lastly, the depth of water penetration and compressive strength were found to be linearly correlated. That correlation was seen to depend, in turn, on the type of concrete, since for any given strength level, self-compacting concrete was less permeable than the traditional material.

    En este trabajo experimental se estudia la penetración de agua en hormigones autocompactables, analizando al mismo tiempo su estructura porosa, pues gran parte de los procesos de deterioro que afectan a la durabilidad de las estructuras están condicionados por estos dos aspectos. Para ello se han fabricado dos tipos de hormigones, uno autocompactable y otro tradicional vibrado, con diferentes relaciones A/C y distintos tipos de cemento. Tras determinar la permeabilidad al agua bajo presión, la resistencia a compresión y las distribuciones de tamaño de poro, los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto que los hormigones autocompactables presentan menor porosidad capilar que los tradicionales, lo que les confiere mejores prestaciones frente a la penetración de agua. Asimismo, dichos hormigones alcanzan mayores resistencias, si bien, cuando para su fabricación se emplean grandes cantidades de finos calizos cuyo equivalente de arena es bajo la tendencia se invierte, obteniéndose peores resultados. Por último, se ha establecido una relación de tipo lineal entre la profundidad de penetración de agua y la resistencia a compresión. Dicha relación depende a su vez del tipo de hormigón, dado que los hormigones autocompactables son menos permeables que los tradicionales para una misma resistencia.

  4. Compressive strength and hardness of metal matrix syntactic foams

    Orbulov, I. N.; Németh, Á.; Dobránszky, J.

    2010-07-01

    Six types of metal matrix syntactic foams (MMSFs) were produced by pressure infiltration technique. The foams were investigated by upsetting tests at increased (220°C) and at room (25°C) temperature. The parameters were the constituents of the composites and the aspect ratio (height-diameter ratio, H/D) of the specimens. The characteristic properties were: the compressive strength, the fracture strain, the structural stiffness of the foams and the absorbed energy. The strength, the strain and the energy were decreased while the stiffness was increased by increasing the H/D. Increased temperature caused ~25 % drop in the strength and in the stiffness. Macrohardness, depth sensitive and dynamic hardness tests were also performed on MMSF blocks: macrohardness is a structural property and independent from the matrix material. The depth sensitive hardness is sensitive to the deformation capability of the matrix and to a possible change reaction. The dynamic hardnesses of the MMSFs were higher than the hardness of the matrices and this is a microballoon related property.

  5. Compressive strength and hardness of metal matrix syntactic foams

    Six types of metal matrix syntactic foams (MMSFs) were produced by pressure infiltration technique. The foams were investigated by upsetting tests at increased (2200C) and at room (250C) temperature. The parameters were the constituents of the composites and the aspect ratio (height-diameter ratio, H/D) of the specimens. The characteristic properties were: the compressive strength, the fracture strain, the structural stiffness of the foams and the absorbed energy. The strength, the strain and the energy were decreased while the stiffness was increased by increasing the H/D. Increased temperature caused ∼25 % drop in the strength and in the stiffness. Macrohardness, depth sensitive and dynamic hardness tests were also performed on MMSF blocks: macrohardness is a structural property and independent from the matrix material. The depth sensitive hardness is sensitive to the deformation capability of the matrix and to a possible change reaction. The dynamic hardnesses of the MMSFs were higher than the hardness of the matrices and this is a microballoon related property.

  6. Numerical analysis of the spacer grids' compression strength

    Among the components of the fuel assembly, the spacer grids play an important structural role during the energy generation process, mainly for their requirement to have enough structural strength to withstand lateral impact loads, due to fuel assembly shipping/handling and due to forces outcome from postulated accidents (earthquake and LOCA). This requirement ensures a proper geometry for cooling and for guide thimble straightness in the fuel assembly. In this way, the understanding of the macroscopic mechanical behavior of this component becomes essential even to any subsequent geometrical modifications to optimize the flue assemblies' structural behavior. In the present work, three-dimensional finite element models destined to provide consistent predictions of 16X16-type spacer grids lateral strength were proposed. Firstly, buckling tests based on results available in the literature were performed to establish a methodology for spacer grid finite element-based modeling. The, by considering a spacer grid interesting geometry and some possible variations associated to its fabrication, tolerance, the proposed numerical models were submitted to compression conditions to calculate the buckling force. Also, these models were validated for comparison with experimental buckling load results. Comparison of buckling predictions combined to observations of actual and simulated deformed spacer grids geometries permitted to verify the consistency and applicability of the proposed models. Thus, these numerical results show a good agreement between the and the experimental results. (author)

  7. Numerical analysis of the spacer grids' compression strength

    Schettino, C.F.M.; Gouvea, J.P.; Medeiros, N., E-mail: carlosschettino@inb.gov.br, E-mail: jpg@metal.eeimvr.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2013-07-01

    Among the components of the fuel assembly, the spacer grids play an important structural role during the energy generation process, mainly for their requirement to have enough structural strength to withstand lateral impact loads, due to fuel assembly shipping/handling and due to forces outcome from postulated accidents (earthquake and LOCA). This requirement ensures a proper geometry for cooling and for guide thimble straightness in the fuel assembly. In this way, the understanding of the macroscopic mechanical behavior of this component becomes essential even to any subsequent geometrical modifications to optimize the flue assemblies' structural behavior. In the present work, three-dimensional finite element models destined to provide consistent predictions of 16X16-type spacer grids lateral strength were proposed. Firstly, buckling tests based on results available in the literature were performed to establish a methodology for spacer grid finite element-based modeling. The, by considering a spacer grid interesting geometry and some possible variations associated to its fabrication, tolerance, the proposed numerical models were submitted to compression conditions to calculate the buckling force. Also, these models were validated for comparison with experimental buckling load results. Comparison of buckling predictions combined to observations of actual and simulated deformed spacer grids geometries permitted to verify the consistency and applicability of the proposed models. Thus, these numerical results show a good agreement between the and the experimental results. (author)

  8. Test results and model for the residual compressive strength of concrete after a fire

    Li, Yi-Hai; Franssen, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    An investigation into temperature induced degradation of the compressive strength of concrete including that under cooling phase is carried out. The paper gathers and reviews a considerable amount of test data, considering the influence of different test parameters such as initial compressive strength, aggregate type, cooling regime and specimen shape. It is found that the compressive strength of concrete at high temperature is in accordance with the model proposed in the Eurocodes for calcar...

  9. The Analysis of Methodologies for Testing Compressive Strength in Masonry Mortar Joints

    Tomas livinskas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes masonry as composite material and presents the factors that affect the mechanical characteristics of masonry. The article also deals with the most frequently used destructive and non-destructive testing methods for the compressive strength of masonry mortar as well as related advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, the analysis of methods for testing ultrasonic waves has been carried out. The article reveals that for using the methodology of testing a mortar bonded wafer, the compressive strength correlation of masonry mortar is set between the ascertainment of masonry mortar strength using a regular mortar testing methodology (LST EN 1015-11:2004 and the compressive strength of mortar possibly taken from masonry joints. The obtained results of an experimental study on the samples have demonstrated that the strength reduction ratio of masonry mortar depends on the compressive strength of mortar. The value of the ratio is increasing with the descending compressive strength of mortar.

  10. Developing an artificial neural network model for predicting concretes compression strength and electrical resistivity

    Juan Manuel Lizarazo Marriaga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for predicting the compressive strength of concrete based on unit weight ultrasonic and pulse velocity (UPV for 41 different concrete mixtures. This research emerged from the need for a rapid test for predicting concretes compressive strength. The research was also conducted for predicting concretes electrical resistivity based on unit weight ultrasonic, pulse velocity (UPV and compressive strength with the same mixes. The prediction was made using simple regression analysis and artificial neural networks. The results revealed that artificial neural networks can be used for effectively predicting compressive strength and electrical resistivity.

  11. Utilization of the Brazilian test for estimating the uniaxial compressive strength and shear strength parameters

    K., Karaman; F., Cihangir; B., Ercikdi; A., Kesimal; S., Demirel.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and shear strength parameters (cohesion and angle of internal friction, C and ?) of rocks are important parameters needed for various engineering projects such as tunnelling and slope stability. However, direct determination of these parameters is difficult and re [...] quires high-quality core samples for tests. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the applicability of the Brazilian test (BT) - a simple, less sophisticated and inexpensive method for both specimen preparation and testing - to estimate the UCS and shear strength parameters of rocks. Thirty-seven rock types were sampled and tested, 24 of which were volcanic, 8 were metamorphic, and 5 were sedimentary. Statistical equations were derived to estimate the UCS and shear strength parameters of rocks using the BT. The validity of the statistically derived equations was confirmed using predictive analytics software (PASW Statistics 18). A strong linear relation was found between BT and UCS values. BT and UCS values exhibited prominent linear correlations with the cohesion values of rocks. The Mohr envelope was also used to determine the cohesion and friction angle of rocks using BT and UCS values. It is deduced from the current study that the BT values can be used to estimate the UCS and cohesion. However, no relation was observed between the angle of internal friction values and the UCS and BT for all rock types. Therefore, different approaches are suggested for the estimation of the internal angle of friction for application in the preliminary design of projects.

  12. Influence of Cementitious Materials and Aggregates Content on Compressive Strength of Palm Kernel Shell Concrete

    U.J. Alengaram

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effect of cementitious materials, fine and coarse aggregates content on workability and compressive strength of palm kernel shell concrete. Palm kernel shells a by product of the production of palm oil, were used as lightweight aggregates. The following cementitious materials were added: 10% silica fume as additional cementitious material and 5% fly ash as cement replacement on weight of cement. The influence of varying fine aggregate and palm kernel shell contents on workability and compressive strength has been studied. The specimens have been cured under three different curing environments to study the effect on compressive strength. The effect of cementitious materials and curing conditions on compressive strength for a period of 90 days was analyzed. The fresh density of concrete was found to be in the range of 1810 to 1940 kg m-3. The strength of Palm Kernel Shells (PKS was found to be the primary factor controlling the strength. However, the addition of silica fume was found to have influence on compressive strength. An increase in fine aggregate content and subsequent decrease in PKS content had positive effect on both workability and compressive strength. The 28 day compressive strengths of the mixes containing cementitious materials were found in the range of 26 to 36 MPa. The difference in strength between water cured and specimens cured under controlled environment was found to vary between 3 and 5%.

  13. Dataset of long-term compressive strength of concrete with manufactured sand.

    Ding, Xinxin; Li, Changyong; Xu, Yangyang; Li, Fenglan; Zhao, Shunbo

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents 186 groups compressive strength tests data of concrete with manufactured sand (MSC) in different curing age and 262 groups compressive strength tests data of MSC at 28 days collected from authors' experiments and other researches in China. Further interpretation and discussion were described in this issues. PMID:26949726

  14. Dataset of long-term compressive strength of concrete with manufactured sand

    Ding, Xinxin; Li, Changyong; Xu, Yangyang; Li, Fenglan; Zhao, Shunbo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents 186 groups compressive strength tests data of concrete with manufactured sand (MSC) in different curing age and 262 groups compressive strength tests data of MSC at 28 days collected from authors’ experiments and other researches in China. Further interpretation and discussion were described in this issues. PMID:26949726

  15. Dataset of long-term compressive strength of concrete with manufactured sand

    Xinxin Ding; Changyong Li; Yangyang Xu; Fenglan Li; Shunbo Zhao

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents 186 groups compressive strength tests data of concrete with manufactured sand (MSC) in different curing age and 262 groups compressive strength tests data of MSC at 28 days collected from authors’ experiments and other researches in China. Further interpretation and discussion were described in this issues.

  16. Estimate of Compressive Strength for Concrete using Ultrasonics by Multiple Regression Analysis Method

    Various types of ultrasonic techniques have been used for the estimation of compressive strength of concrete structures. However, conventional ultrasonic velocity method using only longitudial wave cannot be determined the compressive strength of concrete structures with accuracy. In this paper, by using the introduction of multiple parameter, e. g. velocity of shear wave, velocity of longitudinal wave, attenuation coefficient of shear wave, attenuation coefficient of longitudinal wave, combination condition, age and preservation method, multiple regression analysis method was applied to the determination of compressive strength of concrete structures. The experimental results show that velocity of shear wave can be estimated compressive strength of concrete with more accuracy compared with the velocity of longitudinal wave, accuracy of estimated error range of compressive strength of concrete structures can be enhanced within the range of 10% approximately

  17. Dependence of compressive strength of green compacts on pressure, density and contact area of powder particles

    The relationship between green compressive strength and compacting pressure as well as green density has been investigated for uniaxially pressed aluminium powder compacts in the range 0 - 520 MPa. Two linear relationships occurred between compacting pressure and green compressive strength which corresponded to powder compaction stages II and III respectively, increase in strength being large during stage II and quite small in stage III with increasing pressure. On the basis of both, the experimental results and a previous model on cold compaction of powder particles, relationships between green compressive strength and green density and interparticle contact area of the compacts has been established. (author) 9 figs

  18. Effect of raw material ratios on the compressive strength of magnesium potassium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics

    The compressive strength of magnesium potassium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics is important in biomedical field. In this work, the compressive strength of magnesium potassium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics was investigated with different liquid-to-solid and MgO-to-KH2PO4 ratios. X-ray diffractometer was applied to characterize its phase composition. The microstructure was imaged using a scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the compressive strength of the chemically bonded ceramics increased with the decrease of liquid-to-solid ratio due to the change of the packing density and the crystallinity of hydrated product. However, with the increase of MgO-to-KH2PO4 weight ratio, its compressive strength increased firstly and then decreased. The low compressive strength in lower MgO-to-KH2PO4 ratio might be explained by the existence of the weak phase KH2PO4. However, the low value of compressive strength with the higher MgO-to-KH2PO4 ratio might be caused by lack of the joined phase in the hydrated product. Besides, it has been found that the microstructures were different in these two cases by the scanning electron microscope. Colloidal structure appeared for the samples with lower liquid-to-solid and higher MgO-to-KH2PO4 ratios possibly because of the existence of amorphous hydrated products. The optimization of both liquid-to-solid and MgO-to-KH2PO4 ratios was important to improve the compressive strength of magnesium potassium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics. - Highlights: • High packing density and amorphous hydrated phase improved the compressive strength. • Residual KH2PO4 and poor bonding phase lower the compressive strength. • MPCBC fabricated with optimized parameters had the highest compressive strength

  19. A Study on Occupancy and Compressive Strength of Concrete with Produced Injection Method

    Cevdet Emin Ekinci; Omer Kelesoglu

    2014-01-01

    Concrete is a composite construction material made primarily of aggregate, cement, and water. Fresh concrete must have certain features. These are shown in durability, workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, shrinkage, impact resistance, wear, and so forth. In this study, compressive strength, erosion, and attrition behavior of concrete with silica fume additive produced by injection method were researched. Concrete with high occupancy is produced with injection. Use of more tha...

  20. [The influence of mixing and heating on the compressive strength of investment materials].

    Papadopoulos, T; Caracatsanis, M

    1989-08-01

    In the present study, the compressive strength of four representative dental investment materials was compared. The whole investigation was divided in three experiments. In the first one the effect of different ways of mixing on the compressive strength of the investments was examined. In the second the compressive strength of investments mixed mechanically under vacuum was compared: a) two hours after mixing, b) at the highest heating temperature and c) at room temperature after the heating procedure. In the third experiment, a comparison was made between the compressive strength of investments at the highest heating temperature. The investments were mixed mechanically under vacuum but half of the specimens were placed in a pressure device during setting. From the results obtained the following conclusions were made: a) Mixing mechanically under vacuum increases the compressive strength of the investments, b) the compressive strength of phosphate-bonded investments increases at the highest temperature of the heating procedure and c) the use of a pressure device during the setting of the investments results also in an increased compressive strength. PMID:2518060

  1. Fatigue of concrete under compression: Database and proposal for high strength concrete:

    Lantsoght, E.O.L.

    2014-01-01

    The compressive strength of concrete decreases as an element is subjected to cycles of loading. In a typical fatigue test for the concrete compressive strength, a concrete specimen (typically a cylinder) is loaded between a lower and upper stress limit. These limits are expressed as a fraction of the concrete compressive strength, and can be written as Sminfck and Smaxfck. The value of Smin and Smax are thus between 0 and 1. The upper limit for Smax in experiments is typically 0,95 and Smin c...

  2. Compression specific toughness of normal strength steel fiber reinforced concrete (NSSFRC and high strength steel fiber reinforced concrete (HSSFRC

    Khaled Marara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Compression toughness tests were carried out on concrete cylinders reinforced with three different aspect ratios of hooked-end steel fibers 60, 75, and 83 and six different percentages of steel fibers 0.5, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, and 2.0% by volume of concrete. The w/c ratio used for the normal strength steel fiber reinforced concrete mixes (NSSFRC was 0.55, and the water-cementitious ratio (w/c+s for the high strength fiber reinforced concrete mixes (HSSFRC was 0.31. For each mix, three test cylinders were tested for compression specific toughness. The effect of fiber reinforcement index: volume of fibers length/diameter ratio on compression specific toughness and also on the relationship between these two properties is presented in this paper. As a result, (a equations are proposed to quantify the effect of fibers on compression toughness ratio of concrete in terms of FRI, (b equations obtained in terms of FRI and compression specific toughness of plain concrete to estimate both compression specific toughness of NSSFRC and HSSFRC (N.m, (c equations obtained which represent the relationship between compression toughness index and FRI for NSSFRC and HSSFRC, respectively, and (d equations obtained to quantify the relationship between compression specific toughness index and fiber reinforcement index for NSSFRC and HSSFRC, respectively. The proposed equations give good correlation with the experimental values.

  3. Influence of Plastic Waste Fibers on the Strength of Lime-Rice Husk Ash Stabilized Clay Soil

    A. S. Muntohar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been undertaken to investigate the strength of stabilized clay-soil reinforced with randomly distributed discrete plastic waste fibers by carrying out unconfined compressive strength and tensile-split strength test. In this study, the clay soil was stabilized with lime and rice husk ash mixtures. The effect of the fiber length and content on the compressive and split tensile strength was investigated. The laboratory investigation results show that inclusion of the plastic waste fiber increased significantly both the unconfined compressive strength and tensile-split strength of the stabilized clay soil. The fiber length plays a significant contribution in increasing the soil strength. To contribute for any significant improvement on compression as well as tensile strength, the fiber length should be in range of 20 mm to 40 mm. Fiber reinforcements also reduced soil brittleness by providing smaller loss of post-peak strength.

  4. Experimental study on ultimate strength and strain behavior of concrete under biaxial compressive stresses

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the ultimate strength failure mode and deformation behavior of concrete under short-term biaxial compressive stresses, as an aid to design and analyze the concrete structures subjected to multiaxial compression such as prestressed or reinforced concrete vessel structures. The experimental work on biaxial compression was carried out on the specimens of three mix proportions and different ages with 10cm x 10cm x 10cm cubic shape in a room controlled at 200C. The results are summarized as follows. (1) To minimize the surface friction between specimens and loading platens, the pads of teflon sheets coated with silicone grease were used. The coefficient of friction was measured and was 3 percent on the average. (2) The test data showed that the strength of the concrete subjected to biaxial compression increased as compared to uniaxial compressive strength, and that the biaxial strength increase was mainly dependent on the ratio of principal stresses, and it was hardly affected by mix proportions and ages. (3) The maximum increase of strength, which occurred at the stress ratio of approximately sigma2/sigma1 = 0.6, was about 27 percent higher than the uniaxial strength of concrete. (4) The ultimate strength in case of biaxial compression could be approximated by the parabolic equation. (Kako, I.)

  5. Influence of added concrete compressive strength on adhesion to an existing concrete substrate

    Júlio, Eduardo N. B. S.; Branco, Fernando A. B.; Silva, Vítor D.; Lourenço, Jorge F.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to evaluate the bond strength between two concrete layers of different ages, considering different mixtures of added concrete, with different strengths. The specimens first had the roughness of the substrate surface increased by sand blasting. Later, the new concrete was added. Afterwards, slant shear tests were performed to quantify the bond strength in shear. These tests indicated that increasing the compressive strength of the added concrete relative to ...

  6. Compressive Strength of Fiber Reinforced Fly- Ash Concrete using Regression Model

    H.S. Chore; P.A. Dode; N.L. Shelke

    2011-01-01

    In construction industry, strength is a primary criterion in selecting a concrete for a particular application. Concrete used for construction gains strength over a long period of time after pouring the concrete. The characteristic strength of concrete is defined as the compressive strength of a sample that has been aged for 28 days. Neither waiting 28 days for such a test would not serve the rapidity of construction, nor would neglecting it serve the quality control process on concrete in la...

  7. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF FLY ASH-BASED GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE

    Djwantoro Hardjito

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effects of several factors on the properties of fly ash based geopolymer concrete, especially the compressive strength. The test variables included were the age of concrete, curing time, curing temperature, quantity of superplasticizer, the rest period prior to curing, and the water content of the mix. The test results show that the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete does not vary with age, and curing the concrete specimens at higher temperature and longer curing period will result in higher compressive strength. Furthermore, the commercially available Naphthalene-based superplasticizer improves the workability of fresh geopolymer concrete. The start of curing of geopolymer concrete at elevated temperatures can be delayed at least up to 60 minutes without significant effect on the compressive strength. The test data also show that the water content in the concrete mix plays an important role.

  8. Compressive strength of fiber reinforced composite materials. [composed of boron and epoxy

    Davis, J. G., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Results of an experimental and analytical investigation of the compressive strength of unidirectional boron-epoxy composite material are presented. Observation of fiber coordinates in a boron-epoxy composite indicates that the fibers contain initial curvature. Combined axial compression and torsion tests were conducted on boron-epoxy tubes, and it was shown that the shear modulus is a function of axial compressive stress. An analytical model which includes initial curvature in the fibers and permits an estimate of the effect of curvature on compressive strength is proposed. Two modes of failure which may result from the application of axial compressive stress are analyzed, delamination and shear instability. Based on tests and analysis, failure of boron-epoxy under axial compressive load is due to shear instability.

  9. Face compression yield strength of the copper-Inconel composite specimen

    A new equation for the face compression yield strength of copper-Inconel composite material has been derived. Elastic-plastic finite element analyses were also made for composite specimens with various aspect ratios to examine the edge effect of the specimen. According to the results of both the new equation and the analyses, the face compression yield strength of the composite should be decreased by about 25% from the value obtained with Becker's equation

  10. Investigation of adding fluoroapatite nanoparticles on compressive strength and corrosion behaviour of dental amalgams

    Fahimeh Mirlohi; Ali Doostmohammadi; Ahmad Monshi

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there have been many efforts to improve biological and biocompatibility features of amalgam. The aim of this research was investigating the effect of adding fluoroapatite (FA) nanoparticles on compressive strength and corrosion behaviour of dental amalgam. An amalgam alloy powder was mixed with 1, 3 and 5 wt.% of FA nanoparticles to form composite powders. Compressive strength of the corresponding dental amalgam samples was measured on the first and seventh day after preparat...

  11. Estimation of compressive strength of fresh-concrete by using ultrasonic wave propagation velocity

    The purpose of this work is to give the correlation between ultrasonic wave propagation velocity of fresh concrete and compressive strength of concrete after a age of few days. The ultrasonic wave velocity was measured by using pulse transmission method, and the compressive strength of concrete after 3, 7, and 28 days were measured. For reducing cost, we newly made equipment of measuring the velocity. As results of experiments, regressive equations of which average reliability was about 80%, were proposed.

  12. Identification of Bacteria and the Effect on Compressive Strength of Concrete

    Anneza L. H.; Irwan J. M.; Othman N.; Alshalif A. Faisal

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the species of bacteria used in this study as well as the effect of the bacteria on compressive strength of bioconcrete. Bioconcrete is not only more environmentally friendly but it is easy to procure. The objective of this research is to identify the ureolytic bacteria and sulphate reduction bacteria that have been isolated and further use the bacteria in concrete to determine the effect of bacteria on compressive strength. Identification of bacteria is conducted through ...

  13. Achievement of Early Compressive Strength in Concrete Using Sporosarcina pasteurii Bacteria as an Admixture

    Rakesh Chidara; Rahul Nagulagama; Smitha Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Often it is observed, attainment of early compressive strength in concrete is a challenge. Researchers have tried various admixtures to achieve the objective. This work addresses the issue of achieving early compressive strength in concrete using a bacterium called Sporosarcina pasteurii. The bacterium is characterised with the ability to precipitate calcium carbonate in the presence of any carbonate source and is known for its resistive capacity in extreme temperature and pressure zones. To ...

  14. The Fire Resistance Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Columns with Different Concrete Compressive Strengths

    Hongying Dong; Wanlin Cao; Jianhui Bian; Jianwei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In order to ascertain the fire resistance performance of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) components with different concrete compressive strengths, four full-scaled concrete columns were designed and tested under high temperature. Two of the four specimens were constructed by normal concrete with compressive strength ratings of C20 and C30, respectively, while the others were made from recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) concrete of C30 and C40, respectively. Identical constant axial forces were...

  15. Hydraulic efficiency compromises compression strength perpendicular to the grain in Norway spruce trunkwood

    ROSNER, SABINE; Karlsson, Bo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate bending stiffness and compression strength perpendicular to the grain of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trunkwood with different anatomical and hydraulic properties. Hydraulically less safe mature sapwood had bigger hydraulic lumen diameters and higher specific hydraulic conductivities than hydraulically safer juvenile wood. Bending stiffness (MOE) was higher, whereas radial compression strength lower in mature than in juvenile wood. A density...

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF FLY ASH-BASED GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE

    Djwantoro Hardjito; Steenie E Wallah; Dody M.J. Sumajouw; Rangan, B.V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of several factors on the properties of fly ash based geopolymer concrete, especially the compressive strength. The test variables included were the age of concrete, curing time, curing temperature, quantity of superplasticizer, the rest period prior to curing, and the water content of the mix. The test results show that the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete does not vary with age, and curing the concrete specimens at higher temperature and longer cu...

  17. Effect of compressive loads on the tensile strength of concrete at high strain rates

    Tinic, C.; Brühwiler, E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the behaviour of concrete subjected to tensile loads at high strain rates with and without compressive load histories. The tests, carried out at the laboratory of building materials of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, show a considerable deterioration of the tensile strength due to initially applied compressive loads.

  18. Compression strength of a fibre composite main spar in a wind turbine blade

    Moelholt Jensen, F.

    2003-06-01

    In this report the strength of a wind turbine blade is found and compared with a full-scale test, made in the same project. Especially the post buckling behaviour of the compression flange is studied. Different compressive failure mechanisms are discussed and the limitations in using the Finite Element Method. A suggestion to the further work is made. (au)

  19. The correlation of layer waviness defect on compression strength of carbon fiber composite material

    As advanced composite materials having superior physical and mechanical properties are being developed, optimization of their production process is eagerly being sought. One of the most common defects in production of structural composites is layer waviness. Layer waviness is more pronounced in thick section flat and cylindrical laminates that are extensively used in missile casings. Submersibles and space platforms. Layer waviness undulates the entire layer of a multidirectional laminate in through-the-thickness direction leading to gross deterioration of its compression strength. This research investigates the influence of multiple layer waviness in a double nest formation on the compression strength of a composite laminate. Different wave fractions of wavy 0 degree layer were fabricated in IM/855 1- 7 carbon- epoxy composite laminate on a steel mold using single step fabrication procedure. The laminate was cured on a heated press according to specific curing cycle. Static compression testing was performed using short block compression fixture on an universal testing machine. The purpose of these tests was to determine the effects of multiple layer wave regions on the compression strength of composite laminate. The experimental and analytical results revealed that up to about 35% fraction of wavy 0 degree layers. The reduction in compression strength of composite laminate was constant after fraction of wavy 0 degree layers exceeded 35%. This analysis indicated that the percentage of 0 degree wavy layer may be used to estimate the reduction in compression strength of a composite laminate under restricted conditions. (author)

  20. Differences between the tensile and compressive strengths of bovine tibial trabecular bone depend on modulus.

    Keaveny, T M; Wachtel, E F; Ford, C M; Hayes, W C

    1994-09-01

    The conflicting conclusions regarding the relationship between the tensile and compressive strengths of trabecular bone remain unexplained. To help resolve this issue, we compared measurements of the tensile (n = 22) and compressive (n = 22) yield strengths, and yield strains, of trabecular bone specimens taken from 38 bovine proximal tibiae. We also studied how these failure properties depended on modulus and apparent density. To enhance accuracy, trabecular orientation was controlled, and each specimen had a reduced section where strains were measured with a miniature extensometer. We found that the mean yield strength was 30% lower for tensile loading. However, the difference between individual values of the tensile and compressive strengths increased linearly with increasing modulus and density, being negligible for low moduli, but substantial for high moduli. By contrast, both the tensile and compressive yield strains were independent of modulus and density, with the yield strain being 30% lower for tensile loading. Thus, the difference between the tensile and compressive strengths of bovine tibial trabecular bone depends on the modulus, but the difference between yield strains does not. This phenomenon may explain in part that conflicting conclusions reached previously on the tensile and compressive strengths of trabecular bone since the mean modulus has varied among different studies. Realizing that our data pertain only directly to bovine tibial trabecular bone for longitudinal loading, our results nevertheless suggest that failure parameters based on strains may provide more powerful and general comparisons of the failure properties for trabecular bone than measures based on stress. PMID:7929463

  1. Green and early age compressive strength of extruded cement mortar monitored with compression tests and ultrasonic techniques

    Knowledge about the early age compressive strength development of cementitious materials is an important factor for the progress and safety of many construction projects. This paper uses cylindrical mortar specimens produced with a ram extruder to investigate the transition of the mortar from plastic and deformable to hardened state. In addition, wave transmission and reflection measurements with P- and S-waves were conducted to obtain further information about the microstructural changes during the setting and hardening process. The experiments have shown that uniaxial compression tests conducted on extruded mortar cylinders are a useful tool to evaluate the green strength as well as the initiation and further development of the compressive strength of the tested material. The propagation of P-waves was found to be indicative of the internal structure of the tested mortars as influenced, for example, by the addition of fine clay particles. S-waves used in transmission and reflection mode proved to be sensitive to the inter-particle bonding caused by the cement hydration and expressed by an increase in compressive strength

  2. Prediction of potential compressive strength of Portland clinker from its mineralogy

    Svinning, K.; Høskuldsson, Agnar; Justnes, H.

    2010-01-01

    Based on a statistical model first applied for prediction of compressive strength up to 28 d from the microstructure of Portland cement, potential compressive strength of clinker has been predicted from its mineralogy. The prediction model was evaluated by partial least squares regression. The...... mineralogy was described by patterns from X-ray diffraction analysis in the 20-regions 29.88-30.70 degrees and 32.90-34.10 degrees (using CuK alpha-radiation). It has been shown that prediction of potential compressive strength of clinker up to 28 d from the observed variation in the mineralogy gave a...... significant variation of the strength at both 1 and 28 d. Sensitivity analysis based on simulation, optimisation and prediction made it possible to study the influence of the mineralogy on the strength in more detail....

  3. Prediction model of compressive strength development of fly-ash concrete

    Kwangryul Hwang; Takafumi Noguchi; Fuminiro Tomosawa [Building Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2004-12-01

    Based on experimental results concerning the compressive strength development of concrete containing fly ash, the authors derived an estimation equation for compressive strength development. The equation can express coefficient {alpha} which indicates the activity of fly ash as a binder, in the form of a function of age, fly-ash content, and Blaine specific surface area of fly ash. This equation is capable of explaining the increases in the early strength due to fly ash in place of part of fine aggregate, the decreases in the early strength due to fly ash in place of part of cement, the increases in the long-term strength due to pozzolanic reaction, the relationship between the fly-ash replacement ratio and the ratio of strength increase/decrease, and the effect of fly ash's Blaine specific surface area on the strength.

  4. Unfired clay bricks – moisture properties and compressive strength

    Hansen, E.J. de Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    Apparatus, methods and test results from an experimental investigation of (1) the properties for moisture performance of the materials, including water vapour sorption and water vapour transmission, (2) humidity buffering of the indoor climate by an absorbent material, and (3) the compressive str...

  5. Effect of Copper Content on Compressive Strength and Microstructure of Dental Amalgams

    Seyed Abdolkarim Sajjadi; Seyed Mojtaba Zebarjad; Akram Hasheminezhad; Laleh Rahanjam

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this research is to investigate the effect of copper on compressive strength of dental amalgam. For this purpose amalgam capsules with two different content of copper were used. Cylindrical samples with diameter to height ratio 1 to 2, were prepared via molding method. To evaluate the role of copper element on compressive strength, com-pression test was done at different strain rates i.e. 0.02, 0.2, 0.4 and 2 min1. The results and microscopic evaluations showed that an incre...

  6. Laboratory Investigation on Performance of Cement Using Different Additives Schemes to Improve Early Age Compressive Strength

    Muhannad Talib Shuker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to maintain the oil well cement integrity effectively and economically. The classical literature review of cement slurry preparation has shown high temperature in wellbore has influenced the mechanical properties of cement slurry, especially compressive strength. The compressive strength is the most important parameter when the ability of the cement to perform its necessary functions of down-hole faster placement analyzed. In past, the different additives were used to improve the performance of cement slurry by maintain compressive strength during placement. Laboratory tests carry out by Silica Fume (SF with dispersants and fluid loss control additives at different concentrations to performed early age compressive test of nondestructive cement slurry through Ultra-Sonic Cement Analyzer (UCA. Measured result showed that 6:34 and 7:48 h aged sample have a maximum compressive strength at temperature above 120C. It is observed that as concentration of SF increased with combined dispersants and fluid loss additives used to control& enhance compressive strength at above 120C for the integrity of cement slurry.

  7. Estimation of hardness and compressive strength of SP 100 aluminum powder epoxy

    Han, Jeong Young [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung Hun [Korea Institute of Footwear and Leather Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung Soo [Jeonju Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    In this study, we performed experimental tests on five SP 100 aluminum powder epoxy specimens with several after curing conditions in order to estimate their hardness with temperature and compressive strength. In the surface hardness test, it was found that the higher the after curing temperature, the higher was the hardness. In particular, it was found that the hardness of the specimens in cases 3 and 4 was much higher than in the other cases. In addition, in the compression tests carried out to evaluate the compressive strength, it was found that the specimens showed relatively similar stiffness and strength with after curing, and specimens with no after curing showed compression stress strain curves similar to those of thermoplastic resins.

  8. Estimation of hardness and compressive strength of SP 100 aluminum powder epoxy

    In this study, we performed experimental tests on five SP 100 aluminum powder epoxy specimens with several after curing conditions in order to estimate their hardness with temperature and compressive strength. In the surface hardness test, it was found that the higher the after curing temperature, the higher was the hardness. In particular, it was found that the hardness of the specimens in cases 3 and 4 was much higher than in the other cases. In addition, in the compression tests carried out to evaluate the compressive strength, it was found that the specimens showed relatively similar stiffness and strength with after curing, and specimens with no after curing showed compression stress strain curves similar to those of thermoplastic resins

  9. Influence of Plastic Waste Fibers on the Strength of Lime-Rice Husk Ash Stabilized Clay Soil

    A. S. Muntohar

    2009-01-01

    A study has been undertaken to investigate the strength of stabilized clay-soil reinforced with randomly distributed discrete plastic waste fibers by carrying out unconfined compressive strength and tensile-split strength test. In this study, the clay soil was stabilized with lime and rice husk ash mixtures. The effect of the fiber length and content on the compressive and split tensile strength was investigated. The laboratory investigation results show that inclusion of the plastic waste fi...

  10. Variations in Compressive Strength of Geopolymer due to the CaO Added Fly Ash

    Zhao, Yuqing; Koumoto, Tatsuya; Kondo, Fumiyoshi

    Recently, geopolymer has been a noteworthy material which can be used as a replacement for portland cement. The mechanical characteristics and consistency of the geopolymer are strongly affected by its chemical components of fly ash. The variations in compressive strength of geopolymer due to the CaO added fly ash were investigated in this paper. The compressive strengths of geopolymer were increased with an increase in the curing period, and the characteristics changed from the one of plastic soil material to brittle material such as concrete, regardless of CaO content. Also, the results of compressive strength and modulus of deformation showed their maximum value in the case of 8-10% CaO content. From this result, the maximum characteristics of the strengths were assumed to be exerted in case which the water draining process of geopolymer was balanced with the water absorbing process of additional CaO.

  11. The estimation of compressive strength of normal and recycled aggregate concrete

    Janković Ksenija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of concrete strength is an important issue in ready-mixed concrete industry, especially, in proportioning new mixtures and for the quality assurance of the concrete produced. In this article, on the basis of the existing experimental data of compressive strength of normal and recycled aggregate concrete and equation for compressive strength calculating given in Technical regulation are compared. The accuracies of prediction by experimental data obtained in laboratory as well as by EN 1992-1-1, ACI 209 and SRPS U.M1.048 are compared on the basis of the coefficient of determination. The determination of the compressive strengths by the equation described here relies on determination of type of cement and age of concrete with the constant curing temperature.

  12. Non-Uniform Compressive Strength of Debonded Sandwich Panels

    Berggreen, Carl Christian; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2005-01-01

    .(2005)., shows that the model is indeed able to predict the failure modes and the residual strength of damaged panels with accuracy sufficient for practical applications. This opens up for a number of important engineering applications, for example risk-based inspection and repair schemes....

  13. The influence of double nested layer waviness on compression strength of carbon fiber composite materials

    As advanced composite materials having superior physical and mechanical properties are being developed, optimization of their production processes in eagerly being sought. One of the most common defect in production of structural composites is layer waviness. Layer waviness is more pronounced in thick section flat and cylindrical laminates that are extensively used in missile casings, submersibles and space platforms. Layer waviness undulates the entire layers of a multidirectional laminate in through-the-thickness direction leading to gross deterioration of its compression strength. This research investigates the influence of multiple layer waviness in a double nest formation on the compression strength of a composite laminate. Different wave fractions of wave 0 degree centigrade layer fabricated in IM/85510-7 carbon - epoxy composite laminate on a steel mold using single step fabrication procedure. The laminate was cured on a heated press according to specific curing cycle. Static compression testing was performed using NASA short block compression fixture on an MTS servo Hydraulic machine. The purpose of these tests was to determine the effects of multiple layer wave regions on the compression strength of composite laminate. The experimental and analytical results revealed that up to about 35% fraction of wave 0 degree layer exceeded 35%. This analysis indicated that the percentage of 0 degree wavy layer may be used to estimate the reduction in compression strength of a composite laminate under restricted conditions. (author)

  14. Influence of Compression and Shear on the Strength of Composite Laminates with Z-Pinned Reinforcement

    O'Brien, T. Kevin; Krueger, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    The influence of compression and shear loads on the strength of composite laminates with z-pins is evaluated parametrically using a 2D Finite Element Code (FLASH). Meshes were generated for three unique combinations of z-pin diameter and density. A laminated plate theory analysis was performed on several layups to determine the bi-axial stresses in the zero degree plies. These stresses, in turn, were used to determine the magnitude of the relative load steps prescribed in the FLASH analyses. Results indicated that increasing pin density was more detrimental to in-plane compression strength than increasing pin diameter. FLASH results for lamina with z-pins were consistent with the closed form results, and FLASH results without z-pins, if the initial fiber waviness due to z-pin insertion was added to the fiber waviness in the material to yield a total misalignment. Addition of 10% shear to the compression loading significantly reduced the lamina strength compared to pure compression loading. Addition of 50% shear to the compression indicated shear yielding rather than kink band formation as the likely failure mode. Two different stiffener reinforced skin configurations with z-pins, one quasi-isotropic and one orthotropic, were also analyzed. Six unique loading cases ranging from pure compression to compression plus 50% shear were analyzed assuming material fiber waviness misalignment angles of 0, 1, and 2 degrees. Compression strength decreased with increased shear loading for both configurations, with the quasi-isotropic configuration yielding lower strengths than the orthotropic configuration.

  15. The Fire Resistance Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Columns with Different Concrete Compressive Strengths

    Hongying Dong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to ascertain the fire resistance performance of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC components with different concrete compressive strengths, four full-scaled concrete columns were designed and tested under high temperature. Two of the four specimens were constructed by normal concrete with compressive strength ratings of C20 and C30, respectively, while the others were made from recycled coarse aggregate (RCA concrete of C30 and C40, respectively. Identical constant axial forces were applied to specimens while being subjected to simulated building fire conditions in a laboratory furnace. Several parameters from the experimental results were comparatively analyzed, including the temperature change, vertical displacement, lateral deflection, fire endurance, and failure characteristics of specimens. The temperature field of specimens was simulated with ABAQUS Software (ABAQUS Inc., Provindence, RI, USA and the results agreed quite well with those from the experiments. Results show that the rate of heat transfer from the surface to the interior of the column increases with the increase of the concrete’s compressive strength for both RAC columns and normal concrete columns. Under the same initial axial force ratio, for columns with the same cross section, those with lower concrete compressive strengths demonstrate better fire resistance performance. The fire resistance performance of RAC columns is better than that of normal concrete columns, with the same concrete compressive strength.

  16. Investigation on Compressive Strength of Special Concrete made with Crushed Waste Glass

    Mohd Sani Mohd Syahrul Hisyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Special concrete is the type of concrete that produced by using waste material or using unusual techniques/method of preparation. Special concrete made with waste material is becoming popular in a construction site. This is because the special concrete is selected due to quality, integrity, economic factor and environmental factor. The waste glass is selected as an additional material to provide a good in compressive strength value. The compressive strength is the importance of mechanical properties of concrete and typically the concrete is sustained and stiffed in compression load. The significant issue to utilize the waste glass from the automotive windscreen is to improve the strength of concrete. The waste glass is crushed to become 5 mm size and recognised as crushed waste glass that be used in concrete as additional material. The main objective of the study is to determine the appropriate percentage of crushed waste glass in concrete grade, 30 in order to enhance the compressive strength. There are four mixes of concrete that contained of crushed waste glass with percentage of 2 %, 4 %, 6 % and 8 % and one control mix with 0 % of crushed waste glass. As the result, crushed waste glass with an additional 4 % in concrete is reported having a higher value of compressive strength in early and mature stage. In addition, if the percentage of crushed glass wastes in concrete increases and it leads to a reduction in the workability of concrete.

  17. Relationships between microfibril angle, modulus of elasticity and compressive strength in Eucalyptus wood

    Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many traits are known to be important in determining the value of Eucalyptus wood as sawn timber. The commercial importance of the microfibril angle (MFA for wood quality is well established for a range of softwoods, but is less clear for hardwood species. For instance, the relationships of MFA with wood stiffness and compressive strength are unknown in Eucalyptus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between MFA and the modulus of elasticity (Ec0,m in compression parallel to grain and compressive strength (Fc0,k using juvenile wood of Eucalyptus grandis from fast-growing plantations. The correlation between wood stiffness and compressive strength was high (0.91. The cellulose microfibril angle presented a correlation of -0.67 with wood stiffness and of -0.52 with compressive strength in Eucalyptus juvenile wood. MFA was found to be important in determining the mechanical behaviour of wood and appears to be a useful parameter to indicate wood stiffness and strength in juvenile Eucalyptus from short-rotation plantations.

  18. On the Compressive and Tensile Strength of Magnesium Aluminate Spinel

    Paris, V.; Hayun, S.; Dariel, M. P.; Frage, N.; Zaretsky, E.

    2009-12-01

    Magnesium aluminate spinel is a strong polycrystalline transparent ceramic. Spinel is an attractive material for armor applications and its behavior under shock wave loading is of obvious interest. The purpose of the present study was to determine the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of this material, its Hugoniot response above the HEL, and its spall strength. Planar impact experiments were performed over the 2 to 40 GPa stress range using the Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) as a principal diagnostics tool. According to these tests, spinel has a HEL of about 11.3 GPa. The spall strength of the material was found to be close to zero at low, about 2 GPa, impact stress.

  19. Compressive strength of an unsaturated granular material during cementation

    Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soulié, Fabien; El Youssoufi, Moulay Saïd,; Radjai, Farhang

    2011-01-01

    The cohesive behaviour of unsaturated granular materials is due to the presence of cohesive bonds between grains. These bonds can have various physico-chemical characteristics and may evolve with environmental conditions. We study the case of a granular material partially saturated by an aqueous solution. The bonds are thus initially of capillary type and the mechanical strength is weak. At low relative humidity, the phase change of water involves crystallization of the solute at the contact ...

  20. Dynamic compressive and tensile strengths of spark plasma sintered alumina

    Fully dense submicron grain size alumina samples were manufactured from alumina nano-powder using Spark Plasma Sintering and tested in two kinds of VISAR-instrumented planar impact tests. In the first kind, samples were loaded by 1-mm tungsten impactors, accelerated to a velocity of about 1 km/s. These tests were aimed at studying the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS)-processed alumina and the decay, with propagation distance, of the elastic precursor wave. In the tests of the second kind, alumina samples of 3-mm thickness were loaded by 1-mm copper impactors accelerated to 100–1000 m/s. These tests were aimed at studying the dynamic tensile (spall) strength of the alumina specimens. The tensile fracture of the un-alloyed alumina shows a monotonic decline of the spall strength with the amplitude of the loading stress pulse. Analysis of the decay of the elastic precursor wave allowed determining the rate of the irreversible (inelastic) strains in the SPS-processed alumina at the initial stages of the shock-induced inelastic deformation and to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the deformation. The 1-% addition of Cr2O3 decreases the HEL of the SPS-processed alumina by 5-% and its spall strength by 50% but barely affects its static properties.

  1. Effect of activator solution on compressive strength of flyash geopolymer blended with slag

    Debabrata Dutta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the composition of activator solution on the strength of fly ash geopolymer blended with slag was investigated. The research variable include % Na2O and sodium silicate under typical controlled parameters like curing profile, water content, base material and supplementary material. In this study, the monitoring response variable was compressive strength. Finding suggests that activator solution combination has a significant effect on the properties of the GP (non-blended geopolymer and GB (geopolymer blended with 15% slag. The experiment concludes that higher percentage of Na2O gives lower strength for GB specimens but corresponding higher strength for GP specimens. Silicate modulus has similar impact on GP and GB. Both for GP and GB specimens compressive strength is increase with higher silicate modulus.

  2. Compressive Strength of Volcanic Ash/Ordinary Portland Cement Laterized Concrete

    Olusola K. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of partial replacement of cement with volcanic ash (VA on the compressive strength of laterized concrete. A total of 192 cubes of 150mm dimensions were cast and cured in water for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of hydration with cement replacement by VA and sand replacement by laterite both ranging from 0 to 30% respectively, while a control mix of 28-day target strength of 25 N/mm2 was adopted. The results show that the density and compressive strength of concrete decreased with increase in volcanic ash content. The 28-day, density dropped from 2390 kg/m3 to 2285 kg/m3 (i.e. 4.4% loss and the compressive strength from 25.08 N/mm2 to 17.98 N/mm2 (i.e. 28% loss for 0-30% variation of VA content with no laterite introduced. The compressive strength also decreased with increase in laterite content; the strength of the laterized concrete however increases as the curing age progresses.

  3. Compressive strength, flexural strength and thermal conductivity of autoclaved concrete block made using bottom ash as cement replacement materials

    Highlights: ► Autoclaved aerated concrete were produced using coal bottom ash as a cement replacement material. ► Coal bottom ash was found to enhance concrete strengths. ► Thermal conductivity of concrete was not significantly affected. ► X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis show tobermorite formation. -- Abstract: The bottom ash (BA) from Mae Moh power plant, Lampang, Thailand was used as Portland cement replacement to produce lightweight concrete (LWC) by autoclave aerated concrete method. Portland cement type 1, river sand, bottom ash, aluminium powder and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) were used in this study. BA was used to replace Portland cement at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% by weight and aluminium powder was added at 0.2% by weight in order to produce the aerated concrete. Compressive strength, flexural and thermal conductivity tests were then carried out after the concrete were autoclaved for 6 h and left in air for 7 days. The results show that the compressive strength, flexural strength and thermal conductivity increased with increased BA content due to tobermorite formation. However, approximately, 20% increase in both compressive (up to 11.61 MPa) and flexural strengths (up to 3.16 MPa) was found for mixes with 30% BA content in comparison to just around 6% increase in the thermal conductivity. Thermogravimetry analysis shows C–S–H formation and X-ray diffraction confirm tobermorite formation in bottom ash lightweight concrete. The use of BA as a cement replacement, therefore, can be seen to have the benefit in enhancing strength of the aerated concrete while achieving comparatively low thermal conductivity when compared to the results of the control Portland cement concrete.

  4. A Study of Compressive Strength Characteristics of Laterite Sand Hollow Blocks

    Abiodun Olanipekun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental investigations carried out on partial replacement of sand with laterite as it affects the compressive strength of sandcrete hollow blocks. Two mix proportions (1:6 and 1:8 were used with laterite content varying between 0 and 50% at 10% intervals. Hand and machine compaction methods were used. Curing was done by sprinkling water on the specimens. The results showed that for each mix proportion and compaction method, the compressive strength decreases with increase in laterite content. Machine compacted hollow sandcrete blocks made from mix ratio 1:6 and with up to 10% laterite content is found suitable and hence recommended for building construction having attained a 28-day compressive strength of 2.07N/mm2 as required by the Nigerian Standards.

  5. Statistical approach to predict compressive strength of high workability slag-cement mortars

    This paper reports an attempt made to develop empirical expressions to estimate/ predict the compressive strength of high workability slag-cement mortars. Experimental data of 54 mix mortars were used. The mortars were prepared with slag as cement replacement of the order of 0, 50 and 60%. The flow (workability) was maintained at 136+-3%. The numerical and statistical analysis was performed by using database computer software Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Three empirical mathematical models were developed to estimate/predict 28 days compressive strength of high workability slag cement-mortars with 0, 50 and 60% slag which predict the values accurate between 97 and 98%. Finally a generalized empirical mathematical model was proposed which can predict 28 days compressive strength of high workability mortars up to degree of accuracy 95%. (author)

  6. Prediction of compressive strength of concrete with fly ash as sand replacement material

    N.P. Rajamane; J. Annie Peter; P.S. Ambily [Structural Engineering Research Centre, Chennai (India). Concrete Composites Laboratory

    2007-03-15

    Fly ash (FA) acts as a partial replacement material for both Portland cement and fine aggregate. The published information on FA as sand (fine aggregate) replacement material (SRM) is limited and rational guidelines to estimate the compressive strength of concrete are not available. This aspect was investigated and a formula to predict the compressive strength of concrete at 28 day is suggested in this paper. This formula, containing cementing efficiency factor, k, of FA, is useful also when the quantity of FA used is more than that of sand replaced. Application of the formula to the test data in published literature, indicate that it can estimate the compressive strength of concrete containing different levels of sand replacement by fly ash.

  7. Characterization of compressive and short beam shear strength of bamboo opened cell foam core sandwich composites

    Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi; Sugiman, Saputra, Yudhi

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the compressive and the short beam shear strength of a sandwich composite with opened cell foam made of bamboo fiber as the core and plywood as the skins. The core thickness was varied from 10 mm to 40 mm keeping the volume fraction of fiber constant. Several test s were carried out including the core density, flatwise compressive and the short beam shear testing in three point bending. The results show that the density of bamboo opened cell foam is comparable with commercial plastic foam, such as polyurethane foam. The compressive strength tends to increase linearly with increasing the core thickness. The short beam shear failure load of the sandwich composite increases with the increase of core thickness, however on the contrary, the short beam shear strength which tends to sharply decrease from the thickness of 10 mm to 30 mm and then becomes flat.

  8. The Study of Green Compression Strength of a Green Sand Mould Using Statistical Approach

    Aondona Paul Ihom; Aniekan Offiong

    2014-01-01

    The study of green compression strength of a green sand mould using statistical approach has been undertaken. Empirically generated data in National Metallurgical Development Centre, Jos Sand Testing Laboratory were used for the study. Coefficient of correlation, coefficients of determination and coefficient of multiple determinations were used to explain the relationship existing between the two independent variables of clay and moisture content and green compression streng...

  9. Compression specific toughness of normal strength steel fiber reinforced concrete (NSSFRC) and high strength steel fiber reinforced concrete (HSSFRC)

    Khaled Marara; zgr Erenb; ?brahim Yitmena

    2011-01-01

    Compression toughness tests were carried out on concrete cylinders reinforced with three different aspect ratios of hooked-end steel fibers 60, 75, and 83 and six different percentages of steel fibers 0.5, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, and 2.0% by volume of concrete. The w/c ratio used for the normal strength steel fiber reinforced concrete mixes (NSSFRC) was 0.55, and the water-cementitious ratio (w/c+s) for the high strength fiber reinforced concrete mixes (HSSFRC) was 0.31. For each mix, three tes...

  10. Compressive strength and microstructural analysis of fly ash/palm oil fuel ash based geopolymer mortar

    Highlights: • Results show POFA is adaptable as replacement in FA based geopolymer mortar. • The increase in POFA/FA ratio delay of the compressive development of geopolymer. • The density of POFA based geoploymer is lower than FA based geopolymer mortar. - Abstract: This paper presents the effects and adaptability of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) as a replacement material in fly ash (FA) based geopolymer mortar from the aspect of microstructural and compressive strength. The geopolymers developed were synthesized with a combination of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate as activator and POFA and FA as high silica–alumina resources. The development of compressive strength of POFA/FA based geopolymers was investigated using X-ray florescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). It was observed that the particle shapes and surface area of POFA and FA as well as chemical composition affects the density and compressive strength of the mortars. The increment in the percentages of POFA increased the silica/alumina (SiO2/Al2O3) ratio and that resulted in reduction of the early compressive strength of the geopolymer and delayed the geopolymerization process

  11. Risk of vertebral insufficiency fractures in relation to compressive strength predicted by quantitative computed tomography

    Vertebral insufficiency fractures may result from excessive loading of normal and routine loading of osteoporotic spines. Fractures occur when the mechanical load exceeds the vertebral compressive strength, i.e., the maximum load a vertebra can tolerate. Vertebral compressive strength is determined by trabecular bone density and the size of end-plate area. Both parameters can be measured non-invasively by quanti-tative computed tomography (QCT). In 75 patients compressive strength (i.e., trabecular bone density and endplate area) of the vertebra L3 was determined using QCT. In addition, conventional radiographs of the spines were analysed for the prevalence of insufficiency fractures in each case. By relating fracture prevalence to strength, 3 fracture risk groups were found: a high-risk group with strength values of L35 kN and a fracture risk near 0 percent. Biomechanical measurements and model calculations indicate that spinal loads of 3 to 4 kN at L3/4 will be common in everyday activities. These data and the results described above suggest that spines with strength values of L3<3 kN are at an extremely high risk of insufficiency fractures in daily life. Advantages of fracture risk assessment by strength determination over risk estimation based on clinically used trabecular bone density measurements are discussed. (author). 18 refs.; 4 figs

  12. Effect of Some Parameters on the Compressive Strength of MWCNT-Cement Composites

    Hyukjin Choi; Donghoon Kang; Gang Seok Seo; Wonseok Chung

    2015-01-01

    Enhancements in the compressive strength of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) mortar upon the incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were investigated. The MWCNT concentration, water/cement (W/C) ratio, curing age, and MWCNT concentration control method were selected as experimental parameters, and their effect on the compressive strength of the MWCNT-cement composites was examined. Here, the MWCNT concentration was varied from 0.25 wt% to 1.0 wt%, while W/C ratios in the range o...

  13. Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate as Complete Replacement of Natural Aggregate

    Osei, Daniel Yaw

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a report of an experimental investigation on the effect of complete replacement of natural aggregate by recycled concrete aggregate in the production of concrete on the compressive strength of concrete. Two sets of concrete mixtures of ratios 1:3:6, 1:2:4, 1:11/2:3, 1:1:2 by mass were cast using natural aggregates and recycled aggregates concrete respectively. The 28-day compressive strengths of 1:3:6, 1:2:4, 1:11/2:3, 1:1:2 concrete using recycled concrete aggregates were...

  14. The Comparison of the Film Thickness and Compressive Strength Between Ariadent and Harvard Zinc Phosphate Cement.

    M - Sabouhi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recently, the Ariadent Zinc phosphate cement has been introduced to market with low cost. Some dentists purchase this product because of low cost and others avoid buying it because of unreliable quality. The two important properties of ideal dental cement are to have the minimum film thickness (less than 25 micron and to have favorable compressive strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the mean and to compare the film thickness and compressive strength of Ariadent and Harvard Zinc phosphate cement.Materials and Methods. In this experimental study evaluation was made based on Iranian standard number 2725. To measure film thickness of each cement, the first step was to prepare two glass slabs and their thickness was measured with micrometer, then each cement was prepared according to standard procedure and was put between the glass slabs. The difference between glass slabs with and without cement was measured. This procedure was repeated 3 times and average of three measurements were obtained and determined as mean of cement film thickness. To determine the compressive strength of each cement at first a mold was fabricated according to standard procedures. Then each prepared cement was poured in to the mold. After 24 hours each of five prepared specimens was Put under load and the average compressive strength was calculated.Results. The mean film thickness for Arident Zinc phosphate was 42.33?4.50 micron and for Harvard cement was 24.33?5.70. The mean compressive strength of Ariadent Zinc phosphate cement was 44.90?4.11 MPa and for Harvard cement was 62.85?5.19 MPa. The statistical analysis (t-student revealed significant difference between two phosphate cement.Discussion. In this study mean film thickness of Iranian Ariadent Zinc phosphate cement was more than standard level (25 micron and the mean compressive strength was less than standard level (70 MPa. These results indicated that Ariadent cement was of low quality and below standard. But Harvard Zinc phosphate cement had a standard film thickness and its compressive strength was close to standard and this is a reason for acceptable quality of Harvard Zinc phosphate cement.Keywords. Cement, Compressive strength, film thickness, Zinc phosphate cement

  15. The statitistical evaluation of the uniaxial compressive strength of the Ruskov andesite

    Krepelka František; Laba Milan

    2002-01-01

    The selection of a suitable model of the statistical distribution of the uniaxial compressive strength is discussed in the paper. The uniaxial compressive strength was studied on 180 specimens of the Ruskov andesite. The rate of loading was 1MPa.s-1. The experimental specimens had a prismatic form with a square base; the slightness ratio of specimens was 2:1. Three sets of specimens with a different length of the base edge were studied, namely 50, 30 and 10 mm. The result of the measurement w...

  16. The statitistical evaluation of the uniaxial compressive strength of the Ruskov andesite

    Krepelka František

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of a suitable model of the statistical distribution of the uniaxial compressive strength is discussed in the paper. The uniaxial compressive strength was studied on 180 specimens of the Ruskov andesite. The rate of loading was 1MPa.s-1. The experimental specimens had a prismatic form with a square base; the slightness ratio of specimens was 2:1. Three sets of specimens with a different length of the base edge were studied, namely 50, 30 and 10 mm. The result of the measurement were three sets with 60 values of the uniaxial compressive strength. The basic statistical parameters: the sample mean, the sample standard deviation, the variational interval, the minimum and maximum value, the sample obliqueness coefficient and the sharpness coefficient were evaluated for each collection. Two types of the distribution which can be joined with the real physical fundamentals of the desintegration of rocks ( the normal and the Weibull distribution were tested. The two-parametric Weibull distribution was tested. The basic characteristics of both distributions were evaluated for each set and the accordance of the model distribution with an experimental distribution was tested. The ÷2-test was used for testing. The two-parametric Weibull distribution was selected following the comparison of the test results of both model distributions as a suitable distribution model for the characterization of uniaxial compressive strength of the Ruskov andesite. The two-parametric Weibull distribution showed better results of the goodness-of-fit test. The normal distribution was suitable for two sets; one of the sets showed a negative result of the goodness-of-fit testing. At the uniaxial compressive strength of the Ruskov andesite, a scale effect was registered : the mean value of uniaxial compressive strength decreases with increasing the specimen base edge. This is another argument for using the Weibull distribution as a suitable statistical model of the uniaxial compressive strength distribution. The Weibull distribution unlike the normal distribution enables the physical interpretation of the scale effect influence on uniaxial compressive strength value.

  17. The chemical composition and compression strengths of refractory ceramics, tested for 3 curing temperatures

    An investigation was carried out to determine and compile the mechanical strength of a refractory ceramic made of ground fire bricks and refractory fire mortar. Three different compositions were studied for the compression strength and it was found that the composition with 50% fire bricks and 50% fire mortar gives the best mechanical strength. With this composition the maximum failure compression stress is 3.2 MPa. and the Young Modulus is 403.5 MPa. The investigation also shows that the curing temperatures and the composition percentages play an important role in determining the strength of the ceramic. The trend obtained from the investigation shows that there is the possibility that an optimum value of composition percentage exist

  18. General and mechanistic optimal relationships for tensile strength of doubly convex tablets under diametrical compression

    Razavi, Sonia M.; Gonzalez, Marcial; Cuitino, Alberto M.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a general framework for determining optimal relationships for tensile strength of doubly convex tablets under diametrical compression. This approach is based on the observation that tensile strength is directly proportional to the breaking force and inversely proportional to a non-linear function of geometric parameters and materials properties. This generalization reduces to the analytical expression commonly used for flat faced tablets, i.e., Hertz solution, and to the empirical ...

  19. Effect of additives on the compressive strength and setting time of a Portland cement

    Desirée Freitas Mryczka Machado; Luiz Eduardo Bertassoni; Evelise Machado de Souza; Janaina Bertoncelo de Almeida; Rodrigo Nunes Rached

    2010-01-01

    Improvements in strength and setting time of Portland cements (PC) are needed to enhance their performance as endodontic and load bearing materials. This study sought to enhance the compressive strength and setting time of a PC by adding one of the following additives: 20% and 30% poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA), 20% and 30% irregular and spherical amalgam alloys, and 10% CaCl2. The control consisted of unreinforced PC specimens. Setting time was determined using a Gillmore apparatus according...

  20. Derivation of the Bi-axial Bending, Compression and Shear Strengths of Timber Beams:

    Put, T. A. C. M.

    2012-01-01

    The derivation is given of the combined bi-axial bending, compression and shear strength of timber beams. As for other materials the elasticfull plastic limit design approach applies, which is known to precisely explain and predict uniaxial bending strength behaviour. The derivation is based on choosing the location of the neutral line. This provides the stress distribution in the beam cross section in the ultimate state for that case, making it possible to calculate the associated ultima...

  1. Derivation of the Bi-axial Bending, Compression and Shear Strengths of Timber Beams

    Put, T. A. C. M.

    2012-01-01

    The derivation is given of the combined bi-axial bending, compression and shear strength of timber beams. As for other materials the elastic–full plastic limit design approach applies, which is known to precisely explain and predict uniaxial bending strength behaviour. The derivation is based on choosing the location of the neutral line. This provides the stress distribution in the beam cross section in the ultimate state for that case, making it possible to calculate the associated ultimate ...

  2. Effect of activator solution on compressive strength of flyash geopolymer blended with slag

    Debabrata Dutta; Dr. Somnath Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the composition of activator solution on the strength of fly ash geopolymer blended with slag was investigated. The research variable include % Na2O and sodium silicate under typical controlled parameters like curing profile, water content, base material and supplementary material. In this study, the monitoring response variable was compressive strength. Finding suggests that activator solution combination has a significant effect on the properties of the GP (non-...

  3. On the prediction of compressive strength and propagation stress of aligned fiber-matrix composites

    Hsu, Sheng-Yuan

    1999-11-01

    The compressive strength of aligned fiber (carbon and glass) composites with polymeric matrices has been found to be only 50--60% of their tensile strength. Such composites have fiber imperfections in the form of small misalignments which under compression cause local shearing of the material. These composites exhibit a nonlinear shear response with low yield stress caused by the relatively low shear strength of the matrix. Tim combined effect of the geometric nonlinearity of misalignment coupled with this material nonlinearity am responsible for the reduction in compressive strength. The failure of the material is usually in the form of kink bands inclined to the fiber direction. A three dimensional model of the composite has been developed using an idealized hexagonal array of circular, elastic fibers surrounded by an elasto-plastic matrix. Because post failure examination of actual kink bands revealed that the fibers rotate only in the plane of loading, it is possible to limit attention to a characteristic section of the array. The model is used to predict the strength of the composite in compression and for combined compression and shear. The sensitivity of the critical load to imperfections and to the applied shear are investigated. The post-failure behavior of the composite is then explored. In recent experiments it was discovered that once a kink band is formed, it can grow in a steady-state manner at a constant stress level termed the propagation stress. The propagation stress is approximately 40% of the compressive strength of the material. Thus, the composite can exhibit significant post-failure strength and apparent ductility. A modified version of the 3-D FE model is used to simulate the steady-state axial propagation of an existing kink band. Here, the scope of the study is extended by modeling the matrix as an elastic-power law viscoplastic solid in order to account for the effect of the rate sensitivity of the PEEK matrix on the propagation stress. The model is used to establish the propagation stress and fiber rotation angles inside the band for different loading rates and band inclinations. A representative unit cell model is developed to study the nonlinearities exhibited by AS4/PEEK composites in transverse compression and shear, their interaction, and their rate dependence at room temperature. Two viscoplastic constitutive models, J2-type viscoplasticity and the non-associative Drucker-Prager model, are used to simulate biaxial experiments from three loading histories. The models provide insight into the interaction between shear and transverse compression which helps explain some unusual behavior observed in the experiments.

  4. Effect of additives on the compressive strength and setting time of a Portland cement

    Desirée Freitas Mryczka Machado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in strength and setting time of Portland cements (PC are needed to enhance their performance as endodontic and load bearing materials. This study sought to enhance the compressive strength and setting time of a PC by adding one of the following additives: 20% and 30% poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA, 20% and 30% irregular and spherical amalgam alloys, and 10% CaCl2. The control consisted of unreinforced PC specimens. Setting time was determined using a Gillmore apparatus according to standardized methods while compressive strength was measured using a universal testing machine after 21 hours or 60 days of water storage. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey and Games-Howell tests (α = 5%. All additives significantly decreased both initial and final setting times as compared with the PC-control (p < .05. 30% PMMA and 30% irregular alloy had the lowest values of initial setting time. 30% irregular alloy also produced the lowest values of final setting time while 30% spherical alloy yielded the highest (p < .05. No differences were detected between the compressive strength values of 21 hours and 60 days. While 10% CaCl2, 20% and 30% PMMA produced values significantly lower than the PC-control, 30% spherical alloy significantly improved the compressive strength of the reinforced PC (p < .05. In summary, all additives significantly reduced the setting time and 30% spherical amalgam alloy yielded a significant increase in compressive strength for the tested PC, which might represent an improved composition for PCs to expand their use as endodontic and potentially load bearing materials.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON EFFECT OF VARIOUS FACTORS ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE

    Hanifi BİNİCİ; İsmail H. ÇAĞATAY; Hasan KAPLAN

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the factors affecting at the compressive strength of the concrete were determined. According the result of the test, the quality of concrete, which was used, is very low. Cement, analysis of aggregates for concrete, compacting, mixing placing and curing of concrete, and the techniques of the production of concrete have effected by different ratio of the quality of concrete.

  6. Effects of CuO nanoparticles on compressive strength of self-compacting concrete

    Ali Nazari; Shadi Riahi

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, the compressive strength, thermal properties and microstructure of self-compacting concrete with different amounts of CuO nanoparticles have been investigated. CuO nanoparticles with an average particle size of 15 nm were added to self-compacting concrete and various properties of the specimens were measured. The results indicate that CuO nanoparticles are able to improve the compressive strength of self-compacting concrete and reverse the negative effects of superplasticizer on compressive strength of the specimens. CuO nanoparticles as a partial replacement of cement up to 4 wt.% could accelerate C–S–H gel formation as a result of the increased crystalline Ca(OH)2 amount at the early ages of hydration. Increasing CuO nanoparticle content to more than 4 wt.%, causes reduced compressive strength because of unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that CuO nanoparticles up to 4 wt.% could improve the mechanical and physical properties of the specimens. Finally, CuO nanoparticles improved the pore structure of concrete and caused shifting of the distributed pores from harmless to low harm.

  7. A statistical, micromechanical theory of the compressive strength of brittle materials

    Adams, M.; Sines, G.

    1978-01-01

    A general theory of the compressive strength of brittle materials is presented. This theory proposes that failure is brought about by structural weakening from accumulated crack damage which increases with the stress level. The statistics of the flaw distribution and the mechanism of crack initiation and extension are important. A sample calculation using the theory is given to demonstrate its application

  8. Computative examination of bending strength of girders originally curved and subjected to longitudinal compression

    Hoff, Wilhelm

    1922-01-01

    This report examines the stipulation contained in the 1918 BLV, that a girder subjected to longitudinal compression under the influence of half of the specified breaking load, along with Euler bending safety with an initial deflection of 1/200 of the length of the girder can, at most, be subjected to half the stipulated breaking strength.

  9. Prediction of Corrosion Resistance of Concrete Containing Natural Pozzolan from Compressive Strength

    al-Swaidani, A. M.; Ismat, R.; Diyab, M. E.; Aliyan, S. D.

    2015-11-01

    A lot of Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures in Syria have suffered from reinforcement corrosion which shortened significantly their service lives. Probably, one of the most effective approaches to make concrete structures more durable and concrete industry on the whole - more sustainable is to substitute pozzolan for a portion of Portland cement (PC). Syria is relatively rich in natural pozzolan. In the study, in order to predict the corrosion resistance from compressive strength, concrete specimens were produced with seven cement types: one plain Portland cement (control) and six natural pozzolan-based cements with replacement levels ranging from 10 to 35%. The development of the compressive strengths of concrete cube specimens with curing time has been investigated. Chloride penetrability has also been evaluated for all concrete mixes after three curing times of 7, 28 and 90 days. The effect on resistance of concrete against damage caused by corrosion of the embedded reinforcing steel has been investigated using an accelerated corrosion test by impressing a constant anodic potential for 7, 28 and 90 days curing. Test results have been statistically analysed and correlation equations relating compressive strength and corrosion performance have been developed. Significant correlations have been noted between the compressive strength and both rapid chloride penetrability and corrosion initiation times. So, this prediction could be reliable in concrete mix design when using natural pozzolan as cement replacement.

  10. The Effect of Blood Contamination on the Compressive Strength of Calcium-Enriched Mixture

    Alireza Adl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: In clinical situations, Calcium-Enriched Mixture (CEM comes into direct contact or even mixes with blood during or after placement. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood contamination on the compressive strength of CEM. Materials and Method: Three experimental groups were included in this study. In the first group, CEM was mixed with distilled water and was exposed to normal saline (control group. In the second group, CEM cement was mixed with distilled water and then was exposed to blood. In the third group, CEM was mixed with and exposed to blood. Nine custom-made two-part split Plexiglas molds with five holes were used to form CEM samples for compressive strength testing (15 samples in each group. After 7 days of incubation, compressive bond strength testing was performed using a universal testing machine. Data were statistically analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test with a significance level of p 0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that exposure to blood does not adversely affect the compressive strength of CEM, but incorporation of blood makes the cement very brittle.

  11. Compressive strength of different brands of cement (OPC) in province of Sindh

    OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) is the most common type of cement used in construction industry. Three major brands of OPC are normal OPC, SRC (Sulphate Resisting Cement) and SC (Slag Cement). It is seen that the variation in constituents of cement may cause serious effects on the quality of cement. Thus the motivation of this research is to study the basic properties (consistency, setting time, and fineness), compressive strength (cement mortar and concrete cubes) and modulus of elasticity of all the OPC brands (OPC, SRC and SC) manufactured in Sindh. In total 10 cement factories, altogether 21 different brands of cement, were studied in the light of BS and ASTM Code specifications. In total 126 mortar cubes (1:3), 252 concrete cubes (126 for 3000 psi mix design and remaining for 5000 psi) and 126 concrete cylinders (6 for the each brand of cement pertaining to 3000 psi and 5000 psi mix design) were manufactured and tested. Experimental results demonstrated that all the cement brands fulfilled the BS and ASTM Code requirements for (i) basic properties (ii) compressive strength of mortar cubes at 3 and 28 days curing age (iii) compressive strength of concrete cubes at 28 days curing age, and (iv) modulus of elasticity. Some of the cements did not fulfill the BS and ASTM Code requirements for compressive strength of concrete cubes at 7 days curing age. (author)

  12. Effect of Impact Damage and Open Hole on Compressive Strength of Hybrid Composite Laminates

    Hiel, Clement; Brinson, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    Impact damage tolerance is a frequently listed design requirement for composites hardware. The effect of impact damage and open hole size on laminate compressive strength was studied on sandwich beam specimens which combine CFRP-GFRP hybrid skins and a syntactic foam core. Three test specimen configurations have been investigated for this study. The first two were sandwich beams which were loaded in pure bending (by four point flexure). One series had a skin damaged by impact, and the second series had a circular hole machined through one of the skins. The reduction of compressive strength with increasing damage (hole) size was compared. Additionally a third series of uniaxially loaded open hole compression coupons were tested to generate baseline data for comparison with both series of sandwich beams.

  13. Effect of Curing Temperature Histories on the Compressive Strength Development of High-Strength Concrete

    Keun-Hyeok Yang; Jae-Sung Mun; Myung-Sug Cho

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relative strength-maturity relationship of high-strength concrete (HSC) specifically developed for nuclear facility structures while considering the economic efficiency and durability of the concrete. Two types of mixture proportions with water-to-binder ratios of 0.4 and 0.28 were tested under different temperature histories including (1) isothermal curing conditions of 5°C, 20°C, and 40°C and (2) terraced temperature histories of 20°C for an initial age of individual...

  14. Compressive strength of dental composites photo-activated with different light tips

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the compressive strength of microhybrid (Filtek™ Z250) and nanofilled (Filtek™ Supreme XT) composite resins photo-activated with two different light guide tips, fiber optic and polymer, coupled with one LED. The power density was 653 mW cm−2 when using the fiber optic light tip and 596 mW cm−2 with the polymer. After storage in distilled water at 37 ± 2 °C for seven days, the samples were subjected to mechanical testing of compressive strength in an EMIC universal mechanical testing machine with a load cell of 5 kN and speed of 0.5 mm min−1. The statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA with a confidence interval of 95% and Tamhane’s test. The results showed that the mean values of compressive strength were not influenced by the different light tips (p > 0.05). However, a statistical difference was observed (p < 0.001) between the microhybrid composite resin photo-activated with the fiber optic light tip and the nanofilled composite resin. Based on these results, it can be concluded that microhybrid composite resin photo-activated with the fiber optic light tip showed better results than nanofilled, regardless of the tip used, and the type of the light tip did not influence the compressive strength of either composite. Thus, the presented results suggest that both the fiber optic and polymer light guide tips provide adequate compressive strength to be used to make restorations. However, the fiber optic light tip associated with microhybrid composite resin may be an interesting option for restorations mainly in posterior teeth. (paper)

  15. Effect of pH and Lidocaine on the Compressive Strength of Calcium Enriched Mixture Cement

    Sobhnamayan F

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The pH of the human abscess has been measured as low as 5.0. This low pH could potentially inhibit setting reactions, affect adhesion, or increase the solubility of root end filling materials hence affect the compressive strength. Moreover, root end filling materials might expose or even mix with lidocaine HCL during periapical surgery. Objectives: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of acidic pH and lidocaine on the compressive strength of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM. Materials and Methods: CEM was mixed according to the manufacturer’s instructions or with lidocaine (L, and condensed into 6 × 4 mm split moulds. The samples were exposed to phosphate buffered saline (PBS at pH 5 or 7.4 for 7 or 28 days. Cylindrical blocks of CEM (total number = 120 and 15 for each group were subjected to compressive strength test using a universal testing machine. Data were analysed using three-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Regardless of pH and time, significant differences were not found between lidocaine groups and the groups that were mixed according to the manufacturer’s instruction (p = 0.083. For both mixing agents, regardless of time, there were no significant differences between the two pH levels (p = 0.157. Regardless of the material and pH, there was a significant increase in the compressive strength from days 7 to 28 (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Mixtures with lidocaine and exposure to an acidic environment had no adverse effects on the compressive strength of CEM Cement.

  16. Optimum Compressive Strength of Hardened Sandcrete Building Blocks with Steel Chips

    Alohan Omoregie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The recycling of steel chips into an environmentally friendly, responsive, and profitable commodity in the manufacturing and construction industries is a huge and difficult challenge. Several strategies designed for the management and processing of this waste in developed countries have been largely unsuccessful in developing countries mainly due to its capital-intensive nature. To this end, this investigation attempts to provide an alternative solution to the recycling of this material by maximizing its utility value in the building construction industry. This is to establish their influence on the compressive strength of sandcrete hollow blocks and solid cubes with the aim of specifying the range percent of steel chips for the sandcrete optimum compressive strength value. This is particularly important for developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and even Latin America where most sandcrete blocks exhibit compressive strengths far below standard requirements. Percentages of steel chips relative to the weight of cement were varied and blended with the sand in an attempt to improve the sand grading parameters. The steel chips variations were one, two, three, four, five, ten and fifteen percent respectively. It was confirmed that the grading parameters were improved and there were significant increases in the compressive strength of the blocks and cube samples. The greatest improvement was noticed at four percent steel chips and sand combination. Using the plotted profile, the margin of steel chips additions for the optimum compressive strength was also established. It is recommended that steel chip sandcrete blocks are suitable for both internal load bearing, and non-load bearing walls, in areas where they are not subjected to moisture ingress. However, for external walls, and in areas where they are liable to moisture attack after laying, the surfaces should be well rendered. Below ground level, the surfaces should be coated with a water proofing agent like bitumen and cement containing waterproofing agents be used in the manufacture, laying, and rendering of steel chip sandcrete blocks.

  17. Effect of quartz sand on compressive strength of the solid waste composite

    Masturi, Marwoto, Putut; Sunarno, Rustad, Supriadi

    2016-02-01

    A solid waste composite was successfully made. Preliminary, the composite was synthesized using polyurethane (PU) as binder mixed with the solid waste using simple mixing method and then hot-pressed at at pressure of 4 metric-tons and temperature of 80°C for 20 minutes. To enhance its strength, quartz sand partilces with varied content then were added into the PU-solid waste mixture. From the compressive strength test, it was obtained that PU/solid waste composite with PU fraction (w/w) of 0.43 has optimum compressive strength of 38.91 MPa. Having been added quartz sand having average particles size of 0.94 μm, its compressive strength attains maximum at 40.47 MPa for quartz sand fraction (w/w) of 4.27 × 10-3. The strength is comparable to that of clay brick, slate stone, sandstone, limestone, alder wood, aspen wood, black cherry and pine woods. Therefore, this composite is very adequate to compete the building materials such as the bricks, stones and woods.

  18. Effect of dilute tungsten alloying on the dynamic strength of tantalum under ramp compression

    Alexander, C. S.; Brown, J. L.; Millett, J. C. F.; Whiteman, G.; Asay, J. R.; Bourne, N. K.

    2015-06-01

    The strength of tantalum and tantalum alloys are of considerable interest due to their widespread use in both military and industrial applications. Previous work has shown that strength in these materials is tied to dislocation density and mobility within the microstructure. Accordingly, strength has been observed to increase with dilute alloying which serves to increase the dislocation density. In this study, we examine the effect of alloying on the strength of a dilute tantalum-tungsten alloy (2.5 weight percent W) under ramp compression. The strength of the alloy is measured using the ``self-consistent'' technique which examines the response under longitudinal unloading from peak compression. The results are compared to previous studies of pure tantalum and dilute tantalum-tungsten alloys under both shock and ramp compression and indicate strengthening of the alloy when compared to pure tantalum. Sandia National Labs is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Compressive Strength and Static Modulus of Elasticity of Periwinkle Shell Ash Blended Cement Concrete

    Akaninyene Afangide Umoh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effect of periwinkle shell ash as supplementary cementitious material on the compressive strength and static modulus of elasticity of concrete with a view to comparing it’s established relation with an existing model. The shells were calcined at a temperature of 800oC. Specimens were prepared from a mix of designed strength 25N/mm2. The replacement of cement with periwinkle shell ash (PSA was at five levels of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% by volume. A total of 90 cubical and cylindrical specimens each were cast and tested at 7, 14, 28, 90, 120 and 180 days. The results revealed that the PSA met the minimum chemical and physical requirements for class C Pozzolans. The compressive strength of the PSA blended cement concrete increased with increase in curing age up to 180 days but decreased as the PSA content increased. The design strength was attained with 10%PSA content at the standard age of 28 days. The static modulus of elasticity of PSA blended cement concrete was observed to increase with increased in curing age and decreases with PSA content. In all the curing ages 0%PSA content recorded higher value than the blended cement concrete. The statistical analysis indicated that the percentage PSA replacement and the curing age have significant effect on the properties of the concrete at 95% confidence level. The relation between compressive strength and static modulus of elasticity fitted into existing model for normal-weight concrete.

  20. THE COMPRESSIVE AND FLEXURAL STRENGTHS OF SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE USING RAW RICE HUSK ASH

    MD NOR ATAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the compressive and flexural strengths of self-compacting concrete incorporating raw rice husk ash, individually and in combination with other types of mineral additives, as partial cement replacement. The additives paired with raw rice husk ash were fine limestone powder, pulverized fuel ash and silica fumes. The mix design was based on the rational method where solid constituents were fixed while water and superplasticizer contents were adjusted to produce optimum viscosity and flowability. All mixes were designed to achieve SF1 class slump-flow with conformity criteria ? 520 mm and ? 700 mm. Test results show that 15% replacement of cement using raw rice husk ash produced grade 40 concrete. It was also revealed that 30% and 45% cement replacements using raw rice husk ash combined with limestone powder and raw rice husk ash combined with limestone powder and silica fume respectively, produced comparable compressive strength to normal concrete and improved flexural strengths.

  1. The effects of specimen scale on the compression strength of composite materials

    Camponeschi, Eugene Thomas, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a number of observations on the effect of specimen scale on the compression response of composite materials. Work on this topic was motivated by observations that thick-walled, unstiffened carbon reinforced cylinders subjected to hydrostatic pressure were not reaching inplane laminate stress levels at failure expected from coupon level properties, while similar cylinders reinforced with fiberglass were. Results from a study on coupon strength of (0/0/90) laminates, reinforced with AS4 carbon fiber and S2 glass fiber, are presented and show that compression strength is not a function of material or specimen thickness for materials that have the same laminate quality (autoclave cured quality). Actual laminate compression strength was observed to decrease with increasing thickness, but this is attributed to fixture restraint effects on coupon response. The hypothesis drawn from the coupon level results is further supported by results from a compression test on a thick carbon reinforced coupon in a fixture with reduced influence on specimen response and from a hydrostatic test on an unstiffened carbon reinforced cylinder subjected to hydrostatic pressure with end closures designed to minimize their effect on cylinder response.

  2. Effect of shear strength on the Hugoniot-compression curve and EOS of some metals

    Mashimo, Tsutomu; Gomoto, Yuya; Liu, Xun; Zaretsky, Eugene; Katayama, Masahide; Nagayama, Kunihito

    2015-06-01

    To derive true equations of state (EOS) of matter, we need the precise Hugoniot data, and must access the strength under shock compression to draw the isothermal hydrostatic compression curve. For this, we have established the high-speed streak camera measurement system consisting of rotating-mirror type streak camera and pulsed dye laser combined with the one-stage powder gun and two-stage light gas gun. We performed the plate-mirror Hugoniot measurement experiments on tungsten (W), copper (Cu), etc. in the pressure range up to >200 GPa by symmetric impact method, and measured the Hugoniot data where the effects of tilt and bowing of the impact plate were carefully considered. It was found that the zero-intercept value (C0) of Us-Up relation (Us =C0 +SUp) of W were larger than the bulk sound velocity by 3.1%, which may show the effect of shear strength in plastic region. The hydrostatic-compression curves were drawn by using the shear strength values reported by Sandia National Laboratories group, and the EOS's were discussed. The hypothesized Us-Up Hugoniot curve of the hydrostatic compression curve converged to the bulk sound velocity.

  3. Compressive strength and microstructure of carbon nanotubes-fly ash cement composites

    In this work, carbon nanotubes of 0.5 and 1% by weight were added for the first time in a fly ash cement system to produce carbon nanotubes-fly ash composites in the form of pastes and mortars. Compressive strengths of the composites were then investigated. It was found that the use of carbon nanotubes resulted in higher strength of fly ash mortars. The highest strength obtained for 20% fly ash cement mortars was found at 1% carbon nanotubes where the compressive strength at 28 days was 51.8 MPa. This benefit can clearly be seen in fly ash cement with fly ash of 20% where the importance of the addition of carbon nanotubes means that the relative strength to that of Portland cement became almost 100% at 28 days. In addition, scanning electron micrographs also showed that good interaction between carbon nanotubes and the fly ash cement matrix is seen with carbon nanotubes acting as a filler resulting in a denser microstructure and higher strength when compared to the reference fly ash mix without CNTs.

  4. Behaviour of venous flow rates in intermittent sequential pneumatic compression of the legs using different compression strengths

    A study with 25 patients was performed in order to find out whether intermittent, sequential, pneumatic leg compression is of value in the preventive management of thrombosis due to its effect on the venous flow rates. For this purpose, xenon 133 was injected into one of the foot veins and the flow rate in each case determined for the distance between instep and inguen using different compression strengths, with pressure being exerted on the ankle, calf and thigh. Increased flow rates were already measured at an average pressure value of 34.5 mmHg, while the maximum effect was achieved by exerting a pressure of 92.5 mmHg, which increased the flow rate by 366% as compared to the baseline value. The results point to a significant improvement of the venous flow rates due to intermittent, sequential, pneumatic leg compression and thus provide evidence to prove the value of this method in the prevention of hemostasis and thrombosis. (TRV)

  5. Electrical resistivity measurement to predict uniaxial compressive and tensile strength of igneous rocks

    Sair Kahraman; Tekin Yeken

    2010-12-01

    Electrical resistivity values of 12 different igneous rocks were measured on core samples using a resistivity meter in the laboratory. The resistivity tests were conducted on the samples fully saturated with brine (NaCl solution) and the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Brazilian tensile strength, density and porosity values of the samples were determined in the laboratory. The test results were evaluated using simple and multiple regression analysis. It was seen that the UCS and tensile strength values were linearly correlated with the electrical resistivity. The correlation coefficients are generally higher for the multiple regression models than that of the simple regression models. It was concluded that the UCS and tensile strength of igneous rocks can be estimated from electrical resistivity. However, the derived relations are purely empirical and they should be checked for other igneous rocks. The effect of rock types such as sedimentary and metamorphic rocks on the derived equations also needs to be investigated.

  6. Development of optimization models for the set behavior and compressive strength of sodium activated geopolymer pastes

    Fillenwarth, Brian Albert

    As large countries such as China begin to industrialize and concerns about global warming continue to grow, there is an increasing need for more environmentally friendly building materials. One promising material known as a geopolymer can be used as a portland cement replacement and in this capacity emits around 67% less carbon dioxide. In addition to potentially reducing carbon emissions, geopolymers can be synthesized with many industrial waste products such as fly ash. Although the benefits of geopolymers are substantial, there are a few difficulties with designing geopolymer mixes which have hindered widespread commercialization of the material. One such difficulty is the high variability of the materials used for their synthesis. In addition to this, interrelationships between mix design variables and how these interrelationships impact the set behavior and compressive strength are not well understood. A third complicating factor with designing geopolymer mixes is that the role of calcium in these systems is not well understood. In order to overcome these barriers, this study developed predictive optimization models through the use of genetic programming with experimentally collected set times and compressive strengths of several geopolymer paste mixes. The developed set behavior models were shown to predict the correct set behavior from the mix design over 85% of the time. The strength optimization model was shown to be capable of predicting compressive strengths of geopolymer pastes from their mix design to within about 1 ksi of their actual strength. In addition to this the optimization models give valuable insight into the key factors influencing strength development as well as the key factors responsible for flash set and long set behaviors in geopolymer pastes. A method for designing geopolymer paste mixes was developed from the generated optimization models. This design method provides an invaluable tool for use in future geopolymer research as well as commercial development of geopolymer products.

  7. Correlation between the uniaxial compressive strength and the point load strength index of the Pungchon limestone, Korea

    Baek, Hwanjo; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Kim, Kyoungman; Choi, Young-Sup; Kang, Sang-Soo; Kang, Jung-Seock

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the use of underground openings for various purposes is expanding, particularly for the crushing and processing facilities in open-pit limestone mines. The suitability of current rockmass classification systems for limestone or dolostone is therefore one of the major concerns for field engineers. Consequently, development of the limestone mine site characterization model(LSCM) is underway through the joint efforts of some research institutes and universities in Korea. An experimental program was undertaken to investigate the correlation between rock properties, for quick adaptation of the rockmass classification system in the field. The uniaxial compressive strength(UCS) of rock material is a key property for rockmass characterization purposes and, is reasonably included in the rock mass rating(RMR). As core samples for the uniaxial compression test are not always easily obtained, indirect tests such as the point load test can be a useful alternative, and various equations between the UCS and the point load strength index(Is50) have been reported in the literature. It is generally proposed that the relationship between the Is50 and the UCS value depends on the rock types and, also on the testing conditions. This study investigates the correlation between the UCS and the Is50 of the Pungchon limestone, with a total of 48 core samples obtained from a underground limestone mine. Both uniaxial compression and point load specimens were prepared from the same segment of NX-sized rock cores. The derived equation obtained from regression analysis of two variables is UCS=26Is50, with the root-mean-square error of 13.18.

  8. Strength and Permeability of Stabilized Peat Soil

    L.S. Wong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the unconfined compressive strength and initial permeability of peat soil stabilized by a mixture of Ordinary Portland cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag and siliceous sand. An understanding of the stabilized soil properties is of great importance for the design of deep stabilization in peat land for highway construction. Significant evidence on the positive effects of the admixture at stabilizing peat soil was discovered from laboratory testing investigation of the study. Results from the investigation indicated that addition of the admixture was able to increase unconfined compressive strength and reduce initial permeability of the stabilized soil as compared to those of untreated peat.

  9. Prediction of concrete compressive strength considering humidity and temperature in the construction of nuclear power plants

    Highlights: • Compressive strength tests for three concrete mixes were performed. • The parameters of the humidity-adjusted maturity function were determined. • Strength can be predicted considering temperature and relative humidity. - Abstract: This study proposes a method for predicting compressive strength developments in the early ages of concretes used in the construction of nuclear power plants. Three representative mixes with strengths of 6000 psi (41.4 MPa), 4500 psi (31.0 MPa), and 4000 psi (27.6 MPa) were selected and tested under various curing conditions; the temperature ranged from 10 to 40 °C, and the relative humidity from 40 to 100%. In order to consider not only the effect of the temperature but also that of humidity, an existing model, i.e. the humidity-adjusted maturity function, was adopted and the parameters used in the function were determined from the test results. A series of tests were also performed in the curing condition of a variable temperature and constant humidity, and a comparison between the measured and predicted strengths were made for the verification

  10. Prediction of concrete compressive strength considering humidity and temperature in the construction of nuclear power plants

    Kwon, Seung Hee; Jang, Kyung Pil [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Jin-Wook [Department of Civil Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jang Hwa [Structural Engineering Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Yong, E-mail: yunkim@cnu.ac.kr [Structural Engineering Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Compressive strength tests for three concrete mixes were performed. • The parameters of the humidity-adjusted maturity function were determined. • Strength can be predicted considering temperature and relative humidity. - Abstract: This study proposes a method for predicting compressive strength developments in the early ages of concretes used in the construction of nuclear power plants. Three representative mixes with strengths of 6000 psi (41.4 MPa), 4500 psi (31.0 MPa), and 4000 psi (27.6 MPa) were selected and tested under various curing conditions; the temperature ranged from 10 to 40 °C, and the relative humidity from 40 to 100%. In order to consider not only the effect of the temperature but also that of humidity, an existing model, i.e. the humidity-adjusted maturity function, was adopted and the parameters used in the function were determined from the test results. A series of tests were also performed in the curing condition of a variable temperature and constant humidity, and a comparison between the measured and predicted strengths were made for the verification.

  11. Determination of composition of pozzolanic waste mixtures with optimized compressive strength

    Nardi José Vidal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of ceramic wastes with pozzolanic properties along with other compounds for obtaining new materials with cementating properties is an alternative for reducing the environmental pollution. The acceptance of these new products in the market demands minimal changes in mechanical properties according to its utilization. For a variable range of compositional intervals, attempts were made to establish limiting incorporation proportions that assure the achievement of minimum pre-established mechanical strength values in the final product. In this case minimum compressive strength value is 3,000 kPa. A simultaneous association of other properties is also possible.

  12. Effect of non-standard curing methods on the compressive strength of laterized concrete

    Felix F. Udoeyo; Robert Brooks; Christopher Utam; Philip Udo-Inyang; Eno C. Ukpong

    2010-01-01

    Thirty concrete mixes of differing water-binder ratio containing 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 % laterite as a partial replacement for sand were used to prepare laterized concrete specimens for the study of the effect of nonstandard curing methods on the strength of specimen. The effectiveness of a curing method was measured quantitatively as the ratio of the compressive strength of specimen cured using the non-standard method to those cursed using the standard water-curing method specified in the...

  13. Compressive Strength and Static Modulus of Elasticity of Periwinkle Shell Ash Blended Cement Concrete

    Akaninyene Afangide Umoh; Kolapo O. Olusola

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effect of periwinkle shell ash as supplementary cementitious material on the compressive strength and static modulus of elasticity of concrete with a view to comparing it’s established relation with an existing model. The shells were calcined at a temperature of 800oC. Specimens were prepared from a mix of designed strength 25N/mm2. The replacement of cement with periwinkle shell ash (PSA) was at five levels of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% by volume. A total of 90 cubical and ...

  14. Increasing the compressive strength of portland cement concrete using flat glass powder

    Miranda Junior, Edson Jansen Pedrosa de; Bezerra, Helton de Jesus Costa Leite; Politi, Flavio Salgado; Paiva, Antonio Ernandes Macedo, E-mail: edson.jansen@ifma.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Maranha (IFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica e Materiais

    2014-08-15

    This paper analyzes the compressive strength of Portland cement concrete in response to the incorporation of 5%, 10% and 20% of flat glass powder in place of sand, at w/c (water/cement) ratios of 0.50, 0.55 and 0.58. A statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed after 7, 14 and 28 days of curing. The compressive strength test results indicate that the concrete containing a w/c ratio of 0.50 can be used for structural applications, regardless of the waste glass content, as can that with a w/c ratio of 0.55 containing 20% of waste glass. We suggest that the use of flat glass powder in place of sand in the above mentioned percentages is feasible for the production of an environmentally appropriate and structurally applicable concrete. However, the concrete's fluidity and void content must be taken into account. (author)

  15. Increasing the compressive strength of portland cement concrete using flat glass powder

    This paper analyzes the compressive strength of Portland cement concrete in response to the incorporation of 5%, 10% and 20% of flat glass powder in place of sand, at w/c (water/cement) ratios of 0.50, 0.55 and 0.58. A statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed after 7, 14 and 28 days of curing. The compressive strength test results indicate that the concrete containing a w/c ratio of 0.50 can be used for structural applications, regardless of the waste glass content, as can that with a w/c ratio of 0.55 containing 20% of waste glass. We suggest that the use of flat glass powder in place of sand in the above mentioned percentages is feasible for the production of an environmentally appropriate and structurally applicable concrete. However, the concrete's fluidity and void content must be taken into account. (author)

  16. Use of triangular membership function for prediction of compressive strength of concrete containing nanosilica

    Sakshi Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, application of fuzzy logic technique using triangular membership function for developing models for predicting compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of cement with nanosilica has been carried out. For this, the data have been taken from various literatures and help in optimizing the constituents available and reducing cost and efforts in studying design to develop mixes by predefining suitable range for experimenting. The use of nanostructured materials in concrete can add many benefits that are directly related to the durability of various cementitious materials, besides the fact that it is possible to reduce the quantities of cement in the composite. Successful prediction by the model indicates that fuzzy logic could be a useful modelling tool for engineers and research scientists in the area of cement and concrete. Compressive strength values of concrete can be predicted in fuzzy logic models without attempting any experiments in a quite short period of time with tiny error rates.

  17. Tensile strength and internal stress determination in salt compacts by diametrical and axial compression tests

    Due to the brittle character of the material an indirect method (diametrical and axial compression testing) was adopted for tensile strength determination. Two lots of compacts were prepared from salt powder, by pressing it in steel dyes by means of a hydraulic press. For uniaxial tests, cylindrical compacts were used. Biaxial tests were done on disk-shaped compacts, each disk having a diametrical V-shaped cut on one of its plane areas. The punches used for compression tests, were designed to obtain a ratio of 1.2 between their curvature radius and sample radius. At the same time with the tensile strength, the stress intensity factor (KIC and KIIC values) has been obtained. The results obtained are in good agreement with the mechanical properties of the salt, previously reported. (Authors)

  18. A Finite Element Analysis for Predicting the Residual Compression Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Panels

    Ratcliffe, James G.; Jackson, Wade C.

    2008-01-01

    A simple analysis method has been developed for predicting the residual compression strength of impact-damaged sandwich panels. The method is tailored for honeycomb core-based sandwich specimens that exhibit an indentation growth failure mode under axial compression loading, which is driven largely by the crushing behavior of the core material. The analysis method is in the form of a finite element model, where the impact-damaged facesheet is represented using shell elements and the core material is represented using spring elements, aligned in the thickness direction of the core. The nonlinear crush response of the core material used in the analysis is based on data from flatwise compression tests. A comparison with a previous analysis method and some experimental data shows good agreement with results from this new approach.

  19. A Finite Element Analysis for Predicting the Residual Compressive Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Panels

    Ratcliffe, James G.; Jackson, Wade C.

    2008-01-01

    A simple analysis method has been developed for predicting the residual compressive strength of impact-damaged sandwich panels. The method is tailored for honeycomb core-based sandwich specimens that exhibit an indentation growth failure mode under axial compressive loading, which is driven largely by the crushing behavior of the core material. The analysis method is in the form of a finite element model, where the impact-damaged facesheet is represented using shell elements and the core material is represented using spring elements, aligned in the thickness direction of the core. The nonlinear crush response of the core material used in the analysis is based on data from flatwise compression tests. A comparison with a previous analysis method and some experimental data shows good agreement with results from this new approach.

  20. Multicriteria decision-making analysis based methodology for predicting carbonate rocks' uniaxial compressive strength

    Ersoy Hakan; Kanik Derya

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT

    Uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) deals with materials' to ability to withstand axially-directed pushing forces and especially considered to be rock materials' most important mechanical properties. However, the UCS test is an expensive, very time-consuming test to perform in the laboratory and requires high-quality core samples havi...

  1. Influence of Cementitious Materials and Aggregates Content on Compressive Strength of Palm Kernel Shell Concrete

    U.J. Alengaram; Jumaat, M. Z.; H. Mahmud

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the effect of cementitious materials, fine and coarse aggregates content on workability and compressive strength of palm kernel shell concrete. Palm kernel shells a by product of the production of palm oil, were used as lightweight aggregates. The following cementitious materials were added: 10% silica fume as additional cementitious material and 5% fly ash as cement replacement on weight of cement. The influence of varying fine aggregate and palm kernel shell content...

  2. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON EFFECT OF VARIOUS FACTORS ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE

    Hanifi BİNİCİ

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the factors affecting at the compressive strength of the concrete were determined. According the result of the test, the quality of concrete, which was used, is very low. Cement, analysis of aggregates for concrete, compacting, mixing placing and curing of concrete, and the techniques of the production of concrete have effected by different ratio of the quality of concrete.

  3. Residual Ultimate Strength of Cracked Steel Unstiffened and Stiffened Plates under Longitudinal Compression

    Bayatfar, Abbas; Rigo, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This paper numerically deals with the influence of cracks (in terms of length and location) on the ultimate compressive strength characteristics of unstiffened and stiffened plate elements used in thin-walled structures. The cracks were presumed to be through-thickness, having no contact between their faces and no propagation was allowed. A series of nonlinear finite element analyses was conducted using ANSYS commercial finite element code in which the Newton-Raphson method has been employed ...

  4. Effect of mix composition on compressive strength and microstructure of fly ash based geopolymer composites

    Ravindra N. Thakur

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymer is a class of aluminosilicate binding materials synthesized by thermal activation of solid aluminosilicate base materials such as fly ash, metakaolin, GGBS etc. with an alkali metal hydroxide and silicate solution. These binders are currently attracting widespread attention due to their potential utilization as a high performance, environmental friendly and sustainable alternative to Portland cement. The present paper reports results of an experimental study on development of compressive strength and microstructure of geopolymer paste and mortar specimens prepared by thermal activation of Indian fly ash with sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution. The effect of main synthesis parameters such as alkali content(Na2O/Al2O3, silica content (SiO2/Al2O3, water to geopolymer solid ratio and sand to fly ash ratio of geopolymer mixture and processing parameters such as curing time and curing temperature on development of compressive strength and microstructure of fly ash based geopolymer paste and mortar were studied. The compressive strength of 48.20MPa was obtained for geopolymer mixture cured at 850C for 24 hours with alkali content of 0.62 and silica content of 4.0. The mineralogical and microstructure studies on hardened geopolymer performed by means Scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, showed formation of a new amorphous alumino-silicate phase such as hydroxysodalite and herschelite influenced development of compressive strength. The results obtained in the current research will be useful for developing of mix design guidelines for commercial exploitation of the new binding material.

  5. The Effect of Curing Conditions on the Compressive Strength of White Concrete Produced with Various Dosages

    Mücteba Uysal; Nil Mercan; Mansur Sümer

    2011-01-01

    The white cement, which has been used more widely in aesthetic and decorative applications in Turkey and the use of white cement has not widely common yet in constructional applications. In this study white cement, white calcareous aggregate and marble powder are used and produced white concrete. Furthermore, the effect of curing conditions was investigated on the compressive strength behavior of structural elements. For this reason, the performance properties of white concrete with various c...

  6. Effect of compressive prestress on the Young's modulus and strength of isotropic graphite

    It is well known that properties, such as Young's modulus, strength and so on, change when compressive or tensile prestresses are applied to graphite materials at room temperature. It is important from the designer's standpoint in the sense that it should be taken into consideration for the structural design of the graphite components if there is an effect of prestresses at high temperature on the mechanical properties. In this study compressive prestresses were applied to an isotropic fine-grained graphite at room temperature (RT) and high temperature (2010 deg. C). As a result decrease in Young's modulus due to high temperature prestressing was 56% which was much larger than the 6.4% that was due to RT prestressing. This finding was considered to be due primarily to difference in degree of preferred orientation of crystallites in the graphite on the basis of Bacon anisotropy factor (BAF) from X-ray diffraction measurement of the prestressed specimens. Furthermore, high temperature compressive prestressing produced an increase in the strength of the isotropic graphite, although room temperature prestressing produced no such effect. The results obtained here suggest that isotropic graphite which is subjected to high-temperature compressive stress becomes anisotropic. It is concluded that it should be considered in the design stage of the reactors that the anisotropy may change after long term operation of high temperature gas-cooled reactors. (author). 6 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Tensile basic creep versus compressive basic creep at early ages: comparison between normal strength concrete and a very high strength fibre reinforced concrete

    Rossi, Pierre; Charron, Jean-Philippe; BASTIEN MASSE, Malena; TAILHAN, Jean-Louis; LE MAOU, Fabrice; RAMANICH, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents experimental results concerning the comparison of tensile and compressive basic creep behaviours at early ages of two different concretes: a normal strength concrete (NSC) and a very high strength fibre reinforced concrete (HPFRC). This research project has been done in the context of a bilateral collaboration between Polytechnique Montreal and IFSTTAR. Observations on the HPFRC showed specific compressive creep similar to the specific tensile creep. Moreover, the specific ...

  8. Compressive strength of concrete using lateritic sand and quarry dust as fine aggregate

    Joseph O. Ukpata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a study investigating the structural characteristics of concrete using various combinations of lateritic sand and quarry dust as complete replacement for conventional river sand fine aggregate. Samples of concrete (eg. cubes were made using varying contents of laterite and quarry dust as fine aggregate. The quantity of laterite was varied from 0% to 100% against quarry dust at intervals of 25%. The samples were cured for specified periods and tested in the laboratory for compressive strength. Workability tests were earlier carried out to determine the optimum water/cement ratios for three different mixes, namely: 1:1:2, 1:1.5:3 and 1:2:4. It was found that 0.5 water/cement ratio produced higher compressive strengths for 1:1:2 mix, while 0.6 water/cement ratio exhibit better workability for 1:1.5:3 mix proportion. Specifically compressive strength ranged from 17-34.2 N/mm2 for the mixes considered. These results compare favourably with those of conventional concrete. The concrete was found to be suitable for use as structural members for buildings and related structures, where laterite content did not exceed 50%.

  9. Investigate Effect of Fine-Grained And Coarse-Grained Mixtur Design on the Concrete Compressive Strength

    H Azizian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of taking strength in the concrete , depends on several factors, that the most important ones can be mentioned as stone materials for forming concrete . stone materials ratio is always as one of the most critical parameters in determining the compressive strength of concrete . Therefore, in this study, with a fixed Mixture Design and changes in the ratio in fine and coarse aggregate , We have covered the vitro evaluation of the changes of compressive strength in the samples in each On days 7, 28 and 90 days according to ASTM standard , and the rate of changes in the compressive strength of the samples were studied . From results revealed that at the age of 7 days compressive strength changes in two Mixture Design is about 10 percent, and in the older ages this will change less than 5% .

  10. Prediction of compression strength of high performance concrete using artificial neural networks

    High-strength concrete is undoubtedly one of the most innovative materials in construction. Its manufacture is simple and is carried out starting from essential components (water, cement, fine and aggregates) and a number of additives. Their proportions have a high influence on the final strength of the product. This relations do not seem to follow a mathematical formula and yet their knowledge is crucial to optimize the quantities of raw materials used in the manufacture of concrete. Of all mechanical properties, concrete compressive strength at 28 days is most often used for quality control. Therefore, it would be important to have a tool to numerically model such relationships, even before processing. In this aspect, artificial neural networks have proven to be a powerful modeling tool especially when obtaining a result with higher reliability than knowledge of the relationships between the variables involved in the process. This research has designed an artificial neural network to model the compressive strength of concrete based on their manufacturing parameters, obtaining correlations of the order of 0.94

  11. Compressive strength of radiation-induced polymer impregnated hardened cement pastes

    Hardened cement paste (HPC) specimens with 0.22, 0.30, 0.40 and 0.50 W/C ratios were prepared by curing under water for 1, 3, 7 and 28 days. Impregnation was carried out under vacuum with methyl methacrylate, styrene and 60:40 wt% styrene-acrylonitrile mixture. Polymerization has been induced by ?-ray irradiation of wrapped specimens with different absorbed dose levels depending on the type of monomer used for impregnation. Considerable improvement in compressive strength has been achieved for impregnated HCP specimens over unirradiated controls. The extent of strength improvement is larger for early curing ages than for later ones. Also, impregnation with the styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer gave the best strength results, followed by polymethyl methacrylate and then polystyrene. The results are discussed in terms of the structure of HCP, the nature of the monomer and the radiation dose. (author)

  12. The Value Compressive Strength and Split Tensile Strength on Concrete Mixture With Expanded Polystyrene Coated by Surfactant Span 80 as a Partial Substitution of Fine Aggregate

    Hidayat Irpan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The value of the density normal concrete which ranges between 2200–2400 kg/m3. Therefore the use of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS as a subitute to fine aggregate can reduce the density of concrete. The purpose this research is to reduce the density of normal concrete but increase compressive strength of EPS concrete, with use surfactant as coating for the EPS. Variables of substitution percentage of EPS and EPS coated by surfactant are 5%,10%,15%,20%,25%. Method of concrete mix design based on SNI 03-2834-2000 “Tata Cara Pembuatan Rencana Campuran Beton Normal (Provisions for Proportioning Normal Concrete Mixture”. The result of testing, every increase percentage of EPS substitution will decrease the compressive strength around 1,74 MPa and decrease density 34,03 kg/m3. Using Surfactant as coating of EPS , compressive strength increase from the EPS’s compressive strength. Average of increasing compressive strength 0,19 MPa and increase the density 20,03 kg/m3,average decrease of the tensile split strength EPS coated surfaktan is 0,84 MPa.

  13. Comparative study on compressive strength of Self cured SCC and Normally cured SCC

    Ms. Akanksha A. Patil

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Curing is the process of maintaining proper moisture content particularly within 28 days to promote optimum cement hydration immediately after placement. Self-compacting concrete is made up of admixture i.e. superplasticizer. In recent years, self-compacting concrete (SCC has gained wide use for placement in congested reinforced concrete structures with difficult casting conditions. Also various curing methods are adopted in the construction industry especially for vertical structures, inaccessible areas s.a. high rise buildings, water scarce areas etc. In such structures conventional curing is not practically possible in most of the cases. But we need efficient curing which improves the strength and durability of concrete. In the present work, comparison of compressive strength of normally cured SCC and SCC cured with self curing material i.e. wax based, white pigmented, membrane forming concrete curing compound has been done. This study is investigating that weather the use of self curing compound is economical or not in remote areas of water without compromising with the compressive strength of concrete.

  14. Compressive Strength of Steel Frames after Welding with Micro-Jet Cooling

    Hadryś D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon steel weld structures generally exhibit a very linear stress-strain relationship. In the study of strength of materials, the compressive strength is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size of structure. It is mainly measured by plotting applied force against deformation in a testing machine. Compressive strength is a main key value for design of welded structures.The main goal of that paper was analysing of plastic properties of frame welds which were made with various parameters of micro-jet cooling. New technology of micro-jet welding could be regarded as a new way to improve plastic properties of welds. It allows to obtain welds with better mechanical properties in comparison to ordinary welding method. Furthermore it is possible to steering of weld structure and properties of the weld. There were given main information about influence of various micro-jet gases on metallographic and properties of structure steel welds.

  15. Influence of curing regimes on compressive strength of ultra high performance concrete

    Prabhat Ranjan Prem; B H Bharatkumar; Nagesh R Iyer

    2013-12-01

    The present paper is aimed to identify an efficient curing regime for ultra high performance concrete (UHPC), to achieve a target compressive strength more than 150 MPa, using indigenous materials. The thermal regime plays a vital role due to the limited fineness of ingredients and low water/binder ratio. By activation of the reaction kinetics, the effectiveness of the binder is enhanced which leads to improvements in mechanical as well as durability properties. The curing cycle employed are ambient air curing, water curing and hot air curing. The specimens were exposed to thermal regime at (90°C/150°C/200°C) for duration of 24, 48 or 72 hours at the age of 3rd and 7th day followed with air curing or water curing till 28 days. The results showed a marked difference in compressive strength ranging from 217 to 142 MPa with change in curing regimes. The samples when thermally cured at the age of 3rd and 7th day produced an average ultimate strength of 217–152 MPa and 196–150 MPa, respectively.

  16. A study on the effect of nano silica on compressive strength of high volume fly ash mortars and concretes

    Highlights: • The addition of NS compensates low early age compressive strength of HVFA system. • NS also contributes to later age compressive strength gain of HVFA system. • The XRD results confirm the reduction of CH in HVFA paste due to addition of NS. - Abstract: This paper presents the effect of nano silica (NS) on the compressive strength of mortars and concretes containing different high volume fly ash (HVFA) contents ranging from 40% to 70% (by weight) as partial replacement of cement. The compressive strength of mortars is measured at 7 and 28 days and that for concretes is measured at 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days. The effects of NS in microstructure development and pozzolanic reaction of pastes containing above HVFA contents are also studied through backscattered electron (BSE) image and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Results show that among different NS contents ranging from 1% to 6%, cement mortar containing 2% NS exhibited highest 7 and 28 days compressive strength. This NS content (2%) is then added to the HVFA mortars and concretes and the results show that the addition of 2% NS improved the early age (7 days) compressive strength of mortars containing 40% and 50% fly ash by 5% and 7%, respectively. However, this improvement is not observed at high fly ash contents beyond 50%. On the other hand, all HVFA mortars exhibited improvement in 28 days compressive strength due to addition of 2% NS and the most significant improvement is noticed in mortars containing more than 50% fly ash. In HVFA concretes, the improvement of early age (3 days) compressive strength is also noticed due to addition of 2% NS. The BSE and XRD analysis results also support the above findings

  17. Analysis of compressive strength in flatwise and edgewise direction to characterize Al-7000 aluminium foam

    Sutarno, Soepriyanto, Syoni; Korda, Akhmad A.; Dirgantara, Tatacipta

    2015-09-01

    The physical mechanical properties of Al-7000 aluminium foam product and processing has been evaluated in this study. The characterization through the compressive testing refers to flatwise direction provided more confident result than edgewise direction. This experiment may correlate with formation of side products of calcia alumina and alumina silica that involved in metal mixture of aluminium foam. These compounds are formed from additional calcium carbonate and silica in the mixture. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) roles as a blowing agent source of carbon dioxide (CO2). The formation of calcia alumina (CaO.Al2O3) may role to strengthen of cell wall of aluminium foam and to improve the viscosity of melting metal. The Al-7000 aluminium foam indicated a decrease of compressive strength probably due to existence of alumina silica (3Al2O3.SiO2) in the metal mixture.

  18. Damage assessment and residual compression strength of thick composite plates with through-the-thickness reinforcements

    Smith, Barry T.; Farley, Gary L.; Maiden, Janice; Coogan, Dreux; Moore, Judith G.

    1991-01-01

    Damage in composite materials was studied with through-the-thickness reinforcements. As a first step it was necessary to develop new ultrasonic imaging technology to better assess internal damage of the composite. A useful ultrasonic imaging technique was successfully developed to assess the internal damage of composite panels. The ultrasonic technique accurately determines the size of the internal damage. It was found that the ultrasonic imaging technique was better able to assess the damage in composite panel with through-the-thickness reinforcements than by destructively sectioning the specimen and visual inspection under a microscope. Five composite compression-after-impact panels were tested. The compression-after-impact strength of the panels with the through-the-thickness reinforcements was almost twice that of the comparable panel without through-the-thickness reinforcement.

  19. Contributions on the Study of the Compressive Strength of the Light-Cured Composite Resins

    Manolea, H.; Degeratu, Sonia; Deva, V.; Coles, Evantia; Draghici, Emma

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the light-cured composite resins are related to the material composition, but also vary according to the light-source characteristics used for polymerization. In this study we followed the compressive strength variation for a light-cured composite resin according to the time of exposure to the curing light. With that end in view,18 test pieces were made from a light-cured hybrid composite material (Filtek Z250). The test pieces where then submitted to a compressiv...

  20. Palm fibers influence the compressive strength and CBR on soil cement

    Suroso, P.; L.Samang; Tjaronge, W.; Ramli, M.

    2013-01-01

    Soil cement is a mixture of soil with cement. The usefulness of this mixture is very meaningful to increase the carrying capacity of the land. Weakness that accurs from this mix is the process by cement shrinkage and hydration. This process can lead to cracks and effect the compressive strength and carrying capacity of the soil cement. With the addition of fiber in this mix can reduce or even eliminate the process of shrinkage and hydration. Natural fibers as a mixture of palm fib...

  1. Compressive strength at high temperatures of a concrete made with recycled tire textile and steel fibers

    Santos Cristina Calmeiro; Rodrigues João Paulo C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research work on the evaluation of the compressive strength at high temperatures of a concrete made with recycled tire steel and textile fibers. It was considered five different concrete compositions, with a water/cement ratio (W/C = 0.43), differ only in the type and amount of fibers. The compositions with smaller amounts of textile fibers were those that gave better results. The compositions with steel fibers showed a less explosive rupture showing the e...

  2. Microstructure and compression strength of novel TRIP-steel/Mg-PSZ composites

    A novel steel-based composite material, composed of metastable austenitic stainless steel as matrix and up to 15 % zirconia as reinforcement, is processed by two powder metallurgy routes. The matrix exhibits the so-called TRIP-effect (TRIP: TRansformation-Induced Plasticity) and shows a deformation-induced formation of martensite. Compression tests of rod samples processed by cold isostatic pressing show increased strength compared to the non-reinforced steel matrix up to 20 % strain. Three-point bending tests show, however, reduced ductility for high zirconia contents. Filigree honeycomb structures were produced by a novel extrusion technique with extraordinary high values of specific energy absorption.

  3. Microstructure characteristics of concrete incorporating metakaolin and PVA fibers and influence on the compressive strength

    Khan, Sadaqat Ullah; Shafiq, Nasir; Ayub, Tehmina

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, microstructure of concrete is investigated using metakaolin (MK) as cement replacing material and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) fibers. Total ten (10) mixes of concrete are examined by varying PVA fiber aspect ratio. It was found that MK refines the pore structure, improves interfacial transition zone (ITZ) due to its pozzolanic effects, reduces portlandite (Ca(OH)2) content and bridges the gap between matrix and aggregates due to finer particle size. Due to improvement in ITZ, the compressive strength was improved. There was no indication of Ca(OH)2 around the PVA fibers in the presence of MK and the interface between the fiber and matrix was observed very narrow.

  4. Soft computing methods for estimating the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock from index tests

    Mishra, A. Deepak; Srigyan, M.; Basu, A.; Rokade, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 80, December 2015 (2015), s. 418-424. ISSN 1365-1609 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : uniaxial compressive strength * rock indices * fuzzy inference system * artificial neural network * adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 1.686, year: 2014 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1365160915300708/1-s2.0-S1365160915300708-main.pdf?_tid=318a7cec-8929-11e5-a3b8-00000aacb35f&acdnat=1447324752_2a9d947b573773f88da353a16f850eac

  5. Effect of Relative Proportion of Pozzolana on Compressive Strength of Concrete Under Different Curing Conditions

    Bhattacharjee, B; Maneek Kumar; Shweta Goyal

    2008-01-01

    In this experimental and analytic research, the effect of curing regime on various combinations of silica fume and fly ash was investigated in terms of development of compressive strength. Over 24 mixes were prepared with the water-to-binder ratios of 0.45, 0.35 and 0.25 and with differing percentage of additives used as a combination of 2 or 3 binders. The specimens were subjected to five different curing regimes ranging from continuously water cured to continuously air cured. Results show t...

  6. Comparison of Elastic Modulus and Compressive Strength of Ariadent and Harvard Polycarboxylate Cement and Vitremer Resin Modified Glass Ionomer

    Ahmadian Khoshemehr Leila

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Luting agents are used to attach indirect restoration into or on the tooth. Poor mechanical properties of cement may be a cause of fracture of this layer and lead to caries and restoration removal. The purpose of this study was to compare the elastic modulus and compressive strength of Ariadent (A Poly and Harvard polycarboxylate (H Poly cements and Vitremer resin modified glass ionomer (RGl.Materials & Methods: In this experimental study 15 specimens were prepared form each experimental cement in Laboratory of Tehran Oil Refining Company. The cylindrical specimens were compressed in Instron machine after 24 hours. Elastic modulus and compressive strength were calculated from stress/strain curve of each specimen. One way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for statistical analysis and P values<0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.Results: The mean elastic modulus and mean compressive strength were 2.2 GPa and 87.8MPa in H poly, 2.4 GPa and 56.5 MPa in A Poly, and 0.8GPa and 105.6 MPa in RGI, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that compressive strength and elastic modulus of both polycarboxylate cements were significantly different from hybrid ionomer (P<0.05, but the difference between elastic modulus of two types of polycarboxilate cements was not statistically significant. Compressive strength of two polycarboxilate cements were significantly different (P<0.05. Conclusion: An ideal lutting agent must have the best mechanical properties. Between the tested luttins RGl cement had the lowest elastic modulus and the highest compressive strength, but the A poly cement had the highest elastic modulus and the lowest compressive strength. Therefore none of them was the best.

  7. Ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral pressure

    Yu, Chang-Li; Feng, Ji-Cai; Chen, Ke

    2015-06-01

    This paper concentrated on the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral load and also studied the design-oriented formulae. For this purpose, three series of well executed experiments on longitudinal stiffened panel with rectangular opening subjected to the combined load have been selected as test models. The finite element analysis package, ABAQUS, is used for simulation with considering the large elasticplastic deflection behavior of stiffened panels. The feasibility of the numerical procedure is verified by a good agreement of experimental results and numerical results. More cases studies are executed employing nonlinear finite element method to analyze the influence of design variables on the ultimate strength of stiffened panel with opening under combined pressure. Based on data, two design formulae corresponding to different opening types are fitted, and accuracy of them is illustrated to demonstrate that they could be applied to basic design of practical engineering structure.

  8. Ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral pressure

    Yu Chang-Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrated on the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral load and also studied the design-oriented formulae. For this purpose, three series of well executed experiments on longitudinal stiffened panel with rectangular opening subjected to the combined load have been selected as test models. The finite element analysis package, ABAQUS, is used for simulation with considering the large elasticplastic deflection behavior of stiffened panels. The feasibility of the numerical procedure is verified by a good agreement of experimental results and numerical results. More cases studies are executed employing nonlinear finite element method to analyze the influence of design variables on the ultimate strength of stiffened panel with opening under combined pressure. Based on data, two design formulae corresponding to different opening types are fitted, and accuracy of them is illustrated to demonstrate that they could be applied to basic design of practical engineering structure.

  9. Nondestructive testing of the low-level radioactive waste drums for uni-axial compressive strength and free liquid content

    This paper summarizes the nondestructive test to determine the uni-axial compressive strength and free water content of solidified low level radioactive waste. The uni-axial compressive strength is determined by ultrasonic wave propagation speed, and the results are compared with those of compressive tests. Three methods of detecting the surface free water by ultrasonic testing are established, the ultrasonic wave speed, wave form and pulse height are used to determine the existence and amount of the surface free liquid. Possible difficulties are discussed. (author)

  10. Compressive yield strength of the nanocrystalline Cu with Al2O3 dispersoid

    Research highlights: ? 0.2% yield stress of the HPed nc-Cu with the 4 vol.% of the Al2O3 dispersoids is as high as 863 MPa ? The major contribution to total yield strength of the nc-Cu (25.5 nm) with Al2O3 (4 nm, 4 vol.%) dispersoid is attributed to the grain size of the Cu. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline (nc) Cu with Al2O3 dispersoid (?4 vol.%) was successfully synthesized by simple cryo-milling at 210 K with a mixture of Cu2O, Al, and Cu elemental powders. The milled powder was consolidated by hot pressing (HP) at 1123 K and 50 MPa for 2 h. TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) work revealed that both of the milled powder and the hot pressed (HPed) materials were comprised with a mixture of the nc-Cu and homogeneous distribution of Al2O3 dispersoids. The compressive and micro Vickers hardness tests were performed on the HPed materials (nanocrystalline Cu with 4 vol.% of Al2O3 dispersoid) at room temperature to characterize the mechanical properties of the materials. The compressive yield strength of the materials was as high as 863 MPa; the micro Vickers hardness 2600 MPa. The results of the mechanical tests apparently show that the relationship between the yield strength and the micro hardness of the HPed materials is in well agreement with Tabor's rule, Hv = 3?y in MPa. The grain size of the nc-Cu was estimated by XRD using Scherrer's formula and TEM observation; the Al2O3 dispersoid size was measured from element mapping by STEM-EDS (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) works. An attempt was made to quantify the possible strengthening effects of the nc-Cu materials with Al2O3 dispersoid. Two strengthening mechanisms were proposed for high hardness and yield strength of the materials, i.e., grain size and dispersion hardening effects.

  11. Uniaxial compression test series on Bullfrog Tuff

    Nineteen uniaxial compressive experiments were performed on samples of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff, obtained from drillhole USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. The water saturated samples were deformed at a nominal strain rate of 10-5 sec-1, atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Resultant unconfined compressive strengths, axial strains to failure, Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios ranged from 4.63 to 153. MPa, .0028 to .0058, 2.03 to 28.9 GPa and .08 to .16, respectively

  12. Effect of non-standard curing methods on the compressive strength of laterized concrete

    Felix F. Udoeyo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty concrete mixes of differing water-binder ratio containing 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 % laterite as a partial replacement for sand were used to prepare laterized concrete specimens for the study of the effect of nonstandard curing methods on the strength of specimen. The effectiveness of a curing method was measured quantitatively as the ratio of the compressive strength of specimen cured using the non-standard method to those cursed using the standard water-curing method specified in the BS1881: Part 3:1970 (control. The results of the investigation show that with continuous wetting of the nonstandard curing media by sprinkling with water, the strength of the concrete obtained could be comparable to those cured using the control method. Of the four nonstandard curing methods considered in the study it was observed that the strength of sand- and sawdust-cured specimen were in some instances the same as or higher than those of the standard cured specimens at early age (7days. Although at later age (28 days there were significant differences between the strength of specimens cured using the nonstandard methods and those of corresponding laterite content and water-binder ratio cured using the control method as established by t-test, the designed strength of 20 MPa was attained by all specimens cured using the nonstandard methods, which is indicative that these nonstandard methods could be used as alternative to the standard water curing, especially in situations where much water may not be available for curing specimens.

  13. Dynamics of unconfined spherical flames

    Leblanc, Louis; Dennis, Kadeem; Zhe,; Liang,; Radulescu, Matei I

    2012-01-01

    Using the soap bubble technique, we visualize the dynamics of unconfined hydrogen-air flames using high speed schlieren video. We show that for sufficiently weak mixtures, i.e., low flame speeds, buoyancy effects become important. Flame balls of a critical dimension begin to rise. The experiments are found in very good agreement with the scaling laws proposed by Zingale and Dursi. We report the results in a fluid dynamics video.

  14. Application of alkaliphilic biofilm-forming bacteria to improve compressive strength of cement-sand mortar.

    Park, Sung-Jin; Chun, Woo-Young; Kim, Wha-Jung; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2012-03-01

    The application of microorganisms in the field of construction material is rapidly increasing worldwide; however, almost all studies that were investigated were bacterial sources with mineral-producing activity and not with organic substances. The difference in the efficiency of using bacteria as an organic agent is that it could improve the durability of cement material. This study aimed to assess the use of biofilm-forming microorganisms as binding agents to increase the compressive strength of cement-sand material. We isolated 13 alkaliphilic biofilmforming bacteria (ABB) from a cement tetrapod block in the West Sea, Korea. Using 16S RNA sequence analysis, the ABB were partially identified as Bacillus algicola KNUC501 and Exiguobacterium marinum KNUC513. KNUC513 was selected for further study following analysis of pH and biofilm formation. Cement-sand mortar cubes containing KNUC513 exhibited greater compressive strength than mineral-forming bacteria (Sporosarcina pasteurii and Arthrobacter crystallopoietes KNUC403). To determine the biofilm effect, Dnase I was used to suppress the biofilm formation of KNUC513. Field emission scanning electron microscopy image revealed the direct involvement of organic-inorganic substance in cement-sand mortar. PMID:22450795

  15. Influence of the waste glass in the axial compressive strength of Portland cement concrete

    In this work, was studied the influence of the incorporation of waste glass, coming from the stage of thinning and polishing of a company of thermal glass treatments, in the axial compressive strength of Portland cement concrete. The coarse and ground aggregates used was crushed stone and sand, respectively. For production of the concrete, percentages of glass residues of 5%, 10% and 20% had been used in substitution to the sand, and relations water/cement (a/c) 0,50, 0,55 and 0,58. The cure of the test bodies was carried through in 7, 14 and 28 days. The statistics analysis of the results was carried out through of the analysis of variance for each one of the cure times. From the results of the compressive strength of the concrete, it could be observed that the concrete has structural application for the relation a/c 0,5, independently of waste glass percentage used, and for the relation a/c 0,55 with 20% of waste glass. (author)

  16. Effect of mix proportion of high density concrete on compressive strength, density and radiation absorption

    To prevent radiation leaks at nuclear reactors, high-density concrete is used as an absorbent material for radiation from spreading into the environment. High-density concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, aggregate (usually high-density minerals) and water. In this research, hematite stone is used because of its mineral density higher than the granite used in conventional concrete mixing. Mix concrete in this study were divided into part 1 and part 2. In part 1, the concrete mixture is designed with the same ratio of 1: 2: 4 but differentiated in terms of water-cement ratio (0.60, 0.65, 0.70, 0.75, 0.80 ). Whereas, in part 2, the concrete mixture is designed to vary the ratio of 1: 1: 2, 1: 1.5: 3, 1: 2: 3, 1: 3: 6, 1: 2: 6 with water-cement ratio (0.7, 0.8, 0.85, 0.9). In each section, the division has also performed in a mixture of sand and fine sand hematite. Then, the physical characteristics of the density and the compressive strength of the mixture of part 1 and part 2 is measured. Comparisons were also made in terms of absorption of radiation by Cs-137 and Co-60 source for each mix. This paper describes and discusses the relationship between the concrete mixture ratio, the relationship with the water-cement ratio, compressive strength, density, different mixture of sand and fine sand hematite. (author)

  17. Compressive strength and microstructural characteristics of class C fly ash geopolymer

    Xiaolu Guo; Huisheng Shi; Warren A. Dick [Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials (Tongji University), Shanghai (China)

    2010-02-15

    Geopolymers prepared from a class C fly ash (CFA) and a mixed alkali activator of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution were investigated. A high compressive strength was obtained when the modulus of the activator viz., molar ratio of SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O was 1.5, and the proper content of this activator as evaluated by the mass proportion of Na{sub 2}O to CFA was 10%. The compressive strength of these samples was 63.4 MPa when they were cured at 75{sup o}C for 8 h followed by curing at 23{sup o}C for 28 d. In FTIR spectroscopy, the main peaks at 1036 and 1400 cm{sup -1} have been attributed to asymmetric stretching of Al-O/Si-O bonds, while those at 747 cm{sup -1} are due to the Si-O-Si/Si-O-Al bending band. The main geopolymeric gel and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel co-exist and bond some remaining unreacted CFA spheres as observed in XRD and SEM-EXDA. The presence of gismondine (zeolite) was also observed in the XRD pattern.

  18. Long-Term Isothermal Aging Effects on Carbon Fabric-Reinforced PMR-15 Composites: Compression Strength

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Roberts, Gary D.; Kamvouris, John E.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of long-term isothermal thermo-oxidative aging on the compressive properties of T-650-35 fabric reinforced PMR-15 composites. The temperatures that were studied were 204, 260, 288, 316, and 343 C. Specimens of different geometries were evaluated. Cut edge-to-surface ratios of 0.03 to 0.89 were fabricated and aged. Aging times extended to a period in excess of 15,000 hours for the lower temperature runs. The unaged and aged specimens were tested in compression in accordance with ASTM D-695. Both thin and thick (plasma) specimens were tested. Three specimens were tested at each time/temperature/geometry condition. The failure modes appeared to be initiated by fiber kinking with longitudinal, interlaminar splitting. In general, it appears that the thermo-oxidative degradation of the compression strength of the composite material may occur by both thermal (time-dependent) and oxidative (weight-loss) mechanisms. Both mechanisms appear to be specimen-thickness dependent.

  19. The effects of aging on compressive strength of low-level radioactive waste form samples

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is (a) studying the degradation effects in organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (b) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified ion-exchange resins, (c) obtaining performance information on solidified ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (d) determining the condition of liners used to dispose ion-exchange resins. Compressive tests were performed periodically over a 12-year period as part of the Technical Position testing. Results of that compressive testing are presented and discussed. During the study, both portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste form samples were tested. This testing was designed to examine the effects of aging caused by self-irradiation on the compressive strength of the waste forms. Also presented is a brief summary of the results of waste form characterization, which has been conducted in 1986, using tests recommended in the Technical Position on Waste Form. The aging test results are compared to the results of those earlier tests. 14 refs., 52 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Determination of Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Ankara Agglomerate Considering Fractal Geometry of Blocks

    Coskun, Aycan; Sonmez, Harun; Ercin Kasapoglu, K.; Ozge Dinc, S.; Celal Tunusluoglu, M.

    2010-05-01

    The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of rock material is a crucial parameter to be used for design stages of slopes, tunnels and foundations to be constructed in/on geological medium. However, preparation of high quality cores from geological mixtures or fragmented rocks such as melanges, fault rocks, coarse pyroclastic rocks, breccias and sheared serpentinites is often extremely difficult. According to the studies performed in literature, this type of geological materials may be grouped as welded and unwelded birmocks. Success of preparation of core samples from welded bimrocks is slightly better than unwelded ones. Therefore, some studies performed on the welded bimrocks to understand the mechanical behavior of geological mixture materials composed of stronger and weaker components (Gokceoglu, 2002; Sonmez et al., 2004; Sonmez et al., 2006; Kahraman, et al., 2008). The overall strength of bimrocks are generally depends on strength contrast between blocks and matrix; types and strength of matrix; type, size, strength, shape and orientation of blocks and volumetric block proportion. In previously proposed prediction models, while UCS of unwelded bimrocks may be determined by decreasing the UCS of matrix considering the volumetric block proportion, the welded ones can be predicted by considering both UCS of matrix and blocks together (Lindquist, 1994; Lindquist and Goodman, 1994; Sonmez et al., 2006 and Sonmez et al., 2009). However, there is a few attempts were performed about the effect of blocks shape and orientation on the strength of bimrock (Linqduist, 1994 and Kahraman, et al., 2008). In this study, Ankara agglomerate, which is composed of andesite blocks and surrounded weak tuff matrix, was selected as study material. Image analyses were performed on bottom, top and side faces of cores to identify volumetric block portions. In addition to the image analyses, andesite blocks on bottom, top and side faces were digitized for determination of fractal dimensions. To determine fractal dimensions of more than hundred andesite blocks in cores, a computer program namely FRACRUN were developed. Fractal geometry has been used as practical and popular tool to define particularly irregular shaped bodies in literature since the theory of fractal was developed by Mandelbrot (1967) (Hyslip and Vallejo, 1997; Kruhl and Nega, 1996; Bagde etal., 2002; Gulbin and Evangulova, 2003; Pardini, 2003; Kolay and Kayabali, 2006; Hamdi, 2008; Zorlu, 2009 and Sezer, 2009). Although there are some methods to determine fractal dimensions, square grid-cell count method for 2D and segment count method for 1D were followed in the algorithm of FRACRUN. FRACRUN has capable of determine fractal dimensions of many closed polygons on a single surface. In the study, a database composed of uniaxial compressive strength, volumetric block proportion, fractal dimensions and number of blocks for each core was established. Finally, prediction models were developed by regression analyses and compared with the empirical equations proposed by Sonmez et al. (2006). Acknowledgement This study is a product of ongoing project supported by TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey - Project No: 108Y002). References Bagde, M.N., Raina, A.K., Chakraborty, A.K., Jethwa, J.L., 2002. Rock mass characterization by fractal dimension. Engineering Geology 63, 141-155. Gokceoglu, C., 2002. A fuzzy triangular chart to predict the uniaxial compressive strength of the Ankara agglomerates from their petrographic composition. Engineering Geology, 66 (1-2), 39-51. Gulbin, Y.L., Evangulova, E.B., 2003. Morphometry of quartz aggregates in granites: fractal images referring to nucleation and growth processes. Mathematical Geology 35 (7), 819-833 Hamdi, E., 2008. A fractal description of simulated 3D discontinuity networks. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 41, 587-599. Hyslip, J.P., Vallejo, L.E., 1997. Fractals analysis of the roughness and size distribution of granular materials. Engineering Geology 48, 231-244. Kahraman, S., Alber, M., Fener, M. and Gunaydin, O. 2008. Evaluating the geomechanical properties of Misis fault breccia (Turkey). Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci, 45, (8), 1469-1479. Kolay, E., Kayabali, K., 2006. Investigation of the effect of aggregate shape and surface roughness on the slake durability index using the fractal dimension approach. Engineering Geology 86, 271-294. Kruhl, J.H., Nega, M., 1996. The fractal shape of sutured quartz grain boundaries: application as a geothermometer. Geologische Rundschau 85, 38-43. Lindquist E.S. 1994. The strength, deformation properties of melange. PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1994. 264p. Lindquist E.S. and Goodman R.E. 1994. The strength and deformation properties of the physical model m!elange. In: Nelson PP, Laubach SE, editors. Proceedings of the First North American Rock Mechanics Conference (NARMS), Austin, Texas. Rotterdam: AA Balkema; 1994. Pardini, G., 2003. Fractal scaling of surface roughness in artificially weathered smectite rich soil regoliths. Geoderma 117, 157-167. Sezer E., 2009. A computer program for fractal dimension (FRACEK) with application on type of mass movement characterization. Computers and Geosciences (doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2009.04.006). Sonmez H, Tuncay E, and Gokceoglu C., 2004. Models to predict the uniaxial compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity for Ankara Agglomerate. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 41 (5), 717-729. Sonmez, H., Gokceoglu, C., Medley, E.W., Tuncay, E., and Nefeslioglu, H.A., 2006. Estimating the uniaxial compressive strength of a volcanic bimrock. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 43 (4), 554-561. Zorlu K., 2008. Description of the weathering states of building stones by fractal geometry and fuzzy inference system in the Olba ancient city (Southern Turkey). Engineering Geology 101 (2008) 124-133.

  1. Fixation of waste materials in grouts. Part II. An empirical equation for estimating compressive strength for grouts from different wastes

    Compressive strength data for grouts prepared from three different nuclear waste materials have been correlated. The wastes include ORNL low-level waste (LLW) solution, Hanford Facility Waste (HFW) solution, and Hanford cladding removal waste (CRW) slurry. Data for the three wastes can be represented with a 0.96 coefficient of correlation by the following equation: S = -9.56 + 9.27 D/I + 18.11/C + 0.010 R, where S denotess 28-d compressive strength, in mPa; D designates Waste concentration, fraction of the original; I is ionic strength; C denotes Attapulgite-150 clay content of dry blend, in wt %; and R is the mix ratio, kg/m3. The equation may be used to estimate 28-d compressive strengths of grouts prepared within the compositional range of this investigation

  2. In-Situ Welding Carbon Nanotubes into a Porous Solid with Super-High Compressive Strength and Fatigue Resistance

    Lin, Zhiqiang; Gui, Xuchun; Gan, Qiming; Chen, Wenjun; Cheng, Xiaoping; Liu, Ming; Zhu, Yuan; Yang, Yanbing; Cao, Anyuan; Tang, Zikang

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene-based sponges and aerogels have an isotropic porous structure and their mechanical strength and stability are relatively lower. Here, we present a junction-welding approach to fabricate porous CNT solids in which all CNTs are coated and welded in situ by an amorphous carbon layer, forming an integral three-dimensional scaffold with fixed joints. The resulting CNT solids are robust, yet still highly porous and compressible, with compressive strengths up to 72?MPa, flexural strengths up to 33?MPa, and fatigue resistance (recovery after 100,000 large-strain compression cycles at high frequency). Significant enhancement of mechanical properties is attributed to the welding-induced interconnection and reinforcement of structural units, and synergistic effects stemming from the core-shell microstructures consisting of a flexible CNT framework and a rigid amorphous carbon shell. Our results provide a simple and effective method to manufacture high-strength porous materials by nanoscale welding. PMID:26067176

  3. Characteristic compression strength of a brickwork masonry starting from the strength of its components. Experimental verification of analitycal equations of european codes

    Rolando, A.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the compression strength of a clay brickwork masonry bound with cement mortar is analyzed. The target is to obtain the characteristic compression strength of unreinforced brickwork masonry. This research try to test the validity of the analytical equations in European codes, comparing the experimental strength with the analytically obtained from the strength of its components (clay brick and cement mortar.En este artculo se analiza la resistencia a compresin de una fbrica de ladrillo cermico, asentado con mortero de cemento.El objetivo es obtener la resistencia caracterstica a compresin de la fbrica sin armar.La investigacin comprueba la fiabilidad de las expresiones analticas existentes en la normativa europea, comparando la resistencia obtenida experimentalmente con la obtenida analticamente, a partir de la resistencia de sus componentes (ladrillo cermico y mortero de cemento.

  4. Compressive Strength Evaluation in Brazed ZrO2/Ti6Al4V Joints Using Finite Element Analysis

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kee, Se Ho; Jung, Flora; Heo, Yongku; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to synthesize and evaluate the compressive strength of the ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint brazed using an active metal filler Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti, and its application to dental implants assuring its reliability to resist the compressive failure in the actual oral environment. The brazing was performed at a temperature of 750 °C for 30 min in a vacuum furnace under 5 × 10-6 Torr atmosphere. The microstructure of the brazed joint showed the presence of an Ag-rich matrix and a Cu-rich phase, and Cu-Ti intermetallic compounds were observed along the Ti-6Al-4V bonded interface. The compressive strength of the brazed ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint was measured by EN ISO 14801 standard test method. The measured compressive strength of the joint was ~1477 MPa—a value almost five times that of existing dental cements. Finite element analysis also confirmed the high von Mises stress values. The compressive strains in the samples were found concentrated near the Ti-6Al-4V position, matching with the position of the real fractured sample. These results suggest extremely significant compressive strength in ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joints using the Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti filler. It is believed that a highly reliable dental implant can be processed and designed using the results of this study.

  5. Compressive Strength Evaluation in Brazed ZrO2/Ti6Al4V Joints Using Finite Element Analysis

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kee, Se Ho; Jung, Flora; Heo, Yongku; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to synthesize and evaluate the compressive strength of the ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint brazed using an active metal filler Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti, and its application to dental implants assuring its reliability to resist the compressive failure in the actual oral environment. The brazing was performed at a temperature of 750 °C for 30 min in a vacuum furnace under 5 × 10-6 Torr atmosphere. The microstructure of the brazed joint showed the presence of an Ag-rich matrix and a Cu-rich phase, and Cu-Ti intermetallic compounds were observed along the Ti-6Al-4V bonded interface. The compressive strength of the brazed ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint was measured by EN ISO 14801 standard test method. The measured compressive strength of the joint was ~1477 MPa—a value almost five times that of existing dental cements. Finite element analysis also confirmed the high von Mises stress values. The compressive strains in the samples were found concentrated near the Ti-6Al-4V position, matching with the position of the real fractured sample. These results suggest extremely significant compressive strength in ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joints using the Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti filler. It is believed that a highly reliable dental implant can be processed and designed using the results of this study.

  6. Ultimate tensile strength testing campaign on ITER pre-compression ring mock-ups

    ENEA has developed and characterized a high strength glass fibre-epoxy composite as reference material for the manufacture of the two sets of 3 pre-compression rings located at top and bottom of the inner straight leg region of the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) coils. These rings will provide a radial force of about 70 MN/coil at cryogenic temperature pulling the TF coils into contact and reducing toroidal tension in the four outer intercoil structures. The paper describes the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) testing campaign carried out at ENEA Frascati laboratories on six different rings manufactured winding S2 glass fibers on a diameter of 1 m (1/5 of the full scale) by both vacuum pressure epoxy impregnation and filament wet winding techniques. The volumetric glass content was around 70%. The rings were expanded with radial steps of 0.1 mm into a dedicated hydraulic testing machine consisting of 18 radial actuators working in position control with a total capability of 1000 tons. All the mock-ups showed very high tensile strength (1550 MPa is the average of the mean hoop stresses at failure) and a practically constant tensile modulus. The test results are reported and discussed.

  7. Improvement compressive strength of concrete in different curing media by Al2O3 nanoparticles

    Research highlights: → Al2O3 nanoparticles. → Mechanical properties. → Physical properties. → Thermal properties. → Microstructure. - Abstract: In the present work, the effect of curing medium on microstructure together with physical, mechanical and thermal properties of concrete containing Al2O3 nanoparticles has been investigated. Portland cement was partially replaced by Al2O3 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm and the specimens were cured in water and saturated limewater for specific ages. The results indicate that Al2O3 nanoparticles up to maximum of 2.0% produces concrete with improved compressive strength and setting time when the specimens cured in saturated limewater. The optimum level of replacement for cured specimens in water is 1.0 wt%. Although the limewater reduces the strength of concrete without nanoparticles when it is compared with the specimens cured in water, curing the specimens bearing nanoparticles in saturated limewater results in more strengthening gel formation around Al2O3 nanoparticles causes more rapid setting time together with high strength. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that Al2O3 nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the specimens.

  8. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Compression Strength Measurements Conducted According to ASTM E9

    Luecke, William E.; Ma, Li; Graham, Stephen M.; Adler, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Ten commercial laboratories participated in an interlaboratory study to establish the repeatability and reproducibility of compression strength tests conducted according to ASTM International Standard Test Method E9. The test employed a cylindrical aluminum AA2024-T351 test specimen. Participants measured elastic modulus and 0.2 % offset yield strength, YS(0.2 % offset), using an extensometer attached to the specimen. The repeatability and reproducibility of the yield strength measurement, expressed as coefficient of variations were cv(sub r)= 0.011 and cv(sub R)= 0.020 The reproducibility of the test across the laboratories was among the best that has been reported for uniaxial tests. The reported data indicated that using diametrically opposed extensometers, instead of a single extensometer doubled the precision of the test method. Laboratories that did not lubricate the ends of the specimen measured yield stresses and elastic moduli that were smaller than those measured in laboratories that lubricated the specimen ends. A finite element analysis of the test specimen deformation for frictionless and perfect friction could not explain the discrepancy, however. The modulus measured from stress-strain data were reanalyzed using a technique that finds the optimal fit range, and applies several quality checks to the data. The error in modulus measurements from stress-strain curves generally increased as the fit range decreased to less than 40 % of the stress range.

  9. Measurement of sound velocities and shear strength of cerium under shock compression

    Sound velocity in shock-compressed cerium was measured over the pressure range of 35-140 GPa using the rarefaction overtake technique. Indicator liquids carbogal and tetrachloromethane were used. The samples were loaded with planar shock wave generators using powerful high explosives (HE). Luminescence of the liquid indicators was recorded by optical gauges based on photodiode 'FD 256'. For the pressure range of 13-35 GPa, sound velocity was measured in cerium samples using the counter release method with manganin-based piezoresistive gauges. From the measured longitudinal and bulk sound velocities, Poisson's ratio and shear strength of cerium were determined. The melting boundary on the shock Hugoniot was estimated. Experimental data is compared with calculation results

  10. ALKALI-ACTIVATION KINETICS OF PHOSPHORUS SLAG CEMENT USING COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH DATA

    Hojjatollah Maghsoodloorad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, through compressive strength data, the order and kinetics of alkali-activation of phosphorus slag activated with two compound activators of NaOH + Na2CO3 and Na2CO3 + Ca(OH2, has been evaluated. The kinetics and order of alkali activation is a key factor to forecasting the mechanical behavior of alkali activated cement at different curing time and temperatures without carrying out experimental tests. The apparent activation energy was obtained as 35.6 kJ.mol-1 and 60.7 kJ.mol-1 for the two activators, respectively. Investigations proved that the alkali-activation kinetics of phosphorus slag resembles chemical reactions of second order. Moreover, the order of alkali-activation of phosphorus slag does not depend on the type of activator.

  11. Electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements to estimate the uniaxial compressive strength of a fault breccia

    Sair Kahraman; Michael Alber

    2014-10-01

    Fault breccias are usually not suitable for preparing smooth specimens or else the preparation of such specimens is tedious, time consuming and expensive. To develop a predictive model for the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of a fault breccia from electrical resistivity values obtained from the electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements, twenty-four samples of a fault breccia were tested in the laboratory. The UCS values were correlated with corresponding resistivity values and a strong correlation between them could not be found. However, a strong correlation was found for the samples having volumetric block proportion (VBP) of 25–75%. In addition, it was seen that VBP strongly correlated with resistivity. It was concluded that the UCS of the tested breccia can be estimated from resistivity for the samples having VBP of 25–75%.

  12. Compressive strength of titanium alloy skin-stringer panels selectively reinforced with boron-aluminum composite.

    Herring, H. W.; Carri, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a method of selectively reinforcing conventional titanium airframe structure with unidirectional boron-aluminum composite attached by brazing which has been successfully demonstrated based on compression tests of short skin-stringer panels. Improvements in structural performance exceeded 25% on an equivalent weight basis over the range from room temperature to 800 F, both in terms of initial buckling and maximum strengths. Room-temperature performance was not affected by prior exposure at 600 F for 1000 hours in air, or by 400 cycles between -65 and 600 F. The experimental results were generally predictable on the basis of existing analytical procedures. No evidence of failure was observed in the braze bond between the boron-aluminum composite and the titanium alloy.

  13. The unconfined quarks and gluons

    The consequences of the lepton-hadron gauge unification hypothesis with unconfined quarks and gluons being the hall-mark are discussed. Quark and gluon decays into leptons are shown to provide a new source of multileptonic production in NN, ?N and ?N collisions. A theorem is stated and proved which highlights the differences between the dynamics of gauge versus non-gauge 1- particles. Empirical manifestations of gauge coloured mesons are discussed. The question of exact confinement or not is concluded to be in the end an empirical one and must be settled in the laboratory

  14. Comparison of the compressive strength of impregnated and nonimpregnated eucalyptus subjected to two different pressures and impregnation times

    Waldemir Rodrigues

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The durability of wood is affected by several factors. For this reason, much research has been done on a variety of chemical compounds for impregnating wood, aimed at preserving it while simultaneously improving its properties. Recent studies of the properties of impregnated wood have demonstrated the possibility of substantially improving its mechanical characteristics. Thus, the purpose of this work was to compare the strength to parallel compression of wooden fibers (Eucalyptus grandis, both nonimpregnated and impregnated with a monocomponent resin, from the standpoint of pressure and impregnation time, aiming at its structural utilization. The results demonstrate that the compressive strength of impregnated test specimens is greater than that of nonimpregnated ones, indicating that monocomponent polyurethane resin can be considered suitable for impregnating wood, since it increases the compressive strength of eucalyptus.

  15. Enhanced densification, strength and molecular mechanisms in shock compressed porous silicon

    Lane, J. Matthew D.; Vogler, Tracy J.

    2015-06-01

    In most porous materials, void collapse during shock compression couples mechanical energy to thermal energy. Increased temperature drives up pressures and lowers densities in the final Hugoniot states as compared to full-density samples. Some materials, however, exhibit an anomalous enhanced densification in their Hugoniot states when porosity is introduced. We have recently shown that silicon is such a material, and demonstrated a molecular mechanism for the effect using molecular simulation. We will review results from large-scale non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) and Hugoniotstat simulations of shock compressed porous silicon, highlighting the mechanism by which porosity produces local shear which nucleate partial phase transition and localized melting at shock pressures below typical thresholds in these materials. Further, we will characterize the stress states and strength of the material as a function of porosity from 5 to 50 percent and with various porosity microstructures. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. The Effect of Different Parameters on the Development of Compressive Strength of Oil Palm Shell Geopolymer Concrete

    Kupaei, Ramin Hosseini; Alengaram, U. Johnson; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of an on-going research project on geopolymer lightweight concrete using two locally available waste materials—low calcium fly ash (FA) and oil palm shell (OPS)—as the binder and lightweight coarse aggregate, respectively. OPS was pretreated with three different alkaline solutions of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide, and sodium silicate as well as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for 30 days; afterwards, oil palm shell geopolymer lightweight concrete (OPSGPC) was cast by using both pretreated and untreated OPSs. The effect of these solutions on the water absorption of OPS, and the development of compressive strength in different curing conditions of OPSGPC produced by pretreated OPS were investigated; subsequently the influence of NaOH concentration, alkaline solution to FA ratio (A/FA), and different curing regimes on the compressive strength and density of OPSGPC produced by untreated OPS was inspected. The 24-hour water absorption value for OPS pretreated with 20% and 50% PVA solution was about 4% compared to 23% for untreated OPS. OPSGPC produced from OPS treated with 50% PVA solution produced the highest compressive strength of about 30 MPa in ambient cured condition. The pretreatment with alkaline solution did not have a significant positive effect on the water absorption of OPS aggregate and the compressive strength of OPSGPC. The result revealed that a maximum compressive strength of 32 MPa could be obtained at a temperature of 65°C and curing period of 4 days. This investigation also found that an A/FA ratio of 0.45 has the optimum amount of alkaline liquid and it resulted in the highest level of compressive strength. PMID:25531006

  17. The effect of different parameters on the development of compressive strength of oil palm shell geopolymer concrete.

    Kupaei, Ramin Hosseini; Alengaram, U Johnson; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of an on-going research project on geopolymer lightweight concrete using two locally available waste materials--low calcium fly ash (FA) and oil palm shell (OPS)--as the binder and lightweight coarse aggregate, respectively. OPS was pretreated with three different alkaline solutions of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide, and sodium silicate as well as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for 30 days; afterwards, oil palm shell geopolymer lightweight concrete (OPSGPC) was cast by using both pretreated and untreated OPSs. The effect of these solutions on the water absorption of OPS, and the development of compressive strength in different curing conditions of OPSGPC produced by pretreated OPS were investigated; subsequently the influence of NaOH concentration, alkaline solution to FA ratio (A/FA), and different curing regimes on the compressive strength and density of OPSGPC produced by untreated OPS was inspected. The 24-hour water absorption value for OPS pretreated with 20% and 50% PVA solution was about 4% compared to 23% for untreated OPS. OPSGPC produced from OPS treated with 50% PVA solution produced the highest compressive strength of about 30 MPa in ambient cured condition. The pretreatment with alkaline solution did not have a significant positive effect on the water absorption of OPS aggregate and the compressive strength of OPSGPC. The result revealed that a maximum compressive strength of 32 MPa could be obtained at a temperature of 65°C and curing period of 4 days. This investigation also found that an A/FA ratio of 0.45 has the optimum amount of alkaline liquid and it resulted in the highest level of compressive strength. PMID:25531006

  18. Predicting the compressive strength of cemented uranium tailings filling body based on adaptive neuron-fuzzy inference system

    A series uniaxial compressive tests were conducted by using an RMT-150B testing system to investigate the effects of slurry concentration, cement-tailings ratio and curing period on compressive strength of uranium tailings filling body, the stress-strain curve of the backfilling body was obtained, and their failure characteristics were analyzed. On the basis of the test results, an adaptive neuron-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model for predicting compressive strength is established using the adaptive neuron-fuzzy inference system based on slurry concentration, cement-tailings ratio and curing period. It was found that there is direct proportion relation between the compressive strength and affecting factors such as slurry concentration, cement-tailings ratio and curing period; the failure law of filling body follows the plastic-elastic-plastic failure model; the ANFIS model provides predictions with high accuracy about 94%, which proves to be a new approach for estimation of compressive strength of uranium tailings filling body. (authors)

  19. Effects of method of loading and specimen configuration on compressive strength of graphite/epoxy composite materials

    Clark, R. K.; Lisagor, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Three test schemes were examined for testing graphite/epoxy (Narmco T300/5208) composite material specimens to failure in compression, including an adaptation of the IITRI "wedge grip" compression fixture, a face-supported-compression fixture, and an end-loaded-coupon fixture. The effects of specimen size, specimen support arrangement and method of load transfer on compressive behavior of graphite/epoxy were investigated. Compressive stress strain, strength, and modulus data obtained with the three fixtures are presented with evaluations showing the effects of all test parameters, including fiber orientation. The IITRI fixture has the potential to provide good stress/strain data to failure for unidirectional and quasi-isotropic laminates. The face supported fixture was found to be the most desirable for testing + or - 45 s laminates.

  20. Effect of coal gangue with different kaolin contents on compressive strength and pore size of blended cement paste

    Chen Yimin; Zhou Shuangxi; Zhang Wensheng [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing (China)

    2008-02-15

    The effects of activated coal gangue on compressive strength, porosity and pore size distribution of hardened cement pastes were investigated. Activated coal gangue with two different kaolin contents, one higher and one lower, were used to partially replace Portland cement at 0%, 10%, and 30% by weight. The water to binder ratio of 0.5 was used for all the blended cement paste mixes. Experimental results indicate that the blended cement of activated coal gangue mortar with higher kaolin mineral content has a higher compressive strength than that with lower kaolin mineral content. The porosity and pore size of blended cement mortar were significantly affected by the replacement of activated coal gangue.

  1. Experiments on the enhancement of compressible mixing via streamwise vorticity. II - Vortex strength assessment and seed particle dynamics

    Naughton, J. W.; Cattafesta, L. N.; Settles, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of streamwise vorticity on compressible axisymmetric mixing layers is examined using vortex strength assessment and seed particle dynamics analysis. Experimental results indicate that the particles faithfully represent the dynamics of the turbulent swirling flow. A comparison of the previously determined mixing layer growth rates with the present vortex strength data reveals that the increase of turbulent mixing up to 60 percent scales with the degree of swirl. The mixing enhancement appears to be independent of the compressibility level of the mixing layer.

  2. Effect of Microwave Disinfection on Compressive and Tensile Strengths of Dental Stones

    Mahmood Robati Anaraki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Although microwave irradiation has been used for disinfection of dental stone casts, there are concerns regarding mechanical damage to casts during the process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of microwave irradiation on the compressive strength (CS and diametral tensile strength (DTS of stone casts. Materials and methods. In this in vitro study, 80 cylindrical type III and IV stone models (20 40 mm were prepared and divided into 8 groups of 10. The DTS and CS of the specimens were measured by a mechanical testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 cm/min after 7 times of frequent wetting, irradiating at an energy level of 600 W for 3 minutes and cooling. Data were analyzed by Students t-test. Results. Microwave irradiation significantly increased DTS of type III and IV to 5.23 0.64 and 8.17 0.94, respectively (P < 0.01. Conclusion. According to the results, microwave disinfection increases DTS of type III and IV stone casts without any effects on their CS.

  3. Strength improvement in transformation toughened ceramics using compressive residual surface stresses

    Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-15 vol. % ZrO/sub 2/ bar shaped composite specimens were fabricated by pressing three layers. The two outer layers consisted of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and unstabilized ZrO/sub 2/ (primarily in the monoclinic polymorph), and the inner layer consisted of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and partially stabilized zirconia in the tetragonal polymorph. The transformation of ZrO/sub 2/ from tetragonal to monoclinic, upon cooling from sintering temperature, led to the establishment of residual compressive stresses in the outer layers. Flexural tests at room temperature showed that residual stresses contributed to strength increasing from 450 to 825 MPa. The existence of these stresses was verified by measuring apparent fracture toughness, as well as using strain gages. Strength and toughness data were obtained at 500, 750, and 1000/sup 0/C. X-ray diffraction was used to explain the elevated temperature data by monitoring the monoclinic to tetragonal transformation upon heating to 1000/sup 0/C

  4. Compressive Strength and Water Permeability Performance of Micronised Biomass Silica Concrete

    S.H. Adnan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a common material that is widely used in construction industry. Cement is the main material component for producing concrete but its production has lead into CO2 emission. This work presents a study on Micronised Biomass Silica (MBS that can be used as pozzolan material which can enhance the quality of concrete. The material can be produced from a by-product of biomass agricultural waste but for this study rice husk has been used. From the chemical analysis, MBS has a chemical composition that is fulfill the standard requirement for becoming pozzolan material. The result of MBS concrete shows that the MBS material can enhance the performance of concrete by increasing the compressive strength development and reducing the water permeability. The drawback of MBS is the workability of fresh concrete but can be rectify by using superplasticizer. By replacing up to 12% of cement, MBS material gives the highest performance in term of strength and permeability of the concrete.

  5. Study of resin-bonded calcia investment: Part 1. Setting time and compressive strength.

    Nakai, A

    2000-09-01

    This study was carried out to develop a new titanium casting investment consisting of calcia as the refractory material and a cold-curing resin system as the binder. The setting time of the investment was investigated under different N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT) contents in methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) contents in calcia without any sintering agent. The effects of the sintering agents, which were calcium fluoride (CaF2) and calcium chloride (CaCl2), on the compressive strength of the investments were investigated at room temperature before and after heating to two different temperatures. The shortest setting time (68 minutes) of the investment was obtained at 0.37 DMPT/BPO (1.5 vol% /1.0 mass%) ratio by mass. The highest strength (16.5 MPa) was obtained from the investment which contained 2 mass% CaF2 and was heated to 1,100 degrees C. It was found that the developed calcia investment containing 2 mass% CaF2 has a possibility for use in titanium castings. PMID:11218848

  6. Developing a Material Strength Design Value Based on Compression after Impact Damage for the Ares I Composite Interstage

    Nettles, A. T.; Jackson, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    The derivation of design values for compression after impact strength for two types of honeycomb sandwich structures are presented. The sandwich structures in this study had an aluminum core and composite laminate facesheets of either 16-ply quasi or 18-ply directional lay-ups. The results show that a simple power law curve fit to the data can be used to create A- and B-basis residual strength curves.

  7. Effect of the Curing Conditions and Superplasticizer on Compressive Strength of Concrete Exposed To High Ambient Temperature of Nawabshah, Pakistan

    Noor Ahmed Memon, Fahad ul Rehman Abro, Ubaidullah Memon, Salihuddin Radin Sumadi

    2014-01-01

    The overall performance of the hardened concrete is believed to be greatly affected by the type and duration of the curing. The influence of the curing on the strength and durability of concrete becomes more significant when the concrete is to be exposed to high ambient temperature of the local area. This paper presents the results of an experimental study conducted to investigate effect of curing conditions and superplasticizer on compressive strength of concr...

  8. Effects of fabrication and joining processes on compressive strength of boron/aluminum and borsic/aluminum structural panels

    Processes for forming and joining boron/aluminum and borsic/aluminum to themselves and to titanium alloys were studied. Composite skin and titanium skin panels were joined to composite stringers by high strength bolts, by spotwelding, by diffusion bonding, by adhesive bonding, or by brazing. The effects of the fabrication and joining processes on panel compressive strengths were discussed. Predicted buckling loads were compared with experimental data

  9. Effects of fabrication and joining processes on compressive strength of boron/aluminum and borsic/aluminum structural panels

    Royster, D. M.; Wiant, H. R.; Mcwithey, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Processes for forming and joining boron/aluminum and borsic/aluminum to themselves and to titanium alloys were studied. Composite skin and titanium skin panels were joined to composite stringers by high strength bolts, by spotwelding, by diffusion bonding, by adhesive bonding, or by brazing. The effects of the fabrication and joining processes on panel compressive strengths were discussed. Predicted buckling loads were compared with experimental data.

  10. Compressive and splitting tensile strength of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC containing perlite aggregate and polypropylene fiber subjected to high temperatures

    Borvorn Israngkura Na Ayudhya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the residual compressive and splitting tensile strength ofautoclaved aerated concrete (AAC containing perlite and polypropylene (PP fiber subjected to high temperatures. Cylinderspecimens were subjected to various temperature ranges of 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1,000°C. The mixtures were prepared withAAC cementitious materials containing perlite at 15%, 20%, and 30% sand replacement. The polypropylene fiber content of0, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% by volume was also added to the mixture. The results showed that the unheated compressive andsplitting tensile strength of AACs containing PP fiber were not significantly higher than those containing no PP fiber.Furthermore, the presence of PP fiber was not more effective for residual compressive strength than splitting tensile strength.The 30% perlite replacement of sand gave the highest strength. Based on the results, it can be concluded that addition ofPP fiber did not significantly promote the residual strength of AAC specimens subjected to high temperatures.

  11. Dynamic shear strength of improved soil with B-type blast-furnace cement

    It is attempted to apply the improved soil using cement materials as the hardening agent to the foundation ground of the important buildings for electric power plants. The current design procedure of the improved ground is based on the static strength such as the unconfined compressive strength of the improved soil. However, it is not clear whether the static strength is relevant to seismic designs where the effects of the cyclic loading induced by the earthquake shall be considered. Hence, the authors studied the dynamic strength of the improved soil in comparison with the static strength, by executing a series of the cyclic triaxial tests with different loading frequencies and the consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests (CUB tests) with different axial strain rates. The tested soil specimens which have the unconfined compressive strength of about 5 MPa were made in laboratory using the mixture of a dredged marine clayey soil, a B-type blast-furnace cement (300 kg/m3) and water. Both of the CUB tests and the cyclic triaxial tests showed similar results with respect to the relationships between the strength and the strain rate. The larger the compressive strain rate was, the higher the strength became. It is concluded that the static strength could be used as a sufficiently safe value in seismic designs since the strain rate of the cyclic loading induced by the earthquake is much larger than that of the static test. (author)

  12. Improving the standard of the standard for glass ionomers: an alternative to the compressive fracture strength test for consideration?

    Dowling, Adam H

    2012-03-01

    Three strength tests (compressive, three point flexure and biaxial) were performed on three glass ionomer (GI) restoratives to assess the most appropriate methodology in terms of validity and reliability. The influence of mixing induced variability on the data sets generated were eliminated by using encapsulated GIs.

  13. Computational model considering effects of process and experimental verification of compressive strength of the X-cor sandwich

    Dang, X. D.; Jun, X.; Tan, Y. G.; Li, Y.; Yuan, Y. H.; Zhang, J. B.

    2008-11-01

    In order to increase the through-thickness compressive strength, pultruded carbon fiber pins are inserted into the ploymethacrylimide core of the sandwich, and then the X-cor sandwich is obtained. During curing process of the X-cor sandwich the forming of the residual stress is described in detail, the analytical results are that carbon fiber Z-pins preserve residually tensile stress in the end. Considering the effects of the residual stress Z-pins are treated as beams upon an elastic foundation, then a sort of compressive strength computational model of the X-cor sandwich is proposed and the compressive strength is computed. The X-cor sandwich samples of different density, diameter and angle of Z-pins are made for compressive strength experiments. Through the contrast between experimental and computational results the computational model is verified. As Z-pin's diameter and density increase the residual stress increase. While as Z-pin's angle increases the residual stress decrease.

  14. Microstructure, characterizations, functionality and compressive strength of cement-based materials using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an additive

    Highlights: • Nano zinc oxide was used as an additive material. • Microstructure and phase characterization of pastes were characterized using SEM and XRD. • TGA and FTIR were also used to determine the hydration reaction. • Compressive strength of ZnO mixes was found to increase at 28 days. - Abstract: Zinc oxide nanoparticles as a nanophotocatalyst has great potential for self-cleaning applications in concrete structures, its effects on the cement hydration, setting time and compressive strength are also important when using it in practice. This paper reports the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles, as an additive material, on properties of cement-based materials. Setting time, compressive strength and porosity of mortars were investigated. Microstructure and morphology of pastes were characterized using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Moreover, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) were also used to determine the hydration reaction. The results show that Portland cement paste with additional ZnO was found to slightly increase the water requirement while the setting time presented prolongation period than the control mix. However, compressive strength of ZnO mixes was found to be higher than that of PC mix up to 15% (at 28 days) via filler effect. Microstructure, XRD and TGA results of ZnO pastes show less hydration products before 28 days but similar at 28 days. In addition, FTIR results confirmed the retardation when ZnO was partially added in Portland cement pastes

  15. EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION ON FRESH PROPERTIES AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE

    FAREED AHMED MEMON

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the laboratory tests conducted to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC. The experiments were conducted by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide from 8 M to 14 M. Test methods such as Slump flow, V-Funnel, L-box and J-Ring were used to assess the workability characteristics of SCGC. The test specimens were cured at 70°C for a period of 48 hours and then kept in room temperature until the day of testing. Compressive strength test was carried out at the ages of 1, 3, 7 and 28 days. Test results indicate that concentration variation of sodium hydroxide had least effect on the fresh properties of SCGC. With the increase in sodium hydroxide concentration, the workability of fresh concrete was slightly reduced; however, the corresponding compressive strength was increased. Concrete samples with sodium hydroxide concentration of 12 M produced maximum compressive strength.

  16. Effect of Impact Damage and Open Holes on the Compression Strength of Tough Resin/high Strain Fiber Laminates

    Williams, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Tests to assess the performance of composite structures damaged by impact or containing local discontinuities such as cutouts are discussed. In particular, two plate specimen test configurations which were developed to define the serverity of compression strength reduction are described; one for impact damage and the other open hole specimens. The test technique for impact specimens involves damaging the plate at selected energies, measuring the size of damage by ultrasonic C-scan techniques and measuring the residual strength in a compression load test. Open-hole specimen compression tests are conducted for several different hole diameters and the failure strain and load and mode of failure recorded. The plate specimen used in these tests is designed with length, width, thickness and laminate stiffness to ensure that overall plate buckling is not responsible for initiating failure.

  17. Strength properties of soft clay treated with mixture of nano-SiO2 and recycled polyester fiber

    Foad Changizi; Abdolhosein Haddad

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of recycled polyester fiber, produced from polyethylene (PET) bottles, in combination with nano-SiO2 as a new stabilizer to improve the mechanical properties of soils. We intend to study the effect of adding nano-SiO2 and recycled polyester fiber on soil engineering properties, especially the shear strength and unconfined compressive strength (UCS), using clayey soil with low liquid limit. Three different combinations of fiber-soil ratios ranging between 0.1...

  18. Reliability Assessment of Buckling Strength for Compressed Cylindrical Shells with Interacting Localized Geometric Imperfections

    Jalal E. Bahaoui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Elastic cylindrical shells are common structures in the fields of civil engineering and engineering mechanics. These thin-walled constructions may undergo buckling when subjected to axial compression. Buckling limits to large extent their strength performance. This phenomenon depends hugely on the initial distributed or localized geometric imperfections that are present on the shell structure. Localized geometric imperfections result in general from the operation of welding strakes to assemble the shell structure. In this study, reliability of buckling strength as it could be affected by shell material and geometry parameters was investigated. The localized geometric imperfections were chosen to be entering and having either a triangular or a wavelet form. Interaction between three localized imperfections had also been considered. Approach: A special software package which was dedicated to buckling analysis of quasi axisymmetric shells was used in order to compute the buckling load via the linear Euler buckling procedure. A set of five factors including shell aspect ratios, defect characteristics and the distance separating the localized initial geometric imperfections had been found to govern the buckling problem. A parametric study was performed to determine their relative influence on the buckling load reduction. Reliability analysis was carried out by using first order reliability method. Results: Wavelet imperfection was found to be more severe than triangular form in the range of low amplitude imperfections. It was shown also by comparison with the single imperfection case that further diminution of the critical load is obtained for three interacting imperfections. The interval distance separating the localized geometric imperfections was found to have important influence on the reliability index. Conclusion/Recommendations: In the he range of investigated parameters, reliability was found to increase with the distance separating the localized geometric imperfections. This can help performing optimal design of assembled strakes.

  19. Comparative experimental study of dynamic compressive strength of mortar with glass and basalt fibres

    Kruszka, Leopold; Moćko, Wojciech; Fenu, Luigi; Cadoni, Ezio

    2015-09-01

    Specimen reinforced with glass and basalt fibers were prepared using Standard Portland cement (CEM I, 52.5 R as prescribed by EN 197-1) and standard sand, in accordance with EN 196-1. From this cementitious mixture, a reference cement mortar without fibers was first prepared. Compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and mod of fracture were determined for all specimens. Static and dynamic properties were investigated using Instron testing machine and split Hopkinson pressure bar, respectively. Content of the glass fibers in the mortar does not influence the fracture stress at static loading conditions in a clearly observed way. Moreover at dynamic range 5% content of the fiber results in a significant drop of fracture stress. Analysis of the basalt fibers influence on the fracture stress shows that optimal content of this reinforcement is equal to 3% for both static and dynamic loading conditions. Further increase of the fiber share gives the opposite effect, i.e. drop of the fracture stress.

  20. An engineering procedure for calculating compressive strength of isogrid cylindrical shells with buckled skin

    Heard, W. L., Jr.; Anderson, M. S.; Slysh, P.

    1976-01-01

    An engineering procedure is presented for calculating the compressive buckling strength of isogrid cylinders using shell of revolution techniques and accounting for loading beyond the material proportional limit and/or local buckling of the skin prior to general buckling. A general nondimensional chart is presented which can be used in conjunction with formulas based on simple deformation plasticity theory to calculate postbuckling stiffnesses of the skin. The stiffening grid system is treated as an equivalent isotropic grid layer. Stiffnesses are determined for this grid layer, when loaded beyond the proportional limit, by the same plasticity theory used for the skin and a nonlinear stress-strain curve constructed from simple isogrid-handbook formulas and standard-reference-manual stress-strain curves for the material involved. Comparison of prebuckling strains and buckling results obtained by this procedure with data from a large isogrid-cylinder test is excellent with the calculated buckling load no more than 4 percent greater than the test value.

  1. Correlation development between indentation parameters and uniaxial compressive strength for Colombian sandstones

    A new way to characterize the perforated formation strength has been implemented using the indentation test. This test can be performed on irregular cuttings mounted in acrylic resins forming a disc. The test consists of applying load on each sample by means of a flat and indenter. A graph of the load applied VS penetration of the indenter is developed, and the modules of the test, denominated indentation modulus (IM) and Critical Transition Force (CTF) are obtained (Ringstad et al., 1998). Based on the success of previous studies we developed correlations between indentation and mechanical properties for some Colombian sandstone. These correlations were obtained using o set of 248 indentation tests and separate compression fasts on parallel sandstone samples from the same depth. This analysis includes Barco Formation, Mirador Formation, and Tambor Formation. For the correlations, IM-UCS and CTF-UCS, the correlation coefficient is 0.81 and 0.70 respectively. The use of the correlations and the indentation test is helpful for in-situ calibration of the geomechanical models since the indentation test can be performed in real time thus reducing costs and time associated with delayed conventional characterization

  2. Comparative experimental study of dynamic compressive strength of mortar with glass and basalt fibres

    Kruszka Leopold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimen reinforced with glass and basalt fibers were prepared using Standard Portland cement (CEM I, 52.5 R as prescribed by EN 197-1 and standard sand, in accordance with EN 196-1. From this cementitious mixture, a reference cement mortar without fibers was first prepared. Compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and mod of fracture were determined for all specimens. Static and dynamic properties were investigated using Instron testing machine and split Hopkinson pressure bar, respectively. Content of the glass fibers in the mortar does not influence the fracture stress at static loading conditions in a clearly observed way. Moreover at dynamic range 5% content of the fiber results in a significant drop of fracture stress. Analysis of the basalt fibers influence on the fracture stress shows that optimal content of this reinforcement is equal to 3% for both static and dynamic loading conditions. Further increase of the fiber share gives the opposite effect, i.e. drop of the fracture stress.

  3. In-Situ Welding Carbon Nanotubes into a Porous Solid with Super-High Compressive Strength and Fatigue Resistance

    Lin, Zhiqiang; Gui, Xuchun; Gan, Qiming; Chen, Wenjun; Cheng, Xiaoping; Liu, Ming; Zhu, Yuan; Yang, Yanbing; Cao, Anyuan; Tang, Zikang

    2015-06-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene-based sponges and aerogels have an isotropic porous structure and their mechanical strength and stability are relatively lower. Here, we present a junction-welding approach to fabricate porous CNT solids in which all CNTs are coated and welded in situ by an amorphous carbon layer, forming an integral three-dimensional scaffold with fixed joints. The resulting CNT solids are robust, yet still highly porous and compressible, with compressive strengths up to 72 MPa, flexural strengths up to 33 MPa, and fatigue resistance (recovery after 100,000 large-strain compression cycles at high frequency). Significant enhancement of mechanical properties is attributed to the welding-induced interconnection and reinforcement of structural units, and synergistic effects stemming from the core-shell microstructures consisting of a flexible CNT framework and a rigid amorphous carbon shell. Our results provide a simple and effective method to manufacture high-strength porous materials by nanoscale welding.

  4. Effect of the Curing Conditions and Superplasticizer on Compressive Strength of Concrete Exposed To High Ambient Temperature of Nawabshah, Pakistan

    Noor Ahmed Memon, Fahad ul Rehman Abro, Ubaidullah Memon, Salihuddin Radin Sumadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The overall performance of the hardened concrete is believed to be greatly affected by the type and duration of the curing. The influence of the curing on the strength and durability of concrete becomes more significant when the concrete is to be exposed to high ambient temperature of the local area. This paper presents the results of an experimental study conducted to investigate effect of curing conditions and superplasticizer on compressive strength of concrete exposed to high ambient temperature. The cube specimens of standard size were cast and tested. The superplasticizer was used as percentage of cement being 0% to 2% with an increment of 5%. The specimens were cured initially in water for 3days, 7 days and 14 days and then exposed to the ambient environment up to the testing age. All the specimens were tested at 28 days. In addition, a batch of the specimens was cast and cured continuously in water for 28 days and another batch of the specimens was exposed to the high ambient temperature without initial wet curing. Both the batches were also tested at 28 days age. The results were compared to investigate the effect of initial wet curing and superplasticizer on compressive strength when it is exposed to the high ambient temperature. The results reveals that the compressive strength of concrete exposed to the high ambient temperature is significantly influenced by the wet curing period and the addition of superplasticizer.

  5. Effect of Superplasticizer and Extra Water on Workability and Compressive Strength of Self-Compacting Geopolymer Concrete

    Fareed Ahmed Memon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study documents the results of an experimental work carried out to investigate the effect of superplasticizer and amount of extra water on strength and workability properties of Fly ash-based Selfcompacting geopolymer concrete. The experiments were conducted by varying the amount of extra water and dosage of superplasticizer. A total of nine mixtures with superplasticizer content varying from 3 to 7% and extra water ranging from 10 to 20% of the mass of fly ash were prepared and tested. The essential workability properties of the freshly prepared concrete such as filling ability, passing ability and segregation resistance were evaluated by using Slump flow, T50 slump flow, V-funnel, L-box and J-ring test methods. The compressive strength tests were carried out at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days. Test results indicated that extra water and superplasticizer are key parameters and play an important role in the development of self-compacting geopolymer concrete. Workability of self-compacting geopolymer concrete was dependent on the amount of extra water and dosage of superplasticizer. With the increase in amount of extra water and superplasticizer, the workability was improved. However, the addition of water beyond 15% resulted in bleeding as well as segregation and decreased the compressive strength of the concrete. The compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete was significantly decreased as the amount of extra water exceeded 12% by mass of Fly ash.

  6. Compressive Strength and Water Absorption of Pervious Concrete that Using the Fragments of Ceramics and Roof Tiles

    Prahara, E.; Meilani

    2014-03-01

    Pervious concrete was introduced in America in 2003, popularized by Dan Brown and used as a rigid pavement in the open parking lot. Rigid pavement using pervious concrete can absorb water in the surface to go straight through the concrete to the ground below.This water flow is one of the benefit of using the pervious concrete. Using of wastes such as broken roof and ceramics tiles are not commonly used in Indonesia. Utilization these kind of wastes is predicted lower the compressive strength of pervious concrete as they are used as a substitute for coarse aggregate.In this research, pervious concrete is made using a mixture of the fragment of ceramics and roof tiles.This research using broken ceramics and roof tiles with a grain size that loose from 38 mm sieve, retained on 19 mm sieve and the coarse aggregate from crushed stone that loose 12.5 mm sieve, retained on 9.5 mm sieve. The water cement ratio is 0.3 and to assist the mixing process, the addition of addictive in pervious concrete is used.The size of coarse aggregate used in the mixture affects the strength of pervious concrete. The larger the size of aggregate, the obtained compressive strength becomes smaller. It also affects the density of pervious concrete. The using of mixture of ceramics and roof tiles only reduce 2 MPa of pervious concrete compressive strength so this mixture can be used as a substitute for coarse aggregate with a maximum portion of 30 %. The high porosity of the specimens causes the reduction of pervious concrete density that affect the compressive strength. This high level of porosity can be seen from the high level of water absorption that exceed the required limit of water infiltration.

  7. Compressive Strength and Water Absorption of Pervious Concrete that Using the Fragments of Ceramics and Roof Tiles

    Prahara E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pervious concrete was introduced in America in 2003, popularized by Dan Brown and used as a rigid pavement in the open parking lot. Rigid pavement using pervious concrete can absorb water in the surface to go straight through the concrete to the ground below.This water flow is one of the benefit of using the pervious concrete. Using of wastes such as broken roof and ceramics tiles are not commonly used in Indonesia. Utilization these kind of wastes is predicted lower the compressive strength of pervious concrete as they are used as a substitute for coarse aggregate.In this research, pervious concrete is made using a mixture of the fragment of ceramics and roof tiles.This research using broken ceramics and roof tiles with a grain size that loose from 38 mm sieve, retained on 19 mm sieve and the coarse aggregate from crushed stone that loose 12.5 mm sieve, retained on 9.5 mm sieve. The water cement ratio is 0.3 and to assist the mixing process, the addition of addictive in pervious concrete is used.The size of coarse aggregate used in the mixture affects the strength of pervious concrete. The larger the size of aggregate, the obtained compressive strength becomes smaller. It also affects the density of pervious concrete. The using of mixture of ceramics and roof tiles only reduce 2 MPa of pervious concrete compressive strength so this mixture can be used as a substitute for coarse aggregate with a maximum portion of 30 %. The high porosity of the specimens causes the reduction of pervious concrete density that affect the compressive strength. This high level of porosity can be seen from the high level of water absorption that exceed the required limit of water infiltration.

  8. Modeling particulate self-healing materials and application to uni-axial compression

    Herbst, Olaf; Luding, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Using an advanced history dependent contact model for DEM simulations, including elasto-plasticity, viscosity, adhesion, and friction, pressure-sintered tablets are formed from primary particles. These tablets are subjected to unconfined uni-axial compression until and beyond failure. For fast and slow deformation we observe ductile-like and brittle softening, respectively. We propose a model for local self-healing that allows damage to heal during loading such that the material strength of t...

  9. Embedded NMR Sensor to Monitor Compressive Strength Development and Pore Size Distribution in Hydrating Concrete

    Floriberto Díaz-Díaz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In cement-based materials porosity plays an important role in determining their mechanical and transport properties. This paper describes an improved low–cost embeddable miniature NMR sensor capable of non-destructively measuring evaporable water loss and porosity refinement in low and high water-to-cement ratio cement-based materials. The sensor consists of two NdFeB magnets having their North and South poles facing each other, separated by 7 mm to allow space for a Faraday cage containing a Teflon tube and an ellipsoidal RF coil. To account for magnetic field changes due to temperature variations, and/or the presence of steel rebars, or frequency variation due to sample impedance, an external tuning circuit was employed. The sensor performance was evaluated by analyzing the transverse magnetization decay obtained with a CPMG measurement from different materials, such as a polymer phantom, fresh white and grey cement pastes with different w/c ratios and concrete with low (0.30 and high (0.6 w/c ratios. The results indicated that the sensor is capable of detecting changes in water content in fresh cement pastes and porosity refinement caused by cement hydration in hardened materials, even if they are prepared with a low w/c ratio (w/c = 0.30. The short lifetime component of the transverse relaxation rate is directly proportional to the compressive strength of concrete determined by destructive testing. The r2 (0.97 from the linear relationship observed is similar to that obtained using T2 data from a commercial Oxford Instruments 12.9 MHz spectrometer.

  10. An Experimental Investigation On Minimum Compressive Strength Of Early Age Concrete To Prevent Frost Damage For Nuclear Power Plant Structures In Cold Climates

    Concrete undergoing early frost damage in cold weather will experience significant loss of not only strength, but also of permeability and durability. Accordingly, concrete codes like ACI-306R prescribe a minimum compressive strength and duration of curing to prevent frost damage at an early age and secure the quality of concrete. Such minimum compressive strength and duration of curing are mostly defined based on the strength development of concrete. However, concrete subjected to frost damage at early age may not show a consistent relationship between its strength and durability. Especially, since durability of concrete is of utmost importance in nuclear power plant structures, this relationship should be imperatively clarified. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of the minimum compressive strength specified in the codes like ACI-306R by evaluating the strength development and the durability preventing the frost damage of early age concrete for nuclear power plant. The results indicate that the value of 5 MPa specified by the concrete standards like ACI-306R as the minimum compressive strength to prevent the early frost damage is reasonable in terms of the strength development, but seems to be inappropriate in the viewpoint of the resistance to chloride ion penetration and freeze-thaw. Consequently, it is recommended to propose a minimum compressive strength preventing early frost damage in terms of not only the strength development, but also in terms of the durability to secure the quality of concrete for nuclear power plants in cold climates

  11. Strength criterion for rocks under compressive-tensile stresses and its application

    Mingqing You

    2015-01-01

    Estimating in-situ stress with hydraulic borehole fracturing involves tensile strength of rock. Several strength criteria with three parameters result in tensile strengths with great differences, although they may describe the relation between strength of rock and confining pressure with low misfits. The exponential criterion provides acceptable magnitudes of tensile strengths for granites and over-estimates that for other rocks, but the criterion with tension cut-off is applicable to all roc...

  12. Study of the strength of molybdenum under high pressure using electromagnetically applied compression-shear ramp loading

    Ding, Jow; Alexander, C. Scott; Asay, James

    2015-06-01

    MAPS (Magnetically Applied Pressure Shear) is a new technique that has the potential to study material strength under mega-bar pressures. By applying a mixed-mode pressure-shear loading and measuring the resultant material responses, the technique provides explicit and direct information on material strength under high pressure. In order to apply sufficient shear traction to the test sample, the driver must have substantial strength. Molybdenum was selected for this reason along with its good electrical conductivity. In this work, the mechanical behavior of molybdenum under MAPS loading was studied. To understand the experimental data, a viscoplasticity model with tension-compression asymmetry was also developed. Through a combination of experimental characterization, model development, and numerical simulation, many unique insights were gained on the inelastic behavior of molybdenum such as the effects of strength on the interplay between longitudinal and shear stresses, potential interaction between the magnetic field and molybdenum strength, and the possible tension-compression asymmetry of the inelastic material response. Sandia National Labs is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Dept. of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Influence of Curing Age and Mix Composition on Compressive Strength of Volcanic Ash Blended Cement Laterized Concrete

    Babafemi A.J.; Olusola K. O.; Olawuyi B.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of curing age and mix proportions on the compressive strength of volcanic ash (VA) blended cement laterized concrete. A total of 288 cubes of 100mm dimensions were cast and cured in water for 3, 7, 28, 56, 90 and 120 days of hydration with cement replacement by VA and sand replacement by laterite both ranging from 0 to 30% respectively while a control mix of 28-day target strength of 25N/mm2 (using British Method) was adopted. The results show that the co...

  14. Effects of four mixing methods on setting expansion and compressive strength of six commercial phosphate-bonded silica investments.

    Taira, M; Okazaki, M; Takahashi, J; Kubo, F

    2000-04-01

    Six commercial phosphate-bonded silica investments were mixed with four different mixing methods such as hand, two conventional blade-driven vacuum mixers and a new planetary mixing device, and examined for their setting expansion and compressive strength. The two properties often altered, depending upon the mixing method and the investment. The setting expansion of three investments were significantly affected by the mixing method while those of the other three were not. Compressive strength of all six investments varied by changing the mixing method. It is emphasized here that a mixing method and mixing condition must be properly set for each investment to improve the fit of the final metallic castings. This study also suggests that the planetary mixing device is a useful substitute for conventional blade-driven vacuum mixers. PMID:10792591

  15. A Unified Model for Predicting the Open Hole Tensile and Compressive Strengths of Composite Laminates for Aerospace Applications

    Davidson, Paul; Pineda, Evan J.; Heinrich, Christian; Waas, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    The open hole tensile and compressive strengths are important design parameters in qualifying fiber reinforced laminates for a wide variety of structural applications in the aerospace industry. In this paper, we present a unified model that can be used for predicting both these strengths (tensile and compressive) using the same set of coupon level, material property data. As a prelude to the unified computational model that follows, simplified approaches, referred to as "zeroth order", "first order", etc. with increasing levels of fidelity are first presented. The results and methods presented are practical and validated against experimental data. They serve as an introductory step in establishing a virtual building block, bottom-up approach to designing future airframe structures with composite materials. The results are useful for aerospace design engineers, particularly those that deal with airframe design.

  16. Mechanical properties of the Ca exchanged and Ca bentonite. Swelling pressure, hydraulic conductivity, compressive strength and elastic modulus

    The buffer material component of the engineered barrier system of the radioactive waste repository, functions to maintain low groundwater flow and mechanical stability in the repository for long periods of time. If Na bentonite is used as a buffer material, it is possible that the Na bentonite will change to Ca bentonite by exposure to Ca ions derived from calcite in the ground water. In the TRU waste disposal repository if cementitious materials are used, the change from Na to Ca bentonite may be almost immediate. Therefore it is important to investigate the mechanical properties of Ca bentonite as part of TRU waste disposal research and development. This paper reports the results of swelling pressure, water permeability and compressive strength tests for compacted Ca bentonite and for bentonite which has undergone Na-Ca exchange. Maximum and equilibrium swelling pressure tests and water permeability tests were performed. Compressive strength tests produced compressive strength and elastic modulus values for unsaturated compacted bentonite. The results of these test correlate with the dry density and sand mixing contents of bentonite. Finally, the relative properties of Ca, Na and Ca-Na exchanged bentonite were compared. It is clear that the maximum and equilibrium swelling pressures and hydraulic conductivity of compacted Ca-Na exchanged bentonite are the same as Na bentonite when both their dry density was about 1.8 g/cm3. The compressive strength and elastic modulus of compacted Ca-Na exchanged bentonite are a little higher than Na bentonite. When compacted, results are the same for either Ca bentonite (dry density 1.4 g/cm3) or Ca-Na exchanged bentonite compared with Na bentonite (dry density 1.6-1.8 g/cm3). (author)

  17. Compressive Strength and Hydration Process of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) mixed with Sea Water, Marine Sand and Portland Composite Cement

    Tjaronge, Wihardi; Irmawaty, Rita

    2014-01-01

    In order to eliminate the main problems of shortage of clean water and fine aggregate in the low land areas and the distant islands, this research utilized sea water and marine sand and Portland composite cement to produce high performance of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC). Portland composite cement containing of fly ash. The evaluation result on the mix design, workability (slumpflow, segregation), mechanical properties (compressive strength-static modulus) and hydration process of SCC were ...

  18. Investigation of Noise Level and Penetration Rate of Pneumatic Drill vis--vis Rock Compressive Strength and Abrasivity

    Kivade, S. B.; Murthy, Ch. S. N.; Vardhan, H.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, detailed studies were carried out to determine the influence of rock properties on the sound level produced during pneumatic drilling. Further, investigation was also carried out on the effect of thrust, air pressure and compressive strength on penetration rate and the sound level produced. For this purpose, a fabricated pneumatic drill set up available in the institute was used. Rock properties, like compressive strength and abrasivity, of various samples collected from the field were determined in the laboratory. Drilling experiments were carried out on ten different rock samples for varying thrust and air pressure values and the corresponding A-weighted equivalent continuous sound levels were measured. It was observed that, very low thrust results in low penetration rate. Even very high thrust does not produce high penetration rate at higher operating air pressures. With increase in thrust beyond the optimum level, the penetration rate starts decreasing and causes the drill bit to `stall'. Results of the study show that penetration rate and sound level increases with increase in the thrust level. After reaching the maximum, they start decreasing despite the increase of thrust. The main purpose of the study is to develop a general prediction model and to investigate the relationships between sound level produced during drilling and physical properties such as uniaxial compressive strength and abrasivity of sedimentary rocks. The results were evaluated using the multiple regression analysis taking into account the interaction effects of predictor variables.

  19. Experimental and statistical study of the influence of broken up particles and air content on the compressive strength of concretes

    Companies in Algeria have restricted budgets devoted to the formulation of concrete. Therefore, very few research studies are interested by the concrete composition in accordance to its purpose. Hence, this work is a part of an approved research program assigned to clarify the impact of certain parameters on the quality of concrete. This experimental program consists of more than 700 cylindrical specimens of 16x32 cm that were made using local materials. Excluding the durability indicators towards the concrete, the compressive strength is the most significant property to be considered (Mounanga et al., 2006). The obtained results concern consistency and content air propertiesof the concrete at fresh state and compressive strength of hardened concrete at 28 days. Thus, the influence of the air content percentage on the concrete consistency is studied. Moreover, the influence of these two parameters on the compressive strength of the hardened concrete is also presented. The experimental results obtained constitute a data bank, which allows comparing through a statistical analysis, the model established by Feret (Baron and Ollivier, 1996) and the results of the tests. (author)

  20. Effects of carbonation on the leachability and compressive strength of cement-solidified and geopolymer-solidified synthetic metal wastes.

    Pandey, Bhishan; Kinrade, Stephen D; Catalan, Lionel J J

    2012-06-30

    The effects of accelerated carbonation on the compressive strength and leachability of fly ash-based geopolymer and ordinary portland cement (OPC) doped with Cd(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Pb(II) or Zn(II) salts were investigated. Cement was effective at immobilizing Cd, Cr(III), Cu, Pb and Zn under both the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), but ineffective for retaining Cr(VI). Carbonated cement maintained its ability to immobilize Cd, Cr(III), Pb and Zn, but, under acidic TCLP conditions, was much worse at retaining Cu. Geopolymer was effective at immobilizing Cr(III) and Cu, and, to a lesser degree, Cd, Pb and Zn in SPLP leaching tests. Only Cr(III) was immobilized under comparatively acidic TCLP testing conditions. Carbonation did not change the metal retention capacity of the geopolymer matrix. Metal doping caused compressive strengths of both geopolymer and cement to decrease. Carbonation increased the compressive strength of cement, but decreased that of the geopolymer. Geochemical equilibrium modeling provided insight on the mechanisms of metal immobilization. PMID:22406845

  1. An in vitro study to compare the transverse strength of thermopressed and conventional compression-molded polymethylmethacrylate polymers

    Anjana Raut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Acrylic resins have been in the center stage of Prosthodontics for more than half a century. The flexural fatigue failure of denture base materials is the primary mode of clinical failure. Hence there is a need for superior physical and mechanical properties. Purpose: This in vitro study compared the transverse strength of specimens of thermopressed injection-molded and conventional compression-molded polymethylmethacrylate polymers and examined the morphology and microstructure of fractured acrylic specimens. Materials and Methods: The following denture base resins were examined: Brecrystal (Thermopressed injection-molded, modified polymethylmethacrylate and Pyrax (compression molded, control group. Specimens of each material were tested according to the American Society for Testing and Materials standard D790-03 for flexural strength testing of reinforced plastics and subsequently examined under SEM. The data was analyzed with Student unpaired t test. Results: Flexural strength of Brecrystal (82.08 ± 1.27 MPa was significantly higher than Pyrax (72.76 ± 0.97 MPa. The tested denture base materials fulfilled the requirements regarding flexural strength (>65 MPa. The scanning electron microscopy image of Brecrystal revealed a ductile fracture with crazing. The fracture pattern of control group specimens exhibited poorly defined crystallographic planes with a high degree of disorganization. Conclusion: Flexural strength of Brecrystal was significantly higher than the control group. Brecrystal showed a higher mean transverse strength value of 82.08 ± 1.27 MPa and a more homogenous pattern at microscopic level. Based on flexural strength properties and handling characteristics, Brecrystal may prove to be an useful alternative to conventional denture base resins.

  2. Compressive strength, plastic flow properties, and surface frictional effects of 1100, 3003 and 6061 aluminum alloys

    The purpose of this study is to find aluminum alloys that are effective for use as wire vacuum seals in the 800MeV particle accelerator located at the Louis Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) in Los Alamos, NM. Three alloys, Al 1100, Al 3003, and Al 6061, are investigated under uniaxial compression to determine stresses for a given height reduction from 0 to 70 percent, and to find plastic flow and surface interaction effects. Right-circular cylindrical specimens are compressed on-end (cylindrically) and radially (for modeling as compressed wire). Aluminum 1100 and 3003 alloys are compared for length to diameter ratios of 1 and 2 for both compression types, and are then compared to results of radial compression of annealed small diameter Al 1100 wire currently used at LAMPE. The specimens are also compressed between three different platen surfaces, polished steel, etched steel, and aluminum 6061-T6, to determine effects of friction. The Al 3003 alloy exhibits 20 to 25% lower stresses at all height reductions than Al 1100 for both cylindrical and radial compression

  3. Static compressive strength prediction of open-hole structure based on non-linear shear behavior and micro-mechanics

    Li, Wangnan; Cai, Hongneng; Li, Chao

    2014-11-01

    This paper deals with the characterization of the strength of the constituents of carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminate (CFRP), and a prediction of the static compressive strength of open-hole structure of polymer composites. The approach combined with non-linear analysis in macro-level and a linear elastic micromechanical failure analysis in microlevel (non-linear MMF) is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy. A face-centered cubic micromechanics model is constructed to analyze the stresses in fiber and matrix in microlevel. Non-interactive failure criteria are proposed to characterize the strength of fiber and matrix. The non-linear shear behavior of the laminate is studied experimentally, and a novel approach of cubic spline interpolation is used to capture significant non-linear shear behavior of laminate. The user-defined material subroutine UMAT for the non-linear share behavior is developed and combined in the mechanics analysis in the macro-level using the Abaqus Python codes. The failure mechanism and static strength of open-hole compressive (OHC) structure of polymer composites is studied based on non-linear MMF. The UTS50/E51 CFRP is used to demonstrate the application of theory of non-linear MMF.

  4. Effect of shear strength on Hugoniot-compression curve and the equation of state of tungsten (W)

    Mashimo, Tsutomu; Liu, Xun; Kodama, Masao; Zaretsky, Eugene; Katayama, Masahide; Nagayama, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    The Hugoniot data for highly dense polycrystalline tungsten were obtained for pressures above 200 GPa, and the equation of state (EOS) was determined taking into account shear strength effects. For this study, we have made some improvements in measurement system and analyses of the shock wave data. Symmetric-impact Hugoniot measurements were performed using the high-time resolution streak camera system equipped on a one-stage powder gun and two-stage light gas gun, where the effects of tilting and bowing of flyer plate on the Hugoniot data were carefully considered. The shock velocity-particle velocity (US-UP) Hugoniot relation in the plastic regime was determined to be US = 4.137 + 1.242UP km/s (UP System for Any Reflector measurements were also performed in this study. The zero-intercept value of the US-UP Hugoniot relation was found to be slightly larger than the ultrasonic bulk sound velocity (4.023 km/s). The hypothetical hydrostatic isothermal Us-Up Hugoniot curve, which corresponds to the hydrostatic isothermal compression curve derived from the Hugoniot data using the strength data, converged to the bulk sound velocity, clearly showing shear strength dependence in the Hugoniot data. The EOS for tungsten is derived from the hydrostatic isothermal compression curve using the strength data.

  5. Effect of restorative technique and thermal/mechanical treatment on marginal adaptation and compressive strength of esthetic restorations.

    de Paula, Andréia Bolzan; Duque, Cristiane; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Puppin-Rontani, Regina M

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the compressive strength and marginal adaptation of composite onlays using indirect and direct techniques after thermal and mechanical cycling. Onlay standardized cavities were prepared in 50 permanent molars and restored with Z-250 resin composite using indirect (IRT) or direct (DRT) restorative techniques. The restorations were either submitted or not submitted to thermal (500 cycles, 5 degrees to 55 degrees C) and mechanical cycling (50,000 cycles, 50N). The teeth were distributed to five groups (n=10): G1-IRT/cycling; G2-IRT/no cycling; G3-DRT/cycling; G4-DRT/no cycling and G5 (control group)-sound teeth. All prepared teeth were stored in 100% relative humidity at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, followed by finishing with Sof-Lex discs. A caries detector solution was applied on the tooth-restoration interface of all teeth for five seconds, followed by washing and drying. Four digital photographs were taken of each tooth surface. The extent of gaps was measured using standard software (Image Tool 3.0). All groups were submitted to compression testing in a universal testing machine (INSTRON) at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute until failure. The compressive strength (CS) and marginal adaptation data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05). For both evaluation criteria (compressive strength and marginal adaptation), there were no statistically significant differences among the restorative techniques. Deterioration over time was observed for both types of restorations. However, the prevalence of catastrophic fractures increased among direct restorations. The application of thermal/mechanical cycling only influenced marginal adaptation. PMID:18666502

  6. Effect of carbonation on leachability, strength and microstructural characteristics of KMP binder stabilized Zn and Pb contaminated soils.

    Du, Yan-Jun; Wei, Ming-Li; Reddy, Krishna R; Wu, Hao-Liang

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a systematic investigation of effects of carbonation on the contaminant leachability and unconfined compressive strength of KMP stabilized contaminated soils. A field soil spiked with Zn and Pb individually and together is stabilized using a new KMP additive under standard curing conditions and also with carbonation. The KMP additive is composed of oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock, monopotassium phosphate and reactive magnesia. The stabilized soils are tested for acid neutralization capacity, toxic characteristics leaching characteristics, contaminant speciation and unconfined compression strength. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses are performed to assess reaction products. The results demonstrate that carbonation increases both acid buffer capacity index and unconfined compressive strength, but decreases leachability of KMP stabilized soils. These results are interpreted based on the changes in chemical speciation of Zn and Pb and also stability and solubility of the reaction products (metal phosphates and carbonates) formed in the soils. Overall, this study demonstrates that carbonation has positive effects on leachability and strength of the KMP stabilized soils. PMID:26451653

  7. Prediction of Compressive Strength of Self compacting Concrete with Flyash and Rice Husk Ash using Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System

    S. S, Pathak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete is an innovative concrete that does not require vibration for placing and compaction. It is able to flow under its own weight, completely filling formwork and achieving full compaction even in congested reinforcement without segregation and bleeding. In the present study self compacting concrete mixes were developed using blend of fly ash and rice husk ash. Fresh properties of theses mixes were tested by using standards recommended by EFNARC (European Federation for Specialist Construction Chemicals and Concrete system. Compressive strength at 28 days was obtained for these mixes. This paper presents development of Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS model for predicting compressive strength of self compacting concrete using fly ash and rice husk ash. The input parameters used for model are cement, fly ash, rice husk ash and water content. Output parameter is compressive strength at 28 days. The results show that the implemented model is good at predicting compressive strength.

  8. The influence of poly(acrylic) acid number average molecular weight and concentration in solution on the compressive fracture strength and modulus of a glass-ionomer restorative.

    Dowling, Adam H

    2011-06-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of number average molecular weight and concentration of the poly(acrylic) acid (PAA) liquid constituent of a GI restorative on the compressive fracture strength (σ) and modulus (E).

  9. OVERVIEW OF RECENT STUDIES AT IPST ON CORRUGATED BOARD EDGE COMPRESSION STRENGTH: TESTING METHODS AND EFFECTS OF INTERFLUTE BUCKLING

    Roman Popil

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Several recent series of investigations were conducted on corrugated board performance in the areas of: loaded container endurance in cyclic humidity, predictive models for edge compression strength (ECT, effects of lightweight facings, measurement of transverse shear rigidity, effects of adhesive level, and out-of-plane crushing on ECT. The course of this program prompted exploration and review of several aspects of ECT testing methods: specimen height, test duration, and fixture-clamping effects. In this review, ECT values are shown to be influenced by the combination of the selected testing technique with the specific structural and strength characteristics of the board being tested. The effect of specimen height on selected single wall C-, E-, F-, and N-flute boards is measured and rationalized using a simplified beam-theory approach. Apparent loss of ECT in a C-flute crushed board is explored to determine whether mitigation is possible by selection or modification of testing method. Investigations of platen speed effects on C-flute substantiate previous work. Lightweight facings on A- and C-flute corrugated boards are observed to display localized buckling, which affects the ECT value. An analytical model that combines the measured bending stiffness of the facings and the compression strengths of the fluting and facings provides an improved predictive accuracy and is applied to a series of laboratory and commercial corrugated boards.

  10. A study on the compressive and tensile strength of foamed concrete containing pulverized bone as a partial replacement of cement

    In this study, structural properties of foamed aerated concrete with and without pulverized bone were investigated. These properties are workability, plastic and testing densities, compressive strength, and tensile strength at the design density of 1600kg/m/sub 3/. The tensile strength was evaluated by subjecting 150 x 150 x750mm unreinforced foamed concrete beams to flexural test and 150x300mm cylinder specimens were subjected to splitting test. 150mm cube specimens were used for the determination of both the compressive strength and the testing density of the foamed aerated concrete. The plastic density was investigated using a container of known volume, and its workability determined using the slump test. The pulverized bone content was varied from 0 to 20% at interval of 5%. The specimens without the pulverized bone served as the control. At the designed density of 1600 kg/m/sub 3/, the results for the control specimens at 28-day curing age are 15.43 and 13.89N/mm/sub 2/ for air-and water-cured specimens respectively. The modulus of rupture and splitting tensile strength are 2.53 and 1.63N/mm/sub 2/ respectively. The results for specimens with pulverized bone did not differ significantly from the specimens without pulverized bone. From the results of this investigation, it can be concluded that foamed aerated concrete used for this study has potential for structural applications. Also pulverized bone can be used to reduce (partially replace) the quantity of cement used in aerated concrete production; thus ridding our environment of potentially harmful wastes, as well as reduce the consumption of non-renewable resources. (author)

  11. Predicting model on ultimate compressive strength of Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foam filter based on BP neural network

    Yu Jingyuan; Li Qiang; Tang Ji

    2011-01-01

    In present study, BP neural network model was proposed for the prediction of ultimate compressive strength of Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foam filter prepared by centrifugal slip casting. The inputs of the BP neural network model were the applied load on the epispastic polystyrene template (F), centrifugal acceleration (v) and sintering temperature (T), while the only output was the ultimate compressive strength (?). According to the registered BP model, the effects of F, v, T on ? were analyzed. The ...

  12. Micro-computed tomography assisted distal femur metaphyseal blunt punch compression for determining trabecular bone strength in mice.

    Sankar, Uma; Pritchard, Zachary J; Voor, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Shorter generation time and the power of genetic manipulation make mice an ideal model system to study bone biology as well as bone diseases. However their small size presents a challenge to perform strength measurements, particularly of the weight-bearing cancellous bone in the murine long bones. We recently developed an improved method to measure the axial compressive strength of the cancellous bone in the distal femur metaphysis in mice. Transverse micro-computed tomography image slices that are 7µm thick were used to locate the position where the epiphysis-metaphysis transition occurs. This enabled the removal of the distal femur epiphysis at the exact transition point exposing the full extent of metaphyseal trabecular bone, allowing more accurate and consistent measurement of its strength. When applied to a murine model system consisting of five month old male wild-type (WT) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) knockout (KO) Camkk2(-/-) mice that possess recorded differences in trabecular bone volume, data collected using this method showed good correlation between bone volume fraction and strength of trabecular bone. In combination with micro-computed tomography and histology, this method will provide a comprehensive and consistent assessment of the microarchitecture and tissue strength of the cancellous bone in murine mouse models. PMID:26947030

  13. Strength criterion for rocks under compressive-tensile stresses and its application

    Mingqing You

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating in-situ stress with hydraulic borehole fracturing involves tensile strength of rock. Several strength criteria with three parameters result in tensile strengths with great differences, although they may describe the relation between strength of rock and confining pressure with low misfits. The exponential criterion provides acceptable magnitudes of tensile strengths for granites and over-estimates that for other rocks, but the criterion with tension cut-off is applicable to all rocks. The breakdown pressure will be lower than the shut-in pressure during hydraulic borehole fracturing, when the maximum horizontal principal stress is 2 times larger than the minor one; and it is not the peak value in the first cycle, but the point where the slope of pressure-time curve begins to decline.

  14. Compressive Strength and Water Absorption of Pervious Concrete that Using the Fragments of Ceramics and Roof Tiles

    Prahara E.; Meilani

    2014-01-01

    Pervious concrete was introduced in America in 2003, popularized by Dan Brown and used as a rigid pavement in the open parking lot. Rigid pavement using pervious concrete can absorb water in the surface to go straight through the concrete to the ground below.This water flow is one of the benefit of using the pervious concrete. Using of wastes such as broken roof and ceramics tiles are not commonly used in Indonesia. Utilization these kind of wastes is predicted lower the compressive strength ...

  15. Resistencia a la compresin y reologa de cementantes ambientalmente amigables / Compressive strength and rheology of environmentally-friendly binders

    Juan Manuel, Lizarazo Marriaga; Peter, Claisse.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Siendo la produccin de cemento responsable de aproximadamente el 9% de la produccin industrial de gases de invernadero, y en pro de generar materiales alternativos, en este artculo se presentan los resultados de una investigacin encaminada a desarrollar cementantes que potencialmente representen [...] una alternativa ambientalmente sostenible en la construccin civil. Combinaciones de escoria granulada de alto horno, escoria de acera obtenida mediante un proceso de oxgeno bsico, polvo de horno de cemento y residuo de demolicin de divisiones de yeso fueron usados para optimizar la resistencia a la compresin y obtener cinco mezclas de concreto con cementantes hechos parcial o totalmente con residuos industriales. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las resistencias de las mezclas compuestas de cemento Portland y residuos industriales son adecuadas para una cantidad importante de aplicaciones en construccin civil, y aunque para las mezclas formadas completamente por residuos industriales se present una importante disminucin en la resistencia a la compresin, los resultados obtenidos mostraron un gran potencial para determinadas aplicaciones industriales. Adicionalmente a la resistencia a la compresin, a dichas mezclas se les determinaron sus propiedades reolgicas definiendo sus caractersticas de flujo y trabajabilidad. Abstract in english Ordinary Portland cement production accounts for 9% of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. This paper summarises the results of research aimed at developing environmentally-friendly binders which can be used as an alternative in civil construction, aimed at generating alternatives and sustainable ma [...] terials. Mixes of the combination of granulated ground blast furnace slag, basic oxygen slag, cement kiln dust and plasterboard gypsum were used for optimising the binders, according to their compressive strength, to obtain 5 concrete mixtures made partially or completely with industrial waste. The results showed that the compressive strength of mixtures of Portland cement and industrial waste were suitable for different civil construction applications and, although mixtures formed entirely from industrial waste had a significant decrease in their compressive strength, the results showed great potential for specific industrial applications. In addition to compressive strength, the rheological properties of these mixtures were determined for defining flow and workability characteristics.

  16. EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION ON FRESH PROPERTIES AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE

    FAREED AHMED MEMON; MUHD FADHIL NURUDDIN; SADAQATULLAH KHAN; NASIR SHAFIQ; TEHMINA AYUB

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the laboratory tests conducted to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC). The experiments were conducted by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide from 8 M to 14 M. Test methods such as Slump flow, V-Funnel, L-box and J-Ring were used to assess the workability characteristics of SCGC. The test specimens were cured at 70°C for a period of 48 ...

  17. Mechanical behavior and dynamic failure of high-strength ultrafine grained tungsten under uniaxial compression

    We have systematically investigated the quasi-static and dynamic mechanical behavior (especially dynamic failure) of ultra-fine grained (UFG) tungsten (W) under uniaxial compression. The starting material is of commercial purity and large grain size. We utilized severe plastic deformation to achieve the ultrafine microstructure characterized by grains and subgrains with sizes of ∼500 nm, as identified by transmission electron microscopy. Results of quasi-static compression show that the UFG W behaves in an elastic-nearly perfect plastic manner (i.e., vanishing strain hardening), with its flow stress approaching 2 GPa, close to twice that of conventional coarse grain W. Post-mortem examinations of the quasi-statically loaded samples show no evidence of cracking, in sharp contrast to the behavior of conventional W (where axial cracking is usually observed). Under uniaxial dynamic compression (strain rate ∼103 s-1), the true stress-true strain curves of the UFG W exhibit significant flow softening, and the peak stress is ∼3 GPa. Furthermore, the strain rate sensitivity of the UFG W is reduced to half the value of the conventional W. Both in situ high-speed photography and post-mortem examinations reveal shear localization and as a consequence, cracking of the UFG W under dynamic uniaxial compression. These observations are consistent with recent observations on other body-centered cubic metals with nanocrystalline or ultrafine microstructures. The experimental results are discussed using existing models for adiabatic shear localization in metals

  18. Mechanical behavior and dynamic failure of high-strength ultrafine grained tungsten under uniaxial compression

    Wei, Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 362, ERB, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)]. E-mail: qwei@uncc.edu; Jiao, T. [Center for Advanced Metallic and Ceramic Systems, The Johns Hopkins University, MD 21218 (United States); Ramesh, K.T. [Center for Advanced Metallic and Ceramic Systems, The Johns Hopkins University, MD 21218 (United States); Ma, E. [Center for Advanced Metallic and Ceramic Systems, The Johns Hopkins University, MD 21218 (United States); Kecskes, L.J. [Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Magness, L. [Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Dowding, R. [Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Kazykhanov, V.U. [Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa 450000 (Russian Federation); Valiev, R.Z. [Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa 450000 (Russian Federation)

    2006-01-15

    We have systematically investigated the quasi-static and dynamic mechanical behavior (especially dynamic failure) of ultra-fine grained (UFG) tungsten (W) under uniaxial compression. The starting material is of commercial purity and large grain size. We utilized severe plastic deformation to achieve the ultrafine microstructure characterized by grains and subgrains with sizes of {approx}500 nm, as identified by transmission electron microscopy. Results of quasi-static compression show that the UFG W behaves in an elastic-nearly perfect plastic manner (i.e., vanishing strain hardening), with its flow stress approaching 2 GPa, close to twice that of conventional coarse grain W. Post-mortem examinations of the quasi-statically loaded samples show no evidence of cracking, in sharp contrast to the behavior of conventional W (where axial cracking is usually observed). Under uniaxial dynamic compression (strain rate {approx}10{sup 3} s{sup -1}), the true stress-true strain curves of the UFG W exhibit significant flow softening, and the peak stress is {approx}3 GPa. Furthermore, the strain rate sensitivity of the UFG W is reduced to half the value of the conventional W. Both in situ high-speed photography and post-mortem examinations reveal shear localization and as a consequence, cracking of the UFG W under dynamic uniaxial compression. These observations are consistent with recent observations on other body-centered cubic metals with nanocrystalline or ultrafine microstructures. The experimental results are discussed using existing models for adiabatic shear localization in metals.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF SATURATION ON THE UNIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF LIMESTONE IN EXPLORATION AREA CRNOGLAV NEAR NEUM

    Zlatko Brievac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploration area Crnoglav, near Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina, is composed of limestone sedimentary rock. Research of influence of saturation with water was made on intact material from this area on physical and mechanical properties of the rock: uniaxial compressive strength, module of deformation, point load strength index and Schmidt rebound hardness. Tests were conducted on recommendation of International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM Suggested methods and Croatian Standards. Results showed different influence of saturation on values of respective test. Ratios that help with calculations of physical and mechanical properties of rock in their saturated state based on their known values in dry state are presented in this paper (the paper is published in Croatian.

  20. STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF PLASTICITY LOWERING OF HIGH-STRENGTH WIRE AT BIG CUMULATIVE COMPRESSIONS

    V. P. Fetisov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that decrease of plasticity of high-strength wire at big total cobbings is connected with reduction of mobility of dislocations in the substructure formed at loss of perlite lamellar structure.

  1. STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF PLASTICITY LOWERING OF HIGH-STRENGTH WIRE AT BIG CUMULATIVE COMPRESSIONS

    V. P. Fetisov

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that decrease of plasticity of high-strength wire at big total cobbings is connected with reduction of mobility of dislocations in the substructure formed at loss of perlite lamellar structure.

  2. Compressive Strength Prediction of Square Concrete Columns Retrofitted with External Steel Collars

    Pudjisuryadi, P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse confining stress in concrete members, commonly provided by transverse reinforcement, has been recognized to enhance strength and ductility. Nowadays, the confining method has been further developed to external confinement approach. This type of confinement can be used for retrofitting existing concrete columns. Many external confining techniques have been proven to be successful in retrofitting circular columns. However, for square or rectangular columns, providing effective confining stress by external retrofitting method is not a simple task due to high stress concentration at columns corners. This paper proposes an analytical model to predict the peak strength of square concrete columns confined by external steel collars. Comparison with the experimental results showed that the model can predict the peak strength reasonably well. However, it should be noted that relatively larger amount of steel is needed to achieve comparable column strength enhancement when it is compared with those of conve tional internally-confined columns.

  3. Effect of impact damage and open holes on the compression strength of tough resin/high strain fiber laminates. [graphite-epoxy composites

    Williams, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Structural damage and design-based inclusions such as cutouts can reduce significantly the strength of graphite-epoxy laminates. One composite mechanics research activity at the Langley Research Center is to assess and improve the performance of composite structures in strength are common to both tension and compression loaded laminates; however, the problem associated with compression performance is the most illusive to solve. Compression failure involves both shear crippling and delamination modes. Several graphite-epoxy material systems proposed for improved damage-tolerance were studied. Material parameters included both tough resin formulations and high strain fibers.

  4. Shear strengths of aluminium nitride and titanium diboride under plane shock wave compression

    Dandekar, D.

    1994-01-01

    This work compares the estimates of shear strengths of aluminium nitride and titanium diboride obtained (a) from the simultaneous measurements of longitudinal and lateral stress by means of manganin gauges under plane shock wave loading with (b) those calculated from the offset between hydrodynamic and shock Hugoniot of these materials. The results of this work show that whereas the estimates of the shear strength obtained by these two methods for titanium diboride are consistent with one ano...

  5. Multicriteria decision-making analysis based methodology for predicting carbonate rocks' uniaxial compressive strength

    Ersoy Hakan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    Uniaxial compressive strength (UCS deals with materials' to ability to withstand axially-directed pushing forces and especially considered to be rock materials' most important mechanical properties. However, the UCS test is an expensive, very time-consuming test to perform in the laboratory and requires high-quality core samples having regular geometry. Empirical equations were thus proposed for predicting UCS as a function of rocks' index properties. Analytical hierarchy process and multiple regression analysis based methodology were used (as opposed to traditional linear regression methods on data-sets obtained from carbonate rocks in NE Turkey. Limestone samples ranging from Devonian to late Cretaceous ages were chosen; travertine-onyx samples were selected from morphological environments considering their surface environmental conditions Test results from experiments carried out on about 250 carbonate rock samples were used in deriving the model. While the hierarchy model focused on determining the most important index properties affecting on UCS, regression analysis established meaningful relationships between UCS and index properties; 0. 85 and 0. 83 positive coefficient correlations between the variables were determined by regression analysis. The methodology provided an appropriate alternative to quantitative estimation of UCS and avoided the need for tedious and time consuming laboratory testing


    RESUMEN

    La resistencia a la compresión uniaxial (RCU trata con la capacidad de los materiales para soportar fuerzas empujantes dirigidas axialmente y, especialmente, es considerada ser uno de las más importantes propiedades mecánicas de los materiales rocosos. Sin embargo, una prueba de RCU es costosa, lleva mucho tiempo para hacerlo en el laboratorio y requiere muestras de núcleos de alta calidad que tienen una geometría regular.

    Por lo tanto, ecuaciones empíricas fueron propuestas para la predicción de RCU como una función de las propiedades índice de las rocas. Las metodologías de proceso analítico jerárquico (PAJ y análisis de regresión múltiple fueron utilizados (en vez de los métodos tradicionales de regresión lineal en conjuntos de datos obtenidos de las rocas carbonatadas en el noreste de Turquía Muestras de rocas calizas que van desde el Devónico hasta finales del Cretácico fueron escogidas; muestras de travertino y ónix fueron seleccionadas de ambientes morfológicos teniendo en cuenta sus condiciones ambientales de superficie.

    Los resultados de los experimentos llevados a cabo en alrededor de 250 muestras de rocas carbonatadas fueron utilizados para derivar un modelo Mientras que el modelo de jerarquía se centró en determinar las propiedades índice más importantes afectados por la RCU, el análisis de regresión establece relaciones significativas entre la RCU y las propiedades del índice; coeficientes de correlación positivas de 0,85 y 0,83 fueron determinadas por análisis de regresión entre las variables La metodología proporciona una alternativa adecuada para la estimación cuantitativa de la RCU y evita la necesidad de realizar pruebas del laboratorio las cuales son tediosas y dispendiosas

  6. Correlation of the Buckling Strength of Pressurized Cylinders in Compression or Bending with Structural Parameters

    Peterson, James P.

    1960-01-01

    The data on nonpressurized cylinders in bending of NACA TN 3735 and the data on pressurized cylinders in compression and bending of NASA TN D-360 are correlated with structural parameters by using small-deflection buckling theory and reduced values for the extensional stiffness of the cylinder wall. The correlating procedure should prove useful in future shell-buckling investigations by reducing the number of tests required.

  7. The effect of tow gaps on compression after impact strength of robotically laminated structures

    Rhead, A. T.; Dodwell, T. J.; Butler, R.

    2013-01-01

    When (robotic) Automated Fibre Placement (AFP) is used to manufacture aerospace components with complex three dimensional geometries, gaps between fibre tows can occur. This paper is the first to explore the interaction under compressive load of these tow gaps with impact damage. Two coupons with different distributions of tow-gaps were impacted. Results indicated that the area of delamination is smaller for an impact directly over a tow gap where the tow gap is situated close to the non-impa...

  8. The fracture strength of TRISO-coated particles determined by compression testing between soft aluminium anvils

    Compression testing of tri-isotropic (TRISO) carbon/silicon carbide-coated fuel particles between anvil materials with a wide range of hardnesses was investigated. During compression testing, the particle produces a hardness impression before it fractures. For subsequent measurements, the same position can therefore not be used. A special testing machine was designed to use the same set of anvils for testing more than one specimen. By each time positioning a particle at a slightly different position between the anvils, a large number of measurements could be made. The load required for fracture is almost independent of anvil hardness for very hard or very soft anvils. Finite element stress analysis showed that when the anvil hardness is very high, fracture occurs because of high local contact bending stresses at the point of contact. In the case of very soft anvils, a tensile stress develops along a latitudinal direction along the perimeter of the particle over a large volume in between the contact zones with the anvils. The particle then fractures by the development of cracks at right angles to the direction of the tensile stress. From the fracture load, the ability of the particle to withstand internal pressure can be assessed. The advantages of using compression testing of full particles between soft anvils without prior preparation to complement previous test methods are highlighted.

  9. Evaluation of compressive strength and water absorption of soil-cement bricks manufactured with addition of pet (polyethylene terephthalate wastes

    João Alexandre Paschoalin Filho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of compressive strength of soil-cement bricks obtained by the inclusion in their mixture of PET flakes through mineral water bottles grinding. The Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET has been characterized by its difficulty of disaggregation in nature, requiring a long period for this. On the other hand, with the increase in civil construction activities the demand for raw material also increases, causing considerable environmental impacts. In this context, the objective of this research is to propose a simple methodology, preventing its dumping and accumulation in irregular areas, and reducing the demand of raw materials by the civil construction industry. The results showed that compressive strengths obtained were lower than recommended by NBR 8491 (Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas [ABNT], 2012b at seven days of curing time. However, they may be used as an alternative solution in masonry works in order to not submit themselves to great loads or structural functions. The studied bricks also presented water absorption near to recommended values by NBR 8491 (ABNT, 2012b. Manufacturing costs were also determined for this brick, comparing it with the costs of other brick types. Each brick withdrew from circulation approximately 300 g of PET waste. Thus, for an area of 1 m2 the studied bricks can promote the withdrawal of approximately 180 beverage bottles of 2 L capacity.

  10. Strength Anisotropy of Berea Sandstone: Results of X-Ray Computed Tomography, Compression Tests, and Discrete Modeling

    Kim, Kwang Yeom; Zhuang, Li; Yang, Hwayoung; Kim, Hanna; Min, Ki-Bok

    2016-04-01

    Berea sandstone in northern Ohio is a transversely isotropic rock. X-ray CT investigations showed that its internal structure is composed of cross-bedded loose layers and relatively thin tightly packed layers called bedding. Uniaxial compression tests were performed on different Berea sandstone specimens. The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) decreases with increasing porosity, and also decreases with increasing inclination of the bedding plane relative to horizontal line. Two-dimensional discrete modeling was applied to investigate the micromechanical behavior of Berea sandstone. Different microparameters were assigned to loose and tight layers. The UCS simulation results agree well with the experimental results. At the peak stress, cracks almost always develop in loose layers regardless of the bedding plane orientation. In addition, both normal and shear cracks occur earlier for specimens with a higher inclination angle. No correlations were found between the inclination angle of failure planes and the orientation of bedding planes. The bedding planes of Berea sandstone are not weak planes. The strength anisotropy of Berea sandstone is not significant compared with other rocks such as shale, gneiss, and schist.

  11. Determination of Relationship between Dielectric Properties, Compressive Strength, and Age of Concrete with Rice Husk Ash Using Planar Coaxial Probe

    Piladaeng Nawarat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an investigation of the dielectric properties of concretes that includes rice husk ash using a planar coaxial probe. The planar coaxial probe has a planar structure with a microstrip and coaxial features. The measurement was performed over the frequency range of 0.5-3.5 GHz, and concrete specimens with different percentages of rice husk ash were tested. The results indicated that the dielectric constant of the concretes was inversely proportional to the frequency, while the conductivity was proportional to the frequency. The dielectric constant decreased with the increasing age of the concrete at the frequency of 1 GHz. The conductivity of the concrete decreased with the increasing age of the concrete at the frequency of 3.2 GHz. In addition, the dielectric constant and the conductivity decreased when the compressive strength increased. It was also shown that the obtained dielectric properties of the concrete could be used to investigate the relationship between the compressive strength and age of the concrete. Moreover, there is an opportunity to apply the proposed probe to determine the dielectric properties of other materials.

  12. Determination of Relationship between Dielectric Properties, Compressive Strength, and Age of Concrete with Rice Husk Ash Using Planar Coaxial Probe

    Piladaeng, Nawarat; Angkawisittpan, Niwat; Homwuttiwong, Sahalaph

    2016-02-01

    This paper deals with an investigation of the dielectric properties of concretes that includes rice husk ash using a planar coaxial probe. The planar coaxial probe has a planar structure with a microstrip and coaxial features. The measurement was performed over the frequency range of 0.5-3.5 GHz, and concrete specimens with different percentages of rice husk ash were tested. The results indicated that the dielectric constant of the concretes was inversely proportional to the frequency, while the conductivity was proportional to the frequency. The dielectric constant decreased with the increasing age of the concrete at the frequency of 1 GHz. The conductivity of the concrete decreased with the increasing age of the concrete at the frequency of 3.2 GHz. In addition, the dielectric constant and the conductivity decreased when the compressive strength increased. It was also shown that the obtained dielectric properties of the concrete could be used to investigate the relationship between the compressive strength and age of the concrete. Moreover, there is an opportunity to apply the proposed probe to determine the dielectric properties of other materials.

  13. Spatial variability of the compressive strength of the Toki granite at the Shobasama and Mizunami Construction Site, Japan

    This paper studies the spatial variability of the laboratory results of uniaxial compressive tests on the Toki granite at the Shobasama and Mizunami Construction Site, Japan. Some of the spatial variability observed in the laboratory results can be indirectly attributed to the high fracture frequency of the upper highly fractured rock domain where some of the samples were taken. For samples taken from the lower sparsely fractured rock domain, however, the uniaxial compressive strength of the granite seems to be very strongly correlated to level of in-situ rock stress (i.e. maximum shear stress) determined by measurement results obtained from the hydro-fracturing method. The correlation between the laboratory results and the level of in-situ stress is explained by the damage due to the release of the stresses the cores undergo during drilling. An attempt to correct the laboratory results for estimating the in-situ intact rock strength based on its correlation with the in-situ stresses was carried out. (author)

  14. On the Compressive and Tensile Dynamic Strength of Magnesium Aluminate Spinel

    Hayun, Shmuel; Paris, Vitaly; Dariel, Moshe; Zaretsky, Eugene; Frage, Nahum

    2009-06-01

    Polycrystalline transparent Magnesium Aluminate Spinel (MAS) is an attractive material for a wide range of optical, electronic, structural and armor applications. Transparent MAS samples of 20-30 mm diameter and 3-5 mm thickness has been successfully fabricated by means of Field Assisted Sintering Technology. The dynamic response of MAS was investigated by plate impact experiments. The values of the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) and the spall strength were derived from the VISAR records of the velocities of the free sample surface or of the sample/window (PMMA) interface. The dependence of the HEL and the spall strength on the impact stress, as well as, correlation between the spall strength and the width of the loading pulse are discussed.

  15. Effects of humeral head compression taping on the isokinetic strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of humeral head compression taping (HHCT) on the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with rotator cuff tendinitis were recruited. The shoulder external rotator strength was measured using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer system. A paired t-test was performed to evaluate within-group differences in the strength of the shoulder external rota...

  16. Pharmaceutical binders and their function in directly compressed tablets : Mechanistic studies on the effect of dry binders on mechanical strength, pore structure and disintegration of tablets

    Mattsson, Sofia

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis, the strength-enhancing mechanisms of dry binders in direct compression were studied. The systems investigated were binary mixtures containing various compounds and binders. Among the binders used were a series of different molecular weights of polyethylene glycol. The proposed simplified tablet model describing the fracture path in a tablet during strength testing offers an explanation for the increase in tablet strength caused by the binder. The model and results in this thes...

  17. Nano-Meso-Macro strength analysis of low carbon austenitic stainless steels pre-strained under tension and compression loading

    This report describes the nanoscopic strength analysis of low carbon austenitic stainless steel 316NG pre-strained to ±10% and ±20% true strain under tension and compression loading. This strength analysis was conducted, using an ultra-micro, micro and Vickers hardness testers and TEM. TEM observations showed that micro-structural parameters relevant the analysis are the dislocation cell size, dcel and the coarse slip band spacing, lcsl. 10dcel or 10lcsl shows the position where fine grain strengthening by dislocation cells or slip spacing saturates and the hardness becomes constant. The Vickers hardness, HV, corresponding to the micro strength was expressed as HV=Hυ*bas + Hυ*sol + Hυ*dis + Hυ*cel + H*υcsl. Hυ*bas is the base hardness, Hυ*sol is the solid solution strengthening hardness, Hυ*dis is the dislocation strengthening hardness in the dislocation cell, and Hυ*cel and Hυ*csl are the fine grain strengthening hardness due to the dislocation cell and coarse slip band, respectively. Hυ*bas, Hυ*sol and Hυ*dis were about 100, 50 and 0, respectively, independently of the pre-strain of ±10% and ±20%. Accordingly, the Vickers hardness increment corresponding to the work hardening was equal to the sum of Hυ*cel and Hυ*csl. In other words, the work hardening due to tension and compression pre-straining up to ±20% is dominated by fine grain strengthening due to the dislocation cell and coarse slip band. This behavior was similar to that obtained in SUS316NG steel pre-stained by cold rolling in the previous study. It is concluded from those results that the work hardening mechanisms in SUS316NG steel are independent of the pre-strain method. (author)

  18. Compressive and Flexural Strengths for Considerable Volume Fly-Ash Concrete

    Ndihokubwayo, Athanase

    2011-01-01

    The use of considerable volume of fly ash concrete in replacement of cement is economically and environmentally benefic because the fly ash is cheaper and produces fewer emissions of greenhouse gases than the conventional Portland cement. By using 30; 40 and 50 percent of fly ash in cementitious materials, after comparing different results of samples tested, the 28 days high-performance fly ash concrete resisted to the compressive loading forces respectively equal to 30.9MPa; 29.7MPa and 26.2...

  19. Elevated Temperature, Residual Compressive Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Structure Manufactured Out-of-Autoclave

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Sutter, James K.; Burke, Eric R.; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Gyekenyesi, Thomas G.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.

    2012-01-01

    Several 1/16th-scale curved sandwich composite panel sections of a 10 m diameter barrel were fabricated to demonstrate the manufacturability of large-scale curved sections using minimum gauge, [+60/-60/0]s, toughened epoxy composite facesheets co-cured with low density (50 kilograms per cubic meters) aluminum honeycomb core. One of these panels was fabricated out of autoclave (OoA) by the vacuum bag oven (VBO) process using Cycom(Registered Trademark) T40-800b/5320-1 prepreg system while another panel with the same lay-up and dimensions was fabricated using the autoclave-cure, toughened epoxy prepreg system Cycom(Registered Trademark) IM7/977-3. The resulting 2.44 m x 2 m curved panels were investigated by non-destructive evaluation (NDE) at NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) to determine initial fabrication quality and then cut into smaller coupons for elevated temperature wet (ETW) mechanical property characterization. Mechanical property characterization of the sandwich coupons was conducted including edge-wise compression (EWC), and compression-after-impact (CAI) at conditions ranging from 25 C/dry to 150 C/wet. The details and results of this characterization effort are presented in this paper.

  20. Modeling and analysis of porosity and compressive strength of gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic filter using BP neural network

    Li Qiang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BP neural network was used in this study to model the porosity and the compressive strength of a gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foam filter prepared by centrifugal slip casting. The influences of the load applied on the epispastic polystyrene template (F, the centrifugal acceleration (v and sintering temperature (T on the porosity (P and compressive strength (? of the sintered products were studied by using the registered three-layer BP model. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparing the BP model predicted results with the experimental ones. Results show that the model prediction agrees with the experimental data within a reasonable experimental error, indicating that the three-layer BP network based modeling is effective in predicting both the properties and processing parameters in designing the gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foam filter. The prediction results show that the porosity percentage increases and compressive strength decreases with an increase in the applied load on epispastic polystyrene template. As for the influence of sintering temperature, the porosity percentage decreases monotonically with an increase in sintering temperature, yet the compressive strength first increases and then decreases slightly in a given temperature range. Furthermore, the porosity percentage changes little but the compressive strength first increases and then decreases when the centrifugal acceleration increases.

  1. Spall strength and ejecta production of gold under explosively driven shock wave compression

    Explosively driven shock wave experiments were conducted to characterize the spall strength and ejecta production of high-purity cast gold samples. The samples were from 0.75 to 1.84 mm thick and 30 mm in diameter. Peak stresses up to 44 GPa in gold were generated using PBX-9501 high explosive. Sample free surface and ejecta velocities were recorded using photonic Doppler velocimetry techniques. Lithium niobate pins were used to quantify the time dependence of the ejecta density and the total ejected mass. An optical framing camera for time-resolved imaging and a single-image x-ray radiograph were used for additional characterization. Free surface velocities exhibited a range of spall strengths from 1.7 to 2.4 GPa (mean: 2.0 ±0.3 GPa). The pullback signals were faint, minimal ringing was observed in the velocity records, and the spall layer continued to decelerate after first pull back. These results suggest finite tensile strength was present for some time after the initial void formation. Ejecta were observed for every sample with a roughened free surface, and the ejecta density increased with increased surface roughness, which was different in every experiment. The total ejected mass is consistent with the missing mass model.

  2. Spall strength and ejecta production of gold under explosively driven shock wave compression

    La Lone, B. M. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Stevens, G. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Turley, W. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Veeser, L. R. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Holtkamp, D. B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-12-16

    Explosively driven shock wave experiments were conducted to characterize the spall strength and ejecta production of high-purity cast gold samples. The samples were from 0.75 to 1.84 mm thick and 30 mm in diameter. Peak stresses up to 44 GPa in gold were generated using PBX-9501 high explosive. Sample free surface and ejecta velocities were recorded using photonic Doppler velocimetry techniques. Lithium niobate pins were used to quantify the time dependence of the ejecta density and the total ejected mass. An optical framing camera for time-resolved imaging and a single-image x-ray radiograph were used for additional characterization. Free surface velocities exhibited a range of spall strengths from 1.7 to 2.4 GPa (mean: 2.0 ±0.3 GPa). The pullback signals were faint, minimal ringing was observed in the velocity records, and the spall layer continued to decelerate after first pull back. These results suggest finite tensile strength was present for some time after the initial void formation. Ejecta were observed for every sample with a roughened free surface, and the ejecta density increased with increased surface roughness, which was different in every experiment. The total ejected mass is consistent with the missing mass model.

  3. Novel tricalcium silicate/magnesium phosphate composite bone cement having high compressive strength, in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

    Liu, Wenjuan; Zhai, Dong; Huan, Zhiguang; Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Although inorganic bone cements such as calcium phosphate cements have been widely applied in orthopaedic and dental fields because of their self-setting ability, development of high-strength bone cement with bioactivity and biodegradability remains a major challenge. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to prepare a tricalcium silicate/magnesium phosphate (C3S/MPC) composite bone cement, which is intended to combine the excellent bioactivity of C3S with remarkable self-setting properties and mechanical strength of MPC. The self-setting and mechanical properties, in vitro induction of apatite formation and degradation behaviour, and cytocompatibility of the composite cements were investigated. Our results showed that the C3S/MPC composite cement with an optimal composition had compressive strength up to 87 MPa, which was significantly higher than C3S (25 MPa) and MPC (64 MPa). The setting time could be adjusted between 3 min and 29 min with the variation of compositions. The hydraulic reaction products of the C3S/MPC composite cement were composed of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) derived from the hydration of C3S and gel-like amorphous substance. The C3S/MPC composite cements could induce apatite mineralization on its surface in SBF solution and degraded gradually in Tris-HCl solution. Besides, the composite cements showed good cytocompatibility and stimulatory effect on the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. Our results indicated that the C3S/MPC composite bone cement might be a new promising high-strength inorganic bioactive material which may hold the potential for bone repair in load-bearing site. PMID:25890099

  4. Influence Factor Analysis on Strength of Lime-Fly Ash Loess

    Yufen Zhang; Zhiquan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Lime-fly ash loess is composed of fly ash, lime and loess. It is a new material in subgrade backfill. Main factors to influence the strength of lime-fly ash loess are age, amount of fly ash and lime, ratio of fly ash to lime (1:K), and moisture content. In order to observe the effect of each factor influencing the strength of lime-fly ash loess and find out the relationship between each other, this paper adopted orthogonal test design to conduct unconfined compression tests. The result shows ...

  5. Isothermal Volume Expansion of a TATB-Based Composite and the Effect on Compressive Strength

    Thompson, Darla; Schwarz, Ricardo; Deluca, Racci

    2015-06-01

    It has long been known that compacted composites containing TATB crystals undergo ``ratchet growth,'' an irreversible volume expansion upon thermal cycling. A mechanism has not been established but is believed to arise from the highly-anisotropic CTE of TATB crystals and the interactions caused by compaction. Because explosive performance depends fundamentally on bulk density, the details of this phenomenon are important to understand. PBX 9502 is a plastic bonded explosive containing 95 wt% TATB crystals. We have used a TA Instruments thermal mechanical analyzer (TMA) to monitor uniaxial length changes of PBX 9502 specimens as a function of temperature and thermal cycling. Previous ``ratchet growth'' work has focused on irreversible expansion as a function of temperature range and number of thermal cycles (1). In the work reported here, we demonstrate that irreversible growth also occurs during extended isothermal conditions and especially at elevated temperatures. We explore PBX 9502 irreversible expansion as a function of time and temperature, in the form of thermal ramps and holds. Post-test specimens are then subjected to quasi-static compression testing to determine whether the mechanical properties correlate with the final bulk density, or depend in a more complex way on the detailed thermal history of the specimen.

  6. Understanding size effects on the strength of single crystals through high-temperature micropillar compression

    Compression tests of 〈1 1 1〉-oriented LiF single-crystal micropillars 1–5 μm in diameter were carried out from 25 °C to 250 °C. While the flow stress at ambient temperature was independent of the micropillar diameter, a strong size effect developed with elevated temperature. This behavior was explained by rigorously accounting for the different contributions to the flow stress of the micropillars as a function of temperature and pillar diameter: the lattice resistance, the forest hardening; and the size-dependent contribution as a result of the operation of single-arm dislocation sources. This was possible because the micropillars were obtained by chemically etching away the surrounding matrix in directionally solidified LiF–NaCl and LiF–KCl eutectics, avoiding any use of focused ion beam methods, yielding micropillars with a controlled dislocation density, independent of the sample preparation technique. In particular, the role of the lattice resistance on the size effect of micrometer-size single crystals was demonstrated unambiguously for the first time. This result rationalizes the different values of power-law exponent for the size effect found in the literature for face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic metals as well as for covalent and ionic solids

  7. Phase transition and strength of vanadium under shock compression up to 88 GPa

    A series of reverse-impact experiments were performed on vanadium at shock pressure ranging from 32 GPa to 88 GPa. Particle velocity profiles measured at sample/LiF window interface were used to estimate the sound velocities, shear modulus, and yield stress in shocked vanadium. A phase transition at ∼60.5 GPa that may be the body-centered cubic (BCC) to rhombohedral structure was identified by the discontinuity of the sound velocity against shock pressure. This transition pressure is consistent with the results from diamond anvil cell (DAC) experiments and first-principle calculations. However, present results show that the rhombohedral phase has higher strength and shear modulus than the BCC phase, which is contrast to the findings from DAC experiments and theoretical work

  8. Strain anisotropy and shear strength of shock compressed tantalum from in-situ Laue diffraction

    Laser driven shock experiments were performed at the Omega facility to study the dynamic yield strength of ?5 ?m thick single crystal tantalum using in-situ Laue diffraction. Tantalum samples were shocked along the [001] direction to peak stresses up to 50 GPa and probed using a 150 ps pulse of bremsstrahlung radiation from an imploding CH capsule x-ray source timed for when the shock was halfway through the sample. The capsule implosion was monitored by a combination of pinhole cameras and DANTE x-ray diode scopes. Diffraction spots for both the undriven and driven regions of the sample were recorded simultaneously on image plate detectors. The strain state of the material was found by combining the strain anisotropy found from the driven diffraction pattern and with simultaneous VISAR measurements.

  9. Modeling and analysis of porosity and compressive strength of gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic filter using BP neural network

    Li Qiang; Zhang Fengfeng; Yu Jingyuan

    2013-01-01

    BP neural network was used in this study to model the porosity and the compressive strength of a gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foam filter prepared by centrifugal slip casting. The influences of the load applied on the epispastic polystyrene template (F), the centrifugal acceleration (v) and sintering temperature (T) on the porosity (P) and compressive strength (?) of the sintered products were studied by using the registered three-layer BP model. The accuracy of the model was verified by compa...

  10. Modeling of Compressive Strength Parallel to Grain of Heat Treated Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Wood by Using Artificial Neural Network

    Fatih Yap?c?

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the compressive strength of heat treated Scotch Pine was modeled using artificial neural network. The compressive strength (CS value parallel to grain was determined after exposing the wood to heat treatment at temperature of 130, 145, 160, 175, 190 and 205C for 3, 6, 9, 12 hours. The experimental data was evaluated by using multiple variance analysis. Secondly, the effect of heat treatment on the CS of samples was modeled by using artificial neural network (ANN.

  11. The influence of clay additives in Portland cement on the compressive strength of the cement stone

    A.R. Gaifullin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of mineral additives to binders, especially to Portland cement, is one of the promising trends for solving the resource and energy saving problems, as well as problems of environmental protection during production and application. Expanding the supplementary cementitious materials resource base can be achieved through the use of natural pozzolans and thermally activated polymineral clays(commonly known as glinites in Russia. One type of glinite is metakaolin, which is obtained by calcination of kaolin clays. Metakaolin is widely and effectively used as a pozzolanic additive due to its beneficial effect on the physical and mechanical properties of Portland cement-based materials. The obstacle to its wide production and use are the limited deposits of pure kaolin clays in many countries, including the Russian Federation. In this respect, the studies of pozzolanic activity of the most common mineral clays and their use in some countries have significantly advanced. Similar studies were widely performed in the 1940s in USSR. It seems reasonable to renew this trend to provide a scientific base for the production of local pozzolans made of clays commonly used in different regions. Comparative studies of the effect of 5 clays differing in mineral and chemical composition, calcination temperature and specific surface area, and high-quality metakaolin, on the strength of hardened Portland cement paste have been performed. It has been established that introducing 5…10 % of composite clays calcined at 400…8000 C° and milled to a specific surface area of 290…800 m2/kg into Portland cement enhanced the strength of the hardened cement paste considerably better than the introduction of metakaolin with a specific surface area of 1200 m2/kg. The findings of the study suggest that many kinds of commonly used polymineral clays have a specific calcination temperature and dispersity, which results in a higher pozzolanic activity compared with metakaolin.

  12. Method of increasing the phase stability and the compressive yield strength of uranium-1 to 3 wt. % zirconium alloy

    Anderson, Robert C. (Crossville, TN)

    1986-01-01

    A uranium-1 to 3 wt. % zirconium alloy characterized by high strength, high ductility and stable microstructure is fabricated by an improved thermal mechanical process. A homogenous ingot of the alloy which has been reduced in thickness of at least 50% in the two-step forging operation, rolled into a plate with a 75% reduction and then heated in vacuum at a temperature of about 750.degree. to 850.degree. C. and then quenched in water is subjected to further thermal-mechanical operation steps to increase the compressive yield strength approximately 30%, stabilize the microstructure, and decrease the variations in mechanical properties throughout the plate is provided. These thermal-mechanical steps are achieved by cold rolling the quenched plate to reduce the thickness thereof about 8 to 12%, aging the cold rolled plate at a first temperature of about 325.degree. to 375.degree. C. for five to six hours and then aging the plate at a higher temperature ranging from 480.degree. to 500.degree. C. for five to six hours prior to cooling the billet to ambient conditions and sizing the billet or plate into articles provides the desired increase in mechanical properties and phase stability throughout the plate.

  13. Verification Of Residual Strength Properties From Compression After Impact Tests On Thin CFRP Skin, A1 Honeycomb Composites

    Kalnins, Kaspars; Graham, Adrian J.; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-07-01

    This article presents a study of CFRP/Al honeycomb panels subjected to a low velocity impact which, as a result, caused strength reduction. The main scope of the current study was to investigate experimental procedures, which are not well standardized and later verify them with numerical simulations. To ensure integrity of typical lightweight structural panels of modern spacecraft, knowledge about the impact energy required to produce clearly visible damage, and the resulting strength degradation is of high importance. For this initial investigation, Readily available ‘heritage’ (1980s) sandwich structure with relatively thin skin was used for this investigation. After initial attempts to produce impact damage, it was decided to create quasistatic indentation instead of low velocity impact, to cause barely visible damage. Forty two edgewise Compressions After Impact (CAI) test specimens have been produced and tested up to failure, while recording the strain distribution by optical means during the tests. Ultrasonic C-scan inspection was used to identify the damage evolution before and after each test. The optical strain measurements acquired during the tests showed sensitivity level capable to track the local buckling of damaged region.

  14. Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete

    Hernández, E. F.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical performance and durability of concrete with water/cement (w/c ratios of 0.30 and 0.60 containing cactus mucilage and brown marine seaweed extract solutions (at 0.5° Brix concentrations. Cylindrical specimens (100 mm x 200 mm were cast and moist-cured for 0 and 28 days. Compressive strength, rapid chloride permeability, and chloride diffusion tests were conducted to evaluate all of the concrete mixes at the ages of 60 and 120 days. In addition, accelerated carbonation tests were carried out on specimens at the age of 180 days by exposure to 23 °C, 60% RH and at 4.4% CO2 for 120 days. The compressive strength results showed that only one concrete mix with admixtures increased in strength compared to the control. Regarding the rapid chloride permeability, chloride diffusion and carbonation, the results indicated that the durability of concretes containing organic additions was enhanced compared to the control.Este trabajo presenta el comportamiento mecánico y de durabilidad de concretos con relaciones agua/cemento de 0.30 y 0.60, conteniendo soluciones de mucílago de nopal y extracto de algas marinas cafés (0.5 °Brix de concentración. Especímenes cilíndricos (100 mm x 200 mm fueron elaborados y curados en húmedo por 0 y 28 días. Se evaluó la resistencia a la compresión, permeabilidad rápida y difusión de cloruros a los 60 y 120 días de edad. Adicionalmente, se realizaron pruebas de carbonatación acelerada en especímenes con 180 días de edad, expuestos a 23 °C, 60% HR y 4.4% de CO2 por 120 días. Los resultados de resistencia a la compresión muestran que únicamente una mezcla de concreto con adición orgánica incrementó su resistencia con respecto al control. Con respecto a la permeabilidad rápida a cloruros, difusión de cloruros y carbonatación, los resultados indican que la durabilidad de los concretos que contenían adiciones orgánicas fue mejorada con respecto al control.

  15. Factors affecting early compressive strength of alkali activated fly ash (OPC-free concrete

    Palomo, A.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of experimental research into the chief characteristics of a new type of concrete made solely with alkali activated fly ash (AAFA: i.e., free of ordinary Portland cement (OPC. The results of testing to determine specific properties of the fresh concrete and the development of its mechanical strength showed that most of the factors that affect the manufacture and final properties of Portland cement concrete (water/cement ratio, curing conditions, etc. also impact the preparation and final quality of this new material. A number of parameters specific to AAFA concrete (nature and concentration of alkali present in the system were also explored to determine their role in the setting and hardening process.Este trabajo presenta los resultados de una investigación experimental llevada a cabo para evaluar las principales características de un nuevo tipo de hormigón fabricado solamente con ceniza volante activada alcalinamente (AAFA; es decir, sin cemento Portland comercial (OPC. Los resultados de los ensayos realizados para determinar las propiedades específicas del hormigón fresco y el desarrollo de resistencias mecánicas mostraron que la mayoría de los factores que afectan al proceso de fabricación y a las propiedades finales de los hormigones de cemento Portland (relación agua/cemento, condiciones de curado, etc. también afectan a la preparación y calidad final de estos nuevos materiales. También fueron estudiados otros parámetros específicos de los hormigones de AAFA (la naturaleza y concentración del álcali presente en el sistema para determinar su papel en el proceso de fraguado y endurecimiento.

  16. Arrows of time in unconfined systems

    Barbour, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Entropy and the second law of thermodynamcs were discovered through study of the behaviour of gases in confined spaces. The related techniques developed in the kinetic theory of gases have failed to resolve the apparent conflict between the time-reversal symmetry of all known laws of nature and the existence of arrows of time that at all times and everywhere in the universe all point in the same direction. I will argue that the failure may due to unconscious application to the universe of the conceptual framework developed for confined systems. If, as seems plausible, the universe is an unconfined system, new concepts are needed.

  17. An Assessment of the Compressive Strength of Glass Reinforced Plastic Waste Filled Concrete for Potential Applications in Construction

    Asokan Pappu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Efforts were made to recycle Glass reinforced plastic (GRP waste powder in concrete products and assess its compressive strength to comply with British Standards for use in construction applications. More than 90 GRP waste-filled concrete specimens were developed using the concentration of 5%, 15%, 30% and 50% (w/w. The findings revealed that the increase in concentration of GRP waste decreased the compressive strength. However, increase in curing duration resulted in improving the compressive strength of concrete. The findings of this work pave the way for further GRP waste recycling in precast construction products for use in various applications.

     

  18. Comparative analysis of compressive strength tests at age of 28 and 90 days and density of products using chemical additives in cementing radioactive waste

    In this research it has been studied the effects of chemical additives (admixtures) in the cementation process of radioactive wastes, which are used to improve the properties of waste cementation process, both of the paste and of the solidified product. However there are a large variety of these materials that are frequently changed or taken out of the market, then it is essential to know the commercially available materials and their effects. The tests were carried out with a solution simulating the evaporator concentrate waste coming from PWR nuclear reactors. It was cemented using two formulations, A and B, incorporating higher or lower amount of waste, respectively. It was added chemical admixtures from two manufacturers (S and H), which were: accelerators, set retarders and superplasticizers. The experiments were organized by a factorial design 23. The measured parameters were the viscosity, the setting time, the paste and product density and the compressive strength. In this study we performed comparative analyzes of the results of compressive strength at age of 28 and 90 days and between the densities of the samples at the same ages.The compressive strength test at age of 28 days is considered a parameter essential issues related to security handling, transport and storage of cemented waste product. The results showed that the addition of accelerators improved the compressive strength of the cemented product, but presented lower values density products. (author)

  19. Comparative analysis of compressive strength tests at age of 28 and 90 days and density of products using chemical additives in cementing radioactive waste

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: vanessamotavieira@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this research it has been studied the effects of chemical additives (admixtures) in the cementation process of radioactive wastes, which are used to improve the properties of waste cementation process, both of the paste and of the solidified product. However there are a large variety of these materials that are frequently changed or taken out of the market, then it is essential to know the commercially available materials and their effects. The tests were carried out with a solution simulating the evaporator concentrate waste coming from PWR nuclear reactors. It was cemented using two formulations, A and B, incorporating higher or lower amount of waste, respectively. It was added chemical admixtures from two manufacturers (S and H), which were: accelerators, set retarders and superplasticizers. The experiments were organized by a factorial design 2{sup 3}. The measured parameters were the viscosity, the setting time, the paste and product density and the compressive strength. In this study we performed comparative analyzes of the results of compressive strength at age of 28 and 90 days and between the densities of the samples at the same ages.The compressive strength test at age of 28 days is considered a parameter essential issues related to security handling, transport and storage of cemented waste product. The results showed that the addition of accelerators improved the compressive strength of the cemented product, but presented lower values density products. (author)

  20. Strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with various types of non-metallic fiber and rods reinforcement under static loading

    Nevskii, A. V.; Baldin, I. V.; Kudyakov, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Adoption of modern building materials based on non-metallic fibers and their application in concrete structures represent one of the important issues in construction industry. This paper presents results of investigation of several types of raw materials selected: basalt fiber, carbon fiber and composite fiber rods based on glass and carbon. Preliminary testing has shown the possibility of raw materials to be effectively used in compressed concrete elements. Experimental program to define strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with non-metallic fiber reinforcement and rod composite reinforcement included design, manufacture and testing of several types of concrete samples with different types of fiber and longitudinal rod reinforcement. The samples were tested under compressive static load. The results demonstrated that fiber reinforcement of concrete allows increasing carrying capacity of compressed concrete elements and reducing their deformability. Using composite longitudinal reinforcement instead of steel longitudinal reinforcement in compressed concrete elements insignificantly influences bearing capacity. Combined use of composite rod reinforcement and fiber reinforcement in compressed concrete elements enables to achieve maximum strength and minimum deformability.

  1. Image compression in morphometry studies requiring 21 CFR Part 11 compliance: procedure is key with TIFFs and various JPEG compression strengths.

    Tengowski, Mark W

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to compare the integrity and reproducibility of measurements created from uncompressed and compressed digital images in order to implement compliance with 21 CFR Part 11 for image analysis studies executed using 21 CFR Part 58 compliant capture systems. Images of a 400-mesh electron microscope grid and H&E stained rat liver tissue were captured on an upright microscope with digital camera using commercially available analysis software. Digital images were stored as either uncompressed TIFFs or in one of five different levels of JPEG compression. The grid images were analyzed with automatic detection of bright objects while the liver images were segmented using color cube-based morphometry techniques, respectively, using commercially-available image analysis software. When comparing the feature-extracted measurements from the TIFF uncompressed to the JPEG compressed images, the data suggest that JPEG compression does not alter the accuracy or reliability to reproduce individual data point measurements in all but the highest compression levels. There is, however, discordance if the initial measure was obtained with a TIFF format and subsequently saved as one of the JPEG levels, suggesting that the use of compression must precede feature extraction. It is a common practice in software packages to work with TIFF uncompressed images. However, this study suggests that the use of JPEG compression as part of the analysis work flow was an acceptable practice for these images and features. Investigators applying image file compression to other organ images will need to validate the utility of image compression in their work flow. A procedure to digitally acquire and JPEG compress images prior to image analysis has the potential to reduce file archiving demands without compromising reproducibility of data. PMID:15200165

  2. Compressive strength and interfacial transition zone of sugar cane bagasse ash concrete: A comparison to the established pozzolans

    Hussein, Asma Abd Elhameed; Shafiq, Nasir; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil

    2015-05-01

    Agricultural and industrial by-products are commonly used in concrete production as cement replacement materials (CRMs) or as admixtures to enhance both fresh and hardened properties of concrete as well as to save the environment from the negative effects caused by their disposal. Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) is one of the promising CRMs, it is used as a partial replacement of cement for producing concrete; properties of such concrete depend on the chemical composition, fineness, and burning temperature of SCBA. Approximately 1500 Million tons of sugarcane are annually produced over all the world which leave about 40-45% bagasse after juice crushing for sugar industry giving an average annual production of about 600 Million tons of bagasse as a waste material. This paper presents some findings on the effect of SCBA on workability, compressive strength and microstructure of interfacial zone of concrete and its performance is compared to some of the established CRMs namely Densified Silica Fume, Fly Ash and Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash.

  3. RESIDUAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF FLY ASH BASED GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE SUBJECTED TO ACID ATTACK

    Dr.H.Sudarsana Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, improvements in concrete properties have been achieved by the invention of High- Performance-Concrete (HPC. Improvements involving a combination of improved compaction, improved paste characteristics and aggregate-matrix bond, and reduced porosity are achieved through HPC. The ductility of HPC can be improved by altering its composition through the addition of glass fibers in the design mix. High- Performance-Concrete made with glass fibers inside is regarded as Glass Fiber Reinforced High Performance Concrete (GFRHPC. This paper presents the details of an experimental investigation planned to utilize fly ash in the production of Glass fibre reinforced High-Performance-Concrete (GFRHPC. The investigation examines the progressive deterioration of concrete mixtures containing various combinations of fly ash based GFRHPCmixes exposed to sulphate and chloride solutions. Acid attack tests have been conducted to measure the durability of GFRHPC. Cubes of 150X150X150 mm have been cast, cured and then kept immersed in 5%concentrated solutions of HCl, H2SO4 and MgSO4 for 30, 60 and 90 days and then tested to record the residual compressive strengths of GFRHPC produced with the fly ash mineral admixtures. The results have been analyzed and useful conclusions have been drawn.

  4. The influence of hybridization on impact damage behavior and residual compression strength of intraply basalt/nylon hybrid composites

    Highlights: ? The impact performances of basalt/nylon intraply hybrid composites were studied. ? In basalt/nylon composite, the excellent impact resistance of nylon fiber was used. ? At high impact energy, the hybrid composite have a better property than the pure ones. ? The impact property of hybrid samples is significantly affected by the fiber content. ? SEM analyses show that hybridization can prevent of catastrophic and complete failure. -- Abstract: Low-velocity impact and compression after impact (CAI) tests were performed to investigate the impact behavior of hybrid composite laminates reinforced by basalt-nylon intraply fabrics. The purpose of using this hybrid composite is to combine the good mechanical property of basalt fiber as a brittle fiber with the excellent impact resistance of nylon fiber as a ductile fiber. Five different types of woven fabric with different contents of nylon (0%, 25%, 33.3%, 50% and 100%) were used as reinforcement. The effect of nylon/basalt fiber content on impact parameters, impact damage behavior and CAI strength was studied at different nominal impact energy levels (16, 30 and 40 J). The results indicate that at low impact energy, hybridization and variation in basalt/nylon fiber content cannot improve the impact performance of composite plates. With increasing impact energy, the impact performance becomes more and more dependent on the content of nylon and basalt.

  5. In Vitro Comparison of Compressive and Tensile Strengths of Acrylic Resins Reinforced by Silver Nanoparticles at 2% and 0.2% Concentrations

    Tahereh Ghaffari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Polymethyl methacrylate, PMMA, is widely used in prosthodontics for fabrication of removable prostheses. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adding silver nanoparticles (AgNPs to PMMA at 2% and 0.2% concentrations on compressive and tensile strengths of PMMA. Materials and methods. The silver nanoparticles were mixed with heat-cured acrylic resin in an amalgamator in two groups at 0.2 and 2 wt% of AgNPs. Eighteen 220200-mm samples were prepared for tensile strength test, 12 samples containing silver nanoparticle and 6 samples for the control group. Another 18 cylindrical 2538-mm samples were prepared for compressive strength test. Scanning electron microscopy was used to verify homogeneous distribution of particles. The powder was manually mixed with a resin monomer and then the mixture was properly blended. Before curing, the paste was packed into steel molds. After curing, the specimens were removed from the molds. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by multiple comparison test (Scheffs test. Results. This study showed that the mean compressive strength of PMMA reinforced with AgNPs was significantly higher than that of the unmodified PMMA (P<0.05. It was not statistically different between the two groups reinforced with AgNPs. The tensile strength was not significantly different between the 0.2% group and unmodified PMMA and it decreased significantly after incorporation of 2% AgNPs (P<0.05. Conclusion. Based on the results and the desirable effect of nanoparticles of silver on improvement of compressive strength of PMMA, use of this material with proper concentration in the palatal area of maxillary acrylic resin dentures is recommended.

  6. In Vitro Comparison of Compressive and Tensile Strengths ofAcrylic Resins Reinforced by Silver Nanoparticles at 2% and0.2% Concentrations.

    Ghaffari, Tahereh; Hamedirad, Fahimeh; Ezzati, Baharak

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Polymethyl methacrylate, PMMA, is widely used in prosthodontics for fabrication of removable prostheses. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adding silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to PMMA at 2% and 0.2% concentrations on compressive and tensile strengths of PMMA. Materials and methods. The silver nanoparticles were mixed with heat-cured acrylic resin in an amalgamator in two groups at 0.2 and 2 wt% of AgNPs. Eighteen 220200-mm samples were prepared for tensile strength test, 12 samples containing silver nanoparticle and 6 samples for the control group. Another 18 cylindrical 2538-mm samples were prepared for compressive strength test. Scanning electron microscopy was used to verify homogeneous distribution of particles. The powder was manually mixed with a resin monomer and then the mixture was properly blended. Before curing, the paste was packed into steel molds. After curing, the specimens were removed from the molds. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by multiple comparison test (Scheff's test). Results. This study showed that the mean compressive strength of PMMA reinforced with AgNPs was significantly higher than that of the unmodified PMMA (P<0.05). It was not statistically different between the two groups reinforced with AgNPs. The tensile strength was not significantly different between the 0.2% group and unmodified PMMA and it de-creased significantly after incorporation of 2% AgNPs (P<0.05). Conclusion. Based on the results and the desirable effect of nanoparticles of silver on improvement of compressive strength of PMMA, use of this material with proper concentration in the palatal area of maxillary acrylic resin dentures is recommended. PMID:25587381

  7. Unconfined Aquifer Flow Theory - from Dupuit to present

    Mishra, Phoolendra K

    2013-01-01

    Analytic and semi-analytic solution are often used by researchers and practicioners to estimate aquifer parameters from unconfined aquifer pumping tests. The non-linearities associated with unconfined (i.e., water table) aquifer tests makes their analysis more complex than confined tests. Although analytical solutions for unconfined flow began in the mid-1800s with Dupuit, Thiem was possibly the first to use them to estimate aquifer parameters from pumping tests in the early 1900s. In the 1950s, Boulton developed the first transient well test solution specialized to unconfined flow. By the 1970s Neuman had developed solutions considering both primary transient storage mechanisms (confined storage and delayed yield) without non-physical fitting parameters. In the last decade, research into developing unconfined aquifer test solutions has mostly focused on explicitly coupling the aquifer with the linearized vadose zone. Despite the many advanced solution methods available, there still exists a need for realism ...

  8. Modeling Decomposition of Unconfined Rigid Polyurethane Foam

    CHU,TZE YAO; ERICKSON,KENNETH L.; HOBBS,MICHAEL L.

    1999-11-01

    The decomposition of unconfined rigid polyurethane foam has been modeled by a kinetic bond-breaking scheme describing degradation of a primary polymer and formation of a thermally stable secondary polymer. The bond-breaking scheme is resolved using percolation theory to describe evolving polymer fragments. The polymer fragments vaporize according to individual vapor pressures. Kinetic parameters for the model were obtained from Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The chemical structure of the foam was determined from the preparation techniques and ingredients used to synthesize the foam. Scale-up effects were investigated by simulating the response of an incident heat flux of 25 W/cm{sup 2} on a partially confined 8.8-cm diameter by 15-cm long right circular cylinder of foam which contained an encapsulated component. Predictions of center, midradial, and component temperatures, as well as regression of the foam surface, were in agreement with measurements using thermocouples and X-ray imaging.

  9. Nitrate reduction in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Boesen, Carsten; Kristiansen, Henning; Larsen, Flemming

    1991-01-01

    Nitrate distribution and reduction processes were investigated in an unconfined sandy aquifer of Quaternary age. Groundwater chemistry was studied in a series of eight multilevel samplers along a flow line, deriving water from both arable and forested land. Results show that plumes of nitrate......-contaminated groundwater emanate from the agricultural areas and spread through the aquifer. The aquifer can be subdivided into an upper 10- to 15-m thick oxic zone that contains O2 and NO3-, and a lower anoxic zone characterized by Fe2+-rich waters. The redox boundary is very sharp, which suggests that reduction...... processes of O2 and NO3- occur at rates that are fast compared to the rate of downward water transport. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater contains total contents of dissolved ions that are two to four times higher than in groundwater derived from the forested area. The persistence of the high content of...

  10. Modeling decomposition of unconfined rigid polyurethane foam

    The decomposition of unconfined rigid polyurethane foam has been modeled by a kinetic bond-breaking scheme describing degradation of a primary polymer and formation of a thermally stable secondary polymer. The bond-breaking scheme is resolved using percolation theory to describe evolving polymer fragments. The polymer fragments vaporize according to individual vapor pressures. Kinetic parameters for the model were obtained from Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The chemical structure of the foam was determined from the preparation techniques and ingredients used to synthesize the foam. Scale-up effects were investigated by simulating the response of an incident heat flux of 25 W/cm(sup 2) on a partially confined 8.8-cm diameter by 15-cm long right circular cylinder of foam that contained an encapsulated component. Predictions of center, midradial, and component temperatures, as well as regression of the foam surface, were in agreement with measurements using thermocouples and X-ray imaging

  11. Nitrate reduction in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Boesen, Carsten; Kristiansen, Henning; Larsen, Flemming

    1991-01-01

    processes of O2 and NO3- occur at rates that are fast compared to the rate of downward water transport. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater contains total contents of dissolved ions that are two to four times higher than in groundwater derived from the forested area. The persistence of the high content of......Nitrate distribution and reduction processes were investigated in an unconfined sandy aquifer of Quaternary age. Groundwater chemistry was studied in a series of eight multilevel samplers along a flow line, deriving water from both arable and forested land. Results show that plumes of nitrate......-contaminated groundwater emanate from the agricultural areas and spread through the aquifer. The aquifer can be subdivided into an upper 10- to 15-m thick oxic zone that contains O2 and NO3-, and a lower anoxic zone characterized by Fe2+-rich waters. The redox boundary is very sharp, which suggests that reduction...

  12. Fly and bottom ashes from biomass combustion as cement replacing components in mortars production: rheological behaviour of the pastes and materials compression strength.

    Maschio, Stefano; Tonello, Gabriele; Piani, Luciano; Furlani, Erika

    2011-10-01

    In the present research mortar pastes obtained by replacing a commercial cement with the equivalent mass of 5, 10, 20 and 30 wt.% of fly ash or bottom ash from fir chips combustion, were prepared and rheologically characterized. It was observed that the presence of ash modifies their rheological behaviour with respect to the reference blend due to the presence, in the ashes, of KCl and K2SO4 which cause precipitation of gypsum and portlandite during the first hydration stages of the pastes. Hydrated materials containing 5 wt.% of ash display compression strength and absorption at 28 d of same magnitude as the reference composition; conversely, progressive increase of ash cause a continuous decline of materials performances. Conversely, samples tested after 180 d display a marked decline of compression strength, as a consequence of potassium elution and consequent alkali-silica reaction against materials under curing. PMID:21762950

  13. Predicting model on ultimate compressive strength of Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foam filter based on BP neural network

    Yu Jingyuan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In present study, BP neural network model was proposed for the prediction of ultimate compressive strength of Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foam filter prepared by centrifugal slip casting. The inputs of the BP neural network model were the applied load on the epispastic polystyrene template (F, centrifugal acceleration (v and sintering temperature (T, while the only output was the ultimate compressive strength (?. According to the registered BP model, the effects of F, v, T on ? were analyzed. The predicted results agree with the actual data within reasonable experimental error, indicating that the BP model is practically a very useful tool in property prediction and process parameter design of the Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foam filter prepared by centrifugal slip casting.

  14. Laboratory Investigation on Compressive Strength and Micro-structural Features of Foamed Concrete with Addition of Wood Ash and Silica Fume as a Cement Replacement

    Othuman Mydin M.A.; Mohamed Shajahan M.F.; Ganesan. S; Sani N. Md

    2014-01-01

    Wood Ash (WA) and Silica Fume (SF) exhibit good cementation properties and have great potential as supplementary binder materials for the concrete production industry. This study will focus on enhancing the micro-structural formation and compressive strength of foamed concrete with the addition of WA and SF. A total of 3 mixes were prepared with the addition of WA and SF at various cement replacement levels by total binder weight. For this particular study, the combination of WA (5%, 10%, and...

  15. The Effect of Variation of Molarity of Alkali Activator and Fine Aggregate Content on the Compressive Strength of the Fly Ash: Palm Oil Fuel Ash Based Geopolymer Mortar

    Iftekhair Ibnul Bashar; U. Johnson Alengaram; Mohd. Zamin Jumaat; Azizul Islam

    2014-01-01

    The effect of molarity of alkali activator, manufactured sand (M-sand), and quarry dust (QD) on the compressive strength of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) and fly ash (FA) based geopolymer mortar was investigated and reported. The variable investigated includes the quantities of replacement levels of M-sand, QD, and conventional mining sand (N-sand) in two concentrated alkaline solutions; the contents of alkaline solution, water, POFA/FA ratio, and curing condition remained constant. The results sh...

  16. Conventional compressive strength parallel to the grain and mechanical resistance of wood against pin penetration and microdrilling established by in-situ semidestructive devices

    Kloiber, Michal; Drdácký, Miloš; Tippner, J.; Hrivnák, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 10 (2015), s. 3217-3229. ISSN 1359-5997 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV001; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : compressive strength * density * in situ testing * non-destructive testing (NDT) * small size loading jack * wood Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 1.714, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1617/s11527-014-0392-6

  17. Laboratory Investigation on Compressive Strength and Micro-structural Features of Foamed Concrete with Addition of Wood Ash and Silica Fume as a Cement Replacement

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood Ash (WA and Silica Fume (SF exhibit good cementation properties and have great potential as supplementary binder materials for the concrete production industry. This study will focus on enhancing the micro-structural formation and compressive strength of foamed concrete with the addition of WA and SF. A total of 3 mixes were prepared with the addition of WA and SF at various cement replacement levels by total binder weight. For this particular study, the combination of WA (5%, 10%, and 15% by binder weight and SF (5%, 10%, and 15% by binder weight were utilized as supplementary binder materials to produce foamed concrete mixes. As was made evident from micrographs obtained in the study, the improvement observed in the compressive strength of the foamed concrete was due to a significant densification in the microstructure of the cement paste matrix in the presence of WA and SF hybrid supplementary binders. Experimental results indicated that the combination of 15% SF and 5% WA by binder weight had a more substantial influence on the compressive strength of foamed concrete compared to the control mix. Furthermore, the addition of WA and SF significantly prolonged the setting times of the blended cement paste of the foamed concrete.

  18. Linear dimensional change, compressive strength and detail reproduction in type IV dental stone dried at room temperature and in a microwave oven

    Marcos Aurlio Bomfim da, Silva; Rafael Pino, Vitti; Simonides, Consani; Mrio Alexandre Coelho, Sinhoreti; Marcelo Ferraz, Mesquita; Rafael Leonardo Xediek, Consani.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The type IV dental stone is widely used for the fabrication of dyes and master casts for fixed and removable partial prostheses. It is typically normal to wait at least 24 hours for the casts to dry prior to beginning the laboratory procedures. The waiting time has been shown to be greatly reduced b [...] y using microwave drying. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the influence of drying techniques at room temperature and microwave oven on the linear dimensional change, compressive strength and detail reproduction in type IV dental stones. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three type IV dental stone brands were selected; elite Rock, Shera Premium and Durone IV. Two different drying protocols were tested in 4 groups (n=10); G1 - room temperature (254C) dried for 2 hours; G2 - room temperature dried for 24 hours; G3 - room temperature dried for 7 days and G4 - microwave oven dried at 800 W for 5 minutes and after 2 hours at room temperature. After drying, the samples were assayed for dimensional charges. The sample surface was submitted to the ImageTool 3.0 software for compressive strength in a universal testing machine with a cell load of 50 KN at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minutes and the detail reproduction was analyzed with a stereomicroscope at 25x magnification. The statistical analysis of the linear dimensional change and compressive strength data were conducted by the ANOVA test followed by the Tukey test (p

  19. Conditions pertaining to the influence of electrode surface roughness upon the insulation strength of compressed SF6 systems

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of a series of experimental investigations reported in the literature, electrode microscopic surface roughness was dismissed as a factor influencing breakdown levels in compressed SF6, irrespective of field non-uniformity. This conclusion appears to be tenable if one restricts...... compressed SF6 is recalled and its domain of influence brought into focus....

  20. Smart cement modified with iron oxide nanoparticles to enhance the piezoresistive behavior and compressive strength for oil well applications

    Vipulanandan, C.; Mohammed, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, smart cement with a 0.38 water-to-cement ratio was modified with iron oxide nanoparticles (NanoFe2O3) to have better sensing properties, so that the behavior can be monitored at various stages of construction and during the service life of wells. A series of experiments evaluated the piezoresistive smart cement behavior with and without NanoFe2O3 in order to identify the most reliable sensing properties that can also be relatively easily monitored. Tests were performed on the smart cement from the time of mixing to a hardened state behavior. When oil well cement (Class H) was modified with 0.1% of conductive filler, the piezoresistive behavior of the hardened smart cement was substantially improved without affecting the setting properties of the cement. During the initial setting the electrical resistivity changed with time based on the amount of NanoFe2O3 used to modify the smart oil well cement. A new quantification concept has been developed to characterize the smart cement curing based on electrical resistivity changes in the first 24 h of curing. Addition of 1% NanoFe2O3 increased the compressive strength of the smart cement by 26% and 40% after 1 day and 28 days of curing respectively. The modulus of elasticity of the smart cement increased with the addition of 1% NanoFe2O3 by 29% and 28% after 1 day and 28 days of curing respectively. A nonlinear curing model was used to predict the changes in electrical resistivity with curing time. The piezoresistivity of smart cement with NanoFe2O3 was over 750 times higher than the unmodified cement depending on the curing time and nanoparticle content. Also the nonlinear stress–strain and stress–change in resistivity relationships predicated the experimental results very well. Effects of curing time and NanoFe2O3 content on the model parameters have been quantified using a nonlinear model.

  1. Nematode locomotion in unconfined and confined fluids

    Bilbao, Alejandro; Wajnryb, Eligiusz; Vanapalli, Siva A.; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2013-08-01

    The millimeter-long soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans propels itself by producing undulations that propagate along its body and turns by assuming highly curved shapes. According to our recent study [V. Padmanabhan et al., PLoS ONE 7, e40121 (2012), 10.1371/journal.pone.0040121] all these postures can be accurately described by a piecewise-harmonic-curvature model. We combine this curvature-based description with highly accurate hydrodynamic bead models to evaluate the normalized velocity and turning angles for a worm swimming in an unconfined fluid and in a parallel-wall cell. We find that the worm moves twice as fast and navigates more effectively under a strong confinement, due to the large transverse-to-longitudinal resistance-coefficient ratio resulting from the wall-mediated far-field hydrodynamic coupling between body segments. We also note that the optimal swimming gait is similar to the gait observed for nematodes swimming in high-viscosity fluids. Our bead models allow us to determine the effects of confinement and finite thickness of the body of the nematode on its locomotion. These effects are not accounted for by the classical resistive-force and slender-body theories.

  2. Nematode Locomotion in Unconfined and Confined Fluids

    Bilbao, Alejandro; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The millimeter-long soil-dwelling nematode {\\it C. elegans} propels itself by producing undulations that propagate along its body and turns by assuming highly curved shapes. According to our recent study [PLoS ONE \\textbf{7}, e40121 (2012)] all these postures can be accurately described by a piecewise-harmonic-curvature (PHC) model. We combine this curvature-based description with highly accurate hydrodynamic bead models to evaluate the normalized velocity and turning angles for a worm swimming in an unconfined fluid and in a parallel-wall cell. We find that the worm moves twice as fast and navigates more effectively under a strong confinement, due to the large transverse-to-longitudinal resistance-coefficient ratio resulting from the wall-mediated far-field hydrodynamic coupling between body segments. We also note that the optimal swimming gait is similar to the gait observed for nematodes swimming in high-viscosity fluids. Our bead models allow us to determine the effects of confinement and finite thickness...

  3. Specimen size effects on the compressive strength and Weibull modulus of nuclear graphite of different coke particle size: IG-110 and NBG-18

    The effects of specimen size on the compressive strength and Weibull modulus were investigated for nuclear graphite of different coke particle sizes: IG-110 and NBG-18 (average coke particle size for IG-110: 25 μm, NBG-18: 300 μm). Two types of cylindrical specimens, i.e., where the diameter to length ratio was 1:2 (ASTM C 695-91 type specimen, 1:2 specimen) or 1:1 (1:1 specimen), were prepared for six diameters (3, 4, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm) and tested at room temperature (compressive strain rate: 2.08 × 10−4 s−1). Anisotropy was considered during specimen preparation for NBG-18. The results showed that the effects of specimen size appeared negligible for the compressive strength, but grade-dependent for the Weibull modulus. In view of specimen miniaturization, deviations from the ASTM C 695-91 specimen size requirements require an investigation into the effects of size for the grade of graphite of interest, and the specimen size effects should be considered for Weibull modulus determination

  4. A comparative evaluation of compressive strength of Portland cement with zinc oxide eugenol and Polymer-reinforced cement: An in vitro analysis

    S Prakasam; Prakasam Bharadwaj; S C Loganathan; B Krishna Prasanth

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ultimate compressive strength of 50% and 25% Portland cement mixed with Polymer-reinforced zinc oxide eugenol and zinc oxide eugenol cement after 1 hour, 24 hours, and 7 days. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty samples were selected. The samples were made cylindrical of size 6 × 8 mm and were divided into six groups as follows with each group consisting of 10 samples. Group 1: Polymer-reinforced zinc oxide eugenol with...

  5. Texture, mineralogy, and rock strength in horizontal stress-related coal mine roof falls

    Phillipson, S.E. [Mine Safety and Health Administration, Roof Control Division, Pittsburgh Safety and Health Technology Center, P.O. Box 18233, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States)

    2008-08-05

    Geologic structures can represent planes of preferential weakness that, by dismembering the roof beam, may contribute to the failure of roof spans. However, beam deflection and roof failure also occur in rocks where no visible geologic discontinuities are present. This suggests that roof failure may depend on rock strength, which in turn depends on intrinsic textural properties inherent to the rock. In this study, rock samples were collected from horizontal stress-related roof fall material in coal mines for petrographic characterization and compressive strength testing. Brittle, stress failure-prone rock types include thinly interlaminated siltstone and shale, and black shale that had been lightly recrystallized. Samples exhibit a narrow range of density values between approximately 2.5-3.0 g/cm{sup 3} but exhibit a wide range of unconfined compressive strength values, between approximately 20-70 MPa. Results of laboratory observations suggest that for samples of coal mine immediate roof shale, compressive strength is not well correlated with density, grain size, sutured grain boundaries, or quartz content. These results for shale are generally at odds with the results of similar studies for sandstone. The great variability of strength, texture, and mineralogy documented in these samples may be an indication of their complexity and the need for specialized methodology in the study of shale strength. (author)

  6. Uniaxial and triaxial compression tests of silicon carbide ceramics under quasi-static loading condition.

    Brannon, Rebecca Moss; Lee, Moo Yul; Bronowski, David R.

    2005-02-01

    To establish mechanical properties and failure criteria of silicon carbide (SiC-N) ceramics, a series of quasi-static compression tests has been completed using a high-pressure vessel and a unique sample alignment jig. This report summarizes the test methods, set-up, relevant observations, and results from the constitutive experimental efforts. Results from the uniaxial and triaxial compression tests established the failure threshold for the SiC-N ceramics in terms of stress invariants (I{sub 1} and J{sub 2}) over the range 1246 < I{sub 1} < 2405. In this range, results are fitted to the following limit function (Fossum and Brannon, 2004) {radical}J{sub 2}(MPa) = a{sub 1} - a{sub 3}e -a{sub 2}(I{sub 1}/3) + a{sub 4} I{sub 1}/3, where a{sub 1} = 10181 MPa, a{sub 2} = 4.2 x 10{sup -4}, a{sub 3} = 11372 MPa, and a{sub 4} = 1.046. Combining these quasistatic triaxial compression strength measurements with existing data at higher pressures naturally results in different values for the least-squares fit to this function, appropriate over a broader pressure range. These triaxial compression tests are significant because they constitute the first successful measurements of SiC-N compressive strength under quasistatic conditions. Having an unconfined compressive strength of {approx}3800 MPa, SiC-N has been heretofore tested only under dynamic conditions to achieve a sufficiently large load to induce failure. Obtaining reliable quasi-static strength measurements has required design of a special alignment jig and load-spreader assembly, as well as redundant gages to ensure alignment. When considered in combination with existing dynamic strength measurements, these data significantly advance the characterization of pressure-dependence of strength, which is important for penetration simulations where failed regions are often at lower pressures than intact regions.

  7. Evaluation of critical resolved shear strength and deformation mode in proton-irradiated austenitic stainless steel using micro-compression tests

    Jin, Hyung-Ha; Ko, Eunsol; Kwon, Junhyun; Hwang, Seong Sik; Shin, Chansun

    2016-03-01

    Micro-compression tests were applied to evaluate the changes in the strength and deformation mode of proton-irradiated commercial austenitic stainless steel. Proton irradiation generated small dots at low dose levels and Frank loops at high dose levels. The increase in critical resolved shear stresses (CRSS) was measured from micro-compression of pillars and the Schmid factor calculated from the measured loading direction. The magnitudes of the CRSS increase were in good agreement with the values calculated from the barrier hardening model using the measured size and density of radiation defects. The deformation mode changed upon increasing the irradiation dose level. At a low radiation dose level, work hardening and smooth flow behavior were observed. Increasing the dose level resulted in the flow behavior changing to a distinct heterogeneous flow, yielding a few large strain bursts in the stress-strain curves. The change in the deformation mode was related to the formation and propagation of defect-free slip bands. The effect of the orientation of the pillar or loading direction on the strengths is discussed.

  8. Influence of the waste glass in the axial compressive strength of Portland cement concrete; Influencia dos residuos vitreos na resistencia a compressao axial do concreto de cimento Portland

    Miranda Junior, E.J.P.; Paiva, A.E.M., E-mail: edson.jansen@hotmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Maranhao (PPGEM/IFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    In this work, was studied the influence of the incorporation of waste glass, coming from the stage of thinning and polishing of a company of thermal glass treatments, in the axial compressive strength of Portland cement concrete. The coarse and ground aggregates used was crushed stone and sand, respectively. For production of the concrete, percentages of glass residues of 5%, 10% and 20% had been used in substitution to the sand, and relations water/cement (a/c) 0,50, 0,55 and 0,58. The cure of the test bodies was carried through in 7, 14 and 28 days. The statistics analysis of the results was carried out through of the analysis of variance for each one of the cure times. From the results of the compressive strength of the concrete, it could be observed that the concrete has structural application for the relation a/c 0,5, independently of waste glass percentage used, and for the relation a/c 0,55 with 20% of waste glass. (author)

  9. A comparative evaluation of compressive strength of Portland cement with zinc oxide eugenol and Polymer-reinforced cement: An in vitro analysis

    S Prakasam

    2014-01-01

    These samples were further subdivided based on time interval and were tested at 1 hour, 24 hours and at 7 th day. After each period of time all the specimens were tested by vertical CVR loaded frame with capacity of 5 tones/0473-10kan National Physical laboratory, New Delhi and the results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffe test. Results: Polymer-reinforced cement with 50% Portland cement, Zinc oxide with 50% Portland cement, Polymer-reinforced cement with 25% Portland cement and Zinc oxide with 25% Portland cement exhibited higher compressive strength when compared to Zinc oxide with 0% Portland cement and Polymer-reinforced cement with 0% Portland cement, at different periods of time. The difference between these two groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05 and it is suggested that mixture of 50% and 25% Portland cement in Zinc oxide eugenol and Polymer-modified zinc oxide cement can be used as core build up material and permanent filling material. Conclusion: It is concluded that 50% and 25% Portland cement in zinc oxide eugenol and polymer-modified zinc oxide eugenol results in higher compressive strength and hence can be used as permanent filling material and core built-up material.

  10. Strength Restoration of Cracked Sandstone and Coal under a Uniaxial Compression Test and Correlated Damage Source Location Based on Acoustic Emissions

    Feng, Xiaowei; Zhang, Nong; Zheng, Xigui; Pan, Dongjiang

    2015-01-01

    Underground rock masses have shown a general trend of natural balance over billions of years of ground movement. Nonetheless, man-made underground constructions disturb this balance and cause rock stability failure. Fractured rock masses are frequently encountered in underground constructions, and this study aims to restore the strength of rock masses that have experienced considerable fracturing under uniaxial compression. Coal and sandstone from a deep-buried coal mine were chosen as experimental subjects; they were crushed by uniaxial compression and then carefully restored by a chemical adhesive called MEYCO 364 with an innovative self-made device. Finally, the restored specimens were crushed once again by uniaxial compression. Axial stress, axial strain, circumferential strain, and volumetric strain data for the entire process were fully captured and are discussed here. An acoustic emission (AE) testing system was adopted to cooperate with the uniaxial compression system to provide better definitions for crack closure thresholds, crack initiation thresholds, crack damage thresholds, and three-dimensional damage source locations in intact and restored specimens. Several remarkable findings were obtained. The restoration effects of coal are considerably better than those of sandstone because the strength recovery coefficient of the former is 1.20, whereas that of the latter is 0.33, which indicates that MEYCO 364 is particularly valid for fractured rocks whose initial intact peak stress is less than that of MEYCO 364. Secondary cracked traces of restored sandstone almost follow the cracked traces of the initial intact sandstone, and the final failure is mainly caused by decoupling between the adhesive and the rock mass. However, cracked traces of restored coal only partially follow the traces of intact coal, with the final failure of the restored coal being caused by both bonding interface decoupling and self-breakage in coal. Three-dimensional damage source locations manifest such that AE events are highly correlated with a strength recovery coefficient; the AE events show a decreasing tendency when the coefficient is larger than 1, and vice versa. This study provides a feasible scheme for the reinforcement of fractured rock masses in underground constructions and reveals an internal mechanism of the crushing process for restored rock masses, which has certain instructive significance. PMID:26714324

  11. Probe penetration test applied for evaluating shotcrete compressive strength / Ensaio de penetrao de pino aplicado na avaliao da resistncia compresso de concreto projetado

    W. R. L. da, Silva; L. R., Prudencio Jr; A. L. de, Oliveira.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa apresentar uma metodologia de avaliao da resistncia compresso de concreto projetado. Em funo da elevada rugosidade superficial e da baixa espessura da camada de concreto, observada em estruturas de concreto projetado, a metodologia proposta tem por base o ensaio de penetra [...] o de pinos. Em uma primeira etapa, a variabilidade do ensaio de penetrao de pinos foi investigada de modo a definir a quantidade de ensaios necessrios para a definio da curva de correlao do ensaio. Em seguida, o procedimento empregado na definio da curva de correlao foi definido. Tal procedimento inclui a moldagem de placas de concreto projetado in loco; o controle da energia de disparo dos pinos; a extrao de testemunhos das placas para determinao da resistncia compresso do concreto; e a anlise estatstica dos dados. De posse da curva de correlao do ensaio, procede-se com a avaliao da estrutura e anlise dos dados. De modo a verificar a aplicabilidade da metodologia proposta, a estrutura de concreto projetado de um tnel em uma Pequena Usina Hidreltrica foi investigada. Na estrutra em questo, foram observados resultados de resistncia no-conformes com as especificaes de projeto e indcios de falta de homogeneidade do concreto. Uma vez que a metodologia em questo possibilitou a caracterizao das condies da estrutura avaliada, pode-se afirmar que a soluo proposta neste trabalho adequada para a avaliao da resistncia compresso de estruturas de concreto projetado. Abstract in english This study presents a methodology for evaluating shotcrete compressive strength. Because of the high surface roughness and low thickness of the concrete layer observed in shotcrete structures, the proposed methodology is based on the probe penetration test. In a first phase, the variability of the p [...] robe penetration test was investigated to define the number of tests that are required to characterise the test correlation curve. Then, a procedure that can be applied to define the correlation curve was described. This procedure includes the moulding of shotcrete plates in loco, the control of the discharge energy of the pins, the extraction of the plates' samples to determine the concrete compressive strength, and statistical analysis. With the test correlation curve, an evaluation of the structure and data analysis can be performed. To verify the applicability of the proposed methodology, the structure of a shotcrete tunnel in a small hydropower plant was investigated. In the analysed structure, strength results that were non-compliant with the project specifications and a lack of concrete homogeneity were observed. Since the analysed methodology allowed for the characterisation of the considered structure conditions, the proposed solution is adequate for evaluating the compression strength of shotcrete structures.

  12. Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Unconfined Media

    Poludnenko, Alexei; Gardiner, Thomas; Oran, Elaine

    2011-11-01

    Deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) can occur in environments ranging from experimental and industrial systems on Earth to astrophysical thermonuclear supernovae explosions. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in elucidating the nature of this process in confined systems with walls, obstacles, etc. It remains unclear, however, whether a subsonic turbulent flame in an unconfined environment can undergo a DDT. We present simulations of premixed flames in stoichiometric H2-air and CH4-air mixtures interacting with high-intensity turbulence. These calculations demonstrate the DDT in unconfined systems unassisted by shocks or obstacles. We discuss the mechanism of this process and its implications.

  13. Three-dimensional groundwater velocity field in an unconfined aquifer under irrigation

    A method for three-dimensional flow velocity calculation has been developed to evaluate unconfined aquifer sensitivity to areal agricultural contamination of groundwater. The methodology of Polubarinova-Kochina is applied to an unconfined homogeneous compressible or incompressible anisotropic aquifer. It is based on a three-dimensional groundwater flow model with a boundary condition on the moving surface. Analytical solutions are obtained for a hydraulic head under the influence of areal sources of circular and rectangular shape using integral transforms. Two-dimensional Hantush formulas result from the vertical averaging of the three-dimensional solutions, and the asymptotic behavior of solutions is analyzed. Analytical expressions for flow velocity components are obtained from the gradient of the hydraulic head field. Areal and temporal variability of specific yield in groundwater recharge areas is also taken into account. As a consequence of linearization of the boundary condition, the operation of any irrigation system with respect to groundwater is represented by superposition of the operating wells and circular and rectangular source influences. Combining the obtained solutions with Dagan or Neuman well functions, one can develop computer codes for the analytical computation of the three-dimensional groundwater hydraulic head and velocity component distributions. Methods for practical implementation are discussed. (Author) (20 refs., 4 figs.)

  14. The use of coal fly ash in concrete for marine artificial reefs in the southeastern Mediterranean: compressive strength, sessile biota, and chemical composition

    Kress, N.; Tom, M.; Spanier, E. [National Institute of Oceanography, Haifa (Israel)

    2002-07-01

    To examine the possible use of coal fly ash (CFA) in concrete for artificial reefs, blocks containing 0%, 40%, 60% and 80% CFA as a substitute for sand were deployed in the Mediterranean at 18.5-m depth off the coast of Israel during a period of 33 months. Changes in compressive strength, composition, and coverage of sessile biota species, as well as in trace element concentration of the block surface and in sessile biota from four taxonomic groups, were determined as a function of time at sea and block type. Compressive strength clearly increased with time in all types to values well above the minimal strength considered necessary for stability of the blocks at sea. Moreover, the 40% and 60% CFA blocks were 1.5 times stronger than the 0% and 80% ones. Main sessile taxa recorded were filamentous green algae, bryozoa, barnacles, serpulid polychaeta, hydrozoa, and bivalves. Number of species settled and biotic coverage varied among block side and seasonally, but did not differ significantly between block types. The initial heavy metal composition (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Al) of the block material was directly proportional to the CFA percentage. At the end of the study, Pb had decreased in all types, Cd in the 60% CFA block, and Fe and Al in the 40% and 60% blocks, while Mn had increased in the blocks with 0% and 80% CFA. After 21 months at sea, the only detectable change was a decrease in Pb concentration in all types, indicating that changes may be due to long-term processes. Trace metal levels (Hg, Cd, Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, and Al) were measured in the sessile biota (hydrozoa, polychaeta, and bivalvia). In most cases, no dependence was found between metal levels and time at sea or CFA content of the blocks. In the hydroid, metal concentration even decreased over time.

  15. Improvement compressive strength of cementitious composites in different curing media by incorporating ZrO2 nanoparticles

    Mohammad Hossein Rafieipour; Ali Nazari; Mohammad Ali Mohandesi; Gholamreza Khalaj

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the effect of curing medium on microstructure, physical, mechanical and thermal properties of ZrO2 nanoparticles blended concrete has been investigated. ZrO2 nanoparticles were partially used instead of cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent. Curing of the specimens was carried out in water and saturated limewater for 7, 28 and 90 days. The results indicate that ZrO2 nanoparticles up to maximum of 2.0% produces cementitious composite with improved compressive stre...

  16. Confinement and controlling the effective compressive stiffness of carbyne

    Carbyne is a one-dimensional chain of carbon atoms, consisting of repeating sp-hybridized groups, thereby representing a minimalist molecular rod or chain. While exhibiting exemplary mechanical properties in tension (a 1D modulus on the order of 313 nN and a strength on the order of 11 nN), its use as a structural component at the molecular scale is limited due to its relative weakness in compression and the immediate onset of buckling under load. To circumvent this effect, here, we probe the effect of confinement to enhance the mechanical behavior of carbyne chains in compression. Through full atomistic molecular dynamics, we characterize the mechanical properties of a free (unconfined chain) and explore the effect of confinement radius (R), free chain length (L) and temperature (T) on the effective compressive stiffness of carbyne chains and demonstrate that the stiffness can be tuned over an order of magnitude (from approximately 0.54 kcal mol−1 Å2 to 46 kcal mol−1 Å2) by geometric control. Confinement may inherently stabilize the chains, potentially providing a platform for the synthesis of extraordinarily long chains (tens of nanometers) with variable compressive response. (paper)

  17. Compressive strength and resistance to chloride ion penetration and carbonation of recycled aggregate concrete with varying amount of fly ash and fine recycled aggregate.

    Sim, Jongsung; Park, Cheolwoo

    2011-11-01

    Construction and demolition waste has been dramatically increased in the last decade, and social and environmental concerns on the recycling have consequently been increased. Recent technology has greatly improved the recycling process for waste concrete. This study investigates the fundamental characteristics of concrete using recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) for its application to structural concrete members. The specimens used 100% coarse RCA, various replacement levels of natural aggregate with fine RCA, and several levels of fly ash addition. Compressive strength of mortar and concrete which used RCA gradually decreased as the amount of the recycled materials increased. Regardless of curing conditions and fly ash addition, the 28 days strength of the recycled aggregate concrete was greater than the design strength, 40 MPa, with a complete replacement of coarse aggregate and a replacement level of natural fine aggregate by fine RCA up to 60%. The recycled aggregate concrete achieved sufficient resistance to the chloride ion penetration. The measured carbonation depth did not indicate a clear relationship to the fine RCA replacement ratio but the recycled aggregate concrete could also attain adequate carbonation resistance. Based on the results from the experimental investigations, it is believed that the recycled aggregate concrete can be successfully applied to structural concrete members. PMID:21784626

  18. Effect of Superplasticizer and Extra Water on Workability and Compressive Strength of Self-Compacting Geopolymer Concrete

    Fareed Ahmed Memon; Muhd Fadhil Nuruddin; Samuel Demie; Nasir Shafiq

    2012-01-01

    This study documents the results of an experimental work carried out to investigate the effect of superplasticizer and amount of extra water on strength and workability properties of Fly ash-based Selfcompacting geopolymer concrete. The experiments were conducted by varying the amount of extra water and dosage of superplasticizer. A total of nine mixtures with superplasticizer content varying from 3 to 7% and extra water ranging from 10 to 20% of the mass of fly ash were prepared and tested. ...

  19. Physical-Based Inversion of Confined and Unconfined Aquifers under Unknown Boundary Conditions

    Zhang, Y.; Jiao, J.

    2013-12-01

    An inverse method is developed to simultaneously estimate multiple hydraulic conductivities, source/sink strengths, and boundary conditions (BC), for two-dimensional confined and unconfined aquifers under non-pumping or pumping conditions (Jiao & Zhang, 2013). The method is successfully tested on problems with regular and irregular geometries, different heterogeneity variances (maximum Kmax/Kmin is 10,000), and error magnitudes. Under non-pumping conditions, when error-free observed data are used to condition the inversion, the estimated conductivities and recharge rates are accurate within 8% of the true values. When data contain increasing errors, the estimated parameters become less accurate. For problems where the underlying parameter variation is unknown, equivalent conductivities and average recharge rates can be determined. Under pumping (and/or injection) conditions, a hybrid formulation is developed to address local source/sink effects as well as the impact of different types of BCs on drawdowns. Accurate results can be gained without local grid refinement at wells, inversion is thus successful with coarse grids leading to high computation efficiency. Flux measurements are not needed for the inversion to succeed; data requirement of the method is not much different from that of interpreting classic well tests. Finally, inversion accuracy is not sensitive to the degree of nonlinearity of the flow equations. Performance of the inverse method for confined and unconfined aquifer problems is similar in terms of the accuracy of the estimated parameters, the recovered head field (includling the BC), and the speed of the nonlinear solver. A select problem is presented in a set of figures (all relevant quantities have a consistent set of units). J Jiao and Y Zhang (2013) Physical-Based Inversion of Confined and Unconfined Aquifers under Unknown Boundary Conditions, Advances in Water Resources, in review. Unconfined problem with a pair of pumping and injection wells: Q1=-500 and Q2=500. (a) true model with four conductivities (K1=5, K2=50, K3=100, K4=150) and a recharge rate N=0.01. Location of a profile, AB, is shown. (b) head contours of the true model; (c) head contours by inversion with 31 cells when the measured heads contain 0.25% errors. (d) head profiles along AB by the true model and with inversion under increasing measurement errors.

  20. The compression strength investigations of AW-AlCu4Mg2Mn alloy based composites reinforced with SiC particles

    A. Kurzawa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper strength tests of composite materials based on AW-AlCu4Mg2Mn obtained in uniaxial compression test was studied.Materials used for examination were made from AW-AlCu4Mg2Mn alloy and porous preforms of SiC particles (grain size 6÷10μm bypressure infiltration (squeeze casting. The stress-strain curves of the materials with 10% vol., 20% vol., 30% vol. particles of SiC, as well unreinforcement alloy and microstructure of scrap surface samples in a plane parallel to the compressive force were analyzed. The investigated metal matrix composites are characterized by marked reduced the plastic strain values with increasing particle strengthening while the unreinforcement materials throughout the range of deformation show considerable plasticity. In the case of the material containing 10% vol of SiC the plastic strain is a slight strengthening of the material. With increasing of the particle content the plasticity decreases. Materials with 20%vol and 30%vol of SiC particles were brittle cracked at much higher values of stress σ.

  1. Effect of solution heat treatment on the internal architecture and compressive strength of an AlMg4.7Si8 alloy

    Tolnai, D., E-mail: domonkos.tolnai@hzg.de [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Eötvös Loránd University, Department of Materials Physics, POB 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Requena, G. [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Cloetens, P. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, F-38000 Grenoble Cédex (France); Lendvai, J. [Eötvös Loránd University, Department of Materials Physics, POB 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Degischer, H.P. [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    The evolution of the microstructure of an AlMg4.7Si8 alloy is investigated by scanning electron microscopy and ex situ synchrotron tomography in as-cast condition and subsequent solution treatments for 1 h and 25 h at 540 °C, respectively. The eutectic Mg{sub 2}Si phase, which presents a highly interconnected structure in the as-cast condition, undergoes significant morphological changes during the solution heat treatment. Statistical analyses of the particle distribution, the sphericity, the mean curvatures and Gaussian curvatures describe the disintegration of the interconnected seaweed-like structure followed by the rounding of the disintegrated fractions of the eutectic branches quantitatively. The ternary eutectic Si resulting from the Si-surplus to the stoichiometric Mg{sub 2}Si ratio of the alloy undergoes similar changes. The morphological evolution during solution heat treatment is correlated with results of elevated temperature compression tests at 300 °C. The elevated temperature compressive strength is more sensitive to the degree of interconnectivity of the three dimensional Mg{sub 2}Si network than to the shape of the individual particles.

  2. Effect of nepheline syenite particle size on diametrical compression strength and reliability of extruded ceramic Raschig rings used in packed towers

    Salem, A.; Rostami, N.

    2013-05-01

    In order to understand the effect of nepheline syenite particle size on physico-chemical properties of ceramic Raschig rings, the fluxing agent was grinded at different milling times. The compositions were prepared by blending the illitic-kaolinitic clay and pre-grinded particles. The rings were shaped by a laboratory extruder and then were sintered at 1200 degree centigrade. The mechanical reliability of sintered specimens was mathematically described by Weibull theory and the effect of pre-grinding of fluxing agent on Weibull modulus was evaluated by measuring the diametrical compression strength. Weibull modulus and strength were the criteria for selecting the suitable particle size range of nepheline syenite. It was found that the pre-grinding of nepheline syenite acts as fairly strong parameter on microstructure of rings. The investigation concludes that reliable rings can be fabricated if the particle size of nepheline syenite is arranged between 53 and 75 {mu}m. This enhancement in reliability is valuable in packed towers. (Author) 17 refs.

  3. Effect of nepheline syenite particle size on diametrical compression strength and reliability of extruded ceramic Raschig rings used in packed towers

    Salem, A.; Rostami, N.

    2013-06-01

    In order to understand the effect of nepheline syenite particle size on physico-chemical properties of ceramic Raschig rings, the fluxing agent was grinded at different milling times. The compositions were prepared by blending the illitic-kaolinitic clay and pre-grinded particles. The rings were shaped by a laboratory extruder and then were sintered at 1200 degree centigrade. The mechanical reliability of sintered specimens was mathematically described by Weibull theory and the effect of pre-grinding of fluxing agent on Weibull modulus was evaluated by measuring the diametrical compression strength. Weibull modulus and strength were the criteria for selecting the suitable particle size range of nepheline syenite. It was found that the pre-grinding of nepheline syenite acts as fairly strong parameter on microstructure of rings. The investigation concludes that reliable rings can be fabricated if the particle size of nepheline syenite is arranged between 53 and 75 {mu}m. This enhancement in reliability is valuable in packed towers. (Author)

  4. Effect of nepheline syenite particle size on diametrical compression strength and reliability of extruded ceramic Raschig rings used in packed towers

    In order to understand the effect of nepheline syenite particle size on physico-chemical properties of ceramic Raschig rings, the fluxing agent was grinded at different milling times. The compositions were prepared by blending the illitic-kaolinitic clay and pre-grinded particles. The rings were shaped by a laboratory extruder and then were sintered at 1200 degree centigrade. The mechanical reliability of sintered specimens was mathematically described by Weibull theory and the effect of pre-grinding of fluxing agent on Weibull modulus was evaluated by measuring the diametrical compression strength. Weibull modulus and strength were the criteria for selecting the suitable particle size range of nepheline syenite. It was found that the pre-grinding of nepheline syenite acts as fairly strong parameter on microstructure of rings. The investigation concludes that reliable rings can be fabricated if the particle size of nepheline syenite is arranged between 53 and 75 μm. This enhancement in reliability is valuable in packed towers. (Author) 17 refs.

  5. Effect of nepheline syenite particle size on diametrical compression strength and reliability of extruded ceramic Raschig rings used in packed towers

    In order to understand the effect of nepheline syenite particle size on physico-chemical properties of ceramic Raschig rings, the fluxing agent was grinded at different milling times. The compositions were prepared by blending the illitic-kaolinitic clay and pre-grinded particles. The rings were shaped by a laboratory extruder and then were sintered at 1200 degree centigrade. The mechanical reliability of sintered specimens was mathematically described by Weibull theory and the effect of pre-grinding of fluxing agent on Weibull modulus was evaluated by measuring the diametrical compression strength. Weibull modulus and strength were the criteria for selecting the suitable particle size range of nepheline syenite. It was found that the pre-grinding of nepheline syenite acts as fairly strong parameter on microstructure of rings. The investigation concludes that reliable rings can be fabricated if the particle size of nepheline syenite is arranged between 53 and 75 μm. This enhancement in reliability is valuable in packed towers. (Author)

  6. Comparing the strength of f.c.c. and b.c.c. sub-micrometer pillars: Compression experiments and dislocation dynamics simulations

    Greer, Julia R. [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125-8100 (United States)], E-mail: jrgreer@caltech.edu; Weinberger, Christopher R.; Cai, Wei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4040 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    We compare mechanical strength of f.c.c. gold and b.c.c. molybdenum single crystal pillars of sub-micrometer diameter in uniaxial compression tests. Both crystals show an increase of flow stress with decreasing diameter, but the change is more pronounced in Au than in Mo. The ratio between the observed maximum flow stress and the theoretical strength is much larger in Au pillars than in Mo pillars. Dislocation dynamics simulations also reveal different dislocation behavior in these two metals. While in a f.c.c. crystal a dislocation loop nucleated from the surface simply moves on its glide plane and exits the pillar, in a b.c.c. crystal it can generate multiple new dislocations due to the ease of screw dislocations to change slip planes. We postulate that this difference in dislocation behavior is the fundamental reason for the observed difference in the plastic deformation behavior of f.c.c. and b.c.c. pillars.

  7. Effect of Cement Stabilized Kaolin Subgrade on Strength Properties

    Nur Akmal Abd Karim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subgrade performance generally depends on the load bearing capacity of soil. This load is often affected by degree of compaction, moisture content and soil type. Poor subgrade should be avoided by removal, replace and add stabilizer agent to provide a suitable strength for subgrade. This study presents the effect of cement stabilizer on California Bearing Ratio (CBR and Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS for kaolin clay in low traffic volume road. The test conducted includes determination of liquid limits which leads to plasticity index for tested sample. Standard proctor test have been conducted to determine the optimum moisture content and maximum dry density of kaolin clay by using soil stabilizer with 0, 7 and 13% of Ordinary Portland cement (OPC. The CBR and UCS was conduct to determine the strength of kaolin clay at optimum moisture content and 7 days curing period to obtain minimum strength of the soil. Finding of this study shows cement stabilizer effectively increase the strength of kaolin clay. 8 % of cement was found to be the optimum percentage of cement content value to be added into kaolin soil which complies with the Malaysia Public Work Department (PWD specification.

  8. Dynamic triaxial compression experiments on Cor-Tuf specimens

    Mondal, Alex B.

    A set of dynamic triaxial compression experiments at 50 MPa, 100 MPa, and 200 MPa confinement have been conducted with a modified Kolsky bar on cylindrical ultra high strength concrete Cor-Tuf specimens of diameter 19 mm and length of 12.7 mm. The experiment is composed of a hydrostatic phase which occurs at a quasi-static strain rate followed by a dynamic shear phase which occurs at a high strain rate. A set of 28 experiments were conducted at strain rates of 100 s-1 and 200 s-1. The experiments show that the fracture strength of the material increases under the test conditions. The specimens showed higher strength in the dynamic confined experiments than both the quasi-static TXC tests and the unconfined dynamic tests. The strength increase was attributed to specimen size difference and not a strain rate or confinement effect. Although the trend towards brittle ductile transition is observed the specimens were not tested in a high enough confinement for the phase change to occur.

  9. TNT Equivalency of Unconfined Aerosols of Propylene Oxide

    A. Apparao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The unconfined aerosols of propylene oxide (PO are formed by dispersing the fuel in air. These aerosols undergo detonation by suitable initiation and produce high impulse blast. Tri-nitro Toluene (TNT equivalence is an important parameter used to represent the power of explosive materials and compare their relative damage effects wrt TNT. The parameters commonly used for estimation of TNT equivalency are total energy of explosive source and properties of resulting blast wave, viz., blast peak overpressure and positive impulse. In the present study, the unconfined aerosols of 4.2 kg PO were formed by breaking open the cylindrical canister with the help of axially positioned central burster charge and then detonated using a secondary explosive charge after a preset time delay. The resulting blast profiles were recorded and the blast parameters were analysed. Being a non-ideal explosive source, the TNT equivalency depends on fraction of total energy utilised for blast formation, the rate of energy release, cloud dimensions, and concentration of fuel. Hence, various approaches based on energy release, experimental blast profiles, triangulated blast parameters, and ground reflected blast parameters were considered to determine the TNT equivalency of unconfined PO aerosols. It was observed that the TNT equivalency is not a single value but vary with distance. The paper provides various options for weapon designer to choose a suitable approach for considering TNT equivalency. The scaling laws established from the experimental data of unconfined aerosols of PO for blast peak over pressure and scaled impulse help in predicting the performance for different values of fuel weight and distance.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 5, September 2014, pp.431-437, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.6851

  10. A stable and efficient numerical algorithm for unconfined aquifer analysis

    Keating, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zyvoloski, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The non-linearity of equations governing flow in unconfined aquifers poses challenges for numerical models, particularly in field-scale applications. Existing methods are often unstable, do not converge, or require extremely fine grids and small time steps. Standard modeling procedures such as automated model calibration and Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis typically require thousands of forward model runs. Stable and efficient model performance is essential to these analyses. We propose a new method that offers improvements in stability and efficiency, and is relatively tolerant of coarse grids. It applies a strategy similar to that in the MODFLOW code to solution of Richard's Equation with a grid-dependent pressure/saturation relationship. The method imposes a contrast between horizontal and vertical permeability in gridblocks containing the water table. We establish the accuracy of the method by comparison to an analytical solution for radial flow to a well in an unconfined aquifer with delayed yield. Using a suite of test problems, we demonstrate the efficiencies gained in speed and accuracy over two-phase simulations, and improved stability when compared to MODFLOW. The advantages for applications to transient unconfined aquifer analysis are clearly demonstrated by our examples. We also demonstrate applicability to mixed vadose zone/saturated zone applications, including transport, and find that the method shows great promise for these types of problem, as well.

  11. A stable and efficient numerical algorithm for unconfined aquifer analysis.

    Keating, Elizabeth; Zyvoloski, George

    2009-01-01

    The nonlinearity of equations governing flow in unconfined aquifers poses challenges for numerical models, particularly in field-scale applications. Existing methods are often unstable, do not converge, or require extremely fine grids and small time steps. Standard modeling procedures such as automated model calibration and Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis typically require thousands of model runs. Stable and efficient model performance is essential to these analyses. We propose a new method that offers improvements in stability and efficiency and is relatively tolerant of coarse grids. It applies a strategy similar to that in the MODFLOW code to the solution of Richard's equation with a grid-dependent pressure/saturation relationship. The method imposes a contrast between horizontal and vertical permeability in gridblocks containing the water table, does not require "dry" cells to convert to inactive cells, and allows recharge to flow through relatively dry cells to the water table. We establish the accuracy of the method by comparison to an analytical solution for radial flow to a well in an unconfined aquifer with delayed yield. Using a suite of test problems, we demonstrate the efficiencies gained in speed and accuracy over two-phase simulations, and improved stability when compared to MODFLOW. The advantages for applications to transient unconfined aquifer analysis are clearly demonstrated by our examples. We also demonstrate applicability to mixed vadose zone/saturated zone applications, including transport, and find that the method shows great promise for these types of problem as well. PMID:19341374

  12. Initial study of thermal energy storage in unconfined aquifers. [UCATES

    Haitjema, H.M.; Strack, O.D.L.

    1986-04-01

    Convective heat transport in unconfined aquifers is modeled in a semi-analytic way. The transient groundwater flow is modeled by superposition of analytic functions, whereby changes in the aquifer storage are represented by a network of triangles, each with a linearly varying sink distribution. This analytic formulation incorporates the nonlinearity of the differential equation for unconfined flow and eliminates numerical dispersion in modeling heat convection. The thermal losses through the aquifer base and vadose zone are modeled rather crudely. Only vertical heat conduction is considered in these boundaries, whereby a linearly varying temperature is assumed at all times. The latter assumption appears reasonable for thin aquifer boundaries. However, assuming such thin aquifer boundaries may lead to an overestimation of the thermal losses when the aquifer base is regarded as infinitely thick in reality. The approach is implemented in the computer program UCATES, which serves as a first step toward the development of a comprehensive screening tool for ATES systems in unconfined aquifers. In its present form, the program is capable of predicting the relative effects of regional flow on the efficiency of ATES systems. However, only after a more realistic heatloss mechanism is incorporated in UCATES will reliable predictions of absolute ATES efficiencies be possible.

  13. Controlled low-strength material using fly ash and AMD sludge.

    Gabr, M A; Bowders, J J

    2000-09-15

    Controlled low-strength material (CLSM) is a cementitious material with properties similar to stabilized soil. After hardening, CLSM provides adequate strength in bearing capacity and support but can also be easily excavated. To be classified as a CLSM, the material must have a compressive strength between 450 kPa (65 psi) and 8400 kPa (1200 psi). Typical CLSM contains coal-combustion fly ash (FA), cement, water and fine or coarse aggregate. In this paper, physical and strength properties of CLSM formed by combining sludge, a by-product from the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD), with Class F FA are investigated. The sludge is a lime-based waste product that when combined with FA, exhibits self-hardening characteristics similar to cement. A main focus of this research is to develop a CLSM mix in which by-product material utilization is maximized while satisfying workability and performance requirements. A mixture of 10% AMD sludge, 2.5% Portland cement (PC), 87.5% Class F FA (dry wt.%) with water provided unconfined compressive strength values within the range for classification as CLSM. This mixture satisfies the excavatability and walkability requirements as well as the hardening time and stability criteria. PMID:10936537

  14. Resistncia compresso de argamassas em funo da adio de fibra de coco / Compressive strength of cement mortar prepared with the addition of coconut fiber

    Everton J. da, Silva; Paola D. da, Silva; Maria L., Marques; Celso C. M., Fornari Junior; Fermin C., Garcia; Francisco H. M., Luzardo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se props analisar a influncia que a variao do comprimento da fibra de coco exerce na resistncia compresso da argamassa, em busca de se determinar, experimentalmente, o comprimento mais prximo ao tamanho crtico. Foram confeccionadas argamassas com adio (0,3% em relao ao v [...] olume total da mistura) de 6 comprimentos diferentes de fibras de coco: 12,5; 25,0; 37,5; 50,0; 62,5 e 75,0 mm, alm de uma argamassa de referncia sem adio de fibra de coco. Para a avaliao do comportamento de cada um deles na argamassa foram efetuados ensaios de consistncia no estado fresco e resistncia compresso axial no estado endurecido, realizado nas idades 7, 28 e 56 dias, ao longo do primeiro semestre de 2013. Foi observado que todos os comprimentos de fibra testados diminuem a resistncia compresso em relao argamassa de referncia, nas trs idades. No entanto, dentre esses comprimentos testados, pode-se afirmar que a argamassa com adio de fibras de comprimento 25,0 mm obteve melhor desempenho nas trs idades testadas. Abstract in english This paper aims to analyse the influence that the length of coconut fiber exerts on compressive strength of mortar seeking to determine their critical length. Mortars were prepared with addition (0.3% volume of the mixture) of 6 different lengths of coconut fibers: 12.5, 25.0, 37.5, 50.0, 62.5 and 7 [...] 5.0 mm, and a reference mortar. To study the behavior of each one in mortar, consistency tests were performed on fresh and hard state in axial compression strength test at three ages (7, 28 and 56 days) during the first half of 2013. It was observed that all lengths tested decrease resistance compared to the reference mortar in three ages, however, the mortar with addition of 25.0 mm length fibers had a better performance in the study.

  15. In-situ Rock Spalling Strength near Excavation Boundaries

    Cai, M.; Kaiser, P. K.

    2014-03-01

    It is widely accepted that the in-situ strength of massive rocks is approximately 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS, where UCS is the uniaxial compressive strength obtained from unconfined tests using diamond drilling core samples with a diameter around 50 mm. In addition, it has been suggested that the in-situ rock spalling strength, i.e., the strength of the wall of an excavation when spalling initiates, can be set to the crack initiation stress determined from laboratory tests or field microseismic monitoring. These findings were supported by back-analysis of case histories where failure had been carefully documented, using either Kirsch's solution (with approximated circular tunnel geometry and hence σ max = 3σ 1 -σ 3) or simplified numerical stress modeling (with a smooth tunnel wall boundary) to approximate the maximum tangential stress σ max at the excavation boundary. The ratio of σ max /UCS is related to the observed depth of failure and failure initiation occurs when σ max is roughly equal to 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS. In this article, it is suggested that these approaches ignore one of the most important factors, the irregularity of the excavation boundary, when interpreting the in-situ rock strength. It is demonstrated that the "actual" in-situ spalling strength of massive rocks is not equal to 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS, but can be as high as 0.8 ± 0.05 UCS when surface irregularities are considered. It is demonstrated using the Mine-by tunnel notch breakout example that when the realistic "as-built" excavation boundary condition is honored, the "actual" in-situ rock strength, given by 0.8 UCS, can be applied to simulate progressive brittle rock failure process satisfactorily. The interpreted, reduced in-situ rock strength of 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS without considering geometry irregularity is therefore only an "apparent" rock strength.

  16. Formulation of the effects of strain rate on concrete strength. No.1. Application of the split Hopkinson pressure bar method to impact test, and the compressive strength test results

    An impact test apparatus of concrete material was developed with both hydraulic loading system and Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar type loading system. A data processing method to distinguish an incident wave and a reflected wave was developed in the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar type system to be capable of precise traces of average stresses at the both ends of the test specimen by strain gauges positioned near the test specimen on the pressure bars. In this apparatus, 10 cm diameter bars were used taking account of the maximum aggregate size of the concrete. To mitigate the calculation error in the inversion method due to the stress wave dispersion and radial effect, a shock absorbing material was used to omit the high frequency components of the incident wave and deform the test specimen uniformly. As a result, the estimated errors as to the longitudinal stress distribution were acceptable during the impact loading time to deform an test specimen completely. According to the test results, the strain rate effect on the compressive concrete strength from one-thousandth/sec to one-hundred/sec was made clear. Moreover, a moisture presence in the specimen was regarded as an important factor influencing the strain rate effect on the concrete material. (author)

  17. Mtodos de fixao de fraturas mandibulares em ces: resistncia mecnica compresso Strength to compression of fractured mandible fixed with different methods in dogs

    Sheila Canevese Rahal

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi testada a resistncia mecnica compresso em 30 hemimandbulas coletadas de cadveres caninos. Dez. hemimandbulas foram mantidas ntegras (grupo 1 = controle. As outras 20 foram submetidas inicialmente a fraturas oblquas simples, entre o segundo e terceiro pr-molares e, posteriormente, imobilizadas por meio do emprego de resina acrlica aplicada diretamente sobre as superfcies dentrias em conjunto com o fio metlico interdental (grupo 2 ou interfragmentar (grupo 3. A anlise estatstica mostrou diferena significativa entre os grupos (Gl>G2>G3. Foi possvel concluir que o mtodo empregado no grupo 2, alm de ser menos invasivo e no ter o perigo de danificar as razes dentrias, mecanicamente mais resistente do que o utilizado no grupo 3.Strength to compression of 30 hemimandibles obtained from canine cadavers was tested. Ten intact hemimandibles were used as controls (group 1. The other twenty hemimandibles were submitted to simple oblique fractures between the second and third premolars. The hemimandibles were fixed with acrylic resin applied to the tooth crown surface combined with interdental wire (group 2 or interfragmentary wire (group 3. The method used in hemimandibles of group 2 was more resistam than that used in the group 3. Besides that it was less invasive and did not damage the tooth roots.

  18. Development Trend of the Compressive Strength of an In-Service Sidewall Corroded by Sulphate with a High Concentration of Ca2+

    Wei He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the bedrock section of the auxiliary shaft of the Tong-ting coal mine, the sidewall has varying degradation degrees in different parts. The part on which water flowed is barely corroded, whereas the moist part near the pouring joints is seriously corroded. We first studied the mechanism of this phenomenon by chromatography, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We then used simplified models built by particle flow code software (i.e., particle flow code in three dimensions, PFC3D to analyse how increasing degradation depth affects compressive strength and failure patterns. The results were as follows. (1 Gypsum and calcite in corrosive water were supersaturated. The part on which water flowed was protected by the crystallized precipitation on the concrete. By contrast, the degradation of the part where water flowed through pouring joints was aggravated by internal crystallization and dissolution. (2 PFC3D numerical simulation indicated that decreases in vertical ultimate stress were strongly linearly correlated with degradation depth. As for the −355.5 m damaged part, reinforcement should be conducted before degradation depth reaches 250 mm. (3 No obvious signs were observed prior to the failure of the corroded sidewall. Therefore, the development of degradation depth should be monitored before degradation parts are reinforced.

  19. Concrete-Filled-Large Deformable FRP Tubular Columns under Axial Compressive Loading

    Omar I. Abdelkarim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of concrete-filled fiber tubes (CFFT polymers under axial compressive loading was investigated. Unlike the traditional fiber reinforced polymers (FRP such as carbon, glass, aramid, etc., the FRP tubes in this study were designed using large rupture strains FRP which are made of recycled materials such as plastic bottles; hence, large rupture strain (LRS FRP composites are environmentally friendly and can be used in the context of green construction. This study performed finite element (FE analysis using LS-DYNA software to conduct an extensive parametric study on CFFT. The effects of the FRP confinement ratio, the unconfined concrete compressive strength ( , column size, and column aspect ratio on the behavior of the CFFT under axial compressive loading were investigated during this study. A comparison between the behavior of the CFFTs with LRS-FRP and those with traditional FRP (carbon and glass with a high range of confinement ratios was conducted as well. A new hybrid FRP system combined with traditional and LRS-FRP is proposed. Generally, the CFFTs with LRS-FRP showed remarkable behavior under axial loading in strength and ultimate strain. Equations to estimate the concrete dilation parameter and dilation angle of the CFFTs with LRS-FRP tubes and hybrid FRP tubes are suggested.

  20. Effect of nepheline syenite particle size on diametrical compression strength and reliability of extruded ceramic Raschig rings used in packed towers

    Salem, Amin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the effect of nepheline syenite particle size on physico-chemical properties of ceramic Raschig rings, the fluxing agent was grinded at different milling times. The compositions were prepared by blending the illitic-kaolinitic clay and pre-grinded particles. The rings were shaped by a laboratory extruder and then were sintered at 1200 ºC. The mechanical reliability of sintered specimens was mathematically described by Weibull theory and the effect of pre-grinding of fluxing agent on Weibull modulus was evaluated by measuring the diametrical compression strength. Weibull modulus and strength were the criteria for selecting the suitable particle size range of nepheline syenite. It was found that the pre-grinding of nepheline syenite acts as fairly strong parameter on microstructure of rings. The investigation concludes that reliable rings can be fabricated if the particle size of nepheline syenite is arranged between 53 and 75 μm. This enhancement in reliability is valuable in packed towers.Para conocer el efecto del tamaño de partícula de nefelina sienita sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los anillos Raschig cerámicos, este fundente fue molido a diferentes tiempos. Las composiciones se prepararon mediante la mezcla de la arcilla caolinítica illitica y las partículas pre-molidas. Los anillos se obtuvieron en una extrusora de laboratorio y luego fueron sinterizados a 1200 ºC. La fiabilidad mecánica de las muestras sinterizadas se describe matemáticamente por la teoría de Weibull y el efecto de pre-molienda del fundente en el módulo de Weibull se evaluó midiendo la resistencia a la compresión diametral. El módulo de Weibull y la resistencia fueron los criterios para seleccionar el rango de tamaño de partícula adecuado de nefelina sienita para la fabricación de los anillos que se determinó estaba entre 53 y 75 μm comprobándose que influye considerablemente en la microestructura de los mismos. La fiabilidad alcanzada fue muy valiosa para la utilización de estos anillos como relleno en ldistintos tipos de torres.

  1. Compressive strain-dependent bending strength property of Al2O3-ZrO2 (1.5 mol% Y2O3) composites performance by HIP

    Nanometric powders and sintered ceramics of Al2O3-ZrO2 (1.5 mol% Y2O3) prepared by hot isostatic pressing HIP have been studied. A detailed crystallographic study has been performed through X-ray diffraction, Williamson-Hall method, Rietveld method and high-resolution electron microscopy HREM analysis. The crystallographic structure data, such as domain size, lattice parameters, wt% phase, and micro-strain direction have been obtained using Rietveld refinement and Williamson-Hall methods. The results revealed that the compressive strain (ε) increased from 0.56 to 1.18 (10-3) as the t-ZrO2 content increased too. The HREM interface study conducted along the [0 0 0 1]Al2O3||[0 0 1]ZrO2 zone axis revealed a micro-strain lattice distortion accumulated at the grain boundary due to the ZrO2 martensitic phase transformation on cooling, t-ZrO2 grains coalescence and to the grain growth of α-Al2O3 which cause elongated tetragonal crystals. Micro-strain lattice distortion is adjusted by the shear displacements of the planes (1 1 0) and (11-bar0) along [1-bar10] and [1-bar1-bar0] crystallographic directions, respectively; these planes are arrested by the (101-bar0) alumina plane. In this case, semi-coherent interfaces were observed along the grain boundary. It is verified that the bending strength increased in connection with the strain accumulation and amount of tetragonal structure

  2. Projection-based Model Reduction of Unconfined Groundwater Systems

    Nishikawa, T.; Boyce, S. E.; Yeh, W.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater management is enhanced by the development and implementation of mathematical models to evaluate the effects on an aquifer system of various management actions. These evaluations often require a large number of simulations to conduct advanced analyses such as optimization of pumping schedules. Such analyses are intractable for complex, highly-discretized, or regional-scale models with large computational requirements. Therefore, reducing the computational burden associated with these models will provide opportunities for the application of optimization tools and other advanced analyses to a wider spectrum of groundwater management problems. Projection-based model reduction techniques have been shown to be very effective for reducing the computational burden of large-scale simulations. This type of model reduction involves construction of a projection matrix that is used to reduce the state dimensionality of a model by applying principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the components of the original model that have the largest impact on its output. It is also referred to as Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). The projection-based reduction technique preserves the underlying physics of the system and removes components that do not provide significant information to the simulation. Previous researchers have reduced the dimensionality of the confined groundwater equation by three orders of magnitude using POD. To date, POD has only been applied to linear models such as the confined groundwater equation. A novel approach is proposed in this paper that combines the Newton formulation of the unconfined groundwater equation with a projection-based model reduction technique similar to POD. The proposed methodology is applied to the Newton formulation of MODFLOW (MODFLOW-NWT). We first validate the proposed methodology on a 1-D, unconfined MODFLOW-NWT model that solves 100 equations per time step (100-node model) and produced equivalent results by solving 10 equations per time step. We then apply the methodology to a 3-D, unconfined MODFLOW-NWT model. The original full-scale model with 500,000 nodes is reduced to 100 nodes, with about 1% error.

  3. Unconfined deflagrative explosions without turbulence: experiments and model

    This paper reviews laboratory, balloon and open field experiments which have been performed to study the deflagration regime in free air. In a first part, are considered different models available to estimate deflagrative unconfined explosions effects, without turbulence. Then, a description is given of the known performed tests, which indicate the effective scale of various experiments, their operating conditions and the type of measurements carried out. Results are presented and discussed. The influence on the explosion force of different parameters (fuel concentration gradients, flammable mixture shape and size, ignition energy) is estimated. The overall conclusion of this survey is that flammable mixtures drifting over open field and ignited, will burn with low flame speed and consequently will generate very weak pressure effects

  4. Modeling Decomposition of Unconfined Rigid Polyurethane Foam; TOPICAL

    The decomposition of unconfined rigid polyurethane foam has been modeled by a kinetic bond-breaking scheme describing degradation of a primary polymer and formation of a thermally stable secondary polymer. The bond-breaking scheme is resolved using percolation theory to describe evolving polymer fragments. The polymer fragments vaporize according to individual vapor pressures. Kinetic parameters for the model were obtained from Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The chemical structure of the foam was determined from the preparation techniques and ingredients used to synthesize the foam. Scale-up effects were investigated by simulating the response of an incident heat flux of 25 W/cm(sup 2) on a partially confined 8.8-cm diameter by 15-cm long right circular cylinder of foam which contained an encapsulated component. Predictions of center, midradial, and component temperatures, as well as regression of the foam surface, were in agreement with measurements using thermocouples and X-ray imaging

  5. Truly unconfined deflagrations of ethylene-air mixtures

    To estimate the possible over-pressure on the structures of a nuclear power plant under an external explosion, studies on unconfined explosions to provide the necessary elements to establish a safety rule, have been developed. The present research contract, carried out by a French group CEA-EDF-ENSMA, was divided in four stages: 1) Scale effect on the pressure field produced by spontaneous accelerations on blasts in an steady medium; 2) effect of a brutal discontinuity of the fuel gas concentration on the blast speed in a stratified medium; 3) effect of the blast-off energy on the explosion of a spherical ethylene-air mixture; 4) study of the influence of the shape and of the size of the cloud on the pressure field produced by the explosion

  6. Ultimate shear strength of vertical connections between precast concrete wall panels. ; Considering dowel action and restraint compression. Kabeshiki precast kozo enchoku setsugobu no sendan tairyoku. ; Dowel koka oyobi asshuku kosokuryoku wo koryoshita baai

    Mochizuki, S. (Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Makitani, E. (Kanto-Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Nagasaka, T. (Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-07-30

    The ultimate shear resistance mechanism of vertical connections between precast concrete wall panels was made clear, and the ultimate shear strength formulas were obtained considering both the dowel action and the compressive stress acting on the interface. The mathematical model for the ultimate shear resistance of vertical connection was derived from limit analysis using both Johansen{prime}s yield-line theory and modified Mohr-Coulomb{prime}s fracture criteria. To examine the applicability of the proposed formulas, a shearing test was conducted by using S-type specimens with vertical connection. In testing specimens such as plane type without cotters, shear-key type with a few cotters, and other types, each item of direct shear resistance of cotters, dowel action, shear resistance by cotter reinforcement, effects of lateral compressive stress were examined. According to the results, the application range concerning some factors such as concrete compressive strength when using the proposed formulas as designing ones was determined. 25 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  7. The influence of post-local buckling mechanics on the stress variations, axial stiffness and ultimate failure strength of uniformly compressed thin-walled i-section struts

    It is well known that thin-walled compression members are subject to the effects of local buckling and that due to these local effects the compressive carrying capability of short strut members can be significantly reduced. Finite element simulation is employed in this paper to examine the post-buckled response of thin-walled sections giving due consideration to the influence of geometric imperfections and to elasto-plastic material behaviour. The findings from this work highlight the complete loading history of the compression struts from the onset of elastic local buckling through the nonlinear elastic and elasto-plastic post-buckling phases of behaviour to final collapse and unloading. A detailed account of the growth and redistribution of stresses as well as the influence of yielding and yield propagation throughout loading is given in the paper. The results from the finite element simulations are shown to compare well with independent simulations using the finite strip method of analysis.

  8. Slug test in an unconfined aquifer: A Richards` equation perspective

    Weeber, P. [HSI Geotrans, Roswell, GA (United States); Narasimhan, T.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Slug tests have been used for over 30 years as a means of evaluating hydraulic parameters of aquifers. The interpretation of transient water level data from these tests has almost exclusively been based on fitting the data to analytical solutions or on using semi-analytical methods. Because these methods are constrained by simplifying assumptions, it is useful to investigate the conditions under which these assumptions are reasonable so that the interpretation of field data can be carried out with increased confidence. To this end, the authors investigate the transient flow of water in an unconfined aquifer during a slug test, using a numerical model that solves the generalized Richards` equation. The model accounts for saturated-unsaturated flow, time-dependent seepage face in the well, various combinations of blank casings and well screens, and injection or withdrawal tests. Parametric studies were conducted using a fully penetrating well in a 10 meter thick, homogeneous, isotropic aquifer with an initial hydrostatic condition in order to provide insights into such issues as (1) the difference in response between injection and bail-out tests, (2) the significance of flow through the transient seepage face, and (3) the role of the unsaturated zone. An examination of the flow anatomy suggests that flow in the unsaturated zone is significant and important, although the response of the water level in the well may not be very sensitive to the unsaturated zone processes. A second part of the present study investigated the reasonableness of widely used techniques of interpretation.

  9. Transient radial flow to a well in an unconfined aquifer

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Zhu, Ming.

    1991-08-01

    The analytic solutions of Boulton (1954) and Neuman (1972) for transient flow to a well in an unconfined aquifer are based on the assumption that the role of the unsaturated zone can be adequately accounted for by restricting attention to the release of water from the zone through which the water table moves. Both researchers mathematically treat this released water as a time-dependent source term. The differences between the models of Boulton and Neuman are that the former neglects vertical components of flow in the aquifer, but allows for an exponential process for the release of water as a function of time, whereas the latter assumes instantaneous release from storage, but accounts for vertical components of flow. Given this set of assumptions, we examine the applicability of these two methods using a general purpose numerical model through a process of verification extension and comparison. The issues addressed include: the role of well-bore storage in masking intermediate-time behavior, combined effects of exponential release as well as vertical flow, logic for vertical averaging of drawdowns, and the sensitivity of system response to the magnitude of specific yield. The issue of how good the assumptions of Boulton and Neuman are in the context of the general theory of unsaturated flow is addressed in part 2 of this two-part series of reports.

  10. Solid state products of the thermal decomposition of confined and unconfined triaminotrinitrobenzene

    Catalano, E.; Rolon, C.E.

    1983-01-01

    The solid state products formed by the thermal decomposition of triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) were examined using infrared spectroscopy and optical and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM). Several phases were observed in condensates and residues from unconfined decompositions. The residues from confined decompositions show that very little decomposition occurs until times near the time to explosion. A model for the unconfined decomposition is presented. 16 references, 9 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Compsitos de cimento Portland com adio de nanotubos de carbono (NTC): Propriedades no estado fresco e resistncia compresso / Portland cement composites with carbon nanotubes (CNT) addition: Properties in freshly state and compressive strength

    Marcelo Henrique Farias de, Medeiros; Francielle, Dranka; Alcio Jnior, Mattana; Marienne do Rocio de Mello Maron da, Costa.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alguns estudos tm sido desenvolvidos sobre a adio de nanotubos de carbono (NTCs) em compsitos cimentcios e indicam melhorias nas propriedades mecnicas, como aumento da resistncia compresso, trao e diminuio da porosidade. Com base nessas possveis melhorias, essa pesquisa foi realizad [...] a para analisar a influncia dos NTCs na resistncia compresso e fluidez de compsitos de cimento Portland que possam ser usados para reabilitao de estruturas de concreto. Desse modo, foram realizados ensaios de resistncia compresso, squeeze flow, flow table, funil de Marsh e miniabatimento. Foram fixadas uma argamassa e uma pasta de referncia (sem adio de nanotubos de carbono), que foram replicadas com mesmo trao e a incorporao de 5 teores de NTCs em relao massa de cimento: 0,1%, 0,2%, 0,3%, 0,4% e 0,5%. Estes teores foram escolhidos de modo a abranger a faixa de teores mais usadas nas pesquisas sobre NTCs adicionados aos compsitos de cimento Portland. Com relao aos ensaios de medio de fluidez, foi constatado que quanto maior o teor de NTC, mais consistente o compsito cimentcio, com indcios de que os teores menores ou iguais a 0,3% so mais adequados para manter a fluidez do compsito de cimento Portland. No caso da resistncia compresso, os resultados indicam que a adio de 0,40% de nanotubos de carbono tende a elevar a resistncia em 27%. Por outro lado, a adio de 0,5% de NTC deixou o compsito to consistente que dificultou a moldagem e a elevao da resistncia foi nula comparada a srie de referncia. Abstract in english Currently there are some studies on the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in cement composites. These studies indicate enhancements in the mechanical properties, such as increase in compressive strength, tensile strength and durability, and porosity decrease. Based on these possible improvements, [...] this research was conducted to analyze the influence of CNTs on the compressive strength of mortar for rehabilitation of concrete structures, as well as in their consistency. Compressive strength, squeeze flow, flow table, marsh funnel and mini-slump tests were carried. A control mortar and paste were used (without carbon nanotubes added), which was replicated with the same mix proportioning and the incorporation of 5 levels of CNTs related to the cement mass: 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% to 0.5%. These concentrations were chosen to cover the commonly range used in researches about Portland cement composites with CNTs addition. Regarding the tests for measuring the fluidity of mortars and pastes, it was found that the higher the percentage of CNT, more consistent the cement Portland composite became, with evidence that smaller or equal to 0.3% levels of NTCs are more adequate to maintain the fluidity of the Portland cement composite. Results indicate that the addition of 0.40% of carbon nanotubes increases the compressive strength by 27%. On the other hand, addition of 0.5% of CNT became the Portland cement composite very consistent, making difficult the molding process, so that the increase in compressive strength was zero compared to the control mortar.

  12. A new diagnostic device for in-situ determination of conventional strength and modulus of deformability in compression of wood parallel to fiber

    Kloiber, Michal; Kunecký, Jiří; Tippner, J.; Sebera, V.

    Mexico City : Instituto de Ingeniería UNAM, 2014 - (Peña, F.; Chávez, M.) ISBN N R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV001; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : semi-destructive device * in-situ measurement * finite element analysis * compression Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0238193

  13. Chemical Stabilisation of Sand Part IX: Orthophthalate type Unsaturated Polyester Resin for Inducing Fast setting Behaviour and High Strength

    B. P. Gupta

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer concrete composites have been made from orthophthalate-type unsaturated polyester resin, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide as initiator, cobalt naphthenate as accelerator and desert sand as filler. Composites preferred using resin (10-25 per cent, initiator (4 per cent and accelerator (2 per cent with representative desert sand samples of different particle sizes (0.2-0.02 mm, 2-0.2 mm and 4-2 mm as filler recorded unconfined compression strength ranging from 4 to 442 kg/cm/sup 2/ after curing at 50 degree centigrade in an oven for 0.5-24 h. Using coarse and fine sand samples with 10 and 15 per cent resin systems the maximum strength of 391 and 326 kg/cm/sup 2/ respectively was attained after 2 h of curing at 50 degree centigrade. The fast setting resin system with strength in this range is quite adequate for the construction of chemically stabilised surfaces, which withstand trafficability of vehicles, operation of helicopters and aircraft's requiring a maximum strength up to 275 kg/cm/sup 2/. These composites may prove useful for rapid repair of roads, helipads and runways damaged during operational activities. A mathematical model has been developed for predicting resin percentage needed for obtaining composite material of requisite strength. The observed and model predicted values have been found to show close agreement.

  14. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and their effect on the compressive strength and setting time of self-compacted concrete paste as cementitious composites.

    Arefi, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei-Zarchi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete were investigated after the addition of different amounts of ZnO nanoparticles. The zinc oxide nanoparticles, with an average particle size of about 30 nm, were synthesized and their properties studied with the help of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. The prepared nanoparticles were partially added to self-compacting concrete at different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0%), and the mechanical (flexural and split tensile) strength of the specimens measured after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, respectively. The present results have shown that the ZnO nanoparticles were able to improve the flexural strength of self-compacting concrete. The increased ZnO content of more than 0.2% could increase the flexural strength, and the maximum flexural and split tensile strength was observed after the addition of 0.5% nanoparticles. Finally, ZnO nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of the self-compacted concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and less-harmful pores, while increasing mechanical strength. PMID:22605981

  15. Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Effect on the Compressive Strength and Setting Time of Self-Compacted Concrete Paste as Cementitious Composites

    Mohammad Reza Arefi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete were investigated after the addition of different amounts of ZnO nanoparticles. The zinc oxide nanoparticles, with an average particle size of about 30 nm, were synthesized and their properties studied with the help of a scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction. The prepared nanoparticles were partially added to self-compacting concrete at different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0%, and the mechanical (flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens measured after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, respectively. The present results have shown that the ZnO nanoparticles were able to improve the flexural strength of self-compacting concrete. The increased ZnO content of more than 0.2% could increase the flexural strength, and the maximum flexural and split tensile strength was observed after the addition of 0.5% nanoparticles. Finally, ZnO nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of the self-compacted concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and less-harmful pores, while increasing mechanical strength.

  16. Transport and sedimentation in unconfined experimental dilute pyroclastic density currents

    Ramirez, G.; Andrews, B. J.; Dennen, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    We present results from experiments conducted in a new facility that permits the study of large, unconfined particle laden density currents that are dynamically similar to natural dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Experiments were run in a sealed, air-filled tank measuring 8.5 m long by 6.1 m wide by 2.6 m tall. Currents were generated by feeding mixture of heated particles (5 μm aluminum oxide, 25 μm talc, 27 μm walnut shell, 76 μm glass beads) down a chute at controlled rates to produce dilute, turbulent gravity currents. Comparison of experimental currents with natural PDCs shows good agreement between Froude, densimetric and thermal Richardson, and particle Stokes and settling numbers; experimental currents have lower Reynolds numbers than natural PDCs, but are fully turbulent. Currents were illuminated with 3 orthogonal laser sheets (650, 532, and 450 nm wavelengths) and recorded with an array of HD video cameras and a high speed camera (up to 3000 fps). Deposits were mapped using a grid of sedimentation traps. We observe distinct differences between ambient temperature and warm currents: * warm currents have shorter run out distances, narrow map view distributions of currents and deposits, thicken with distance from the source, and lift off to form coignimbrite plumes; * ambient temperature currents typically travel farther, spread out radially, do not thicken greatly with transport distance, and do not form coignimbrite plumes. Long duration currents (600 s compared to 30-100 s) oscillate laterally with time (e.g. transport to the right, then the left, and back); this oscillation happens prior to any interaction with the tank walls. Isopach maps of the deposits show predictable trends in sedimentation versus distance in response to eruption parameters (eruption rate, duration, temperature, and initial current mass), but all sedimentation curves can be fit with 2nd order polynomials (R2>.9). Proximal sedimentation is similar in comparable warm and ambient temperature currents, but distal sedimentation (beyond the current runout) increases in warm currents reflecting deposition from coignimbrite plumes. We are currently developing analytical models to link the observed transport and sedimentation results.

  17. Temperature and moisture content effects on compressive strength parallel to the grain of paric / Efeito da temperature e do teor de umidade na resistncia compresso paralela s fibras do paric

    Manuel Jess Manrquez, Figueroa; Poliana Dias de, Moraes; Fernanda Almeida, Maestri.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo avaliar o efeito da temperatura e do teorde umidade na resistncia compresso paralela s fibras do paric (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke) de florestas plantadas. Os experimentos foram realizados em 3 amostras de madeira em diferentes condies: aquecida (HT), t [...] ratamento trmico (TT), e saturada em gua (WS). A amostra HT consistiu-se de 105 corpos de prova classificados em 15 grupos, a amostra TT consistiu-se em corpos de prova classificados em 15 grupos, a amostra WS consistiu-se em 90 corpos de prova classificados em 9 grupos. Os corpos de prova das amostras HT e WS foram testados em uma faixa de temperatura de 20 a 230 C e de 20 a 100 C, respectivamente. Os corpos de prova da amostra HT foram testados temperatura ambiente, mas aps serem submetidos a um tratamento trmico. As amostras HT, TT e WS apresentaram reduo da resistncia compresso, as quais atingiram 65%, 76% e 59% da resistncia compresso temperatura ambiente, respectivamente. A reduo da resistncia compresso das amostras de HT e WS pode ser associada degradao trmica dos polmeros da madeira e da reduo do teor de umidade. Para a amostra TT, a resistncia dos corpos de prova aumentou para uma temperatura de pr-aquecimento de at 170 C, devido reduo do teor de umidade. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the temperature and moisture content on the compressive strength parallel to the grain of paric (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke) from cultivated forests. The experiments were carried out on 3 timber samples under different conditions: heat [...] ed (HT), thermal treatment (TT) and water saturated (WS). The HT sample consisted of 105 clear specimens assembled in 15 groups, the TT consisted of 90 clear specimens assembled in 15 groups and the WS consisted of 90 clear specimens assembled in 9 groups. The specimens from HT and WS samples were tested at a temperature range from 20 to 230 C and 20 to 100 C, respectively. The HT specimens were tested at ambient temperature, but after being submitted to thermal treatment. The HT, TT and WS samples present a decrease in the compressive strength, reaching 65%, 76% and 59% of the compressive strength at room temperature, respectively. The decrease in the compressive strength of the HT and WS samples can be associated to the thermal degradation of wood polymers and the moisture content. For the TT sample, the strength increased for a pre-heating temperature of up to 170 C due to the reduction in the moisture content of the specimens.

  18. Investigation on fatigue strength of a shaft with diameter enlarged partially by combination of a cyclic bending load with an axial compressive load

    Zhu, X.; Kuwahara, Y.; Okabe, N.; Ogi, K.; Ikuta, F.

    2010-03-01

    This paper investigates fatigue strength and existence of mechanical damage experimentally and analytically. In particular, first, we carry out rotary bending fatigue tests and investigate fatigue strength for smooth specimens and specimen processed using the working method. Secondly, we measure Vickers hardness value to investigate strain hardening, and observe microstructure to investigate microstructure change in the diameter-enlargement part. Finally, we simulate stress and strain distribution in the processed part during the processing, using finite element method (FEM), and calculate stress concentration rate and plastic strain. And we predict the existence of mechanical damage in the processed part during the processing experimentally and numerical-analytically. The results of the experiments and analyses indicate that the fatigue damage is not generated in the processed part during the processing in the discussed range of the diameter-enlargement rate D/D0<1.8, through comparing with the smooth specimens.

  19. A semi-analytical solution for slug tests in an unconfined aquifer considering unsaturated flow

    Sun, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    A semi-analytical solution considering the vertical unsaturated flow is developed for groundwater flow in response to a slug test in an unconfined aquifer in Laplace space. The new solution incorporates the effects of partial penetrating, anisotropy, vertical unsaturated flow, and a moving water table boundary. Compared to the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) model, the new solution can significantly improve the fittings of the modeled to the measured hydraulic heads at the late stage of slug tests in an unconfined aquifer, particularly when the slug well has a partially submerged screen and moisture drainage above the water table is significant. The radial hydraulic conductivities estimated with the new solution are comparable to those from the KGS, Bouwer and Rice, and Hvorslev methods. In addition, the new solution also can be used to examine the vertical conductivity, specific storage, specific yield, and the moisture retention parameters in an unconfined aquifer based on slug test data.

  20. Compressive and tensile failure at high fluid pressure where preexisting fractures have cohesive strength, with application to the San Andreas fault

    Fournier, R.O.

    1996-01-01

    In thrusting and strike-slip situations, when the maximum principal horizontal stress S1 acts nearly normal to a fault (a misoriented fault, such as the San Andreas), pore-fluid pressure > the lithostatic load, Pf > Sv, is required to reactivate movement on that fault. Pf > Sv may be achieved without causing hydraulic tensile fracturing if (1) previously existing cracks have regained cohesive strength by chemical processes, (2) subcritical crack growth has been blunted, and (3) the least principal horizontal stress S3 nearly equals Sv. Where Pf > Sv has been attained within a misaligned fault, increasing the stress difference (S1 - S3) at constant Pf > Sv will not lead to shear failure, while a decrease in (S1 - S3) can lead to shear failure of that fault. However, where the cohesive strength of material in a broad misaligned fault zone is less than that of the surrounding intact rock, increasing (S1 - S3) while Pf > Sv can result in shear failure of fractures at near optimum angles to S1, but confined within this weak fault zone. If this faulting results in the local short-lived attainment of Pf > Sv (cataclastic deformation and frictional heating overcoming dilation) and a simultaneous decrease in (S1 - S3), this combination of effects can trigger movement along the main trace of the misaligned fault. When increasing Pf results in hydraulic failure, anisotropy in tensile strength or fracture toughness resulting from foliation within faults allows fractures to propagate along the planes of weakness rather than across the foliation perpendicular to S3.

  1. Strength properties of sandy soil-cement admixtures

    Sara Rios; António Joaquim Pereira Viana Da Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    This paper will focus on the sensitivity of strength and stiffness properties of silty-sands, from granitic residual soil, which can be converted to a highly improved material if stabilized with cement. The study of soil stabilization with cement demands to quantify the influence of the cement percentage, porosity and water content adopted in the admixing process for different stresses and physical states. Firstly, this influence was quantified in terms of the unconfined strength and maximum ...

  2. The Grilled Effect of Particle's Distribution of Calsine Coke's at 900oC Temperature upon the Electric Resistivity, Hardness and CompressiveStrength Analysis

    Investigation of Calsine Coke's particle's distribution by grilledtreatment at 900 oC temperature upon the electric resistivity, hardness andcompressive strength analysis had been done. The Calsine Coke's were crushedand sieved to get a particle size about 63; 90; 106 μm, then mixed thevariety size particle with 33 % tar pitch 125 μm, be heated, shaped andpressed to be pellet. The pellets were grilled at 900 oC temperature during30 minutes and then these were analyzed. The whole analysis using 2-b mixedwas the best, particle ratio were 63:106 = 1:2 and pointed the electricresistivity 2.63 Ωm, the hardness 5.9 kg/mm2 and the compressivestrength 1600 N. (author)

  3. Characteristics of structural loess strength and preliminary framework for joint strength formula

    Rong-jian LI; Jun-ding LIU; YAN, Rui; Zheng, Wen; Sheng-jun SHAO

    2014-01-01

    The strength of structural loess consists of the shear strength and tensile strength. In this study, the stress path, the failure envelope of principal stress ( line), and the strength failure envelope of structurally intact loess and remolded loess were analyzed through three kinds of tests: the tensile strength test, the uniaxial compressive strength test, and the conventional triaxial shear strength test. Then, in order to describe the tensile strength and shear strength of structural loes...

  4. Effect of chlorhexidine gluconate on porosity and compressive strength of a glass ionomer cement / Efeito da adio de gluconato de clorexidina na porosidade e resistncia compresso de um cimento de ionmero de vidro

    Luana Mafra, MARTI; Elcilaine Rizzato, AZEVEDO; Margareth da, MATA; Elisa Maria Aparecida, GIRO; Angela Cristina Cilense, ZUANON.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUO: Por apresentar ampla atividade antibacteriana, a clorexidina (CHX) tem sido amplamente utilizada em odontologia, podendo ser facilmente incorporada ao cimento de ionmero de vidro (CIV) e liberada consequentemente na cavidade bucal. OBJETIVO: O objetivo neste estudo foi avaliar a p [...] orosidade e resistncia compresso de um CIV, ao qual foi adicionado diferentes concentraes de CHX. MATERIAL E MTODO: Os espcimes foram preparados com CIV (Ketac Molar Esaymix) e divididos em 4 grupos de acordo com a concentrao de CHX: controle, 0,5% e 1% e 2% (n=10). Para anlise dos poros os espcimes foram fraturados com auxlio de martelo e cinzel cirrgicos, de modo que a fratura era realizada no centro do corpo de prova, dividindo-o ao meio e as imagens obtidas no microscpio eletrnico de varredura (MEV) analisadas no software Image J. O teste de resistncia compresso foi realizado na mquina de ensaios mecnicos (EMIC - Equipamentos e Sistemas de Ensaios Ltda, So Jos dos Pinhais, PR, Brazil). A anlise estatstica foi realizada por ANOVA, complementada pelo teste de Tukey. Nvel de significncia adotado de 5%. RESULTADO: No se observou alterao estatisticamente significante entre os grupos estudados tanto para o nmero de poros quanto para a resistncia compresso. CONCLUSO: O uso de CIV associado ao gluconato de CLX a 1% e 2% a melhor opo para ser utilizada na clnica odontolgica. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: For presenting wide antibacterial activity, chlorhexidine (CHX) has been extensively used in dentistry and can be easily incorporated into the glass ionomer cement (GIC) and consequently released into the oral cavity. AIM: The aim of this study was porosity and compression strengt [...] h of a GIC, that was added to different concentrations of CHX. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Specimens were prepared with GIC (Ketac Molar Esaymix) and divided into 4 groups according to the concentration of CHX: control, 0.5% and 1% and 2% (n = 10). For analysis of pores specimens were fractured with the aid of hammer and chisel surgical, so that the fracture was performed in the center of the specimens, dividing it in half and images were obtained from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyzed in Image J software. The compressive strength test was conducted in a mechanical testing machine (EMIC - Equipment and Testing Systems Ltd., Joseph of the Pines, PR, Brazil). Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA, Tukey test. Significance level of 5%. RESULT: No statistically significant changes between the study groups was observed both for the number of pores as well as for the compressive strength. CONCLUSION: The use of GIC associated with CHX gluconate 1% and 2% is the best option to be used in dental practice.

  5. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Damkilde, Lars

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...

  6. Pumping from unconfined aquifers of limited saturated thickness with reference to wellpoints and horizontal wells

    Rushton, K. R.; Brassington, F. C.

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater in unconfined aquifers of limited saturated thickness can be a valuable resource but frequently it is not developed because conventional boreholes are unsuitable. However, successful exploitation of shallow unconfined aquifers has been achieved using either a line of wellpoints or horizontal wells extending for more than 100 m. The flow processes by which wellpoints and horizontal wells collect water from unconfined aquifers are explored by developing conceptual and computational models. Several representative examples are considered and it is found that similar discharges occur if the wellpoints are closely spaced. The sensitivity of the yield to physical dimensions of the wells and aquifers is explored; the impact of alternative aquifer parameters is also examined. Results from these computational models are used to identify the causes of air entry into wellpoint systems; the prevention of air entry into horizontal wells is also considered. This evaluation demonstrates that wellpoint systems and horizontal wells can efficiently abstract water from unconfined aquifers of limited saturated thickness provided that precautions are taken to prevent air entry.

  7. An evaluation of aquifer intercommunication between the unconfined and Rattlesnake Ridge aquifers on the Hanford Site

    During 1986, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study of a portion of the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer (confined aquifer) that lies beneath the B Pond - Gable Mountain Pond area of the Hanford Site. The purpose was to determine the extent of intercommunication between the unconfined aquifer and the uppermost regionally extensive confined aquifer, referred to as the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer. Hydraulic head data and chemical data were collected from the ground water in the study area during December 1986. The hydraulic head data were used to determine the effects caused by water discharged to the ground from B Pond on both the water table of the unconfined aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the confined aquifer. The chemical data were collected to determine the extent of chemical constituents migrating from the unconfined aquifer to the confined aquifer. Analysis of chemical constituents in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer demonstrated that communication between the unconfined and confined aquifers had occurred. However, the levels of contaminants found in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer during this study were below the DOE Derived Concentration Guides

  8. Morphological and Strength Properties of Tanjung Bin Coal Ash Mixtures for applied in Geotechnical Engineering Work

    Abd. Rahim Awang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, coal has been used as a raw material to generate electricity since 1988. In the past, most of the wastage of coal burning especially the bottom ash was not managed properly as it was dumped in the waste pond and accumulated drastically.This paper focuses on some properties of coal ash mixtures (fly  ash and bottom ash mixtures from Tanjung Bin power plant. The characteristics studied were morphological properties, compaction behaviour and strength properties. Strength properties of coal ash mixtures are carried out by conducting direct shear test and unconfined compression test. Besides, morphology and mineralogy of coal ash mixtures are studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD. The coal ash mixtures were compacted at 95% of maximum dry density, sealed and cured for 0, 14, and 28 days before they were analysed for shear strength, morphological and mineralogical analyses. The shear strength of coal ash mixtures varied depending on the fly ash compositions. The maximum shear strength was obtained at mixture with 50%FA: 50%BA and the value increased with curing periods. The friction angle obtained ranged from 27° to 37°. Morphological analysis showed that the number of irregular shaped particles increased confirming change in material type with curing period. From mineralogical analysis, the crystalline compounds present in Tanjung Bin coal ash were Mullite, Quartz, Calcium Phosphide, Calcite, Cristobalite and Hematite. It can be concluded that the coal ash mixtures can advantageously be applied in the construction of embankments, roads, reclamation and fill behind retaining structures.

  9. Time Compression

    Aadland, David; Shaffer, Sherrill

    2012-01-01

    Economists have generally ignored the notion that perceived time may differ from clock time. Borrowing from the behavioral psychology literature, we investigate the case of time compression whereby perceived time passes more quickly than actual time. A framework is presented to embed time compression in economic models. We then apply the principle to a standard lifecycle permanent income model with endogenous labor. Time compression provides an alternative explanation of why older indi...

  10. Hydrological test in weak confined or unconfined area in No.511 deposit Xinjiang

    There is certain amount tones of uranium metal in prospecting line NO. 20∼60 of NO. 511 deposit, which is in weak confined and unconfined aquifer and can't be mined by in-situ leaching. Hydrological test was made to uplift ground water level. The following aims are expected to be reached: (1) Transforming weak confined and unconfined state of ore-bearing aquifer to one with some confined water head; (2) Obtaining the effects of water injection on underground water by observation of water level and judgment of the ground water flow direction of pre-and pose-injection: (3) Verifying feasibility of in situ leaching by pumping test; (4) Calculating hydrogeological parameters by hydrological test in this area. There are benefit for push well layout, intensity of injection and amount of injection and pumping in leaching test. (authors)

  11. Numerical study of vortex shedding in viscoelastic flow past an unconfined square cylinder

    Norouzi, Mahmood; Varedi, Seyed Rasoul; Zamani, Mahdi

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the periodic viscoelastic shedding flow of Giesekus fluid past an unconfined square cylinder is investigated numerically for the first time. The global quantities such as lift coefficient, Strouhal number and the detailed kinetic and kinematic variables like normal stress differences and streamlines have been obtained in order to investigate the flow pattern of viscoelastic flow. The effects of Reynolds number and polymer concentrations have been clarified in the periodic viscoelastic flow regime. Our particular interest is the effect of mobility parameter on the stability of two dimensional viscoelastic flows past an unconfined square cylinder. To fulfill this aim, the mobility parameter has been increased from 0 to 0.5 for different polymer concentrations. Results reveal that mobility factor noticeably affects the amplitude of lift coefficient and shedding frequency more strongly at higher polymer concentrations.

  12. Three-dimensional conceptual model for the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system: FY 1994 status report

    Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Vermeul, V.R.; Macdonald, Q.C.; Schubert, S.E.

    1994-11-01

    This report documents work conducted during the fiscal year 1994 to development an improved three-dimensional conceptual model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer system across the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, which is managed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The main objective of the ongoing effort to develop an improved conceptual model of ground-water flow is to provide the basis for improved numerical report models that will be capable of accurately predicting the movement of radioactive and chemical contaminant plumes in the aquifer beneath Hanford. More accurate ground-water flow models will also be useful in assessing the impacts of changes in facilities and operations. For example, decreasing volumes of operational waste-water discharge are resulting in a declining water table in parts of the unconfined aquifer. In addition to supporting numerical modeling, the conceptual model also provides a qualitative understanding of the movement of ground water and contaminants in the aquifer.

  13. Summary and evaluation of available hydraulic property data for the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system

    Improving the hydrologic characterization of the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system is one of the objectives of the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project. To help meet this objective, hydraulic property data available for the aquifer have been compiled, mainly from reports published over the past 40 years. Most of the available hydraulic property estimates are based on constant-rate pumping tests of wells. Slug tests have also been conducted at some wells and analyzed to determine hydraulic properties. Other methods that have been used to estimate hydraulic properties of the unconfined aquifer are observations of water-level changes in response to river stage, analysis of ground-water mound formation, tracer tests, and inverse groundwater flow models

  14. Morphologic Interpretation of Rock Failure Mechanisms Under Uniaxial Compression Based on 3D Multiscale High-resolution Numerical Modeling

    Li, Gen; Liang, Zheng-Zhao; Tang, Chun-An

    2015-11-01

    Multiscale continuous lab oratory observation of the progressive failure process has become a powerful means to reveal the complex failure mechanism of rock. Correspondingly, the representative volume element (RVE)-based models, which are capable of micro/meso- to macro-scale simulations, have been proposed, for instance, the rock failure process analysis (RFPA) program. Limited by the computational bottleneck due to the RVE size, multiscale high-resolution modeling of rock failure process can hardly be implemented, especially for three-dimensional (3D) problems. In this paper, the self-developed parallel RFPA3D code is employed to investigate the failure mechanisms and various fracture morphology of laboratory-scale rectangular prism rock specimens under unconfined uniaxial compression. The specimens consist of either heterogeneous rock with low strength or relatively homogeneous rock with high strength. The numerical simulations, such as the macroscopic fracture pattern and stress-strain responses, can reproduce the well-known phenomena of physical experiments. In particular, the 3D multiscale continuum modeling is carried out to gain new insight into the morphologic interpretation of brittle failure mechanisms, which is calibrated and validated by comparing the actual laboratory experiments and field evidence. The advantages of 3D multiscale high-resolution modeling are demonstrated by comparing the failure modes against 2D numerical predictions by other models. The parallel RVE-based modeling tool in this paper can provide an alternative way to investigate the complicated failure mechanisms of rock.

  15. Robust evidence for random fractal scaling of ground water levels in unconfined aquifers

    Little, Max A.; Bloomfield, John P.

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces new approaches to improve the statistical robustness of techniques for quantifying the fractal scaling of groundwater levels, and uses these techniques to investigate scaling of groundwater levels from a consolidated permeable carbonate aquifer. Six groundwater level time series and an associated river stage time series from the unconfined Chalk aquifer (a dual-porosity, fractured limestone aquifer) in the Pang–Lambourn catchment, UK, have been analysed. Surrogate data o...

  16. The Effects of Eggshell Ash on Strength Properties of Cement-stabilized Lateritic

    Okonkwo U. N

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Eggshell ash obtained by incinerating Fowls’ eggshells to ash has been established to be a good accelerator for cement-bound materials and this would be useful for road construction work at the peak of rainy seasons for reducing setting time of stabilized road pavements. However this should be achieved not at the expense of other vital properties of the stabilized matrix. This is part of the effort in adding value to agricultural materials which probably cause disposal problems. Thus this study aimed at determining the effect of eggshell ash on the strength properties of cement-stabilized lateritic soil. The lateritic soil was classified to be A-6(2 in AASHTO rating system and reddish-brown clayey sand (SC in the Unified Classification System. Constant cement contents of 6% and 8% were added to the lateritic soil with variations in eggshell ash content of 0% to 10% at 2% intervals. All proportions of cement and eggshell ash contents were measured in percentages by weight of the dry soil. The Compaction test, California Bearing Ratio test, Unconfined Compressive Strength test and Durability test were carried out on the soil-cement eggshell ash mixtures. The increase in eggshell ash content increased the Optimum Moisture Content but reduced the Maximum Dry Density of the soil-cement eggshell ash mixtures. Also the increase in eggshell ash content considerably increased the strength properties of the soil-cement eggshell ash mixtures up to 35% in the average but fell short of the strength requirements except the durability requirement was satisfied.

  17. A general methodology to simulate groundwater flow of unconfined aquifers with a reduced computational cost

    Pulido-Velazquez, David; Sahuquillo, Andrs; Andreu, Joaqun; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2007-05-01

    SummaryThe computational cost of groundwater flow simulation can be crucial when analyzing complex conjunctive use water resources systems that need to simulate simultaneously surface and groundwater components. A general methodology for accurate simulation of unconfined groundwater flow with low computational cost is presented. It requires linearizing the unconfined groundwater flow problem governed by the Boussinesq equation. The technique is based on a change of variable and depends on the reference level adopted. Some recommendations have been provided to set the reference level to estimate the spatially variant parameters required to define the linearized problem. Using this linearization, more accurate results can be obtained than those derived with the classical assumption of invariant transmissivity. Solving the problem with eigenvalue techniques, the solution can be defined with a semi-explicit state equation with low computational cost. Some case studies have been analyzed in order to demonstrate that the methodology can be applied to any aquifer geometry (including non-horizontal bottoms), hydrodynamic properties and boundary conditions (even different prescribed head values). The results have been compared with those obtained with other linearization methods and MODFLOW [McDonald, M.G., Harbaugh, A.W., 1988. A modular three dimensional finite difference ground water flow model. Open - File Report 83-875, US Geological Survey, Washington DC] for unconfined aquifers. A case study defined from a previously calibrated finite-difference model of the "Delta Adra" aquifer, located in southern Spain, has been also analyzed.

  18. Compressed Teleportation

    Jaffe, Arthur; Wozniakowski, Alex

    2016-01-01

    In a previous paper we introduced holographic software for quantum networks, inspired by work on planar para algebras. This software suggests the definition of a compressed transformation. Here we utilize the software to find a CT protocol to teleport compressed transformations. This protocol serves multiple parties with multiple persons.

  19. Compressive strain-dependent bending strength property of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} (1.5 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) composites performance by HIP

    Reyes-Rojas, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C. (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Cd. de Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)], E-mail: armando_reyesmx@yahoo.com.mx; Esparza-Ponce, H. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C. (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Cd. de Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); De la Torre, S.D. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica (CIITEC)-IPN, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Torres-Moye, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C. (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Cd. de Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    Nanometric powders and sintered ceramics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} (1.5 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) prepared by hot isostatic pressing HIP have been studied. A detailed crystallographic study has been performed through X-ray diffraction, Williamson-Hall method, Rietveld method and high-resolution electron microscopy HREM analysis. The crystallographic structure data, such as domain size, lattice parameters, wt% phase, and micro-strain direction have been obtained using Rietveld refinement and Williamson-Hall methods. The results revealed that the compressive strain ({epsilon}) increased from 0.56 to 1.18 (10{sup -3}) as the t-ZrO{sub 2} content increased too. The HREM interface study conducted along the [0 0 0 1]Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}||[0 0 1]ZrO{sub 2} zone axis revealed a micro-strain lattice distortion accumulated at the grain boundary due to the ZrO{sub 2} martensitic phase transformation on cooling, t-ZrO{sub 2} grains coalescence and to the grain growth of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} which cause elongated tetragonal crystals. Micro-strain lattice distortion is adjusted by the shear displacements of the planes (1 1 0) and (11-bar0) along [1-bar10] and [1-bar1-bar0] crystallographic directions, respectively; these planes are arrested by the (101-bar0) alumina plane. In this case, semi-coherent interfaces were observed along the grain boundary. It is verified that the bending strength increased in connection with the strain accumulation and amount of tetragonal structure.

  20. Determining the mechanical strength of CO2-induced reaction zones in wellbore cement: is it worth it?

    Hangx, Suzanne; Marcelis, Fons; van der Linden, Arjan; Liteanu, Emilia

    2015-04-01

    CO2 injection, either for long-term CO2 storage (CCS) or Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), strongly hinges on maintaining storage integrity. Injection and legacy wells penetrating the caprock pose one of the most likely points of leakage. In order to be able to predict the long-term integrity of such wellbores, it's important to understand their chemical, hydrological and mechanical behaviour, and how it may change due to CO2 exposure. Generally, in response to CO2/brine/cement interactions, a number of different reaction zones are observed, each with their own chemical, and hence mechanical, signature. To aid mechanical modelling efforts, assessing the risk of cement failure caused by stress and temperature changes, knowledge is required of the strength of each of these zones. We performed experiments on Class G Portland cement to investigate the chemical-mechanical coupling due to CO2-exposure. Batch reaction experiments, in the presence of CO2-rich brine, were performed under typical storage conditions (T = 65 C, PCO2 = 8 MPa) for various periods of time (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months). After exposure, mechanical tests were performed on the observed reaction zones, using the so-called core scratching technique, to evaluate the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) as a function of exposure time. Chemical analyses (CT-imaging, SEM microscopy, EDX chemical analysis) showed the formation of three reaction zones, similarly to what has been observed in other studies. Measurements of the mechanical strength of these different zones showed highly variable results. Such variations have also been observed in other studies, using different measurement techniques. The large variability in strength measurements is most likely an inherent result of the heterogenic nature of cement, which affects the extent and location of reaction throughout the sample. This begs the question: is it worth studying the mechanical strength of reaction-induced zones in cement? Or will it suffice to take into account large uncertainties when modelling the mechanical behaviour of cement?

  1. An Experimental Study of Unconfined Hydrogen/Oxygen and Hydrogen/Air Explosions

    Richardson, Erin; Skinner, Troy; Blackwood, James; Hays, Michael; Bangham, Mike; Jackson, Austin

    2014-01-01

    Development tests are being conducted to characterize unconfined Hydrogen/air and Hydrogen/Oxygen blast characteristics. Most of the existing experiments for these types of explosions address contained explosions, like shock tubes. Therefore, the Hydrogen Unconfined Combustion Test Apparatus (HUCTA) has been developed as a gaseous combustion test device for determining the relationship between overpressure, impulse, and flame speed at various mixture ratios for unconfined reactions of hydrogen/oxygen and hydrogen/air. The system consists of a central platform plumbed to inject and mix component gasses into an attached translucent bag or balloon while monitoring hydrogen concentration. All tests are ignited with a spark with plans to introduce higher energy ignition sources in the future. Surrounding the platform are 9 blast pressure "Pencil" probes. Two high-speed cameras are used to observe flame speed within the combustion zone. The entire system is raised approx. 6 feet off the ground to remove any ground reflection from the measurements. As of this writing greater than 175 tests have been performed and include Design of Experiments test sets. Many of these early tests have used bags or balloons between approx. 340L and approx. 1850L to quantify the effect of gaseous mixture ratio on the properties of interest. All data acquisition is synchronized between the high-speed cameras, the probes, and the ignition system to observe flame and shock propagation. Successful attempts have been made to couple the pressure profile with the progress of the flame front within the combustion zone by placing a probe within the bag. Overpressure and impulse data obtained from these tests are used to anchor engineering analysis tools, CFD models and in the development of blast and fragment acceleration models.

  2. Numerical study of two-phase unconfined fuel-air cloud characteristics to consider its detonability

    Doustdar, M.M. [Sharif Univ. of Technology, Aerospace Engineering Dept., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: Mmdoustdar@yahoo.com; Hosseinalipour, M. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazaheri, K. [Sharif Univ. of Technology, Aerospace Engineering Dept., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    A numerical simulation is introduced to study the characteristics of unconfined fuel-air mixture in order to study its detonability. A modified version of KIVA-3V code is used to model the dispersal process. Some models are applied to determine the initial conditions, and a comparison is made between the results of these models. The outcome of this study can be used to predict the best time and position for secondary ignition action to detonate the cloud. A theoretical consideration along with a comparison with other works is made for validation. (author)

  3. Numerical study of two-phase unconfined fuel-air cloud characteristics to consider its detonability

    A numerical simulation is introduced to study the characteristics of unconfined fuel-air mixture in order to study its detonability. A modified version of KIVA-3V code is used to model the dispersal process. Some models are applied to determine the initial conditions, and a comparison is made between the results of these models. The outcome of this study can be used to predict the best time and position for secondary ignition action to detonate the cloud. A theoretical consideration along with a comparison with other works is made for validation. (author)

  4. Stress analysis of shear/compression test

    Stress analysis has been made on the glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) subjected to the combined shear and compression stresses by means of finite element method. The two types of experimental set up were analyzed, that is parallel and series method where the specimen were compressed by tilted jigs which enable to apply the combined stresses, to the specimen. Modified Tsai-Hill criterion was employed to judge the failure under the combined stresses that is the shear strength under the compressive stress. The different failure envelopes were obtained between the two set ups. In the parallel system the shear strength once increased with compressive stress then decreased. On the contrary in the series system the shear strength decreased monotonicly with compressive stress. The difference is caused by the different stress distribution due to the different constraint conditions. The basic parameters which control the failure under the combined stresses will be discussed

  5. Strength Measurements of Archive K Basin Sludge Using a Soil Penetrometer

    Spent fuel radioactive sludge present in the K East and K West spent nuclear fuel storage basins now resides in the KW Basin in six large underwater engineered containers. The sludge will be dispositioned in two phases under the Sludge Treatment Project: (1) hydraulic retrieval into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and transport to interim storage in Central Plateau and (2) retrieval from the STSCs, treatment, and packaging for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In the years the STSCs are stored, sludge strength is expected to increase through chemical reaction, intergrowth of sludge crystals, and compaction and dewatering by settling. Increased sludge strength can impact the type and operation of the retrieval equipment needed prior to final sludge treatment and packaging. It is important to determine whether water jetting, planned for sludge retrieval from STSCs, will be effective. Shear strength is a property known to correlate with the effectiveness of water jetting. Accordingly, the unconfined compressive strengths (UCS) of archive K Basin sludge samples and sludge blends were measured using a pocket penetrometer modified for hot cell use. Based on known correlations, UCS values can be converted to shear strengths. Twenty-six sludge samples, stored in hot cells for a number of years since last being disturbed, were identified as potential candidates for UCS measurement and valid UCS measurements were made for twelve, each of which was found as moist or water-immersed solids at least 1/2-inch deep. Ten of the twelve samples were relatively weak, having consistencies described as 'very soft' to 'soft'. Two of the twelve samples, KE Pit and KC-4 P250, were strong with 'very stiff' and 'stiff' consistencies described, respectively, as 'can be indented by a thumb nail' or 'can be indented by thumb'. Both of these sludge samples are composites collected from KE Basin floor and Weasel Pit locations. Despite both strong sludges having relatively high iron concentrations, attribution of their high strengths to this factor could not be made with confidence as other measured sludge samples, also from the KE Basin floor and of high iron concentration, were relatively weak. The observed UCS and shear strengths for the two strong sludges were greater than observed in any prior testing of K Basin sludge except for sludge processed at 185 C under hydrothermal conditions.

  6. Measuring the Mechanical Strength and Hardsetting Phenomenon in Selected Soils of Hamadan Province

    E. Farahani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hardsetting phenomenon is an indicator of poor soil physical quality. Hardsetting soils are soils with high rate of mechanical strength increase upon drying and are hardened and/or compacted when dry out. It is difficult to till such soils. Hardsetting soils have additional limitations such as poor aeration at wet conditions, low infiltrability and high runoff and erosion. Most of Iran soils have low organic matter content and it is expected that hardsetting phenomenon occurs in some of these soils. This study was conducted to investigate the hardsetting phenomenon on 9 soil series collected from Hamadan province. Three types of mechanical strength consisting tensile strength (ITS, unconfined compressive strength (UCS, and penetration resistance (PR were measured on the repacked soil samples prepared in the lab. The ITS, UCS and PR tests were done on the soil cores which had been prepared at bulk density (BD equal to 90% of critical BD for root growth (0.9BDcritical. The effects of intrinsic properties on the hardsetting phenomenon were studied, too. Based on the suggested definition in International Symposium on Sealing, Crusting and Hardsetting Soils to International Union of Soil Science, in which a hardsetting soil has air-dry tensile strength ? 90 kPa, one soil (medium-textured out of the studied soils showed the hardsetting phenomenon at 0.9BDcritical. It might be concluded that medium-textured soils are more susceptible to hardsetting. For all of the studied soils, the ITS increased with the increase in clay content. The increasing impacts of clay and carbonate contents were also observed for the UCS and PR, respectively. Calcium carbonate could act as a cementing agent in between the soil particles and brings about the soil susceptibility to hardsetting. Moreover, the decreasing trend of all soil mechanical strengths was observed with water content increase. Slope (b of the exponential model (fitted to the soil mechanical strength characteristic curve, as an index of hardsetting, had positive correlation with the sand content and negative correlation with the silt content. Overall, texture and calcium carbonate content are major and effective properties in terms of hardsetting phenomenon in Hamadan soils.

  7. Strength Measurements of Archive K Basin Sludge Using a Soil Penetrometer

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

    2011-12-06

    Spent fuel radioactive sludge present in the K East and K West spent nuclear fuel storage basins now resides in the KW Basin in six large underwater engineered containers. The sludge will be dispositioned in two phases under the Sludge Treatment Project: (1) hydraulic retrieval into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and transport to interim storage in Central Plateau and (2) retrieval from the STSCs, treatment, and packaging for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In the years the STSCs are stored, sludge strength is expected to increase through chemical reaction, intergrowth of sludge crystals, and compaction and dewatering by settling. Increased sludge strength can impact the type and operation of the retrieval equipment needed prior to final sludge treatment and packaging. It is important to determine whether water jetting, planned for sludge retrieval from STSCs, will be effective. Shear strength is a property known to correlate with the effectiveness of water jetting. Accordingly, the unconfined compressive strengths (UCS) of archive K Basin sludge samples and sludge blends were measured using a pocket penetrometer modified for hot cell use. Based on known correlations, UCS values can be converted to shear strengths. Twenty-six sludge samples, stored in hot cells for a number of years since last being disturbed, were identified as potential candidates for UCS measurement and valid UCS measurements were made for twelve, each of which was found as moist or water-immersed solids at least 1/2-inch deep. Ten of the twelve samples were relatively weak, having consistencies described as 'very soft' to 'soft'. Two of the twelve samples, KE Pit and KC-4 P250, were strong with 'very stiff' and 'stiff' consistencies described, respectively, as 'can be indented by a thumb nail' or 'can be indented by thumb'. Both of these sludge samples are composites collected from KE Basin floor and Weasel Pit locations. Despite both strong sludges having relatively high iron concentrations, attribution of their high strengths to this factor could not be made with confidence as other measured sludge samples, also from the KE Basin floor and of high iron concentration, were relatively weak. The observed UCS and shear strengths for the two strong sludges were greater than observed in any prior testing of K Basin sludge except for sludge processed at 185 C under hydrothermal conditions.

  8. Basin-scale conceptual groundwater flow model for an unconfined and confined thick carbonate region

    Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Tóth, Ádám

    2015-11-01

    Application of the gravity-driven regional groundwater flow (GDRGF) concept to the hydrogeologically complex thick carbonate system of the Transdanubian Range (TR), Hungary, is justified based on the principle of hydraulic continuity. The GDRGF concept informs about basin hydraulics and groundwater as a geologic agent. It became obvious that the effect of heterogeneity and anisotropy on the flow pattern could be derived from hydraulic reactions of the aquifer system. The topography and heat as driving forces were examined by numerical simulations of flow and heat transport. Evaluation of groups of springs, in terms of related discharge phenomena and regional chloride distribution, reveals the dominance of topography-driven flow when considering flow and related chemical and temperature patterns. Moreover, heat accumulation beneath the confined part of the system also influences these patterns. The presence of cold, lukewarm and thermal springs and related wetlands, creeks, mineral precipitates, and epigenic and hypogenic caves validates the existence of GDRGF in the system. Vice versa, groups of springs reflect rock-water interaction and advective heat transport and inform about basin hydraulics. Based on these findings, a generalized conceptual GDRGF model is proposed for an unconfined and confined carbonate region. An interface was revealed close to the margin of the unconfined and confined carbonates, determined by the GDRGF and freshwater and basinal fluids involved. The application of this model provides a background to interpret manifestations of flowing groundwater in thick carbonates generally, including porosity enlargement and hydrocarbon and heat accumulation.

  9. A correction for Dupuit-Forchheimer interface flow models of seawater intrusion in unconfined coastal aquifers

    Koussis, Antonis D.; Mazi, Katerina; Riou, Fabien; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    Interface flow models that use the Dupuit-Forchheimer (DF) approximation for assessing the freshwater lens and the seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers lack representation of the gap through which fresh groundwater discharges to the sea. In these models, the interface outcrops unrealistically at the same point as the free surface, is too shallow and intersects the aquifer base too far inland, thus overestimating an intruding seawater front. To correct this shortcoming of DF-type interface solutions for unconfined aquifers, we here adapt the outflow gap estimate of an analytical 2-D interface solution for infinitely thick aquifers to fit the 50%-salinity contour of variable-density solutions for finite-depth aquifers. We further improve the accuracy of the interface toe location predicted with depth-integrated DF interface solutions by ?20% (relative to the 50%-salinity contour of variable-density solutions) by combining the outflow-gap adjusted aquifer depth at the sea with a transverse-dispersion adjusted density ratio (Pool and Carrera, 2011), appropriately modified for unconfined flow. The effectiveness of the combined correction is exemplified for two regional Mediterranean aquifers, the Israel Coastal and Nile Delta aquifers.

  10. Approaches to the simulation of unconfined flow and perched groundwater flow in MODFLOW.

    Bedekar, Vivek; Niswonger, Richard G; Kipp, Kenneth; Panday, Sorab; Tonkin, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Various approaches have been proposed to manage the nonlinearities associated with the unconfined flow equation and to simulate perched groundwater conditions using the MODFLOW family of codes. The approaches comprise a variety of numerical techniques to prevent dry cells from becoming inactive and to achieve a stable solution focused on formulations of the unconfined, partially-saturated, groundwater flow equation. Keeping dry cells active avoids a discontinuous head solution which in turn improves the effectiveness of parameter estimation software that relies on continuous derivatives. Most approaches implement an upstream weighting of intercell conductance and Newton-Raphson linearization to obtain robust convergence. In this study, several published approaches were implemented in a stepwise manner into MODFLOW for comparative analysis. First, a comparative analysis of the methods is presented using synthetic examples that create convergence issues or difficulty in handling perched conditions with the more common dry-cell simulation capabilities of MODFLOW. Next, a field-scale three-dimensional simulation is presented to examine the stability and performance of the discussed approaches in larger, practical, simulation settings. PMID:21635246

  11. Video Compression

    1996-01-01

    Optivision developed two PC-compatible boards and associated software under a Goddard Space Flight Center Small Business Innovation Research grant for NASA applications in areas such as telerobotics, telesciences and spaceborne experimentation. From this technology, the company used its own funds to develop commercial products, the OPTIVideo MPEG Encoder and Decoder, which are used for realtime video compression and decompression. They are used in commercial applications including interactive video databases and video transmission. The encoder converts video source material to a compressed digital form that can be stored or transmitted, and the decoder decompresses bit streams to provide high quality playback.

  12. Compressibility and deformability of nuclei

    Various effective interactions of Skyrme and Gogny are used to calculate monopole and quadrupole vibrations using the random phase approximation in a self-consistent Hartree-Fock basis. The monopole excitation strength is shown to depend on nuclear matter compressibility, estimated here to be approximately 200MeV. Quadrupole deformation and high angular momentum distorsion are estimated

  13. Wellhead compression

    Harrington, Joe [Sertco Industries, Inc., Okemah, OK (United States); Vazquez, Daniel [Hoerbiger Service Latin America Inc., Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Jacobs, Denis Richard [Hoerbiger do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, all wells experience a natural decline in oil and gas production. In gas wells, the major problems are liquid loading and low downhole differential pressures which negatively impact total gas production. As a form of artificial lift, wellhead compressors help reduce the tubing pressure resulting in gas velocities above the critical velocity needed to surface water, oil and condensate regaining lost production and increasing recoverable reserves. Best results come from reservoirs with high porosity, high permeability, high initial flow rates, low decline rates and high total cumulative production. In oil wells, excessive annulus gas pressure tends to inhibit both oil and gas production. Wellhead compression packages can provide a cost effective solution to these problems by reducing the system pressure in the tubing or annulus, allowing for an immediate increase in production rates. Wells furthest from the gathering compressor typically benefit the most from wellhead compression due to system pressure drops. Downstream compressors also benefit from higher suction pressures reducing overall compression horsepower requirements. Special care must be taken in selecting the best equipment for these applications. The successful implementation of wellhead compression from an economical standpoint hinges on the testing, installation and operation of the equipment. Key challenges and suggested equipment features designed to combat those challenges and successful case histories throughout Latin America are discussed below.(author)

  14. Characterization of controlled low-strength material obtained from dewatered sludge and refuse incineration bottom ash: mechanical and microstructural perspectives.

    Zhen, Guangyin; Lu, Xueqin; Zhao, Youcai; Niu, Jing; Chai, Xiaoli; Su, Lianghu; Li, Yu-You; Liu, Yuan; Du, Jingru; Hojo, Toshimasa; Hu, Yong

    2013-11-15

    Potential reuse of dewatered sludge (DS) and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash as components to develop controlled low-strength material (CLSM) was explored. The effects of DS:MSWI bottom ash:calcium sulfoaluminate (CS¯A) cement ratio and thermal treatment of MSWI bottom ash at 900 °C on the mechanical and microstructural properties of CLSM were intensively studied to optimize the process. Results showed DS and MSWI bottom ash could be utilized for making CLSM. The CLSM prepared with milled MSWI bottom ash gave higher unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of 2.0-6.2 MPa following 1 year of curing at 1.0:0.1:0.9 ≤ DS:MSWI bottom ash:CS¯A ≤ 1.0:0.8:0.2. However, the corresponding strengths for CLSM containing thermally treated MSWI bottom ash ranged from 0.7 to 4.6 MPa, decreasing 26-65%. The microstructural analysis by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed that ettringite (C3A·3CS¯·H32, or AFt) crystals were the most important strength-producing constituents which grew into and filled the CLSM matrix pores. Milled MSWI bottom ash addition favored the formation of highly crystalline AFt phases and accordingly enhanced compressive strengths of CLSM specimens. In contrast, thermal treatment at 900 °C produced new phases such as gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) and hydroxylapatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH)), which deteriorated the pozzolanic activity of bottom ash and caused the strengths to decrease. Leaching tests evidenced that leachable substances from CLSM samples exhibited negligible health and environmental risks. The results of this study suggested that MSWI bottom ash can be effectively recycled together with DS in developing CLSM mixtures with restricted use of CS¯A cement. PMID:23933484

  15. Strength Training

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Strength Training KidsHealth > For Teens > Strength Training Print A A A Text Size What's in ... en español Entrenamiento de la fuerza muscular Strength training is a vital part of a balanced exercise ...

  16. CORRELATION DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN INDENTATION PARAMETERS AND UNAXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH FOR COLOMBIAN SANDSTONES Desarrollo de Correlaciones entre parámetros de indentación y resistencia comprensiva uniaxial para areniscas colombianas

    Jefferson Mateus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Anew way to characterize the perforated formation strength has been implemented using the Indentation test. This test can be performed on irregular cuttings mounted in acrylic resins forming a disc. The test consists of applying load on each sample by means of a flat end indenter. A graph of the load applied VS penetration of the indenter is developed, and the modules of the test, denominated Indentation Modulus (IM and Critical Transition Force (CTF are obtained (Ringstad et al., 1998. Based on the success of previous studies we developed correlations between indentation and mechanical properties for some Colombian sandstones. These correlations were obtained using a set of 248 indentation tests and separate compression tests on parallel sandstone samples from the same depth. This analysis includes Barco Formation, Mirador Formation, and Tambor Formation. For the correlations, IM-UCS and CTF-UCS, the correlation coefficient are 0,81 and 0,70 respectively. The use of the correlation and the Indentation test is helpful for in-situ calibration of the geomechanical models since the indentation test can be performed in real time thus reducing costs and time associated with delayed conventional characterization.Una nueva manera de caracterizar la resistencia de las formaciones perforadas ha sido implementada por medio de una prueba denominada Indentación. Esta prueba es desarrollada sobre cortes irregulares de roca encapsulados en resina acrílica formando un disco. La prueba consiste en la aplicación de carga sobre cada partícula de roca por medio de un indentador de punta plana. En la prueba, una gráfica de la carga en función del desplazamiento del indentador en la muestra es registrada, en dicha gráfica se calculan los parámetros de indentación denominados Modulo de Indentación (IM y Fuerza Crítica de Transición (CTF (Ringstad et al., 1998. Con base en estudios previos se desarrollaron correlaciones propias entre los parámetros de Indentación y el UCS (Resistencia Compresiva Uniaxial para algunas formaciones de areniscas Colombianas. Dichas correlaciones se obtuvieron llevando a cabo 248 pruebas de Indentación y paralelamente 21 pruebas de Compresión Uniaxial sobre muestras provenientes de cilindros de roca de geometría convencional. Este estudio incluyó muestras de las formaciones: Mirador, Barco y Tambor. Para las correlaciones hspace="0" vspace="0">IM-UCS y CTF-UCS se determinaron coeficientes de correlación de 0,81 y 0,70 respectivamente. El uso de las correlaciones y las pruebas de Indentación es muy útil para la calibración de modelos geomecánicos en tiempo real ya que las pruebas pueden hacerse directamente en campo, reduciendo los costos y tiempo asociados con la caracterización convencional.

  17. Influncia da utilizao de procedimentos no padronizados de ensaio para a determinao experimental da resistncia compresso simples e do mdulo esttico de elasticidade do cimento Portland / Influence of non standard test procedures for determination of compressive strength and static modulus of elasticity of Portland cement

    Jacinto Manuel Antunes de, Almeida; Bruno do Vale, Silva; Josu Argenta, Chies; Josiane, Gasperin; Luiz Carlos Pinto da Silva, Filho.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A resistncia compresso um dos parmetros fundamentais usados para controle e caracterizao do cimento. O ensaio padro para determinao da resistncia compresso simples do cimento Portland, normatizado pela NBR 7215 (1), especifica o uso de areia com granulometria determinada e estabelece [...] procedimentos de mistura rigorosos na preparao dos corpos de prova. Sabe-se que, nem sempre, os procedimentos padro so rigorosamente seguidos, seja devido a fatores relacionados com competncia tcnica ou pela simplificao da norma, entre outros fatores. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar a influncia de determinadas simplificaes dos procedimentos padro de ensaio na determinao experimental da resistncia compresso simples do cimento Portland. Foram testados diferentes procedimentos de mistura e utilizados diferentes tipos de agregado mido, especificamente, areia mdia comum ou com granulometria controlada, tomando como referncia a denominada areia do Tiet. Foram utilizadas duas amostras de cimento CPV-ARI, provenientes de fabricantes distintos. Para todas as combinaes foram realizados ensaios de resistncia compresso e mdulo esttico de elasticidade nas idades de 1, 3, 7 e 28 dias. Foi efetuada uma anlise de varincia (ANOVA) para avaliar se as variveis estudadas geravam diferenas estatisticamente significativas nos resultados experimentais. Foi possvel concluir que, de forma geral, a moldagem simplificada no influenciou significativamente a resistncia compresso simples nem o mdulo esttico de elasticidade do cimento Portland. Por outro lado, o tipo de agregado mido utilizado influenciou significativamente a resistncia compresso, mas no impactou o mdulo de elasticidade das amostras. Abstract in english The compressive strength is one of the basic parameters to control and characterization of cement. According to the NBR 7215 (1), the standard test procedure for determination of compressive strength of cement specifies the use of sand with a specific gradation and establishes specific rules for the [...] preparation of the standard mixture of mortar, used to manufacture the test specimens. It is known that these recommendations are not always followed when testing. In the context of the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of some deviations from the standard procedure in the results of compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of mortar. We've tested a simplified mixing procedure and the use of average sand or with controlled gradation, taking as reference the so-called sand from Tiet. We've also used two samples of CPV-ARI cement from different manufacturers. For all combinations, tests were performed to determine the compressive strength and static modulus of elasticity of mortar at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days of age. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to assess whether the variables generated significant differences. The results show that the simplified mixing procedure didn't affect the compressive strength neither the modulus of elasticity of Portland cement. The different types of sand tested only affected the compressive strength of Portland cement.

  18. [Medullar compression].

    Romero, P; Manterola, A; Martínez, E; Villafranca, E; Domínguez, M A; Arias, F

    2004-01-01

    Medullar compression is an oncological and neurological emergency, whose diagnosis and early treatment are key factors for avoiding severe and irreversible neurological damage. Paralysis, loss of consciousness and alteration in control of the sphincters are the final consequence of the process, and represent an important source of morbidity of the oncology patient, besides being related to a shorter time of survival. The invasion of the vertebral body by haematogenous dissemination is the most frequent cause of medullar compression. On occasions it can create mechanical vertebral instability which represents a real orthopaedic emergency. Pain is the earliest and most frequent symptom. The signs and symptoms appear to the degree that the process advances, passing through motor weakness, alterations in consciousness until paralysis and incontinence of the sphincters are reached, as a result of complete neurological damage. Clinical history and physical exploration should lead to suspicion about the level at which medullar compression is developing, and the most important complementary exploration is MR of the entire spine, which should be requested immediately in order to decide on starting treatment. Treatment is individualised and must be started early. In general, corticoids in combination with radiotherapeutic oncological treatment and/or surgery are the therapeutic weapons to employ. PMID:15723114

  19. S/O modeling technique for optimal containment of light hydrocarbons in contaminated unconfined aquifers

    An innovative approach is presented to minimize pumping for immobilizing a floating plume of a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL). The best pumping strategy is determined to contain the free oil product and provide for gradient control of the water table. This approach combined detailed simulation, statistical analysis, and optimization. This modeling technique uses regression equations that describe system response to variable pumping stimuli. The regression equations were developed from analysis of systematically performed simulations of multiphase flow in an areal region of an unconfined aquifer. Simulations were performed using ARMOS, a finite element model. ARMOS can be used to simulate a spill, leakage from subsurface storage facilities and recovery of hydrocarbons from trenches or pumping wells to design remediation schemes

  20. Numerical study of ground effect on the detonability characteristics of unconfined two-phase clouds

    A numerical study has been made to investigate the ground effect on the detonability characteristics of a two-phase unconfined cloud of fuel and air. Equivalence ration, turbulence, volume, shape and uniformity are the most important factors that affect the detonability of a cloud. The effect of the distance of the dispersing device from the ground on these significant factors has been demonstrated in this article. A finite volume method was used to solve the equations describing the gas phase. A discrete particle technique was applied to represent the liquid spray. The k-? model was used for modeling the gas phase turbulence. Theoretical considerations and comparison with associated experimental values were made for validation. (author)

  1. Numerical study of ground effect on the detonability characteristics of unconfined two-phase clouds

    Doustdar, M.M. [Imam Hossein Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: Doustdar@mehr.sharif.edu; Mazaheri, K. [Sharif Univ. of Technology, Aerospace Engineering Dept., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: Mazaheri@sharif.edu; Hosseinalipour, M. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: smostafah@hotmail.com

    2003-07-01

    A numerical study has been made to investigate the ground effect on the detonability characteristics of a two-phase unconfined cloud of fuel and air. Equivalence ration, turbulence, volume, shape and uniformity are the most important factors that affect the detonability of a cloud. The effect of the distance of the dispersing device from the ground on these significant factors has been demonstrated in this article. A finite volume method was used to solve the equations describing the gas phase. A discrete particle technique was applied to represent the liquid spray. The k-{epsilon} model was used for modeling the gas phase turbulence. Theoretical considerations and comparison with associated experimental values were made for validation. (author)

  2. Investigation of the strength and toughness of FRHPC after exposure to high temperature

    Yining, Ding; Jalali, Said; Niederegger, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    The investigations on different fibre influences on the compressive strength, the flexural strength and ductility as well as failure pattern of fiber reinforced high-performance concrete (FRHPC) after exposure to various high temperature were carried out. The results indicated that the compressive strength of HPC without fibres declined strongly after high temperature at 900oC, the residual compressive strength was only 10% compared to the original strength. However, both steel fiber (SF) ...

  3. A new package in MODFLOW to simulate unconfined groundwater flow in sloping aquifers.

    Wang, Quanrong; Zhan, Hongbin; Tang, Zhonghua

    2014-01-01

    The nonhorizontal-model-layer (NHML) grid system is more accurate than the horizontal-model-layer grid system to describe groundwater flow in an unconfined sloping aquifer on the basis of MODFLOW-2000. However, the finite-difference scheme of NHML was based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption that the streamlines were horizontal, which was acceptable for slope less than 0.10. In this study, we presented a new finite-difference scheme of NHML based on the Boussinesq assumption and developed a new package SLOPE which was incorporated into MODFLOW-2000 to become the MODFLOW-SP model. The accuracy of MODFLOW-SP was tested against solution of Mac Cormack (1969). The differences between the solutions of MODFLOW-2000 and MODFLOW-SP were nearly negligible when the slope was less than 0.27, and they were noticeable during the transient flow stage and vanished in steady state when the slope increased above 0.27. We established a model considering the vertical flow using COMSOL Multiphysics to test the robustness of constrains used in MODFLOW-SP. The results showed that streamlines quickly became parallel with the aquifer base except in the narrow regions near the boundaries when the initial flow was not parallel to the aquifer base. MODFLOW-SP can be used to predict the hydraulic head of an unconfined aquifer along the profile perpendicular to the aquifer base when the slope was smaller than 0.50. The errors associated with constrains used in MODFLOW-SP were small but noticeable when the slope increased to 0.75, and became significant for the slope of 1.0. PMID:24299562

  4. Strength Modeling of High-Strength Concrete with Hybrid Fibre Reinforcement

    A. Ravichandran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The low tensile strength and limited ductility, the unavoidable deficiency, of concrete can be overcome by the addition of fibres. High strength concrete (HSC of 60 MPa containing hybrid fibres, combination of steel and polyolefin fibres, at different volume fraction of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% were compared in terms of compressive, splitting tensile strength and flexural properties with HSC containing no fibres. Test results showed that the fibres when used in hybrid form could result in enhanced flexural toughness compared to steel fibre reinforced concrete [HSFRC]. The compressive strength of the fibre-reinforced concrete reached maximum at 1.5% volume fractions and the splitting tensile strength and modulus of rupture improved with increasing volume fraction. Strength models were established to predict the compressive and splitting tensile strength and modulus of rupture of the fibre-reinforced concrete. The models give prediction matching the measurements.

  5. Leachability and strength of kaolin stabilized with cement and rubber

    Meei-Hoan Ho

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Yearly, the disposal of used tyres is a major environmental problem for countries all over the world. This causes environmental hazards such as uncontrolled fire, consume landfill space, breeding ground for mosquitoes and contaminating the soil and vegetation. Hence, urgent steps were identified to produce new methods of recycling the waste tyres to solve this hazard. This study reviews the feasibility of using waste tyres in the form of rubber chips with cement to stabilize soft clay and the effect to the environment. The focus of this study was mainly the strength and leachability characteristics of kaolin as base clay, admixed with cement as the binder and rubber chips as an additive. Leaching test is used to evaluate the performance of cementitious materials for stabilization and solidification (S & S of hazardous materials such as waste or contaminated soil. In this study, cylindrical stabilized clay specimens were prepared with various rubber chips contents and cement, and then aged for 28 days. Cylindrical specimens were then subjected to unconfined compressive strength test (using Geocomp LoadTrac II and the specimens were later dried in oven at 105° before tested for leaching tests. These leaching methods are Acid Neutralization Capacity Test (ANC and Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP. The solidified samples were checked on six different heavy metals, namely copper, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, zinc and plumbum. Analysis was carried out by relating the effects of 0, 2 or 4 % cement as well as 0, 5, 10 and 15 % rubber chips addition to the base clay and its leachability. As observed, the curing of specimen for 28 days was in a range of 66.24 to 249.4 kPa. Specimen with 4 % cement is able to produce ANC9 of about 0.13 meq HNO3/g specimen. However specimen with 0 % and 2 % cement for different rubberchips content shows that the specimen do not have the capacity to neutralize acid at pH 9. Therefore, more cement (> 4 % is needed to achieve ANC9. SPLP results showed that all six different heavy metals tested do not exceed the approved limit for drinking water by World Health Organization (WHO, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA and Ministry of Health in Malaysia.

  6. Compression Enhanced Shear Yield Stress of Electrorheological Fluid

    Shear tests of an electrorheological fluid with pre-applied electric field and compression along the field direction are carried out. The results show that pre-compressions can increase the shear yield stress up to ten times. Under the same external electric field strength, a higher compressive strain corresponds to a larger shear yield stress enhancement but with slight current density decrease, which shows that the particle interaction potentials are not increased by compressions but the compression-induced chain aggregation dominates the shear yield stress improvement. This pre-compression technique might be useful for developing high performance flexible ER or magnetorheological couplings

  7. Semi-confined compression of microfabricated polymerized biomaterial constructs

    Mechanical forces are critical parameters in engineering functional tissue because of their established influence on cellular behaviour. However, identifying ideal combinations of mechanical, biomaterial and chemical stimuli to obtain a desired cellular response requires high-throughput screening technologies, which may be realized through microfabricated systems. This paper reports on the development and characterization of a MEMS device for semi-confined biomaterial compression. An array of these devices would enable studies involving mechanical deformation of three-dimensional biomaterials, an important parameter in creating physiologically relevant microenvironments in vitro. The described device has the ability to simultaneously apply a range of compressive mechanical stimuli to multiple polymerized hydrogel microconstructs. Local micromechanical strains generated within the semi-confined hydrogel cylinders are characterized and compared with those produced in current micro- and macroscale technologies. In contrast to previous work generating unconfined compression in microfabricated devices, the semi-confined compression model used in this work generates uniform regions of strain within the central portion of each hydrogel, demonstrated here to range from 20% to 45% across the array. The uniform strains achieved simplify experimental analysis and improve the utility of the compression platform. Furthermore, the system is compatible with a wide variety of polymerizable biomaterials, enhancing device versatility and usability in tissue engineering and fundamental cell biology studies

  8. Establishment of earth tides effect on water level fluctuations in an unconfined hard rock aquifer using spectral analysis

    Maréchal, Jean-Christophe; Ahmed, Shakeel; Lachassagne, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Short-interval water level measurements using automatic water level recorder in a deep well in an unconfined crystalline rock aquifer at the campus of NGRI, near Hyderabad shows a cyclic fluctuation in the water levels. The observed values clearly show the principal trend due to rainfall recharge. Spectral analysis was carried out to evaluate correlation of the cyclic fluctuation to the synthetic earth tides as well as groundwater withdrawal time series in the surrounding. It was found that these fluctuations have considerably high correlation with earth tides whereas groundwater pumping does not show any significant correlation with water table fluctuations. It is concluded that earth tides cause the fluctuation in the water table. These fluctuations were hitherto unobserved during manual observations made over larger time intervals. It indicates that the unconfined aquifer is characterised by a low porosity.

  9. Potential climate change impacts on the water balance of regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia

    Ali, R; McFarlane, D.; Varma, S.; W. Dawes; I. Emelyanova; Hodgson, G.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses climate change impacts on water balance components of the regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia, an area that has experienced a marked decline in rainfall since the mid 1970s and is expected to experience further decline due to global warming. Compared with the historical period of 1975 to 2007, reductions in the mean annual rainfall of between 15 and 18 percent are expected under a dry variant of the 2030 climate which will reduc...

  10. Potential climate change impacts on the water balance of regional unconfined aquifer systems in South-Western Australia

    Ali, R; McFarlane, D.; Varma, S.; W. Dawes; I. Emelyanova; Hodgson, G.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed climate change impacts on water balance components of the regional unconfined aquifer systems in South-Western Australia, an area that has experienced a marked decline in rainfall since the mid 1970s and is expected to experience further decline due to global warming. Compared with the historical period of 1975 to 2007, reductions in the mean annual rainfall of between 15 and 18% are expected under a dry variant of the 2030 climate which will reduce recharge rates b...

  11. Estimation of temporal and spatial variations in groundwater recharge in unconfined sand aquifers using Scots pine inventories

    Ala-aho, P. (Pertti); Rossi, P. M.; B. Kløve

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and land use are rapidly changing the amount and temporal distribution of recharge in northern aquifers. This paper presents a novel method for distributing Monte Carlo simulations of 1-D soil profile spatially to estimate transient recharge in an unconfined esker aquifer. The modeling approach uses data-based estimates for the most important parameters controlling the total amount (canopy cover) and timing (depth of the unsaturated zone) of groundwater rech...

  12. Estimation of temporal and spatial variations in groundwater recharge in unconfined sand aquifers using Scots pine inventories

    Ala-aho, P. (Pertti); Rossi, P. M.; B. Kløve

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and land use are rapidly changing the amount and temporal distribution of recharge in northern aquifers. This paper presents a novel method for distributing Monte Carlo simulations of 1-D sandy sediment profile spatially to estimate transient recharge in an unconfined esker aquifer. The modelling approach uses data-based estimates for the most important parameters controlling the total amount (canopy cover) and timing (thickness of the unsaturated zone) of gro...

  13. Technical Note: Three-dimensional transient groundwater flow due to localized recharge with an arbitrary transient rate in unconfined aquifers

    C.-H. Chang; C.-S. Huang; H.-D. Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Most previous solutions for groundwater flow induced by localized recharge assumed either aquifer incompressibility or two-dimensional flow in the absence of the vertical flow. This paper develops a new three-dimensional flow model for hydraulic head variation due to localized recharge in a rectangular unconfined aquifer with four boundaries under the Robin condition. A governing equation for describing the head distribution is employed. The first-order free surface equation...

  14. Unconfined, melt edge electrospinning from multiple, spontaneous, self-organized polymer jets

    Commercial grade polyethylene is melt electrospun from a thin film of unconfined molten polymer on a heated, electrically-grounded plate. Under the influence of an applied electric field, the melt spontaneously forms fingering perturbations at the plate edge which then evolve into emitting fiber-forming jets. Jet-to-jet spacing (∼5 mm), which is dependent on the applied voltage amplitude, is in agreement with estimates from a simple theoretical treatment. The broad applicability of the approach is verified by spinning a second polymer—polycaprolactone. In both cases, the fabricated fibers are similar in quality to those obtained under needle melt electrospinning; however for this method, there are no nozzles to clog and an enhanced production rate up to 80 mg min−1 is achieved from approximately 20–25 simultaneous parallel jets. The process of jet formation, effective flow rates, cone-jet diameters, as well as limits on jet density and differences with polymer type are compared with theoretical models. This particular approach allows facile, high throughput micro- and nano-fiber formation from a wide variety of thermoplastics and other high viscosity fluids without the use of solvents or the persistent issues of clogging and pumping that hamper traditional methods, resulting in mechanically strong meso-scale fibers highly desirable for industrial applications. (paper)

  15. The influence of chemical composition on vaporisation of LNG and LPG on unconfined water surfaces

    A model is proposed for estimating the rate of vaporisation of LNG and LPG cryogen mixtures spreading on unconfined water surfaces. The model is used to examine the influence of chemical composition on the vaporisation rate of LNG and LPG during spreading. Calculations have been performed whereby the vaporisation rate of the LNG and LPG mixtures has been compared to the vaporisation of pure methane and propane, respectively, under the same initial conditions. The detailed results indicate that the vaporisation rate of LNG mixture is markedly different to that of pure methane, while the vaporisation rate of LPG mixture is similar to that of pure propane. The difference can be attributed primarily to the contributions of the direct and indirect component of the total, different, isobaric latent heat to the boiling process. For LNG, as the liquid mixture gets rich in ethane, the total, differential, isobaric latent heat increases rapidly, leading to a large decrease in the vaporisation of LNG compared to pure methane. For LPG, because of the shape of the phase envelope, only a small increase of the total latent heat and the boiling temperature is observed and consequently the change in the vaporisation is marginal. The overall results suggest that treating an LNG spill as a pure methane spill results in underestimation of the total spillage time of the order of 10-15% and in qualitatively wrong dynamics of the rate of vapour formation: thus warranting a full treatment of the thermodynamics of the mixture. (Author)

  16. Unconfined, melt edge electrospinning from multiple, spontaneous, self-organized polymer jets

    Wang, Qingqing; Curtis, Colin K.; Muthuraman Thoppey, Nagarajan; Bochinski, Jason R.; Gorga, Russell E.; Clarke, Laura I.

    2014-12-01

    Commercial grade polyethylene is melt electrospun from a thin film of unconfined molten polymer on a heated, electrically-grounded plate. Under the influence of an applied electric field, the melt spontaneously forms fingering perturbations at the plate edge which then evolve into emitting fiber-forming jets. Jet-to-jet spacing (˜5 mm), which is dependent on the applied voltage amplitude, is in agreement with estimates from a simple theoretical treatment. The broad applicability of the approach is verified by spinning a second polymer—polycaprolactone. In both cases, the fabricated fibers are similar in quality to those obtained under needle melt electrospinning; however for this method, there are no nozzles to clog and an enhanced production rate up to 80 mg min-1 is achieved from approximately 20-25 simultaneous parallel jets. The process of jet formation, effective flow rates, cone-jet diameters, as well as limits on jet density and differences with polymer type are compared with theoretical models. This particular approach allows facile, high throughput micro- and nano-fiber formation from a wide variety of thermoplastics and other high viscosity fluids without the use of solvents or the persistent issues of clogging and pumping that hamper traditional methods, resulting in mechanically strong meso-scale fibers highly desirable for industrial applications.

  17. Modeling the Impact of Carbon Dioxide Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer

    Bacon, Diana H.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Dai, Zhenxue; Keating, Elizabeth; Brown, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    Multiphase, reactive transport modeling was used to identify the mechanisms controlling trace metal release under elevated CO2 conditions from a well-characterized carbonate aquifer. Modeling was conducted for two experimental scenarios: batch experiments to simulate sudden, fast, and short-lived release of CO2 as would occur in the case of well failure during injection, and column experiments to simulate more gradual leaks such as those occurring along undetected faults, fractures, or well linings. Observed and predicted trace metal concentrations are compared to groundwater concentrations from this aquifer to determine the potential for leaking CO2 to adversely impact drinking water quality. Finally, a three-dimensional multiphase flow and reactive-transport simulation of CO2 leakage from an abandoned wellbore into a generalized model of the shallow, unconfined portion of the aquifer is used to determine potential impacts on groundwater quality. As a measure of adverse impacts on groundwater quality, both the EPA’s MCL limits and the maximum trace metal concentration observed in the aquifer were used as threshold values.

  18. Strength properties of concrete at elevated temperatures

    A study is presented concerning the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and stress-strain relationships of concrete at elevated temperatures. A review of published results provides information for the development of upper and lower bound relationships for compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity and establishes exposure conditions for a lower bound thermal response. The relationships developed from the literature review are confirmed by the results of a verification test program. The strength and elasticity relationships provide a basis for the development of design stress-strain curves for concrete exposed to elevated temperatures

  19. Investigation of strength properties of freshwater ice

    Bragov A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the strength and deformation properties of freshwater ice under compression, tension and shear in a wide range of strain rates (10?4 ? 3 ? 103?s?1 and temperatures of ? 5??C, ? 20??C, ? 40??C and ? 60??C was performed. Static stress-strain curves of ice under compression were obtained on which the identified strength properties of ice as well as compressive modulus. To determine the mechanical properties of ice at high-speed loading the Kolsky method was used with various embodiments of split Hopkinson bar. The deformation curves were obtained at various loading conditions. Thereon breaking points were defined as well as their dependence on the strain rate and temperature. Also static and dynamic strength properties of ice at splitting and circular shear were defined. Increase in the dynamic strength properties upon the static ones for all loading conditions was marked.

  20. Effect of insulating concrete forms in concrete compresive strength

    Martinez Jerez, Silvio R.

    The subject presented in this thesis is the effect of Insulating Concrete Forms (ICF's) on concrete compressive strength. This work seeks to identify if concrete cured in ICF's has an effect in compressive strength due to the thermal insulation provided by the forms. Modern construction is moving to energy efficient buildings and ICF's is becoming more popular in new developments. The thesis used a concrete mixture and a mortar mixture to investigate the effects of ICF's on concrete compressive strength. After the experimentations were performed, it was concluded that the ICF's do affect concrete strength. It was found that the forms increase concrete strength without the need for additional curing water. An increase of 50% in strength at 56 days was obtained. It was concluded that the longer concrete cures inside ICF's, the higher strength it reaches, and that ICF's effect on concrete strength is proportional to volume of concrete.